WorldWideScience

Sample records for sweet gums

  1. Effects of oriental sweet gum storax on porcine wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocsel, Hakan; Teke, Zafer; Sacar, Mustafa; Kabay, Burhan; Duzcan, S Ender; Kara, Inci Gokalan

    2012-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of oriental sweet gum (Liquidambar orientalis Mill.) storax on partial-thickness and full-thickness wounds compared to conventional wound dressings in a porcine model. Six young Yorkshire pigs were used. Sixteen square excisional wounds measuring 3 × 3 cm were performed per animal. The wounds were allocated to one of the four treatment modalities: storax, hydrocolloid dressing, silver sulfadiazine, and control groups. Partial-thickness wounds were created in two pigs, and tissue samples were harvested on days 4 and 8, respectively. Full-thickness wounds were created in four pigs, and tissue samples were taken on days 4, 8, 14, and 21, respectively. Histologically, all wounds were examined for re-epithelialization and granulation tissue formation. Tissue hydroxyproline content and wound contraction areas were measured. In storax-applied group, there was a greater depth of granulation tissue at 4 and 8 days compared to all other groups (p < .0125), and there was a faster re-epithelialization at 21 days compared to both hydrocolloid dressing and control groups in full-thickness wounds (p < .0125). Tissue hydroxyproline content and wound contraction did not differ significantly between the groups. The results of this study indicate that topical application of storax enhanced both re-epithelialization and granulation tissue formation in full-thickness wounds. Further studies are indicated in this important area of wound healing research to evaluate the clinical efficacy of this storax and search for the mechanisms that explain its effects.

  2. [Effects of phosphorus stress on the growth and nitrogen and phosphorus absorption of different Formosan sweet gum provenances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Hua-Ni; Chen, Yi-Tai; Duan, Hong-Ping; Rao, Long-Bing; Wang, Yong-Jun; Hu, Yun-Xue

    2009-04-01

    Aiming at the ecological value of Formosan sweet gum (Liquidambar formosana) as a pioneer species and the status of red soil phosphorus (P) deficiency, a sand culture experiment of split design was conducted to study the responses of three-leaf stage seedlings of seven Formosan sweet gum provenances from Yixing of Jiangsu, Jingxian of Anhui, Yongkang of Zhejiang, Nanchang of Jiangxi, Shaowu of Fujian, Yanping of Fujian, and Nandan of Guangxi to four levels of P (P0, P1/2, P1, P2). With increasing P stress, the biomass and the N and P absorption of test provenances decreased, whereas the utilization efficiency increased. In higher P treatments, the provenances from Nanchang and Yixing had higher biomass and higher N and P absorption but lower utilization efficiency, while the provenance from Nandan had lower N and P absorption but higher utilization efficiency. In lower P treatments, the biomass and the P absorption and utilization efficiency of the provenances from Nanchang and Nandan were all higher. All the results illustrated that the provenances with high biomass had high P absorption at high P level, and had both high P absorption and high utilization efficiency at low P level. The provenance from Nanchang could be considered to be an excellent P stress-resistant provenance, followed by that from Nandan. Phosphorus was not a limiting nutritional factor of Formosan sweet gum, biomass, leaf delta (N/P) ratio and P efficiency could be used as the indicators of P stress-tolerance of Formosan sweet gum provenances.

  3. PENGARUH DEKSTRIN DAN GUM ARAB TERHADAP SIFAT KIMIA DAN FISIK BUBUK SARI JAGUNG MANIS (Zeamays saccharata [The Effects of Dextrin and Arabic Gum on Chemical and Physical Properties of Sweet Corn (Zeamays saccharata Milk-like Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutardi*

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the effects of type and amount of binder on the chemical and physical properties of sweet corn milk-like powder. Sweet corn milk-like powder was prepared from sweet corn kernel extracted with water with ratio of water and kernel of 2:1 (v/w, then dehydrated by spray dryer. Dextrin and arabic gum in various amount i.e. 2.5; 5.0; and 7.5% (w/v, respectively were added to the sweet corn milk-like before drying, and control was also made. The reducing sugar and total sugar, protein, fat, and moisture content, and as well as bulk density, colour, and solubility of the powder were then analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of sweet corn milk-like powder with addition of dextrin and arabic gum in the amount of 2.5; 5.0; and 7.5% (w/v were significantly different (p > 0.05. According to all aspects studied, sweet corn milk-like powder with addition of dextrin in the amount of 2.5% was the best product of all, which had reducing sugar of 5.00% (db; total sugar 17.01% (db; protein13.67% (db; fat 5.97% (db; moisture 5.38%; bulk density 0.47 g/cm3; and solubility of 93.70%.

  4. Differential soil water sourcing of managed Loblolly Pine and Sweet Gum revealed by stable isotopes in the Upper Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, L. E.; Younger, S. E.; Jackson, C. R.; McDonnell, J.; Janzen, K. F.

    2017-12-01

    Stable isotope signatures of stem water can illuminate where in the soil profile different types of trees are accessing soil water and thereby contribute to our understanding of water movement through the soil plant atmosphere continuum. The objective of this study was to use 2H and 18O isotopes to characterize water sources of fourteen-year-old intensively managed Loblolly Pine and Sweet Gum stands in replicated (n=3) paired plots. In order to differentiate the isotopic signatures of tree and soil water, both species and five soil depths were sampled monthly for one year. Tree sap and soil water were extracted cryogenically and their isotopic signatures were determined. Although plant water uptake is generally considered a non-fractionating process, our dataset suggests a source of fractionation in 2H signatures in both species and during most of the thirteen sampling events. As a result, only the 18O isotopic data were used to determine the vertical distribution of soil water contributions to stem water. Statistically, we grouped the five soil sampling depths into three isotopic horizons. Shallow, intermediate and deep soil represent sampling depths of 0-10cm, 30-70cm and 100-125cm, respectively. These isotopic horizons were used in a direct inference approach and Bayesian mixing model analysis to determine the origin of stem water. In this study, Loblolly Pine used more water from intermediate and deep soil while Sweet Gum used more water from shallow and intermediate soil. In the winter months, January through March, Loblolly Pine transpired primarily deep soil where as Sweet Gum mainly utilized shallow soil for transpiration. These results indicate that both species have opportunistic water use patterns with seasonal variation.

  5. A R2R3-MYB Gene LfMYB113 is Responsible for Autumn Leaf Coloration in Formosan sweet gum (Liquidambar formosana Hance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chi-Hsiang; Chu, Fang-Hua

    2017-03-01

    The regulation of autumn leaf coloration in deciduous trees has long been an enigma. Due to the fact that different coloration phenotypes may be considered when planting, more understanding of the regulation mechanism is needed. In this study, a R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene LfMYB113 was identified from a subtropical deciduous tree species Formosan sweet gum (Liquidambar formosana Hance). The expression patterns of LfMYB113 in four selected phenotypes were different and were positively correlated with leaf anthocyanin content. In a 35S::LfMYB113 transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plant, both the early and late genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway were shown to be up-regulated. It was also shown that LfMYB113 can activate the promoter sequence of LfDFR1 and LfDFR2. Transient overexpression of LfMYB113 in Nicotiana benthamiana showed strong anthocyanin accumulation and pre-senescence; the latter was confirmed by up-regulation of senescence-associated genes. In addition, the activation of proLfSGR::YFP by LfMYB113 in transient experiments indicated that LfMYB113 may have a role in regulation of Chl degradation. To our knowledge, this is the first time a R2R3-MYB transcription factor has been functionally identified as one of the key regulators of autumn leaf coloration and autumn leaf senescence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Nicotine Gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotine chewing gum is used to help people stop smoking cigarettes. Nicotine chewing gum should be used together with a ... support groups, counseling, or specific behavioral change techniques. Nicotine gum is in a class of medications called ...

  7. Gums - swollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swollen gums may be caused by: Inflamed gums ( gingivitis ) Infection by a virus or fungus Malnutrition Poorly ... 2015:chap 12. Chow AW. Infections of the oral cavity, neck, and head. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. ... Health Topics A-Z Read more A.D.A. ...

  8. Bleeding gums

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... line. This will lead to a condition called gingivitis , or inflamed gums. Plaque that is not removed ... deficiency, take vitamin supplements. Avoid aspirin unless your health care ... doctor. Use an oral irrigation device on the low setting to massage ...

  9. Flavor-Enhanced Modulation of Cerebral Blood Flow during Gum Chewing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Hasegawa

    Full Text Available Flavor perception, the integration of taste and odor, is a critical factor in eating behavior. It remains unclear how such sensory signals influence the human brain systems that execute the eating behavior.WE TESTED CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW (CBF IN THE FRONTAL LOBES BILATERALLY WHILE SUBJECTS CHEWED THREE TYPES OF GUM WITH DIFFERENT COMBINATIONS OF TASTE AND ODOR: no taste/no odor gum (C-gum, sweet taste/no odor gum (T-gum, and sweet taste/lemon odor gum (TO-gum. Simultaneous recordings of transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD and near infrared spectrometer (NIRS were used to measure CBF during gum chewing in 25 healthy volunteers. Bilateral masseter muscle activity was also monitored.We found that subjects could discriminate the type of gum without prior information. Subjects rated the TO-gum as the most flavorful gum and the C-gum as the least flavorful. Analysis of masseter muscle activity indicated that masticatory motor output during gum chewing was not affected by taste and odor. The TCD/NIRS measurements revealed significantly higher hemodynamic signals when subjects chewed the TO-gum compared to when they chewed the C-gum and T-gum.These data suggest that taste and odor can influence brain activation during chewing in sensory, cognitive, and motivational processes rather than in motor control.

  10. Serum release boosts sweetness intensity in gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Stieger, M.A.; Velde, van de F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of serum release on sweetness intensity in mixed whey protein isolate/gellan gum gels. The impact of gellan gum and sugar concentration on microstructure, permeability, serum release and large deformation properties of the gels was determined. With increasing gellan

  11. Physicochemical properties of cissus gum powder extracted with the aid of edible starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwe, M O; Obaje, P O; Akpapunam, M A

    2004-01-01

    Gum powder was extracted from the stem and root of the cissus (Cissus populnea Guill and perr Ampelidacae) plant using water. Extraction was facilitated by the incorporation of 25-50% edible starches of sweet cassava, sweet potato, and maize. Dry samples were milled and sieved through a 250-microm sieve. Proximate and physicochemical properties of the gum samples were determined using standard methods. Results of the proximate analyses showed that protein and ash contents of the root gum were appreciably higher than those of the stem gum. Values of the crude fiber and ether extract of the root gum were lower than those of the stem gum. Inclusion of edible starches in the extraction process appreciably lowered proximate values. Results of the physicochemical properties showed that cissus gum samples did not form true gel but a "putty-like" mass. Addition of starches at various levels did not alter the characteristic putty-like nature of the gum. The gum samples had a remarkably low oil absorption capacity. Cissus gum samples had appreciably higher emulsion capacity and stability than the samples containing starch. The pH of the cissus gum powder and those of the starch-containing samples lie in the low-acid range (5.69-6.49). Cissus gum samples were highly hygroscopic; however, the addition of starch lowered the hygroscopicity. Incorporation of 25% starch into cissus mucilage enhanced extraction of the gum without adverse alteration of the physicochemical properties.

  12. Gum Disease Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Consumption and Gum Health Workshop on Regeneration Periodontal Disease More Prevalent among Ethnic Minorities Dental Implants Periodontal Health and Diabetes Periodontal Health and Pregnancy ...

  13. Gum Disease and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Consumption and Gum Health Workshop on Regeneration Periodontal Disease More Prevalent among Ethnic Minorities Dental Implants Periodontal Health and Diabetes Periodontal Health and Pregnancy ...

  14. Sweet Stuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    2001-11-01

    Readers wanting to nibble some sweet stuff can find a sizable collection of Journal articles via an online search with "sugar" in the title field. The papers cover topics varying from structure and nomenclature, demonstrations, and experiments for laboratories at all levels, to the history and technology of commercial sugar production. A separate search using the title word "sweet" locates additional articles covering all types of sweeteners and models relating sweetness to chemical structure.

  15. Sweet Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Shuk-kwan S.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article features Sweet play math, a "math by the month" activity that involves decorating and making sugar cubes. Teachers may want to substitute straws, paper squares, alphabet blocks, or such commercially made manipulatives as Unifix[R] cubes for the real sweets. Given no allergy concerns, teachers and students alike would enjoy some sweet…

  16. Sweet Conclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Britt M.; Wooldridge, Barbara Ross; Camp, Kerri M.

    2012-01-01

    Jen Harrington is the owner and pastry chef of Sweet Conclusion, a bakery in Tampa, Florida. Most of Harrington's business comes from baking wedding cakes, but she has been attempting to attract customers to her retail bakery, where she sells cupcakes, pies, ice cream, and coffee. Nearly four years she opened Sweet Conclusion, the retail part of…

  17. Xanthan - A Versatile Gum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    transfer agents. ... Why do Microorganisms Produce Gums? .... also useful for xanthan production. GENERAL I ARTICLE. In the biosynthesis of xanthan on the cabbage plant by X. campestris, the cabbage provides the carbohydrate substrates,.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1349 - Karaya gum (sterculia gum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Karaya gum (sterculia gum). 184.1349 Section 184.1349 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... (sterculia gum) is the dried gummy exudate from the trunk of trees of various species of the genus Sterculia...

  19. Xanthan - A Versatile Gum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Why do Microorganisms Produce Gums? .... soybean whey are also useful for xanthan production. GENERAL I ARTICLE. In the biosynthesis of xanthan on the cabbage plant by X. campestris, the cabbage provides the carbohydrate substrates, ... a yellow pigment in the wall, which is extractable only with organic solvents.

  20. Determination of similarity among Turkish sweet gum ( Liquidambar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... genetic relationships among five native populations of Liquidambar orientalis Mill. Eighty-four oligonucleotide primers were used in PCR and 782 RAPD markers were evaluated for statistical analysis. Generated Nei-Li's coefficient indicated that the highest similarity was 83.1% between samples from Koycegiz and Cine

  1. Chewing gums for optimal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Madan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article elaborates on the general aspects and health benefits of chewing gum. Chewing gums have been used since the time of prehistoric man as a source of entertainment and relaxation. It has also become a trendsetter with the teenagers. Currently, the health benefits of chewing gums are being studied and used in the treatment of various diseases. Certain medications have also been included in gums to act as an alternative drug delivery system. These gums have been found to be successful for the treatment of diseases, such as peptic ulcers, upper digestive tract cancer, oral candidiasis, and so on. It helps to relieve symptoms of xerostomia, Parkinsonism, tooth sensitivity after bleaching, and oral malodor. It helps in maintaining oral health, relieves stress, helps in weight loss, and improves alertness. Chewing gum may be distracting and irritating in numerous social environments, including schools, colleges, and the workplace. Research into the social effects of chewing gums is also necessary to further our knowledge into the psychosocial aspects of these gums.

  2. Production of Gum from Cashew Tree Latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. AZEEZ

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at producing gum from cashew tree latex, which can act as substitute for gum Arabic. The method used include drying and size reduction of the exudates gum, sieving of the gum to remove impurities, dissolution of the gum in distilled water, filtration to remove polysaccharide waste and finally concentration and stability of the gum. Glycerine, starch and Zinc oxide are some of the additives used in stabilizing the gum. The pH and Viscosity on addition of various percentage concentration of stabilizing agent were determined. Gum of the best quality was obtained with viscosity and pH of 4.52 Ns/m2 and 4.2 respectively; this is because the natural pH of gum from Acacia Senegal ranges between 3.9 - 4.9. The gum can be used as an alternative for synthetic adhesive used presently for stamps and envelopes.

  3. Gum chewing during pre-anesthetic fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Thomas J

    2012-03-01

    Many ad hoc fasting guidelines for pre-anesthetic patients prohibit gum chewing. We find no evidence that gum chewing during pre-anesthetic fasting increases the volume or acidity of gastric juice in a manner that increases risk, nor that the occasional associated unreported swallowing of gum risks subsequent aspiration. On the contrary, there is evidence that gum chewing promotes gastrointestinal motility and physiologic gastric emptying. Recommendations against pre-anesthetic gum chewing do not withstand scrutiny and miss an opportunity to enhance comfort and sense of wellbeing for patients awaiting anesthesia. Gum chewing during the pre-anesthetic nil per os (NPO) period would also permit the development of gum-delivered premedications and should be permitted in children old enough to chew gum safely. Gum chewing should cease when sedatives are given and all patients should be instructed to remove any chewing gum from the mouth immediately prior to anesthetic induction. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. [Sugar-free, tooth-protecting chewing gum and candy. Results of a 7-year study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, P; Mühlemann, H R

    1976-02-01

    Experiences of 7 years with sugarless chewing gums and lozenges (tab. I and II) regarding their tooth protective properties are reported. Telemetry of interproximal plaque pH allows to assess acid formation from carbohydrates by plaque bacteria under almost natural conditions. Altogether, 5 chewing gums and 8 lozenges containing sorbitol or mixtures of sorbitol and hydrogenated oligosaccharides were investigated. Lowest pH values during and after chewing sugarless gums varied between pH 6.0 and 7.3. When sucking sugarless lozenges the recorded pH values were between 5.8 and 7.0. In contrast to lozenges, the consumption of sugarless chewing gums becomes particularly important due to their greater stimulation of saliva and buffering capacity of oral fluid. All products tested did not acidify interproximal plaque below the critical pH and therefore comply with the regulations of the Swiss Federal Health Authorities with respect to the labeling or marketed sweets with "safe for teeth". New non-fermentable sugar-replacing substrates are being developed. Their utilization in foodstuffs and sweets is being discussed.

  5. Take Care of Your Teeth and Gums

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drink alcohol, drink only in moderation. What causes tooth decay and gum disease? Plaque (“plak”) is a sticky ... your teeth too long, it can lead to tooth decay and gum disease. Brushing and flossing help get ...

  6. Diabetes, Gum Disease, and Other Dental Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugars or starches. Some types of plaque cause tooth decay or cavities. Other types of plaque cause gum ... in your mouth, which raises your risk for tooth decay and gum disease dry feeling in your mouth, ...

  7. Elastic properties of Gum Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Shigeru; Furuta, Tadahiko; Hwang, Junghwan; Nishino, Kazuaki; Saito, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    In situ X-ray diffraction measurements under tensile loading and dynamic mechanical analysis were performed to investigate the mechanisms of elastic deformation in Gum Metal. Tensile stress-strain curves for Gum Metal indicate that cold working substantially decreases the elastic modulus while increasing the yield strength, thereby confirming nonlinearity in the elastic range. The gradient of each curve decreased continuously to about one-third its original value near the elastic limit. As a result of this decrease in elastic modulus and nonlinearity, elastic deformability reaches 2.5% after cold working. Superelasticity is attributed to stress-induced martensitic transformations, although the large elastic deformation in Gum Metal is not accompanied by a phase transformation

  8. Oral health benefits of chewing gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades sugar-free chewing gum has developed in an oral healthcare product, next to the conventional products such as the toothbrush and mouthrinses. In this thesis we investigate the oral health benefits of chewing gum and the effects of additives to chewing gum, such as antimicrobials.

  9. Short-term effects of chewing gum on satiety and afternoon snack intake in healthy weight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunyoung; Edirisinghe, Indika; Inui, Taichi; Kergoat, Sophie; Kelley, Michael; Burton-Freeman, Britt

    2016-05-15

    Afternoon snacking contributes significantly to total energy intake. Strategies to enhance the satiety value of lunch and reduce afternoon snacking are of interest for body weight management. To assess whether between-meal gum chewing would enhance the satiety response to a fixed lunch meal; and assess the role of cholecystokinin (CCK) as a potential mediator of the response in non-obese healthy weight and obese women. Fifty unrestrained obese (n=25) and non-obese healthy weight (n=25) women participated in a two-arm cross-over study assessing multiple (15min per hour×3h) gum chewing (GUM) occurrences or no gum (Control) on subjective ratings of satiety, subsequent sweet and salty snack intake, CCK and general metabolic responses. GUM compared to Control resulted in significant suppression of hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption (psnack energy intake was reduced ~9.3% by GUM, but not significantly different from Control (p=0.08). However, overall carbohydrate intake was reduced by GUM (p=0.03). This was consistent with a reduction in snacks characterized as high carbohydrate, low fat (p=0.02). BMI specific effects indicated GUM reduced pretzel intake in obese women (p=0.05) and Oreo cookie intake in healthy weight women (p=0.03) 3h after lunch. Metabolic responses and CCK did not differ between experimental conditions. Chewing gum intermittently post-lunch enhances perceptions of satiety and may have important implications in reducing afternoon high carbohydrate-snack intake. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The CT appearance of intraoral chewing gum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towbin, Alexander J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2008-12-15

    When imaged, intraoral chewing gum has the potential to be misdiagnosed. Chewing gum has a characteristic appearance on CT: it is ovoid in shape, hyperdense, and has small internal locules of air. Reports have described the appearance of gum on radiographs and abdominal CT images; however, no reports could be found detailing its appearance within the mouth. This report describes the appearance of intraoral chewing gum as well as the properties of the gum that lead to this appearance. Because of the potential for misdiagnosis, screening for intraoral foreign bodies should be considered prior to imaging. (orig.)

  11. Xanthan-A Versatile Gum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 10. Xanthan – A Versatile Gum. Anil Lachke. General Article Volume 9 Issue 10 October 2004 pp 25-33. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/10/0025-0033. Keywords. Xanthan ...

  12. GumTree: Data reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayner, Hugh; Hathaway, Paul; Hauser, Nick; Fei, Yang; Franceschini, Ferdi; Lam, Tony

    2006-01-01

    Access to software tools for interactive data reduction, visualisation and analysis during a neutron scattering experiment enables instrument users to make informed decisions regarding the direction and success of their experiment. ANSTO aims to enhance the experiment experience of its facility's users by integrating these data reduction tools with the instrument control interface for immediate feedback. GumTree is a software framework and application designed to support an Integrated Scientific Experimental Environment, for concurrent access to instrument control, data acquisition, visualisation and analysis software. The Data Reduction and Analysis (DRA) module is a component of the GumTree framework that allows users to perform data reduction, correction and basic analysis within GumTree while an experiment is running. It is highly integrated with GumTree, able to pull experiment data and metadata directly from the instrument control and data acquisition components. The DRA itself uses components common to all instruments at the facility, providing a consistent interface. It features familiar ISAW-based 1D and 2D plotting, an OpenGL-based 3D plotter and peak fitting performed by fityk. This paper covers the benefits of integration, the flexibility of the DRA module, ease of use for the interface and audit trail generation

  13. 21 CFR 172.615 - Chewing gum base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chewing gum base. 172.615 Section 172.615 Food and..., Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.615 Chewing gum base. The food additive chewing gum base... substances listed in paragraph (a) of this section, chewing gum base may also include substances generally...

  14. Caffeine gum minimizes sleep inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Rachel A; Kamimori, Gary H; Wesensten, Nancy J; Picchioni, Dante; Balkin, Thomas J

    2013-02-01

    Naps are an effective strategy for maintaining alertness and cognitive performance; however, upon abrupt wakening from naps, sleep inertia (temporary performance degradation) may ensue. In the present study, attenuation of post-nap sleep inertia was attempted by administration of caffeine gum. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, 15 healthy, non-smoking adults were awakened at 1 hr. and again at 6 hr. after lights out (0100 and 0600, respectively) and were immediately administered a gum pellet containing 100 mg of caffeine or placebo. A 5-min. psychomotor vigilance task was administered at 0 min., 6 min., 12 min., and 18 min. post-awakening. At 0100, response speed with caffeine was significantly better at 12 min. and 18 min. post-awakening compared to placebo; at 0600, caffeine's effects were evident at 18 min. post-awakening. Caffeinated gum is a viable means of rapidly attenuating sleep inertia, suggesting that the adenosine receptor system is involved in sleep maintenance.

  15. Isolation and characterization of gum from Chrysophyllum albidum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the morphology, physicochemical and compressional characteristics of a natural gum derived from the fruits of Chrysophyllum albidum. Preliminary phytochemical screening and physicochemical properties of Chrysophyllum albidum gum (in comparison with tragacanth gum) were determined while ...

  16. Sweeteners and sweetness enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloir, Christine; Neiers, Fabrice; Briand, Loïc

    2017-07-01

    The current review summarizes and discusses current knowledge on sweeteners and sweetness enhancers. The perception of sweet taste is mediated by the type 1 taste receptor 2 (T1R2)/type 1 taste receptor 3 (T1R3) receptor, which is expressed in the oral cavity, where it provides input on the caloric and macronutrient contents of ingested food. This receptor recognizes all the compounds (natural or artificial) perceived as sweet by people. Sweeteners are highly chemically diverse including natural sugars, sugar alcohols, natural and synthetic sweeteners, and sweet-tasting proteins. This single receptor is also the target for developing novel sweet enhancers. Importantly, the expression of a functional T1R2/T1R3 receptor is described in numerous extraoral tissues. In this review, the physiological impact of sweeteners is discussed. Sweeteners and sweetness enhancers are perceived through the T1R2/T1R3 taste receptor present both in mouth and numerous extraoral tissues. The accumulated knowledge on sugar substitutes raises the issue of potential health effects.

  17. Xanthan gum production by Xanthomonas campestris pv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava starch is a main renewable bio-resource with low price and mass production in Guangxi, China. It was used as carbon source in growing Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris 8004 (Xcc 8004) for xanthan gum production in this study. The xanthan gum yield of gelatinized cassava starch was higher than that of ...

  18. Gum chewing affects academic performance in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chewing gum may have an impact on improved memory during specific tasks of recognition and sustained attention. Research objective was to determine the effect of gum chewing on standardized test scores and math class grades of eighth grade students. Four math classes, 108 students, were randomized i...

  19. Characterization of some psorosis and concave gum isolates from northwestern Argentina Caracterización de aislamientos de psorosis y concave gum del noroeste argentino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Figueroa

    Full Text Available The Citrus Sanitation Center of the Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres in Tucumán, Argentina, has developed a virus bank of various graft-transmissible citrus pathogens found in northwestern Argentina. In this bank, several psorosis and concave gum isolates are maintained in Pineapple sweet orange seedlings. In order to characterize these pathogens, 11 isolates were indexed to seedlings of Pineapple sweet orange, Dweet tangor, Eureka lemon plus Etrog citron budded on rough lemon seedlings. Cross protection was applied for identifying psorosis-A. Symptoms obtained were variable and ranged from mild to very severe. A clear effect of temperature on symptom expression, and distinct differences in the reactions between psorosis-A and concave gum viruses were detected.El Centro de Saneamiento de Citrus de la Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, de Tucumán, Argentina, ha constituido un banco de virus de cítricos con material recolectado en la región noroeste del país. El mismo cuenta con varios aislamientos de psorosis y concave gum que se mantienen en plantas de naranjo dulce Pineapple. Con el objetivo de caracterizar biológicamente 11 de estos aislamientos, se inocularon plantines de naranjo dulce Pineapple, Dweet tangor, limonero Eureka y plantas injertadas de cidro Etrog en limoneros rugoso. Las pruebas con Pineapple se realizaron por duplicado bajo dos condiciones de temperatura: frías y calientes. La confirmación de psorosis A se realizó mediante prueba de protección cruzada con un aislamiento de psorosis B. Los resultados obtenidos muestran una amplia diversidad biológica entre los aislamientos, con expresión de síntomas que variaron desde suaves a muy severos. Se confirmó la presencia de psorosis A y se encontró que los aislamientos de "concave gum" del banco de virus no estaban en mezcla con psorosis. El efecto de la temperatura en la manifestación de los síntomas fue significativo y se

  20. Sweetness and food preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Mennella, Julie A; Johnson, Susan L; Bellisle, France

    2012-06-01

    Human desire for sweet taste spans all ages, races, and cultures. Throughout evolution, sweetness has had a role in human nutrition, helping to orient feeding behavior toward foods providing both energy and essential nutrients. Infants and young children in particular base many of their food choices on familiarity and sweet taste. The low cost and ready availability of energy-containing sweeteners in the food supply has led to concerns that the rising consumption of added sugars is the driving force behind the obesity epidemic. Low-calorie sweeteners are one option for maintaining sweet taste while reducing the energy content of children's diets. However, their use has led to further concerns that dissociating sweetness from energy may disrupt the balance between taste response, appetite, and consumption patterns, especially during development. Further studies, preferably based on longitudinal cohorts, are needed to clarify the developmental trajectory of taste responses to low-calorie sweeteners and their potential impact on the diet quality of children and youth.

  1. The emulsifying Properties of Terminalia randii baker F. Gum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: In this study, the emulsifying properties of Terminalia randii gum were assessed and compared with a standard emulsifier (Tragacanth gum) using castor oil and liquid paraffin . Method: Different concentrations (1-10% w/v) of the mucilages of Terminalia randii gum and Tragacanth were prepared. Using wet gum ...

  2. Design, formulation and evaluation of caffeine chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Jalilian, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine which exists in drinks such as coffee as well as in drug dosage forms in the global market is among the materials that increase alertness and decrease fatigue. Compared to other forms of caffeine, caffeine gum can create faster and more prominent effects. In this study, the main goal is to design a new formulation of caffeine gum with desirable taste and assess its physicochemical properties. Caffeine gum was prepared by softening of gum bases and then mixing with other formulation ingredients. To decrease the bitterness of caffeine, sugar, aspartame, liquid glucose, sorbitol, manitol, xylitol, and various flavors were used. Caffeine release from gum base was investigated by mechanical chewing set. Content uniformity test was also performed on the gums. The gums were evaluated in terms of organoleptic properties by the Latin-Square design at different stages. After making 22 formulations of caffeine gums, F11 from 20 mg caffeine gums and F22 from 50 mg caffeine gums were chosen as the best formulation in organoleptic properties. Both types of gum released about 90% of their own drug content after 30 min. Drug content of 20 and 50 mg caffeine gum was about 18.2-21.3 mg and 45.7-53.6 mg respectively. In this study, 20 and 50 mg caffeine gums with suitable and desirable properties (i.e., good taste and satisfactory release) were formulated. The best flavor for caffeine gum was cinnamon. Both kinds of 20 and 50 mg gums succeeded in content uniformity test.

  3. Gum Producers Can Improve Quality Of Gum Marketed and Get Higher Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph W. Clements

    1979-01-01

    Acid waste from over-treatment and old, wornout iron cups have contributed significantly to the generally poor quality of gum marketed. Today producers are reluctant to purchase new cups and gutters and invest up to $1.80 per tree for production when the market price for gum averages 14.54 per pound annually. Guidelines are given for improving the quality by...

  4. Sandwich or sweets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Alexandra; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina

    2016-01-01

    Desire, purchase, and consumption of fast-moving consumer goods often follow actual motivational states instead of habitual preferences. This has led to an increasing interest within health sciences to investigate the causes for irrational eating behaviours among consumers, particularly...... foods (sandwich and sweets) on visual analogue scales, as well as implicit approach–avoidance tendencies and implicit positive–negative associations with two variants of the recoding-free Implicit Association Tests (IAT-RFs). At first, all participants (N = 108) unwrapped, smelled, and explicitly judged...... the two foods, then all watched a video clip (during which half of the participants were allowed to eat the sandwich but not the sweets), and finally they all performed the two indirect measurements. Thus, desire for the foods was experimentally manipulated between participants. We hypothesized...

  5. Gummed-up memory: chewing gum impairs short-term recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Michail D; Hughes, Robert W; Jones, Dylan M

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that short-term memory is generally improved by chewing gum. However, we report the first studies to show that chewing gum impairs short-term memory for both item order and item identity. Experiment 1 showed that chewing gum reduces serial recall of letter lists. Experiment 2 indicated that chewing does not simply disrupt vocal-articulatory planning required for order retention: Chewing equally impairs a matched task that required retention of list item identity. Experiment 3 demonstrated that manual tapping produces a similar pattern of impairment to that of chewing gum. These results clearly qualify the assertion that chewing gum improves short-term memory. They also pose a problem for short-term memory theories asserting that forgetting is based on domain-specific interference given that chewing does not interfere with verbal memory any more than tapping. It is suggested that tapping and chewing reduce the general capacity to process sequences.

  6. Rheological and interfacial properties at the equilibrium of almond gum tree exudate (Prunus dulcis) in comparison with gum arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudhi, Nesrine; Sessa, Mariarenata; Ferrari, Giovanna; Hamdi, Salem; Donsi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Almond gum contains an arabinogalactan-type polysaccharide, which plays an important role in defining its interfacial and rheological properties. In this study, rheological and interfacial properties of almond gum and gum arabic aqueous dispersions were comparatively investigated. The interfacial tension of almond gum and gum arabic aqueous dispersions was measured using the pendant drop method in hexadecane. The asymptotic interfacial tension values for almond gum were significantly lower than the corresponding values measured for gum arabic, especially at high concentration. Rheological properties were characterized by steady and oscillatory tests using a coaxial geometry. Almond gum flow curves exhibited a shear thinning non-Newtonian behavior with a tendency to a Newtonian plateau at low shear rate, while gum arabic flow curves exhibited such behavior only at high shear rate. The influence of temperature (5-50  ℃) on the flow curves was studied at 4% (m/m) gum concentration and the Newtonian viscosities at infinite and at zero shear rate, for gum arabic and almond gum, respectively, were accurately fitted by an Arrhenius-type equation. The dynamic properties of the two gum dispersions were also studied. Both gum dispersions exhibited viscoelastic properties, with the viscous component being predominant in a wider range of concentrations for almond gum, while for gum arabic the elastic component being higher than the elastic one especially at higher concentrations.The rheological and interfacial tension properties of almond gum suggest that it may represent a possible substitute of gum arabic in different food applications. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Optimizing gelling parameters of gellan gum for fibrocartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeyeon; Fisher, Stephanie; Kallos, Michael S; Hunter, Christopher J

    2011-08-01

    Gellan gum is an attractive biomaterial for fibrocartilage tissue engineering applications because it is cell compatible, can be injected into a defect, and gels at body temperature. However, the gelling parameters of gellan gum have not yet been fully optimized. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanics, degradation, gelling temperature, and viscosity of low acyl and low/high acyl gellan gum blends. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that increased concentrations of low acyl gellan gum resulted in increased stiffness and the addition of high acyl gellan gum resulted in greatly decreased stiffness. Degradation studies showed that low acyl gellan gum was more stable than low/high acyl gellan gum blends. Gelling temperature studies showed that increased concentrations of low acyl gellan gum and CaCl₂ increased gelling temperature and low acyl gellan gum concentrations below 2% (w/v) would be most suitable for cell encapsulation. Gellan gum blends were generally found to have a higher gelling temperature than low acyl gellan gum. Viscosity studies showed that increased concentrations of low acyl gellan gum increased viscosity. Our results suggest that 2% (w/v) low acyl gellan gum would have the most appropriate mechanics, degradation, and gelling temperature for use in fibrocartilage tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Design, formulation and evaluation of nicotine chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Taste enhancement of nicotine gums was achieved where formulations comprised aspartame as the sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as the flavoring agents. Nicotine gums of pleasant taste may, therefore, be used as NRT to assist smokers quit smoking.

  9. Natural gums and modified natural gums as sustained-release carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, T R; Kanwar, M; Lal, R; Gupta, A

    2000-10-01

    Although natural gums and their derivatives are used widely in pharmaceutical dosage forms, their use as biodegradable polymeric materials to deliver bioactive agents has been hampered by the synthetic materials. These natural polysaccharides do hold advantages over the synthetic polymers, generally because they are nontoxic, less expensive, and freely available. Natural gums can also be modified to have tailor-made materials for drug delivery systems and thus can compete with the synthetic biodegradable excipients available in the market. In this review, recent developments in the area of natural gums and their derivatives as carriers in the sustained release of drugs are explored.

  10. Rheological Modeling and Characterization of Ficus platyphylla Gum Exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnabuk O. Eddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ficus platyphylla gum exudates (FP gum have been analyzed for their physicochemical parameters and found to be ionic, mildly acidic, odourless, and yellowish brown in colour. The gum is soluble in water, sparingly soluble in ethanol, and insoluble in acetone and chloroform. The nitrogen (0.39% and protein (2.44% contents of the gum are relatively low. The concentrations of the cations were found to increase according to the following trend, Mn>Fe>Zn>Pb>Cu>Mg>Cd>Ca. Analysis of the FTIR spectrum of the gum revealed vibrations similar to those found in polysaccharides while the scanning electron micrograph indicated that the gum has irregular molecular shapes, arranged randomly. The intrinsic viscosity of FP gum estimated by extrapolating to zero concentrations in Huggins, Kraemer, Schulz-Blaschke, and Martin plots has an average value of 7 dL/g. From the plots of viscosity versus shear rate/speed of rotation and also that of shear stress versus shear rate, FP gum can be classified as a non-Newtonian gum with characteristics-plastic properties. Development of the Master_s curve for FP gum also indicated that the gum prefers to remain in a dilute domain (Cgum (calculated from Arrhenius-Frenkel-Eyring plot was relatively low and indicated the presence of fewer inter- and intramolecular interactions.

  11. Quantification and Qualification of Bacteria Trapped in Chewed Gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Stefan W.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Morando, David; Slomp, Anje M.; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Maitra, Amarnath; Busscher, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Chewing of gum contributes to the maintenance of oral health. Many oral diseases, including caries and periodontal disease, are caused by bacteria. However, it is unknown whether chewing of gum can remove bacteria from the oral cavity. Here, we hypothesize that chewing of gum can trap bacteria and

  12. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Cola acuminata gum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many natural gums are employed as suspending agents in the formulation of pharmaceutical suspensions. The search to develop locally available natural gum from apparently a waste product as an alternative suspending agent stimulated the interest in this present study. Cola acuminata gum (CAG) extracted from Cola ...

  13. Design, formulation and evaluation of caffeine chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: In this study, 20 and 50 mg caffeine gums with suitable and desirable properties (i.e., good taste and satisfactory release were formulated. The best flavor for caffeine gum was cinnamon. Both kinds of 20 and 50 mg gums succeeded in content uniformity test.

  14. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Adansonia digitata gum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sedimentation volume and rate, rheology, and ease of redispersion were employed as evaluation parameters. The results showed that both hot and cold water extracts of the gum used at 2-3 % w/v produced a better suspending property than 4 % w/v Compound Tragacanth gum. The suspending ability of the gums was in ...

  15. Granule properties of paracetamol made with Bombax ceiba gum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bombax ceiba gum was extracted from the calyx of the Bombax flower using both hot and cold water extraction method. The gum was used as binder to prepare paracetamol granules in concentrations of 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 %. Acacia gum was used to prepare the standard at the same concentrations. The granule properties of ...

  16. Demonstrating close-packing of atoms using spherical bubble gums ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the use of spherical bubble gums (Gum Balls) to demonstrate the close-packing of atoms and ions is presented. Spherical bubble gums having distinctive colours were used to illustrate the different layers in variety of crystalline packing and the formation of tetrahedral and octahedral holes. Students with ...

  17. demonstrating close-packing of atoms using spherical bubble gums

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    ABSTRACT: In this paper, the use of spherical bubble gums (Gum Balls) to demonstrate the close-packing of atoms and ions is presented. Spherical bubble gums having distinctive colours were used to illustrate the different layers in variety of crystalline packing and the formation of tetrahedral and octahedral holes.

  18. Dependence on the nicotine gum in former smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2009-03-01

    We conducted an Internet survey in 2004-2007 in 526 daily users of the nicotine gum, to assess use of, and dependence on the nicotine gum in former smokers. We used modified versions of the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS-G), the Cigarette Dependence Scale (CDS-G) and the Fagerström Test (FTND-G). After 30 days, 155 participants (29%) indicated their gum use. Higher dependence on the gum predicted a lower chance of stopping using it at follow-up (odds ratio=0.36 for each standard deviation unit on CDS-G, p=0.001). More long-term (>3 months) than short-term (dependence on the gum than short-term users, as assessed with NDSS-Gum, CDS-Gum and FTND-Gum (all pdependence on the nicotine gum. Lower levels of dependence on the gum predicted cessation of gum use. However, long term use of the nicotine gum has no known serious adverse consequence, and may be beneficial if it prevents late relapse.

  19. Enzymatic production of polysaccharides from gum tragacanth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Plant polysaccharides, relating to the field of natural probiotic components, can comprise structures similar to human milk oligosaccharides. A method for enzymatic hydrolysis of gum tragacanth from the bush-like legumes of the genus Astragalus, using a combination of pectin hydrolases and a xylo......Plant polysaccharides, relating to the field of natural probiotic components, can comprise structures similar to human milk oligosaccharides. A method for enzymatic hydrolysis of gum tragacanth from the bush-like legumes of the genus Astragalus, using a combination of pectin hydrolases...

  20. Waterflooding process using mucilage gum thickeners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lummus, J.L.

    1967-08-29

    According to the described process, the viscosity of water in a water drive can be increased with a mucilage gum derived from flax meal. This substance has less tendency to be absorbed on clay surfaces than some high molecular weight polymers that have been studied. The water-extracted flax gum can be deactivated with clay to remove the absorbable fraction and the residual solution be used for the ''pusher flood.'' This is said to avoid decreasing permeability around the well bore and keep the solution in contact with the oil at essentially the same viscosity as the injected fluid. (7 claims)

  1. Flavor release measurement from gum model system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovejero-López, I.; Haahr, Anne-Mette; van den Berg, Frans W.J.

    2004-01-01

    Flavor release from a mint-flavored chewing gum model system was measured by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectroscopy (APCI-MS) and sensory time-intensity (TI). A data analysis method for handling the individual curves from both methods is presented. The APCI-MS data are ratio...... composition can be measured by both instrumental and sensory techniques, providing comparable information. The peppermint oil level (0.5-2% w/w) in the gum influenced both the retronasal concentration and the perceived peppermint flavor. The sweeteners' (sorbitol or xylitol) effect is less apparent. Sensory...

  2. Sweetness, satiation, and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, France; Drewnowski, Adam; Anderson, G Harvey; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet; Martin, Corby K

    2012-06-01

    Satiation and satiety are central concepts in the understanding of appetite control and both have to do with the inhibition of eating. Satiation occurs during an eating episode and brings it to an end. Satiety starts after the end of eating and prevents further eating before the return of hunger. Enhancing satiation and satiety derived from foodstuffs was perceived as a means to facilitate weight control. Many studies have examined the various sensory, cognitive, postingestive, and postabsorptive factors that can potentially contribute to the inhibition of eating. In such studies, careful attention to study design is crucial for correct interpretation of the results. Although sweetness is a potent sensory stimulus of intake, sweet-tasting products produce satiation and satiety as a result of their volume as well as their nutrient and energy content. The particular case of energy intake from fluids has generated much research and it is still debated whether energy from fluids is as satiating as energy ingested from solid foods. This review discusses the satiating power of foods and drinks containing nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners. The brain mechanisms of food reward (in terms of "liking" and "wanting") are also addressed. Finally, we highlight the importance of reward homeostasis, which can help prevent eating in the absence of hunger, for the control of intake.

  3. Evaluation of mechanical properties of unsaturated polyester-guar gum/hydroxypropyl guar gum composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Guar gum is a natural polysaccharide that has been explored for various applications. However, there is a limited number of studies in which guar gum has been used as a filler in a polymer. The effect of guar gum and its hydroxypropyl derivatives in unsaturated polyester composites were investigated with respect to their mechanical and chemical properties. The effect of hydroxypropylation and the degree of hydroxypropylation on the properties of resultant composites were also studied. It was observed that the inclusion of guar gum and its derivatives resulted in composites with increased solvent resistance and mechanical properties. An increase in the degree of substitution resulted in increased polymer-filler interaction reflected by a positive effect on the mechanical properties of the composites. These results open an avenue for the use of polysaccharides and their derivatives as eco-friendly fillers as a replacement of mineral fillers.

  4. PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND gabonensis GUM EXUDATES A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    surfaces as revealed by streaming potential measurements, atomic force microscopy, molecular dynamics simulations and contact angle measurements." 77-80. Nep, E. I and Conway, B. R.. (2010).Characterization of Grewia gum, a potential pharmaceutical excipient. Journal of Excipient and Food Chemistry 1(1): 30-. 40.

  5. Mind Your Mouth: Preventing Gum Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gum disease. Smoking greatly increases your risk for periodontitis—another reason not to smoke. Other factors that boost your risk include hormonal changes in women, certain medications and some illnesses like diabetes, cancer and AIDS. NIH-supported researchers are working ...

  6. 21 CFR 582.3336 - Gum guaiac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gum guaiac. 582.3336 Section 582.3336 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3336...

  7. 21 CFR 172.665 - Gellan gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... molecular weight polysaccharide gum produced from Pseudomonas elodea by a pure culture fermentation process... (glyceryl and acetyl) groups as the O-glycosidically linked esters. (b) The strain of P. elodea is... viable cells of P. elodea. (d) The additive meets the following specifications: (1) Positive for gellan...

  8. 21 CFR 172.695 - Xanthan gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hexose units and is manufactured as the sodium, potassium, or calcium salt. (b) The strain of Xanthomonas... hours for cooling. Examine the cooled beaker contents for a firm rubbery gel formation after the... bean gum). Allow the solution to cool without agitation as before. Formation of a gel on cooling...

  9. gum production by Xanthomonas campestris pv

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR TONUKARI NYEROVWO

    2012-09-11

    Sep 11, 2012 ... Fermentation curve of total sugar and xanthan gum production. living cells, as colony counting method can reflect the counts of living bacteria. The gelatinized cassava starch was viscous at the beginning of the fermentation; the fermentation broth was not well mixed, so the concentration of total sugar was.

  10. Tuliposides and tulipalins in tulip Gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbe, A.; Verpoorte, R.; Gude, H.; Dijkema, M.H.G.E.

    2013-01-01

    Gummosis in tulip bulbs is one of the negative effects of ethylene gas that is produced during storage by Fusarium-infected bulbs on the healthy bulbs. Several aspects of the gummosis process, like the factors inducing it, the underlying carbohydrate metabolism and the composition of the gum have

  11. The effect of chewing gum on dental plaque accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karami Nogourani M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Studies show that sucrose containing chewing gums are cariogenic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two commercial chewing gums with and without sucrose on dental plaque accumulation compared with the control group. "nMaterials and Methods: In this clinical study, plaque accumulation during three 7-day periods (with two weeks interval was recorded (Sillness & Loe Index in a group of 23 volunteer male dental students who chewed in the first two periods sugar-free or sugar-containing chewing gums (Olips and Orbit, respectively and in the last period did not chew any gum. Participants were asked to chew daily five gum sticks after meals for about twenty minutes. The data were statistically analyzed using Repeated Measure ANOVA and paired-T test. "nResults: The results showed that chewing any gum even sucrose-containing gum decreased the level of dental plaque accumulation (P<0.001. However, the decreasing effect of sugar-free gums was significantly higher (P<0.001. "nConclusion: Although sugar free gum was more effective than sugar containing gum on reducing dental plaque accumulation, chewing even sugar containing gums could decrease the level of dental plaque.

  12. Flavour-enhanced cortisol release during gum chewing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Hasegawa

    Full Text Available There is some evidence to suggest that chewing gum reduces chronic stress. However, it remains controversial how the taste and odour properties of chewing gum influence stress. The present study was designed to investigate this issue in human subjects. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we tested salivary cortisol concentration, which is thought to be a stress marker, in 96 adults who chewed gum with different combinations of taste and odour. Subjects could discriminate between the types of gum without prior information. Salivary cortisol concentrations were highest and lowest for the subjects who chewed the most flavourful gum and the least flavourful gum, respectively. These findings suggest that the salivary cortisol level during gum chewing is not a marker of negative emotions (i.e., stressful conditions as traditionally considered but, rather, an index of positive emotions that can facilitate biological responses to overcome stressful conditions.

  13. Intrinsic viscosity of binary gum mixtures with xanthan gum and guar gum: Effect of NaCl, sucrose, and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, J H; Yoo, B

    2017-12-29

    The intrinsic viscosity ([η]) values of binary gum mixtures with xanthan gum (XG) and guar gum (GG) mixed with NaCl and sucrose at different concentrations as well as in the presence of different pH levels were examined in dilute solution as a function of XG/GG mixing ratio (100/0, 75/25, 50/50, and 0/100). Experimental values of concentration (C) and relative viscosity (η rel ) or specific viscosity (η sp ) of gums in dilute solution were fitted to five models to determine [η] values of binary gum mixtures including individual gums. A [η] model (η rel =1+[η]C) of Tanglertpaibul and Rao is recommended as the best model to estimate [η] values for the binary gum mixtures with XG and GG as affected by NaCl, sucrose, and pH. Overall, the synergistic interaction of XG-GG mixtures in the presence of NaCl and sucrose showed a greatly positive variation between measured and calculated values of [η]. In contrast, the binary gum mixtures showed synergy only under an acidic condition (pH3). These results suggest that the NaCl and sucrose addition or acidic condition appears to affect the intermolecular interaction occurred between XG and GG at different gum mixing ratios. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sweet potato for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dangler, J.M.; Locascio, S.J.; Halsey, L.H.

    1984-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in 1980 and 1981 to determine the root and plant top yield of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam)) grown on a sandy soil. Cultivars 'GaTG-3', 'Morado', 'Rojo Blanco', 'Travis' and 'White Star' were evaluated at 2 harvest times. Mean starch yields from 'GaTG-3' at 105-115 days (7.2 t/hectare) and at 210-230 days (9.6 ton/hectare) during two seasons were higher than from the other cultivars. With an increase in the growth period from 105-115 to 210-230 days the means starch yield increased from 4.6 to 7.3 t/hectare but the starch concentration of all cultivars decreased significantly during the same period.

  15. Physico-chemical study on guar gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Nahla Mubarak

    2000-05-01

    Guar plant is an annual summer plant and it can resist diseases, pests and drought. Guar gum is used in a lot of industries. The present study deals with some physical properties of two commercial grade samples of guar gum cyamopsis tetragonoloba which where produced in 1996 and 1997 seasons (S 1 and S 2 respectively). Our analytical data are compared with those of previous workers in this area and international quality. Guar gum (S 2 ) is separated into water-insoluble components. Three fractions were obtained from the water-soluble components by fractional participation using acetone. Guar gum powder is yellowish white; the water-insoluble component is brownish white. Comparison study between gum samples (S 1 and S 2 ) and water-insoluble fraction (1) and water-soluble fractions are close to each other in their physico-properties. chemical All samples and fractions contain galactomannan polysaccharide as explained by infra-red spectra.Moisture contents for the gum samples were 5.2% and 7.8% and that for the water-insoluble fraction 4.7% while that for fraction samples were 5.2%-7.5% ash contents for the gum samples was 0.81% and 1.14% and for the water-insoluble component 0.88% while the contents in the fractions between 0.5%-0.66%. Nitrogen content determination showed that the gum samples had value of 0.678% and 0.732% and water -insoluble fraction had a value of 0.118%. The values decreased in the water-soluble fractions giving 0.049%, 0.053 and 0.056%. Water-soluble component and its fractions record the following results: pH measurements showed that the water-soluble component had pH 6.70 and 6.84 while its fractions had pH 5.90 and 7.00. Viscosity measurements showed that water-soluble fractions had intrinsic viscosity of 6.4 and 6.8 dL. g -1 . The fractions derived from water-soluble fraction had intrinsic viscosity of 6.6, 7 and 7.5 dl. g -1 . Using Mark-Howink equation, calculated average molecular weights for the water-soluble components were 7.01x10 5

  16. Sweetness prediction of natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chéron, Jean-Baptiste; Casciuc, Iuri; Golebiowski, Jérôme; Antonczak, Serge; Fiorucci, Sébastien

    2017-04-15

    Based on the most exhaustive database of sweeteners with known sweetness values, a new quantitative structure-activity relationship model for sweetness prediction has been set up. Analysis of the physico-chemical properties of sweeteners in the database indicates that the structure of most potent sweeteners combines a hydrophobic scaffold functionalized by a limited number of hydrogen bond sites (less than 4 hydrogen bond donors and 10 acceptors), with a moderate molecular weight ranging from 350 to 450g·mol -1 . Prediction of sweetness, bitterness and toxicity properties of the largest database of natural compounds have been performed. In silico screening reveals that the majority of the predicted natural intense sweeteners comprise saponin or stevioside scaffolds. The model highlights that their sweetness potency is comparable to known natural sweeteners. The identified compounds provide a rational basis to initiate the design and chemosensory analysis of new low-calorie sweeteners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Intense sweetness surpasses cocaine reward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalie Lenoir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Refined sugars (e.g., sucrose, fructose were absent in the diet of most people until very recently in human history. Today overconsumption of diets rich in sugars contributes together with other factors to drive the current obesity epidemic. Overconsumption of sugar-dense foods or beverages is initially motivated by the pleasure of sweet taste and is often compared to drug addiction. Though there are many biological commonalities between sweetened diets and drugs of abuse, the addictive potential of the former relative to the latter is currently unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report that when rats were allowed to choose mutually-exclusively between water sweetened with saccharin-an intense calorie-free sweetener-and intravenous cocaine-a highly addictive and harmful substance-the large majority of animals (94% preferred the sweet taste of saccharin. The preference for saccharin was not attributable to its unnatural ability to induce sweetness without calories because the same preference was also observed with sucrose, a natural sugar. Finally, the preference for saccharin was not surmountable by increasing doses of cocaine and was observed despite either cocaine intoxication, sensitization or intake escalation-the latter being a hallmark of drug addiction. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings clearly demonstrate that intense sweetness can surpass cocaine reward, even in drug-sensitized and -addicted individuals. We speculate that the addictive potential of intense sweetness results from an inborn hypersensitivity to sweet tastants. In most mammals, including rats and humans, sweet receptors evolved in ancestral environments poor in sugars and are thus not adapted to high concentrations of sweet tastants. The supranormal stimulation of these receptors by sugar-rich diets, such as those now widely available in modern societies, would generate a supranormal reward signal in the brain, with the potential to override self

  18. Competition in the gum arabic market: a game theoretic modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahim, A.; Ierland, van E.C.; Weikard, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    Gum arabic is mainly produced from two Acacias that are found in the gum belt of Sub-Saharan Africa. These are Acacia senegal that produces high quality gum and Acacia seyal that produces low quality gum. In recent years the gum market structure has changed and Sudan lost its near monopoly position

  19. Gum Arabic authentication and mixture quantification by near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yongjiang; Sørensen, Klavs Martin; He, Sailing

    2017-01-01

    A rapid and reliable method is developed for Gum Arabic authentication based on Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometric methods. On a large industrial collection of authentic gum Arabics, the two major Acacia gum species, Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal could be assigned perfectly...... by the NIR spectroscopic method. In addition, a partial least squares (PLS) regression model is calibrated to predict the blending percentage of the two pure gum types, producing an accuracy, root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 2.8%. Sampling of the Gum Arabic ‘tears’ is discussed......, and it was determined that subsamples from three ‘tears’ is required for a representative result. It is concluded that NIR spectroscopy is a very powerful and reliable method for authenticity testing of Gum Arabic species....

