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Sample records for sweet corn zea

  1. Crimped Cover Crop Legume Residue Effects on Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.) Yield in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimped legume residue can control weeds and supply N for sweet corn production if biomass is sufficient. Three sweet corn (Zea mays L.) open pollinated variety “Suresweet 2011” plantings (April, 2013; July 2013; February 2014) were conducted on an Oxisol (very fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic and...

  2. Analysis of Traits Related to Weed Competitiveness in Sweet Corn ( Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jared P. Zystro; Natalia de Leon; William F. Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Weed management in sweet corn can be costly; genetic improvements in sweet corn competitiveness may reduce this expense. Competitive ability can exist as weed suppressive ability (WSA), or crop tolerance (CT). Previous studies in corn have found year of hybrid release, maturity, plant height, leaf angle and leafiness may affect WSA, while hybrid era, maturity, and plant height may affect CT. However, many of these studies were limited to very few genotypes. The objective of this study was to ...

  3. Effect of salt stress on some sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. saccharata genotypes

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    Shtereva Lydia A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out hydroponically under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of salt stress on several physiological and biochemical parameters of three sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. saccharata genotypes: lines 6-13, C-6 (pollen source and their heterotic F1 hybrid “Zaharina”. The degree of salinity tolerance among these genotypes was evaluated at three different sodium chloride (NaCl concentrations: 0 mM, 100 mM, 125 mM and 150 mM. Seed germination, plant growth and biochemical stress determining parameters such as malondialdehyde (MDA, proline content and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 levels were compared between seedlings of lines and hybrid. The obtained results indicated that both lines and hybrid have similar responses at different salinity levels for all examined traits. All the seedlings’ growth parameters, such as germination percentage, root length, shoot length, root and shoot fresh and dry weight, decreased with increasing salinity level. MDA, proline and H2O2 increased at different saline conditions in comparison to the control. Based on the results, of the three genotypes examined, the hybrid Zaharina, followed by line C-6, was more salt-sensitive than line 6-13 in salt stress condition.

  4. Genetic Variation and Phenotypic Response of 15 Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.) Hybrids to Population Density

    OpenAIRE

    Shelton, Adrienne; Tracy, William

    2013-01-01

    Planting sweet corn at higher densities may increase the canopy cover, reducing light transmission to the understory and suppressing weed growth. High planting densities can also negatively impact the crop, however, by decreasing ear size and overall yield. The objective of this study was to determine the potential for increased density tolerance of 15 sweet corn hybrids by estimating the general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) for traits of interest. In 2010 and ...

  5. Analysis of Traits Related to Weed Competitiveness in Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.

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    Natalia de Leon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Weed management in sweet corn can be costly; genetic improvements in sweet corn competitiveness may reduce this expense. Competitive ability can exist as weed suppressive ability (WSA, or crop tolerance (CT. Previous studies in corn have found year of hybrid release, maturity, plant height, leaf angle and leafiness may affect WSA, while hybrid era, maturity, and plant height may affect CT. However, many of these studies were limited to very few genotypes. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of phenomorphological traits on sweet corn competitiveness and the inheritance of these traits. An incomplete half-diallel from seven historic sweet corn inbred lines of varying morphologies was evaluated in a split-block randomized complete block design in three environments. Forage sorghum was interplanted in half of the blocks to act as a model weed. Significant differences among hybrids were generally found for both phenomorphological traits and traits measuring WSA and CT, such as sorghum biomass and yield stability, respectively. Crop plant height was most predictive of WSA and CT. In this set of genotypes, competitive ability may be passed with reasonable fidelity from parent to offspring, suggesting that sweet corn could be bred for competitive ability.

  6. Kernel compositions of glyphosate-tolerant and corn rootworm-protected MON 88017 sweet corn and insect-protected MON 89034 sweet corn are equivalent to that of conventional sweet corn (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Kassie L; Festa, Adam R; Goddard, Scott D; Harrigan, George G; Taylor, Mary L

    2015-03-25

    Monsanto Co. has developed two sweet corn hybrids, MON 88017 and MON 89034, that contain biotechnology-derived (biotech) traits designed to enhance sustainability and improve agronomic practices. MON 88017 confers benefits of glyphosate tolerance and protection against corn rootworm. MON 89034 provides protection against European corn borer and other lepidopteran insect pests. The purpose of this assessment was to compare the kernel compositions of MON 88017 and MON 89034 sweet corn with that of a conventional control that has a genetic background similar to the biotech sweet corn but does not express the biotechnology-derived traits. The sweet corn samples were grown at five replicated sites in the United States during the 2010 growing season and the conventional hybrid and 17 reference hybrids were grown concurrently to provide an estimate of natural variability for all assessed components. The compositional analysis included proximates, fibers, amino acids, sugars, vitamins, minerals, and selected metabolites. Results highlighted that MON 88017 and MON 89034 sweet corns were compositionally equivalent to the conventional control and that levels of the components essential to the desired properties of sweet corn, such as sugars and vitamins, were more affected by growing environment than the biotech traits. In summary, the benefits of biotech traits can be incorporated into sweet corn with no adverse effects on nutritional quality.

  7. Effects of planting method on agronomic characteristics, yield and yield components of sweet and super sweet corn (Zea mays L. varieties under saline conditions

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    F. Faridi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of planting pattern on morphological, Phonological, yield and yield components of sweet and super sweet corn (Zea mays L. varieties under saline conditions, a field experiment was conducted as split plots based on a randomized complete block design with four replications. Planting pattern in 3 levels included one row in ridge, two row in ridge and furrow planting, as a main plot and varieties in 4 levels sweet corn with 2 types (KSc 403 su, Merit and super sweet with two types (Basin, obsession as sub plots. The results showed that planting pattern had significant differences on plant height, ear height, leaf length, leaf width, number of kernel per row, number of rows per ear and 1000-kernel weight. but had no significant effects on the length of tassel, number of leaf/plant, number of leaf per plant above ear, stem diameter, time of anthesis, time of silking, anthesis silking interval ASI, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index. Different varieties had significant effects on the total characteristics studied except number of leaf above ear and stem diameter. Most of the conservable grain yield and harvest index was in Obsession variety (10 kg and 39%, respectively and the least was seen in Basin (4 kg and 20%, respectively. The result showed that use of furrow planting pattern for sweet and super sweet corn in saline conditions can effects result in higher yield.

  8. Inheritance of ear yield and its components in sweet corn (Zea mays L. saccharat)

    OpenAIRE

    Srdić Jelena; Pajić Zorica; Filipović Milomir; Babić Milosav; Sečanski Mile

    2011-01-01

    Sweet corn is mutation of field corn in which greater accumulation of sugars and water soluble polysaccharides provide specific taste and texture. It is consumed in the milky stage of the endosperm, so the product’s quality and its appearance are important as well as ear yield. That is why breeders pay the same attention to these traits in breeding process. In this paper we analyzed combining ability and mode of inheritance of ear yield and yield components...

  9. Sweet corn (Zea mays L.: Fresh ear yield in dependance of genotype and the environment

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    Srdić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet corn is used as food in the milky stage of endosperm, when its kernel is tender, succulent and sweet. It is consumed in form of fresh ears, or it is industrially processed. Breeding of sweet corn has several equally important aims that are directed by the market demands and different modes of consumption. The ear yield, in sweet corn is the most important but not the only main goal of breeding. In the two year study (2013, 2014 we observed the effect of the genotype, year and their interactions on the yields of 8 sweet corn hybrids. Two of the hybrids were commercial and six were experimental hybrids. The field experiment was arranged according to the RCBD with four replications. Hybrids were harvested 23 days after pollination, i.e. silking. Average yield in 2013 was significantly higher (12.19 t ha-1 than in 2014 (11.49 t ha- 1. In 2013 it ranged from 10.21 t ha-1 for the experimental hybrid ZP 489/1su, up to 13.52 t ha-1 for the commercial hybrid ZP 355su. In 2014 the lowest yielding hybrid was ZP 485/1su (10.14 t ha-1 while the highest yielding was ZP 486/1su (13.41 t ha-1. On average those two were also the highest (13.19 t ha-1 and the lowest yielding (10.66 t ha-1 hybrids. Statistical analysis showed that the effect of genotype and the year, as well as their interactions had significant impact on the yield performances of sweet corn hybrids.