  20. Antiectoparasitic activity of the gum resin, gum haggar, from the East African plant, Commiphora holtziana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkett, Michael A; Abassi, Sate Al; Kröber, Thomas; Chamberlain, Keith; Hooper, Antony M; Guerin, Patrick M; Pettersson, Jan; Pickett, John A; Slade, Robin; Wadhams, Lester J

    2008-05-01

    The mechanism of ixodid tick (Acari: Ixodidae) repellency by gum haggar, a resin produced by Commiphora holtziana (Burseraceae), was investigated by evaluating activity against the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus. In an arena bioassay, a hexane extract of the resin of C. holtziana exhibited a repellent effect lasting up to 5h. The hydrocarbon fraction of the resin extract was shown to account for the repellent activity, and was analysed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Major sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were tentatively identified as germacrene-D, delta-elemene and beta-bourbonene. The identity and stereochemistry of the former compound was confirmed as the (+)-isomer by peak enhancement using enantioselective GC, whereas the latter 2 compounds, which are most likely degradation products of germacrene-type precursors, were identified through isolation by preparative gas chromatography followed by microprobe-NMR spectroscopy. GC comparison of gum haggar with another resin, C. myrrha, which was inactive in the tick bioassay, showed that the latter contained much lower levels of these hydrocarbons. To assess the suitability of the gum haggar resin as a general acarine repellent, further tests were made on a major acarine pest of European and US animal husbandry systems, the red poultry mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae). Gum haggar extract, and the isolated hydrocarbon fraction, showed strong repellent effects in an olfactometer assay, and again gum myrrh showed no effect. These findings provide a scientific basis for the observed anti-tick properties of gum haggar, and demonstrate the potential for its development as a general acarine repellent for use in animal husbandry systems.

  1. Quantification and qualification of bacteria trapped in chewed gum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan W Wessel

    Full Text Available Chewing of gum contributes to the maintenance of oral health. Many oral diseases, including caries and periodontal disease, are caused by bacteria. However, it is unknown whether chewing of gum can remove bacteria from the oral cavity. Here, we hypothesize that chewing of gum can trap bacteria and remove them from the oral cavity. To test this hypothesis, we developed two methods to quantify numbers of bacteria trapped in chewed gum. In the first method, known numbers of bacteria were finger-chewed into gum and chewed gums were molded to standard dimensions, sonicated and plated to determine numbers of colony-forming-units incorporated, yielding calibration curves of colony-forming-units retrieved versus finger-chewed in. In a second method, calibration curves were created by finger-chewing known numbers of bacteria into gum and subsequently dissolving the gum in a mixture of chloroform and tris-ethylenediaminetetraacetic-acid (TE-buffer. The TE-buffer was analyzed using quantitative Polymerase-Chain-Reaction (qPCR, yielding calibration curves of total numbers of bacteria versus finger-chewed in. Next, five volunteers were requested to chew gum up to 10 min after which numbers of colony-forming-units and total numbers of bacteria trapped in chewed gum were determined using the above methods. The qPCR method, involving both dead and live bacteria yielded higher numbers of retrieved bacteria than plating, involving only viable bacteria. Numbers of trapped bacteria were maximal during initial chewing after which a slow decrease over time up to 10 min was observed. Around 10(8 bacteria were detected per gum piece depending on the method and gum considered. The number of species trapped in chewed gum increased with chewing time. Trapped bacteria were clearly visualized in chewed gum using scanning-electron-microscopy. Summarizing, using novel methods to quantify and qualify oral bacteria trapped in chewed gum, the hypothesis is confirmed that chewing

  2. Phytase application in chewing gum - A technical assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    either prior to ingestion, i.e. in the food, or post ingestion, i.e. in the human gastrointestinal tract. We have assessed the technical aspects of formulation and release of phytase added to chewing gum as a delivery vehicle. Phytases from Aspergillus niger and Escherichia coli incorporated into chewing...... gum were released quantitatively upon chewing and retained phytase activity (50-80% of the enzyme activity added was released within 10 minutes). Initial evaluations of phytase chewing gum shelf life showed good stability after 48 days of storage of the chewing gum at ambient conditions....

  3. Stabilization of emulsions by gum tragacanth (Astragalus spp.) correlates to the galacturonic acid content and methoxylation degree of the gum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hassan; Meyer, Anne S.; Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz

    2013-01-01

    -soluble (tragacanthin) and water-swellable (bassorin) fractions, their monosaccharide composition, methoxylation, and acetylation degrees. The gums from A. parrowianus and A. fluccosus had relatively high tragacanthin:bassorin ratios of ∼66:34 and ∼75:25, respectively, whereas in the other gums this ratio approached 50......–270 mg/g), and galactose (∼40–140 mg/g), and also contained fucose, rhamnose, and glucose. The ability of the gums to act as stabilizers in whey protein isolate based emulsions varied. The best emulsion stabilization effect, measured as lowest creaming index ratio after 20 days, was obtained with the A....... fluccosus gum. The emulsion stabilization effect correlated linearly and positively to the methoxylation degree, and galacturonic acid content of the gums, but not to acetyl or fucose content. A particularly high correlation was found between methoxyl level in the soluble gum part and emulsion stabilization...

  4. Sweetness and Food Preference123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Mennella, Julie A.; Johnson, Susan L.; Bellisle, France

    2012-01-01

    Human desire for sweet taste spans all ages, races, and cultures. Throughout evolution, sweetness has had a role in human nutrition, helping to orient feeding behavior toward foods providing both energy and essential nutrients. Infants and young children in particular base many of their food choices on familiarity and sweet taste. The low cost and ready availability of energy-containing sweeteners in the food supply has led to concerns that the rising consumption of added sugars is the driving force behind the obesity epidemic. Low-calorie sweeteners are one option for maintaining sweet taste while reducing the energy content of children’s diets. However, their use has led to further concerns that dissociating sweetness from energy may disrupt the balance between taste response, appetite, and consumption patterns, especially during development. Further studies, preferably based on longitudinal cohorts, are needed to clarify the developmental trajectory of taste responses to low-calorie sweeteners and their potential impact on the diet quality of children and youth. PMID:22573785

  5. Heterosis in Sweet Sorghum and Selection of a New Sweet Sorghum Hybrid for Use in Syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although heterosis is well established in grain and forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], reports of heterosis in sweet sorghum are limited to results from grain sorghum x sweet sorghum hybrids. Recent development of cytoplasmic male-sterile sweet sorghum lines allows creation of sweet sorg...

  6. Sweet taste in man: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, B; Brewer, M S

    2008-08-01

    A greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms of sweet taste has profound significance for the food industry as well as for consumers. Understanding the mechanism by which sweet taste is elicited by saccharides, peptides, and proteins will assist science and industry in their search for sweet substances with fewer negative health effects. The original AH-B theories have been supplanted by detailed structural models. Recent identification of the human sweet receptor as a dimeric G-protein coupled receptor comprising T1R2 and T1R3 subunits has greatly increased the understanding of the mechanisms involved in sweet molecule binding and sweet taste transduction. This review discusses early theories of the sweet receptor, recent research of sweetener chemoreception of nonprotein and protein ligands, homology modeling, the transduction pathway, the possibility of the sweet receptor functioning allosterically, as well as the implications of allelic variation.

  7. Characterization of Digestion Resistance Sweet Potato Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To analyze the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of sweet potato starchphosphodiester prepared using sodium trimetaphosphate. Methods: The physicochemical properties of sweet potato starch phosphodiester were analyzed by using infrared spectrometry (IR), differential scanning calorimetry ...

  8. Characterization of Digestion Resistance Sweet Potato Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To analyze the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of sweet potato starch phosphodiester prepared using sodium trimetaphosphate. Methods: The physicochemical properties of sweet potato starch phosphodiester were analyzed by using infrared spectrometry (IR), differential scanning calorimetry ...

  9. Formulation development and evaluation of metformin chewing gum with bitter taste masking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Abolfazl Mostafavi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Metfornin chewing gum had suitable appearance and appropriate invitro characteristics that fallow the pharmacopeia suggestions. This chewable gum showed bitterness suppression with a suitable release rate.

  10. 21 CFR 163.123 - Sweet chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sweet chocolate. 163.123 Section 163.123 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.123 Sweet chocolate. (a) Description. (1) Sweet chocolate is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by intimately mixing and grinding...

  11. Sweetness intensity in low-carbonated beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odake, S

    2001-05-01

    The carbonation perception and sweetness perception were investigated under the presence of low level of carbondioxide less than 1.0 gas volume. Carbonation perception decreased linearly as carbonation level decreased. Sweetness perception showed inconsistency by means of evaluation methods: Triangle difference test led the result showing carbonation became a hindrance for sweetness perception. However, the measurement for the sweetness degree expressed by panellists in four categories 'not sweet', 'perhaps sweet', 'probably sweet' and 'definitely sweet', and the measurement for the points of subjective equality revealed that carbonation had no influence on sweetness perception. Commercially produced beverages whose irritation stimuli were stronger showed almost the same sweetness intensities (= perceived concentration of sucrose/actual concentration of sucrose) at approximately 0.7 regardless of various flavours. A weaker stimulus beverage, without strong flavour, showed higher sweetness intensity at 0.9. Some weaker stimuli beverages, which contained strong lemon flavour and soluble fibre, showed less sweetness intensities of 0.62-0.68 than the high-stimuli products.

  12. Impact of Prior Consumption on Sour, Sweet, Salty, and Bitter Tastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina, Josephine; Palma-Salgado, Sindy; Clark, Diana; Kahraman, Ozan; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2016-02-01

    Food sensory tests generally require panelists to abstain from food or beverage consumption 30 min to an hour before a tasting session. However, investigators do not have a complete control over panelists' intentional or unintentional consumption prior to a tasting session. Currently, it is unclear how prior consumption impacts the results of the tasting session. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of temporary and lingering mouth irritation caused by the consumption of coffee, orange juice, and gum within 1, 15, or 30 min prior to the tasting session on the perception of 4 basic tastes: sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. Fifty-two panelists were served a beverage (orange juice, coffee, and water) or were asked to chew a piece of gum, and then, remained in the waiting room for 1, 15, or 30 min. They were then asked to report taste intensities using 15-cm unstructured line scales. Mean intensities of all tastes were not significantly different when orange juice was a primer at 1, 15, and 30 min when compared to water. Mean intensities of bitter were significantly lower when coffee was a primer at 1, 15, and 30 min than when water was a primer. Mean intensities of sweet were significantly lower when gum was a primer at 1 and 15 min than when water was a primer. The findings showed that it is necessary for 30 min or more waiting period of no food or beverage consumption prior to sensory testing. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Is Sweet Taste Perception Associated with Sweet Food Liking and Intake?

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasinghe, Shakeela N.; Kruger, Rozanne; Walsh, Daniel C. I.; Cao, Guojiao; Rivers, Stacey; Richter, Marilize; Breier, Bernhard H.

    2017-01-01

    A range of psychophysical taste measurements are used to characterize an individual?s sweet taste perception and to assess links between taste perception and dietary intake. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between four different psychophysical measurements of sweet taste perception, and to explore which measures of sweet taste perception relate to sweet food intake. Forty-four women aged 20?40 years were recruited for the study. Four measures of sweet taste percept...

  14. Characterization and in vitro drug release studies of a natural polysaccharide Terminalia catappa gum (Badam gum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meka, Venkata Srikanth; Nali, Sreenivasa Rao; Songa, Ambedkar Sunil; Kolapalli, Venkata Ramana Murthy

    2012-12-01

    The main objective of the present study is the physicochemical characterization of naturally available Terminalia catappa gum (Badam gum [BG]) as a novel pharmaceutical excipient and its suitability in the development of gastroretentive floating drug delivery systems (GRFDDS) to retard the drug for 12 h when the dosage form is exposed to gastrointestinal fluids in the gastric environment. As BG was being explored for the first time for its pharmaceutical application, physicochemical, microbiological, rheological, and stability studies were carried out on this gum. In the present investigation, the physicochemical properties, such as micromeritic, rheological, melting point, moisture content, pH, swelling index, water absorption, and volatile acidity, were evaluated. The gum was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction studies (PXRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Gastroretentive floating tablets of BG were prepared with the model drug propranolol HCl by direct compression methods. The prepared tablets were evaluated for all their physicochemical properties, in vitro buoyancy, in vitro drug release, and rate order kinetics. PBG 04 was selected as an optimized formulation based on its 12-h drug release and good buoyancy characteristics. The optimized formulation was characterized with FTIR, DSC, and PXRD studies, and no interaction between the drug and BG was found. Thus, the study confirmed that BG might be used in the gastroretentive drug delivery system as a release-retarding polymer.

  15. Increased gum arabic production after infestation of Acacia senegal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-20

    Jul 20, 2011 ... changes in some physical properties of gum (colour, shape, size, moisture content and optical rotation) and chemical properties .... rotation with long fallow periods (15 to 20 years) of gum cultivation interspersed with short ..... G.A. fiber as a supplement to low protein diet in chronic renal failure patients. In: ...

  16. Increased gum arabic production after infestation of Acacia senegal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the beetle Agrilus nubeculosus and gum arabic production by Acacia senegal. Some trees were tapped and left open to facilitate infestation by A. nubeculosus and others were covered with wire mesh as control. Gum yield, physical and chemical properties of ...

  17. Intrinsic viscosity of guar gum in sweeteners solutions | Samavati ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rheological methods were applied to study the effect of sweeteners on the rheological behavior of guar gum in dilute solutions. The concentration of the sweeteners were 0.1, 0.2%w/v for aspartame, acesulfame-k and cyclamate, and 0.001, 0.002%w/v for neotame. Gum was evaluated for intrinsic viscosity by various ...

  18. Grewia Gum 1: Some Mechanical and Swelling Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the mechanical and dynamic swelling properties of grewia gum, evaluate its compression behaviour and determine the effect of drying methods on its properties. Methods: Compacts (500 mg) of both freeze-dried and air-dried grewia gum were separately prepared by compression on a potassium bromide ...

  19. Gellan Gum: Fermentative Production, Downstream Processing and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishwar B. Bajaj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbial exopolysaccharides are water-soluble polymers secreted by microorganisms during fermentation. The biopolymer gellan gum is a relatively recent addition to the family of microbial polysaccharides that is gaining much importance in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries due to its novel properties. It is commercially produced by C. P. Kelco in Japan and the USA. Further research and development in biopolymer technology is expected to expand its use. This article presents a critical review of the available information on the gellan gum synthesized by Sphingomonas paucimobilis with special emphasis on its fermentative production and downstream processing. Rheological behaviour of fermentation broth during fermentative production of gellan gum and problems associated with mass transfer have been addressed. Information on the biosynthetic pathway of gellan gum, enzymes and precursors involved in gellan gum production and application of metabolic engineering for enhancement of yield of gellan gum has been specified. Characteristics of gellan gum with respect to its structure, physicochemical properties, rheology of its solutions and gel formation behaviour are discussed. An attempt has also been made to review the current and potential applications of gellan gum in food, pharmaceutical and other industries.

  20. Current evidence on the anticancer potential of Chios mastic gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaginis, Constantinos; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2011-11-01

    Chios mastic gum derived from the plant Pistacia lentiscus L. variation chia has been shown to exert beneficial effects on a wide range of human disorders. The most comprehensive data so far have indicated that mastic gum provides protection against gastrointestinal malfunctions and bacterial infections. Substantial evidence has also suggested that mastic gum exhibits hepatoprotective and cardioprotective, antiinflammatory/antioxidant, and antiatherogenic properties. In the last decade, an increasing number of studies further evaluated the potential antiproliferative properties of mastic gum against several types of human neoplasia. The present review aims to summarize the current data concerning the anticancer activities of mastic gum and their major constituents, highlighting also the molecular mechanisms through which they exert anticancer function. Mastic gum constituents that belong to the chemical class of triterpenoids appear to be mainly responsible for its anticancer potential. Thus, a brief discussion is dedicated to the anticancer activity of synthetic and naturally occurring triterpenoid analogues with similar chemical structure to mastic gum constituents. Taking into consideration the available data so far, Chios mastic gum could be considered as a conglomeration of effective anticancer drugs.

  1. Entandophragma angolense Gum as a Novel Binder and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    the development of oral controlled release dosage forms. These semisynthetic polymers are quite expensive when compared with natural polymers such as guar gum and alginates, while the natural polymers are nontoxic and readily available [18]. The present study was designed to evaluate the hydrophilic natural gum ...

  2. Evaluation of the bioadhesive property of Grewia gum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bioadhesive property of grewia gum for sustained release of Indomethacin from tablets was evaluated using pig gastric mucus as substrate. The tablets formulated by wet granulation contained 75 mg of the drug and 15 or 20 %w/w of the gum. Similar tablets made differently with carbopol 934, tragacanth and sodium ...

  3. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Abizia zygia gum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: The suspending properties of Albizia zygia gum (family Mimosoideae) were evaluated comparatively with those of Compound Tragacanth, Acacia and Gelatin at concentration range of 0.5 – 4.0%w/v in Sulphadimidine suspension. Characterization tests were carried out on purified Albizia zygia gum. Sedimentation ...

  4. Gum Arabic as a Cause of Occupational Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arja Viinanen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gum arabic is a potential sensitizer in food industry. Methods. We examined 11 candy factory workers referred to examinations due to respiratory and skin symptoms paying attention to exposure and sensitization to gum arabic. Skin tests, pulmonary function tests, and respiratory provocation tests were carried out as indicated by the symptoms and findings. Results. Occupational asthma, caused by gum arabic was diagnosed in 4/11 candy factory workers and two of them had also occupational contact urticaria and one had occupational rhinitis. One of them had oral symptoms associated with ingestion of products containing gum arabic. Conclusions. Airborne exposure to gum arabic may cause sensitization leading to allergic rhinitis, asthma, and urticaria.

  5. Is Sweet Taste Perception Associated with Sweet Food Liking and Intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Shakeela N; Kruger, Rozanne; Walsh, Daniel C I; Cao, Guojiao; Rivers, Stacey; Richter, Marilize; Breier, Bernhard H

    2017-07-14

    A range of psychophysical taste measurements are used to characterize an individual's sweet taste perception and to assess links between taste perception and dietary intake. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between four different psychophysical measurements of sweet taste perception, and to explore which measures of sweet taste perception relate to sweet food intake. Forty-four women aged 20-40 years were recruited for the study. Four measures of sweet taste perception (detection and recognition thresholds, and sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking of suprathreshold concentrations) were assessed using glucose as the tastant. Dietary measurements included a four-day weighed food record, a sweet food-food frequency questionnaire and a sweet beverage liking questionnaire. Glucose detection and recognition thresholds showed no correlation with suprathreshold taste measurements or any dietary intake measurement. Importantly, sweet taste intensity correlated negatively with total energy and carbohydrate (starch, total sugar, fructose, glucose) intakes, frequency of sweet food intake and sweet beverage liking. Furthermore, sweet hedonic liking correlated positively with total energy and carbohydrate (total sugar, fructose, glucose) intakes. The present study shows a clear link between sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking with sweet food liking, and total energy, carbohydrate and sugar intake.

  6. Integrative View of the Diversity and Evolution of SWEET and SemiSWEET Sugar Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baolei Jia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporter (SWEET and SemiSWEET are recently characterized families of sugar transporters in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, respectively. SemiSWEETs contain 3 transmembrane helices (TMHs, while SWEETs contain 7. Here, we performed sequence-based comprehensive analyses for SWEETs and SemiSWEETs across the biosphere. In total, 3,249 proteins were identified and ≈60% proteins were found in green plants and Oomycota, which include a number of important plant pathogens. Protein sequence similarity networks indicate that proteins from different organisms are significantly clustered. Of note, SemiSWEETs with 3 or 4 TMHs that may fuse to SWEET were identified in plant genomes. 7-TMH SWEETs were found in bacteria, implying that SemiSWEET can be fused directly in prokaryote. 15-TMH extraSWEET and 25-TMH superSWEET were also observed in wild rice and oomycetes, respectively. The transporters can be classified into 4, 2, 2, and 2 clades in plants, Metazoa, unicellular eukaryotes, and prokaryotes, respectively. The consensus and coevolution of amino acids in SWEETs were identified by multiple sequence alignments. The functions of the highly conserved residues were analyzed by molecular dynamics analysis. The 19 most highly conserved residues in the SWEETs were further confirmed by point mutagenesis using SWEET1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. The results proved that the conserved residues located in the extrafacial gate (Y57, G58, G131, and P191, the substrate binding pocket (N73, N192, and W176, and the intrafacial gate (P43, Y83, F87, P145, M161, P162, and Q202 play important roles for substrate recognition and transport processes. Taken together, our analyses provide a foundation for understanding the diversity, classification, and evolution of SWEETs and SemiSWEETs using large-scale sequence analysis and further show that gene duplication and gene fusion are important factors driving the evolution of SWEETs.

  7. Occurrence of gum spots in black cherry after partial harvest cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles O. Rexrode; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1990-01-01

    Bark beetles, primarily the bark beetle Phlosotribus liminori (Harris), are the major cause of gum spots in sawtimber-size black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Approximately 90 percent of all gum spots in the bole sections are caused by bark beetles. Gum spots were studied in 95 black cherry trees near Parsons, West Virginia. Over 50 percent of the bark beetle-caused gum...

  8. The rheological properties of tara gum (Caesalpinia spinosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanbei; Ding, Wei; Jia, Lirong; He, Qiang

    2015-02-01

    The rheological properties of tara gum, as affected by concentration, temperature, pH and the presence of salts and sucrose, were investigated by using steady and dynamic shear measurements and atomic force microscope observation. Tara gum exhibited non-Newtonian, pseudoplastic behaviour without thixotropy at tested concentrations (0.2-1.0%, w/v). Salts (CaCl2 and NaCl) led to a viscosity reduction, which was more sensitive to Ca(2+) than to Na(+). The gum had stable viscosity over a wide pH range (pH 3-11), and the influence of sucrose was concentration dependent. Increasing temperature from 20°C to 80°C decreased the gum viscosity. Frequency sweeps indicated that tara gum (1.0% w/v) behaved as a liquid at low frequency, and acted more like a gel at high frequency. With the decrease of concentration, tara gum may show a viscous property rather than an elastic one. These results are potentially useful for the application of tara gum in food processing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Carboxymethylation of Cassia angustifolia seed gum: synthesis and rheological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Gaurav; Pandey, I P; Joshi, Gyanesh

    2015-03-06

    The seeds of Cassia angustifolia are a rich source of galactomannan gum. The seed gums possess a wide variety of industrial applications. To utilize C. angustifolia seed gum for broader industrial applications, the carboxymethyl-Cassia angustifolia seed gum (CM-CAG) was synthesized. The gum was etherified with sodium monochloroacetate (SMCA) in a methanol-water system in presence of alkali (NaOH) at different reaction conditions. The variables studied includes alkali concentration, SMCA concentration, methanol:water ratio, liquor:gum ratio, reaction temperature and time. The extent of carboxymethylation was determined as degree of substitution (DS). The optimum conditions for preparing CM-CAG (DS=0.474) comprised 0.100 mol of NaOH, 0.05 mol of SMCA, 80% of methanol:water ratio (as % methanol) and liquor:gum ratio (v/w) of 10:1 at 75 °C for 60 min using 0.03 mol (as AGU) of CAG. Rheological studies showed CM-CAG to exhibit non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behaviour, relatively high viscosity, cold water solubility and solution stability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gum chewing modulates heart rate variability under noise stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekuni, Daisuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Takeuchi, Noriko; Morita, Manabu

    2012-12-01

    Gum chewing may relieve stress, although this hypothesis has not been proven. Heart-rate variability (HRV) is commonly used to measure stress levels. However, it is not known if gum chewing modulates HRV under acute stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of gum chewing on HRV under acute stress. A cross-over study involving 47 non-smoking healthy subjects, aged 22-27 years, was carried out. The subjects received a stress procedure with gum chewing (GS group) and without gum chewing (S group). Additionally, the other 20 subjects were allocated to the gum chewing without stress group (G group). The GS and S groups were exposed to noise for 5 min (75 dBA) as stress. Before and after stress exposure/gum chewing, participants completed the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-s) and a single Stress Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) measurement. HRV measurement was performed before and during stress/gum chewing for 5 min. After the stress procedure, VAS score significantly increased in the GS and S groups. During the stress procedure, the GS group showed a significantly lower level of high frequency (HF) and higher levels of low frequency (LF) and LF/HF than the S group. However, there were no significant differences in the scores of the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-s) and VAS between the two stress groups. These findings suggest that gum chewing modulates HRV, but may not relieve acute stress caused by noise.

  11. Modification mechanism of sesbania gum, and preparation, property, adsorption of dialdehyde cross-linked sesbania gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hongbo; Gao, Shiqi; Li, Yanping; Dong, Siqing

    2016-09-20

    This paper studied the modification mechanism of Sesbania gum (SG) by means of the variations in the numbers of surface hydroxyl groups on the granules, Schiff's agent coloration of aldehyde groups, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), etc., and also examined the preparation, property and adsorption of dialdehyde cross-linked sesbania gum (DCLSG). The results showed that the surface hydroxyl numbers of cross-linked sesbania gum (CLSG) decreased with increasing the cross-linking degree. The distribution of the aldehyde groups on the DCLSG particles was nonuniform because most of aldehyde groups mainly located on the edge of particles. The cross-linking occurred only on the surface of SG particles. The oxidization occurred not only on the surface of SG particles, but also in the interior of particles. The cross-linking or oxidization changed the thermal properties, and reduced the swelling power, viscosity, alkali and acid resistance of SG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Electron beam irradiation effects on xanthan gum, rheological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastro, N.L. del; Vieira, F.F.

    2003-01-01

    Food ingredients to be used for food processing should be decontaminated in order to prevent food spoilage and food-borne diseases. Xanthan gum is a well-known microbial polysaccharide produced by Xanthomonas campestris used in the hydrocolloid market. This paper describes the application of electron beam (EB) irradiation to xanthan gum as used as ingredient by the food or cosmetics industry in order to establish their radiosensitivity. Viscosity of 1% xanthan gum solutions prepared with the irradiated powder decreased with the increase of the EB irradiation dose. The radiation-induced viscosity detriment of this additive must be considered for practical applications. (author)

  13. In vitro tooth whitening effect of two medicated chewing gums compared to a whitening gum and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael; Hasler-Nguyen, Nathalie; Saroea, Geoffrey

    2008-08-11

    Extrinsic staining of teeth may result from the deposition of a variety of pigments into or onto the tooth surface, which originate mainly from diet or from tobacco use. More recently, clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of some chewing gums in removing extrinsic tooth staining. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of two nicotine medicated chewing gums (A and B) on stain removal in an in vitro experiment, when compared with a confectionary whitening chewing gum (C) and human saliva (D). Bovine incisors were stained by alternating air exposure and immersion in a broth containing natural pigments such as coffee, tea and oral microorganisms for 10 days. Stained enamel samples were exposed to saliva alone or to the test chewing gums under conditions simulating human mastication. The coloration change of the enamel samples was measured using a spectrophotometer. Measurements were obtained for each specimen (average of three absorbances) using the L*a*b scale: lightness (L*), red-green (a) and yellow-blue (b). Medicated chewing gums (A and B) removed a greater amount of visible extrinsic stain, while the confectionary chewing gum with a whitening claim (C) had a milder whitening effect as evaluated by quantitative and qualitative assessment. The tested Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) chewing gums were more effective in the removal of the extrinsic tooth stain. This visible improvement in tooth whitening appearance could strengthen the smokers' motivation to quit smoking.

  14. Rheological properties of grouts with viscosity modifying agents as diutan gum and welan gum incorporating pulverised fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed Sonebia [Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom). School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering

    2006-09-15

    This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the influence of the dosage of the second generation of viscosity modifying agent (diutan gum) on fluidity and rheological parameters of cement-based materials grout compared to welan gum. All grouts were made with 0.40 water-to-binder ratio (W/B). The fresh properties of control grouts made without any viscosity modifying agent (VMA) and with superplasticizer (SP) were compared to those of grouts made with 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08% diutan gum by mass of binder. Similar mixes made with welan gum were compared to those containing diutan gums. The effect of admixtures on fluidity and rheological parameters are discussed in this paper. The effect of the replacement of cement by pulverised fly ash (PFA) was also investigated. Grouts with replacements of PFA of 5, 13 and 20% by mass were used with the same W/B. Similar control grouts and mixes incorporated different dosages of PFA made with welan gum were made in order to compare the fluidity and the rheological parameters to the previous grouts made with diutan gum.

  15. In vitro tooth whitening effect of two medicated chewing gums compared to a whitening gum and saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroea Geoffrey

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extrinsic staining of teeth may result from the deposition of a variety of pigments into or onto the tooth surface, which originate mainly from diet or from tobacco use. More recently, clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of some chewing gums in removing extrinsic tooth staining. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of two nicotine medicated chewing gums (A and B on stain removal in an in vitro experiment, when compared with a confectionary whitening chewing gum (C and human saliva (D. Methods Bovine incisors were stained by alternating air exposure and immersion in a broth containing natural pigments such as coffee, tea and oral microorganisms for 10 days. Stained enamel samples were exposed to saliva alone or to the test chewing gums under conditions simulating human mastication. The coloration change of the enamel samples was measured using a spectrophotometer. Measurements were obtained for each specimen (average of three absorbances using the L*a*b scale: lightness (L*, red-green (a and yellow-blue (b. Results Medicated chewing gums (A and B removed a greater amount of visible extrinsic stain, while the confectionary chewing gum with a whitening claim (C had a milder whitening effect as evaluated by quantitative and qualitative assessment. Conclusion The tested Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT chewing gums were more effective in the removal of the extrinsic tooth stain. This visible improvement in tooth whitening appearance could strengthen the smokers' motivation to quit smoking.

  16. Sweet Spots and Door Stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Tsui, Stella; Leung, Chi Fan

    2011-01-01

    A sweet spot is referred to in sport as the perfect place to strike a ball with a racquet or bat. It is the point of contact between bat and ball where maximum results can be produced with minimal effort from the hand of the player. Similar physics can be applied to the less inspiring examples of door stops; the perfect position of a door stop is…

  17. Mixing Tamiflu with Sweet Liquids

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-11-16

    If your doctor prescribes Tamiflu® capsules for your child and your child cannot swallow them, this podcast describes how to mix the contents of the capsules with a sweet thick liquid so they can be given that way.  Created: 11/16/2009 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 11/16/2009.

  18. Subthreshold olfactory stimulation can enhance sweetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, D; Rytz, A; Morgenegg, C; Ali, S; Martin, N

    2007-03-01

    The impact of olfactory perception on sweetness was explored in a model solution using odorants at subthreshold concentrations. First, the impact of 6 odorants, previously described in the literature as congruent with sweetness, was investigated at suprathreshold level in a sucrose solution. Ethyl butyrate and maltol were selected as they had the highest and the lowest sweetness-enhancing properties, respectively. Second, the impact on sweetness of the 2 odorants was investigated at subthreshold concentrations. A system delivering a continuous liquid flow at the same sucrose level, but with varying odorant concentrations, was used. At a subthreshold level, ethyl butyrate but not maltol significantly enhanced the sweetness of the sucrose solution. This study highlights that olfactory perception induced by odorants at a subthreshold level can significantly modulate taste perception. Finally, contrary to results observed with ethyl butyrate at suprathreshold levels, at subthreshold levels, the intensity of sweetness enhancement was not proportional to ethyl butyrate concentration.

  19. Molecular mechanism of sweetness sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Grant E

    2016-10-01

    The current understanding of peripheral molecular events involved in sweet taste sensation in humans is reviewed. Included are discussions of the sweetener receptor T1R2/T1R3, its agonists, antagonists, positive allosteric modulators, the transduction of its activation in taste bud cells and the coding of its signaling to the CNS. Areas of incomplete understanding include 1) signal communication with afferent nerve fibers, 2) contrasting concentration/response (C/R) functions for high-potency (HP) sweeteners (hyperbolic) and carbohydrate (CHO) sweeteners (linear), 3) contrasting temporal profiles for HP sweeteners (delayed onset and extinction) and CHO sweeteners (rapid onset and extinction) and 4) contrasting adaptation behaviors for HP sweeteners (moderate to strong adaptation) and CHO sweeteners (low adaptation). Evidence based on the sweet water aftertastes of several novel sweetness inhibitors is presented providing new support for constitutive activity in T1R2/T1R3. And a model is developed to rationalize the linear C/R functions of CHO sweeteners and hyperbolic C/R functions of HP sweeteners, where the former may activate T1R2/T1R3 by both binding and constitutive activity modulation (i.e., without binding) and the latter activate T1R2/T1R3 only by binding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Modification of Portland cement mortars with cactus gum

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez-Zaragoza, Juan-Bosco; Caballero-Badillo, Carlos-Eduardo; Rosas-Juarez, Arnulfo; Lopez-Lara, Teresa; Hinojosa-Torres, Jaime; Castano, Victor-Manuel

    2007-01-01

    ????????, ?? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????-???????, ??? ???????????????? ? ????????? ???????????, ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????, ????????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ???????. ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ?? 65 %, ????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????. Portland cement-based mortars of the standard type used for modern constructions, were modified by adding liophilized cactus gum, extracted froman indigenous Mexican cactus. The results show...

  1. Use of Natural Gums and Mucilages as Pharmaceutical Excipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamman, Hannlie; Steenekamp, Jan; Hamman, Josias

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharide rich gums and mucilages are produced by different natural sources such as plants, animals and microbial organisms to fulfil structural and physiological functions. Their diverse structural compositions with a broad range of physicochemical properties make them useful for inclusion in dosage forms for different purposes such as to improve manufacturing processes and/or to facilitate drug delivery. A number of natural gums and mucilages have been investigated for inclusion in pharmaceutical formulations for a variety of reasons. The search for new excipients continues to be an active topic in dosage form design and drug delivery research. The aim of this review article is to give an overview of the chemical nature of natural gums and mucilages and to discuss their applications in the formulation of pharmaceutical dosage forms. Special emphasis will be placed on the use of gums and mucilages in novel drug delivery systems, such as modified release dosage forms and delivery systems that target specific sites of delivery.

  2. Ask a Periodontist (Frequently Asked Questions about Gum Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doing their job. Periodontists may also correct gum recession and cover up exposed root surfaces which can ... seeing a periodontist for a consultation is a great first step. There are a few ways to ...

  3. Studies on some Physicochemical Properties of the Plant Gum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. senegal, A. sieberiana and A. nilotica) in Batagarawa, Katsina State, were determined and compared. Data generated from the study confirm that there are a number of physicochemical differences between the gum exudates.

  4. Physicochemical and functional parameters of Cochlospermum vitifolium (bototo gum exudate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Coromoto Martínez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical parameters of Cochlospermum vitifolium they were evaluated and were linked to certain functional properties of industrial interest. The physicochemical parameters were determined by the classic methodology used for carbohydrates and the functional properties, as reported in the literature. The results obtained showed that the gum object of this study is low soluble in water, which corresponds with relatively high values of swelling indexes and water absorption capacity. Also, the intrinsic viscosity of the C. vitifolium exudate was related to a high molar mass, in the order of 106. Its emulsifying capacity is high, which is attributed to hydrophobic groups present in its structure. The gum gels at a minimum concentration, similar to that of the gum karaya (4.5%, but the gel that forms agglomerates, it is not uniform. The C. vitifolium gum exhibits important physicochemical and functional parameters which could serve as a criterion for testing its use in various industries.

  5. Complete Genome Sequences of Sweet potato feathery mottle virus and Sweet potato virus G from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Caroline A.; Rossato, Maurício; Melo, Fernando L.; Pereira-Carvalho, Rita C.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Brazil, Potyvirus species in sweet potatoes have been detected mostly by serology. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two Potyvirus species, Sweet potato feathery mottle virus strain (SPFMV-UNB-01) and Sweet potato virus G strain (SPVG-UNB-01).

  6. Sweetness characterization of recombinant human lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matano, Mami; Nakajima, Kana; Kashiwagi, Yutaka; Udaka, Shigezo; Maehashi, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    Lysozyme, a bacteriolytic enzyme, is widely distributed in nature and is a component of the innate immune system. It is established that chicken egg lysozyme elicits sweetness. However, the sweetness of human milk lysozyme, which is vital for combating microbial infections of the gastrointestinal tract of breast-fed infants, has not been characterized. This study aimed to assess the elicitation of sweetness using recombinant mammalian lysozymes expressed in Pichia pastoris. Recombinant human lysozyme (h-LZ) and other mammalian lysozymes of mouse, dog, cat and bovine milk elicited similar sweetness as determined using a sensory test, whereas bovine stomach lysozyme (bs-LZ) did not. Assays of cell cultures showed that h-LZ activated the human sweet taste receptor hT1R2/hT1R3, whereas bs-LZ did not. Point mutations confirmed that the sweetness of h-LZ was independent of enzyme activity and substrate-binding sites, although acidic amino acid residues of bs-LZ played a significant role in diminishing sweetness. Therefore, we conclude that elicitation of sweetness is a ubiquitous function among all lysozymes including mammalian lysozymes. These findings may provide novel insights into the biological implications of T1R2/T1R3-activation by mammalian lysozyme in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. However, the function of lysozyme within species lacking the functional sweet taste receptor gene, such as cat, is currently unknown. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxidation of cashew tree gum exudate polysaccharide with TEMPO reagent

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Pablyana L. R.; Maciel, Jeanny S.; Sierakowski, Maria Rita; Paula, Regina C. M. de; Feitosa, Judith P. A.

    2007-01-01

    Cashew gum (CG), an exudate polysaccharide from Anacardium ocidentale trees, was oxidized with TEMPO reagent and the 7product (CGOX) characterized by spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR and NMR), chromatographic analyses (HPLC and GPC), viscosity measurements and thermal analysis (TGA). The yield of the reaction product was 96%. The uronic acid content in starting gum (7.2 m%) was increased to 36 m%. The degree of oxidation based on free galactose and glucose units was 68%. NMR data show that oxi...

  8. Natural polymers, gums and mucilages as excipients in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shobhit; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Use of natural polymers, gums and mucilages in drug delivery systems has been weighed down by the synthetic materials. Natural based excipients offered advantages such as non-toxicity, less cost and abundantly availablity. Aqueous solubility of natural excipients plays an important role in their selection for designing immediate, controlled or sustained release formulations. This review article provide an overview of natural gum, polymers and mucilages as excipients in dosage forms as well as novel drug delivery systems.

  9. Extraction and characterization of artocarpus integer gum as pharmaceutical excipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Uzma; Malviya, Rishabha; Sharma, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Natural polymers are widely used as excipients in pharmaceutical formulations. They are easily available, cheap and less toxic as compared to synthetic polymers. This study involves the extraction and characterization of kathal (Artocarpus integer) gum as a pharmaceutical excipient. Water was used as a solvent for extraction of the natural polymer. Yield was calculated with an aim to evaluate the efficacy of the process. The product was screened for the presence of Micrometric properties, and swelling index, flow behavior, surface tension, and viscosity of natural polymers were calculated. Using a water based extraction method, the yield of gum was found to be 2.85%. Various parameters such as flow behavior, organoleptic properties, surface tension, viscosity, loss on drying, ash value and swelling index together with microscopic studies of particles were done to characterize the extracted gum. The result showed that extracted kathal gum exhibited excellent flow properties. The gum was investigated for purity by carrying out chemical tests for different phytochemical constituents and only carbohydrates were found to be present. It had a good swelling index (13 ± 1). The pH and surface tension of the 1% gum solution were found to be 6 ± 0.5 and 0.0627 J/m2, respectively. The ash values such as total ash, acid insoluble ash, and water soluble ash were found to be 18.9%, 0.67% and 4% respectively. Loss on drying was 6.61%. The extracted gum was soluble in warm water and insoluble in organic solvents. The scanning electron micrograph (SEM) revealed rough and irregular particles of the isolated polymer. The results of the evaluated properties showed that kathal-derived gum has acceptable pH and organoleptic properties and can be used as a pharmaceutical excipient to formulate solid oral dosage forms.

  10. Xylitol Chewing Gums on the Market: Do They Prevent Caries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanzi, Abrar; Soderling, Eva; Varghese, Anisha; Honkala, Eino

    To measure the xylitol content in sugar-free chewing gums available on the market in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries in the Middle East, in order to identify those products that can provide the recommended daily dose of xylitol for caries prevention (6-7 g). Acid production from chewing gums was also measured in vitro and in vivo. Twenty-one chewing gums containing xylitol were identified and collected from the GCC market (Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE and Oman). Xylitol was extracted and its concentration was analysed using a special enzymatic kit. The pH of extracts was measured during 30-min incubation with Streptococcus mutans. Changes in saliva and plaque pH were noted in four subjects after the consumption of highly concentrated xylitol gums. The xylitol content in grams was clearly mentioned only on one product's label. Twelve products stated the percentage of xylitol (3.5% to 35%). The rest did not specify the amount. The mean measured weight of one piece of gum was 1.67 ± 0.38 g. The mean measured xylitol content/piece was 0.33 ± 0.21 g. Xylitol content was 0.5 g in 5 products. None of the highly concentrated xylitol gums showed a pH drop in vitro or in vivo. One chewing gum, containing xylitol and glucose, resulted in a low pH level (xylitol chewing gums sold on the GCC market do not provide the consumers with the recommended daily dose of xylitol for caries prevention. Clear, accurate labeling is recommended.

  11. GumTree-An integrated scientific experiment environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Tony; Hauser, Nick; Goetz, Andy; Hathaway, Paul; Franceschini, Fredi; Rayner, Hugh; Zhang, Lidia

    2006-01-01

    GumTree is an open source and multi-platform graphical user interface for performing neutron scattering and X-ray experiments. It handles the complete experiment life cycle from instrument calibration, data acquisition, and real time data analysis to results publication. The aim of the GumTree Project is to create a highly Integrated Scientific Experiment Environment (ISEE), allowing interconnectivity and data sharing between different distributed components such as motors, detectors, user proposal database and data analysis server. GumTree is being adapted to several instrument control server systems such as TANGO, EPICS and SICS, providing an easy-to-use front-end for users and simple-to-extend model for software developers. The design of GumTree is aimed to be reusable and configurable for any scientific instrument. GumTree will be adapted to six neutron beam instruments for the OPAL reactor at ANSTO. Other European institutes including ESRF, ILL and PSI have shown interest in using GumTree as their workbench for instrument control and data analysis

  12. Characterization of Grewia Gum, a Potential Pharmaceutical Excipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah.I.Nep

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Grewia gum was extracted from the inner stem bark of Grewia mollis and characterized by several techniques such as gas chromatography (GC, gel permeation chromatography (GPC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetric analysis of the extracted sample. Spectroscopic techniques such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, fourier-transformed infrared (FT-IR, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, and 1H and 13C NMR techniques were also used to characterize the gum. The results showed that grewia gum is a typically amorphous polysaccharide gum containing glucose, rhamnose, galactose, arabinose and xylose as neutral sugars. It has an average molecular weight of 5925 kDa expressed as the pullulan equivalent. The gum slowly hydrated in water, dispersing and swelling to form a highly viscous dispersion exhibiting pseudoplastic flow behaviour. The polysaccharide gum is thermally stable and may have application as stabilizer or suspending agent in foods, cosmetics and in pharmaceuticals. It may have application as a binder or sustained-release polymer matrix in tablets or granulations.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of gum Arabic bonded Rhizophora spp. particleboards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuarra, Ali; Hashim, Rokiah; Bauk, Sabar; Kandaiya, Sivamany; Tousi, Ehsan Taghizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Exploring gum Arabic as a binder for Rhizophora sp. particleboards. • The addition of gum Arabic improved overall properties. • Gum Arabic could be added to manufacture particleboards. - Abstract: Gum Arabic (GA) was used as a binder for the fabrication of Rhizophora spp. particleboards. The physical and mechanical properties of the bioadhesive bonded particleboards, including moisture content, internal bond (IB) strength, thickness swelling (TS), water absorption (WA) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) were used to characterize the manufactured particleboards. Three different particle sizes of the Rhizophora spp. with four adhesive levels were utilized. Results revealed that the addition of GA into the particleboards noticeably improved panel overall properties. The GA bonded particleboards resulted in smoother surfaces, more rigid texture and better internal bonding strength compared to binderless particleboards made without using any adhesive. All specimens had internal bond strength of more than the minimum requirement of the Japanese Industrial Standard JIS A-5908 Type-8 of 0.15 N/mm 2 and were noticed to increase by increasing the adhesive level. However the GA bonded particleboards had higher percentage of WA and the TS compared with the binderless boards. Microscopic study also revealed that particleboards bonded with the gum had better contact compared to the binderless boards. Based on these results, it could be concluded that gum Arabic is an effective natural substance that could be added to manufacture particleboards to improve some of panels’ physical and mechanical properties

  14. Oxidized Xanthan Gum and Chitosan as Natural Adhesives for Cork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Paiva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural cork stopper manufacturing produces a significant amount of cork waste, which is granulated and combined with synthetic glues for use in a wide range of applications. There is a high demand for using biosourced polymers in these composite materials. In this study, xanthan gum (XG and chitosan (CS were investigated as possible natural binders for cork. Xanthan gum was oxidized at two different aldehyde contents as a strategy to improve its water resistance. This modification was studied in detail by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, and the degree of oxidation was determined by the hydroxylamine hydrochloride titration method. The performance of the adhesives was studied by tensile tests and total soluble matter (TSM determinations. Xanthan gum showed no water resistance, contrary to oxidized xanthan gum and chitosan. It is hypothesized that the good performance of oxidized xanthan gum is due to the reaction of aldehyde groups—formed in the oxidation process—with hydroxyl groups on the cork surface during the high temperature drying. Combining oxidized xanthan gum with chitosan did not yield significant improvements.

  15. Effect of guar and xanthan gums on functional properties of mango (Mangifera indica) kernel starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawab, Anjum; Alam, Feroz; Haq, Muhammad Abdul; Hasnain, Abid

    2016-12-01

    The effects of different concentrations of guar and xanthan gums on functional properties of mango kernel starch (MKS) were studied. Both guar and xanthan gum enhanced the water absorption of MKS. The addition of xanthan gum appeared to reduce the SP (swelling power) and solubility at higher temperatures while guar gum significantly enhanced the SP as well as solubility of MKS. The addition of both gums produced a reinforcing effect on peak viscosity of MKS as compared to control. Pasting temperature of MKS was higher than that of starch modified by gums indicating ease of gelatinization. Guar gum played an accelerative effect on setback but xanthan gum delayed the setback phenomenon during the cooling of the starch paste. Both gums were found to be effective in reducing the syneresis while gel firmness was markedly improved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Solar drying of uruguayan red gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ono

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available he use of solar energy as an alternative to non-renewable energy sources has been widely researched in the last decades. Compared to air drying, solar drying kilns can better control the drying process, resulting in a higher quality of the dry wood and lower final wood moisture content values. Investment and running costs for a solar drying kiln are lower than those of a conventional kiln. Moreover, the solar drying process can be advantageous for drying hardwoods which are traditionally considered difficult to dry such as eucalyptus wood of medium and high density (Red gums, known in Spanish as “Eucaliptos colorados”. The solar drying kiln naturally incorporates a daily high relative humidity period that can be similar to a conditioning or steaming step, although at a lower temperature.This results in fewer defects due to the drying process.A pilot scale 2.5 m3 semi-greenhouse type solar wood drying kiln was constructed at LATU (Uruguay Technological Laboratory in Montevideo, Uruguay. The operating conditions and the results from two drying runs are presented. Two species of red gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm., ADD 870 kg/m3, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., ADD 800 kg/m3 were dried from initial average moisture contents (WMC of around 60% down to 10.0% and 12.7% in 108 days and 76 days, respectively. Boards were provided by the Grupo Forestal San Gregorio from trees harvested at Tacuarembo and Paysandu Departments from cattle shelter forests 60 and 70 years old.Mean volume shrinkage was 18% for E. tereticornis, and 16% for E. camaldulensis, and the level of defects was moderate. Residual stresses and moisture content gradients were observed for both species. Final moisture content values were similar compared to those obtained in conventional drying kilns but with longer drying periods and lower operating costs. This would make the solar drying process attractive to small and medium sized forest products industries in a small country

  17. Sweetness potency and sweetness synergism of sweeteners in milk and coffee systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji-Hye; Chung, Seo-Jin

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the presence of sweetness synergism in milk and instant coffee systems. It consists of three parts: 1) modeling concentration-sweetness intensity curves of sweeteners (stevia, sucralose, xylose, tagatose and erythritol); 2) measuring the sweetness potencies of sweeteners compared to sucrose at wide concentration range; and 3) investigating the presence of sweetness synergisms in binary sweetener mixtures. The panelists evaluated sweetness and other sensory characteristics of sweeteners using descriptive analysis. Based on the modeled curve derived from step 1, the concentration of each sweetener with sweetness intensity equal to 2.5% or 2.8% sucrose was calculated for milk and coffee systems, respectively. For the sweetness synergism study, one type of intense sweetener was mixed with one type of bulk sweetener, each eliciting 2.5% or 2.8% equi-sweetness to sucrose, and compared with 5% sucrose added to a milk system or 5.6% sucrose added to a coffee system. The sweetness potencies of bulk sweeteners generally increased whereas the sweetness potencies of intense sweeteners decreased as the concentration increased. The binary sweetener mixtures mostly showed additivity in milk and suppression in coffee system rather than synergism when the concentration dependent nature of sweetness potency for each sweetener was taken into account. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analytical studies on the gum exudate from Anogeissus leiocarpus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Samia Eltayeb

    1999-04-01

    Anogeissus leiocarpus gum samples were collected as natural exudate nodules, from three different location. Physicochemical properties of gum samples were studied. results showed significant differences within each location in most parameters studied except refractive index value which was found to be constant in all samples. The effect of location on the properties of gum samples was also studied and the analysis of variance showed insignificant differences (P≤0.05) in all properties studied except in ash content. Inter nodule variations of gum from two different location were studied individually. Results showed significant differences for each parameter studied except for the refractive index value. The properties studied of all gum samples were as follows: 9.2% moisture, 3.4% ash, 0.72% nitrogen, 4.74% protein, -35.5 specific rotation, 1.68 relative viscosity, 4.2 pH, 1.334 refractive index, 14.3 uronic acid, 0.44% reducing sugar, 1336.0 equivalent weight and 0.68% tannin content. UV absorption spectra of gum samples and gum nodules were determined. Cationic composition of gum samples was also determined and the results showed that (Mg) has highest value in all samples studied followed by Fe, Na, K, Ca, Zn and trace amount of Mn, Co, Ni, Cd and Pb. The water holding capacity was found to be 65.5% and emulsifying stability was found to be 1.008. The component sugars of gum were examined by different methods followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis. Analysis of hydrolysate crude gum sample by HPLC show L-rhamnose (6.82), L-arabinose (48.08), D-galactose (11.26) and two unknown oligosaccharides having values (0.22 and 32.61). Some physicochemical properties were studied. Results showed significant differences in nitrogen and protein contents, specific rotation, relative viscosity, equivalent weight and pH of fractions, where as insignificant differences were observed in uronic acid content and refractive index values

  19. Stability and use of sweet sorghum bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    With sweet sorghum production and subsequent accumulation of bagasse on the rise, it is important to look for novel uses for its by-products. Bagasse, the solid fibrous product left after sweet sorghum stalks are crushed to remove juice, is partially reapplied to the field to enhance subsequent cro...

  20. Proximate analysis of Sweet Potato Toasted Granules

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revd Dr Olaleye

    Sweet potato varieties with dark orange flesh have more beta carotene than those with light colored flesh and their increased cultivation is being encouraged in Africa where Vitamin A deficiency is a serious health problem. Sweet potato fries are a common preparation in most African homes. Its leaves are a common side ...

  1. Assignation of sweet cherry selections to 3 taste groupings based on perceived sweetness and sourness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Carolyn F; Chauvin, Maite A; Whiting, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Providing consumers with basic taste properties of sweet cherries at point of purchase would allow consumers to make purchase decisions based on fruit's intrinsic sensory attributes. The objective of this study was to develop a model to predict taste-grouping assignation of cherries into the following categories: (1) low sweetness/high sourness, (2) balance between sweetness and sourness, and (3) high sweetness/low sourness. A sensory panel (n = 10) was trained to recognize sweetness and sourness in 5 cultivars of sweet cherries and assign a taste grouping based on the perceived balance of sweetness and sourness. Four of these same cultivars were then evaluated for sweetness and sourness by a consumer panel (n = 117) and instrumentally for titratable acidity (TA) and soluble solids concentration (SSC). Results showed that for 3 of the 4 cherry cultivars, the sweetness/sourness balance of the cherries was not significantly different as evaluated instrumentally or by the trained panel. However, the balance determined by the consumer and the trained panel was different for 3 of the 4 cherry cultivars (P sweetness and sourness, a multinomial logit model was developed to predict the assignation of cherry taste grouping. The likelihood of group assignment depended on both the perceived sweetness and sourness of the cherry, with taste groupings agreed upon for 3 of 5 sweet cherry cultivars. As previous studies have indicated a positive relationship between cherry sweetness and sourness to consumer acceptance, these groupings show promise for assisting consumers in cherry selection at the point of purchase. The prediction models proposed in this study suggest that both sweetness and sourness are important in the cherry characterization and the ratio between the 2 attributes may be appropriate for making taste-grouping assignments. These groupings may then be used to provide additional sensory information to consumers to assist them in cherry selection at the point of

  2. The deformation of 'Gum Metal' in nanoindentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withey, E.; Jin, M.; Minor, A.; Kuramoto, S.; Chrzan, D.C.; Morris, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    'Gum Metal' describes a newly developed set of alloys with nominal composition Ti-24(Nb + V + Ta)-(Zr,Hf)-O. In the cold-worked condition these alloys have exceptional elastic elongation and high-strength; the available evidence suggests that they do not yield until the applied stress approaches the ideal strength of the alloy, and then deform by mechanisms that do not involve conventional crystal dislocations. The present paper reports research on the nanoindentation of this material in both the cold-worked and annealed conditions. Nanoindentation tests were conducted in situ in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) stage that allows the deformation process to be observed in real time, and ex situ in a Hysitron nanoindenter, with samples subsequently extracted for high-resolution TEM study. The results reveal unusual deformation patterns beneath the nanoindenter that are, to our knowledge, unique to this material. In the cold-worked alloy deformation is confined to the immediate neighborhood of the indentation, with no evidence of dislocation, twin or fault propagation into the bulk. The deformed volume is highly inhomogeneous; the deformation is accomplished by a series of incremental rotations that are ordinarily resolved into discrete nanodomains. The annealed material deforms in a similar way within the nanoindentation pit, but dislocations emanate from the pit boundary. These are pinned by microstructural barriers only a few nanometers apart, a condition that recent theory suggests is necessary for the material to achieve ideal strength

  3. Storage performance of Taiwanese sweet potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Che-Lun; Liao, Wayne C; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lai, Yung-Chang

    2014-12-01

    Three sweet potato cultivars (TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73), provided by the Taiwanese Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), were stored at either 15 °C or under ambient conditions (23.8 ~ 28.4 °C and 77.1 ~ 81.0 % of relative humidity). Sweet potato roots were randomly chosen from each replicate and evaluated for measurement of weight loss, sugar content analysis, and sprouting after 0, 14, 24, 48, 56, 70, 84, and 98 days of storage. Fresh sweet potato roots were baked at 200 °C for 60 min then samples were taken for sugar analysis. After 14 days of ambient condition storage, the sprouting percentages for TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73 were 100, 85, and 95 % respectively. When sweet potatoes were stored at 15 °C, the weight loss became less and no sweet potato root sprouted after 14 days of storage. Because manufacturers can store sweet potatoes at 15 °C for almost 2 month without other treatments, the supply capacity shortage in July and September can be reduced. The total sugar content slowly increased along with increasing the storage time. After baking, the total sugar content of sweet potatoes significantly increased due to the formation of maltose. Maltose became the major sugar of baked sweet potatoes. Raw sweet potatoes stored at 15 °C had higher total sugar contents after baking than those stored under ambient conditions. Raw sweet potatoes were recommended to be stored at 15 °C before baking.

  4. Flavor improvement does not increase abuse liability of nicotine chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtsmuller, Elisabeth J; Fant, Reginald V; Eissenberg, Thomas E; Henningfield, Jack E; Stitzer, Maxine L

    2002-06-01

    Because the taste of nicotine gum has impeded compliance with dosing recommendations, nicotine gum with improved taste (mint, orange) was developed and marketed. Prior to marketing, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required a rigorous abuse liability assessment to examine whether enhanced palatability of nicotine gum would increase its abuse liability. Subjective, physiological, and psychomotor effects of mint flavor and original nicotine gum were tested in adult smokers (22-55 years old); a group of younger subjects (18-21 years old) was also included to allow for assessment of abuse liability in young adults specifically. Amphetamine and confectionery gum served as positive controls for abuse liability and palatability. Subjects rated palatability of mint gum higher than original nicotine gum, but substantially lower than confectionery gum. Palatability decreased with increasing dose of nicotine. Neither original nor mint gum increased ratings of traditional abuse liability predictors [Good Effect, Like Effect, Morphine-Benzedrine Group (MBG) scales of Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI)], while amphetamine increased ratings of all these measures. Both flavors of nicotine gum decreased craving during 2 h of abstinence. These effects were more pronounced in the adult group and mint gum was more effective than original gum. Younger subjects reported fewer withdrawal symptoms and lower ratings for drug effects and flavor. Improved flavor of nicotine gum does not increase abuse liability, but may be associated with enhanced craving reduction.

  5. Dairy-Based Emulsions: Viscosity Affects Fat Difference Thresholds and Sweetness Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Susann; Hoppert, Karin; Ullrich, Franziska; Rohm, Harald

    2013-11-27

    In complex emulsions, viscosity or viscosity-associated sensory attributes such as creaminess are important for quality assessment and product differentiation. Two sets of emulsions with fat or locust bean gum content being varied at seven levels were developed; the two emulsions at each level had similar apparent viscosity. Additionally, sugar concentration was kept constant either with respect to total emulsion, or with respect to the aqueous phase. Series of two-alternative forced choice tests were performed with one constant stimulus, and just noticeable differences were calculated using probability regression. The results show that, when viscosity was not compensated, it was easy for the subjects to (a) distinguish emulsions with different fat content when the fat content was addressed in the question, and to (b) distinguish emulsions with different fat or locust bean gum content when creaminess was addressed. For the latter descriptor, it is of minor importance whether viscosity is altered by fat content or a thickener. Weber fractions that were calculated for viscosity were approximately 0.20. The quantitative effects of viscosity on sweetness, however, depend on how product rheology was modified.

  6. Detection of sweet potato virus C, sweet potato virus 2 and sweet potato feathery mottle virus in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanda, Carla M R; Santos, Susana J; Oliveira, Mônica D M; Clara, Maria Ivone E; Félix, Maria Rosário F

    2015-06-01

    Field sweet potato plants showing virus-like symptoms, as stunting, leaf distortion, mosaic and chlorosis, were collected in southwest Portugal and tested for the presence of four potyviruses, sweet potato virus C (SPVC), sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), sweet potato virus G (SPVG), and the crinivirus sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). DsRNA fractions were extracted from symptomatic leaves and used as templates in single and multiplex RT-PCR assays using previously described specific primers for each analyzed virus. The amplified reaction products for SPVC, SPV2 and SPFMV were of expected size, and direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that they correspond to the coat protein gene (CP) and showed 98%, 99% and 99% identity, respectively, to those viruses. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the Portuguese viral isolates recovered here with those of ten other sequences of isolates obtained in different countries retrieved from the GenBank showed very few differences. The application of the RT-PCR assays revealed for the first time the presence of SPVC and SPFMV in the sweet potato crop in Portugal, the absence of SPVG and SPCSV in tested plants, as well as the occurrence of triple virus infections under field conditions.

  7. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  8. STUDIES ON SOME PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA BARK GUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijetha Pendyala

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gum exudates from Leucaena Leucocephala (Family: Fabaceae plants grown all over India were investigated for its physicochemical properties such as pH, swelling capacity and viscosities at different temperatures using standard methods. Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum appeared to be colorless to reddish brown translucent tears. 5 % w/v mucilage has pH of 7.5 at 28°C. The gum is slightly soluble in water and practically insoluble in ethanol, acetone and chloroform. It swells to about 5 times its original weight in water. A 5 %w/v mucilage concentration gave a viscosity value which was unaffected at temperature ranges (28-40°C. At concentrations of 2 and 5 %w/v, the gum exhibited pseudo plastic flow pattern while at 10 %w/v concentration the flow behaviour was thixotropic. The results indicate that the swelling ability of Leucaena Leucocephala (LL bark gum may provide potentials for its use as a disintegrant in tablet formulation, as a hydro gel in modified release dosage forms and the rheological flow properties may also provide potentials for its use as suspending and emulsifying agents owing to its pseudo plastic and thixotropic flow patterns.

  9. 7 CFR 318.13-25 - Sweet potatoes from Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. 318.13-25 Section 318.13... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-25 Sweet potatoes from Hawaii. (a) Sweet potatoes may be... 5 Sweet potatoes may also be moved interstate from Hawaii with irradiation in accordance with § 305...

  10. Determinants of sweet potato value addition among smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato is an important food security promoted crop in Nigeria. The recognition of its relative health benefits has resulted in fresh consumption as well as the utilization of processed products such as sweet potato chips, fries and pre-cut, flour, and pureed sweet potatoes. This study examined the determinants of sweet ...

  11. Aplikasi Campuran Alginat Dari Sargassum Crassifolium Dan Gum Sebagai Pengental Textile Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subaryono Subaryono

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian aplikasi campuran alginat dari Sargassum crassifolium dan gum untuk meningkatkan viskositas alginat sebagai pengental pada textile printing telah dilakukan. Viskositas campuran alginat dengan guar gum, gum arab, dan locust bean gum diamati pada penyimpanan selama 8 jam. Produk terbaik diujikan sebagai pengental pada textile printing. Campuran alginat dengan guar gum pada perbandingan 90:10 dan 80:20 meningkatkan viskositas dan stabilitas alginat selama penyimpanan. Campuran alginat dengan gum arab dan locust bean gum akan menurunkan viskositas alginat sehingga tidak sesuai untuk aplikasi textile printing. Aplikasi campuran alginat dengan guar gum 90:10 dan 80:20 sebagai pengental pada tekstil printing menghasilkan produk akhir yang setara dengan pengental komersial manutex.

  12. Bitter and sweet tasting molecules: it's complicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pizio, Antonella; Ben Shoshan-Galeczki, Yaron; Hayes, John E; Niv, Masha Y

    2018-04-18

    "Bitter" and "sweet" are frequently framed in opposition, both functionally and metaphorically, in regard to affective responses, emotion, and nutrition. This oppositional relationship is complicated by the fact that some molecules are simultaneously bitter and sweet. In some cases, a small chemical modification, or a chirality switch, flips the taste from sweet to bitter. Molecules humans describe as bitter are recognized by a 25 member subfamily of class A G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) known as TAS2Rs. Molecules humans describe as sweet are recognized by a TAS1R2/TAS1R3 heterodimer of class C GPCRs. Here we characterize the chemical space of bitter and sweet molecules: the majority of bitter compounds show higher hydrophobicity compared to sweet compounds, while sweet molecules have a wider range of sizes. Critically, recent evidence indicates that TAS1Rs and TAS2Rs are not limited to the oral cavity; moreover, some bitterants are pharmacologically promiscuous, with the hERG potassium channel, cytochrome P450 enzymes and carbonic anhydrases as common off-targets. Further focus on polypharmacology may unravel new physiological roles for tastant molecules. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Development of controlled release spheroids using Buchananiacochinchinesis gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Babulal Gaikwad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chirauli nut gum was isolated from the bark of Buchanania cochinchinesis (fam. Anacadiacea and was used as a release modifier for the preparation of Diclofenac sodium spheroids using the extrusion spheronization technique. The process was studied for the effects on variables when making spheroids with satisfactory particle shape, size and size distribution. The prepared spheroids were characterized for surface morphology, qualitative surface porosity, friability, bulk density and flow properties. In vitro studies demonstrated that the release exhibited Fickian diffusion kinetics which was confirmed by the Higuchi and the Korsmeyer-Peppas models. The physico-chemical parameters of the gum could be correlated to the in vitro dissolution profile of the spheroids. The spheroids were not able to sustain the drug releases over 12 hours. A greater concentration of Chirauli nut gum and a process that can accommodate such greater concentrations may produce a formulation capable of significant sustained release.

  14. Cetirizine release from cyclodextrin formulated compressed chewing gum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojanov, Mladen; Larsen, Kim Lambertsen

    2012-01-01

    Beside the efficient effect on masking cetirizine bitter taste, the cyclodextrins (CDs) as well could have influence on the release from the formulation. In vitro release profiles of cetirizine from compressed chewing gums containing α-, β- and γ-CD were investigated using a three cell chewing...... instead the complexes with respect to release yield. Thus unnecessary expenses for the complex preformulation may be avoided. Keywords: Cetirizine, chewing gum, cyclodextrin, complex, drug release...... apparatus. Different cetirizine/CD formulations were produced and analysed with respect to type of CD (α-, β- and γ-CD), the molar ratio between cetirizine and CD and the formulation of cetirizine (complex or physical mixture). Release experiments from all compressed chewing gum formulations gave similar...

  15. THE INDIGENOUS GROUPS AND THE BRAZILIAN SWEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mártin César Tempass

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the books of Gilberto Freyre and Câmara Cascudo, that influencied so much the literature about brazilian alimentation, the participation of indigenous groups in the national sweets formation process is negligencied. However, is possible to find in book´s “interlineations” of these two authors valuables informations about indigenous contributions to this process. Starting from these two authors and based in the culinary system notion, this paper quests to situate the role of indigenous groups in the brazilian sweets formation and numbers the possibles causes to invisibility of sweets by indigenous at the culinary formation process.

  16. Campylobacter gastroenteritis associated with Sweet's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Sumita; Rytina, Ed; Sterling, Jane; Karas, J A; Aliyu, S H

    2012-10-01

    Sweet's syndrome or acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis has been associated with underlying infection, malignancy, inflammatory disease and certain medications. The infection agents associated with this include Streptococcus species, Yersinia species, Chlamydia species, Salmonella species and Helicobacter pylori. We report a case of Sweet's syndrome in a 73-year-old woman following a 2 week course of severe gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter species. Histological examination of skin lesions showed marked inflammatory infiltrate throughout the dermis, composed of neutrophils and histiocytes. The patient was successfully treated with topical and systemic steroids. To date, this is the first case of Sweet's syndrome to be reported linked to Campylobacter species to our knowledge.

  17. Design, formulation and evaluation of Aloe vera chewing gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza; Raddanipour, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera has antioxidant, antiinflammatory, healing, antiseptic, anticancer and antidiabetic effects. The aim of the present study was to design and evaluate the formulation of Aloe vera chewing gum with an appropriate taste and quality with the indications for healing oral wounds, such as lichen planus, mouth sores caused by cancer chemotherapy and mouth abscesses as well as reducing mouth dryness caused by chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: In Aloe vera powder, the carbohydrate content was determined according to mannose and phenolic compounds in terms of gallic acid. Aloe vera powder, sugar, liquid glucose, glycerin, sweeteners and different flavors were added to the soft gum bases. In Aloe vera chewing gum formulation, 10% of dried Aloe vera extract entered the gum base. Then the chewing gum was cut into pieces of suitable sizes. Weight uniformity, content uniformity, the organoleptic properties evaluation, releasing the active ingredient in the phosphate buffer (pH, 6.8) and taste evaluation were examined by Latin square method. Results: One gram of Aloe vera powder contained 5.16 ± 0.25 mg/g of phenolic compounds and 104.63 ± 4.72 mg/g of carbohydrates. After making 16 Aloe vera chewing gum formulations, the F16 formulation was selected as the best formulation according to its physicochemical and organoleptic properties. In fact F16 formulation has suitable hardness, lack of adhesion to the tooth and appropriate size and taste; and after 30 min, it released more than 90% of its drug content. Conclusion: After assessments made, the F16 formulation with maltitol, aspartame and sugar sweeteners was selected as the best formulation. Among various flavors used, peppermint flavor which had the most acceptance between consumers was selected. PMID:26605214

  18. Sweetness and other sensory properties of model fruit drinks: Does viscosity have an impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenstein, Cai V S; Busch-Stockfisch, Mechthild; Fischer, Markus

    2015-03-15

    The impact of thickening agents and viscosity levels on sensory perception was studied in model fruit drinks. Four formulations were prepared that varied in the sweetener blend (erythritol, maltitol and/or steviol glycosides). Locust bean gum and its blends with either xanthan or carrageenan were used to adjust viscosity levels (20, 40, and 70 mPa s). The ranges of viscosity and sweetness level were selected to represent a typical concentration range in commercially available beverages. An increase in viscosity resulted in significant increases in pulpiness, sliminess and perceived viscosity (P-values ≤ 0.001), which were not dependent on sweeteners or hydrocolloid type. Taste perception remained largely unchanged irrespective of the hydrocolloid used. The impact of viscosity on sweetness and taste perception was much smaller in the concentrations used than has been generally reported. The effect of the type of hydrocolloid on the perception of taste attributes was greater than that of viscosity. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Metabolic Effects of Nicotine Gum and Cigarette Smoking: Potential Implications for Postcessation Weight Gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klesges, Robert C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Twenty smoking women participated in nicotine gum and smoking administration, after which resting energy expenditures (REEs) were measured. Results indicated acute increase in REE for both nicotine gum and cigarettes. Metabolic rates for nicotine gum slowly returned to baseline; rates for cigarettes quickly fell significantly below baseline.…

  20. The role of time on task performance in modifying the effects of gum chewing on attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Lara; Simpson, William

    Recent research examined the effects of chewing gum on attention and reported a significant interaction of gum chewing with time. Using a crossover within-subject design, the present study examined the effect of gum chewing on sustained attention in healthy adults over a period of 30 min. The

  1. Evaluation of the Binding Effect of Local Gum of Boswellia papyrifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, B. papyrifera gum has been evaluated for its binding effect in paracetamol granules and tablet formulations in comparison with the commonly used binders, Acacia BP and PVP K-30. Some physicochemical properties of the extracted gum indicated that the gum exhibited solubility in water, absence of tannin and ...

  2. investigation of the effect of zinc oxide-modified gum arabic on polar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    Gum Arabic solution, a water-based adhesive, was modified with zinc oxide filler and the formulation was ... starch and dextrin, polyvinyl alcohol, cellulose nitrate, .... Zinc oxide-modified gum Arabic improved bond strength on ceramic due to dipole-dipole interactions as well as electrovalent bonds formed between gum ...

  3. Safety Assessment of Microbial Polysaccharide Gums as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2016-07-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel assessed the safety of 34 microbial polysaccharide gums for use in cosmetics, finding that these ingredients are safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentration. The microbial polysaccharide gums named in this report have a variety of reported functions in cosmetics, including emulsion stabilizer, film former, binder, viscosity-increasing agent, and skin-conditioning agent. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data in making its determination of safety. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Locust bean gum: Exploring its potential for biopharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionísio, Marita; Grenha, Ana

    2012-07-01

    Polysaccharides have been finding, in the last decades, very interesting and useful applications in the biomedical and, specifically, in the biopharmaceutical field. Locust bean gum is a polysaccharide belonging to the group of galactomannans, being extracted from the seeds of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua). This polymer displays a number of appealing characteristics for biopharmaceutical applications, among which its high gelling capacity should be highlighted. In this review, we describe critical aspects of locust bean gum, contributing for its role in biopharmaceutical applications. Physicochemical properties, as well as strong and effective synergies with other biomaterials are described. The potential for in vivo biodegradation is explored and the specific biopharmaceutical applications are discussed.

  5. Fluorescence spectral studies of Gum Arabic: Multi-emission of Gum Arabic in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhenadhayalan, Namasivayam, E-mail: ndhena@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Mythily, Rajan, E-mail: rajanmythily@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Dwaraka Doss Goverdhan Doss Vaishnav College (Autonomous), 833, Gokul Bagh, E.V.R. Periyar Road, Arumbakkam, Chennai 600 106 (India); Kumaran, Rajendran, E-mail: kumaranwau@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Dwaraka Doss Goverdhan Doss Vaishnav College (Autonomous), 833, Gokul Bagh, E.V.R. Periyar Road, Arumbakkam, Chennai 600 106 (India)

    2014-11-15

    Gum Arabic (GA), a food hydrocolloid is a natural composite obtained from the stems and branches of Acacia Senegal and Acacia Seyal trees. GA structure is made up of highly branched arabinogalactan polysaccharides. Steady-state absorption, fluorescence, and time-resolved fluorescence spectral studies of acid hydrolyzed GA solutions were carried out at various pH conditions. The fluorescence in GA is predominantly attributed to the presence of tyrosine and phenylalanine amino acids. The presence of multi-emissive peaks at different pH condition is attributed to the exposure of the fluorescing amino acids to the aqueous phase, which contains several sugar units, hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties. Time-resolved fluorescence studies of GA exhibits a multi-exponential decay with different fluorescence lifetime of varying amplitude which confirms that tyrosine is confined to a heterogeneous microenvironment. The existence of multi-emissive peaks with large variation in the fluorescence intensities were established by 3D emission contour spectral studies. The probable location of the fluorophore in a heterogeneous environment was further ascertained by constructing a time-resolved emission spectrum (TRES) and time-resolved area normalized emission spectrum (TRANES) plots. Fluorescence spectral technique is used as an analytical tool in understanding the photophysical properties of a water soluble complex food hydrocolloid containing an intrinsic fluorophore located in a multiple environment is illustrated. - Highlights: • The Manuscript deals with the steady state absorption, emission, fluorescence lifetime and time-resolved emission spectrum studies of Gum Arabic in aqueous medium at various pH conditions. • The fluorescence emanates from the tyrosine amino acid present in GA. • Change in pH results in marked variation in the fluorescence spectral properties of tyrosine. • Fluorescence spectral techniques are employed as a tool in establishing the

  6. Grewia gum as a potential aqueous film coating agent. I: Some physicochemical characteristics of fractions of grewia gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikoni J Ogaji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Grewia gum has received attention as a polymeric pharmaceutical excipient in the recent times, being employed as a suspending, film coating, mucoadhesive, and binding agent. The low aqueous solubility, however, has limited its characterization and application. Objective: The purpose of this study was to fractionate and evaluate some physicochemical properties of the gum. Materials and Methods: Aqueous dispersion of the gum was treated at 80΀C for 30 min in the presence of sodium chloride and was subsequently fractionated by successively centrifuging it at 3445 rpm for 30 min. Skeletal density, solubility, particle size, and rheological as well as thermal characteristics of the fractions were evaluated. The 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and near infrared (NIR profiles of the fractions were also investigated. The solubility of the gum increased up to fourfold while the viscosity decreased from 244 to as low as70 cP at 40 rpm with some fractions. Results: Grewia gum and the fractions showed good thermal stability exhibiting no thermal events, but charred irreversibly at 297΀C irrespective of the fraction. The molecular weight averages by weight and by number of the fractions were between 233,100 and 235,000. The 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectra showed broad peaks. The NMR and NIR spectra suggested the presence of -OH and -OCH 3 functional groups in this gum. Conclusion: The fractionation improved solubility and facilitated further investigations on its characteristics that may have implication on its processing, application, and optimization as a potential pharmaceutical excipient.

  7. Silvical characteristics of sweet birch (Betula lenta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak

    1958-01-01

    Sweet birch (Betula lenta) is also known as black birch and cherry birch. It is commercially less important than the two principal members of the genus, yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera).

  8. Sweet syndrome revealing systemic lupus erythematosus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinn, N

    2015-02-01

    Sweet Syndrome is an acute inflammatory skin eruption which is rare in children. We report a case of childhood Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) that presented with Sweet syndrome. This case is a unique presentation of a common disorder which provides a new facet for the differential diagnosis of SLE in children. It is also the first paediatric case to be reported in a Caucasian child.

  9. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Soybean Flour on Physico-chemical, Functional, and Rheological Properties of Composite Flour from Rice, Sweet Potato, and Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julianti, Elisa; Rusmarilin, Herla; Ridwansyah; Yusraini, Era

    2016-11-01

    Three composite flours were prepared by combining rice flour, potato starch, sweet potato flour, soybean flour, and xanthan gum in the ratio of 30: 15: 50: 4.5: 0.5; 30: 15: 45: 9.5: 0.5; and 30: 15: 40: 14.5: 0.5, were analysed for selected physical, chemical, functional, and rheological properties. Fat, protein, ash, and crude fibre content were found to increase with increase in the ratio of soybean flour and decrease in the ratio of sweet potato flour in the mixture. The composite flours were not significantly different in water and oil absorption capacity, swelling power, and baking expansion. There was a tendency for the relative viscosities of the composite flours to increase significantly with increasing proportion of the soybean flour and decreasing proportion of sweet potato flour in the mixture. Pasting viscosity measurements of the composite flours gave maximum (peak) viscosity values ranging from 582.00-668.67 cP. The pasting analysis results indicated increased level of setback and final viscosity, pasting temperature, setback and stability ratio while peak viscosity decreased with increasing proportion of soybean flour and decreasing proportion of sweet potato flour in the mixture.

  11. Evaluation of the suspending property of grewia gum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suspending properties evaluated included the sedimentation rate, sedimentation volume, ease of redispersibility, apparent viscosity and degree of flocculation. Results obtained after 8 weeks of storage showed that the optimum suspending concentration for grewia gum in the drug was 1% w/v. The sedimentation rate ...

  12. Evaluation of Local Gum of Acacia polyacantha as a Suspending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The local gum of Acacia polyacantha was evaluated as a suspending agent in metronidazole benzoate suspensions in comparison with Acacia senegal and NaCMC at concentration range of 1-4% (w/v). The resulting suspensions were evaluated for their sedimentation volume (%), degree of flocculation, rheology, ...

  13. Isolated congenital fusion of the gums | Chiabi | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolated congenital fusion of the gums is a rare anomaly. Early surgical treatment is indicated, as longstanding cases will impair normal feeding leading to nutritional and growth problems. We report the fi rst case in the Yaoundé Gynaeco-Obstetric and Paediatric Hospital, which was successfully managed surgically

  14. Guar gum: a miracle therapy for hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Shahzadi, Naureen; Sharif, Mian Kamran; Nasir, Muhammad

    2007-01-01

    The number of hypercholesterolemic and hyperglycemic people is increasing rapidly in the world. The prevention against these health problems is related to a complex management of conventional and non-conventional risk factors. The inclusion of dietary fiber in the diet is the right approach to reduce these risks. Cholesterol and glucose lowering effects are most often associated with gelling, mucilaginous, and viscous fibers such as guar gum, an edible thickening agent. It has widespread applications in the food industry due to its ability to hydrate without heating. The demand for guar gum is still growing rapidly because in addition to its indispensable role in lowering serum cholesterol and glucose levels, it is also considered helpful in weight loss programs. The main thrust of therapeutic and medicinal properties lies in the soluble dietary fiber content of guar gum to improve the serum biochemical profile of human and non-human primates, reducing total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, increasing the high density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and the management of glycemic indices and obesity. Among the various intervention strategies, diet diversification is the right approach to overcome these problems. Composite flours containing wheat and legumes have proven practical uses and are being utilized in many parts of the world to improve the nutritional and functional properties of flour. The main focus of this manuscript is to review the available information on various aspects of guar gum with special reference to its effectiveness in reducing the cardiovascular disease risk, diabetes and weight loss programs.

  15. Original Article Gum Arabic in treatment of functional constipation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Constipation represents a common problem in children. The worldwide prevalence of functional constipation in children varies from 0.7% to 29.6%. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the response to Gum Arabic in addition to laxative in management of functional constipation. Methods: All children less ...

  16. Gellan gum fluid gels for topical administration of diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Mohammed H; Conway, Barbara R; Mills, Thomas; Smith, Alan M

    2016-12-30

    Diclofenac topical formulations are often preferred for drug administration to patients who experience serious GIT problems. Absorption of the drug through the skin, however, can be challenging due to the natural protective feature of the stratum corneum (SC). In this article, fluid gels prepared from gellan gum were explored as a topical drug delivery vehicle. Rheological analysis of the formulations showed that it was possible to produce a topical gel with a viscosity and the mechanical strength similar to that of the commercially available Voltaren ® gel using 1% w/w of a 50:50 low acyl/high acyl (LA/HA) gellan blend. Soft-tribology was used to assess the lubrication properties of gellan fluid gels. The lubrication of the gellan gum fluid gel formulations at high rubbing speeds was similar to the lubrication of the Voltaren ® gel. The use of gellan gum dramatically increased skin permeation of diclofenac when compared with the commercially available formulation and could be controlled by changing the gellan gum concentration and/or sodium ion concentration in the formulation. This study highlights the potential use of fluid gels that can be easily tuned to have physical properties suitable for topical formulations with the added advantage of increasing drug permeation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... exudate from stems and branches of trees of various species of the genus Acacia, family Leguminosae. (b...

  18. Radiation induced degradation of xanthan gum in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayrabolulu, Hande; Demeter, Maria; Cutrubinis, Mihalis; Güven, Olgun; Şen, Murat

    2018-03-01

    In our previous study, we have investigated the effect of gamma rays on xanthan gum in the solid state and it was determined that dose rate was an important factor effecting the radiation degradation of xanthan gum. In the present study, in order to provide a better understanding of how ionizing radiation effect xanthan gum, we have investigated the effects of ionizing radiation on aqueous solutions of xanthan at various concentrations (0.5-4%). Xanthan solutions were irradiated with gamma rays in air, at ambient temperature, at different dose rates (0.1-3.3-7.0 kGy/h) and doses (2.5-50 kGy). Change in their molecular weights was followed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Chain scission yield (G(S)), and degradation rate constants (k) were calculated. It was determined that, solution concentration was a factor effecting the degradation chemical yield and degradation rate of xanthan gum. Chain scission reactions were more effective for lower solution concentrations.

  19. Improvement of xanthan gum production in batch culture using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... In this study, the effect of acetic acid on the improvement of xanthan biosynthesis by Xanthomonas campestris b82 was investigated. ... have been considered to improve xanthan productivity, which include improvement of culture ..... continuous production of xanthan gum. Paper presented at the Fifth.

  20. Investigation of Transport Properties of a New Biomaterials - GUM Mangosteen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Sourav S.; Sarkar, A.

    2006-06-01

    Biomaterial has occupied leading position in material science for various scientific and technological applications. This present work is carried out over a natural gum extracted from raw fruit of Mangosteen, an east Indian tree (Gercinia Mangostana) following extraction and purification process. Solid specimen of the said gum is developed following sol-gel like process. AC and DC electrical analysis on the dried solid specimen of the gum were carried out and showed high electrical conduction with σ ~ 1 E-03 S/cm, of which ionic and electronic contributions are 70% and 30% respectively. Analysis shows that origin of high electrical conductivity is due to presence of substantial amount of organic acid unit in its polysaccharide background. In fact the observed σ is about 1000 times of that observed in gum Arabica. Optical absorption of this new bio- materials are also studied using UV-VIS analysis. The results show its high absorption co-efficient in UV and blue part of analysed range. A complete electrical characterization of the material have been made. It has also been observed that the electronic conduction can be enhanced to 70% of the total electrical conductivity by forming complex with Iodine and organic (Citric) acid from Lemon fruit. This high potential material is being studied for development of electronic device application.

  1. The efficacy of chewing gum on postoperative ileus following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Postoperative ileus (POI) is a common complication following caesarean section. It impairs patients comfort; delays wound healing and prolong duration of hospital stay. Several methods have been used in the management of this condition with varying efficacy. Chewing gum postoperatively is a recent concept ...

  2. Formulation and In vitro Evaluation of Natural Gum-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria. The collection, purification and characterization of the natural gums have been described elsewhere [5,9]. All other reagents were of analytical grade. Preformulation studies. Preformulation studies were carried out using different chelating agents in order to optimize the formulation and physicochemical properties of.

  3. Cashew gum and gelatin blend for food packaging application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashew gum (CG) and gelatin (G) films were developed using the casting method and response surface methodology. The objective was produce packaging films from CG/G blends that exhibit effective barrier properties. A study of zeta potential versus pH was first carried out to determine the isoelectric...

  4. Electrospinning of guar gum/corn starch blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, electrospun nanofibers were prepared for the first time from aqueous blends of guar gum (GG) and corn starch with amylose contents of 27.8% (CS28) and 50% (CS50). The fiber morphology and fiber diameter sizes (FDS) were correlated with solution rheology. The spinning solutions were pr...

  5. Binding Properties Of A Polymeric Gum From Cola accuminata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However all the tablets produced with 1 % w/w binder; Sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose (SCMC) and Cola accuminata failed the hardness test. Hardness increased while friability decreased as tablet binder concentration increased. However, the tablets produced with Cola accuminata gum had long disintegration times ...

  6. Iron microencapsulation in gum tragacanth using solvent evaporation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari-Varzaneh, Elham; Shahedi, Mohammad; Shekarchizadeh, Hajar

    2017-10-01

    In this study iron salt (FeSO 4 ·7H 2 O) was microencapsulated in gum tragacanth hydrogel using solvent evaporation method. Three significant parameters (ferrous sulfate content, content of gum tragacanth, and alcohol to mixture ratio) were optimized by response surface methodology to obtain maximum encapsulation efficiency. Ferrous sulfate content, 5%, content of gum tragacanth, 22%, and alcohol to mixture ratio, 11:1 was determined to be the optimum condition to reach maximum encapsulation efficiency. Microstructure of iron microcapsules was thoroughly monitored using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The microphotographs indicated two distinct crystalline and amorphous structures in the microcapsules. This structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of microcapsules. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of iron microcapsules identified the presence of iron in the tragacanth microcapsules. The average size of microcapsules was determined by particle size analyzer. Release assessment of iron in simulated gastric fluid showed its complete release in stomach which is necessary for its absorption in duodenum. However, the use of encapsulated iron in gum tragacanth in watery foods is rather recommended due to the fast release of iron in water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. blue gums fortress observation post simon's bay fire command 1942 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a letter dated 21 July 1942 the General Staff. Officer I at the Castle requested that accommo- dation for one White NCO and 20 members of 1. Battalion, Native Military Corps be provided at. Blue Gums. Ten days later the Fortress Com- mander submitted the request to the Quarter- master-General and advised him that the ...

  8. Mango kernel starch-gum composite films: Physical, mechanical and barrier properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawab, Anjum; Alam, Feroz; Haq, Muhammad Abdul; Lutfi, Zubala; Hasnain, Abid

    2017-05-01

    Composite films were developed by the casting method using mango kernel starch (MKS) and guar and xanthan gums. The concentration of both gums ranged from 0% to 30% (w/w of starch; db). Mechanical properties, oxygen permeability (OP), water vapor permeability (WVP), solubility in water and color parameters of composite films were evaluated. The crystallinity and homogeneity between the starch and gums were also evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The scanning electron micrographs showed homogeneous matrix, with no signs of phase separation between the components. XRD analysis demonstrated diminished crystalline peak. Regardless of gum type the tensile strength (TS) of composite films increased with increasing gum concentration while reverse trend was noted for elongation at break (EAB) which found to be decreased with increasing gum concentration. The addition of both guar and xanthan gums increased solubility and WVP of the composite films. However, the OP was found to be lower than that of the control with both gums. Furthermore, addition of both gums led to changes in transparency and opacity of MKS films. Films containing 10% (w/w) xanthan gum showed lower values for solubility, WVP and OP, while film containing 20% guar gum showed good mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Enzymatic depolymerization of gum Tragacanth: Bifidogenic potential of low molecular weight oligosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hassan; Michalak, Malwina; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Gum tragacanth derived from the plant “goat’s horn” (Astragalus sp.) has a long history of use as a stabilizing, viscosity-enhancing agent in food emulsions. The gum contains pectinaceous arabinogalactans and fucose-substituted xylogalacturonans. In this work, gum tragacanth from Astragalus gossy...... that on galactan (control). HAG3 completely inhibited the growth of the Cl. perfringens strain. Tragacanth gum is thus a potential source of prebiotic carbohydrates that exert no viscosity effects and which may find use as natural functional food ingredients.......Gum tragacanth derived from the plant “goat’s horn” (Astragalus sp.) has a long history of use as a stabilizing, viscosity-enhancing agent in food emulsions. The gum contains pectinaceous arabinogalactans and fucose-substituted xylogalacturonans. In this work, gum tragacanth from Astragalus...

  10. The Role of Xylitol Gum Chewing in Restoring Postoperative Bowel Activity After Cesarean Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jian Tao; Hsieh, Mei-Hui; Cheng, Po-Jen; Lin, Jr-Rung

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of xylitol gum chewing on gastrointestinal recovery after cesarean section. Women who underwent cesarean section (N = 120) were randomly allocated into Group A (xylitol gum), Group B (nonxylitol gum), or the control group (no chewing gum). Every 2 hr post-cesarean section and until first flatus, Groups A and B received two pellets of chewing gum and were asked to chew for 15 min. The times to first bowel sounds, first flatus, and first defecation were then compared among the three groups. Group A had the shortest mean time to first bowel sounds (6.9 ± 1.7 hr), followed by Group B (8 ± 1.6 hr) and the control group (12.8 ± 2.5 hr; one-way analysis of variance, p xylitol-containing gum may be superior to xylitol-free gum. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Critical molecular regions for elicitation of the sweetness of the sweet-tasting protein, thaumatin I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Keisuke; Masuda, Tetsuya; Ide, Nobuyuki; Kitabatake, Naofumi

    2008-07-01

    Thaumatin is an intensely sweet-tasting protein. To identify the critical amino acid residue(s) responsible for elicitation of the sweetness of thaumatin, we prepared mutant thaumatin proteins, using Pichia pastoris, in which alanine residues were substituted for lysine or arginine residues, and the sweetness of each mutant protein was evaluated by sensory analysis in humans. Four lysine residues (K49, K67, K106 and K163) and three arginine residues (R76, R79 and R82) played significant roles in thaumatin sweetness. Of these residues, K67 and R82 were particularly important for eliciting the sweetness. We also prepared two further mutant thaumatin I proteins: one in which an arginine residue was substituted for a lysine residue, R82K, and one in which a lysine residue was substituted for an arginine residue, K67R. The threshold value for sweetness was higher for R82K than for thaumatin I, indicating that not only the positive charge but also the structure of the side chain of the arginine residue at position 82 influences the sweetness of thaumatin, whereas only the positive charge of the K67 side chain affects sweetness.

  12. Relationships Between Gum Chewing and Stroop Test: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Y; Takeda, T; Konno, M; Suzuki, Y; Kawano, Y; Ozawa, T; Kondo, Y; Sakatani, K

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive function tends to decrease with aging, therefore maintenance of this function in an aging society is an important issue. The role of chewing in nutrition is important. Although several studies indicate that gum chewing is thought to improve cognitive function, it remains debatable whether gum-chewing does in fact improve cognitive function. The Stroop test is a psychological tool used to measure cognition. A shorter reaction time indicates a mean higher behavioral performance and higher levels of oxy-Hb concentration. fNIRS is a powerful, non-invasive imaging technique offering many advantages, including compact size, no need for specially equipped facilities, and the potential for real-time measurement. The left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) seems to be mainly involved in the Stroop task.The aim of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that gum-chewing changes cerebral blood flow in the left DLPFC during the Stroop test, and also changes the reaction time. Fourteen healthy volunteers (mean age 26.9 years) participated in this study after providing written informed consent. A piece of tasteless gum weighing 1.0 g was used. Each session was designed in a block manner, i.e. 4 rests (30 s) and 3 blocks of task (30 s). A computerized Stroop test was used (including both congruent and incongruent Stroop tasks) which calculates a response time automatically. The Binominal test was used for comparisons (p Stroop task and that gum chewing significantly increases responses/oxy-Hb concentration and significantly shortens the reaction time.

  13. Naturalistic assessment of demand for cigarettes, snus, and nicotine gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jeffrey S; Wilson, A George; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Judd, Michael C; Bickel, Warren K

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral economic measures of demand provide estimates of tobacco product abuse liability and may predict effects of policy-related price regulation on consumption of existing and emerging tobacco products. In the present study, we examined demand for snus, a smokeless tobacco product, in comparison to both cigarettes and medicinal nicotine. We used both a naturalistic method in which participants purchased these products for use outside the laboratory, as well as laboratory-based self-administration procedures. Cigarette smokers (N = 42) used an experimental income to purchase their usual brand of cigarettes and either snus or gum (only one product available per session) across a range of prices, while receiving all products they purchased from one randomly selected price. In a separate portion of the study, participants self-administered these products during laboratory-based, progressive ratio sessions. Demand elasticity (sensitivity of purchasing to price) was significantly greater for snus than cigarettes. Elasticity for gum was intermediate between snus and cigarettes but was not significantly different than either. Demand intensity (purchasing unconstrained by price) was significantly lower for gum compared to cigarettes, with no significant difference observed between snus and cigarettes. Results of the laboratory-based, progressive ratio sessions were generally discordant with measures of demand elasticity, with significantly higher "breakpoints" for cigarettes compared to gum and no significant differences between other study products. Moreover, breakpoints and product purchasing were generally uncorrelated across tasks. Under naturalistic conditions, snus appears more sensitive to price manipulation than either cigarettes or nicotine gum in existing smokers.

  14. Sweet eating: a definition and the development of the Dutch Sweet Eating Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Margot; Hörchner, Rogier; Wijtsma, Anneke; Bourhim, Noufissa; Willemsen, Dascha; Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M H

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested that patients who are defined as so-called sweet eaters have more difficulties to lose weight and to maintain weight loss after both conservative treatment and restrictive bariatric surgery, such as gastric banding. There is, however, no agreement on the definition of sweet eating. Also, a questionnaire to measure sweet eating is not available. Therefore, the aim of our study was to agree on a definition of sweet eating and to construct a valid and reliable questionnaire that might be of help to assess the influence of sweet eating on weight loss after bariatric surgery. A Delphi Study design was chosen to define sweet eating. Based on the Delphi rounds, a questionnaire with self-reported sweets intake was constructed and validated. Nine experts with different scientific backgrounds participated in the Delphi Study which consisted of four rounds. They finally agreed on the definition that sweet eating can be defined as an eating behavior in which at least 50% of daily consumed carbohydrates consist of simple carbohydrates and which can be triggered by emotional factors (i.e., stress). They did not include the intake of artificial sweeteners in the definition. The Dutch Sweet Eating Questionnaire built on the four Delphi rounds was tested in 138 female patients and appeared to be both valid and reliable. A shortcoming of this study is that the results may not be applicable to males and to non-Western populations. The definition and the questionnaire may be useful in future research regarding sweet eating and bariatric surgery outcomes in morbidly obese patients.

  15. Increasing the biomass production of short rotation coppice forests. Progress report. [Sycamore, sweet gum, alder, and locust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, K.; Brown, C. L.

    1979-03-01

    Two biomass plantations, one in the Coastal Plain, the other in the Piedmont province of Georgia, have been established. Platanus occidentalis, Liquidambar styraciflua, Flnus glutinosa and Robinia pseudoacacia were planted in pure and mixed plots. Differences in the growth at the end of the first growing season were attributed mostly to weed competition in the Coastal Plain. Robinia grew remarkably well in the Piedmont, averaging more than 2.2 m tall in irrigated plots. A fungus tentatively identified as belonging to the genus Botryosphaeria is causing heavy Alnus mortality in the Coastal Plain. Progress in the genetic improvement phase of the project included a collection of Platanus seedlots from throughout Georgia to identify promising provenances and the production of Liquidambar and Robinia plantlets in tissue culture. Differences in the calorific content of young sprout material from nine hardwood species (unit oven dry weight basis) were found to be small. Other studies dealt with the effects of different harvesting cycles on the size and carbohydrate contents of sycamore rootstocks.

  16. Sweet potato for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Cheow Peng; Loke, Seng Cheong

    2013-09-03

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is among the most nutritious subtropical and tropical vegetables. It is also used in traditional medicine practices for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Research in animal and human models suggests a possible role of sweet potato in glycaemic control. To assess the effects of sweet potato for type 2 diabetes mellitus. We searched several electronic databases, including The Cochrane Library (2013, Issue 1), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SIGLE and LILACS (all up to February 2013), combined with handsearches. No language restrictions were used. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared sweet potato with a placebo or a comparator intervention, with or without pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Two authors independently selected the trials and extracted the data. We evaluated risk of bias by assessing randomisation, allocation concealment, blinding, completeness of outcome data, selective reporting and other potential sources of bias. Three RCTs met our inclusion criteria: these investigated a total of 140 participants and ranged from six weeks to five months in duration. All three studies were performed by the same trialist. Overall, the risk of bias of these trials was unclear or high. All RCTs compared the effect of sweet potato preparations with placebo on glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. There was a statistically significant improvement in glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) at three to five months with 4 g/day sweet potato preparation compared to placebo (mean difference -0.3% (95% confidence interval -0.6 to -0.04); P = 0.02; 122 participants; 2 trials). No serious adverse effects were reported. Diabetic complications and morbidity, death from any cause, health-related quality of life, well-being, functional outcomes and costs were not investigated. There is insufficient evidence about the use of sweet potato for type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition to improvement in trial methodology

  17. Sweet Stuff: How Sugars and Sweeteners Affect Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Issues Subscribe October 2014 Print this issue Sweet Stuff How Sugars and Sweeteners Affect Your Health ... Send us your comments Most of us love sweet foods and drinks. But after that short burst ...

  18. A comparison of corn fiber gum, hydrophobically modified starch, gum arabic and soybean soluble polysaccharide: interfacial dynamics, viscoelastic response at oil/water interfaces and emulsion stabilization mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interfacial rheology of polysaccharide adsorption layers of corn fiber gum (CFG), octenyl succinate anhydride-modified starch (OSA-s), gum arabic (GA) and soybean soluble polysaccharides (SSPS) at the oil/water interface and their emulsifying properties in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions were compa...

  19. Evaluation of plant extracts for sweetness using the Mongolian gerbil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakinovich, W; Moon, C; Choi, Y H; Kinghorn, A D

    1990-01-01

    Extracts of Thladiantha grosvenorii fruits, Stevia rebaudiana leaves, and Abrus precatorius leaves were investigated using Mongolian gerbil electrophysiological and conditioned taste aversion procedures, which were designed to respond to sucrose. A close correlation was observed between extracts of these sweet plants known to contain sweet principles and those extracts indicated as being sweet by a combination of these gerbil bioassays. The methods employed seem to be suitable for use in aiding the purification of highly sweet compounds of plant origin.

  20. Proximate analysis of Sweet Potato Toasted Granules | Meludu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato is an important root crop in the food system of many African countries. The yield, nutrition and economic potential of sweet potato have been identified as very high. In this study, sweet potato was processed and toasted into granules. The proximate analysis performed on the toasted granules showed protein, ...

  1. Enhanced ethanol production from stalk juice of sweet sorghum by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet sorghum (sugar sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) is one kind of non-grain energy crops. As a novel green regenerated high-energy crop with high utility value, high yield of biomass, the sweet sorghum is widely used and developed in China. Stalk juice of sweet sorghum was used as the main substrate for ethanol ...

  2. 7 CFR 956.5 - Walla Walla Sweet Onions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Walla Walla Sweet Onions. 956.5 Section 956.5... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.5 Walla Walla Sweet Onions...

  3. Sex differences in preferences for coffee sweetness among Japanese students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazawa, Kazuko; Hirokawa, Kumi; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine sex differences in preferences for coffee sweetness. The participants were 59 Japanese undergraduate students. Men preferred sweeter coffee than women, while both men and women showed almost the same preference for acidic beverage sweetness. The sex difference in preferences for coffee sweetness may be related to coffee-drinking habits.

  4. A preliminary investigation of the water use efficiency of sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... compared to Ukulinga research farm. The results from this study showed that the WUE of sweet sorghum was sensitive to plant density. The WUE values confirm that sweet sorghum has high WUE under different climatic conditions. Keywords: water use efficiency; ethanol yield; biofuel crop; plant density, sweet sorghum, ...

  5. Sulfomethylated graft copolymers of xanthan gum and polyacrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, I.W.; Empey, R.A.; Racciato, J.S.

    1978-08-08

    A water-soluble anionic graft copolymer of xanthan gum and polyacrylamide is described in which at least part of the amide function of the acrylamide portion of the copolymer is sulfomethylated and the xanthan gum portion of the copolymer is unreacted with formaldehyde. The copolymer is sulfomethylated by reaction with formaldehyde and sodium metabisulfite. The formaldehyde does not cause any appreciable cross-linking between hydroxyl groups of the xanthan moieties. The sulfomethylation of the acrylamido group takes place at temperatures from 35 to 70 C. The pH is 10 or higher, typically from 12 to 13. The degree of anionic character may be varied by adjusting the molar ratio of formaldehyde and sodium metabisulfite with respect to the copolymer. 10 claims.

  6. Microwave Assisted Grafting of Gums and Extraction of Natural Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Inderbir; Rani, Priya; Kumar, Pradeep

    2017-01-01

    Microwave assisted modification of polymers has become an established technique for modifying the functionality of polymers. Microwave irradiation reduces reaction time as well as the use of toxic solvents with enhanced sensitivity and yields of quality products. In this review article instrumentation and basic principles of microwave activation have been discussed. Microwave assisted grafting of natural gums, characterization of grafted polymers and their toxicological parameters have also been listed. Pharmaceutical applications viz. drug release retardant, mucoahesion and tablet superdisintegrant potential of microwave assisted gums has also been discussed. An overview of microwave assisted extraction of plant based natural materials has also been presented. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Locust bean gum: Exploring its potential for biopharmaceutical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marita Dionísio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides have been finding, in the last decades, very interesting and useful applications in the biomedical and, specifically, in the biopharmaceutical field. Locust bean gum is a polysaccharide belonging to the group of galactomannans, being extracted from the seeds of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua. This polymer displays a number of appealing characteristics for biopharmaceutical applications, among which its high gelling capacity should be highlighted. In this review, we describe critical aspects of locust bean gum, contributing for its role in biopharmaceutical applications. Physicochemical properties, as well as strong and effective synergies with other biomaterials are described. The potential for in vivo biodegradation is explored and the specific biopharmaceutical applications are discussed.