  10. Genetic Variation and Phenotypic Response of 15 Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. Hybrids to Population Density

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    William F. Tracy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Planting sweet corn at higher densities may increase the canopy cover, reducing light transmission to the understory and suppressing weed growth. High planting densities can also negatively impact the crop, however, by decreasing ear size and overall yield. The objective of this study was to determine the potential for increased density tolerance of 15 sweet corn hybrids by estimating the general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA for traits of interest. In 2010 and 2011, a half-diallel of six historic sweet corn inbreds was evaluated in a split-block randomized complete block design in four Wisconsin environments, with four replicates in each environment. Hybrids were planted at a low density of 29,936 plants ha−1, a medium density of 63,615 plants ha−1, and a high density of 97,293 plants ha−1. Significant differences between hybrids were found for phenomorphological traits and ear characteristics. Inbreds C68, C40 and Ia5125 produced the progeny most tolerant of the highest population density. Among these genotypes, tolerance to high density is a heritable trait, indicating the feasibility of breeding sweet corn for density tolerance and potential weed competitiveness.

  11. Utilization of Organic Fertilizer on Sweet Corn (Zea mays saccharata Sturt Crop at Shallow Swamp Land

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    Midranisiah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shallow lowland swamp area has significant potential for cultivation of sweet corn crop. This lowland swamp has rich natural resources such as organic fertilizers from chicken dunk, cow dunk, oil palm fresh bunches and legume cover crops (LCC that are not maximally utilized yet by farmers. These organic fertilizers can be utilized to increase the growth and production of sweet corn crop. The research objective was to determine organic fertilizer types that capable to increase the growth and production of sweet corn crop at shallow lowland swamp area. This research had been conducted from January to April 2015 in Pulau Semambu Village, North Indralaya Subdistrict, Ogan Ilir District, South Sumatra Province. The design used in this research was non-factorial Randomized Block Design (RBD with four treatments of organic fertilizer types with six replications for each treatment. The treatments were consisted of organic fertilizers from chicken dunk, cow dunk, oil palm fresh bunches and legume cover crops (LCC. The results showed that treatment of organic fertilizers from chicken dunk could increase the growth and production of sweet corn at shallow lowland swamp area with yield level of 4.37 kg.plot −1.

  12. Inheritance of ear yield and its components in sweet corn (Zea mays L. saccharat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdić Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet corn is mutation of field corn in which greater accumulation of sugars and water soluble polysaccharides provide specific taste and texture. It is consumed in the milky stage of the endosperm, so the product’s quality and its appearance are important as well as ear yield. That is why breeders pay the same attention to these traits in breeding process. In this paper we analyzed combining ability and mode of inheritance of ear yield and yield components in sweet corn, such as kernel-row number, and ear length, by the use of diallel crosses of six sweet corn inbred lines. ANOVA showed that estimates of general (GCA and specific (SCA combining abilities were highly significant (p<0.01 for all observed traits. Nonaditive gene effects were more significant in the expression of ear yield and ear length, while additive gene effects were more important for kernel-row number. Analysis of components of genetic variance was in agreement with the results of ANOVA of combining ability. The mode of inheritance of kernel-row number was partial dominance, while overdominance was of greater importance for ear yield, and ear length. Inbred line L4 was indicted as the most desirable, among the examined set of inbreds, in the further sweet corn breeding programs, due to its significant GCA effects concerning ear yield and number of kernels per ear, and ear yield performances of the hybrids in which one of the components was this inbred, according to SCA and hetrosis estimates.

  13. Mucuna pruriens and its effect on the productivity of sweet corn (Zea mays L.

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    Oscar Eduardo Sanclemente Reyes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The nitrogen contribution to the soil Typic Haplustalfs through the species Mucuna pruriens as a green manure and cover crop, and its effects on sweet corn yield were evaluated. There was a max fixation in the soil of 201 kg ha-1 which contrasted with the control. The treatment using the green manure and compost 2.5 t ha-1 and chemical fertilizer 125 kg ha-1 obtained the highest yield of dry corn grain 7 t ha-1 which is con­sidered very high for this agro ecological zone. The use of compost and fertilizer synthesis as a cover had no significant effect on the corn yield, possibly due to its dynamic losses.