  8. Sweet Spot Supersymmetry and Composite Messengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro

    2007-01-01

    Sweet spot supersymmetry is a phenomenologically and cosmologically perfect framework to realize a supersymmetric world at short distance. We discuss a class of dynamical models of supersymmetry breaking and its mediation whose low-energy effective description falls into this framework. Hadron fields in the dynamical models play a role of the messengers of the supersymmetry breaking. As is always true in the models of the sweet spot supersymmetry, the messenger scale is predicted to be 10 5 GeV ∼ mess ∼ 10 GeV. Various values of the effective number of messenger fields N mess are possible depending on the choice of the gauge group

  9. Grief, poetry, and the sweet unexpected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Richard; Jordan, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    This paper explains the healing benefits, the "sweet unexpected" of the title, which results from using poetry to engage trauma, including traumatic grief. The benefits of poetry are presented alongside a discussion of a 22-year-old nonprofit called The Pongo Poetry Project. The sweet unexpected includes the ease with which trauma survivors engage their trauma narrative, the critical insights that emerge in poetry, the beneficial social context of sharing poetry, and the healing benefits of poetry for writers, care providers, and readers alike. The paper concludes by providing resources that can help people use poetry in their own work.

  10. Enhancement of electrical conductivity in the Gum Arabica complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, Sourav S.; Sarkar, A.

    2009-01-01

    Gum Arabica is a natural biopolymer obtained from plant Acacia Arabica. In this present study the electro-active nature of its complex has been investigated. The complexes were developed using pure Gum Arabica and pure Citric acid by the sol-gel process. The scope of complex formation has been investigated and their natures were examined experimentally. The experiments which were carried out in this work are namely d.c V-I characteristics, d.c Arrhenius, ion transference number measurement, UV-VIS and IR photo-absorption. Solid specimen of the complex at various concentration of Citric acid has been developed for d.c experiments and adequate specimens were also developed for UV-VIS experiment. The result of d.c V-I characteristics on specimens at different Citric acid concentrations shows that d.c conductivity increases with concentration of the acid. The said enhancement is observed to be about 100 times that of pure hosts. The ion transference number measurement shows that the total conductivity increases with external acid concentration of which d.c conductivity enhance many times compared to that of ionic part. The result from d.c Arrhenius study shows that electro-thermal activation energy decreases with increasing acid concentration leading to enhancement of electronic conductivity of the complex. The result of UV-VIS study confirms the formation of the acid complex of Gum Arabica. The nature of photo-absorption indicates very clearly that main absorption region shows gradual shifts towards longer wavelength with increase of acid concentration. The result of FTIR absorption shows the structural concepts of electro-activity and complex formation indication of pure Gum Arabica. The overall analysis shows that the electro-activity of the mentioned biopolymer may be tailored.

  11. Carboxy methylation of cashew nut tree exudate gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Durcilene A. da; Paula, Regina C.M.

    2001-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale exudate polysaccharide was carboxymethylated with monochloroacetic acid. The samples were characterized by NMR, solution viscometry, GPC and thermal analysis. Carboxymethylated cashew gum (CMGC) with a degree of substitution between 0,1-0,16 was obtained. Solution viscometry and GPC analysis showed that polymer molar mass degradation occurred. Sample with higher DS shows higher peak molar mass, intrinsic viscosity and thermal stability. NMR spectrum indicated that the carboxy methylation reaction occurs preferentially in C-6 of galactose residue. (author)

  12. Cryoextraction: A novel approach to remove aspirated chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Rubio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of aspirated foreign bodies can prove challenging at times, requiring even rigid bronchoscopy. Cryotherapy probes have been reported to help with extraction of foreign bodies. We present a case where successful "cryoextraction" was performed on an aspirated chewing gum. The case highlights the fact that this technique is useful to extract all materials that have water content. This technique can be performed through flexible bronchoscopy and can save patients from more aggressive approaches.

  13. Chewing gum and lozenges as delivery systems for noscapine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norgaard Jensen, L.; Christrup, Lona Louring; Menger, N.

    1991-01-01

    base. The release characteristics of the preparations were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo, and their taste properties examined. Only the formulations containing noscapine base were without any appreciable taste. Chewing gum containing this compound showed, however, a low level of drug release both...... in vitro and in vivo and is therefore not a suitable dosage form. Only a lozenge formulation containing noscapine base fulfilled the requirements of taste acceptability and adequate release properties....

  14. Preparation and characterization of tragacanth-locust bean gum edible blend films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Fatemeh Sadat; Kadkhodaee, Rassoul; Emadzadeh, Bahareh; Koocheki, Arash

    2016-03-30

    The present work introduces the structure and physicomechanical properties of a novel blend film made from binary solutions of gum tragacanth (GT) and locust bean gum (LBG) at different mixing ratios. Apparent viscosities and surface tensions of individual and blend gum solutions were also investigated. The viscosity data indicated that there was a distinct synergism between the two gums at all mixing ratios. FTIR spectra showed the existence of noncovalent intermolecular interactions between gums. The surface tensions of binary solutions were significantly lower than those of individual gums which is advantageous for coating applications. All films had homogenous and smooth surface morphology and their transparency, water vapour barrier and mechanical properties were improved by incorporating LBG in blend. The results of this study suggest that GT-LBG blend film, owing to its desirable properties, has the potential to be used as a new degradable food packaging material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical and Functional Properties of Chia Seed (Salvia hispanica L.) Gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Campos, Maira Rubi; Ciau-Solís, Norma; Rosado-Rubio, Gabriel; Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2014-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) constitutes a potential alternative raw material and ingredient in food industry applications due to its dietary fiber content. Gum can be extracted from its dietary fiber fractions for use as an additive to control viscosity, stability, texture, and consistency in food systems. The gum extracted from chia seeds was characterized to determine their quality and potential as functional food additives. The extracted chia gum contained 26.2% fat and a portion was submitted to fat extraction, producing two fractions: gum with fat (FCG) and gum partly defatted (PDCG). Proximal composition and physicochemical characterization showed these fractions to be different (P pseudoplastic type. PDCG had more viscosity than FCG. Chia seed is an excellent natural source of gum with good physicochemical and functional qualities, and is very promising for use in food industry. PMID:26904622

  16. Efficacy of baking soda-containing chewing gum in removing natural tooth stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankodi, S M; Conforti, N; Berkowitz, H

    2001-07-01

    A 14-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted with 126 healthy volunteers to compare the efficacy of twice-daily use of 3 baking soda-containing chewing gums in removing natural tooth stain when used in conjunction with a program of regular oral hygiene. All 3 chewing gums significantly reduced extrinsic stain (P Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) reduced dental stain by 70.8%, compared to reductions of 71.9% and 65.3%, after use of 2 experimental gum formulations. Whitened appearance improved by 1.73 shade tabs using AHDC gum, and up to 2.49 shade tabs with the experimental formulations. These results suggest that the use of baking soda-containing gum after meals, in conjunction with good oral hygiene, can improve both extrinsic dental staining and the whitened appearance of teeth.

  17. An insight into the emerging exopolysaccharide gellan gum as a novel polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Jani, Girish K; Zala, Bhumi S; Khutliwala, Tohra A

    2013-04-02

    The microbial exopolysaccharides are water-soluble polymers secreted by microorganisms during fermentation. The biopolymer gellan gum is a relatively recent addition to the family of microbial polysaccharides that is gaining much importance in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries due to its novel properties. It is commercially produced by C.P. Kelco in Japan and the USA. This article presents a critical review of the available information on the gum synthesized by Sphingomonas paucimobilis with special emphasis on its fermentative production. Factors affecting the fermentative production of gellan gum and problems associated with mass transfer have been addressed. Classification and trade names of gellan gum has been specified. Characteristics of gellan gum with respect to its structure, physicochemical properties are discussed. An attempt has also been made to review the current and potential applications of gellan gum in food, pharmaceutical and other industries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of tragacanth gum in egg white based bioplastics: Thermomechanical and water uptake properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Castejón, María Luisa; Bengoechea, Carlos; García-Morales, Moisés; Martínez, Inmaculada

    2016-11-05

    This study aims to extend the range of applications of tragacanth gum by studying its incorporation into bioplastics formulation, exploring the influence that different gum contents (0-20wt.%) exert over the thermomechanical and water uptake properties of bioplastics based on egg white albumen protein (EW). The effect of plasticizer nature was also evaluated through the modification of the water/glycerol ratio within the plasticizer fraction (fixed at 40wt.%). The addition of tragacanth gum generally yielded an enhancement of the water uptake capacity, being doubled at the highest content. Conversely, presence of tragacanth gum resulted in a considerable decrease in the bioplastic mechanical properties: both tensile strength and maximum elongation were reduced up to 75% approximately when compared to the gum-free system. Ageing of selected samples was also studied, revealing an important effect of storage time when tragacanth gum is present, possibly due to its hydrophilic character. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. THE MORPHOLOGY OF THE GUM AND OF THE DESMODONTIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. NICULESCU

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The gum and the desmodontium are constituent parts of the morpho-functional complex of the parodontium. Depending on its topographic situation, we can describe three portions of the gum: alveolar, marginal and interdental, each one having its features. Within the gum, the collagen fibres from the subepihtelial net are grouped in alveologingival, dentogingival, circular and interdental, the last ones being seen by us as a single group, called peridental fibres. The desmodontium or the alveolodental ligament or the parodontal ligament makes the relation between the alveolar bone and the radicular cement within the dentoalveolar articulation, articulation known under the name of gomphosis, a syndesmose that does not allow any movement to the tooth. Depending on their topographic situation, the collagen fibres in the constitution of the alveolodental ligament, also called cemento-alveolar fibres, can be divided in marginal, intermediary and apical. The alveolodental ligament has the important role in the transmission of the chewing forces to the resistance structures within the functional architectonics of the cranium.

  20. Long-term effects of guar gum on blood lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIvor, M E; Cummings, C C; Van Duyn, M A; Leo, T A; Margolis, S; Behall, K M; Michnowski, J E; Mendeloff, A I

    1986-04-01

    While guar gum has been shown to lower total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in diabetic patients over the short-term, the long-term effects are less well studied and may be unpredictable. Granola bars with and without 6.6 g guar gum were developed and fed to 16 adult volunteers with Type II diabetes mellitus who had been randomized in a double-blind fashion into guar and placebo groups of equal size. Four to six bars were consumed daily with an ad lib diet over a 6-month period. Total cholesterol, total high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), subfractions HDL2-C and HDL3-C, LDL-C, and beta-apoprotein were measured at 0 and 6 months. Although LDL-C was lower and triglycerides higher at 6 months than at baseline, these changes were of equal magnitude and direction in both guar and placebo groups. Using each subject as his own control, only the change in triglycerides was statistically significant (P less than 0.025). When male subjects alone were analyzed, the guar group showed a statistically significant decrease in LDL, while the placebo group did not. Other lipid parameters were not significantly changed during the study, despite a positive effect on carbohydrate metabolism from the guar bars. The data suggest either that the hypolipemic effects of guar gum in patients with Type II diabetes mellitus are not sustained for 6 months, or the effects occur only in men.

  1. FORMULATION OF ACECLOFENAC SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLET USING HYDROPHILIC NATURAL GUM

    OpenAIRE

    Parasuram Rajam Radhika; Pankaj R. Kharkate; Thangavel Sivakumar

    2011-01-01

    In order to reduce production costs, a simple, direct compression sustained release formulation consisting of drug Aceclofenac and by using hydrophilic polymer guar gum and tamarind gum as the release modifier was investigated. No interaction between drug and polymer was confirmed by FTIR, which shows the suitability of all excipients with the drug to formulate the sustained release matrix tablets. Five batches of sustained release matrix tablets of Aceclofenac with both guar gum and tamarind...

  2. Effects of Chewing Different Flavored Gums on Salivary Flow Rate and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Karami Nogourani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chewing gum increases salivary flow rate (SFR and pH, but differences in preferences of gum flavor may influence SFR and pH. The aim of this paper was to assess the effect of five different flavors of sucrose-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate and pH in healthy dental students in Isfahan, Iran. Fifteen (7 men and 8 women healthy dental student volunteers collected unstimulated saliva and then chewed one of five flavored gums for 6 min. The whole saliva was collected and assessed for 6 consecutive days. After unstimulated saliva was collected, stimulated saliva was collected at interval of 0-1, 1–3, and 3–6 minutes after the start of different flavored chewing gums. The SFR and salivary pH were measured. The SFR increased in all five flavored gums at 1, 3, and 6 minutes after start of chewing gums (<0.001. The flow rate of all products reached peak in the 1st minute of stimulation, except spearmint-flavored gums which reached peak in the 6th minute. In the 1st minute, the strawberry-flavored gums showed the highest SFR. During 1–3 minutes, strawberry- and apple-flavored gums showed higher SFR, respectively. Only the spearmint- and cinnamon-flavored gum significantly increased salivary pH. Gum flavored can affect the SFR and pH and special flavors can be advised for different individuals according to their oral conditions.

  3. Chemical and Functional Properties of Chia Seed (Salvia hispanica L.) Gum

    OpenAIRE

    Segura-Campos, Maira Rubi; Ciau-Sol?s, Norma; Rosado-Rubio, Gabriel; Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2014-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) constitutes a potential alternative raw material and ingredient in food industry applications due to its dietary fiber content. Gum can be extracted from its dietary fiber fractions for use as an additive to control viscosity, stability, texture, and consistency in food systems. The gum extracted from chia seeds was characterized to determine their quality and potential as functional food additives. The extracted chia gum contained 26.2% fat and a portion was submit...

  4. Single-Dose and Multiple-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Nicotine 6 mg Gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Anna; Rasmussen, Thomas; Kraiczi, Holger

    2017-04-01

    Under-dosing is a recognized problem with current nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Therefore, a new 6mg nicotine gum has been developed. To compare the nicotine uptake from the 6mg gum versus currently available NRT products, two pharmacokinetic studies were performed. In one randomized crossover study, 44 healthy adult smokers received single doses of 6, 4, and 2mg nicotine gum, and 4mg nicotine lozenge on separate occasions. In a separate randomized crossover multiple-dose study over 11 hours, 50 healthy adult smokers received one 6mg gum every hour and 90 minutes, respectively, one 4mg gum every hour, and one 4mg lozenge every hour. In both studies, blood samples were collected over 12 hours to determine single-dose and multiple-dose pharmacokinetic variables. In the single-dose study, the amount of nicotine released from the 2, 4, and 6mg gums (1.44, 3.36, and 4.94mg) as well as the resulting maximum concentration and area under the curve (5.9, 10.1, and 13.8ng/mL, and 17.1, 30.7, 46.2ng/mL × h, respectively) increased with dose. The maximum concentration and area under the curve of the 6mg gum were 44% and 30% greater, respectively, than those for 4mg lozenge. Upon hourly administration, the steady-state average plasma nicotine concentration with 6mg gum (37.4ng/mL) was significantly higher than those for 4mg lozenge (28.3ng/mL) and 4mg gum (27.1ng/mL). Nicotine delivery via the 6mg gum results in higher plasma nicotine concentrations after a single dose and at steady state than with currently available oral NRT. Under-dosing is a recognized problem with current NRT. Therefore, a new 6mg nicotine gum has been developed. Our studies show that upon single-dose and multiple-dose administration, the 6mg gum releases and delivers more nicotine to the systemic circulation than 2mg gum, 4mg gum, and 4mg lozenge. Thus, each 6mg nicotine gum provides a higher degree of nicotine substitution and/or lasts for a longer period of time than currently available nicotine

  5. Fabrication of electrospun almond gum/PVA nanofibers as a thermostable delivery system for vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Atefe; Tavanai, Hossein; Nasirpour, Ali

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the fabrication of vanillin incorporated almond gum/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers through electrospinning has been investigated. Electrospinning of only almond gum was proved impossible. It was found that the aqueous solution of almond gum/PVA (80:20, concentration=7% (w/w)) containing 3% (w/w) vanillin could have successfully electrospun to uniform nanofibers with diameters as low as 77nm. According to the thermal analysis, incorporated vanillin in almond gum/PVA nanofibers showed higher thermal stability than free vanillin, making this composite especially suitable for high temperature applications. XRD and FTIR analyses proved the presence of vanillin in the almond gum/PVA nanofibers. It was also found that vanillin was dispersed as big crystallites in the matrix of almond gum/PVA nanofibers. FTIR analysis showed almond gum and PVA had chemical cross-linking by etheric bonds between COH groups of almond gum and OH groups of PVA. Also, in the nanofibers, there were no major interaction between vanillin and either almond gum or PVA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The development of a simple objective test of mastication suitable for older people, using chewing gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassiadou, V; Heath, M R

    2001-12-01

    To develop and assess a simple test for evaluating the mastication of visco-elastic foods and prosthodontic success subsequent to treatment of older people. The weight lost from chewing gum during mastication tests and the saliva secreted is weighed. The percentage of the original gum weight that is chewed out in a defined number of strokes is termed the Masticatory Effectiveness (ME) MATERIAL: Five edentate and three dentate volunteers were selected to provide a range of dental states and age. Four commercially available chewing gums of different origins and perceived hardness were tested, one without sweetener acted as a control for salivary stimulation. Pre-weighed samples of each gum were chewed, each for defined numbers of strokes. The saliva secreted was collected and weighed. The chewed gum was desiccated and the total weight loss of sweeteners chewed out provided an objective measure of chewing performance. Weight loss showed large differences between gums, between subjects and the number of strokes. ME was significantly correlated with salivary secretion rates for two subjects. The interaction between subject and gum was statistically significant, established by an ANOVA model, the value of which is shown for multivariate studies. Differential success between gums of different thickness may provide evaluation of denture stability. Measuring the weight lost from gums during chewing provides a simple test of masticatory effectiveness of visco-elastic foods. This has particular value both in functional assessment of older people and in physiological research.

  7. Compositional analysis and rheological characterization of gum tragacanth exudates from six species of Iranian Astragalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balaghi, Sima; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Zargaraan, Azizollaah

    2011-01-01

    The sugar composition and viscoelastic behaviour of Iranian gum tragacanth exuded by six species of Astragalus was investigated at a concentration of 1.3% and varying ionic strength using a controlled shear-rate rheometer. Compositional analysis of the six species of gum tragacanth by high......-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection suggested the occurrence of arabinose, xylose, glucose, galactose, fucose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid residues in the gum structure; however, the proportions of each sugar varied significantly among the gums from the different species...

  8. Whole and crushed nutlets of chia (Salvia hispanica from Mexico as a source of functional gums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Segura-Campos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical and functional properties of Mexican chia (Salvia hispanica gums extracted from defatted whole and crushed nutlets using the Soxhlet and SFE-CO2 methods. Chia gums have interesting chemical and functional properties for the food industry. The oil and gum yields were in the range of 1.98-16.42% and 5.81-12.60%, respectively. The defatting procedure did not affect significantly the oil and gum extraction; the nutlet type (whole or crushed was the only parameter influencing the yield. The proximate composition and the protein and fiber contents of chia gum were evaluated. Low contents of protein and fiber and high NFE levels were found in whole nutlet gums. The functional properties of chia gum extracted from whole and crushed nutlets with the Soxhlet and SFE-COs methods showed the following ranges of water absorption capacity of 62.64 to 143.66 g/g, water adsorption capacity of 0.69 to 1.35 g/g, and water and oil holding capacity of 100 to 149.28 g/g and19.5 to 40.4 g/g, respectively. The rheological behavior exhibited by the gums was pseudoplastic or shear thinning. From a functional perspective, chia gum is an important food component due its emulsifier and stabilizer potentials.

  9. Chemical and Physical Properties, Safety and Application of Partially Hydrolized Guar Gum as Dietary Fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Seon-Joo; Chu, Djong-Chi; Raj Juneja, Lekh

    2007-01-01

    The ideal water-soluble dietary fiber for the fiber-enrichment of foods must be very low in viscosity, tasteless, odorless, and should produce clear solutions in beverages. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) produced from guar gum by enzymatic process has the same chemical structure with intact guar gum but less than one-tenth the original molecular length of guar gum, which make available to be used as film former, foam stabilizer and swelling agent. The viscosity of PHGG is about 10 mPa·s...

  10. Locust bean gum: processing, properties and food applications--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Sheweta; Mudgil, Deepak

    2014-05-01

    Locust bean gum or carob gum is a galactomannan obtained from seed endosperm of carob tree i.e. Ceratonia siliqua. It is widely utilized as an additive in various industries such as food, pharmaceuticals, paper, textile, oil well drilling and cosmetics. Industrial applications of locust bean gum are due to its ability to form hydrogen bonding with water molecule. It is also beneficial in the control of many health problems like diabetes, bowel movements, heart disease and colon cancer due to its dietary fiber action. This article focuses on production, processing, composition, properties, food applications and health benefits of locust bean gum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. ( amala ) made from sweet potato flour ( elubo )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Describing the sensory characteristics of new or modified products is an integral part of food quality control. Sweet potato amala as an important end product could serve as an avenue for utilization of the crop, however, sensory attributes that will influence and ensure consumer acceptability need to be determined.

  12. Triggered tremor sweet spots in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan; Prejean, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    To better understand what controls fault slip along plate boundaries, we have exploited the abundance of seismic and geodetic data available from the richly varied tectonic environments composing Alaska. A search for tremor triggered by 11 large earthquakes throughout all of seismically monitored Alaska reveals two tremor “sweet spots”—regions where large-amplitude seismic waves repeatedly triggered tremor between 2006 and 2012. The two sweet spots locate in very different tectonic environments—one just trenchward and between the Aleutian islands of Unalaska and Akutan and the other in central mainland Alaska. The Unalaska/Akutan spot corroborates previous evidence that the region is ripe for tremor, perhaps because it is located where plate-interface frictional properties transition between stick-slip and stably sliding in both the dip direction and laterally. The mainland sweet spot coincides with a region of complex and uncertain plate interactions, and where no slow slip events or major crustal faults have been noted previously. Analyses showed that larger triggering wave amplitudes, and perhaps lower frequencies (sweet spots also does not occur during slow slip events visually detectable in GPS data, although slow slip below the detection threshold may have facilitated tremor triggering.

  13. THE PERFORMANCE AND PROFITABILITY OF SWEET POTATO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. This study was conducted in 2013 and 2014 at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Faculty of. Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of propagule length and cattle dung application rates on the growth, yield and profitability of sweet potato.

  14. Masking and adaptation of sugar sweetness intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, J.H.A.

    Subjects indicated the sweetness of solutions of sucrose and a mixture of sucrose and sodium chloride by means of magnitude scaling. The adapting effects of sucrose, sodium chloride and a mixture of both substances were investigated. The stimuli were delivered by a flow system to pre-defined tongue

  15. Sweetness flavour interactions in soft drinks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahon, D.F.; Roozen, J.P.; Graaf, de C.

    1996-01-01

    Sucrose can be substituted by intense sweeteners to lower the calorie content of soft drinks. Although the sweetness is kept at the same level as much as possible, the flavour of the product often changes. This change could be due to both the mechanism of sensory perception and interactive effects

  16. Radiation balance in the sweet sorghum crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, F.N. de; Mendez, M.E.G.; Martins, S.R.; Verona, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    The fluxes of incident solar radiation, reflected and net radiation were measured during the growing cicle of two fields of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), cus. BR-501 and BR-503, maintained under convenient irrigation level. Resultant data allowed to estimate the crop albedo as well as the estimates of Rn. (M.A.C.) [pt

  17. Sweet Potato Ketchup: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ketchup sauce is increasingly a popular condiment used as a flavouring ingredient in fast-food businesses in East African urban areas. It is one of a myriad of products that can be made using sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) roots. We assessed the feasibility, consumer acceptability, and cost of production for a ketchup ...

  18. Cooking behavior and starch digestibility of NUTRIOSE® (resistant starch) enriched noodles from sweet potato flour and starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Renjusha; Padmaja, G; Sajeev, M S

    2015-09-01

    The effect of a resistant starch source, NUTRIOSE® FB06 at 10%, 15% and 20% in sweet potato flour (SPF) and 5% and 10% in sweet potato starch (SPS) in reducing the starch digestibility and glycaemic index of noodles was investigated. While NUTRIOSE (10%) significantly reduced the cooking loss in SPF noodles, this was enhanced in SPS noodles and guar gum (GG) supplementation reduced CL of both noodles. In vitro starch digestibility (IVSD) was significantly reduced in test noodles compared to 73.6g glucose/100g starch in control SPF and 65.9 g in SPS noodles. Resistant starch (RS) was 54.96% for NUTRIOSE (15%)+GG (1%) fortified SPF noodles and 53.3% for NUTRIOSE (5%)+GG (0.5%) fortified SPS noodles, as against 33.8% and 40.68%, respectively in SPF and SPS controls. Lowest glycaemic index (54.58) and the highest sensory scores (4.23) were obtained for noodles with 15% NUTRIOSE+1% GG. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The release of vitamin C from chewing gum and its effects on supragingival calculus formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingström, Peter; Fure, Solveig; Dinitzen, Bettina; Fritzne, Christina; Klefbom, Carin; Birkhed, Dowen

    2005-02-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate (i): whether vitamin C in chewing gum, alone or in combination with carbamide, influences calculus formation, and (ii) whether carbamide affects the release, stability and uptake of vitamin C in a chewing gum. In two test series (Series I and II), 30 subjects, all calculus formers, participated. They were instructed to chew on five (Series I) or 10 (Series II) pieces of gum per day for a period of 3 months. The chewing gums were: vitamin C (60 mg, Series I), non-vitamin C (Series I) and vitamin C + carbamide (30 mg + 30 mg, Series II). In both series, no gum was used as a negative control. Calculus formation was scored on three lingual sites on the six anterior mandibular teeth according to the Volpe-Manhold index. The effect on plaque and gingivitis was also determined. A significant reduction in the total calculus score was observed after the use of vitamin C (33%) and vitamin C + carbamide (12%) gums compared with no gum use; this reduction was most pronounced in the heavy calculus formers. A reduced amount of visible plaque was also observed after use of vitamin C and non-vitamin C gum, but only the vitamin C gum reduced the number of bleeding sites (37%). In a separate study, the release, stability and uptake of vitamin C were evaluated using the iodine titration method in both saliva and urine after exposure to the following gums: vitamin C + carbamide (30 mg + 30 mg) and vitamin C (30 mg). There was no indication that carbamide affected the release, stability or uptake of vitamin C when used in a chewing gum.

  20. Role of protein surface charge in monellin sweetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wei-Feng; Szczepankiewicz, Olga; Thulin, Eva; Linse, Sara; Carey, Jannette

    2009-03-01

    A small number of proteins have the unusual property of tasting intensely sweet. Despite many studies aimed at identifying their sweet taste determinants, the molecular basis of protein sweetness is not fully understood. Recent mutational studies of monellin have implicated positively charged residues in sweetness. In the present work, the effect of overall net charge was investigated using the complementary approach of negative charge alterations. Multiple substitutions of Asp/Asn and Glu/Gln residues radically altered the surface charge of single-chain monellin by removing six negative charges or adding four negative charges. Biophysical characterization using circular dichroism, fluorescence, and two-dimensional NMR demonstrates that the native fold of monellin is preserved in the variant proteins under physiological solution conditions although their stability toward chemical denaturation is altered. A human taste test was employed to determine the sweetness detection threshold of the variants. Removal of negative charges preserves monellin sweetness, whereas added negative charge has a large negative impact on sweetness. Meta-analysis of published charge variants of monellin and other sweet proteins reveals a general trend toward increasing sweetness with increasing positive net charge. Structural mapping of monellin variants identifies a hydrophobic surface predicted to face the receptor where introduced positive or negative charge reduces sweetness, and a polar surface where charges modulate long-range electrostatic complementarity.

  1. Potential impacts of bioprocessing of sweet potato: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sheikha, Aly Farag; Ray, Ramesh C

    2017-02-11

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is among the major food crops in the world and is cultivated in all tropical and subtropical regions particularly in Asia, Africa, and the Pacific. Asia and Africa regions account for 95% of the world's production. Among the root and tuber crops grown in the world, sweet potato ranks second after cassava. In previous decades, sweet potato represented food and feed security, now it offers income generation possibilities, through bioprocessing products. Bioprocessing of sweet potato offers novel opportunities to commercialize this crop by developing a number of functional foods and beverages such as sour starch, lacto-pickle, lacto-juice, soy sauce, acidophilus milk, sweet potato curd and yogurt, and alcoholic drinks through either solid state or submerged fermentation. Sweet potato tops, especially leaves are preserved as hay or silage. Sweet potato flour and bagassae are used as substrates for production of microbial protein, enzymes, organic acids, monosodium glutamate, chitosan, etc. Additionally, sweet potato is a promising candidate for production of bioethanol. This review deals with the development of various products from sweet potato by application of bioprocessing technology. To the best of our knowledge, there is no review paper on the potential impacts of the sweet potato bioprocessing.

  2. Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Seeds: A Potential Source of Natural Gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudarshan; Bothara, Sunil B

    2014-01-01

    Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle size analyses suggest that mucilage has particle size in nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum was observed to be 138°C and 136°C by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability. The average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 379180, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The X-ray diffraction spectrometry pattern of the mucilage indicates a completely amorphous structure. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed the contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be 80.9 (%), 10.1 (%), 1.58 (%), and 512 (mg/kg), respectively. Mucilage had specific content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lower concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441 cm(-1) (-OH), 1660 cm(-1) (Alkenyl C-H & C=C Stretch), 1632 cm(-1) (-COO-), 1414 cm(-1) (-COO-), and 1219 cm(-1) (-CH3CO). Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR, indicated the presence of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, and fructose.

  3. Vegetation status and socio-economic importance of gum and resin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences ... Abstract. Study on population status, socio-economic importance and threats of gum- and resin-producing plant species was made in Borena, South Wollo, (Ethiopia). ... A total of 14 gum- and resin-bearing plant species representing seven families were recorded. Five of them ...

  4. Analysis of a gum from the exudates of Dichrostachys cinerea (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... This study was aimed to investigate the rheological properties, and the moisture and ash contents of the isolated gum resins ... These also play a collateral role to raise cost on health service. One solution to this ... The demulcent properties of Gum Arabic are employed in various cough, diarrhoea and throat ...

  5. Adverse Reaction to Nicotine Gum in Malay Female Smoker: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorzurani, Md Haris Robson; Bond, Alyson; Wolff, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) are prescribed in smoking cessation programmes to help smokers stop smoking. The ideal dosage of NRT should control cravings and withdrawal symptoms but avoid adverse reactions. This report describes a case of adverse reaction to nicotine gum in a female Malay smoker. Assays taken 2 h after the gum, showed that…

  6. Economic analysis of deforestation : the case of the gum Arabic belt in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahim, A.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: Gum Arabic; Deforestation; Entry and Exit; Real options Drought; Socio-economic, Oligopoly; Interdependent markets; Stackelberg.The gum arabic belt inSudanoffered in the past an

  7. Effect of chewing gum use on oral hygiene and volatile sulphur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chewing of gum has been favoured by many people because of its beneficial effects. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the difference between the oral hygiene status, organoleptic assessment, self perception of malodour as well as the mouth- air volatile sulphur compound concentration of chewing gum ...

  8. Unveiling the Sources of Chromium in Pictorialist Photographs: Gum-Dichromate Process or Paper Sizing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vila, Anna; Centeno, Silvia A; Kennedy, Nora W

    2015-01-01

    For this issue of Hand Papermaking devoted to paper sizing, we offer a review and extension of pertinent results obtained in our investigations of the gum-dichromate photographic process, commonly known as the gum-bichromate process.1 We have published three articles to date on our findings; this...

  9. Protein-free cress seed (Lepidium sativum) gum: Physicochemical characterization and rheological properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    Protein-free cress seed gum (PFCSG) was obtained by precipitation of crude cress seed gum (CSG) withethanol followed by treatment with protease. Molecular weight, moisture, ash and uronic acids contentdecreased after elimination of protein. Elimination of protein improved significantly rheologica...

  10. In situ effect of CPP-ACP chewing gum upon erosive enamel loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Ribeiro Barros de ALENCAR

    Full Text Available Abstract Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP is able to increase salivary calcium and phosphate levels at an acidic pH. Previous studies demonstrated that a CPP-ACP chewing gum was able to enhance the re-hardening of erosion lesions, but could not diminish enamel hardness loss. Therefore, there is no consensus regarding the effectiveness of CPP-ACP on dental erosion. Objective This in situ study investigated the ability of a CPP-ACP chewing gum in preventing erosive enamel loss. Material and Methods: During three experimental crossover phases (one phase per group of seven days each, eight volunteers wore palatal devices with human enamel blocks. The groups were: GI – Sugar free chewing gum with CPP-ACP; GII – Conventional sugar free chewing gum; and GIII – No chewing gum (control. Erosive challenge was extraorally performed by immersion of the enamel blocks in cola drink (5 min, 4x/day. After each challenge, in groups CPP and No CPP, volunteers chewed one unit of the corresponding chewing gum for 30 minutes. Quantitative analysis of enamel loss was performed by profilometry (µm. Data were analyzed by Repeated-Measures ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p0.05. Conclusion The CPP-ACP chewing gum was not able to enhance the anti-erosive effect of conventional chewing gum against enamel loss.

  11. A systematic review of the efficacy of gum chewing for the amelioration of postoperative ileus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Castro, S. M. M.; van den Esschert, J. W.; van Heek, N. T.; Dalhuisen, S.; Koelemay, M. J. W.; Busch, O. R. C.; Gouma, D. J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent trials have shown promising results for the efficacy of gum chewing for the amelioration of postoperative ileus. This finding could have a major clinical impact since gum chewing is relatively harmless and cheap while postoperative ileus has a significant impact on healthcare.

  12. Intra-species variation of the properties of gum exudates from Acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gum exudates from Acacia senegal var. senegal and Acacia seyal var. fistula from Tanzania have been analyzed and their inter- and intra-species variation of their properties evaluated. The results show that significant inter-species variation of the properties of the gum exudates from the two species exist, whereas only ...

  13. Investigation of the effect of zinc oxide-modified gum Arabic on polar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gum Arabic solution, a water-based adhesive, was modified with zinc oxide filler and the formulation was applied on wood, ceramic, glass and textile substrates. A strip of paper was used as a common adherent to all the substrates. Zinc oxide increased the viscosity of 30wt% gum Arabic solution and increased bond ...

  14. intra-species variation of the properties of gum exudates from acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    senegal e.g. A senegal var. leiorhachis which may also find their way into commercial gum arabic shipments may have solution properties which vary significantly from the main species. This paper presents the intra-species variation of the properties of gum exudates from Acacia senegal var. senegal and A. seyal var. fistula ...

  15. Relative bioavailability of methadone hydrochloride administered in chewing gum and tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Angelo, H.R.; Bonde, J.

    1990-01-01

    Methadone administered in chewing gum in doses of 16.7-22.6 mg to seven patients in a study using an open balanced cross-over design, was compared with 20 mg of methadone given perorally as tablets. There was no significant difference in the AUC/D obtained after administration of chewing gum...

  16. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric characterisation of plant gums in samples from painted works of art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaduce, Ilaria; Brecoulaki, Hariclia; Colombini, Maria Perla; Lluveras, Anna; Restivo, Vincenzo; Ribechini, Erika

    2007-12-21

    This paper presents an analytical GC-MS procedure to study the chemical composition of plant gums, determining aldoses and uronic acids in one step. The procedure is based on the silylation of aldoses and uronic acids, released from plant gums by microwave assisted hydrolysis, and previously converted into the corresponding diethyl-dithioacetals and diethyl-dithioacetal lactones. Using this method only one peak for each compound is obtained, thus providing simple and highly reproducible chromatograms. The analytical procedure was optimised using reference samples of raw plant gums (arabic, karaya, ghatti, guar, locust bean and tragacanth, cherry, plum and peach gums), commercial watercolours and paint layers prepared according to ancient recipes at the Opificio delle Pietre Dure of Florence (Italy). To identify gum media in samples of unknown composition, a decisional schema for the gum identification and the principal component analysis of the relative sugar percentage contents were employed. The procedure was used to study samples collected from wall paintings from Macedonian tombs (4th-3rd centuries bc) and from the Mycenaean "Palace of Nestor" (13th century bc) in Pylos, Greece. The presence of carbohydrates was ascertained and plant gum binders (fruit and a mixture of tragacanth and fruit tree gums) were identified in some of the samples.

  17. Market-driven production with transaction costs outlook: Gum arabic collection systems in Senegal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujawamariya, G.; Burger, C.P.J.; Haese, D' M.F.C.

    2015-01-01

    Low returns from marketing of non-timber forest products such as gum arabic restrict the collection of these products. A hypothesis is tested that access to good markets motivates collectors to harvest and market gum arabic. Analyses of the choice of participation in group marketing, sale price,

  18. Effect of Guar Gum with Sorbitol Coating on the Properties and Oil Absorption of French Fries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Jia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effects of guar gum with sorbitol coating on the oil absorption of French fries by combined dye oil methods, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results showed that pretreatment of blanching with calcium ions and coating with guar gum and sorbitol could significantly reduce the structural oil (STO and penetrated surface oil (PSO of French fries and have no negative effects on its texture and also effectively control the final moisture content (p < 0.05. Compared with control or samples coated with guar gum (blanching with or without calcium ions, the total oil (TO of French fries with guar gum and sorbitol reduced by 50.8%, 33.1% and 30.6%, respectively. CLSM photographs confirmed that STO significantly reduced after coating with guar gum and sorbitol, followed by PSO. In the process of frying, the coatings of guar gum or guar gum with sorbitol could effectively prevent oil from infiltrating the potato tissue, which can be seen in the SEM photographs. The barrier properties of French fries were enhanced by coating guar gum, and sorbitol was added to avoid pores and cracks. Blanching with calcium ion can significantly reduce the final moisture content of coating French fries.

  19. An assessment of the soil-conditioning capacity of gums exuded by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the soil conditioning capacity of tree gums based on the level of resistance to crumble posed by moulds of treated soils to the impacts of artificial raindrops. Gums exuded by trees viz., Acacia occidental and Parkia bicolor as well as a sample of poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVA) were used as soil conditioners.

  20. Gum bleeding as a symptom of disease: are Nigerian mothers aware?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %) did not know the probable causes of gum bleeding and of the remaining 277, only 61(13.1%) and 42 (9.1%) ascribed the cause to poor oral hygiene and bacteria respectively. Majority of them had wrong perceptions about gum bleeding.

  1. Estimative of relative stiffness of the exudate gum polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marilia A.; Paula, Regina C.M.

    2001-01-01

    The Smidsrod empirical stiffness parameter (B) of A. occidentale and A. lebbeck gum were determined using the correlation of intrinsic viscosity [η] with ionic strength. The B value of 0.204 and 0.193 found respectively for A. occidentale and A. lebbeck suggests a flexible the molecule. The ionic strength has a greater influence on the [η]. The decrease of [η] increase of I, from 0.01 M to 0.1 M of NaCl, is higher for A. lebbeck (89%) than for A. occidentale (19%). (author)

  2. The mechanism of strength and deformation in Gum Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, T.; Kuramoto, S.; Morris, J.W.; Nagasako, N.; Withey, E.; Chrzan, D.C.

    2013-01-01

    Gum Metal” refers to β-Ti alloys that achieve exceptional elastic elongation and, with a specific alloy composition, appear to deform via a dislocation-free mechanism involving elastic instability at the limit of strength. This paper describes the current status of research on its strength, deformation mechanism and the possible role of stress-induced martensite. The theoretical basis for deformation at ideal strength is presented. The relevant experimental data is then discussed, including ex situ nanoindentation behavior and in situ pillar compression observed by transmission electron microscopy

  3. Potential benefits of chewing gum for the delivery of oral therapeutics and its possible role in oral healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Stefan W.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Maitra, Amarnath; Dodds, Michael W. J.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Over the years, chewing gum has developed from a candy towards an oral health-promoting nutraceutical. This review summarizes evidence for the oral health benefits of chewing gum, emphasizing identification of active ingredients in gum that facilitate prevention and removal of oral

  4. The management of xerostomia in patients on haemodialysis: comparison of artificial saliva and chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bots, Casper P; Brand, Henk S; Veerman, Enno C I; Valentijn-Benz, Marianne; Van Amerongen, Barbara M; Nieuw Amerongen, Arie V; Valentijn, Robert M; Vos, Pieter F; Bijlsma, Joost A; Bezemer, Pieter D; ter Wee, Piet M

    2005-04-01

    Many patients on haemodialysis (HD) therapy suffer from a dry mouth and xerostomia. This can be relieved by mechanical and gustatory stimulation or palliative care. The aim of this crossover study was to investigate the effect and preferences of a sugar-free chewing gum (Freedent White) and a xanthan gum-based artificial saliva (Xialine) in the management of xerostomia in chronic HD patients. Sixty-five HD patients participated in a 6-week crossover trial. The artificial saliva was rated significantly lower than the chewing gum for effectiveness, taste and a global assessment. No preference differences were found for gender and age, although older subjects rated the artificial saliva with a higher mark. Thirty-nine subjects (60%) preferred chewing gum, 15% (n=10) preferred the artificial saliva. Therefore, both chewing gum and artificial saliva could play an important role in the palliative care of xerostomia in HD patients.

  5. Synthesis, physico-chemical and biomedical applications of sulfated Aegle marmelos gum: Green chemistry approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Jindal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed at obtaining a sulfated derivative of gum obtained from partially ripe fruits of Aegle marmelos employing the ultrasonication technique. Elemental analysis and FTIR-ATR studies confirmed successful sulfation. The molarity of sulfuric acid exerted maximum influence on the degree of substitution followed by reaction temperature and reaction time. The sulfated derivative showed higher swelling in both acidic and alkaline pH as compared to the unmodified gum. It also possessed higher negative zeta potential, higher viscosity, work of shear, firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and index of viscosity as compared to both unmodified gum as well as sodium alginate. Sulfated derivative was superior to unmodified gum and sodium alginate in terms of antimicrobial and anticoagulant activities. The sulfated sample appears to be a potential substitute over the unmodified gum sample and sodium alginate for modulating the physicochemical properties of food and drug release dosage forms.

  6. Purification of cress seed (Lepidium sativum) gum: Physicochemical characterization and functional properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of different purification methods (ethanol, isopropanol and ethanol-isopropanol) on the physicochemical and functional characteristics of cress seed gum. Sugar composition and molecular weight of the samples varied significantly. All...... the purification methods reduced ash and protein content and molecular weight of cress seed gum. The main decomposition of the purified samples started above 200º C and initial decomposition temperature of the crude gum was 190.21º C. DSC thermograms of the purified gums showed two exothermic events at 257.......81-261.95 ºC and 302.46-311.57 ºC. Crude gum displayed an exothermic peak at 259.42º C. Sample I (purified using isopropanol) imparted the best surface activity among the purified samples as it had the highest protein and uronic acid contents and the lowest Mw. All the purification methods could improve...

  7. Purification of cress seed (Lepidium sativum) gum: A comprehensive rheological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of different purification methods (ethanol (sample E), isopropanol (sample I) and ethanol-isopropanol (sample EI)) on intrinsic viscosity, steady and dynamic rheological properties of cress seed gum were investigated. The gum dispersions exhibited viscoelastic properties......, the storage modulus (G′) was higher than the loss modulus (G″), and mechanical spectra of the crude and purified cress seed gums were classified as weak gels. The purified samples had stronger and more elastic network structure than the crude gum (CSG) and the gel network got stronger along the series of I......, EI and E. All the gum dispersions indicated shear-thinning behavior and the viscosity of the samples followed the order of E > EI > I > CSG. Herschel-Bulkley model was the best model to describe steady shear flow behavior and Arrhenius-type model was also applied to describe the effect of temperature...

  8. Effect of heat treatment to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Isela Carballo; Mu, Tai-Hua; Zhang, Miao; Ji, Lei-Lei

    2017-12-01

    The effect of heat treatment at 90, 100, 110 and 120 ℃ for 20 min to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread was investigated. The lightness (L*) and a* of sweet potato flour samples after heat treatment were increased, while the b* were decreased significantly, as well as the particle size, volume and area mean diameter ( p sweet potato flour was observed, where the number of irregular granules increased as the temperature increased from 90 to 120 ℃. Compared with sweet potato flour samples without heat treatment and with heat treatment at 90, 100 and 120 ℃, the gelatinization temperature and enthalpy change of sweet potato flour at 110 ℃ were the lowest, which were 77.94 ℃ and 3.67 J/g, respectively ( p sweet potato flour increased significantly from 1199 ml without heat treatment to 1214 ml at 90 ℃ ( p sweet potato-wheat bread with sweet potato flour after heat treatment increased significantly, which was the largest at 90 ℃ (2.53 cm 3 /g) ( p sweet potato flour could be potentially used in wheat bread production.

  9. Structure-sweetness relationship in egg white lysozyme: role of lysine and arginine residues on the elicitation of lysozyme sweetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Tetsuya; Ide, Nobuyuki; Kitabatake, Naofumi

    2005-10-01

    Lysozyme is one of the sweet-tasting proteins. To clarify the structure-sweetness relationship and the basicity-sweetness relationship in lysozyme, we have generated lysozyme mutants with Pichia systems. Alanine substitution of lysine residues demonstrated that two out of six lysine residues, Lys13 and Lys96, are required for lysozyme sweetness, while the remaining four lysine residues do not play a significant role in the perception of sweetness. Arginine substitution of lysine residues revealed that the basicity, but not the shape, of the side chain plays a significant role in sweetness. Single alanine substitutions of arginine residues showed that three arginine residues, Arg14, Arg21, and Arg73, play significant roles in lysozyme sweetness, whereas Arg45, Arg68, Arg125 and chemical modification by 1,2-cyclohexanedione did not affect sweetness. From investigation of the charge-specific mutations, we found that the basicity of a broad surface region formed by five positively charged residues, Lys13, Lys96, Arg14, Arg21, and Arg73, is required for lysozyme sweetness. Differences in the threshold values among sweet-tasting proteins might be caused by the broadness and/or the density of charged residues on the protein surface.

  10. Sucrose accumulation in mature sweet melon fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, A.A.; Aloni, B.

    1987-01-01

    Mesocarp tissue from sucrose-accumulating sweet melon (Cucumis melo cv. Galia) showed sucrose synthase activity (ca 1 nkat/gfw) while soluble acid invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities were not observed. Sucrose uptake into mesocarp discs was linear with sucrose concentration (1-500 mM) and unaffected by PCMBS and CCCP. Sucrose compartmentation into the vacuole also increased linearly with sucrose concentration as indicated by compartmental efflux kinetics. Mesocarp discs incubated in 14 C-fructose + UDP-glu synthesized 14 C-sucrose and efflux kinetics indicated that the 14 C-sucrose was compartmentalized. These data support the hypothesis that two mechanisms are involved in sucrose accumulation in sweet melon: (1) compartmentation of intact sucrose and (2) synthesis of sucrose via sucrose synthase and subsequent compartmentation in the vacuole

  11. Microencapsulation of aspartame by double emulsion followed by complex coacervation to provide protection and prolong sweetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Selmi, Glaucia A; Bozza, Fernanda T; Thomazini, Marcelo; Bolini, Helena M A; Fávaro-Trindade, Carmen S

    2013-08-15

    The objective of this work was to microencapsulate aspartame by double emulsion followed by complex coacervation, aiming to protect it and control its release. Six treatments were prepared using sunflower oil to prepare the primary emulsion and gelatin and gum Arabic as the wall materials. The microcapsules were evaluated structurally with respect to their sorption isotherms and release into water (36°C and 80°C). The microcapsules were multinucleated, not very water-soluble or hygroscopic and showed reduced rates of equilibrium moisture content and release at both temperatures. FTIR confirmed complexation between the wall materials and the intact nature of aspartame. The results indicated it was possible to encapsulate aspartame with the techniques employed and that these protected the sweetener even at 80°C. The reduced solubility and low release rates indicated the enormous potential of the vehicle developed in controlling the release of the aspartame into the food, thus prolonging its sweetness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antinociceptive activity of Astragalus gummifer gum (gum tragacanth through the adrenergic system: A in vivo study in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Majid Bagheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Iranian traditional medicine, gum obtained from Astragalus gummifer and some other species of Astragalus was used as analgesic agent. Objective: In this study, we investigated the antinociceptive effect of several concentrations (125, 250, and 500 μg/kg body weight of Astragalus gummifer gum (AGG on thermal and acetic acid induced pain in mice. Materials and Methods: AGG was dissolved in distillated water and injected i.p to male mice 15 minute before the onset of experiment. Writhing and hot-plate tests were applied to study the analgesic effect of AGG and compared with that of diclofenac sodium (30 mg/kg, i.p. or morphine (8 mg/kg, i.p. To investigate the mechanisms involved in antinociception, yohimbine, naloxone, glibenclamide, and theophylline were used in writhing test. These drugs were injected intraperitoneally 15 min before the administration of AGG. The number of writhes were counted in 30 minutes and analyzed. Results: AGG exhibited a significant antinociceptive effect and the most effective dose of AGG was 500 μg/kg. The most maximum possible effect (%MPE was observed (117.4% 15 min after drug administration. The %inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhing in AGG 125, 250 and 500 was 47%, 50% and 54% vs %15 of control and 66.3% of diclofenac sodium group. The antinociceptive effect induced by this gum in the writhing test was reversed by the systemic administration of yohimbine (α2 -adrenergic antagonist, but naloxone, glibenclamide, and theophylline did not reverse this effect. Conclusions: The findings of this study indicated that AGG induced its antinociceptive through the adrenergic system.

  13. Sweet and bitter taste perception of women during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanou, Evangelia; Brandt, Sarah Østergaard; Weenen, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Changes in sweet and bitter taste perception during pregnancy have been reported in a limited number of studies leading, however, to inconclusive results. The current study aimed to investigate possible differences in perceived intensity and liking of sweetness and bitterness between...... pregnant and nonpregnant women. Methods: Forty-six pregnant and 45 nonpregnant women evaluated taste intensity and liking of five samples of each of four different products: two sweet (cake and apple + berry juice) and two bitter (salad and grapefruit juice). Product samples varied in sweetness...... and bitterness, respectively. Pregnant women completed also a self-administered questionnaire on changes in sweet and bitter taste perception due to pregnancy. Results: Perceived intensity of sweetness and bitterness was not different between pregnant and nonpregnant women for any of the products. However...

  14. Association of Sweet's Syndrome and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Barton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet's syndrome is an acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis which usually presents as an idiopathic disorder but can also be drug induced, associated with hematopoetic malignancies and myelodysplastic disorders, and more, infrequently, observed in autoimmune disorders. Sweet's syndrome has been reported in three cases of neonatal lupus, three cases of hydralazine-induced lupus in adults, and in nine pediatric and adult systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients. We describe three additional adult cases of Sweet's associated with SLE and provide a focused review on nondrug-induced, nonneonatal SLE and Sweet's. In two of three new cases, as in the majority of prior cases, the skin rash of Sweet's paralleled underlying SLE disease activity. The pathogenesis of Sweet's remains elusive, but evidence suggests that cytokine dysregulation may be central to the clinical and pathological changes in this condition, as well as in SLE. Further research is needed to define the exact relationship between the two conditions.

  15. Studies for Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweet Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L(Lam)). Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 mg/L). Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryogenesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

  16. Franšīzes līgums

    OpenAIRE

    Bērziņš, Artūrs

    2011-01-01

    Bakalaura darba "Franšīzes līgums" mērķis ir jaunā nacionālā tiesiskā regulējuma izpēte, tā atbilstības starptautiskajam regulējumam konstatēšana. Bakalaura darbs sastāv no četrām nodaļām, kurās tiek aplūkots franšīzes līgums un tā būtība, tā atšķirība no citiem civiltieskiem līgumiem, franšīzes attīstība Latvijā un tiesiskā regulējuma pilnveidošana Eiropas Savienības tiesiskā regulējuma ietvaros, kā arī problēmjautājumi un to risinājums. Darba autors nonāk pie secinājuma, ka nolūkā past...

  17. Molecular mechanisms for sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanematsu, Keisuke; Kusakabe, Yuko; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Nakamura, Seiji; Imoto, Toshiaki; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2014-09-12

    Gymnemic acids are triterpene glycosides that selectively suppress taste responses to various sweet substances in humans but not in mice. This sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids is diminished by rinsing the tongue with γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD). However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids and the interaction between gymnemic acids versus sweet taste receptor and/or γ-CD. To investigate whether gymnemic acids directly interact with human (h) sweet receptor hT1R2 + hT1R3, we used the sweet receptor T1R2 + T1R3 assay in transiently transfected HEK293 cells. Similar to previous studies in humans and mice, gymnemic acids (100 μg/ml) inhibited the [Ca(2+)]i responses to sweet compounds in HEK293 cells heterologously expressing hT1R2 + hT1R3 but not in those expressing the mouse (m) sweet receptor mT1R2 + mT1R3. The effect of gymnemic acids rapidly disappeared after rinsing the HEK293 cells with γ-CD. Using mixed species pairings of human and mouse sweet receptor subunits and chimeras, we determined that the transmembrane domain of hT1R3 was mainly required for the sweet-suppressing effect of gymnemic acids. Directed mutagenesis in the transmembrane domain of hT1R3 revealed that the interaction site for gymnemic acids shared the amino acid residues that determined the sensitivity to another sweet antagonist, lactisole. Glucuronic acid, which is the common structure of gymnemic acids, also reduced sensitivity to sweet compounds. In our models, gymnemic acids were predicted to dock to a binding pocket within the transmembrane domain of hT1R3. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Experimental study on bread yeast cultured in sweet sorghum juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jufang; Dong Xicun; Li Wenjian; Xiao Guoqing; Ma Liang; Gao Feng

    2008-01-01

    As a substitute for food supplies, sweet sorghum juice with high grade has demonstrated out- standing advantage in fermentation. To obtain the optimized fermentation conditions, the growth, the bio- mass of bread yeast cultured in sweet sorghum juice and total residual sugar were investigated in the paper. The fermentation was performed and optimized in a 10-100 1 bio-reactor. The results show that the application of sweet sorghum juice in bread yeast production is very potential. (authors)

  19. A workshop on 'Dietary sweetness-Is it an issue?'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, A; Higgins, K; McGale, L; Schwartz, C; Stamataki, N S; Beauchamp, G K; Bonnema, A; Dussort, P; Gibson, S; de Graaf, C; Halford, J C G; Marsaux, C F M; Mattes, R D; McLaughlin, J; Mela, D J; Nicklaus, S; Rogers, P J; Macdonald, I A

    2017-12-06

    This report summarises a workshop convened by ILSI Europe on 3rd and 4th April 2017 to discuss the issue of dietary sweetness. The objectives were to understand the roles of sweetness in the diet; establish whether exposure to sweetness affects diet quality and energy intake; and consider whether sweetness per se affects health. Although there may be evidence for tracking of intake of some sweet components of the diet through childhood, evidence for tracking of whole diet sweetness, or through other stages of maturity are lacking. The evidence to date does not support adverse effects of sweetness on diet quality or energy intake, except where sweet food choices increase intake of free sugars. There is some evidence for improvements in diet quality and reduced energy intake where sweetness without calories replaces sweetness with calories. There is a need to understand the physiological and metabolic relevance of sweet taste receptors on the tongue, in the gut and elsewhere in the body, as well as possible differentiation in the effects of sustained consumption of individual sweeteners. Despite a plethora of studies, there is no consistent evidence for an association of sweetness sensitivity/preference with obesity or type 2 diabetes. A multifaceted integrated approach, characterising nutritive and sensory aspects of the whole diet or dietary patterns, may be more valuable in providing contextual insight. The outcomes of the workshop could be used as a scientific basis to inform the expert community and create more useful dialogue among health care professionals.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 06 December 2017. doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.296.

  20. Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor enhance sweet taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant, Guy; Tachdjian, Catherine; Tang, Xiao-Qing; Werner, Sara; Zhang, Feng; Li, Xiaodong; Kamdar, Poonit; Petrovic, Goran; Ditschun, Tanya; Java, Antoniette; Brust, Paul; Brune, Nicole; DuBois, Grant E; Zoller, Mark; Karanewsky, Donald S

    2010-03-09

    To identify molecules that could enhance sweetness perception, we undertook the screening of a compound library using a cell-based assay for the human sweet taste receptor and a panel of selected sweeteners. In one of these screens we found a hit, SE-1, which significantly enhanced the activity of sucralose in the assay. At 50 microM, SE-1 increased the sucralose potency by >20-fold. On the other hand, SE-1 exhibited little or no agonist activity on its own. SE-1 effects were strikingly selective for sucralose. Other popular sweeteners such as aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin were not enhanced by SE-1 whereas sucrose and neotame potency were increased only by 1.3- to 2.5-fold at 50 microM. Further assay-guided chemical optimization of the initial hit SE-1 led to the discovery of SE-2 and SE-3, selective enhancers of sucralose and sucrose, respectively. SE-2 (50 microM) and SE-3 (200 microM) increased sucralose and sucrose potencies in the assay by 24- and 4.7-fold, respectively. In human taste tests, 100 microM of SE-1 and SE-2 allowed for a reduction of 50% to >80% in the concentration of sucralose, respectively, while maintaining the sweetness intensity, and 100 microM SE-3 allowed for a reduction of 33% in the concentration of sucrose while maintaining the sweetness intensity. These enhancers did not exhibit any sweetness when tasted on their own. Positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor could help reduce the caloric content in food and beverages while maintaining the desired taste.

  1. Study of chemical and physical properties of irradiated Guar Gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, H. A. S.

    2012-07-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different gamma radiation doses to decontamination of micro-organisms present in Guar Gum powder. As well as to study the effect of radiation on the chemical and physical properties of the carbohydrate components of the Gum's material. Two types of samples were used in this study (powder and liquid). All samples were collected from commercially available Guar Gum (G G), which were obtained from the company (Sudanese Guar Gum ltd). Samples putted in polyethylene tightly closed container, then irradiated by applying different doses (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 20,30,40,and 50 kGy) from Co-60 source at room temperature in air. And take zero kGy as control. Irradiated powder samples of (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 kGy) were investigated for contamination by using growth media agar and the result showed that 2.5 kGy is appropriate dose to remove the contamination of the samples. And then analyzed using fourier transform infrared (FTTR) x-ray fluorescence (X RF) and spectroscopy. The FTIR spectroscopy results suggested that there were no major chemical functional group transformation during irradiation. No change occurs by using low dose as 2.5 kGy. Also evaluation impact of radiation on liquid Samples (Aqueous solutions prepared in tow concentration of 1% and 5% wv that is by exposing the samples to the same dose of gamma rays) the effect of irradiation on it were investigated by using ultra violet spectroscopy ( UV.Vis), results showed that low dose has steeply effect in solutions specially in low concentration, it was more pronoun than that in high concentration, high dose has made change similar to that it made in powder. Also for both concentrations of liquid samples and for solutions made of irradiated powder pH measured and viscosity which used in investigations of molecular weight of liquid and powder, comparing the results of impact in the form of powder with the results of effects in the solutions found that the effects of

  2. Histiocytoid Sweet Syndrome in a Child without Underlying Systemic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Seung Dohn; Ko, Hye Soo; Moon, Jong Hyuk; Kang, Min Ji; Byun, Ji Won; Choi, Gwang Seong; Shin, Jeonghyun

    2017-10-01

    Sweet syndrome (acute, febrile, neutrophilic dermatosis) is characterized by the acute onset of an eruption of painful nodules or erythematous or violaceous plaques on the limbs, face and neck. These symptoms are accompanied by fever. The diagnostic features include histopathological findings of dermal neutrophilic infiltration without leukocytoclastic vasculitis or peripheral blood leukocytosis. Sweet syndrome is associated with infection, malignancies, autoimmune disease, pregnancy, and drugs. Patients with Sweet syndrome demonstrate a complete and rapid response to systemic steroid administration. Recently, a distinct variant of Sweet syndrome was reported, termed "histiocytoid Sweet syndrome", in which the infiltration of myeloperoxidase-positive histiocytoid mononuclear cells are observed (in contrast to the infiltration of neutrophils). The other clinical features are similar to those of classic Sweet syndrome. Pediatric Sweet syndrome is uncommon, and the histiocytoid type is even rarer. To date, four cases of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome have been reported in children. Herein, we describe a case of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome in an otherwise healthy 10-year-old boy with no underlying systemic disease in whom non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug treatment was successful.

  3. Eradication of sweet potato weevil using Co-60 gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Taizo

    2007-01-01

    Sweet potato weevil which is a harmful insect injuring sweet potatoes was found out at Yoron Island in 1915 for the first time in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan. Here the eradication of sweet potato weevils using cobalt 60 irradiation achieved at Kikai Island is described. The mass-reared male weevils in potatoes are in pasture after sterilized by gamma irradiation. If the sexually sterile male copulates with a wild female, the egg does not incubate. By the repeated sterilization during several generations, the eradication of sweet potato weevils was accomplished. (M.H.)

  4. Temperature Affects Human Sweet Taste via At Least Two Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtigal, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The reported effects of temperature on sweet taste in humans have generally been small and inconsistent. Here, we describe 3 experiments that follow up a recent finding that cooling from 37 to 21 °C does not reduce the initial sweetness of sucrose but increases sweet taste adaptation. In experiment 1, subjects rated the sweetness of sucrose, glucose, and fructose solutions at 5–41 °C by dipping the tongue tip into the solutions after 0-, 3-, or 10-s pre-exposures to the same solutions or to H2O; experiment 2 compared the effects of temperature on the sweetness of 3 artificial sweeteners (sucralose, aspartame, and saccharin); and experiment 3 employed a flow-controlled gustometer to rule out the possibility the effects of temperature in the preceding experiments were unique to dipping the tongue into a still taste solution. The results (i) confirmed that mild cooling does not attenuate sweetness but can increase sweet taste adaptation; (ii) demonstrated that cooling to 5–12 °C can directly reduce sweetness intensity; and (iii) showed that both effects vary across stimuli. These findings have implications for the TRPM5 hypothesis of thermal effects on sweet taste and raise the possibility that temperature also affects an earlier step in the T1R2–T1R3 transduction cascade. PMID:25963040

  5. Temperature Affects Human Sweet Taste via At Least Two Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Barry G; Nachtigal, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    The reported effects of temperature on sweet taste in humans have generally been small and inconsistent. Here, we describe 3 experiments that follow up a recent finding that cooling from 37 to 21 °C does not reduce the initial sweetness of sucrose but increases sweet taste adaptation. In experiment 1, subjects rated the sweetness of sucrose, glucose, and fructose solutions at 5-41 °C by dipping the tongue tip into the solutions after 0-, 3-, or 10-s pre-exposures to the same solutions or to H2O; experiment 2 compared the effects of temperature on the sweetness of 3 artificial sweeteners (sucralose, aspartame, and saccharin); and experiment 3 employed a flow-controlled gustometer to rule out the possibility the effects of temperature in the preceding experiments were unique to dipping the tongue into a still taste solution. The results (i) confirmed that mild cooling does not attenuate sweetness but can increase sweet taste adaptation; (ii) demonstrated that cooling to 5-12 °C can directly reduce sweetness intensity; and (iii) showed that both effects vary across stimuli. These findings have implications for the TRPM5 hypothesis of thermal effects on sweet taste and raise the possibility that temperature also affects an earlier step in the T1R2-T1R3 transduction cascade. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Rheological characterization and drug release studies of gum exudates of Terminalia catappa Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sadhis V; Sasmal, Dinakar; Pal, Subodh C

    2008-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the gum exudates of Terminalia catappa Linn. (TC gum) as a release retarding excipient in oral controlled drug delivery system. The rheological properties of TC gum were studied and different formulation techniques were used to evaluate the comparative drug release characteristics. The viscosity was found to be dependent on concentration and pH. Temperature up to 60 degrees C did not show significant effect on viscosity. The rheological kinetics evaluated by power law, revealed the shear thinning behavior of the TC gum dispersion in water. Matrix tablets of TC gum were prepared with the model drug dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DH) by direct compression, wet granulation and solid dispersion techniques. The dissolution profiles of the matrix tablets were compared with the pure drug containing capsules using the USP Basket apparatus with 500 ml phosphate buffer of pH 6.8 as a dissolution medium. The drug release from the compressed tablets containing TC gum was comparatively sustained than pure drug containing capsules. Even though all the formulation techniques showed reduction of dissolution rate, aqueous wet granulation showed the maximum sustained release of more than 8 h. The release kinetics estimated by the power law revealed that the drug release mechanism involved in the dextromethorphan matrix is anomalous transport as indicated by the release exponent n values. Thus the study confirmed that the TC gum might be used in the controlled drug delivery system as a release-retarding polymer.

  7. Chewing Gum: Cognitive Performance, Mood, Well-Being, and Associated Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Allen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has indicated that chewing gum can enhance attention, as well as promoting well-being and work performance. Four studies (two experiments and two intervention studies examined the robustness of and mechanisms for these effects. Study 1 investigated the acute effect of gum on mood in the absence of task performance. Study 2 examined the effect of rate and force of chewing on mood and attention performance. Study 3 assessed the effects of chewing gum during one working day on well-being and performance, as well as postwork mood and cognitive performance. In Study 4, performance and well-being were reported throughout the workday and at the end of the day, and heart rate and cortisol were measured. Under experimental conditions, gum was associated with higher alertness regardless of whether performance tasks were completed and altered sustained attention. Rate of chewing and subjective force of chewing did not alter mood but had some limited effects on attention. Chewing gum during the workday was associated with higher productivity and fewer cognitive problems, raised cortisol levels in the morning, and did not affect heart rate. The results emphasise that chewing gum can attenuate reductions in alertness, suggesting that chewing gum enhances worker performance.

  8. Effect of Guar Gum with Sorbitol Coating on the Properties and Oil Absorption of French Fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bo; Fan, Daming; Li, Jinwei; Duan, Zhenhua; Fan, Liuping

    2017-12-13

    This paper investigated the effects of guar gum with sorbitol coating on the oil absorption of French fries by combined dye oil methods, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that pretreatment of blanching with calcium ions and coating with guar gum and sorbitol could significantly reduce the structural oil (STO) and penetrated surface oil (PSO) of French fries and have no negative effects on its texture and also effectively control the final moisture content ( p French fries with guar gum and sorbitol reduced by 50.8%, 33.1% and 30.6%, respectively. CLSM photographs confirmed that STO significantly reduced after coating with guar gum and sorbitol, followed by PSO. In the process of frying, the coatings of guar gum or guar gum with sorbitol could effectively prevent oil from infiltrating the potato tissue, which can be seen in the SEM photographs. The barrier properties of French fries were enhanced by coating guar gum, and sorbitol was added to avoid pores and cracks. Blanching with calcium ion can significantly reduce the final moisture content of coating French fries.

  9. Chemical and Functional Properties of Chia Seed (Salvia hispanica L.) Gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Campos, Maira Rubi; Ciau-Solís, Norma; Rosado-Rubio, Gabriel; Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2014-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) constitutes a potential alternative raw material and ingredient in food industry applications due to its dietary fiber content. Gum can be extracted from its dietary fiber fractions for use as an additive to control viscosity, stability, texture, and consistency in food systems. The gum extracted from chia seeds was characterized to determine their quality and potential as functional food additives. The extracted chia gum contained 26.2% fat and a portion was submitted to fat extraction, producing two fractions: gum with fat (FCG) and gum partly defatted (PDCG). Proximal composition and physicochemical characterization showed these fractions to be different (P oil-holding capacity (25.7 g oil/g fiber) and water absorption capacity (44 g water/g fiber). In dispersion trials, the gums exhibited a non-Newtonian fluid behavior, specifically shear thinning or pseudoplastic type. PDCG had more viscosity than FCG. Chia seed is an excellent natural source of gum with good physicochemical and functional qualities, and is very promising for use in food industry.

  10. Chemical and Functional Properties of Chia Seed (Salvia hispanica L. Gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Rubi Segura-Campos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chia (Salvia hispanica L. constitutes a potential alternative raw material and ingredient in food industry applications due to its dietary fiber content. Gum can be extracted from its dietary fiber fractions for use as an additive to control viscosity, stability, texture, and consistency in food systems. The gum extracted from chia seeds was characterized to determine their quality and potential as functional food additives. The extracted chia gum contained 26.2% fat and a portion was submitted to fat extraction, producing two fractions: gum with fat (FCG and gum partly defatted (PDCG. Proximal composition and physicochemical characterization showed these fractions to be different (P<0.05. The PDCG had higher protein, ash, and carbohydrates content than the FCG, in addition to higher water-holding (110.5 g water/g fiber and water-binding capacities (0.84 g water/g fiber. The FCG had greater oil-holding capacity (25.7 g oil/g fiber and water absorption capacity (44 g water/g fiber. In dispersion trials, the gums exhibited a non-Newtonian fluid behavior, specifically shear thinning or pseudoplastic type. PDCG had more viscosity than FCG. Chia seed is an excellent natural source of gum with good physicochemical and functional qualities, and is very promising for use in food industry.

  11. Advances in identification of plant gums in cultural heritage by thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedo, Chiara; Scalarone, Dominique; Chiantore, Oscar

    2010-02-01

    Plant gums are present in works of art as binding media for watercolours and adhesives for cellulosic substrates. Thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM) in combination with analytical pyrolysis coupled to GC/MS has been applied to the characterisation of plant gums typically used in artworks. THM products from standard samples of arabic gum, tragacanth gum and cherry gum were characterised. The main products identified are permethylated and partially methylated aldonic acids, characteristic of specific epimeric sugars. Aldonic acids were formed by alkaline hydrolysis of free reducing sugars and of reducing polysaccharide terminal groups, while methylation occurs during pyrolysis. The presence of these characteristic markers allows gum identification. A systematic analysis of all the parameters that can affect the marker yields was performed. In particular, the influence of pyrolysis temperature, reagent concentration and contact time between tetramethylammonium hydroxide and sample were studied, and different kinds of sample preparation procedures were tested. Some analyses on real watercolours were performed, and gum binders were classified using the peak area ratio of the main monosaccharide markers.

  12. The Plasma Membrane-Localized Sucrose Transporter IbSWEET10 Contributes to the Resistance of Sweet Potato to Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wang, Yannan; Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Qian; Zhai, Hong; Liu, Qingchang; He, Shaozhen

    2017-01-01

    SWEET (Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporter) proteins, a novel family of sugar transporters, mediate the diffusion of sugars across cell membranes and acts as key players in sucrose phloem loading. Manipulation of SWEET genes in plants leads to various effects on resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses due to disruption of sugar efflux and changes in sugar distribution. In this study, a member of the SWEET gene family, IbSWEET10 , was cloned from the sweet potato line ND98. mRNA expression analysis in sweet potato and promoter β-Glucuronidase analysis in Arabidopsis showed that IbSWEET10 is highly expressed in leaves, especially in vascular tissue. Transient expression in tobacco epidermal cells revealed plasma membrane localization of IbSWEET10, and heterologous expression assays in yeast indicated that IbSWEET10 encodes a sucrose transporter. The expression level of IbSWEET10 was significantly up-regulated in sweet potato infected with Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f. sp. batatas. Further characterization revealed IbSWEET10 -overexpressing sweet potato lines to be more resistant to F. oxysporum , exhibiting better growth after infection compared with the control; conversely, RNA interference (RNAi) lines showed the opposite results. Additionally, the sugar content of IbSWEET10 -overexpression sweet potato was significantly reduced, whereas that in RNAi plants was significantly increased compared with the control. Therefore, we suggest that the reduction in sugar content caused by IbSWEET10 overexpression is the major reason for the enhanced F. oxysporum resistance of the transgenic plants. This is the first report that the IbSWEET10 transporter contributes to the resistance of sweet potato to F. oxysporum . The IbSWEET10 gene has the great potential to be used for improving the resistance to F. oxysporum in sweet potato and other plants.

  13. Phylogenetic relationships of closely related potyviruses infecting sweet potato determined by genomic characterization of Sweet potato virus G and Sweet potato virus 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Xu, Donglin; Abad, Jorge; Li, Ruhui

    2012-08-01

    Complete nucleotide sequences of Sweet potato virus G (SPVG) and Sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2) were determined to be 10,800 and 10,731 nucleotides, respectively, excluding the 3'-poly(A) tail. Their genomic organizations are typical of potyviruses, encoding a polyprotein which is likely cleaved into 10 mature proteins by three viral proteinases. Conserved motifs of orthologous proteins of viruses in the genus Potyvirus are found in corresponding positions of both viruses. Pairwise comparisons of individual protein sequences of the two viruses with those of 78 other potyviruses show that P1 protein and coat protein (CP) of both viruses are significantly large, with the SPVG CP as the largest among the all the known species of the genus Potyvirus. The extended N-terminal region of the P1 protein is conserved in the potyviruses and ipomovirus infecting sweet potato. A novel ORF, PISPO, is identified within the P1 region of SPVG, SPV2, Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), and Sweet potato virus C (SPVC). The C-terminal half of CP is highly conserved among SPFMV, SPVC, SPVG, SPV2, and Sweet potato virus-Zimbabwe. Phylogenetic analysis based on the deduced CP amino acid sequences supports the view that these five viruses are grouped together in a SPFMV lineage. The analysis also reveals that Sweet potato virus Y and Ipomoea vein mosaic virus are grouped with SPV2 as one species, and these two viruses should be consolidated with SPV2.

  14. Clinicopathologic, Immunohistochemical, and Molecular Features of Histiocytoid Sweet Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría-Landa, Victoria; Rodríguez-Pinilla, Socorro María; Santos-Briz, Angel; Rodríguez-Peralto, José Luis; Alegre, Victor; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Kutzner, Heinz; Requena, Luis

    2017-07-01

    Histiocytoid Sweet syndrome is a rare histopathologic variant of Sweet syndrome. The nature of the histiocytoid infiltrate has generated considerable controversy in the literature. The main goal of this study was to conduct a comprehensive overview of the immunohistochemical phenotype of the infiltrate in histiocytoid Sweet syndrome. We also analyze whether this variant of Sweet syndrome is more frequently associated with hematologic malignancies than classic Sweet syndrome. This is a retrospective case series study of the clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of 33 patients with a clinicopathologic diagnosis of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome was conducted in the dermatology departments of 5 university hospitals and a private laboratory of dermatopathology. The clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical, and follow-up features of 33 patients with histiocytoid Sweet syndrome were analyzed. In some cases, cytogenetic studies of the dermal infiltrate were also performed. We compare our findings with those of the literature. The dermal infiltrate from the 33 study patients (20 female; median age, 49 years; age range, 5-93 years; and 13 male; median age, 42 years; age range, 4-76 years) was mainly composed of myeloperoxidase-positive immature myelomonocytic cells with histiocytoid morphology. No cytogenetic anomalies were found in the infiltrate except in 1 case in which neoplastic cells of chronic myelogenous leukemia were intermingled with the cells of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome. Authentic histiocytes were also found in most cases, with a mature immunoprofile, but they appeared to be a minor component of the infiltrate. Histiocytoid Sweet syndrome was not more frequently related with hematologic malignancies than classic neutrophilic Sweet syndrome. The dermal infiltrate of cutaneous lesions of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome is composed mostly of immature cells of myeloid lineage. This infiltrate should not be interpreted as leukemia cutis.

  15. STABILITY OF KETOPROFEN COATED BY CHITOSAN-GUAR GUM GEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwantiningsih Sugita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The coating stability of ketoprofen by chitosan-guar gum gel has been studied. Into 228.6 mL of 1.75% (w/v chitosan solution in 1% (v/v acetic acid, 38.1 mL of guar gum (gg solution was added with concentration variation of 0.35, 0.55, and 0.75% (w/v for ketoprofen microcapsules, and stirred with magnetic stirrer until homogenous. Afterwards, 7.62 mL of glutaraldehyde (glu was added slowly under stirring, with concentrations varied: 3, 3.5, and 4% (v/v. All mixtures were shaked for 20 min for homogenization. Into each microcapsule mixture for ketoprofen, a solution of 2 g of ketoprofen in 250 mL of 96% ethanol was added. Every mixture was then added with 5 mL of 2% Tween-80 and stirred with magnetic stirrer for an hour at room temperature. Conversion of suspension into fine powders/granules (microcapsules was done by using spray dryer. Every microcapsule formula was packed into capsules, as much as 100 g per capsule. The capsules were contained in 100-mL dark bottles and the bottles were kept in climatic chamber at (40 ± 2 °C and RH (75 ± 5 % for 3 months. The microcapsule stabilities were tested chemically and physically. The result showed that formulation of ketoprofen preparation composed of 1.75% (w/v chitosan, 0.35% (w/v gg, and 3.50% (v/v glu, was relatively the best, with ketoprofen percentage left in microcapsule after 3 months, degradation rate constant, and shelf life of 80.33%, 0.0351 % week-1, and 18.92 months, respectively. Reaction kinetic model for this formula followed Prout-Tompkins equation and the degradation of ketoprofen was seem to follow autocatalytic reaction mechanism controlled by the formation and growth of reaction core.   Keywords: Ketoprofen, chitosan-guar gum gel

  16. Remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions by chewing gum with added calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Fan; Shen, Peiyan; Walker, Glenn D; Reynolds, Coralie; Yuan, Yi; Reynolds, Eric C

    2009-10-01

    Chewing sugar-free gum has been shown to promote enamel remineralization. Manufacturers are now adding calcium to the gum in an approach to further promote enamel remineralization. The aim of this study was to compare the remineralization efficacy of four sugar-free chewing gums, two containing added calcium, utilizing a double-blind, randomized, crossover in situ model. The sugar-free gums were: Trident Xtra Care, Orbit Professional, Orbit and Extra. Ten subjects wore removable palatal appliances with four human-enamel half-slab insets containing subsurface demineralized lesions. For four times a day for 14 consecutive days subjects chewed one of the chewing gums for 20min. After each treatment the enamel slabs were removed, paired with their respective demineralized control slabs, embedded, sectioned and mineral level determined by microradiography. After 1-week rest the subjects chewed another of the four gums and this was repeated until each subject had used the four gum products. Chewing with Trident Xtra Care resulted in significantly higher remineralization (20.67+/-1.05%) than chewing with Orbit Professional (12.43+/-0.64%), Orbit (9.27+/-0.59%) or Extra (9.32+/-0.35%). The form of added calcium in Trident Xtra Care was CPP-ACP and that in Orbit Professional calcium carbonate with added citric acid/citrate for increased calcium solubility. Although saliva analysis confirmed release of the citrate and calcium from the Orbit Professional gum the released calcium did not result in increased enamel remineralization over the normal sugar-free gums. These results highlight the importance of calcium ion bioavailability in the remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions in situ.

  17. Sweet eating: a definition and the development of the Dutch Sweet Eating Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Margot; Hörchner, Rogier; Wijtsma, Anneke; Bourhim, Noufissa; Willemsen, Dascha; Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that patients who are defined as so-called sweet eaters have more difficulties to lose weight and to maintain weight loss after both conservative treatment and restrictive bariatric surgery, such as gastric banding. There is, however, no agreement on the definition of

  18. Field Evaluation Of Four Sweet Potato Cultivars For Yield And Sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four sweet potato cultivars (TIS 87/0087, TIS 8441, TIS 2532 OP. 1. 13 and Ex Igbariam) were evaluated for yield and damage of C. puncticollis during the period June to October in 1999 and 2000, respectively. The trials were conducted in a randomized complete block design and replicated three times. Plants were ...

  19. Natural gums of plant origin as edible coatings for food industry applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anuradha; Tyagi, Shvetambri; Gupta, Rajinder K; Tyagi, Yogesh K

    2017-12-01

    Natural plant-based gums and their derivatives are widely utilized in food industries, however, their applications as edible coatings to extend fresh fruits and vegetable shelf-life has been explored recently. These natural polymeric polysaccharides have many advantages as compared to synthetic polymers, because they are biodegradable, nontoxic, economical and easily available in the environment. Natural gums can also be semi synthetically modified to produce derivatives, which can easily compete with the synthetic preservatives available on the food market. In this review, the recent developments in the use of natural gums and their derivatives as edible coatings have been explored and discussed.

  20. Relative bioavailability of methadone hydrochloride administered in chewing gum and tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Angelo, H.R.; Bonde, J.

    1990-01-01

    Methadone administered in chewing gum in doses of 16.7-22.6 mg to seven patients in a study using an open balanced cross-over design, was compared with 20 mg of methadone given perorally as tablets. There was no significant difference in the AUC/D obtained after administration of chewing gum...... and tablets (p>0.05). It is concluded that the chewing gum formulation should be considered for further testing with respect to suppression of abstinence syndrome in narcotic addicts....

  1. Trace element evaluation of different varieties of chewing gum by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Arif, M.; Fatima, I.; Ahmad, S.; Qureshi, I.H.

    2000-01-01

    Extensive use of chewing gums, by children in particular, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in them. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was successfully employed to determine the concentration of 35 trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in eight different brands of chewing gum generally consumed in Rawalpindi/Islamabad area. Comparison of trace element data of our work with literature has been presented. None of the elements detected in the brands of chewing gum examined was found to be present at a level representing a substantial contribution to the total dietary intake of the element. (author)

  2. Dilute solution, flow behavior, thixotropy and viscoelastic characterization of cress seed (Lepidium sativum) gum fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, rheological properties of cress seed gum (CSG) and its fractions (F1, F2, F3; fractionated using stepwise extraction with water) were investigated. Cress seed gum and its fractions revealed random coil conformation in dilute regimes; chain flexibility and intrinsic viscosity...... increased from F1 to F2 to F3. The mechanical spectra derived from strain sweep and frequency sweep measurements indicated that the gum dispersions had viscoelastic behavior; all of them were classified as weak gels and the gel network got stronger along the series of F1, F2 and F3. Arrhenius-type model...

  3. Surface Modification of Magnetic Nanoparticles Using Gum Arabic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Darryl N.; Gold, Katie A.; Holoman, Tracey R. Pulliam; Ehrman, Sheryl H.; Wilson, Otto C.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized and functionalized by coating the particle surfaces with gum arabic (GA) to improve particle stability in aqueous suspensions (i.e. biological media). Particle characterization was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) to analyze the morphology and quantify the size distribution of the nanoparticles, respectively. The results from DLS indicated that the GA-treated nanoparticles formed smaller agglomerates as compared to the untreated samples over a 30-h time frame. Thermogravimetric analyses indicated an average weight loss of 23%, showing that GA has a strong affinity toward the iron oxide surface. GA most likely contributes to colloid stability via steric stabilization. It was determined that the adsorption of GA onto magnetite exhibits Langmuir behavior

  4. Surface Modification of Magnetic Nanoparticles Using Gum Arabic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Darryl N., E-mail: williamsdar@E-mail.chop.edu; Gold, Katie A.; Holoman, Tracey R. Pulliam; Ehrman, Sheryl H. [University of Maryland, Department of Chemical Engineering (United States); Wilson, Otto C. [Catholic University, Department of Biomedical Engineering (United States)

    2006-10-15

    Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized and functionalized by coating the particle surfaces with gum arabic (GA) to improve particle stability in aqueous suspensions (i.e. biological media). Particle characterization was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) to analyze the morphology and quantify the size distribution of the nanoparticles, respectively. The results from DLS indicated that the GA-treated nanoparticles formed smaller agglomerates as compared to the untreated samples over a 30-h time frame. Thermogravimetric analyses indicated an average weight loss of 23%, showing that GA has a strong affinity toward the iron oxide surface. GA most likely contributes to colloid stability via steric stabilization. It was determined that the adsorption of GA onto magnetite exhibits Langmuir behavior.

  5. Preparation and characterization of a chemically sulfated cashew gum polysaccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura Neto, Erico de; Maciel, Jeanny da S.; Cunha, Pablyana L. R.; Paula, Regina Celia M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A., E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.br [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Cashew gum (CG) was sulfated in pyridine:formamide using chlorosulfonic acid as the reagent. Confirmation of sulfation was obtained by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy through the presence of an asymmetrical S=O stretching vibration at 1259 cm{sup -1}. The degrees of substitution were 0.02, 0.24 and 0.88 determined from the sulfur percentage. 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data showed that the sulfation occurred at primary carbons. An increase of at least 4% of the solution viscosity was observed due to sulfation. The thermal gravimetric curves (TGA) indicate that the derivatives are stable up to ca. 200 deg C. The sulfated CG is compared to carboxymethylated CG in order to verify the possibility of the use of the former in the preparation of polyelectrolyte complexes; the latter is already being used for this application. (author)

  6. Effect of dry-heating with pectin on gelatinization properties of sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lim et al [11] blended ceraceous corn and potato starches with ionic gums and then subjected the blend to dry-heat treatment (after adjusting the. pH). Their results showed that there was a cross- linking reaction between the starches and gum. (ascribed to an esterification reaction between carboxyl groups in the food gum ...

  7. Utilization of sweet potato starches and flours as composites with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    :20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50. Also, blends of wheat and sweet potato starch were developed in the ratios 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50. Whole sweet potato flour and starch were also included where 100% wheat flour was used as control or ...

  8. Determinants of Sweet Potato Value Addition among Smallholder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sweet potato harvested significantly increased farmers' decision to add value by 0.494 units and 0.003 units respectively. Furthermore ... Key words: Sweet potato, value addition, Heckman two-stage model, Kwara State, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION ... governments to focus on the whole value chain from production to markets.

  9. Gender and Relative Economic Efficiency in Sweet Potato Farms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study employed the stochastic frontier cost function to measure the level of economic efficiency and its determinants in small-scale sweet potato production in Imo State, Nigeria on gender basis. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 sweet potato farmers (64 females and 56 males) in the ...

  10. Resource Use Efficiency in Sweet Potato Production in Kwara State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines resource use efficiency in sweet potato production in Offa and Oyun local government areas of Kwara State of Nigeria. Primary data were collected from one hundred sweet potato farmers who were selected from the two local government areas during the 2003/2004 farming season. The data was ...

  11. Profitability of sweet potato production in derived savannah zone of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined profitability of sweet potato production in Odeda Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria. The study was based on primary data collected from 82 sweet potato farmers through multistage sampling technique; analysed using descriptive statistics and budgetary techniques. The result revealed that ...

  12. Quality assessment of flour and bread from sweet potato wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to assess the quality of the flour and bread produced from sweet potato wheat composite flour blends. Matured and freshly harvested sweet potato (Ipomea batatas L.) was obtained from a local market in Akure, Nigeria. The tubers were thoroughly washed, peeled, washed again, drained, chipped, oven dried, ...

  13. Functional and pasting properties of cassava and sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The functional and pasting properties of cassava starch and sweet potato starch mixtures at different ratios were investigated. Starches from four different cassava genotypes ('Adehye', AFS048, 'Bankye Botan' and OFF146) and one local sweet potato were used for the study. The swelling volume and swelling power of ...

  14. ( Coturnix coturnix japonica ) fed processed sweet potato ( Ipomea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A six–week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effect of processing of sweet potato tuber on growth parameters and carcass values of Japanese quails. Five isonitrogenous (25%CP) diets were compounded. The control diet (A) had zero sweet potato tuber meal. The other four diets (B, C, D and E) contained ...

  15. Evolution and Stress Responses of Gossypium hirsutum SWEET Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Ren, Zhongying; Wang, Zhenyu; Sun, Kuan; Pei, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yangai; He, Kunlun; Zhang, Fei; Song, Chengxiang; Zhou, Xiaojian; Zhang, Wensheng; Ma, Xiongfeng; Yang, Daigang

    2018-03-08

    The SWEET (sugars will eventually be exported transporters) proteins are sugar efflux transporters containing the MtN3_saliva domain, which affects plant development as well as responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. These proteins have not been functionally characterized in the tetraploid cotton, Gossypium hirsutum , which is a widely cultivated cotton species. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the cotton SWEET gene family. A total of 55 putative G. hirsutum SWEET genes were identified. The GhSWEET genes were classified into four clades based on a phylogenetic analysis and on the examination of gene structural features. Moreover, chromosomal localization and an analysis of homologous genes in Gossypium arboreum , Gossypium raimondii , and G. hirsutum suggested that a whole-genome duplication, several tandem duplications, and a polyploidy event contributed to the expansion of the cotton SWEET gene family, especially in Clade III and IV. Analyses of cis -acting regulatory elements in the promoter regions, expression profiles, and artificial selection revealed that the GhSWEET genes were likely involved in cotton developmental processes and responses to diverse stresses. These findings may clarify the evolution of G. hirsutum SWEET gene family and may provide a foundation for future functional studies of SWEET proteins regarding cotton development and responses to abiotic stresses.

  16. Idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis associated with Sweet's Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano, Antonio; Ribes, Ramon; Riva, Andres de la; Rubio, Fernando Lopez; Sanchez, Carmen; Sancho, Jose L.

    2002-01-01

    A case of hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis associated with Sweet's Syndrome is presented. Both entities have been described in association with several other chronic systemic inflammatory diseases and autoimmune conditions. To our knowledge the coexistence between Sweet's Syndrome and hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis has not been reported up to date. We suggest a possible autoimmune or dysimmune mechanism in the pathogenesis of these two entities

  17. Effects of sweet potato meal on performance and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and five (305) five weeks old broilers (Anak strain) were used in a four-week experiment to determine the effect of dietary substitution of processed sweet potato meal for maize grain on the carcass quality of broilers at the finisher phase. Graded levels of processed sweet potato meal (0, 12.5, 25, 37.5 and ...

  18. Using Sweet Potato Amylase Extracts for the Determination of Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to assess the possibility of quantitative determination of starch in starchy foodstuffs using crude amylase extracts from Ugandan sweet potato cultivars. Amylolytic activity in 18 sweet potato cultivars grown at Namulonge was evaluated and there was a significant variation of activity among cultivars ...

  19. Consumer perceptions and demand for biofortified sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Certain varieties of sweet potato, especially orange-fleshed, are being promoted as part of the strategy to combat vitamin A deficiency in children and pregnant mothers. However, the consumption of sweet potato is more widespread in rural households where it is mainly boiled or eaten raw. The lack of value addition ...

  20. Integrated nutrient management for orange-fleshed sweet potato in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the rainforest of south eastern Nigeria, new varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potatoes (Ipomea batatas Lam) have been introduced but appropriate soil nutrient management for these cultivars is lacking. The present study evaluated the response of two varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potatoes (Umuspo 1 and Umuspo ...

  1. Sodium fluxes in sweet pepper exposed to varying sodium concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, M.; Vogelzang, S.A.; Veen, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium transport and distribution of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under saline conditions were studied after transferring the plants to a sodium-free nutrient solution. Sodium stress up to 60 mM did not affect the growth of sweet pepper, as it appears able to counteract the unfavourable

  2. Enhanced SWEET protocol for energy efficient wireless sensor networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dludla, AG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available SWEET routing protocol is one of the many pro- tocols developed for cluster formation and routing in wireless sensor networks. The SWEET protocol is a decentralized clus- tering protocol, it uses timers and interim updated cluster head estimation...

  3. SWEET POTATO CULTURE – PROMISING TREND OF RUSSIAN VEGETABLE GROWING

    OpenAIRE

    V. B. Podlesny

    2014-01-01

    Results of research of possibility of introduction of a new for the Russian Federation tuberous crop culture, sweet potato, are presented. The influence of planting dates on the yield of this culture was studied. According to the field experiment, the high yield of sweet potato tuber and resistance to diseases and pests were revealed.

  4. Identification and distribution of viruses infecting sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction of total plant RNA isolations confirmed the presence of SPFMV, SPVG, SPCSV and SPMMV as the most prevalent viruses infecting sweet potato in KZN. Keywords: reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, sweet potato, viruses. South African Journal of Plant and Soil ...

  5. Does 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid induce flowering in sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acer

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on sweet potato flower induction. A 3*4 factorial experiment in a randomized ... short photoperiod, moderate temperature, limited water supply, trellising vines, overwintering, ..... Sweet potato Germplasm Management Training. Manual. International Potato Center (CIP), ...

  6. Genetic diversity and population structure of begomoviruses infecting sweet potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begomoviruses infecting sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) exhibit high genetic diversity, and approximately eight species including Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) have been described from different regions around the world. In this study, the complete genomic sequences of 17 geographically dist...

  7. A review of therapeutic potentials of sweet potato: Pharmacological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a global food crop, now being recognized as a functional food due to several of its nutraceutical components. Several experimental studies have reported that sweet potato can generally be beneficial in the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases through its antioxidant, ...

  8. Sensory characteristics and relative sweetness of tagatose and other sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaru, Tomomi; Park, Jin-Hee; Lim, Juyun

    2012-09-01

    The present study investigated the sensory characteristics and relative sweetness of tagatose, an emerging natural low-calorie sweetener with various functional properties, compared to other sweeteners (sucrose, sucralose, erythritol, rebaudioside A), over a wide range of sweetness commonly found in foods and beverages (3% to 20% sucrose [w/v]). A total of 34 subjects evaluated aqueous solutions of the 5 sweeteners for the perceived intensities of sweetness, bitterness, astringency, chemical-like sensations, and sweet aftertaste, using the general version of the Labeled Magnitude Scale. The relationship between the physical concentrations of the sweeteners and their perceived sweetness (that is, psychophysical functions) was derived to quantify the relative sweetness and potency of the sweeteners. The results suggest that tagatose elicits a sweet taste without undesirable qualities (bitterness, astringency, chemical-like sensations). Out of the 5 sweeteners tested, rebaudioside A was the only sweetener with notable bitterness and chemical-like sensations, which became progressively intense with increasing concentration (P sweeteners (tagatose, erythritol, sucrose) had similar sweetness growth rates (slopes > 1), whereas the high-potency sweeteners (sucralose, rebaudioside A) yielded much flatter sweetness functions (slopes sweeteners to sucrose was highly concentration dependent. Consequently, sweetness potencies of other sweeteners varied across the concentrations tested, ranging from 0.50 to 0.78 for erythritol, 220 to 1900 for sucralose, and 300 to 440 for rebaudioside A, while tagatose was estimated to be approximately 0.90 times as potent as sucrose irrespective of concentration. The present study investigated the sensory characteristics and relative sweetness of tagatose, an emerging natural low-calorie sweetener, compared to other sweeteners. Study results suggest that tagatose elicits a sweet taste without undesirable qualities over a wide range of

  9. Psychophysical Evaluation of Sweetness Functions Across Multiple Sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Julia Y Q; McBride, Robert L; Lacy, Kathleen E; Keast, Russell S J

    2017-02-01

    Sweetness is one of the 5 prototypical tastes and is activated by sugars and non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS). The aim of this study was to investigate measures of sweet taste function [detection threshold (DT), recognition threshold (RT), and suprathreshold intensity ratings] across multiple sweeteners. Sixty participants, 18-52 years of age (mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8), were recruited to participate in the study. DT and RT were collected for caloric sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, erythritol) and NNS (sucralose, rebaudioside A). Sweetness intensity for all sweeteners was measured using a general Labeled Magnitude Scale. There were strong correlations between DT and RT of all 4 caloric sweeteners across people (r = 0.62-0.90, P 0.05). In contrast, there were strong correlations between the sweetness intensity ratings of all sweeteners (r = 0.70-0.96, P sweet taste mechanism for the perceived intensity range. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Sugar Accumulation in Leaves of Arabidopsis sweet11/sweet12 Double Mutants Enhances Priming of the Salicylic Acid-Mediated Defense Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Gebauer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In compatible interactions, biotrophic microbial phytopathogens rely on the supply of assimilates by the colonized host tissue. It has been found in rice that phloem localized SWEET sucrose transporters can be reprogrammed by bacterial effectors to establish compatibility. We observed that sweet11/sweet12 double mutants, but not single mutants, exhibited increased resistance toward the fungal hemibiotroph Colletotrichum higginsianum (Ch, both in the biotrophic and the necrotrophic colonization phase. We therefore investigated if the phloem localized transporters AtSWEET11 and AtSWEET12 represent additive susceptibility factors in the interaction of Arabidopsis with Ch. AtSWEET12-YFP fusion protein driven by the endogenous promoter strongly accumulated at Ch infection sites and in the vasculature upon challenge with Ch. However, susceptibility of sweet12 single mutants to Ch was comparable to wild type, indicating that the accumulation of AtSWEET12 at Ch infection sites does not play a major role for compatibility. AtSWEET12-YFP reporter protein was not detectable at the plant–pathogen interface, suggesting that AtSWEET12 is not targeted by Ch effectors. AtSWEET11-YFP accumulation in pAtSWEET11:AtSWEET11-YFP plants were similar in Ch infected and mock control leaves. A close inspection of major carbohydrate metabolism in non-infected control plants revealed that soluble sugar and starch content were substantially elevated in sweet11/sweet12 double mutants during the entire diurnal cycle, that diurnal soluble sugar turnover was increased more than twofold in sweet11/sweet12, and that accumulation of free hexoses and sucrose was strongly expedited in double mutant leaves compared to wild type and both single mutants during the course of Ch infection. After 2 days of treatment, free and conjugated SA levels were significantly increased in infected and mock control leaves of sweet11/sweet12 relative to all other genotypes, respectively. Induced

  11. The relative bioavailability of loratadine administered as a chewing gum formulation in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noehr-Jensen, Lene; Damkier, Per; Bidstrup, Tanja Busk

    2006-01-01

    the collection of saliva. METHODS: Twelve healthy male volunteers participated in a four-period cross-over trial evaluating the effect of dosage forms on the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of loratadine. Loratadine was administered as two 10-mg conventional tablet, two 10-mg smelt tablet, a 30-mg portion...... of medicated chewing gum without collection of saliva and a 30-mg portion of medicated chewing gum with collection of saliva. Blood samples were taken at predefined sampling points 0-24 h after medication, and the plasma concentrations of loratadine and desloratadine were determined by high-performance liquid...... statistically significantly different from the conventional tablet formulation. Plasma concentrations of desloratadine following the administration of loratadine as chewing gum with saliva collection were very low. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that formulation of loratadine as a medicated chewing gum results...

  12. Effect of guar gum on stability and physical properties of orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ruihuan; Kong, Qing; Mou, Haijin; Fu, Xiaodan

    2017-05-01

    The objective of current study was to determine the stability and physical properties of orange juice which was added with guar gum. The optimal formulation showed good stability and physical properties, in light of better indices on the serum cloudiness (turbidity), sensory analysis, particle size distribution, aroma concentration analysis and rheological properties. By serum cloudiness (turbidity), the viscosity of optimal guar gum used in orange juice was 584mpas; by the other four methods, the optimal formulation was determined: 0.1% guar gum (584mpas) combined with 0.03% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). The results indicated that the guar gum can be used to partially replaced CMC and improve the stability and physical properties of orange juice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Controlled dual release study of curcumin and a 4-aminoquinoline analog from gum acacia containing hydrogels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Aderibigbe, BA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The potential of gum acacia containing hydrogels as controlled dual-drug delivery systems for antiprotozoal agents was investigated. 4-Aminoquinoline analog and curcumin were selected as model drugs because they exhibit antiprotozoal activity...

  14. Tragacanth Gum: Structural Composition, Natural Functionality and Enxymatic Conversion as Source of Potential Prebiotic Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hassan

    and fractionated by centrifugation to soluble and insoluble. To examine correlation between composition structure, sugar composition and methoxyl and acetyl content was determined. The six gum samples varied with respect totheir levels and ratios of water-soluble and water-swellable fractions, their monosaccharide...... species of Iranian Astragalus for their emulsion stabilizing effects and their detailed chemical composition in order to examine any possible correlation between the make-up and the emulsion stabilizing properties of gum tragacanth. Also, enzymatic modification of highly fucose content of tragacanth gum...... and separation via membrane technique to get different molecular size. Furthermore, examination of compositional structure and effect of different molecular size on potential prebiotic was evaluated. The first part of the present study was selected of six different species of Astragalus and exudates of gum...

  15. Antibacterial activities of some constituents from oleo-gum-resin of Commiphora mukul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, M Asif; Sabir, A W

    2004-03-01

    The essential oil, chloroform extract and seven sesquiterpenoids compounds newly isolated from the oleo-gum-resin of Commiphora mukul showed a wide range of inhibiting activity against both Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria.

  16. Potential benefits of chewing gum for the delivery of oral therapeutics and its possible role in oral healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Stefan W; van der Mei, Henny C; Maitra, Amarnath; Dodds, Michael W J; Busscher, Henk J

    2016-10-01

    Over the years, chewing gum has developed from a candy towards an oral health-promoting nutraceutical. This review summarizes evidence for the oral health benefits of chewing gum, emphasizing identification of active ingredients in gum that facilitate prevention and removal of oral biofilm. Chewing of sugar-free gum yields oral health benefits that include clearance of food debris, reduction in oral dryness, increase of biofilm pH and remineralization of enamel. These basic effects of chewing gum are attributed to increased mastication and salivation. Active ingredients incorporated in chewing gums aim to expand these effects to inhibition of extrinsic tooth stain and calculus formation, enhanced enamel remineralization, reduction of the numbers of bacteria in saliva and amount of oral biofilm, neutralization of biofilm pH, and reduction of volatile sulfur compounds. Evidence for oral-health benefits of chewing gum additives is hard to obtain due to their relatively low concentrations and rapid wash-out. Clinical effects of gum additives are overshadowed by effects of increased mastication and salivation due to the chewing of gum and require daily chewing of gum for prolonged periods of time. Future studies on active ingredients should focus on specifically targeting pathogenic bacteria, whilst leaving the healthy microbiome unaffected.

  17. Overexpression, purification, and biochemical characterization of GumC, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharide by Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pieri, Celina; Beltramini, Leila M; Selistre-de-Araújo, Heloisa S; Vettore, André L; da Silva, Felipe R; Arruda, Paulo; Oliva, Glaucius; de Souza, Dulce H F

    2004-04-01

    GumC is one of nine enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of fastidian gum, an exopolysaccharide produced by Xylella fastidiosa that may be linked directly to the pathogenicity of the microorganism. GumC may be responsible for gum polymerization or secretion through the membrane of X. fastidiosa. To perform structure and functions studies, we developed an expression system for the production of GumC as a fusion protein with maltose binding protein (MBP) using pMAL-c2x vector. The GumC-MBP fusion protein was expressed as a 94 kDa protein, which strongly reacts with anti-MBP antibodies. GumC-MBP was isolated by affinity chromatography through an amylose column and used to produce antibodies against the fusion protein. After the enzymatic cleavage of MBP, GumC was purified on a Q Sepharose Fast Flow column. GumC showed a molecular weight corresponding to the expected one (52 kDa) and its N-terminal sequence was identical to that deduced from the DNA. The shape of the circular dichroism spectrum was compatible with a folded protein that contains alpha-helical regions in its structure. Therefore, in this study we describe, for the first time, the production of GumC recombinant protein.

  18. Determination of trace elements in chewing gum by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    Six trace elements of nutritional or toxicological interest (Al, Ca, Cl, Mn, Na and Sr) were determined in three different brands of chewing gum by instrumental neutron activation analysis. For the particular brands of gum examined, none of the detected elements was found to be present at a level representing a substantial contribution to the total dietary intake of the element for an American adult. (author) 11 refs.; 3 tabs

  19. EFFECTS.OF BORIC ACID ON THE CURE OF BORON-FILLED Y-3602 SILICONE GUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leichliter, G E

    1974-10-01

    The first two phases of a program designed to determine the effects of boric acid on the cure of Y-3602 silicone gum were conducted to evaluate extraction solvents and extraction time. The standard production formulation of B10-filled Y-3602 silicone gum was used in these evaluations. Results showed that the best solvent for reproducibility and high amine content was chloroform. The second phase indicated that extraction was essentially complete at the end of 4 hours.