  14. Evaluation of the Effect of Seed Priming and Seedbed on Characteristic of Transplant Sweet Corn (Zea Mays L.

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    A Manzari-Tavakkoli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Corn (Zea mays L. is one of the main cereals in the tropical and temperate regions of the world. Sweet corn obtained from a genetic mutation on chromosome 4 locus SU conventional maize resulting accumulation of sugars and polysaccharides which are soluble in seed endosperm. Unlike other types of corn, sweet corn endosperm contains a lot of sugar to starch, which is called Amylodextrin and it is soluble in water. Producing healthy and uniform plants is one of the requirements of modern agriculture. Considering the unsuitable climatic condition in Iran (arid and semiarid transplantation is one of the requirements for sustainable agriculture particularly in sweet corn production with high water requirement where transplantation is able to save at least 2-3 times of irrigations. Therefore, producing high quality transplants is an important practice for successful seedling establishment. Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of seed priming and substrate types on the characteristics of sweet corn transplants. Materials and Methods This experiment was conducted as factorial based on a completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments were three levels of seeds pretreatment: no priming (p1, hydropriming (p2 and biopriming (p3, and another factor was seedbeds types in seven levels including: vermicompost (b1, perlite (b2, cocopeat(b3, vermicompost+perlite(b4, vermicompost+ cocopeat (b5, perlite+ cocopeat (b6 and vermicompost+ cocopeat +perlite (b7. Biopriming using bioaminopalis biological fertilizer applied on the seeds for 24hours in a solution containing micro-organisms such azotobacter and Pseudomonas. Then the non-primed and the primed seeds were sown in the plastic pots and grown in a greenhouse with average temperature of 22-25° C. Samples were taken three weeks after planting. Results and Discussion Mean emergence time Emergence is shoot elongation and growth leading the shoots out of the

  15. Effects of sowing date and plant density on morphological triats, yield and yield components of sweet corn (Zea mays L.

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    A. Rahmani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of sowing date and plant density on the morphological triats, yield and yield components of sweet corn (Zea mays L. var SC. 403 an experiment was conducted at the Khorasan Razavi Agricultural Research and Natural Resources Center, Mashhad, Iran during 2008. This experiment was carried out as split plot based on RCBD with four replications. The sowing date (14th June, 3th July and 24th July and plant densities (66600, 83300 and 111000 plants.ha-1 were arranged in main and sub plots, respectively. The results showed significant differences between different sowing dates for plant height, ear height, and no. of leaves/plant, no. of leaves above ear, stem diameter, dehusked ear yield, can grains yield, no. of grain rows/ear, ear length, ear diameter, kernel depth, no. of ear.plant-1, 1000 kernel weight, ear harvest index and plant harvest index. The highest and the lowest can grains yield with 18.27 and 0.930 ton ha-1 was belonged to 14th June and 24th July sowing date, respectively. Although, delay in sowing date, led to decrease of growth period and also decrease of temperature can lead to improper transfer of photosynthetic materials and cause to grains yield decrease. The plant density had significant effects on husked ear yield, dehusked ear yield and forage yield. The highest can grains yield was harvested from the highest plant density (8.862 t.ha-1 and the lowest can grains yield derived from the lowest plant density (66600 plants.ha-1 with 7.692 t.ha-1. Finally, the interaction of sowing date and plant density was significant only for harvest index. Therefore, the sowing date 14th June and the highest plant density (111000 plants.ha-1, is recommended for summer sowing date of sweet corn in Mashhad with maximum and better can grains production.