  20. Influence of gas injection on viscous and viscoelastic properties of Xanthan gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobade, Veena; Cheetham, Madalyn; Hashim, Jamal; Eshtiaghi, Nicky

    2018-05-01

    Xanthan gum is widely used as a model fluid for sludge to mimic the rheological behaviour under various conditions including impact of gas injection in sludge. However, there is no study to show the influence of gas injection on rheological properties of xanthan gum specifically at the concentrations at which it is used as a model fluid for sludge with solids concentration above 2%. In this paper, the rheological properties of aqueous xanthan gum solutions at different concentrations were measured over a range of gas injection flow rates. The effect of gas injection on both the flow and viscoelastic behaviour of Xanthan gum (using two different methods - a creep test and a time sweep test) was evaluated. The viscosity curve of different solid concentrations of digested sludge and waste activated sludge were compared with different solid concentrations of Xanthan gum and the results showed that Xanthan gum can mimic the flow behaviour of sludge in flow regime. The results in linear viscoelastic regime showed that increasing gas flow rate increases storage modulus (G'), indicating an increase in the intermolecular associations within the material structure leading to an increase in material strength and solid behaviour. Similarly, in creep test an increase in the gas flow rate decreased strain%, signifying that the material has become more resistant to flow. Both observed behaviour is opposite to what occurs in sludge under similar conditions. The results of both the creep test and the time sweep test indicated that choosing Xanthan gum aqueous solution as a transparent model fluid for sludge in viscoelastic regime under similar conditions involving gas injection in a concentration range studied is not feasible. However Xanthan gum can be used as a model material for sludge in flow regime; because it shows a similar behaviour to sludge. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of Neem Gum for Aqueous Film Coating of Ciprofloxacin Tablets

    OpenAIRE

    A P Kulkarni; Y R Shaikh; MH GR Dehghan

    2013-01-01

    Summary. At present the pharmaceutical industry and academia are focusing on the use of natural materials and resources for development of pharmaceutical product. In previous study, neem gum (NG), obtained from Azadirachata indica plant revealed satisfactory film forming ability. The present study evaluates the application potential of neem gum, as an aqueous film coating material, using ciprofloxacin hydrchloride (drug) as a model drug. Initial study of physical mixture indicated absence of ...

  2. Pengaruh Perbandingan Bubur Buah Sirsak dan Pepaya Serta Penambahan Gum Arab terhadap Mutu Fruit Leather

    OpenAIRE

    Harahap, Edy Syahputra

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to find the effect of ratio of soursop with papaya pulps and several arabic gum addition on the quality of mixture of soursop and papaya fruit leather. This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Food Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Sumatera Utara, Medan, using completely randomized design with two factors, i.e. :ratio of soursop with papaya pulps (S) : (70% : 30% ; 60% : 40% ; 50% : 50% ; 40% : 60% ; 30% : 70%) and arabic gum concentration ...

  3. Pengaruh Perbandingan Nenas Dengan Pepaya Dan Konsentrasi Gum Arab Terhadap Mutu Fruit Leather

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Mei Sya Putri

    2014-01-01

    Influence ratio of pineapple with papaya and arabic gum concentration on the quality of fruit leather supervised by RONA J. NAINGGOLAN and ERA YUSRAINI. The aim of this research was to find the effect of ratio pineapple with papaya pulps and several arabic gum concentration on the quality of pineapple with papaya of mixture fruit leather. This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Food Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Sumatera Utara, Medan, using completely randomize...

  4. Probiotic capsules and xylitol chewing gum to manage symptoms of pharyngitis: a randomized controlled factorial trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Paul; Stuart, Beth; Wingrove, Zoe; Mullee, Mark; Thomas, Tammy; Johnson, Sophie; Leydon, Gerry; Richards-Hall, Samantha; Williamson, Ian; Yao, Lily; Zhu, Shihua; Moore, Michael

    2017-12-18

    Reducing the use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections is needed to limit the global threat of antibiotic resistance. We estimated the effectiveness of probiotics and xylitol for the management of pharyngitis. In this parallel-group factorial randomized controlled trial, participants in primary care (aged 3 years or older) with pharyngitis underwent randomization by nurses who provided sequential intervention packs. Pack contents for 3 kinds of material and advice were previously determined by computer-generated random numbers: no chewing gum, xylitol-based chewing gum (15% xylitol; 5 pieces daily) and sorbitol gum (5 pieces daily). Half of each group were also randomly assigned to receive either probiotic capsules (containing 24 × 10 9 colony-forming units of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria) or placebo. The primary outcome was mean self-reported severity of sore throat and difficulty swallowing (scale 0-6) in the first 3 days. We used multiple imputation to avoid the assumption that data were missing completely at random. A total of 1009 individuals consented, 934 completed the baseline assessment, and 689 provided complete data for the primary outcome. Probiotics were not effective in reducing the severity of symptoms: mean severity scores 2.75 with no probiotic and 2.78 with probiotic (adjusted difference -0.001, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.24 to 0.24). Chewing gum was also ineffective: mean severity scores 2.73 without gum, 2.72 with sorbitol gum (adjusted difference 0.07, 95% CI -0.23 to 0.37) and 2.73 with xylitol gum (adjusted difference 0.01, 95% CI -0.29 to 0.30). None of the secondary outcomes differed significantly between groups, and no harms were reported. Neither probiotics nor advice to chew xylitol-based chewing gum was effective for managing pharyngitis. Trial registration: ISRCTN, no. ISRCTN51472596. © 2017 Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  5. Prosopis alba exudate gum as excipient for improving fish oil stability in alginate-chitosan beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, Franco Emanuel; Romero, Ana María; Judis, María Alicia; Mazzobre, María Florencia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to employ an exudate gum obtained from a South American wild tree (Prosopis alba), as wall material component to enhance the oxidative stability of fish oil encapsulated in alginate-chitosan beads. For this purpose, beads were vacuum-dried and stored under controlled conditions. Oxidation products, fatty acid profiles and lipid health indices were measured during storage. Alginate-chitosan interactions and the effect of gum were manifested in the FT-IR spectra. The inclusion of the gum in the gelation media allowed decreasing the oxidative damage during storage in comparison to the free oil and alginate-chitosan beads. The gum also improved wall material properties, providing higher oil retention during the drying step and subsequent storage. Fatty acids quality and lipid health indices were widely preserved in beads containing the gum. Present results showed a positive influence of the gum on oil encapsulation and stability, being the main mechanism attributed to a physical barrier effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Glucose absorption, hormonal release and hepatic metabolism after guar gum ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes Nunes, C.; Malmlof, K.

    1992-01-01

    Six non-anaesthetized Large White pigs (mean body weight 59 +/- 1.7 kg) were fitted with permanent catheters in the portal vein, the brachiocephalic artery and the right hepatic vein and with electromagnetic flow probes around the portal vein and the hepatic artery. The animals were provided a basal none-fibre diet (diet A) alone or together with 6% guar gum (diet B) or 15% purified cellulose (diet C). The diets were given for 1 week and according to a replicated 3 x 3 latin-square design. On the last day of each adaptation period test meals of 800 g were given prior to blood sampling. The sampling was continued for 8 h. Guar gum strongly reduced the glucose absorption as well as the insulin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) production. However, the reduction in peripheral blood insulin levels caused by guar gum was not associated with a change in hepatic insulin extraction. IGF-1 appeared to be strongly produced by the gut. The liver had a net uptake of the peptide. Ingestion of guar gum increased the hepatic extraction coefficient of gut produced IGF-1. Guar gum ingestion also appeared to decrease pancreatic glucagon secretion. Cellulose at the level consumed had very little effect on the parameters considered. It is suggested that the modulation of intestinal mechanisms by guar gum was sufficient to mediate the latter internal metabolic effects.

  7. The feasibility of Cassia fistula gum with polyaluminium chloride for the decolorization of reactive dyeing wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perng Yuan Shing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to find a new environmental-friendly coagulant that can partially replace conventional polyaluminium chloride (PAC which was shown to be toxic to aquatic environment, gum extracted from seeds of Cassia fistula Linn. (CF was investigated in decolorization of reactive dyes Blue 19 (RB19 and Black 5 (RB5 using jar-test experiments. The optimal results showed that crude CF gum (at pH 10, initial dye concentrations (IDC of 100 and 50 mg L-1, gum dosages 200 and 300 mg L-1, reaction time 30 and 45 min, and agitation speed 60 rpm did not achieve high degrees of decolorization in RB5 and RB19 (55.7 and 62.0 %, respectively as compared with PAC coagulant (97.2 and 94.4 %, respectively at the same IDC and reaction time. Whereas when CF gum was used in combination with PAC, decolorization efficiencies of both dyes reached over 92 % at 40 % volume fraction of gum. These results indicated the potential of using CF gum as a “green” coagulant or as a contributing factor to color removal of textile wastewater.

  8. Simultaneous degumming and production of a natural gum from Crotalaria juncea seeds: Physicochemical and rheological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Suvra; Bhattacharjee, Annesha; Sarkar, Ujjaini; Baidya, Pabitra Kumar; Baksi, Sibashish

    2018-01-12

    The oil extracted from Crotalaria juncea (Sunn-hemp) contains 70% of gum. Several methods of degumming are attempted in order to maximize the yield of gum. During appropriate water induced degumming, about 95-98% of phosphatides are separated. The maximum oil yield for two types of degummimg processes are 0.59% and 0.69% corresponding to hot water and pure O-phosphoric acid (19.88 N) treatment respectively. The % oil yield obtained for TOP degumming is about 0.78%. Physico-chemical characteristics of the isolated gum such as moisture, ash, protein, fat and aqueous solubility along with FTIR and TGA analysis are studied in order to evaluate the effect of extraction process. The behaviour of gum on the molecular scale is evaluated through alcohol treatment. Chromatographic analysis determines the monosaccharide content of the gum with glucose: xylose: arabinose::54: 34:1. Rheological characterization shows that the juncea gum solutions are shear rate dependent and the behaviour is shear-thinning (or pseudoplastic). Results show that the temperature dependent viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarika, P.R. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India); Cinthya, Kuriakose [Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012 (India); Jayakrishnan, A. [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Anilkumar, P.R., E-mail: anilkumarpr@sctimst.ac.in [Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012 (India); James, Nirmala Rachel, E-mail: nirmala@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India)

    2014-10-01

    The present work deals with development of modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for cell culture. A new biocompatible scaffold was developed by cross-linking gelatin (Gel) with gum arabic, a polysaccharide. Gum arabic was subjected to periodate oxidation to obtain gum arabic aldehyde (GAA). GAA was reacted with gelatin under appropriate pH to prepare the cross-linked hydrogel. Cross-linking occurred due to Schiff's base reaction between aldehyde groups of oxidized gum arabic and amino groups of gelatin. The scaffold prepared from the hydrogel was characterized by swelling properties, degree of cross-linking, in vitro degradation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cytocompatibility evaluation using L-929 and HepG2 cells confirmed non-cytotoxic and non-adherent nature of the scaffold. These properties are essential for generating multicellular spheroids and hence the scaffold is proposed to be a suitable candidate for spheroid cell culture. - Highlights: • Gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold was developed for tissue engineering. • Cross-linking was achieved by Schiff's base reaction. • The scaffold is non-cytotoxic and non adherent to fibroblast and hepatocytes. • The scaffolds are potential candidates for spheroid cell culture.

  10. Cell Free Xanthan Gum Production Using Continuous Recycled Packed Fibrous-bed Bioreactor-membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalam, S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the xanthan gum has been produced as a commercial commodity, the biomass isolation and its recovery are still challenging. This study revealed the xanthan gum production by fermentation of Xanthomonas campestris DSMZ using glucose as a carbon source in an immobilised batch and a continuous recycled packed fibrous-bed bioreactor-membrane (CRPBFBM. The pure cotton fibre was used to immobilise the microbial cell biomass and to isolate from the liquid phase containing medium and xanthan gum. The cellulose acetate membrane with 0.45 µm was used to recover the xanthan gum. The batch fermentation showed that the immobilisation technique gave higher xanthan gum concentration at 20g/L than the free moving cell without immobilisation at 18g/L. The CRPBBM produced the highest xanthan gum concentration at 18.7 g/L at the dilution rate of 1.44 d-1. The highest production rate of CRPBFBM was 0.475 g/L-h. Further research needs to be conducted to ascertain the stability of the Xanthomonas Campestris DSMZ during a long period of continuous fermentation as well as up scaling the CRPBFBM.

  11. Pharmacological properties of guggulsterones, the major active components of gum guggul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rohan; Gulati, Vandana; Palombo, Enzo A

    2012-11-01

    Oleo gum resin secreted by Commiphora mukul, also known as gum guggul, has been used widely as an ayurvedic drug. Commiphora mukul is a short thorny shrub that is native to the Indian subcontinent. Oleo gum resin extracted by incision of the bark is a very complex mixture of gum, minerals, essential oils, terpenes, sterols, ferrulates, flavanones and sterones. Its active constituents, the Z- and E-guggulsterones, have been demonstrated to exhibit their biological activities by binding to nuclear receptors and modulating the expression of proteins involved in carcinogenic activities. Guggulsterones have also been reported to regulate gene expression by exhibiting control over other molecular targets including transcription factors such as nuclear factor (NF)-κB, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) and steroid receptors. Considerable scientific evidence indicates the use of gum guggul as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of inflammation, nervous disorders, hyperlipidaemia and associated cardiac disorders such as hypertension and ischaemia, skin disorders, cancer and urinary disorders. This review highlights the taxonomic details, phytochemical properties and pharmacological profile of gum guggul. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarika, P.R.; Cinthya, Kuriakose; Jayakrishnan, A.; Anilkumar, P.R.; James, Nirmala Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The present work deals with development of modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for cell culture. A new biocompatible scaffold was developed by cross-linking gelatin (Gel) with gum arabic, a polysaccharide. Gum arabic was subjected to periodate oxidation to obtain gum arabic aldehyde (GAA). GAA was reacted with gelatin under appropriate pH to prepare the cross-linked hydrogel. Cross-linking occurred due to Schiff's base reaction between aldehyde groups of oxidized gum arabic and amino groups of gelatin. The scaffold prepared from the hydrogel was characterized by swelling properties, degree of cross-linking, in vitro degradation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cytocompatibility evaluation using L-929 and HepG2 cells confirmed non-cytotoxic and non-adherent nature of the scaffold. These properties are essential for generating multicellular spheroids and hence the scaffold is proposed to be a suitable candidate for spheroid cell culture. - Highlights: • Gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold was developed for tissue engineering. • Cross-linking was achieved by Schiff's base reaction. • The scaffold is non-cytotoxic and non adherent to fibroblast and hepatocytes. • The scaffolds are potential candidates for spheroid cell culture

  13. Gum arabic/starch/maltodextrin/inulin as wall materials on the microencapsulation of rosemary essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Regiane Victória de Barros; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Botrel, Diego Alvarenga

    2014-01-30

    The effects of the partial or total replacement of gum arabic by modified starch, maltodextrin and inulin on the characteristics of rosemary essential oil microencapsulated by spray drying were evaluated in this study. The lowest level of water absorption under conditions of high relative humidity was observed in treatments containing inulin. The wettability property of the powders was improved by the addition of inulin. The total replacement of gum arabic by modified starch or a mixture of modified starch and maltodextrin (1:1, m/m) did not significantly affect the efficiency of encapsulation, although higher Tg values were exhibited by microcapsules prepared using pure gum arabic or gum arabic and inulin. 1,8-cineol, camphor and α-pinene were the main components identified by gas chromatography in the oils extracted from the microcapsules. The particles had smoother surfaces and more folds when gum arabic or inulin was present. Larger particles were observed in the powders prepared with pure gum arabic or modified starch. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 21 CFR 163.153 - Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.153... § 163.153 Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat... requirements for label declaration of ingredients for sweet chocolate in § 163.123, except that one or more...

  15. Fermentation of sweet sorghum syrup to butanol in the presence of natural nutrients and inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet sorghum syrups represent a renewable raw material that can be available year-round for production of biofuels and biochemicals. Sweet sorghum sugars have been used as sources for butanol production in the past but most often the studies focused on sweet sorghum juice and not on sweet sorghum s...

  16. 7 CFR 318.13-24 - Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. 318.13-24 Section 318... Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-24 Sweet potatoes from Puerto Rico. Sweet potatoes from... met: (a) The sweet potatoes must be certified by an inspector of Puerto Rico as having been grown...

  17. 7 CFR 457.129 - Fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions. 457... sweet corn crop insurance provisions. The fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions for the 2008... Reinsured Policies Fresh Market Sweet Corn Crop Provisions 1. Definitions Allowable cost.—The dollar amount...

  18. 7 CFR 457.154 - Processing sweet corn crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing sweet corn crop insurance provisions. 457... sweet corn crop insurance provisions. The Processing Sweet Corn Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998... policies: Processing Sweet Corn Crop Provisions If a conflict exists among the policy provisions, the order...

  19. Pasting properties of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) kernel powder in the presence of Xanthan, Carboxymethylcellulose and Locust bean gum in comparison to Rice and Potato flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Maninder; Sandhu, Kawaljit Singh; Kaur, Jasmeen

    2013-08-01

    Effects of addition of different levels of gums (xanthan, carboxymethylcellulose and locust bean gum) on the pasting properties of tamarind kernel, potato and rice flour were studied by using Rapid Visco-Analyzer (RVA). Tamarind kernel powder (TKP) varied significantly (P < 0.05) from rice and potato flours with respect to its highest protein, ash and fat contents. The results of RVA analysis indicated that pasting properties of flour/gum mixtures were dependent upon the concentration and type of the gums. Peak, breakdown and final viscosity increased with increase in gum concentration in the flour/gum mixture, but the effect was more pronounced for rice and potato flour than for TKP which showed much lower viscosity responses to all of the gums. Among the three gums studied, the increase in viscosity was significantly higher with addition of locust bean gum followed by xanthan while the lowest was observed with carboxymethylcellulose.

  20. Improving the sweet aftertaste of green tea infusion with tannase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Na; Yin, Jun-Feng; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Fang; Du, Qi-Zhen; Jiang, Yong-Wen; Xu, Yong-Quan

    2016-02-01

    The present study aims to improve the sweet aftertaste and overall acceptability of green tea infusion by hydrolyzing (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) with tannase. The results showed that the intensity of the sweet aftertaste and the score of overall acceptability of the green tea infusion significantly increased with the extension of the hydrolyzing treatment. (-)-Epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epicatechin (EC) were found to be the main contributors for the sweet aftertaste, based on a trial compatibility with EGCG, ECG, EGC, and EC monomers, and a synergistic action between EGC and EC to sweet aftertaste was observed. A 2.5:1 (EGC/EC) ratio with a total concentration of 3.5 mmol/L gave the most satisfying sweet aftertaste, and the astringency significantly inhibited the development of the sweet aftertaste. These results can help us to produce a tea beverage with excellent sweet aftertaste by hydrolyzing the green tea infusion with tannase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Develop of a Sweet Cookie with toasted sesame and ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.C. Aldo Hernández-Monzón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sweet cookies nutritionally are rich source of energy and they have great acceptance to world level and the sesame (Sésamum indicum it is of the family of the oleaginous ones that possesses a high quantity of protein and fat where 80% belongs to the fatty polinsaturadas fundamentally linoleic acid, it has high content of calcium and the presence iron, magnesium and zinc, what makes it a functional food. This work had as objective to develop a sweet cookie with addition of toastedsesame and ground with good characteristic sensorial and nutritional. The addition of the toasted sesame and ground it was carried out in dose of 10, 15 and 20% to the formulation of a sweet cookie. The sweet cookies were evaluated by seven trained judges to determine the most appropriate dose according to the general impression of obtained quality. The accepted formulation it was determined humidity, proteins, fat, ashy, calcium, iron, and zinc and texture analysis. The best formulation wasthat of 15% sesame for the obtaining of a product with an acceptability of excellent, a percentage of humidity and typical fat of sweet cookies and high content of proteins and calcium as well as appreciable iron content and zinc. The obtained sweet cookie was characterized sensorial to possess a scent and flavor defined to sesame, good crujencia and harmony among its components, very pleasant hardness and the weight and thickness similar to that of other sweet cookies.

  2. Body fat, sweetness sensitivity, and preference: determining the relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Laurel; Duizer, Lisa; Caldwell, Tristaca

    2012-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate whether body fat is a better measure than body mass index (BMI) for determining the relationship between body size and sweetness perception and preference. Seventy-two women were recruited and separated into two groups. First, BMI was determined and used to classify each woman as either normal weight (18.5 to 24.9 kg/m²) or overweight (>25.0 kg/m²). Body fat was determined from skinfold sites and used to categorize women into normal (sweetness were evaluated to determine the women's liking for sweetness, and the perceived sweetness of the sample. Women in the overweight BMI and body fat groups had higher sucrose threshold values than did women in the normal groups. When presented with custards of varying sucrose levels, the overweight BMI and body fat groups had a significantly increased liking for sweetness as sucrose concentration increased. Body fat measures were as effective as BMI measures in determining sweetness preference. Future research should be conducted to determine whether body fat and measures, such as waist circumference, can be predictive tools for sweetness preference.

  3. Chemical constituents and health effects of sweet potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sunan; Nie, Shaoping; Zhu, Fan

    2016-11-01

    Sweet potatoes are becoming a research focus in recent years due to their unique nutritional and functional properties. Bioactive carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, carotenoids, anthocyanins, conjugated phenolic acids, and minerals represent versatile nutrients in different parts (tubers, leaves, stems, and stalks) of sweet potato. The unique composition of sweet potato contributes to their various health benefits, such as antioxidative, hepatoprotective, antiinflammatory, antitumor, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antiobesity, antiaging effects. Factors affecting the nutritional composition and bio-functions of sweet potato include the varieties, plant parts, extraction time and solvents, postharvest storage, and processing. The assays for bio-function evaluation also contribute to the variations among different studies. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the chemical composition of sweet potato, and their bio-functions studied in vitro and in vivo. Leaves, stems, and stalks of sweet potato remain much underutilized on commercial levels. Sweet potato can be further developed as a sustainable crop for diverse nutritionally enhanced and value-added food products to promote human health. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Implications of Partial Conjugation of Whey Protein Isolate to Durian Seed Gum through Maillard Reactions: Foaming Properties, Water Holding Capacity and Interfacial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Tabatabaee Amid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the conjugation of durian seed gum (DSG with whey protein isolate (WPI through Maillard reactions. Subsequently, the functional properties of durian seed gum in the non-conjugated (control sample and conjugated forms were compared with several commercial gums (i.e., Arabic gum, sodium alginate, kappa carrageenan, guar gum, and pectin. The current study revealed that the conjugation of durian seed gum with whey protein isolate significantly (p < 0.05 improved its foaming properties. In this study, the conjugated durian seed gum produced the most stable foam among all samples. On the other hand, the emulsion stabilized with the conjugated durian seed gum also showed more uniform particles with a larger specific surface area than the emulsion containing the non-conjugated durian seed gum. The conjugated durian seed gum showed significant different foaming properties, specific surface area, particle uniformity and water holding capacity (WHC as compared to the target polysaccharide gums. The conjugated durian seed gum showed more similar functional properties to Arabic gum rather than other studied gums.

  5. The productive potentials of sweet sorghum ethanol in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Caixia; Xie, Gaodi; Li, Shimei; Ge, Liqiang; He, Tingting

    2010-01-01

    As one of the important non-grain energy crops, sweet sorghum has attracted the attention of scientific community and decision makers of the world since decades. But insufficient study has been done about the spatial suitability distribution and ethanol potential of sweet sorghum in China. This paper attempts to probe into the spatial distribution and ethanol potential of sweet sorghum in China by ArcGIS methods. Data used for the analysis include the spatial data of climate, soil, topography and land use, and literatures relevant for sweet sorghum studies. The results show that although sweet sorghum can be planted in the majority of lands in China, the suitable unused lands for large-scale planting (unit area not less than 100 hm 2 ) are only as much as 78.6 x 10 4 hm 2 ; and the productive potentials of ethanol from these lands are 157.1 x 10 4 -294.6 x 10 4 t/year, which can only meet 24.8-46.4% of current demand for E10 (gasoline mixed with 10% ethanol) in China (assumption of the energy efficiency of E10 is equivalent to that of pure petroleum). If all the common grain sorghum at present were replaced by sweet sorghum, the average ethanol yield of 244.0 x 10 4 t/year can be added, and thus the productive potentials of sweet sorghum ethanol can satisfy 63.2-84.9% of current demand for E10 of China. In general, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia and Liaoning rank the highest in productive potentials of sweet sorghum ethanol, followed by Hebei, Shanxi, Sichuan, and some other provinces. It is suggested that these regions should be regarded as the priority development zones for sweet sorghum ethanol in China.

  6. Leptin Suppresses Mouse Taste Cell Responses to Sweet Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ryusuke; Noguchi, Kenshi; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Takahashi, Ichiro; Margolskee, Robert F; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2015-11-01

    Leptin is known to selectively suppress neural and behavioral responses to sweet-tasting compounds. However, the molecular basis for the effect of leptin on sweet taste is not known. Here, we report that leptin suppresses sweet taste via leptin receptors (Ob-Rb) and KATP channels expressed selectively in sweet-sensitive taste cells. Ob-Rb was more often expressed in taste cells that expressed T1R3 (a sweet receptor component) than in those that expressed glutamate-aspartate transporter (a marker for Type I taste cells) or GAD67 (a marker for Type III taste cells). Systemically administered leptin suppressed taste cell responses to sweet but not to bitter or sour compounds. This effect was blocked by a leptin antagonist and was absent in leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice and mice with diet-induced obesity. Blocking the KATP channel subunit sulfonylurea receptor 1, which was frequently coexpressed with Ob-Rb in T1R3-expressing taste cells, eliminated the effect of leptin on sweet taste. In contrast, activating the KATP channel with diazoxide mimicked the sweet-suppressing effect of leptin. These results indicate that leptin acts via Ob-Rb and KATP channels that are present in T1R3-expressing taste cells to selectively suppress their responses to sweet compounds. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  7. The availability of novelty sweets within high school localities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljawad, A; Morgan, M Z; Rees, J S; Fairchild, R

    2016-06-10

    Background Reducing sugar consumption is a primary focus of current global public health policy. Achieving 5% of total energy from free sugars will be difficult acknowledging the concentration of free sugars in sugar sweetened beverages, confectionery and as hidden sugars in many savoury items. The expansion of the novelty sweet market in the UK has significant implications for children and young adults as they contribute to dental caries, dental erosion and obesity.Objective To identify the most available types of novelty sweets within the high school fringe in Cardiff, UK and to assess their price range and where and how they were displayed in shops.Subjects and methods Shops within a ten minute walking distance around five purposively selected high schools in the Cardiff aea representing different levels of deprivation were visited. Shops in Cardiff city centre and three supermarkets were also visited to identify the most commonly available novelty sweets.Results The ten most popular novelty sweets identified in these scoping visits were (in descending order): Brain Licker, Push Pop, Juicy Drop, Lickedy Lips, Big Baby Pop, Vimto candy spray, Toxic Waste, Tango candy spray, Brain Blasterz Bitz and Mega Mouth candy spray. Novelty sweets were located on low shelves which were accessible to all age-groups in 73% (14 out of 19) of the shops. Novelty sweets were displayed in the checkout area in 37% (seven out of 19) shops. The price of the top ten novelty sweets ranged from 39p to £1.Conclusion A wide range of acidic and sugary novelty sweets were easily accessible and priced within pocket money range. Those personnel involved in delivering dental and wider health education or health promotion need to be aware of recent developments in children's confectionery. The potential effects of these novelty sweets on both general and dental health require further investigation.

  8. Effects of a Baking Soda Gum on extrinsic dental stain: results of a longitudinal 4-week assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soparkar, P; Newman, M B

    2001-07-01

    An evaluation of the effects of ARM & HAMMER DENTAL CARE The Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) on extrinsic dental stain was made in 48 subjects presenting with measurable extrinsic stain. The subjects were randomized to use either the baking soda gum or a non-baking soda placebo gum for 20 minutes twice daily after lunch and dinner while brushing once daily. The procedure of limited brushing was chosen to simulate the level of hygiene normally practiced by participants entering a clinical study. After 4 weeks, the reduction in measurable extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was statistically significant (P = .0044) relative to baseline. Statistical analysis of the placebo gum group revealed no significant change in extrinsic stain from baseline. The magnitude of the unadjusted longitudinal reduction in extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was 29.7% at 4 weeks.

  9. Component Analysis of Sweet BV and Clinical Trial on Antibody Titer and Allergic Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Ki Rok, Kwon; Suk Ho, Choi; Bae Chun Cha

    2006-01-01

    Objectives : The aim of this study was to observe prevention of allergic reactions of Sweet Bee Venom (removing enzyme components from Bee Venom). Methods : Content analysis of Sweet Bee Venom and Bee Venom was rendered using HPLC method and characterization of Anti-Sweet Bee Venom in Rabbit Serum. Clinical observation was conducted for inducement of allergic responses to Sweet BV. Results : 1. Analyzing melittin content using HPLC, Sweet BV contained 34.9% more melittin than Bee venom ...

  10. Modification of the Sweetness and Stability of Sweet-Tasting Protein Monellin by Gene Mutation and Protein Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiulei; Li, Lei; Yang, Liu; Liu, Tianming; Cai, Chenggu; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Natural sweet protein monellin has a high sweetness and low calorie, suggesting its potential in food applications. However, due to its low heat and acid resistance, the application of monellin is limited. In this study, we show that the thermostability of monellin can be improved with no sweetness decrease by means of sequence, structure analysis, and site-directed mutagenesis. We analyzed residues located in the α-helix as well as an ionizable residue C41. Of the mutants investigated, the effects of E23A and C41A mutants were most remarkable. The former displayed significantly improved thermal stability, while its sweetness was not changed. The mutated protein was stable after 30 min incubation at 85°C. The latter showed increased sweetness and slight improvement of thermostability. Furthermore, we found that most mutants enhancing the thermostability of the protein were distributed at the two ends of α-helix. Molecular biophysics analysis revealed that the state of buried ionizable residues may account for the modulated properties of mutated proteins. Our results prove that the properties of sweet protein monellin can be modified by means of bioinformatics analysis, gene manipulation, and protein modification, highlighting the possibility of designing novel effective sweet proteins based on structure-function relationships.

  11. Yellow sweet potato flour: use in sweet bread processing to increase β-carotene content and improve quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMANDA C. NOGUEIRA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Yellow sweet potato is mostly produced by small farmers, and may be a source of energy and carotenoids in the human diet, but it is a highly perishable crop. To increase its industrial application, yellow sweet potato flour has been produced for use in bakery products. This study aimed to evaluate the technological quality and the carotenoids content in sweet breads produced with the replacement of wheat flour by 0, 3, 6, and 9% yellow sweet potato flour. Breads were characterized by technological parameters and β-carotene levels during nine days of storage. Tukey’s test (p<0.05 was used for comparison between means. The increase in yellow sweet potato flour concentrations in bread led to a decrease of specific volume and firmness, and an increase in water activity, moisture, orange coloring, and carotenoids. During storage, the most significant changes were observed after the fifth day, with a decrease in intensity of the orange color. The β-carotene content was 0.1656 to 0.4715 µg/g in breads with yellow sweet potato flour. This work showed a novel use of yellow sweet potato in breads, which brings benefits to consumers’ health and for the agricultural business.

  12. Sweet potato for biomass. [Ipomoea batatas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dangler, J.M.; Locascio, S.J.; Halsey, L.H.

    1984-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in 1980 and 1981 to determine the root and plant top yield of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam)) grown on a sandy soil. Cultivars 'GaTG-3', 'Morado', 'Rojo Blanco', 'Travis' and 'White Star' were evaluated at 2 harvest times. Mean starch yields from 'GaTG-3' at 105-15 days (7.2 t/ha) and at 210-30 days (9.6 t/ha) during two seasons were higher than from the other cultivars. With an increase in the growth period from 105-15 to 210-30 days the mean starch yield increased from 4.6 to 7.3 t/ha but the starch concentration of all cultivars decreased significantly during the same period. 17 references, 2 tables.

  13. Sweet Syndrome: A Review and Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-Villarreal, C D; Ocampo-Candiani, J; Villarreal-Martínez, A

    2016-06-01

    Sweet syndrome is the most representative entity of febrile neutrophilic dermatoses. It typically presents in patients with pirexya, neutrophilia, painful tender erytomatous papules, nodules and plaques often distributed asymmetrically. Frequent sites include the face, neck and upper extremities. Affected sites show a characteristical neutrophilic infiltrate in the upper dermis. Its etiology remains elucidated, but it seems that can be mediated by a hypersensitivity reaction in which cytokines, followed by infiltration of neutrophils, may be involved. Systemic corticosteroids are the first-line of treatment in most cases. We present a concise review of the pathogenesis, classification, diagnosis and treatment update of this entity. Copyright © 2015 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Unveiling the Sweet Conformations of Ketohexoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, C.; Pena, I.; Cabezas, C.; Daly, A. M.; Mata, S.; Alonso, J. L.

    2013-06-01

    The conformational behavior of ketohexoses D-Fructose, L-Sorbose, D-Tagatose and D-Psicose has been revealed from their rotational spectra. A broadband microwave spectrometer (CP-FTMW) has been used to rapidly acquire the rotational spectra in the 6 to 12 GHz frequency range. All observed species are stabilized by complicated intramolecular hydrogen-bonding networks. Structural motifs related to the sweetness of ketohexoses are revealed. G. G. Brown, B. C. Dian, K. O. Douglass, S. M. Geyer, S. T. Shipman, B. H. Pate, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 2008, 79, 053103. S. Mata, I. Peña, C. Cabezas, J. C. López, J. L. Alonso, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 2012, 280, 91.

  15. A "Sweet 16" of Rules About Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Alexander (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    The following "Sweet 16" rules included in this paper derive from a longer paper by APPL Director Dr. Edward Hoffman and myself entitled " 99 Rules for Managing Faster, Better, Cheaper Projects." Our sources consisted mainly of "war stories" told by master project managers in my book Simultaneous Management: Managing Projects in a Dynamic Environment (AMACOM, The American Management Association, 1996). The Simultaneous Management model was a result of 10 years of intensive research and testing conducted with the active participation of master project managers from leading private organizations such as AT&T, DuPont, Exxon, General Motors, IBM, Motorola and Procter & Gamble. In a more recent study, led by Dr. Hoffman, we learned that master project managers in leading public organizations employ most of these rules as well. Both studies, in private and public organizations, found that a dynamic environment calls for dynamic management, and that is especially clear in how successful project managers think about their teams.

  16. Pharmacogenetics of taste: turning bitter pills sweet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagtegaal, Mariëlle J; Swen, Jesse J; Hanff, Lidwien M; Schimmel, Kirsten Jm; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Poor palatability of oral drug formulations used for young children negatively influences medication intake, resulting in suboptimal treatment. Some children are more sensitive to bitter tastes than others. Bitter tasting status is currently assessed by phenotyping with 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) as a bitter probe. Recent studies showed that interindividual differences in PROP sensitivity can be largely explained by three SNPs in TAS2R38, encoding a bitter taste receptor. Gustin, involved in the development of taste buds, and the sweet receptor genotype potentially explain remaining parts of PROP sensitivity variability. Other TAS2 receptor bitter receptor genes may also play a role in bitter aversions. Dependent on their genotype, children may have different medication formulation preferences. Taste genetics could improve drug acceptance by enabling better-informed choices on adapting oral formulations to children's taste preferences. This paper presents an overview of recent findings concerning bitter taste genetics and discusses these in the context of pediatric drug formulation.

  17. Cytoskeleton-amyloplast interactions in sweet clover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guikema, J. A.; Hilaire, E.; Odom, W. R.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The distribution of organelles within columella cells of sweet clover was examined by transmission electron microscopy following growth under static or clinorotating conditions. A developmentally conditioned polarity was observed, with a proximal location of the nucleus and a distal accumulation of the endoplasmic reticulum. This polarity was insensitive to clinorotation. In contrast, clinorotation altered the location of amyloplasts. Application of cytoskeletal poisons (colchicine, cytochalasin D, taxol, and phalloidin), especially during clinorotation, had interesting effects on the maintenance of columella cell polarity, with a profound effect on the extent, location, and structure of the endoplasmic reticulum. The site of cytoskeletal interactions with sedimenting amyloplasts is thought to be the amyloplast envelope. An envelope fraction, having over 17 polypeptides, was isolated using immobilized antibody technology, and will provide a means of assessing the role of specific peptides in cytoskeleton/amyloplast interactions.

  18. Modulation of sweet taste by umami compounds via sweet taste receptor subunit hT1R2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewon Shim

    Full Text Available Although the five basic taste qualities-sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami-can be recognized by the respective gustatory system, interactions between these taste qualities are often experienced when food is consumed. Specifically, the umami taste has been investigated in terms of whether it enhances or reduces the other taste modalities. These studies, however, are based on individual perception and not on a molecular level. In this study we investigated umami-sweet taste interactions using umami compounds including monosodium glutamate (MSG, 5'-mononucleotides and glutamyl-dipeptides, glutamate-glutamate (Glu-Glu and glutamate-aspartic acid (Glu-Asp, in human sweet taste receptor hT1R2/hT1R3-expressing cells. The sensitivity of sucrose to hT1R2/hT1R3 was significantly attenuated by MSG and umami active peptides but not by umami active nucleotides. Inhibition of sweet receptor activation by MSG and glutamyl peptides is obvious when sweet receptors are activated by sweeteners that target the extracellular domain (ECD of T1R2, such as sucrose and acesulfame K, but not by cyclamate, which interact with the T1R3 transmembrane domain (TMD. Application of umami compounds with lactisole, inhibitory drugs that target T1R3, exerted a more severe inhibitory effect. The inhibition was also observed with F778A sweet receptor mutant, which have the defect in function of T1R3 TMD. These results suggest that umami peptides affect sweet taste receptors and this interaction prevents sweet receptor agonists from binding to the T1R2 ECD in an allosteric manner, not to the T1R3. This is the first report to define the interaction between umami and sweet taste receptors.

  19. [done no pages] An overview on applications of guar gum in food systems to modify structural properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana B. Popova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides define as complex polymers composed of units interlinked with glycosidic bonds originated naturally. Polysaccharides are categorizing in several groups and among them, Gums are those with critical roles in food systems. Guar Gum is imparting softness, emulsification, stabilizing via its addition to formulas. This Gum is a fast soluble in cold water and can be active in a wide range of pH. The aim of this overview is giving an initial concept about guar gum and then convey to an introduction of its applications in food industries.

  20. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Fingerprinting for Identification of Acacia Gum in Microsamples from Works of Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granzotto, Clara; Sutherland, Ken

    2017-01-01

    to the analysis of naturally aged (∼80 year) gum arabic samples, pure and mixed with lead white pigment, and allowed the detection of gum arabic in samples from a late painting (1949/1954) by Georges Braque in the collection of the Art Institute of Chicago. This first application of the technique to characterize...... to the reproducibility of the gum MS profile, even in the presence of other organic and inorganic components, together with the minimal sample size required, demonstrate the value of this new MALDI-TOF MS method as an analytical tool for the identification of gum arabic in microsamples from museum artifacts....

  1. Microscopic study of gum-metal alloys: A role of trace oxygen for dislocation-free deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasako, Naoyuki; Asahi, Ryoji; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N.; Kuramoto, Shigeru; Furuta, Tadahiko

    2016-01-01

    A class of Ti–Nb–Ta–Zr–O alloys called gum metal are known to display high strength, low Young's modulus and high elastic deformability up to 2.5%, simultaneously, and considered to deform by a dislocation-free deformation mechanism. A trace of oxygen (∼1%) in gum metal is indispensable to realize such significant properties; however, the detailed mechanism and the role of the oxygen has not been understood. To investigate an effect of trace oxygen included in gum metal, first-principles calculations for gum-metal approximants including zirconium and oxygen are performed. Calculated results clearly indicate that oxygen site with less neighboring Nb atom is energetically favorable, and that Zr–O bonding has an important role to stabilize the bcc structure of gum metal. The three-dimensional atom-probe tomography (3-D APT) measurements for gum metal were also performed to identify compositional inhomogeneity attributed to the trace elements. From the 3-D APT measurements, Zr ions bonding with oxygen ions are observed, which indicates existence of Zr–O nano-clusters in gum metal. Consequently, it is found that (a) coexistence of Zr atom and oxygen atom improves elastical stability of gum metal, (b) inhomogeneous distribution of the compositions induced by the trace elements causes anisotropical change of shear moduli, and (c) Zr–O nano-clusters existing in gum metal are expected to be obstacles to suppress movemen of dislocations.

  2. Beyond the GUM: variance-based sensitivity analysis in metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lira, I

    2016-01-01

    Variance-based sensitivity analysis is a well established tool for evaluating the contribution of the uncertainties in the inputs to the uncertainty in the output of a general mathematical model. While the literature on this subject is quite extensive, it has not found widespread use in metrological applications. In this article we present a succinct review of the fundamentals of sensitivity analysis, in a form that should be useful to most people familiarized with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM). Through two examples, it is shown that in linear measurement models, no new knowledge is gained by using sensitivity analysis that is not already available after the terms in the so-called ‘law of propagation of uncertainties’ have been computed. However, if the model behaves non-linearly in the neighbourhood of the best estimates of the input quantities—and if these quantities are assumed to be statistically independent—sensitivity analysis is definitely advantageous for gaining insight into how they can be ranked according to their importance in establishing the uncertainty of the measurand. (paper)

  3. Unleashing Empirical Equations with "Nonlinear Fitting" and "GUM Tree Calculator"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell-Smith, J. W.; Saunders, P.; Feistel, R.

    2017-10-01

    Empirical equations having large numbers of fitted parameters, such as the international standard reference equations published by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS), which form the basis of the "Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater—2010" (TEOS-10), provide the means to calculate many quantities very accurately. The parameters of these equations are found by least-squares fitting to large bodies of measurement data. However, the usefulness of these equations is limited since uncertainties are not readily available for most of the quantities able to be calculated, the covariance of the measurement data is not considered, and further propagation of the uncertainty in the calculated result is restricted since the covariance of calculated quantities is unknown. In this paper, we present two tools developed at MSL that are particularly useful in unleashing the full power of such empirical equations. "Nonlinear Fitting" enables propagation of the covariance of the measurement data into the parameters using generalized least-squares methods. The parameter covariance then may be published along with the equations. Then, when using these large, complex equations, "GUM Tree Calculator" enables the simultaneous calculation of any derived quantity and its uncertainty, by automatic propagation of the parameter covariance into the calculated quantity. We demonstrate these tools in exploratory work to determine and propagate uncertainties associated with the IAPWS-95 parameters.

  4. Síndrome de Sweet asociado a neoplasias Sweet's syndrome associated with neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Franco

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Sweet fue descrito en el año 1964 por Robert Douglas Sweet, como una entidad a la cual denominó dermatosis neutrofílica febril y aguda. Se caracteriza por cinco rasgos principales: 1 aparición brusca de placas eritemato-dolorosas en cara, cuello y extremidades; 2 fiebre; 3 leucocitosis polimorfonuclear; 4 denso infiltrado dérmico a predominio neutrofilico; 5 rápida respuesta al tratamiento esteroideo. Se puede clasificar en cinco grupos: idiopático, parainflamatorio, paraneoplásico, secundario a drogas y asociado a embarazo. En el 20% de los casos se asocia a enfermedades malignas, representando las hematológicas el 85% y los tumores sólidos el 15% restante. Se presenta una serie de siete casos de síndrome de Sweet asociado a neoplasias, diagnosticados durante el período 2002-2006, de los cuales seis correspondieron a enfermedades oncohematológicas y el restante a tumores sólidos. Como comentario de dicha casuística, se hace hincapié en la importancia del diagnóstico de este síndrome, debido a que puede anunciar la recaída del tumor o la progresión de la enfermedad de base. De esta manera, mediante el uso de métodos de diagnóstico y tratamiento oportunos, se lograría mejorar la calida de vida de estos pacientes. También debe tenerse en cuenta, que los pacientes oncológicos reciben múltiples medicaciones (factor estimulante de colonias, que pueden estar implicadas en la aparición de esta entidad, debiendo ser las mismas descartadas como posibles causas.Sweet's syndrome was described in 1964 by Robert Douglas Sweet, as an entity he named acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis. It is characterized by five main features: 1 sudden appearance of erythematous and tender plaques on the face, neck and extremities; 2 fever; 3 polymorphonuclear leukocytes; 4 predominantly neutrophilic dense infiltrate in the dermis, and 5 rapid response to steroid therapy. Sweet's syndrome can be classified into five groups

  5. Effect of gum arabic in an oral rehydration solution on recovery from diarrhea in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichberg, S; Wingertzahn, M A; Moyse, J; Wapnir, R A

    1999-10-01

    It has been shown that gum arabic, a soluble fiber, enhances water, electrolyte, and glucose absorption from oral rehydration solutions in jejunal perfusion of healthy rats and in animals with theophylline-induced secretion or chronic osmotic-secretory diarrhea. This report concerns a study of the effectiveness of an oral rehydration solution supplemented with gum arabic, during recovery from chronic osmotic secretory diarrhea in free-living rats. Chronic diarrhea was induced in 60- to 80-g juvenile rats by providing a magnesium citrate-phenolphthalein solution as the sole fluid source for 7 days. This led to diarrhea characterized by dehydration, soft stools, increased cecal volume, decreased food and fluid intake and failure to gain weight. After 7 days of diarrhea, rats recovered for 24 hours with either tap water or an oral rehydration solution (90 mM Na, 111 mM glucose, 20 mM K, 80 mM chloride, 20 mM citrate) with or without 2.5 g/l gum arabic. Although all three solutions improved the diarrhea, optimal recovery from diarrhea was achieved with the gum arabic-supplemented oral rehydration solution. After 4 hours and 24 hours, rats drinking the gum arabic-supplemented solution gained more weight and had lower fecal output than rats receiving water or the rehydration solution without gum arabic. All three solutions normalized plasma osmolality after 24 hours. The positive effects of the gum arabic-supplemented rehydration solution on fluid and electrolyte absorption seen during jejunal perfusion also occurred during recovery from chronic osmotic secretory diarrhea, when free-living animals drank the solution ad libitum.

  6. Dependence levels in users of electronic cigarettes, nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    To assess dependence levels in users of e-cigarettes, and compare them with dependence levels in users of nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes. Self-reports from cross-sectional Internet and mail surveys. Comparisons of: (a) 766 daily users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes with 30 daily users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes; (b) 911 former smokers who used the e-cigarette daily with 451 former smokers who used the nicotine gum daily (but no e-cigarette); (c) 125 daily e-cigarette users who smoked daily (dual users) with two samples of daily smokers who did not use e-cigarettes (2206 enrolled on the Internet and 292 enrolled by mail from the general population of Geneva). We used the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence, the nicotine dependence syndrome scale, the cigarette dependence scale and versions of these scales adapted for e-cigarettes and nicotine gums. Dependence ratings were slightly higher in users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes than in users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes. In former smokers, long-term (>3 months) users of e-cigarettes were less dependent on e-cigarettes than long-term users of the nicotine gum were dependent on the gum. There were few differences in dependence ratings between short-term (≤3 months) users of gums or e-cigarettes. Dependence on e-cigarettes was generally lower in dual users than dependence on tobacco cigarettes in the two other samples of daily smokers. Some e-cigarette users were dependent on nicotine-containing e-cigarettes, but these products were less addictive than tobacco cigarettes. E-cigarettes may be as or less addictive than nicotine gums, which themselves are not very addictive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Allelopathic activity of saponins exctracted from Rhododendron luteum Sweet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna M. Yezhel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with allelopathic activity of saponins exctracted from Rhododendron luteumSweet leaves. Investigations show nonlinear correlation between saponins concetration and growth of the roots of test-cultures.

  8. Sweet Taste Receptor Signaling Network: Possible Implication for Cognitive Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menizibeya O. Welcome

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet taste receptors are transmembrane protein network specialized in the transmission of information from special “sweet” molecules into the intracellular domain. These receptors can sense the taste of a range of molecules and transmit the information downstream to several acceptors, modulate cell specific functions and metabolism, and mediate cell-to-cell coupling through paracrine mechanism. Recent reports indicate that sweet taste receptors are widely distributed in the body and serves specific function relative to their localization. Due to their pleiotropic signaling properties and multisubstrate ligand affinity, sweet taste receptors are able to cooperatively bind multiple substances and mediate signaling by other receptors. Based on increasing evidence about the role of these receptors in the initiation and control of absorption and metabolism, and the pivotal role of metabolic (glucose regulation in the central nervous system functioning, we propose a possible implication of sweet taste receptor signaling in modulating cognitive functioning.

  9. Glucose and Mannose: A Link between Hydration and Sweetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhys, N H; Bruni, F; Imberti, S; McLain, S E; Ricci, M A

    2017-08-24

    Glucose and mannose have a different degree of sweetness, implying different affinity to the sweet taste receptor. While the receptor structure is still undefined, there are several geometrical models for their binding mechanism. A detailed study of the hydration structure of sugars with known degree of sweetness is bound to provide information on the accuracy of such models. Our neutron diffraction study on the hydration of glucose and mannose show that both α- and β-glucose form strong hydrogen bonds with water, and that the steric hindrance of their first hydration shell matches the receptor geometrical model. The α-anomer of mannose has a similar, well-defined first hydration shell, but with fewer and weaker hydrogen bonds compared to glucose. Conversely, the hydration shell of β-mannose (reported as bitter) does not match the receptor geometrical model. These findings suggest a link between the hydration shell of sugars and their degree of sweetness.

  10. Non-caloric sweeteners, sweetness modulators, and sweetener enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Grant E; Prakash, Indra

    2012-01-01

    For a new sweetness technology to realize strong commercial success, it must be safe, exhibit good taste quality, be sufficiently soluble and stable in food and beverage systems, and be cost effective and patentable. Assessments of the commercial promise of eight synthetic and eight natural non-caloric sweeteners are made relevant to these metrics. High-potency (HP) non-caloric sweeteners, both synthetic and natural, are generally limited in taste quality by (a) low maximal sweetness response, (b) "off" tastes, (c) slow-onset sweet tastes that linger, and (d) sweet tastes that adapt or desensitize the gustatory system. Formulation approaches to address these limitations are discussed. Enhancement of the normal sucrose sensory response by action of a sweetener receptor positive allosteric modulator (PAM) has been achieved with very significant calorie reduction and with retention of the taste quality of sucrose. Research on PAM discovery over the past decade is summarized.

  11. Coexistence of pyoderma gangrenosum and sweet's syndrome in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coexistence of pyoderma gangrenosum and sweet's syndrome in a patient with ulcerative colitis. F Ajili, A Souissi, F Bougrine, N Boussetta, N.B. Abdelhafidh, S Sayhi, B Louzir, N Doss, J Laabidi, S Othmani ...

  12. genetic evaluation of polycross hybrids of sweet potatoes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-06-14

    Received 14 June ... sweet potato to Identify tuber bearing progenies was conducted at PNG University of Technology farm, ... Heritability values for tuber yield, tuber number and vine weight were OÜO, 0.62 and 0.10, respectively.

  13. Síndrome de Sweet associada à policitemia vera

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira,Ângela Puccini; Souza,Flávia Feijó de; Gaspar,Neide Kalil; Quattrino,Ada Lobato; Vilar,Enoi Aparecida Guedes

    2009-01-01

    A síndrome de Sweet pode estar associada a malignidades hematológicas, principalmente, à leucemia mieloide aguda, porém existem poucos relatos demonstrando a associação com a policitemia vera. Relata-se o caso de doente do sexo masculino, de 65 anos, portador de policitemia vera,que evoluiu com aparecimento de síndrome de Sweet na sua forma paraneoplásica.

  14. Cost to deliver sweet sorghum fermentables to a central plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cundiff, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    The major obstacle to a sweet sorghum-for-ethanol industry in the Piedmont of Virginia is the short harvest season of eight weeks. A Piedmont harvesting system is described that will enable the Piedmont to compete with Louisiana in production of sweet sorghum for ethanol. The cost to supply feedstock (up to the point fermentation begins) for a one million GPY ethanol plant was estimated to be $2.35/gal expected ethanol yield. This amount compared favorably with two other options

  15. SSR markers in characterization of sweet corn inbred lines

    OpenAIRE

    Srdić Jelena; Nikolić Ana; Pajić Zorica

    2008-01-01

    Sweet corn differs from field corn in many important traits. So its breeding although includes some standard procedures demand application of techniques that are important for determining special traits, all because of the specificity of its usage. Application of molecular markers becomes almost a necessity for the breeding of sweet corn, especially because this is the type of maize in which still no definitive heterotic patterns have been determined. So getting to know genetic divergence of ...