  16. Evaluation of Spring Sweet Corn (Zea mays var saccharata Production in Different Planting Date under Plastic Cover in Gachsaran Province

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    H. Naraki,

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the performance of spring sweet corn (Zea mays var saccharata at different planting dates under plastic cover, a split plot experiment based on RCBD with three replications was conducted in Gachsaran, in southwest of Iran, during 2009-2010 growing season. Four sweet corn hybrids (Merit, Challenger, Chase and Basin were used as main factor and five sowing date (15th and 25th Jan, 4th, 14th and 24th Feb as sub factor. The results showed that hybrid effect was significant on the days to tassel and ear emergence, days to harvest, ear harvest index, ear length, number of row per each ear, wet biological yield and 1000 grains weight, at 1%, and ear wet yield and grain yield harvest index at 5% probability levels. Also the effect of sowing date was significant on the days to tassel and ear emergence, days to harvest, ear wet yield, ear harvest index, ear diameter, ear length, biological yield, and 1000 grains weight at the 1% probability level. 'Basin' and 'Chase' hybrids were determined to have highest and lowest ear wet yield (17.09 and 15.13 t.ha-1 respectively. The highest and the lowest wet ear yield (16.81 and 15.06 t.ha-1 belonged to 15th Jan. and 24th Feb. respectively. 'Basin' hybrid and 'Challenger' with 8.39 and 7.59 t.ha-1 grain yield were found to be highest and lowest yields. The highest and the lowest grain yield (8.41 t.ha-1 7.45 t.ha-1 were recorded for 15th Jan. and 24th Feb. respectively.' Merit' and 'Chase' hybrids were determined to have longest and shortest days to ear harvest (94.3 and 86.2 days. Longest and shortest days to ear harvest (101.5 and 82 days were recorded in 4th Jan. and 24th Feb. Sowing date and hybrids interaction effects showed that the longest and shortest days to ear harvest (104.7 and 78.3 days were calculated in 4th Jan. of Merit and in 24th Feb. for Chase. Based on these results, it can be concluded that 'Basin' hybrid Feb. 24 is the most suitable cultivar to be produced in Gachsaran.

  17. The Effects of Different Nitrogen Sources on Yield and Yield Components of Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. saccharata

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    ali mojab ghasroddashti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sweet corn (Zea mays L. saccharata is one of the tropical cereals of graminae which is cultivated in order to use for ear. Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrients and key factors to achieve desirable yield. Fertilizers play a major role in crop productivity. However, nowadays, excessive use of fertilizers have been found to have a negative impact on yield and environment. Introducing new management methods based on nitrogen and water use efficiency showed some improvements in the quality and quantity of crop production in association with the health of the community. In fact, soil organic matter content should be maintained in the appropriate level to improve fertility. Using municipal solid waste compost and poultry manure are appropriate solutions. They can increase soil organic matter, modify physicochemical properties and improve crop production. Moreover, they are able to solve problems caused by the accumulation of municipal solid waste compost and poultry manure. Material and Methods In order to investigate the impact of different sources of nitrogen on yield and yield components of sweet corn, a field experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications in Marvdasht in 2013. Treatments included different resources of fertilizer: 200 kg.ha-1 net nitrogen (T1, 300 kg.ha-1 net nitrogen (T2, 8 ton.ha-1 poultry manure (T3, 24 ton.ha-1 municipal solid waste compost (T4, 150 kg net nitrogen + 2 ton municipal solid waste compost (T5, 100 kg net nitrogen + 4 ton poultry manure (T6, 150 kg net nitrogen + 6 ton municipal solid waste compost (T7, 100 kg.ha-1 net nitrogen + 12 ton municipal solid waste compost (T8 and fertilizer free (control (T9. At the time of crop maturity, two square meters from middle of each plot were harvested to measure yield and yield components. Statistical analysis was performed using the SAS statistical software. Least significant difference (LSD test at the five

  18. Effect of planting methods, seed density and nitrogen phosphorus (NP) fertilizer levels on sweet corn (Zea maYs L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.; Razzaq, A.; Ullah, R.

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of planting methods, seed density and nitrogen phosphorus (NP) fertilizer levels on emergence m/sup -2/ growth and grain yield of sweet corn. The fertilizer and interaction of fertilizer x seed density had significant negative effect with increasing level while seed density had a positive effect with increased density on emergence per m/sup 2/. Increased seed density significantly reduced plant growth which increased with application of higher fertilizer dose. The grain yield was improves by ridge planting methods, increased seed density and increased fertilizer levels. The highest grain yield (3,553.50 kg ha/sup-1/) of sweet corn plants was recorded in ridge planting method with highest NP fertilizer level of 300:150 kg ha/sup 1/ and 4 seeds hill/sup -1/. The lowest grain yield (3,493.75 kg ha/sup -1/) of sweet corn was observed in flat sowing planting method with 120:75 NP level and 2 seeds hill/sup -1/ seed density. The ridge planting rank first then furrow and flat planting methods on basis of grain yield per hectare. The sweet corn plant yield was high with 4 seeds hill/sup -1/ compared with 2 seeds hill/sup -1/. (author)

  19. Evaluation of Biosynthesis, Accumulation and Antioxidant Activityof Vitamin E in Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. during Kernel Development

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    Lihua Xie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet corn kernels were used in this research to study the dynamics of vitamin E, by evaluatingthe expression levels of genes involved in vitamin E synthesis, the accumulation of vitamin E, and the antioxidant activity during the different stage of kernel development. Results showed that expression levels of ZmHPT and ZmTC genes increased, whereas ZmTMT gene dramatically decreased during kernel development. The contents of all the types of vitamin E in sweet corn had a significant upward increase during kernel development, and reached the highest level at 30 days after pollination (DAP. Amongst the eight isomers of vitamin E, the content of γ-tocotrienol was the highest, and increased by 14.9 folds, followed by α-tocopherolwith an increase of 22 folds, and thecontents of isomers γ-tocopherol, α-tocotrienol, δ-tocopherol,δ-tocotrienol, and β-tocopherol were also followed during kernel development. The antioxidant activity of sweet corn during kernel development was increased, and was up to 101.8 ± 22.3 μmol of α-tocopherol equivlent/100 g in fresh weight (FW at 30 DAP. There was a positive correlation between vitamin E contents and antioxidant activity in sweet corn during the kernel development, and a negative correlation between the expressions of ZmTMT gene and vitamin E contents. These results revealed the relations amongst the content of vitamin E isomers and the gene expression, vitamin E accumulation, and antioxidant activity. The study can provide a harvesting strategy for vitamin E bio-fortification in sweet corn.

  20. Evaluation of Biosynthesis, Accumulation and Antioxidant Activityof Vitamin E in Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.) during Kernel Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lihua; Yu, Yongtao; Mao, Jihua; Liu, Haiying; Hu, Jian Guang; Li, Tong; Guo, Xinbo; Liu, Rui Hai

    2017-12-20

    Sweet corn kernels were used in this research to study the dynamics of vitamin E, by evaluatingthe expression levels of genes involved in vitamin E synthesis, the accumulation of vitamin E, and the antioxidant activity during the different stage of kernel development. Results showed that expression levels of Zm HPT and Zm TC genes increased, whereas Zm TMT gene dramatically decreased during kernel development. The contents of all the types of vitamin E in sweet corn had a significant upward increase during kernel development, and reached the highest level at 30 days after pollination (DAP). Amongst the eight isomers of vitamin E, the content of γ-tocotrienol was the highest, and increased by 14.9 folds, followed by α-tocopherolwith an increase of 22 folds, and thecontents of isomers γ-tocopherol, α-tocotrienol, δ-tocopherol,δ-tocotrienol, and β-tocopherol were also followed during kernel development. The antioxidant activity of sweet corn during kernel development was increased, and was up to 101.8 ± 22.3 μmol of α-tocopherol equivlent/100 g in fresh weight (FW) at 30 DAP. There was a positive correlation between vitamin E contents and antioxidant activity in sweet corn during the kernel development, and a negative correlation between the expressions of Zm TMT gene and vitamin E contents. These results revealed the relations amongst the content of vitamin E isomers and the gene expression, vitamin E accumulation, and antioxidant activity. The study can provide a harvesting strategy for vitamin E bio-fortification in sweet corn.