  16. The current incidence of viral disease in korean sweet potatoes and development of multiplex rt-PCR assays for simultaneous detection of eight sweet potato viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Shin, Jun-Chul; Lee, Ye-Ji; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Lee, Hyeong-Un; Jung, Mi-Nam; Kim, Sun-Hyung; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-12-01

    Sweet potato is grown extensively from tropical to temperate regions and is an important food crop worldwide. In this study, we established detection methods for 17 major sweet potato viruses using single and multiplex RT-PCR assays. To investigate the current incidence of viral diseases, we collected 154 samples of various sweet potato cultivars showing virus-like symptoms from 40 fields in 10 Korean regions, and analyzed them by RT-PCR using specific primers for each of the 17 viruses. Of the 17 possible viruses, we detected eight in our samples. Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and sweet potato virus C (SPVC) were most commonly detected, infecting approximately 87% and 85% of samples, respectively. Furthermore, Sweet potato symptomless virus 1 (SPSMV-1), Sweet potato virus G (SPVG), Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), Sweet potato virus 2 ( SPV2), Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV) were detected in 67%, 58%, 47%, 41%, 31%, and 20% of samples, respectively. This study presents the first documented occurrence of four viruses (SPVC, SPV2, SPCFV, and SPSMV-1) in Korea. Based on the results of our survey, we developed multiplex RT-PCR assays for simple and simultaneous detection of the eight sweet potato viruses we recorded.

  17. Hypothesis/review: the structural basis of sweetness perception of sweet-tasting plant proteins can be deduced from sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintjens, René; Viet, Tran Melody Vu Ngoc; Mbosso, Emmanuel; Huet, Joëlle

    2011-10-01

    Human perception of sweetness, behind the felt pleasure, is thought to play a role as an indicator of energy density of foods. For humans, only a small number of plant proteins taste sweet. As non-caloric sweeteners, these plant proteins have attracted attention as candidates for the control of obesity, oral health and diabetic management. Significant advances have been made in the characterization of the sweet-tasting plant proteins, as well as their binding interactions with the appropriate receptors. The elucidation of sweet-taste receptor gene sequences represents an important step towards the understanding of sweet taste perception. However, many questions on the molecular basis of sweet-taste elicitation by plant proteins remain unanswered. In particular, why homologues of these proteins do not elicit similar responses? This question is discussed in this report, on the basis of available sequences and structures of sweet-tasting proteins, as well as of sweetness-sensing receptors. A simple procedure based on sequence comparisons between sweet-tasting protein and its homologous counterparts was proposed to identify critical residues for sweetness elicitation. The open question on the physiological function of sweet-tasting plant proteins is also considered. In particular, this review leads us to suggest that sweet-tasting proteins may interact with taste receptor in a serendipity manner. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Current Incidence of Viral Disease in Korean Sweet Potatoes and Development of Multiplex RT-PCR Assays for Simultaneous Detection of Eight Sweet Potato Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Ryun Kwak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato is grown extensively from tropical to temperate regions and is an important food crop worldwide. In this study, we established detection methods for 17 major sweet potato viruses using single and multiplex RT-PCR assays. To investigate the current incidence of viral diseases, we collected 154 samples of various sweet potato cultivars showing virus-like symptoms from 40 fields in 10 Korean regions, and analyzed them by RT-PCR using specific primers for each of the 17 viruses. Of the 17 possible viruses, we detected eight in our samples. Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV and sweet potato virus C (SPVC were most commonly detected, infecting approximately 87% and 85% of samples, respectively. Furthermore, Sweet potato symptomless virus 1 (SPSMV-1, Sweet potato virus G (SPVG, Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV, Sweet potato virus 2 ( SPV2, Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV, and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV were detected in 67%, 58%, 47%, 41%, 31%, and 20% of samples, respectively. This study presents the first documented occurrence of four viruses (SPVC, SPV2, SPCFV, and SPSMV-1 in Korea. Based on the results of our survey, we developed multiplex RT-PCR assays for simple and simultaneous detection of the eight sweet potato viruses we recorded.

  19. Acral manifestations of Sweet syndrome (neutrophilic dermatosis of the hands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ronni; Tüzün, Yalçın

    Neutrophilic dermatosis of the hand (NDH) is a rare localized variant of the syndrome, originally described two decades ago by Strutton et al. The lesions of NDH and Sweet syndrome are similar, as indicated in the first report of NDH. Both diagnoses are characterized by an acute onset of fever, leukocytosis, and tender, erythematous infiltrated plaques. There are also bullae and ulceration in NDH, in contrast to Sweet syndrome, in which bullae are quite uncommon, especially at the early stages. Similar to Sweet syndrome, the majority of NDH patients are women (69%). Patients with NDH present with fever, peripheral neutrophilia, leukocytosis, and/or an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein level, but at a significantly lower rate than those in Sweet syndrome (33%). Similar to Sweet syndrome, NDH has been associated with the following conditions: Malignancies (particularly hematological [21%], most common of which is acute myelogenous leukemia, but many other malignancies as well), inflammatory bowel disease (19%), medication and vaccination-related eruptions, bacterial and viral infections, rheumatologic diseases, and others. The clues to the diagnosis of NDH are the same as for Sweet syndrome. Awareness of this diagnosis is important not only to avoid unnecessary medical and surgical therapy and to expediently initiate the administration of steroids for this highly responsive dermatosis, but also to conduct an appropriate workup to exclude associated diseases, especially malignancies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermal Diffusivity of Sweet Potato Flour Measured Using Dickerson Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.K. Tastra

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (Ipmoea batatas I. is one the carbohydrate sources in indonesia that can be used both for food and industry purposes. To support the utilization of sweet potato as flour, it is imperative to develop a drying system that can improve its quality. A preliminary study using an improved variety, namely Sari, was conducted to determine its floure thermal diffusivity ( , an imprortant parameter in developing drying process. The experiment was run according to Dickerson method using sweet potato flour at different levels of moisture content (5.05-5.97% wet basis and temperatures (23.7 -40.9 oC this method used an apparatus based on transient heat transfer condition requiring only a time- temperature data. At the levels of moisture and temperature studied, the thermal diffusivity of sweet potato flour could be expressed using a linear regression model, = 10-9 M.T + 9X 10-9( R2=0.9779. the average value of the thermal diffusivity sweet potato flour was 1.72 x 10-7 m2/s at a moisture level of 5.51 % wet basis and temperature of 29.58 oC. Similar studies are needed for different varieties or cultivars of sweet potato as well at a wide range of moisture content and temperature content and temperature levels.

  1. The Impact of Maltitol-Sweetened Chewing Gum on the Dental Plaque Biofilm Microbiota Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart J. F. Keijser

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The oral cavity harbors a complex microbial ecosystem, intimately related to oral health and disease. The use of polyol-sweetened gum is believed to benefit oral health through stimulation of salivary flow and impacting oral pathogenic bacteria. Maltitol is often used as sweetener in food products. This study aimed to establish the in vivo effects of frequent consumption of maltitol-sweetened chewing gum on the dental plaque microbiota in healthy volunteers and to establish the cellular and molecular effects by in vitro cultivation and transcriptional analysis.Results: An intervention study was performed in 153 volunteers, randomly assigned to three groups (www.trialregister.nl; NTR4165. One group was requested to use maltitol gum five times daily, one group used gum-base, and the third group did not use chewing gum. At day 0 and day 28, 24 h-accumulated supragingival plaque was collected at the lingual sites of the lower jaw and the buccal sites of the upper jaw and analyzed by 16S ribosomal rRNA gene sequencing. At day 42, 2 weeks after completion of the study, lower-jaw samples were collected and analyzed. The upper buccal plaque microbiota composition had lower bacterial levels and higher relative abundances of (facultative aerobic species compared to the lower lingual sites. There was no difference in bacterial community structure between any of the three study groups (PERMANOVA. Significant lower abundance of several bacterial phylotypes was found in maltitol gum group compared to the gum-base group, including Actinomyces massiliensis HOT 852 and Lautropia mirabilis HOT 022. Cultivation studies confirmed growth inhibition of A. massiliensis and A. johnsonii by maltitol at levels of 1% and higher. Transcriptome analysis of A. massiliensis revealed that exposure to maltitol resulted in changes in the expression of genes linked to osmoregulation, biofilm formation, and central carbon metabolism.Conclusion: The results showed that

  2. The Impact of Maltitol-Sweetened Chewing Gum on the Dental Plaque Biofilm Microbiota Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijser, Bart J F; van den Broek, Tim J; Slot, Dagmar E; van Twillert, Lodewic; Kool, Jolanda; Thabuis, Clémentine; Ossendrijver, Michel; van der Weijden, Fridus A; Montijn, Roy C

    2018-01-01

    Background: The oral cavity harbors a complex microbial ecosystem, intimately related to oral health and disease. The use of polyol-sweetened gum is believed to benefit oral health through stimulation of salivary flow and impacting oral pathogenic bacteria. Maltitol is often used as sweetener in food products. This study aimed to establish the in vivo effects of frequent consumption of maltitol-sweetened chewing gum on the dental plaque microbiota in healthy volunteers and to establish the cellular and molecular effects by in vitro cultivation and transcriptional analysis. Results: An intervention study was performed in 153 volunteers, randomly assigned to three groups (www.trialregister.nl; NTR4165). One group was requested to use maltitol gum five times daily, one group used gum-base, and the third group did not use chewing gum. At day 0 and day 28, 24 h-accumulated supragingival plaque was collected at the lingual sites of the lower jaw and the buccal sites of the upper jaw and analyzed by 16S ribosomal rRNA gene sequencing. At day 42, 2 weeks after completion of the study, lower-jaw samples were collected and analyzed. The upper buccal plaque microbiota composition had lower bacterial levels and higher relative abundances of (facultative) aerobic species compared to the lower lingual sites. There was no difference in bacterial community structure between any of the three study groups (PERMANOVA). Significant lower abundance of several bacterial phylotypes was found in maltitol gum group compared to the gum-base group, including Actinomyces massiliensis HOT 852 and Lautropia mirabilis HOT 022. Cultivation studies confirmed growth inhibition of A. massiliensis and A. johnsonii by maltitol at levels of 1% and higher. Transcriptome analysis of A. massiliensis revealed that exposure to maltitol resulted in changes in the expression of genes linked to osmoregulation, biofilm formation, and central carbon metabolism. Conclusion: The results showed that chewing itself

  3. A SANS study of the adsorption of guar gum on talc surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cram, S.L.; Knott, R.; Hanley, H.

    2002-01-01

    Reagents based on guar gum are commonly used as 'gangue' depressants in the flotation of sulphides from ores containing naturally floating layer silicate minerals such as talc. Nickel sulphide ores processed by WMC Resources Ltd. at the Leinster Nickel Operations in Western Australia typically contain 1-2 % talc. Guar gum, added to the flotation cell, depresses the talc by adsorbing onto its surface, thereby reducing its hydrophobic nature. Guar gum is a long chain polysaccharide containing many hydroxyl functional groups along the length of its chain. The ratio of chain length to the number of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups causes the guar gum to be selective in depressing talc rather than nickel sulphide minerals. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) it is an excellent tool for probing structures in the nano length scale. Unlike X-rays, neutrons are sensitive to low atomic weight elements, especially hydrogen and therefore organics. Using SANS it is possible to contrast different parts of a composite sample to get information on spatial arrangements. These qualities make SANS an obvious choice for studying the adsorption of guar gum on the surface of talc in aqueous solutions. Complimentary SANS experiments were carried out in Australia at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) and in the United States at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Initially talc samples were studied 'as supplied', however as experiments proceeded attempts to reduce the particle size and distribution were carried out by milling and centrifuging procedures. Contrast matching techniques were used to observed the scattering behaviour of talc with and without the presence of guar gum and vice versa, over a total q range of 0.002 - 0.1 Angstroms -1 . The size of the talc particles appears to affect the scattering behaviour not only of talc but also of guar gum in the same solutions. This implies that the structure of the guar gum is strongly

  4. Effect of Different Combinations of Gums and Emulsifiers on the Quality of Bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, M. R.; Din, G. M. U.; Mehmood, A.; Hussain, A.; Nasir, M. U.

    2016-01-01

    A project was designed to evaluate the effect of different combinations of emulsifiers and gums on the quality of bread. Wheat variety AARI-11 was milled to get straight grade flour and mixed with the Emulsifiers (DMG and DATEM) and Gums (G.G and CMC) in a quantity of (0.3- 0.6 %). Both, straight grade flour as well as treated flour (combination with gums and emulsifiers) were subjected to proximate and rheological analysis. Results of the rheological study showed a significant change in water absorption, dough development time, dough stability time and dough viscosity i.e. W/A 61.33-62.93%, D.D.T 3.9-4.8 min, D.S.T 7-9.1 min and 818.33-950.00 BU, respectively. Breads prepared with both flours were also studied for their sensory attributes during storage after the interval of 24 h. The highest score was awarded to T1 (0.3% DATEM and 0.5% guar gum) on the bases of its excellent external attributes (colour of crust, volume, symmetry of form, evenness of bake and crust character) and internal characteristics (aroma, grain, texture, taste, mastication and colour of crumb). After the sensory and physicochemical analyses, it is concluded that with the addition of DATEM (0.3%) and guar gum (0.5%) resulted in good quality of bread. (author)

  5. Chewing gum of antimicrobial decapeptide (KSL) as a sustained antiplaque agent: preformulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Dong Hee; Faraj, Jabar; Capan, Yilmaz; Leung, Kai P; DeLuca, Patrick P

    2005-09-20

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of KSL, an antimicrobial decapeptide, which has been shown to inhibit the growth of oral bacterial strains associated with caries development and plaque formation, to act as an antiplaque agent in a chewing gum formulation. A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for KSL and found to be stability-indicating. KSL was stable in acetate buffer at pH 4 and artificial saliva. On the affinity of KSL to tooth-like materials, the KSL showed favorable interaction with hydroxyapatite discs pretreated with human saliva. A chewing gum formulation of KSL was prepared based on conventional procedures and the release of KSL from the gum was studied in vitro using the chewing apparatus and in vivo by a chew-out method. The gum formulations showed promising in vitro/in vivo release profiles, in which 70-80% KSL was released in a sustained manner over 20 min of chewing time. This study suggests that KSL in a gum formulation is suitable for the delivery in the oral cavity, thereby serving as a novel antiplaque agent.

  6. Biosynthesis of xanthan gum by Xanthomonas campestris LRELP-1 using kitchen waste as the sole substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Panyu; Li, Ting; Zeng, Yu; Li, Xiang; Jiang, Xiaolong; Wang, Yabo; Xie, Tonghui; Zhang, Yongkui

    2016-10-20

    Herein, we report the production of xanthan gum by fermentation using kitchen waste as the sole substrate. The kitchen waste was firstly pretreated by a simple hydrolysis method, after which the obtained kitchen waste hydrolysate was diluted with an optimal ratio 1:2. In a 5-L fermentor, the maximum xanthan production, reducing sugar conversion and utilization rates reached 11.73g/L, 67.07% and 94.82%, respectively. The kinetics of batch fermentation was also investigated. FT-IR and XRD characterizations confirmed the fermentation product as xanthan gum. TGA analyses showed that the thermal stability of the xanthan gum obtained in this study was similar to commercial sample. The molecular weights of xanthan gum were measured to be 0.69-1.37×10(6)g/mol. The maximum pyruvate and acetyl contents in xanthan gum were 6.11% and 2.49%, respectively. This study provides a cost-effective solution for the reusing of kitchen waste and a possible low-cost approach for xanthan production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gum in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. shoots induced by methyl jasmonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Saniewski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been well known that some fungal pathogens (Monilia laxa, M. fructigena, Cytospora cincta, larvae of Grapholita molesta and plant hormone - ethylene, induce gummosis in apricot shoots. Methyl jasmonate (JA-Me was also found to induce gummosis in apricot shoots as well as biotic and abiotic factors mentioned above. In order to know the mode of action of JA-Me on gum induction and/or formation, chemical composition of polysaccharides (after hydrolysis in gums of apricot shoots induced by JA-Me compared with those by ethephon and their mixture, and naturally occurring ones was studied, resulted in the succesful identification of monosaccharides, and the similarity of a composition consisting of xylose, arabinose and galactose at molar ratio 1:10:14, respectively. These results suggest that beside different inducers of gum in apricot the mechanism of polysaccharides biosynthesis of gums is the same or similar. The physiological role for JA-Me on gum induction and/or formation in apricot shoots, and other species are also discussed.

  8. Chemical and physical properties, safety and application of partially hydrolized guar gum as dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seon-Joo; Chu, Djong-Chi; Raj Juneja, Lekh

    2008-01-01

    The ideal water-soluble dietary fiber for the fiber-enrichment of foods must be very low in viscosity, tasteless, odorless, and should produce clear solutions in beverages. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) produced from guar gum by enzymatic process has the same chemical structure with intact guar gum but less than one-tenth the original molecular length of guar gum, which make available to be used as film former, foam stabilizer and swelling agent. The viscosity of PHGG is about 10 mPa.s in 5% aqueous solution, whereas 1% solution of guar gum shows range from 2,000 to 3,000 mPa.s. In addition, PHGG is greatly stable against low pH, heat, acid and digestive enzyme. For these reasons, PHGG seems to be one of the most beneficial dietary fiber materials. It also showed that interesting physiological functions still fully exert the nutritional function of a dietary fiber. PHGG has, therefore, been used primarily for a nutritional purpose and became fully integrated food material without altering the rheology, taste, texture and color of final products. PHGG named as Benefiber(R) in USA has self-affirmation on GRAS status of standard grade PHGG. PHGG named as Sunfiber(R) is now being used in various beverages, food products and medicinal foods as a safe, natural and functional dietary fiber in all over the world.

  9. Statistical experimental design optimization of rhamsan gum production by Sphingomonas sp. CGMCC 6833.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Ying; Dong, Shu-Hao; Li, Sha; Chen, Xiao-Ye; Wu, Ding; Xu, Hong

    2015-04-01

    Rhamsan gum is a type of water-soluble exopolysaccharide produced by species of Sphingomonas bacteria. The optimal fermentation medium for rhamsan gum production by Sphingomonas sp. CGMCC 6833 was explored definition. Single-factor experiments indicate that glucose, soybean meal, K(2)HPO(4) and MnSO(4) compose the optimal medium along with and initial pH 7.5. To discover ideal cultural conditions for rhamsan gum production in a shake flask culture, response surface methodology was employed, from which the following optimal ratio was derived: 5.38 g/L soybean meal, 5.71 g/L K(2)HPO(4) and 0.32 g/L MnSO(4). Under ideal fermentation rhamsan gum yield reached 19.58 g/L ± 1.23 g/L, 42.09% higher than that of the initial medium (13.78 g/L ± 1.38 g/L). Optimizing the fermentation medium results in enhanced rhamsan gum production.

  10. Effect of time and duration of sorbitol gum chewing on plaque acidogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K K; Schemehorn, B R; Stookey, G K

    1993-01-01

    Recent data indicate that salivary stimulation by chewing sugarless gum after snacks or meals can reduce the acidogenic potential of foods significantly. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal initiation time and duration of post-snack salivary stimulation to obtain the maximum benefits of chewing sorbitol gum on reducing the acidogenic potential of starch-containing snacks. An indwelling plaque pH telemetry system was used on five adults in a randomized block design with four starch-containing snacks--pretzels, potato chips, granola bars, and corn chips. Results indicated that salivary stimulation caused by chewing sorbitol gum initiated after 5 min rather than waiting 15 min significantly reduced the acidogenic challenge induced by the snack foods. This study indicates that when the recommendation to chew sugarless gum following food ingestion is used as an adjunct in caries prevention, it should start within 5 min after food ingestion--the sooner the gum chewing is initiated the better--and should continue for at least 15 min to obtain the maximum benefits.

  11. Development of eco-friendly submicron emulsions stabilized by a bio-derived gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Mosqueda, Luis María; Ramírez, Pablo; Trujillo-Cayado, Luis Alfonso; Santos, Jenifer; Muñoz, José

    2014-11-01

    Many traditional organic solvents are being gradually replaced by ecofriendly alternatives. D-Limonene is a terpenic (bio)-solvent that fulfils the requirements to be considered a green solvent. D-Limonene sub-micron emulsions suffer from Ostwald ripening destabilization. In this study, we examined the influence of the addition of a natural gum (rosin gum) to D-limonene in order to prevent Ostwald ripening. This contribution deals with the study of emulsions formulated with a mixture of D-limonene and rosin gum as dispersed phase and Pluronic PE9400 as emulsifier. The procedure followed for the development of these formulations was based on the application of product design principles. This led to the optimum ratio rosin gum/D-limonene and subsequently to the optimum surfactant concentration. The combination of different techniques (rheology, laser diffraction and multiple light scattering) was demonstrated to be a powerful tool to assist in the prediction of the emulsions destabilization process. Not only did the addition of rosin gum highly increase the stability of these emulsions by inhibiting the Ostwald ripening, but it also reduced the emulsions droplet size. Thus, we found that stable sub-micron D-limonene-in-water emulsions have been obtained in the range 3-6 wt% Pluronic PE-9400 by means of a single-step rotor/stator homogenizing process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Surface analysis characterisation of gum binders used in modern watercolour paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Naoko; Cumpson, Peter J.

    2016-02-01

    Conducting this study has demonstrated that not only SEM-EDX but also XPS can be an efficient tool for characterising watercolour paint surfaces. We find that surface effects are mediated by water. Once the powdered components in the watercolour come into contact with water they dramatically transform their chemical structures at the surface and show the presence of pigment components with a random dispersion within the gum layer. Hence the topmost surface of the paint is confirmed as being composed of the gum binder components. This result is difficult to confirm using just one analytical technique (either XPS or SEM-EDX). In addition, peak fitting of C1s XPS spectra suggests that the gum binder in the commercial watercolour paints is probably gum arabic (by comparison with the reference materials). This identification is not conclusive, but the combination techniques of XPS and SEM shows the surface structure with material distribution of the gum binder and the other ingredients of the watercolour paints. Therefore as a unique technique, XPS combined with SEM-EDX may prove a useful method in the study of surface structure for not only watercolour objects but also other art objects; which may in future help in the conservation for art.

  13. Effects of short-term xylitol gum chewing on the oral microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderling, Eva; ElSalhy, Mohamed; Honkala, Eino; Fontana, Margherita; Flannagan, Susan; Eckert, George; Kokaras, Alexis; Paster, Bruce; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Honkala, Sisko

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of short-term xylitol gum chewing on the salivary microbiota of children. The study was a randomised, controlled, double-blind trial. Healthy children used xylitol chewing gum (xylitol group, n = 35) or sorbitol chewing gum (control group, n = 38) for 5 weeks. The daily dose of xylitol/sorbitol was approximately 6 g/day. At baseline and at the end of the test period, unstimulated and paraffin-stimulated saliva were collected. The microbial composition of the saliva was assessed using human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM). Mutans streptococci (MS) were plate cultured. As judged by HOMIM results, no xylitol-induced changes in the salivary microbiota took place in the xylitol group. In the control group, Veillonella atypica showed a significant decrease (p = 0.0001). The xylitol gum chewing decreased viable counts of MS in both stimulated (p = 0.006) and unstimulated (p = 0.002) saliva, but similar effects were also seen in the control group. The use of xylitol gum decreased MS, in general, but did not change the salivary microbial composition. Short-term consumption of xylitol had no impact on the composition of the salivary microbiota, but resulted in a decrease in the levels of MS.

  14. Structure of xanthan gum and cell ultrastructure at different times of alkali stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvielmo, Márcia de Mello; Borges, Caroline Dellinghausen; Toyama, Daniela de Oliveira; Vendruscolo, Claire Tondo; Scamparini, Adilma Regina Pippa

    2016-01-01

    The effect of alkali stress on the yield, viscosity, gum structure, and cell ultrastructure of xanthan gum was evaluated at the end of fermentation process of xanthan production by Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis 280-95. Although greater xanthan production was observed after a 24h-alkali stress process, a lower viscosity was observed when compared to the alkali stress-free gum, regardless of the alkali stress time. However, this outcome is not conclusive as further studies on gum purification are required to remove excess sodium, verify the efficiency loss and the consequent increase in the polymer viscosity. Alkali stress altered the structure of xanthan gum from a polygon-like shape to a star-like form. At the end of the fermentation, early structural changes in the bacterium were observed. After alkali stress, marked structural differences were observed in the cells. A more vacuolated cytoplasm and discontinuities in the membrane cells evidenced the cell lysis. Xanthan was observed in the form of concentric circles instead of agglomerates as observed prior to the alkali stress. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Economic feasibility of producing sweet sorghum as an ethanol feedstock in the southeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linton, Joseph A.; Miller, J. Corey; Little, Randall D.; Petrolia, Daniel R.; Coble, Keith H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the feasibility of producing sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) as an ethanol feedstock in the southeastern United States through representative counties in Mississippi. We construct enterprise budgets along with estimates of transportation costs to estimate sweet sorghum producers' breakeven costs for producing and delivering sweet sorghum biomass. This breakeven cost for the sweet sorghum producer is used to estimate breakeven costs for the ethanol producer based on wholesale ethanol price, production costs, and transportation and marketing costs. Stochastic models are developed to estimate profits for sweet sorghum and competing crops in two representative counties in Mississippi, with sweet sorghum consistently yielding losses in both counties. -- Highlights: → We examine the economic feasibility of sweet sorghum as an ethanol feedstock. → We construct enterprise budgets along with estimates of transportation costs. → We estimate breakeven costs for producing and delivering sweet sorghum biomass. → Stochastic models determine profits for sweet sorghum in two Mississippi counties.

  16. Crystal structure of Mabinlin II: a novel structural type of sweet proteins and the main structural basis for its sweetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Feng; Jiang, Peihua; Zhu, De-Yu; Hu, Yonglin; Max, Marianna; Wang, Da-Cheng

    2008-04-01

    The crystal structure of a sweet protein Mabinlin II (Mab II) isolated from the mature seeds of Capparis masaikai Levl. grown in Southern China has been determined at 1.7A resolution by the SIRAS method. The Mab II 3D structure features in an "all alpha" fold mode consisting of A- and B-chains crosslinked by four disulfide bridges, which is distinct from all known sweet protein structures. The Mabinlin II molecule shows an amphiphilic surface, a cationic face (Face A) and a neutral face (Face B). A unique structural motif consisting of B54-B64 was found in Face B, which adopts a special sequence, NL-P-NI-C-NI-P-NI, featuring four [Asn-Leu/Ile] units connected by three conformational-constrained residues, thus is called the [NL/I] tetralet motif. The experiments for testing the possible interactions of separated A-chain and B-chain and the native Mabinlin II to the sweet-taste receptor were performed through the calcium imaging experiments with the HEK293E cells coexpressed hT1R2/T1R3. The result shows that hT1R2/T1R3 responds to both the integrated Mabinlin II and the individual B-chain in the same scale, but not to A-chain. The sweetness evaluation further identified that the separated B-chain can elicit the sweetness alone, but A-chain does not. All data in combination revealed that the sweet protein Mabinlin II can interact with the sweet-taste receptor hT1R2/T1R3 to elicit its sweet taste, and the B-chain with a unique [NL/I] tetralet motif is the essential structural element for the interaction with sweet-taste receptor to elicit the sweetness, while the A-chain may play a role in gaining a long aftertaste for the integrate Mabinlin II. The findings reported in this paper will be advantage for understanding the diversity of sweet proteins and engineering research for development of a unique sweetener for the food and agriculture based on the Mabinlin II structure as a native model.

  17. Human sweet taste receptor mediates acid-induced sweetness of miraculin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Ayako; Tsuchiya, Asami; Nakajima, Ken-ichiro; Ito, Keisuke; Terada, Tohru; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Briand, Loïc; Asakura, Tomiko; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2011-10-04

    Miraculin (MCL) is a homodimeric protein isolated from the red berries of Richadella dulcifica. MCL, although flat in taste at neutral pH, has taste-modifying activity to convert sour stimuli to sweetness. Once MCL is held on the tongue, strong sweetness is sensed over 1 h each time we taste a sour solution. Nevertheless, no molecular mechanism underlying the taste-modifying activity has been clarified. In this study, we succeeded in quantitatively evaluating the acid-induced sweetness of MCL using a cell-based assay system and found that MCL activated hT1R2-hT1R3 pH-dependently as the pH decreased from 6.5 to 4.8, and that the receptor activation occurred every time an acid solution was applied. Although MCL per se is sensory-inactive at pH 6.7 or higher, it suppressed the response of hT1R2-hT1R3 to other sweeteners at neutral pH and enhanced the response at weakly acidic pH. Using human/mouse chimeric receptors and molecular modeling, we revealed that the amino-terminal domain of hT1R2 is required for the response to MCL. Our data suggest that MCL binds hT1R2-hT1R3 as an antagonist at neutral pH and functionally changes into an agonist at acidic pH, and we conclude this may cause its taste-modifying activity.

  18. Human sweet taste receptor mediates acid-induced sweetness of miraculin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Ayako; Tsuchiya, Asami; Nakajima, Ken-ichiro; Ito, Keisuke; Terada, Tohru; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Briand, Loïc; Asakura, Tomiko; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    Miraculin (MCL) is a homodimeric protein isolated from the red berries of Richadella dulcifica. MCL, although flat in taste at neutral pH, has taste-modifying activity to convert sour stimuli to sweetness. Once MCL is held on the tongue, strong sweetness is sensed over 1 h each time we taste a sour solution. Nevertheless, no molecular mechanism underlying the taste-modifying activity has been clarified. In this study, we succeeded in quantitatively evaluating the acid-induced sweetness of MCL using a cell-based assay system and found that MCL activated hT1R2-hT1R3 pH-dependently as the pH decreased from 6.5 to 4.8, and that the receptor activation occurred every time an acid solution was applied. Although MCL per se is sensory-inactive at pH 6.7 or higher, it suppressed the response of hT1R2-hT1R3 to other sweeteners at neutral pH and enhanced the response at weakly acidic pH. Using human/mouse chimeric receptors and molecular modeling, we revealed that the amino-terminal domain of hT1R2 is required for the response to MCL. Our data suggest that MCL binds hT1R2-hT1R3 as an antagonist at neutral pH and functionally changes into an agonist at acidic pH, and we conclude this may cause its taste-modifying activity. PMID:21949380

  19. Evaluation of Blue Gum Chalid Infestation Woodlots in Western Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otuoma, J.; Muchiri, M.N

    2007-01-01

    Blue gum chalcid (BGC) Leptocybe invasa is a gall-forming wasp that belongs to the insect order Hymenoptera, family Eulophidae. It attacks a wide range of Eucalyptus species mostly between the seedling stage and five years of age. BGC causes damage to eucalyptus by forming bump-shaped galls on the leaf midribs, petioles and stems.Twisted and knobbed leaves manifest severe infestation. The aim of this study was to establish the spatial distribution of BGC and extent of host plant damage in Eucalyptus woodlots in Western Kenya. The study was carried out in six permanent sampling plots in Eucalyptus woodlots in Busia, Bungoma, Kakamega and Nyando. Trees were assessed for crown damage by estimating and classifying the density of galls on the leaves into four levels of infestation: low (greater than 50% of foliage canopy with galls and no twisted or knobbed leaves), moderate (greater than 50% of foliage with galls and less than 50% of the leaves twisted and knobbed), high (greater than 50% of the leaves twisted and knobbed, galls on the twigs and some twigs deformed and severe (greater than 50% of the twigs deformed and regeneration foliage observed). An evaluation of the pests' infestation and the extent of host plant damage indicated that, 4% of the trees and severe infestation; 5% high; 20% moderate and 70% low. Approximately 1% of trees died as a result of loss of foliage attributable to severe infestation. Other observations from the study were that the severity of BGC infestation tended to decline as trees grew older and BGC infestation retarded tree growth

  20. Interactions between whey protein isolate and gum Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Miri; Aserin, Abraham; Ben Ishai, Paul; Garti, Nissim

    2010-09-01

    In this study we have attempted to understand the nature of "charge interactions" between two negatively charged biopolymers (whey protein isolate, WPI and gum Arabic, GA) and, consequently, why their mixture exhibits better interfacial activity. Surface tension (gamma(0)) measurements indicated that at ca. 1 wt.% of the biopolymer mixture (3:1 wt. ratio) the air/water surface is saturated. At 5 wt.% the gamma(0) of the mixture is lower than the calculated co-operative value. The zeta-potential measurements revealed that the isoelectric point of the WPI:GA 3:1 wt. ratio mixture is 3.8. The zeta-potential values up to pH 6 are below those calculated. Similarly, the electrical conductivities of the mixture are lower than those calculated. All these measurements indicate: (1) partial charge neutralization in spite of the fact that both biopolymers are negative or (2) partial charge-charge interactions between the two biopolymers. The thermal heating behavior of the frozen water in the aqueous mixture studied by DSC (heating cycle of the frozen sample) clearly indicates that the two biopolymers are interacting. We calculated the enthalpy, the free energy and the chemical potential of the interactions. We found that the interactions of the biopolymers are rather weak. They are likely derived from some local positively charged domains (pH 7) on the protein that neutralize some of the negatively charged GA. These interactions form weak charge adducts. These charge adducts are sufficient to improve its adsorption into the oil-water interface and enhance the emulsion stability. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Flattening postprandial blood glucose responses with guar gum: acute effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIvor, M E; Cummings, C C; Leo, T A; Mendeloff, A I

    1985-01-01

    It has been proposed that high-carbohydrate, high-fiber (HCF) diets might serve as useful therapeutic modality in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). One problem in evaluating clinical trials of this therapy is that, by their very nature, the trials cannot be double blinded. We have developed HCF and placebo granola-type bars using complex absorbable carbohydrate and guar gum fiber to circumvent this methodologic problem. The HCF bars, when consumed with an ad lib. diet, assure an HCF intake without imposing other dietary restrictions. To test the short-term efficacy of the bars, 9 normal adult volunteers, 2 women with impaired glucose tolerance, and 20 patients with NIDDM consumed the bars alone or with meals. Blood glucose responses when HCF bars were consumed alone were blunted when compared with the placebo response (P less than 0.0005 to P less than 0.002), with the most marked suppression occurring in the early postprandial period. In contrast, when the bars were consumed along with breakfast, HCF and placebo responses were virtually identical in the early postprandial period, but showed a progressively greater difference from 90 to 240 min (P less than 0.02 to P less than 0.0005). When consumed with lunch as well as breakfast, the HCF bars caused flattening of blood glucose responses during the late postprandial period after breakfast and maintained flattened responses during the early and late postprandial periods after lunch (P less than 0.05 to P less than 0.005). It is concluded that these HCF bars can be used to blunt postprandial blood glucose responses, in subjects with either normal or abnormal carbohydrate metabolism.

  2. Yellow sweet potato flour: use in sweet bread processing to increase β-carotene content and improve quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Amanda C; Sehn, Georgia A R; Rebellato, Ana Paula; Coutinho, Janclei P; Godoy, Helena T; Chang, Yoon K; Steel, Caroline J; Clerici, Maria Teresa P S

    2018-01-01

    Yellow sweet potato is mostly produced by small farmers, and may be a source of energy and carotenoids in the human diet, but it is a highly perishable crop. To increase its industrial application, yellow sweet potato flour has been produced for use in bakery products. This study aimed to evaluate the technological quality and the carotenoids content in sweet breads produced with the replacement of wheat flour by 0, 3, 6, and 9% yellow sweet potato flour. Breads were characterized by technological parameters and β-carotene levels during nine days of storage. Tukey's test (psweet potato flour concentrations in bread led to a decrease of specific volume and firmness, and an increase in water activity, moisture, orange coloring, and carotenoids. During storage, the most significant changes were observed after the fifth day, with a decrease in intensity of the orange color. The β-carotene content was 0.1656 to 0.4715 µg/g in breads with yellow sweet potato flour. This work showed a novel use of yellow sweet potato in breads, which brings benefits to consumers' health and for the agricultural business.

  3. Preliminary investigation into the pressing process of sweet pearl millet and sweet sorghum biomass for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crepeau, M.; Khelifi, M.; Vanasse, A. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Soil Science and Agri-Food Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Corn is the main source for biofuel production in North America. However, both sweet pearl millet and sweet sorghum crops represent an interesting alternative to corn for ethanol production because of their high biomass yield under a wide range of environmental conditions and high concentration of readily fermentable sugars. Coproducts such as pressing residues can be also be utilized so that nothing is lost in the process. However, in order to improve the extraction of juice for ethanol production, the pressing process of this biomass must be optimized. Preliminary experiments were therefore conducted to optimize the juice extraction from sweet pearl millet and sweet sorghum using 2 different presses, notably a screw press and a manually operated hydraulic press. Both types of biomass were either chopped finely or coarsely and were exposed to various pressures with the hydraulic press. The volume of juice extracted from both crops increased linearly with increasing pressure. Sweet sorghum appeared to be a better feedstock for ethanol production because it produced about 0.03 to 0.06 litre of juice per kg of biomass more than sweet pearl millet. Juice extraction was more effective with the screw press, but only a small difference was noted between the 2 chopping modes.

  4. Chewing gum for postoperative recovery of gastrointestinal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Vaneesha; Herbert, Georgia; Perry, Rachel; Atkinson, Charlotte; Ness, Andrew R; Penfold, Christopher; Thomas, Steven; Andersen, Henning Keinke; Lewis, Stephen J

    2015-02-20

    Ileus commonly occurs after abdominal surgery, and is associated with complications and increased length of hospital stay (LOHS). Onset of ileus is considered to be multifactorial, and a variety of preventative methods have been investigated. Chewing gum (CG) is hypothesised to reduce postoperative ileus by stimulating early recovery of gastrointestinal (GI) function, through cephalo-vagal stimulation. There is no comprehensive review of this intervention in abdominal surgery. To examine whether chewing gum after surgery hastens the return of gastrointestinal function. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (via Ovid), MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE (via Ovid), CINAHL (via EBSCO) and ISI Web of Science (June 2014). We hand-searched reference lists of identified studies and previous reviews and systematic reviews, and contacted CG companies to ask for information on any studies using their products. We identified proposed and ongoing studies from clinicaltrials.gov, World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and metaRegister of Controlled Trials. We included completed randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that used postoperative CG as an intervention compared to a control group. Two authors independently collected data and assessed study quality using an adapted Cochrane risk of bias (ROB) tool, and resolved disagreements by discussion. We assessed overall quality of evidence for each outcome using Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Studies were split into subgroups: colorectal surgery (CRS), caesarean section (CS) and other surgery (OS). We assessed the effect of CG on time to first flatus (TFF), time to bowel movement (TBM), LOHS and time to bowel sounds (TBS) through meta-analyses using a random-effects model. We investigated the influence of study quality, reviewers' methodological estimations and use of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS

  5. Self-perceived mouthfeel and physico-chemical surface effects after chewing gums containing sorbitol and Magnolia bark extract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Stefan W.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Slomp, Anje M.; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Dodds, Michael W. J.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2017-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority recognizes the contribution of sugar-free chewing gum to oral health through increased salivation, clearance of food debris, and neutralization of biofilm pH. Magnolia bark extract is a gum additive shown to reduce the prevalence of bad-breath bacteria but its

  6. Front and Back Face Gum Yields from 2,4-D and H2SO4 Treatments on Slash Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph W. Clements

    1970-01-01

    A 2-percent water soluble solution of 2,4-D was as effective as 50-percent H2SO4 for stimulating gum flow from slash pine in stands of natural reproduction. In the 4-year study reported here, there was no appreciable difference in gum yields for zny one year of work, for either front or back faces, and for the...

  7. Randomized clinical trial of the effect of gum chewing on postoperative ileus and inflammation in colorectal surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heijkant, T. C.; Costes, L. M. M.; van der Lee, D. G. C.; Aerts, B.; Osinga-de Jong, M.; Rutten, H. R. M.; Hulsewé, K. W. E.; de Jonge, W. J.; Buurman, W. A.; Luyer, M. D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative ileus (POI) is a common complication following colorectal surgery that delays recovery and increases length of hospital stay. Gum chewing may reduce POI and therefore enhance recovery after surgery. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of gum chewing on POI, length of

  8. Dryland resources, livelihoods and institutions : diversity and dynamics in use and management of gum and resin trees in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teshale Woldeamanuel Habebo, Teshale

    2011-01-01

    Dry woodlands comprise the largest forest resources in Ethiopia. An important feature of these forests is their richness in Acacia, Boswellia and Commiphora (ABC) species that produce gum and resin. Gums/resins significantly contribute to rural livelihoods, the national economy, and ecosystem

  9. Comparative viscoelasticity studies: Corn fiber gum versus commercial polysaccharide emulsifiers in bulk and at air/liquid interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparative study of both the bulk and air/liquid interfacial rheological responses was carried out by using four kinds of high molecular weight and highly branched polysaccharide emulsifiers, (a) corn fiber gum (CFG), (b) octenyl succinate anhydride-modified starch (OSA-s), (c) gum arabic (GA) an...

  10. Influence of xanthan, guar, CMC and gum acacia on functional properties of water chestnut (Trapa bispinosa) starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfi, Zubala; Nawab, Anjum; Alam, Feroz; Hasnain, Abid; Haider, Syed Zia

    2017-10-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of xanthan, guar, CMC and gum acacia on functional and pasting properties of starch isolated from water chestnut (Trapa bispinosa). Morphological properties of water chestnut starch with CMC were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The addition of hydrocolloids significantly enhanced the solubility of water chestnut starch (WCS) while reduced swelling power and freeze-thaw stability. The hydrophilic tendency of WCS was increased by xanthan gum; however, with addition of gum acacia it decreased significantly. Starch was modified with guar and gum acacia exhibited highest% syneresis. Guar gum was found to be effective in increasing the clarity of water chestnut starch paste. The addition of CMC significantly reduced the pasting temperature of WCS indicating ease of gelatinization. The setback was accelerated in the presence of xanthan gum but gum acacia delayed this effect during the cooling of the starch paste. Only xanthan gum was found to be effective in increasing breakdown showing good paste stability of WCS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mutanase-containing chewing gum: A new potential approach for prevention of dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Kolahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Study on the effect of topically applied mutanase on plaque formation and caries in rats showed strong inhibition of dental caries. Furthermore, it has been shown that the presence of mutanase in dental plaque may affect the synthesis and structure of sticky, extracellular glucans. The Hypothesis: Mutanase can be easily added to gum base. After chewing of mutanase-containing chewing gum, the enzyme will be released into the oral cavity. Mutanase will hydrolyze sticky, extracellular glucans, e.g., mutan inhibiting cariogenic bacteria to cohere/adhere and form plaque. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: The main challenge with this hypothesis is the source of mutanase. It can be obtained from Paenibacillus sp. MP-1 or Trichoderma harzianum F-340. Directly compressible medicated chewing gum bases can be used to avoid inactivation of mutanase during the manufacturing process.

  12. Preliminary study on aluminum-air battery applying disposable soft drink cans and Arabic gum polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva, S.; Sundari, R.; Wijaya, H. F.; Majlan, E. H.; Sudaryanto; Arwati, I. G. A.; Sebayang, D.

    2017-09-01

    This study is in relation to preliminary investigation of aluminium-air battery using disposable soft drink cans as aluminium source for anode. The cathode uses commercial porous carbon sheet to trap oxygen from air. This work applies a commercial cashing to place carbon cathode, electrolyte, Arabic gum polymer, and aluminium anode in a sandwich-like arrangement to form the aluminium-air battery. The Arabic gum as electrolyte polymer membrane protects anode surface from corrosion due to aluminium oxide formation. The study result shows that the battery discharge test using constant current loading of 0.25 mA yields battery capacity of 0.437 mAh with over 100 minute battery life times at 4M NaOH electrolyte and 20 % Arabic gum polymer as the best performance in this investigation. This study gives significant advantage in association with beneficiation of disposable soft drink cans from municipal solid waste as aluminium source for battery anode.

  13. Effect of xanthan gum on the release of strawberry flavor in formulated soy beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiao; He, Zhiyong; Zeng, Maomao; Li, Bingbing; Qin, Fang; Wang, Linxiang; Wu, Shengfang; Chen, Jie

    2017-08-01

    The effects of xanthan gum on the release of strawberry flavor compounds in formulated soy protein isolate (SPI) beverage were investigated by headspace gas chromatography (GC). Seven strawberry flavor compounds (limonene, ethyl hexanoate, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl butanoate, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and diacetyl) could be detected by GC and hence analyzed the gas-matrix partition coefficients (K). The release of flavor compounds was restrained in SPI and/or xanthan gum solution. The retention of (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, limonene and diacetyl significantly changed (pfuraneol) accelerated the release of ester compounds to some extent in different matrices. The above results demonstrated that presence of SPI and xanthan gum could bring about an imbalance in the strawberry flavor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Acacia gum polysaccharide based hydrogel wound dressings: Synthesis, characterization, drug delivery and biomedical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baljit; Sharma, Sushma; Dhiman, Abhishek

    2017-06-01

    Keeping in view the importance of polysaccharide gums for wound care, in the present article, an attempt has been made to explore antioxidant nature of gum acacia in designing hydrogel wound dressing to improve its wound healing potential. These polymers were prepared by using acacia gum-polyvinylpyrollidone/carbopol and were characterized by 13 C NMR, FTIR, SEM, AFM, cryo-SEM, XRD, TGA, DSC and elemental analysis techniques. Some important biomaterial properties of wound dressings such as wound fluid absorption, haemo-compatibility, bioactive assessment, gaseous/water/microbial permeability, mechanical properties, bio-adhesion, drug release, and histology of wound healing were also determined. Hydrogel wound dressings were found non-haemolytic, antioxidant and mucoadhesive in nature. Release of drug occurred through non-Fickian diffusion mechanism and release profile best fitted in Higuchi model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparation and characterization of cross-linked excipient of coprocessed xanthan gum-acacia gum as matrix for sustained release tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surini, Silvia; Wati, Dina Risma; Syahdi, Rezi Riadhi

    2018-02-01

    Sustained release tablet is solid dosage form which is designed to release drugs slowly in the body. This research was intended to prepare and characterize the cross-linked excipients of co-processed xanthan gum-acacia gum (CL-Co-XGGA) as matrices for sustained release tablets with gliclazide as a model drug. CL-Co-XGGA excipients were cross-linked materials of co-processed excipients of xanthan gum-acacia gum (Co-XGGA) using sodium trimetaphosphate. Co-processed excipients of xanthan gum-acacia gum were prepared in the ratio of each excipient 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1. Co-XGGA and CL-Co-XGGA excipients were characterized physically, chemically and functionally. Then, the sustained release (SR) tablets were formulated by wet granulation method using CL-Co-XGGA excipients as matrices. Also, the dissolution study of the gliclazide SR tablets was carried out in phosphate buffer medium pH 7,4 containing sodium lauryl sulphate 0.2% for 12 hours. The results showed that the degree of substitution (DS) of CL-Co-XGGA 1:2, 1:1, 2:1 excipients were respectively 0.067, 0.082 and 0.08. Besides that, the excipients gel strengths were 14.03, 17.27 and 20,70 gF, respectively. The cross-linked excipients had improved flow properties and swelling capability compared to the Co-XGGA excipients. The results of the gliclazide SR tablets evaluations showed that all tablets were passed all tablet requirements. Moreover, the gliclazide release from SR tablets F1 - F6 revealed the sustained release profile, which was following zero order kinetics (F1, F2, F3, F6) and Higuchi kinetics (F4 and F5). It could be concluded that the obtained CL-Co-XGGA excipients might be used as matrices for sustained release tablets and could retard drug release up to 8 until 32 hours.

  16. Aroma compounds in sweet whey powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, S S; Goddik, L; Qian, M C

    2004-12-01

    Aroma compounds in sweet whey powder were investigated in this study. Volatiles were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation. Fractionation was used to separate acidic from nonacidic volatiles. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/olfactometry were used for the identification of aroma compounds. Osme methodology was applied to assess the relative importance of each aroma compound. The most aroma-intense free fatty acids detected were acetic, propanoic, butanoic, hexanoic, heptanoic, octanoic, decanoic, dodecanoic, and 9-decenoic acids. The most aroma-intense nonacidic compounds detected were hexanal, heptanal, nonanal, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-octen-3-one, methional, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine, furfuryl alcohol, p-cresol, 2-acetylpyrrole, maltol, furaneol, and several lactones. This study suggested that the aroma of whey powder could comprise compounds originating from milk, compounds generated by the starter culture during cheese making, and compounds formed during the manufacturing process of whey powder.

  17. Natural gums as sustained release carriers: development of gastroretentive drug delivery system of ziprasidone HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJ Rajamma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objective of this study is to show the potential use of natural gums in the development of drug delivery systems. Therefore in this work gastro retentive tablet formulations of ziprasidone HCl were developed using simplex lattice design considering concentration of okra gum, locust bean gum and HPMC K4M as independent variables. A response surface plot and multiple regression equations were used to evaluate the effect of independent variables on hardness, flag time, floating time and drug release for 1 h, 2 h, and 8 h and for 24 h. A checkpoint batch was also prepared by considering the constraints and desirability of optimized formulation to improve its in vitro performance. Significance of result was analyzed using ANOVA and p was considered statistically significant. Results Formulation chiefly contains locust bean gum found to be favorable for hardness and floatability but combined effect of three variables was responsible for the sustained release of drug. The in vitro drug release data of check point batch (F8 was found to be sustained well compared to the most satisfactory formulation (F7 of 7 runs. The ‘n’ value was found to be between 0.5 and 1 suggesting that release of drug follows anomalous (non-fickian diffusion mechanism indicating both diffusion and erosion mechanism from these natural gums. Predicted results were almost similar to the observed experimental values indicating the accuracy of the design. In vivo floatability test indicated non adherence to the gastric mucosa and tablets remain buoyant for more than 24 h. Conclusions Study showed these eco-friendly natural gums can be considered as promising SR polymers.

  18. The Association of Gum Bleeding with Respiratory Health in a Population Based Study from Northern Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gómez Real

    Full Text Available There is little knowledge about how oral and respiratory health is interrelated even though the mucosa of the oral cavity and airways constitutes a continuum and the exposures to these are partly similar.To investigate whether gum bleeding is related to asthma, respiratory symptoms and self-reported COPD.A postal questionnaire including questions about respiratory and oral health was sent to general population samples in seven Northern European centres. In 13,409 responders, gum bleeding when brushing teeth was reported always/often by 4% and sometimes by 20%. Logistic regressions accounted for age, smoking, educational level, centre and gender. Effects of BMI, cardio-metabolic diseases, early life factors, gastro-oesophageal reflux, dental hygiene, nasal congestion, and asthma medication were addressed.Gum bleeding always/often was significantly associated with ≥ 3 asthma symptoms (OR 2.58, 95% CI 2.10-3.18, asthma (1.62 [1.23-2.14] and self-reported COPD (2.02 [1.28-3.18]. There was a dose-response relationship between respiratory outcomes and gum bleeding frequency (≥ 3 symptoms: gum bleeding sometimes 1.42 [1.25-1.60], often/always 2.58 [2.10-3.18], and there was no heterogeneity between centres (p(heterogeneity = 0.49. None of the investigated risk factors explained the associations. The observed associations were significantly stronger among current smokers (p(interaction = 0.004.A consistent link between gum bleeding and obstructive airways disease was observed, not explained by common risk factors or metabolic factors. We speculate that oral pathogens might have unfavourable impact on the airways, and that the direct continuity of the mucosa of the oral cavity and the airways reflects a pathway that might provide novel opportunities for interventions.

  19. Effect of CMC and arabic gum in the manufacture of jackfruit velva (Artocarpus heterophyllus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudhistira, B.; Riyadi, N. H.; Pangestika, A. D.; Pertiwi, S. R.

    2018-03-01

    Velva is one type of frozen dessert which is made from fruit/vegetable with ice cream maker, low fat and high fiber content. Jackfruit is a raw material for the manufacture of velva because of the high fiber content of 2.31 gr. The use of a stabilizers combination of CMC and arabic gum in the manufacture of velva will provide a better gel mix than single use. The purpose of this research is to know the influence of variation of CMC and arabic gum stabilizer on the characteristics (physical, chemical, and sensory) of jackfruit velva (Artocarpus heterophyllus) and determine variations in the most appropriate combinations of stabilizers to produce jackfruit velva with the best quality. This research applied Completely Randomized Design consist of one factor which is the combination of CMC and arabic gum levels in the making of jackfruit velva with two replicates and two replications of the analysis. The data obtained then analyzed statistically using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), when there is a significant difference, then followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at significance level of 0.05. The results of this study concluded that the jackfruit velva with the addition of various concentrations of CMC and arabic gum is significantly affecting the taste, texture and overall parameters, but no significant difference on the color and flavor parameters of jackfruit velva. Based on the results of physical characteristics, chemical and sensory jackfruit velva with the addition of a stabilizing concentration of CMC and arabic gum 1: 1 result in best jackfruit velva. The best jackfruit velva with stabilizing the concentration of CMC and arabic gum 1: 1 contains a water content of 61.95%, dietary fiber 2.231%, total dissolved solids 20.38 °Brix, overrun 19.709%, meltdown 28.215 minutes. As for the color attribute score 3.72; Taste 4; flavor 3.60; Texture 3.68, and overall 3.88.