  1. Recurrent Selection and Participatory Plant Breeding for Improvement of Two Organic Open-Pollinated Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. Populations

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    Adrienne C. Shelton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic growers face unique challenges when raising sweet corn, and benefit from varieties that maintain high eating quality, germinate consistently, deter insect pests, and resist diseases. Genotype by environment rank changes can occur in the performance of cultivars grown on conventional and organic farms, yet few varieties have been bred specifically for organic systems. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the changes made to open-pollinated sweet corn populations using recurrent selection and a participatory plant breeding (PPB methodology. From 2008 to 2011, four cycles of two open-pollinated (OP sweet corn populations were selected on a certified organic farm in Minnesota using a modified ear-to-row recurrent selection scheme. Selections were made in collaboration with an organic farmer, with selection criteria based on traits identified by the farmer. In 2012 and 2013, the population cycles were evaluated in a randomized complete block design in two certified organic locations in Wisconsin, with multiple replications in each environment. Significant linear trends were found among cycles of selection for quantitative and qualitative traits, suggesting the changes were due to recurrent selection and PPB methodology for these populations. However, further improvement is necessary to satisfy the requirements for a useful cultivar for organic growers.

  2. Yield and fruit quality of four sweet corn hybrids (Zea mays) under conventional and integrated fertilization with vermicompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano, Cristina; Revilla, Pedro; Malvar, Rosa Ana; Domínguez, Jorge

    2011-05-01

    Vermicompost has been proposed as a valuable fertilizer for sustainable agriculture. The effects of vermicompost on yield and quality of sweet corn were evaluated in this study. In two field trials, sweet corn plants were grown under (i) a conventional fertilization regime with inorganic fertilizer, and integrated fertilization regimes in which 75% of the nutrients were supplied by the inorganic fertilizer and 25% of the nutrients were supplied by either (ii) rabbit manure, or (iii) vermicompost. All three types of fertilization regime were supplied at two doses. Two pairs of nearly isogenic sweet corn hybrids homozygous for sugary1 and shrunken2 mutants were included in the trials to explore fertilizer × genotype interactions. Growth, yield and ear quality of the plants were evaluated in relation to the three fertilization regimes. In general, the integrated regimes yielded the same productivity levels as the conventional treatment. Moreover, both vermicompost and manure produced significant increases in plant growth and marketable yield, and also affected the chemical composition and quality of the marketable ear. Nevertheless, most of the observed effects of the organic fertilizers were genotype-dependent. The results confirm that the use of organic fertilizers such as vermicompost has a positive effect on crop yield and quality. Nevertheless, these effects were not general, indicating the complexity of the organic amendment-plant interactions and the importance of controlling genetic variation when studying the effects of vermicompost on plant growth. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Genetic variability in populations of sweet corn, common corn and teosinte

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida,Cicero; Amorim,Edson Perito; Barbosa Neto,José Fernandes; Cardoso Filho,Julio Alves; Sereno,Maria Jane Cruz de Melo

    2011-01-01

    The maize (Zea mays L. ssp. mays) has several related species, called teosinte, which are distributed in various subspecies of Zea and other genera. Among the different types of corn, sweet corn shows a great potential for human food. This type was originated from mutations, which increased the amount of polysaccharide in the endosperm. In Brazil there are populations of sweet corn, common maize and teosinte, however, little is known about their genetic variability. Hence, the aim of this pre...

  4. Growth and Yield Responses of Three Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. var. Saccharata) Varieties to Local-based Liquid Organic Fertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    - Fahrurrozi; Zainal Muktamar; - Dwatmadji; Nanik Setyowati; Sigit Sudjatmiko; Mohammad Chozin

    2016-01-01

    Solid organic fertilizing for organically sweet corn production should be combined with foliar application to improve fertilizing effectiveness. Each sweet corn variety had different response to particular liquid organic fertilizer (LOF). This experiment aimed to determine growth and yields of three sweet corn varieties to local-based LOF was conducted at CAPS research station (950 m above sea level) from March to June 2015, arranged in a factorial completely randomized block design with thre...