  20. Effects of sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol or maltitol on the development of gingivitis and plaque: a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keukenmeester, R.S.; Slot, D.E.; Rosema, N.A.M.; van Loveren, C.; van der Weijden, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to test the effect of sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol or maltitol compared to the use of a gum base or no gum on gingivitis and plaque scores under both brushing and non-brushing circumstances. Methods The design of the study was a four-group,

  1. Development and Antibacterial Activity of Cashew Gum-Based Silver Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quelemes, Patrick V.; Araruna, Felipe B.; de Faria, Bruna E. F.; Kuckelhaus, Selma A. S.; da Silva, Durcilene A.; Mendonça, Ronaldo Z.; Eiras, Carla; dos S. Soares, Maria José; Leite, José Roberto S. A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the development of a green synthesis of silver nanoparticles reduced and stabilized by exuded gum from Anacardium occidentale L. and evaluates in vitro their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. Characterization of cashew gum-based silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was carried out based on UV–Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis which revealed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were spherical in shape, measuring about 4 nm in size with a uniform dispersal. AgNPs presented antibacterial activity, especially against Gram-negative bacteria, in concentrations where no significant cytotoxicity was observed. PMID:23455467

  2. Development and Antibacterial Activity of Cashew Gum-Based Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José dos S. Soares

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the development of a green synthesis of silver nanoparticles reduced and stabilized by exuded gum from Anacardium occidentale L. and evaluates in vitro their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. Characterization of cashew gum-based silver nanoparticles (AgNPs was carried out based on UV–Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis which revealed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were spherical in shape, measuring about 4 nm in size with a uniform dispersal. AgNPs presented antibacterial activity, especially against Gram-negative bacteria, in concentrations where no significant cytotoxicity was observed.

  3. A study of guar seed and guar gum properties (Cyamopsis tetragonolabous)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldaw, Ganal Elawad

    1998-06-01

    Guar seed components of three genotypes (HFG53, HFG182, HFG363), are hull (13.4-14%), germ (43.3-44.2%) and endosperm (36.0-40%). The proximate composition of guar seed in mean values is moisture (11.3±0.01%), crude protein (29.10±0.01%), crude fat (1.58±0.01%), crude fibre (9.01±0.01%) and carbohydrates by difference. The endosperm analysis showed mean values for moisture (6.18±0.03%), ash (1.35±0.03%), crude protein (4.41±0.0%), crude fat (0.30±0.0%), crude fibre (1.55±0.01%) and carbohydrates (0.41±0.04%). The micro and macro-elements quantities of the endosperm of the three genotypes are as follows: Zn (29-44 mg/kg), fe (52-112 mg/kg), Cu (2.6-3.8 mg/kg), Pb (0.34-0.38 mg/kg) and As (0.24 mg/kg), Na (0.1-0.5%), K (0.70-0.95%), Ca (0.30-0.37%) and Mg (0.11%), respectively. The micro and macro elements of germ and hull are also reported in this study. The Ost wald relative viscosity of guar gum behave Newtonian up to 0.5% mg/ml. The relative viscosity linear curves have high coefficient of correlation (r=0.87, 0.82-1.05, and 0.99) for gum of endosperm, respectively. Redwood measures kinematic viscosity of guar gum for the three genotypes at varying temperatures 40-80 degree. Heat stability of HFG53 is the best among the three genotypes guar gum. the high contamination in gum lowered the heat stability of the three genotypes. Brookfield method shows a high rate of dispersability for HFG363 followed by HFG182 and HFG53. The comparative study of the effect of purification on guar gum viscosities measured by Ostwald within the three genotypes show high coefficient of correlation. The influence of salt concentration 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% on heat stability of commercial guar gum show high viscosities. Sugar influence in heated guar gum solution 0.5% (200 mesh) gives a high viscosity increase than 80 mesh with 5, 10 and 15% added sugar. The effect of combined salt-sugar on commercial guar gives increased viscosity than the control

  4. Studi Perbandingan Nenas dan Kangkung dengan Konsentrasi Gum Arab terhadap Mutu Fruit Leather

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Suchi Andriani Maqfirah

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to find the effect of ratio pineapplepulps and water spinach with several arabic gum concentration on the quality of pineapple and water spinach mixture fruit leather. This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Food Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Sumatera Utara, Medan, using completely randomized design with two factors, i.e. :ratio of pineapple and water spinachpulps (P) : (70%:30% ; 60%:40% ; 50%:50% ; 40%:60% ; 30%:70%) and arabic gum c...

  5. Sweet Preference Associated with the Risk of Hypercholesterolemia Among Middle-Aged Women in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoonjin; Lee, Soojin; Kim, Yangha

    2018-04-05

    Sweet preference has been reported to be associated with various health problems. This study examined the influence of sweet taste preference on the risk of dyslipidemia in Korean middle-aged women. The study selected 3,609 middle-aged women from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) and classified them into two groups on the basis of whether or not they preferred sweet taste. Dietary intake was analyzed using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Serum lipid profiles and anthropometric variables were measured. Subjects who preferred the sweet taste had significantly higher intakes of sugar products and sweet drink than those who did not prefer the sweet taste. Subjects who preferred the sweet taste showed higher carbohydrate and fat intake and less fiber intake than those who did not prefer the sweet taste. The serum concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were significantly higher in subjects who preferred the sweet taste than those who did not prefer. Furthermore, subjects who preferred the sweet taste showed a significantly higher odds ratio (OR) for hypercholesterolemia (OR 1.22; 95% CI (1.01-1.45)) and hyper-LDL cholesterolemia (OR 1.33; 95% CI (1.11-1.60)) than those who did not prefer the sweet taste. Our results suggested that preference for sweet taste may increase the consumption of sugar products and sweet drinks, which is partially linked to the risk of hypercholesterolemia and hyper-LDL cholesterolemia in Korean middle-aged women.

  6. Genome-wide identification of the SWEET gene family in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yue; Wang, Zi Yuan; Kumar, Vikranth; Xu, Xiao Feng; Yuan, De Peng; Zhu, Xiao Feng; Li, Tian Ya; Jia, Baolei; Xuan, Yuan Hu

    2018-02-05

    The SWEET (sugars will eventually be exported transporter) family is a newly characterized group of sugar transporters. In plants, the key roles of SWEETs in phloem transport, nectar secretion, pollen nutrition, stress tolerance, and plant-pathogen interactions have been identified. SWEET family genes have been characterized in many plant species, but a comprehensive analysis of SWEET members has not yet been performed in wheat. Here, 59 wheat SWEETs (hereafter TaSWEETs) were identified through homology searches. Analyses of phylogenetic relationships, numbers of transmembrane helices (TMHs), gene structures, and motifs showed that TaSWEETs carrying 3-7 TMHs could be classified into four clades with 10 different types of motifs. Examination of the expression patterns of 18 SWEET genes revealed that a few are tissue-specific while most are ubiquitously expressed. In addition, the stem rust-mediated expression patterns of SWEET genes were monitored using a stem rust-susceptible cultivar, 'Little Club' (LC). The resulting data showed that the expression of five out of the 18 SWEETs tested was induced following inoculation. In conclusion, we provide the first comprehensive analysis of the wheat SWEET gene family. Information regarding the phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, and expression profiles of SWEET genes in different tissues and following stem rust disease inoculation will be useful in identifying the potential roles of SWEETs in specific developmental and pathogenic processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Discovery of Highly Sweet Compounds from Natural Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinghorn, A. Douglas; Kennelly, Edward J.

    1995-08-01

    Sucrose, the most widely used sweetener globally, is of plant origin. In addition, a number of other plant constituents are employed as dietary sucrose substitutes in one or more countries, including the diterpenoid, stevioside, the triterpenoid, glycyrrhizin, and the protein, thaumatin. Accordingly, there has been much interest in discovering further examples of potently sweet compounds of natural origin, for potential use in foods, beverages, and medicines. Approximately 75 plant-derived compounds are presently known, mainly representative of the flavonoid, proanthocyandin, protein, steroidal saponin, and terpenoid chemotypes. In our program directed towards the elucidation of further highly sweet molecules from plants, candidate sweet-tasting plants for laboratory investigation are obtained from ethnobotanical observations in the field or in the existing literature. Examples of novel sweet-tasting compounds obtained so far are the sesquiterpenoids, hernandulcin and 4beta-hydroxyhemandulcin; the triterpenoids, abrusosides A-D; a semi-synthetic dihydroflavonol based on the naturally occurring substance, dihydroquercetin 3-acetate; and the proanthocyanidin, selligueain A. Natural product sweeteners may be of potential commercial use per se, and can be used for synthetic modification to produce improved sweeteners, and can also be of value scientifically to aid in the better understanding of structure-sweetness relationships.

  8. [Super sweet corn hybrids adaptability for industrial processing. I freezing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Braunnier; Camacho, Candelario; Ortiz de Bertorelli, Ligia; De Venanzi, Frank

    2002-09-01

    With the purpose of evaluating adaptability to the freezing process of super sweet corn sh2 hybrids Krispy King, Victor and 324, 100 cobs of each type were frozen at -18 degrees C. After 120 days of storage, their chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics were compared with a sweet corn su. Industrial quality of the process of freezing and length and number of rows in cobs were also determined. Results revealed yields above 60% in frozen corns. Length and number of rows in cobs were acceptable. Most of the chemical characteristics of super sweet hybrids were not different from the sweet corn assayed at the 5% significance level. Moisture content and soluble solids of hybrid Victor, as well as total sugars of hybrid 324 were statistically different. All sh2 corns had higher pH values. During freezing, soluble solids concentration, sugars and acids decreased whereas pH increased. Frozen cobs exhibited acceptable microbiological rank, with low activities of mesophiles and total coliforms, absence of psychrophiles and fecal coliforms, and an appreciable amount of molds. In conclusion, sh2 hybrids adapted with no problems to the freezing process, they had lower contents of soluble solids and higher contents of total sugars, which almost doubled the amount of su corn; flavor, texture, sweetness and appearance of kernels were also better. Hybrid Victor was preferred by the evaluating panel and had an outstanding performance due to its yield and sensorial characteristics.

  9. A Case Report of Sweet's Syndrome with Parotitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung Soo Jo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet's syndrome is characterized by clinical symptoms, physical features, and pathologic findings which include fever, neutrophilia, tender erythematous skin lesions, and a diffuse infiltrate of mature neutrophils. This is a report of our experience of Sweet's syndrome with parotitis. A 57-year-old man initially presented with tender swelling on the right cheek similar to parotitis. His symptoms relapsed despite the use of an oral antibiotic agent for 3 weeks. He additionally presented with erythematous papules and plaques on the periocular area and dorsum of both hands. Histiopathologic findings on punch biopsy of the right dorsum of the hand showed superficial perivenular histiocytic infiltration without vasculitis. We confirmed this as histiocytoid Sweet's syndrome and used systemic corticosteroid. After initiation of treatment with systemic corticosteroids, there was a prompt recovery from both the dermatosis-releated symptoms and skin lesions. Sweet's syndrome should be considered in patients with therapy-refractory parotitis and unclear infiltrated nodules. We present a confusing case who initially appeared to have parotitis but turned out to have histiocytoid Sweet's syndrome.

  10. Saliva pH affects the sweetness sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Ken-Ichi; Okino, Yuichiro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kojima, Rena; Uchibori, Masahiro; Nakanishi, Yaushiro; Ota, Yoshihide

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a prediction system for taste sense according to the biochemical data of saliva. The present study included 100 participants ages ≥20 y without physical, mental, or dental disabilities. Saliva samples were collected from the participants and subjected to biochemical analyses. Taste examination (sweetness, saltiness, sourness, and bitterness) was performed using the dropped disk method. Correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were performed between the taste sense properties and biochemical data of saliva. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that sweetness sensitivity (in which a higher score indicates lower sensitivity) was significantly affected by various biochemical properties, with the strongest influence being pH. The following prediction equation was determined: Sweetness sensitivity = 1.38 + (-0.12 × low pH [1: If pH 7.3, 0: otherwise]) + (0.04 × Fe [μg/dL]). Analysis of variance showed an overall significant effect of these variables on sweetness sensitivity (R 2  = 0.74; P sweetness sensitivity. This prediction can be used for evaluations of variations in dietary choices and to help individuals make healthy food choices to maintain health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Integration of Sweet Taste and Metabolism Determines Carbohydrate Reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuizen, Maria Geraldine; Babbs, Richard Keith; Patel, Barkha; Fobbs, Wambura; Kroemer, Nils B; Garcia, Elizabeth; Yeomans, Martin R; Small, Dana M

    2017-08-21

    Post-ingestive signals related to nutrient metabolism are thought to be the primary drivers of reinforcement potency of energy sources. Here, in a series of neuroimaging and indirect calorimetry human studies, we examine the relative roles of caloric load and perceived sweetness in driving metabolic, perceptual, and brain responses to sugared beverages. Whereas caloric load was manipulated using the tasteless carbohydrate maltodextrin, sweetness levels were manipulated using the non-nutritive sweetener sucralose. By formulating beverages that contain different amounts of maltodextrin+sucralose, we demonstrate a non-linear association between caloric load, metabolic response, and reinforcement potency, which is driven in part by the extent to which sweetness is proportional to caloric load. In particular, we show that (1) lower-calorie beverages can produce greater metabolic response and condition greater brain response and liking than higher-calorie beverages and (2) when sweetness is proportional to caloric load, greater metabolic responses are observed. These results demonstrate a non-linear association between caloric load and reward and describe an unanticipated role for sweet taste in regulating carbohydrate metabolism, revealing a novel mechanism by which sugar-sweetened beverages influence physiological responses to carbohydrate ingestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Users of 'diet' drinks who think that sweetness is calories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Richard P J; Booth, David A

    2010-08-01

    We present the first experiment that was based on a novel analysis of the mental processes of choice. Sensed material characteristics such as the sweetness of a drink and symbolic attributes such as the source of sweetness stated on the label are put into the same units of influence on the response. Most users of low-calorie drinks thought about the energy in a drink quite differently from the way they decided how sweet and how low in calories they liked the drink to be. Also the female diet drink users thought about energy content differently from most of the male users of sugar drinks. In both groups' ratings of likelihood of choice and in sugar drink users' estimates of energy content, sweetness and labelled calories were usually treated as separate stimuli or ideas. In contrast, some female diet drink users treated sweetness and perceived calories as the same, whereas no male sugar drink user did. Such findings illustrate how this approach spans the gap between sensory perception and conceptualised knowledge. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Selection of promising sweet potato clones using projective mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Esteban; Ares, Gastón; Rodríguez, Gustavo; Varela, Pablo; Bologna, Franco; Lado, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Increasing demand for sweet potato in regions with temperate climates has triggered interest in the development of new cultivars. Breeding of this crop should consider sensory characteristics in order to meet consumers' expectations. This requires the application of simple and cost-effective methodologies that allow quality evaluation from a sensory perspective. With the objective of identifying the key sensory characteristics of different sweet potato genotypes, two commercial cultivars and seven clones were evaluated during three consecutive years using projective mapping by an untrained consumer panel. This methodology allowed the discrimination of the genotypes, identifying similarities and differences among groups based on sensory terms selected by the assessors. Genotypes were differentiated in terms of texture and flavor characteristics (firmness, moisture, smoothness, creaminess, flavor intensity, sweetness and bitterness). Materials for future crossings were identified. The evaluation of the sensory characteristics of sweet potato clones and cultivars using projective mapping is a quick, cost-effective and reliable tool for the selection of new advanced sweet potato clones with superior sensory characteristics compared to the reference cultivars INIA Arapey and Cuarí. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Chronotherapeutic drug delivery of Tamarind gum, Chitosan and Okra gum controlled release colon targeted directly compressed Propranolol HCl matrix tablets and in-vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, A M J; Indana, V L; Kumar, Jatinder

    2015-08-01

    The main objective of this investigation is to develop a chronotherapeutic drug delivery of various natural polymers based colon targeted drug delivery systems to treat early morning sign in BP. The polymers such as Tamarind gum, Okra gum and Chitosan were used in the formulation design. A model drug Propranolol HCl was incorporated in the formulation in order to assess the controlled release and time dependent release potential of various natural polymers. A novel polymer Tamarind gum was extracted and used as a prime polymer in this study to prove the superiority of this polymer over other leading natural polymer. Propranolol HCl was used as a model drug which undergoes hepatic metabolism and witnesses the poor bioavailability. The matrix tablets of Propranolol HCl were prepared by direct compression. The tablets were evaluated for various quality control parameters and found to be within the limits. Carbopol 940 was used as an auxiliary polymer to modify the drug release and physicochemical characteristics of the tablets. The in vitro release studies were performed in 0.1N HCl for 1.5h, followed by pH 6.8 phosphate buffer for 2h and pH 7.4 phosphate buffer till maximum amount of drug release. The in vitro release profile of the formulations were fitted with various pharmacokinetic mathematical models and analyzed for release profile. The formulations prepared with Tamarind gum prolonged the release for an extended period of time compared to other polymer based formulation and showed an excellent compression characteristic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Antiplaque efficacy of tooth and gums tonic, Hiora-GA gel, and Spirogyl Gum Paint in comparison with chlorhexidine M gel: A double-blind randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeeswara Rao Sukhabogi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the efficacy of three different herbal products (Tooth and Gums Tonic, Hiora-GA gel, and Spirogyl Gum paint in reducing plaque, gingival inflammation and bacterial count in comparison with chlorhexidine M gel among participants with moderate to severe periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of eighty participants with moderate to severe periodontitis were initially recruited after obtaining their informed consent. All participants were offered scaling and polishing on the first visit to remove visible calculus. Then, these participants were randomly divided into four groups of twenty participants each using block randomization method. Participants in Group 1, 2, 3, and 4 were given chlorhexidine M gel, Hiora-GA gel, Spirogyl Gum paint, and Tooth and Gums Tonic, respectively. All participants were instructed to brush their teeth twice day with a soft bristled toothbrush and their regular fluoridated toothpaste. They were instructed to apply the respective gels twice a day according to the manufacturer's guidelines. The posttreatment follow-up examinations for gingival and plaque changes were assessed after 30, 60, and 90 days by three trained and calibrated investigators using gingival and plaque index. The investigators and statistician were blind about group allocation. The supragingival plaque samples were collected before and 90 days after treatment from the buccal surfaces of maxillary right first permanent molar of each participant for microbial analysis. Results: The mean plaque, gingival scores significantly decreased at different intervals following intervention in all groups. The bacterial counts also significantly reduced postintervention with no significant difference in the efficacy of these products compared to chlorhexidine. Conclusion: All three herbal products were found to be effective when used along with oral prophylaxis. Hence, they can all be used as alternates to chlorhexidine in the management

  16. Antiplaque Efficacy of Tooth and Gums Tonic, Hiora-GA Gel, and Spirogyl Gum Paint in Comparison with Chlorhexidine M Gel: A Double-blind Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhabogi, Jagadeeswara Rao; Shekar, B R Chandra; Ramana, I Venkata; Yadav, Sarjeev Singh; Kumar, G Satish; Harita, N

    2017-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of three different herbal products (Tooth and Gums Tonic, Hiora-GA gel, and Spirogyl Gum paint) in reducing plaque, gingival inflammation and bacterial count in comparison with chlorhexidine M gel among participants with moderate to severe periodontitis. A total of eighty participants with moderate to severe periodontitis were initially recruited after obtaining their informed consent. All participants were offered scaling and polishing on the first visit to remove visible calculus. Then, these participants were randomly divided into four groups of twenty participants each using block randomization method. Participants in Group 1, 2, 3, and 4 were given chlorhexidine M gel, Hiora-GA gel, Spirogyl Gum paint, and Tooth and Gums Tonic, respectively. All participants were instructed to brush their teeth twice day with a soft bristled toothbrush and their regular fluoridated toothpaste. They were instructed to apply the respective gels twice a day according to the manufacturer's guidelines. The posttreatment follow-up examinations for gingival and plaque changes were assessed after 30, 60, and 90 days by three trained and calibrated investigators using gingival and plaque index. The investigators and statistician were blind about group allocation. The supragingival plaque samples were collected before and 90 days after treatment from the buccal surfaces of maxillary right first permanent molar of each participant for microbial analysis. The mean plaque, gingival scores significantly decreased at different intervals following intervention in all groups. The bacterial counts also significantly reduced postintervention with no significant difference in the efficacy of these products compared to chlorhexidine. All three herbal products were found to be effective when used along with oral prophylaxis. Hence, they can all be used as alternates to chlorhexidine in the management of periodontal diseases.

  17. Bt Sweet Corn: What Is It and Why Should We Use It?

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, Vonny M.; Kuhar, Thomas Patrick, 1969-; Speese, John

    2009-01-01

    This publication reviews Transgenic Bt sweet corn hybrids which are a genetically modified organism (GMO) that are the result of combining commercially available sweet corn varieties with genes from a naturally occurring soil bacterium called Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner or Bt.

  18. Cut Back on Your Kid's Sweet Treats: 10 Tips to Decrease Added Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guidelines for Americans Cut back on your kid’s sweet treats Set your kids on a path for ... limiting the amount of added sugars they eat. Sweet treats and sugary drinks have lots of calories ...

  19. germination of seeds from earlier fruits of bitter and sweet african ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2014-11-18

    , 2006). The mesocarp of the sweet bush mangoes are edible; while the endocarp of both bitter and sweet fruits are important part of African communities' diets and is marketed all over the world (Lowe et al.,. 2000; Tabuna ...

  20. Structural basis for the facilitative diffusion mechanism by SemiSWEET transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongchan; Nishizawa, Tomohiro; Yamashita, Keitaro; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Nureki, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    SWEET family proteins mediate sugar transport across biological membranes and play crucial roles in plants and animals. The SWEETs and their bacterial homologues, the SemiSWEETs, are related to the PQ-loop family, which is characterized by highly conserved proline and glutamine residues (PQ-loop motif). Although the structures of the bacterial SemiSWEETs were recently reported, the conformational transition and the significance of the conserved motif in the transport cycle have remained elusive. Here we report crystal structures of SemiSWEET from Escherichia coli, in the both inward-open and outward-open states. A structural comparison revealed that SemiSWEET undergoes an intramolecular conformational change in each protomer. The conserved PQ-loop motif serves as a molecular hinge that enables the ‘binder clip-like’ motion of SemiSWEET. The present work provides the framework for understanding the overall transport cycles of SWEET and PQ-loop family proteins.

  1. Gamma-ray effect on sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, O.; Ciofu, R.; Stroia, L.; Ghering, A.; Ferdes, M.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the results on modification occurred in biochemical properties of sweet potato (Ipomea batatus L.) after gamma irradiation. Two varieties, named Victoria Ianb (a white variety) and Portocaliu (a red variety), were selected and acclimatized for the agrometeorological conditions of Romania. The samples consist of roots from both usual and experimental crops. They were irradiated in batch, one week after harvesting, with a ICPR Co-60 gamma-ray source by approx. 370 TBq, dose range 100-500 Gy, dose rate 100±5 Gy/hour, dose uniformity ±5%, temperature 10 o C, 80±5% relative humidity (rh). The irradiation doses received were checked using the Fricke ferrous sulphate dosimeter procedure. The roots were kept two months at relative darkness, 6-11 o C, 60-75% rh and analyzed from time to time (initial, 5, 7, 14, 30 and 60 days). The following parameters are analyzed by conventional methods: total and reducing sugars (in De equivalent, %, on dry weight basis), starch content and the activities of sugar metabolizing enzymes. The red variety had a better behaviour towards irradiation that the white one. The sugar contents (both total and reducing), as well as starch, varied more in the white variety. The sugar metabolizing enzyme activities were influenced by both irradiation and storage conditions. Their activities were maximal at 200 and 300 Gy, and decreased significantly at higher doses. The activities also decreased in time, their variations being higher at lower doses (100 and 200 Gy). The results showed no significant influence of gamma irradiation on storage life. The modifications induced in sugar contents and enzyme activities had maximal effects at 200-300 Gy. (author)

  2. Potential Quality Evaluation Method for Radix Astragali Based on Sweetness Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Ke Li; Fanrong Gao; Zhenyu Li; Xuemei Qin; Haifeng Sun; Jie Xing; Lizeng Zhang; Guanhua Du

    2015-01-01

    Sweetness is a traditional sensory indicator used to evaluate the quality of the popular Chinese herb Radix Astragali (RA). RA roots with strong sweetness are considered to be of good quality. However, neither a thorough analysis of the component(s) contributing to RA sweetness, nor a scientific investigation of the reliability of this indicator has been conducted to date. In this study, seven kinds of sweetness components were identified in RA and a quality evaluation method based on these c...

  3. SWOT Analysis and Countermeasures on Development of Sweet Potato Industry in Ziyun County

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Shuang; Yang, Xiaoshan; Li, Guang

    2013-01-01

    According to the actual situation of sweet potato industry development in Ziyun County, we use SWOT analysis method to conduct strategic analysis on strengths and weaknesses of the internal environment and the opportunities and challenges of the external environment of the sweet potato industry, to explore correct strategic countermeasures suitable for the future development of sweet potato industry in Ziyun County and provide reference for the sweet potato industry to maintain sustainable co...

  4. Multiple mutations of the critical amino acid residues for the sweetness of the sweet-tasting protein, brazzein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Won; Cha, Ji-Eun; Jo, Hyun-Joo; Kong, Kwang-Hoon

    2013-06-01

    We have previously identified critical residues important for sweetness of the sweet protein brazzein by site-directed mutagenesis (Yoon, Kong, Jo, & Kong, 2011). In order to elucidate the interaction mechanisms of brazzein with the sweet taste receptor, we made multiple mutations of three residues (His31 in loop 30-33, Glu36 in β-strand III, and Glu41 in loop 40-43). We found that all double mutations (H31R/E36D, H31R/E41A and E36D/E41A) made the molecules sweeter than des-pE1M-brazzein and three single mutants. Moreover, the triple mutation (H31R/E36D/E41A) made the molecule significantly sweeter than three double mutants. These results strongly support the hypothesis that brazzein binds to the multisite surface of the sweet taste receptor. Our findings also suggest that mutations reducing the overall negative charge and/or increasing the positive charge favour sweet-tasting protein potency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sweet Spot Size in Virtual Sound Reproduction: A Temporal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per

    2009-01-01

    The influence of head misalignments on the performance of binaural reproduction systems through loudspeakers is often evaluated in the frequency domain. The changes in magnitude give us an idea of how much of the crosstalk is leaked into the direct signal and therefore a sweet spot performance can......-correlation we estimate the interaural time delay and define a sweet spot. The analysis is based on measurements carried out on 21 different loudspeaker configurations, including two- and four-channels arrangements. Results show that closely spaced loudspeakers are more robust to lateral displacements than wider...... span angles. Additionally, the sweet spot as a function of head rotations increases systematically when the loudspeakers are placed at elevated positions....

  6. Is there a Sweet Spot in Ethical Trade?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Lindgreen, Adam

    2018-01-01

    might emerge, reflecting an amended version of Gereffi et al.'s (2005) theory of value chain governance. We conclude that the possibility of identifying a sweet spot in ethical trade improves as we move from market-based transactions toward hierarchical governance in global production networks.......We undertake a critical appraisal of the existence of the so- called 'sweet spot' in ethical trade at which the interests of buyers, suppliers, and workers intersect to enable benefits for commercial buyers and suppliers and improvements in the conditions of workers at the base of global production...... networks. In turn, we take the perspectives of three central actors typically involved in ethical trade: buyers/brands, suppliers in the Global South, and workers at the base of these networks. By applying all three perspectives, we theorize about the circumstances in which the sweet spot in ethical trade...

  7. Sweet proteins – Potential replacement for artificial low calorie sweeteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ravi

    2005-01-01

    Exponential growth in the number of patients suffering from diseases caused by the consumption of sugar has become a threat to mankind's health. Artificial low calorie sweeteners available in the market may have severe side effects. It takes time to figure out the long term side effects and by the time these are established, they are replaced by a new low calorie sweetener. Saccharine has been used for centuries to sweeten foods and beverages without calories or carbohydrate. It was also used on a large scale during the sugar shortage of the two world wars but was abandoned as soon as it was linked with development of bladder cancer. Naturally occurring sweet and taste modifying proteins are being seen as potential replacements for the currently available artificial low calorie sweeteners. Interaction aspects of sweet proteins and the human sweet taste receptor are being investigated. PMID:15703077

  8. Sweet proteins – Potential replacement for artificial low calorie sweeteners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kant Ravi

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exponential growth in the number of patients suffering from diseases caused by the consumption of sugar has become a threat to mankind's health. Artificial low calorie sweeteners available in the market may have severe side effects. It takes time to figure out the long term side effects and by the time these are established, they are replaced by a new low calorie sweetener. Saccharine has been used for centuries to sweeten foods and beverages without calories or carbohydrate. It was also used on a large scale during the sugar shortage of the two world wars but was abandoned as soon as it was linked with development of bladder cancer. Naturally occurring sweet and taste modifying proteins are being seen as potential replacements for the currently available artificial low calorie sweeteners. Interaction aspects of sweet proteins and the human sweet taste receptor are being investigated.

  9. dbSWEET: An Integrated Resource for SWEET Superfamily to Understand, Analyze and Predict the Function of Sugar Transporters in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankita; Sankararamakrishnan, Ramasubbu

    2018-04-14

    SWEET (Sweet Will Eventually be Exported Transporter) proteins have been recently discovered and form one of the three major families of sugar transporters. Homologs of SWEET are found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Bacterial SWEET homologs have three transmembrane segments forming a triple-helical bundle (THB) and the functional form is dimers. Eukaryotic SWEETs have seven transmembrane helical segments forming two THBs with a linker helix. Members of SWEET homologs have been shown to be involved in several important physiological processes in plants. However, not much is known regarding the biological significance of SWEET homologs in prokaryotes and in mammals. We have collected more than 2000 SWEET homologs from both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. For each homolog, we have modeled three different conformational states representing outward open, inward open and occluded states. We have provided details regarding substrate-interacting residues and residues forming the selectivity filter for each SWEET homolog. Several search and analysis options are available. The users can generate a phylogenetic tree and structure-based sequence alignment for selected set of sequences. With no metazoan SWEETs functionally characterized, the features observed in the selectivity filter residues can be used to predict the potential substrates that are likely to be transported across the metazoan SWEETs. We believe that this database will help the researchers to design mutational experiments and simulation studies that will aid to advance our understanding of the physiological role of SWEET homologs. This database is freely available to the scientific community at http://bioinfo.iitk.ac.in/bioinfo/dbSWEET/Home. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Want to block earworms from conscious awareness? B(u)y gum!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaman, C Philip; Powell, Kitty; Rapley, Ellie

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examine the role of articulatory motor planning in experiencing an involuntary musical recollection (an "earworm"). Experiment 1 shows that interfering with articulatory motor programming by chewing gum reduces both the number of voluntary and the number of involuntary-unwanted-musical thoughts. This is consistent with other findings that chewing gum interferes with voluntary processes such as recollections from verbal memory, the interpretation of ambiguous auditory images, and the scanning of familiar melodies, but is not predicted by theories of thought suppression, which assume that suppression is made more difficult by concurrent tasks or cognitive loads. Experiment 2 shows that chewing the gum affects the experience of "hearing" the music and cannot be ascribed to a general effect on thinking about a tune only in abstract terms. Experiment 3 confirms that the reduction of musical recollections by chewing gum is not the consequence of a general attentional or dual-task demand. The data support a link between articulatory motor programming and the appearance in consciousness of both voluntary and unwanted musical recollections.

  11. Enhanced transport of zerovalent iron nanoparticles in saturated porous media by guar gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiraferri, Alberto; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2009-01-01

    In order to ensure adequate mobility of zerovalent iron nanoparticles in natural aquifers, the use of a stabilizing agent is necessary. Polymers adsorbed on the nanoparticle surface will give rise to electrosteric stabilization and will decrease attachment to the surface soil grains. Water saturated sand-packed columns were used in this study to investigate the transport of iron nanoparticle suspensions, bare or modified with the green polymer guar gum. The suspensions were prepared at 154 mg/L particle concentration and 0.5 g/L polymer concentration. Transport experiments were conducted by varying the ionic strength, ionic composition, and approach velocity of the fluid. Nanoparticle deposition rates, attachment efficiencies, and travel distances were subsequently calculated based on the classical particle filtration theory. It was found that bare iron nanoparticles are basically immobile in sandy porous media. In contrast, guar gum is able to ensure significant nanoparticle transport at the tested conditions, regardless of the chemistry of the solution. Attachment efficiency values for guar gum-coated nanoparticles under the various conditions tested were smaller than 0.066. Although the calculated travel distances may not prove satisfactory for field application, the investigation attested the promising role of guar gum to ensure mobility of iron nanoparticles in the subsurface environment.

  12. Plants as a Source of Green Corrosion Inhibitors: The Case of Gum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inhibitive performance of gum exudates from Acacia drepanolobium and Acacia senegal from Tanzania, towards the corrosion of mild steel in fresh water has been investigated. The experimental methods include potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies. The results ...

  13. The Effects of Chewing Cinnamon Flavored Gum on Mood, Feeling and Spelling Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew; Kim, Wonsun; Raudenbush, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate if the effects of chewing cinnamon flavored gum can increase mood, feeling and spelling acquisition. 5th grade students (n = 22) at Ilshin elementary school in South Korea served as participants. The same students were required to take 4 spelling tests with 1 given every day over the course of 4 days. For…

  14. Effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) on the bioaccessibility of fat and cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minekus, M.; Jelier, M.; Xiao, J.-Z.; Kondo, S.; Iwatsuki, K.; Kokubo, S.; Bos, M.; Dunnewind, B.; Havenaar, R.

    2005-01-01

    The Addition of a compound that lowers the intestinal uptake of fat and cholesterol might be an interesting strategy to reduce the risk of vascular disease. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) has been shown to have this effect in healthy volunteers after intake of a yogurt drink with 3 to 6% PHGG.

  15. The Impact of Maltitol-Sweetened hewing Gum on the Dental Plaque Biofilm Microbiota Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijser, B.J.F.; Broek1, T.J. van den; Slot, D.E.; Twillert, L. van; Kool, J.; Thabuis, C.; Ossendrijver, M.; Weijden, F.A. van der; Montijn, R.C.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The oral cavity harbors a complex microbial ecosystem, intimately related to oral health and disease. The use of polyol-sweetened gum is believed to benefit oral health through stimulation of salivary flow and impacting oral pathogenic bacteria. Maltitol is often used as sweetener in

  16. Effect of guar gum conjugation on functional, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of egg white lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdani, Afshan Mumtaz; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Bhat, Naseer Ahmad; Siddiqi, Raushid Ahmad

    2018-02-01

    This study was undertaken to analyze the effect of conjugation of egg-white lysozyme with guar gum. Lysozyme is an antimicrobial polypeptide that can be used for food preservation. Its antibacterial activity is limited to gram positive bacteria. Conjugation with polysaccharides like guar gum may broaden its activity against gram negatives. Conjugate was developed through Maillard reaction. Assays carried out included sugar estimation, SDS-PAGE, GPC, color, FT-IR, DSC, thermal stability, solubility, emulsifying, foaming and antioxidant activity. In addition, antimicrobial activity of the conjugate was determined against two gram positive (Staphyllococcus aureus and Enterococcus) and two gram negative pathogens (E. coli and Salmonella). Results showed higher functional properties of lysozyme-guar gum conjugate. The antioxidant properties increased from 2.02-35.80% (Inhibition of DPPH) and 1.65-4.93AAE/g (reducing power) upon guar gum conjugation. Conjugate significantly inhibited gram negative bacteria and the antibacterial activity also increased significantly against gram positive pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Highly Concentrated Alginate-Gellan Gum Composites for 3D Plotting of Complex Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Rahul Akkineni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In tissue engineering, additive manufacturing (AM technologies have brought considerable progress as they allow the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D structures with defined architecture. 3D plotting is a versatile, extrusion-based AM technology suitable for processing a wide range of biomaterials including hydrogels. In this study, composites of highly concentrated alginate and gellan gum were prepared in order to combine the excellent printing properties of alginate with the favorable gelling characteristics of gellan gum. Mixtures of 16.7 wt % alginate and 2 or 3 wt % gellan gum were found applicable for 3D plotting. Characterization of the resulting composite scaffolds revealed an increased stiffness in the wet state (15%–20% higher Young’s modulus and significantly lower volume swelling in cell culture medium compared to pure alginate scaffolds (~10% vs. ~23%. Cytocompatibility experiments with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC revealed that cell attachment was improved—the seeding efficiency was ~2.5–3.5 times higher on the composites than on pure alginate. Additionally, the composites were shown to support hMSC proliferation and early osteogenic differentiation. In conclusion, print fidelity of highly concentrated alginate-gellan gum composites was comparable to those of pure alginate; after plotting and crosslinking, the scaffolds possessed improved qualities regarding shape fidelity, mechanical strength, and initial cell attachment making them attractive for tissue engineering applications.

  18. Two-colour chewing gum mixing ability: digitalisation and spatial heterogeneity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijenberg, R A F; Scherder, E J A; Visscher, C M; Gorissen, T; Yoshida, E; Lobbezoo, F

    2013-10-01

    Many techniques are available to assess masticatory performance, but not all are appropriate for every population. A proxy suitable for elderly persons suffering from dementia was lacking, and a two-colour chewing gum mixing ability test was investigated for this purpose. A fully automated digital analysis algorithm was applied to a mixing ability test using two-coloured gum samples in a stepwise increased number of chewing cycles protocol (Experiment 1: n = 14; seven men, 19-63 years), a test-retest assessment (Experiment 2: n = 10; four men, 20-49 years) and compared to an established wax cubes mixing ability test (Experiment 3: n = 13; 0 men, 21-31 years). Data were analysed with repeated measures anova (Experiment 1), the calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; Experiment 2) and Spearman's rho correlation coefficient (Experiment 3). The method was sensitive to increasing numbers of chewing cycles (F5,65 = 57·270, P = 0·000) and reliable in the test-retest (ICC value of 0·714, P = 0·004). There was no significant correlation between the two-coloured gum test and the wax cubes test. The two-coloured gum mixing ability test was able to adequately assess masticatory function and is recommended for use in a population of elderly persons with dementia. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The management of xerostomia in patients on haemodialysis : Comparison of artificial saliva and chewing gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bots, CP; Brand, HS; Veerman, ECI; Valentijn-Benz, M; Van Amerongen, BM; Amerongen, AVN; Valentijn, RM; Vos, PI; Bijlsma, JA; ter Wee, PM

    2005-01-01

    Many patients on haemodialysis (HD) therapy suffer from a dry mouth and xerostomia. This can be relieved by mechanical and gustatory stimulation or palliative care. The aim of this crossover study was to investigate the effect and preferences of a sugar-free chewing gum (Freedent White(TM)) and a

  20. The management of xerostomia in patients on haemodialysis: comparison of artificial saliva and chewing gum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bots, Casper P.; Brand, Henk S.; Veerman, Enno C. I.; Valentijn-Benz, Marianne; van Amerongen, Barbara M.; Nieuw Amerongen, Arie V.; Valentijn, Robert M.; Vos, Pieter F.; Bijlsma, Joost A.; Bezemer, Pieter D.; ter Wee, Piet M.

    2005-01-01

    Many patients on haemodialysis (HD) therapy suffer from a dry mouth and xerostomia. This can be relieved by mechanical and gustatory stimulation or palliative care. The aim of this crossover study was to investigate the effect and preferences of a sugar-free chewing gum (Freedent White) and a

  1. Evaluation Of Snail Mucin Dispersed In Brachystegia Gum Gel As A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Snail mucin was obtained from the mucilage of Archachatina marginata (Family Arionidae). The wound healing effect of the snail mucin was evaluated wth special attention to the effect when combined with honey in Brachystegia eurychoma gel preparation. Brachystegia eurycoma gum, snail mucin and honey were ...

  2. Effect of Probiotic Yogurt and Xylitol-Containing Chewing Gums on Salivary S Mutans Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Elnaz; Mazaheri, Romina; Tahmourespour, Arezoo

    In addition to improving gastrointestinal health and intestinal microflora, probiotic bacteria have been recently suggested to decrease cariogenic agents in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of probiotic yogurt and xylitol-containing chewing gums on reducing salivary Streptococcus mutans levels. This randomized clinical trial recruited 50 female students with over 10 5 colony forming units S. mutans per milliliter of their saliva. The participants were randomly allocated to two equal groups to receive either probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 andBifidobacteriumbifidum ATCC 29521 (200 g daily) or xylitol-containing chewing gums (two gums three times daily after each meal; total xylitol content: 5.58 g daily) for three weeks. At baseline and one day, two weeks, and four weeks after the interventions, saliva samples were cultured on mitis-salivarius-bacitracin agar and salivary S. mutans counts were determined. Data were analyzed with independent t-tests, analysis of variance, and Fisher's least significant difference test. In both groups, S. mutans counts on the first day, second week, and fourth weeks after the intervention were significantly lower than baseline values (P yogurt consumers, the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. Probiotic yogurt and xylitol-containing chewing gums seem to be as effective in reduction of salivary S. mutans levels. Their constant long-term consumption is thus recommended to prevent caries.

  3. Helicobacter pylori in ice cream and its control using mastic gum essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagah Mohamed Saad

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: All isolates recovered from small scale ice cream samples reflexing the hygienic conditions under which samples were produced. Mastic gum essential oil exhibited a powerful anti-H. pylori effect recommending its addition to food matrix for therapeutic purposes or as a functional food. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(2.000: 132-139

  4. Rheological Characterization of Isabgol Husk, Gum Katira Hydrocolloids, and Their Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Kumar Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rheological parameters of Isabgol husk, gum katira, and their blends were determined in different media such as distilled water, 0.1 N HCl, and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4. The blend properties of Isabgol husk and gum katira were measured for four different percentage compositions in order to understand their compatibility in dispersion form such as 00 : 100, 25 : 50, 50 : 50, 75 : 25, and 100 : 00 in the gel strength of 1 mass%. The miscibility of blends was determined by calculating Isabgol husk-gum katira interaction parameters by Krigbaum and Wall equation. Other rheological properties were analyzed by Bingham, Power, Casson, Casson chocolate, and IPC paste analysis. The study revealed that the power flow index “p” was less than “1” in all concentrations of Isabgol husk, gum katira, and their blends dispersions indicating the shear-thinning (pseudoplastic behavior. All blends followed pseudoplastic behavior at thermal conditions as 298.15, 313.15, and 333.15°K and in dispersion media such as distilled water, 0.1 N HCl, and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4. Moreover, the study indicated the applicability of these blends in the development of drug delivery systems and in industries, for example, ice-cream, paste, nutraceutical, and so forth.

  5. Characterization of gums from local acacia species for the food and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was confirmed from the sugar reactions that their sugar composition were Rhamnose, Arabinose, Galactose, and Glucuronic acid. The viscosities increased with concentration and decreased with time, rose with pH till a pH of about 5 and then fell as the pH increased from 6 to 14. The local gums can be used as suitable ...

  6. Rheological Characterization of Isabgol Husk, Gum Katira Hydrocolloids, and Their Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vipin Kumar; Mazumder, Bhaskar; Nautiyal, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    The rheological parameters of Isabgol husk, gum katira, and their blends were determined in different media such as distilled water, 0.1 N HCl, and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). The blend properties of Isabgol husk and gum katira were measured for four different percentage compositions in order to understand their compatibility in dispersion form such as 00 : 100, 25 : 50, 50 : 50, 75 : 25, and 100 : 00 in the gel strength of 1 mass%. The miscibility of blends was determined by calculating Isabgol husk-gum katira interaction parameters by Krigbaum and Wall equation. Other rheological properties were analyzed by Bingham, Power, Casson, Casson chocolate, and IPC paste analysis. The study revealed that the power flow index "p" was less than "1" in all concentrations of Isabgol husk, gum katira, and their blends dispersions indicating the shear-thinning (pseudoplastic) behavior. All blends followed pseudoplastic behavior at thermal conditions as 298.15, 313.15, and 333.15°K and in dispersion media such as distilled water, 0.1 N HCl, and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). Moreover, the study indicated the applicability of these blends in the development of drug delivery systems and in industries, for example, ice-cream, paste, nutraceutical, and so forth.

  7. Stepwise extraction of Lepidium sativum seed gum: Physicochemical characterization and functional properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    Cress seed gum (CSG) was fractionated using stepwise extraction with water, yielding three fractions (F1, F2, F3) whose average molecular weights ranged from 863 to 1080 kDa. The chemical composition (monosaccharide, ash, moisture, CHN and uronic acid contents) and molecular weight of the fractio...

  8. intra-species variation of the properties of gum exudates from acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    . 1997, 11, 493. 22. Food Chemicals Codex III. Acacia (Gum arabic), National Academy of Sciences,. Washington D.C.; 1981, p 7. 23. Mhinzi, G.S.; Mosha, D.M.S. J. Chem. Soc. Pak. 1993, 15, 269. 24. Mhinzi, G.S.; Mosha, D.M.S. J.Food Sci.

  9. Synthesis and flocculation properties of gum ghatti andpoly(acrylamide-co-acrylonitrile) based biodegradable hydrogels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mittal, H

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the development of biodegradable flocculants based on graft co-polymers of gum ghatti (Gg) and a mixture of acrylamide and acrylonitrile co-monomers (AAm-co-AN). The hydrogel polymer exhibited an excellent swelling capacity...

  10. Preparation, characterization and electrical study of gum arabic/ZnO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    #Present address: Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cuernavaca 62210, Mexico. MS received 24 February 2015; accepted 8 June 2015. Abstract. Gum arabic (GA)-mediated chemical synthesis was carried out for obtaining ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO-. NPs) (particle size of ZnO ≈ 40 ...

  11. Two-colour chewing gum mixing ability: digitalisation and spatial heterogeneity analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijenberg, R.A.F.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Visscher, C.M.; Gorissen, T.; Yoshida, E.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2013-01-01

    Many techniques are available to assess masticatory performance, but not all are appropriate for every population. A proxy suitable for elderly persons suffering from dementia was lacking, and a two-colour chewing gum mixing ability test was investigated for this purpose. A fully automated digital

  12. 76 FR 44811 - Carboxymethyl Guar Gum Sodium Salt and Carboxymethyl-Hydroxypropyl Guar; Exemption From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... salt and carboxymethyl-hydroxypropyl guar residues to pose no appreciable risk to human health given... Guar Gum Sodium Salt and Carboxymethyl- Hydroxypropyl Guar; Exemption From the Requirement of a... salt (CAS Reg. No. 39346-76-4) and carboxymethyl-hydroxypropyl guar (CAS Reg. No. 68130-15-4); when...

  13. Exopolysaccharide Gellan Gum and Derived Oligo-Gellan Enhance Growth and Antimicrobial Activity in Eucomis Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Salachna

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the visible trends in the cultivation of plants, particularly of medicinal ones, is the increasing interest of researchers in polysaccharides and their derivatives that show biostimulatory properties and are also safe to use. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of gellan gum and its depolymerized form oligo-gellan, on growth and antimicrobial activity of two ornamental species Eucomis bicolor and Eucomis comosa used in natural medicine. The biopolymers were applied in the form of bulb coating prepared by using polyelectrolyte complexes. In both species investigated, gellan gum and oligo-gellan enhanced the fresh weight of leaves and bulbs, the performance of the photosynthetic apparatus, and the leaf content of basic macronutrients. In comparison with the control, the plants treated with oligo-gellan accumulated more biomass, were first to flower, and had the highest leaf content of potassium. The extracts from the bulbs treated with gellan gum and oligo-gellan showed higher effectiveness in reducing the count of Bacillus atrophaeus, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus than those from the bulbs not treated with the polysaccharides. The research described here largely expands our current knowledge on the effects of gellan gum derivatives and has a huge practical potential in agriculture production.

  14. Deformation response of gellan gum based bone scaffold subjected to uniaxial quasi-static loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kytýř, Daniel; Krčmářová, Nela; Šleichrt, Jan; Fíla, Tomáš; Koudelka_ml., Petr; Gantar, A.; Novak, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2017), s. 14-21 ISSN 1210-2709 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) ATCZ38 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : gellan gum scaffold * reinforcement * uni-axial loading Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Materials engineering https://ojs.cvut.cz/ojs/index.php/ap/article/view/3885

  15. Synthesis of acrylate guar-gum for delivery of bio-active molecules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Acrylated guar-gum chain is synthesized and analysed using Fourier transform infrared, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction techniques to gain an insight into the particle size and structural features. Chlorpyrifos is then entrapped into the polymer, and its release is studied under various conditions. Critical ...

  16. Boswellia gum resin/chitosan polymer composites: Controlled delivery vehicles for aceclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Sougata; Laha, Bibek; Maiti, Sabyasachi

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of Boswellia gum resin on the properties of glutaraldehyde (GA) crosslinked chitosan polymer composites and their potential as oral delivery vehicles for a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, aceclofenac. The incorporation of resinous material caused a significant improvement in drug entrapment efficiency (∼40%) of the polymer composites. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis confirmed the formation of chitosan-gum resin composites and did not show any evidence of drug-polymer chemical interaction. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) suggested the formation of particulate polymer composites up to chitosan:gum resin mass ratio of 1:3. Only 8-17% drug was released into HCl solution (pH 1.2) in 2h. The drug release rate of polymer composites was faster in phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.8). The composites released ∼60-68% drug load in 7h. In same duration, the drug release rate suddenly boosted up to 92% as the concentration of gum resin in the composites was raised to 80%. The drug release mechanism deviated from non-Fickian to case-II type with increasing resin concentration in the composites. Hence, GA-treated Boswellia resin-chitosan composites could be considered as alternative vehicles for oral delivery of aceclofenac. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Structural characterization and thermal behavior of a gum extracted from Ferula assa foetida L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidy, Sima; Nasirpour, Ali; Keramat, Javad; Desbrières, Jacques; Cerf, Didier Le; Pierre, Guillaume; Delattre, Cedric; Laroche, Céline; Baynast, Hélène De; Ursu, Alina-Violeta; Marcati, Alain; Djelveh, Gholamreza; Michaud, Philippe

    2018-02-01

    The gum asafoetida, an oleo-gum-resin from root of Ferula assa foetida, was extracted through alcoholic procedure followed by water extraction and then biochemically characterized using colorimetric assays, Fourier infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance. The gum was mainly composed of carbohydrates (67.39% w/w) with a monosaccharide distribution of 11.5: 5.9: 2.3: 1 between Gal, Ara, Rha and GlcA (molar ratio) and proteins (arabinogalactan protein). The polysaccharide consisted of a (1→3)-β-d-galactan backbone ramified predominantly from O-6 but also from O-4 and O-4,6. Side chains included terminal-α-l-Araf, terminal-α-l-Rhap, (1→3)-α-l-Araf, (1→5)-α-l-Araf, terminal-β-d-Galp, β-d-GlcA and traces of (1→4)-β-d-GlcA. X-ray diffraction pattern showed a semi crystalline microstructure. Thermal behavior of the gum was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed temperatures below and upper 200°C as dominant regions of weight loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preparation, characterization and electrical study of gum arabic/ZnO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gum arabic (GA)-mediated chemical synthesis was carried out for obtaining ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) (particle size of ZnO ≈ 40 nm) which, in turn, was used for preparing ZnO–biopolymer nanocomposites. The dielectric study of this synthesized products is reported in this paper. The synthesized products were ...

  19. Analysis of the socio-economic factors associated with gum Arabic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is an analysis of the socio-economic factors associated with gum arabic collectors in Northern Guinea Savanna Zone of Adamawa State, Nigeria through a questionnaire survey on a sample of 100 respondents obtained through a multi stage sampling technique. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive ...

  20. "JCE" Classroom Activity #105. A Sticky Situation: Chewing Gum and Solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Gonzalez, Ingrid; Cintron-Maldonado, Jose A.; Perez-Medina, Ilia E.; Montes-Berrios, Veronica; Roman-Lopez, Saurie N.

    2010-01-01

    In this Activity, students perform several solubility tests using common food items such as chocolate, chewing gum, water, sugar, and oil. From their observations during the Activity, students will initially classify the substances tested as soluble or insoluble. They will then use their understanding of the chemistry of solubility to classify the…