  5. Effect of Limited Irrigation on Yield and Yield Component of Several Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.var Saccharata Varieties

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    Sh Ghazian Tafrishi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design with four replications and a split plot arrangement was conducted in 2010, in order to study the effect of limited irrigation on yield and yield component of sweet corn. Water levels were (100%, 80%, and 60% replacement of plant water requirement which served as main plots. Subplot was a factorial arrangement of three different sweet corn varieties (Merit, Obsession and KSC403 with two planting methods (raised bed and furrow planting. The evaluated traits were ear length, ear diameter, kernels number per row, seed rows per ear, kernel depth, seed thousands weight, kernel yield, shoot biomass, harvest index and Anthesis- silking interval. Results show that limited irrigation significantly decreased all measured characteristics but harvest index. Effect of varieties was significant on evaluated traits too. Kernel weight and seed depth were significantly affected by interaction between variety and planting method. The highest yield was found for 100% replacement of water requirement irrigation level whit 15.2 tones per hectare kernel weight and the lowest belongs to 60% replacement of water requirement by 8.6 tones per hectare kernel weight. Merit and KSC 403 produces the highest (15.9 ton/ha and lowest (8.8 ton/ha seed yield, respectively. Harvest index of different varieties were not affected by irrigation regime. Results show that, in whole, limited irrigation, decreased seed yield in all varieties by affecting diverse yield component.

  6. Genetic variability in populations of sweet corn, common corn and teosinte.

    OpenAIRE

    Cicero Almeida; Edson Perito Amorim; José Fernandes Barbosa Neto; Julio Alves Cardoso Filho; Maria Jane Cruz de Melo Sereno

    2011-01-01

    The maize (Zea mays L. ssp. mays) has several related species, called teosinte, which are distributed in varioussubspecies of Zea and other genera. Among the different types of corn, sweet corn shows a great potential for human food. This typewas originated from mutations, which increased the amount of polysaccharide in the endosperm. In Brazil there are populations ofsweet corn, common maize and teosinte, however, little is known about their genetic variability. Hence, the aim of this presen...

  7. Effect of Light- and Dark-Germination on the Phenolic Biosynthesis, Phytochemical Profiles, and Antioxidant Activities in Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.) Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Nan; Guo, Xinbo; Liu, Fengyuan; Li, Quan; Hu, Jianguang; Brennan, Charles Stephen

    2017-06-10

    Sweet corn is one of the most widely planted crops in China. Sprouting of grains is a new processes to increase the nutritional value of grain products. The present study explores the effects of light on the nutritional quality of sweet corn sprouts. Gene expression of phenolic biosynthesis, phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity were studied. Two treatments (light and dark) were selected and the morphological structure of sweet corn sprouts, as well as their biochemical composition were investigated to determine the effects of light on the regulation of genes responsible for nutritional compounds. Transcription analyses for three key-encoding genes in the biosynthesis of the precursors of phenolic were studied. Results revealed a negative regulation in the expression of Zm PAL with total phenolic content (TPC) in the light group. TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC) increased during germination and this was correlated with an increase in antioxidant activity ( r = 0.95 and 1.0). The findings illustrate that the nutritional value of sweet corn for the consumer can be improved through germination to the euphylla stage.

  8. Effect of Different Levels of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Vermi-Compost on Yield and Quality of Sweet Corn (Zea mays Hybrid Chase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Habibi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of source and rate of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and quality of sweet corn, a field study was conducted in 2011 cropping season in Agriculture Experiment Station of College of Agriculture, University of Guilan. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Treatment consisted of four levels of nitrogen fertilizer (0, 46, 92 and 138 kg N ha-1 and integrated N of chemical and biological (23 kg N ha-1 + 1 ton ha-1 Vermi-compost, 46 kg N ha-1 + 2 ton ha-1 Vermi-compost, and 69 kg N ha-1 +3 ton ha-1 Vermi-compost and organic sources (2, 4 and 6 ton ha-1. Effect of source and rate of nitrogen fertilizer on fresh ear yield, grain yield canned, grain protein amount and dry matter digestibility percent had significant. With increscent nitrogen at treatments nitrogen fertilizer, organic ant integrated farming yield fresh ear, grain yield, grain protein amount and dry matter digestibility percent increased. Maximum yield fresh ear was obtained with 69 kg N ha-1 + 3 ton ha-1 Vermi-compost with an average 14595.9 kg ha-1. Maximum forage yield and dry forage yield obtained with an average 18619.5 and 3593 kg ha-1 at treatment with 69 kg N ha-1 + 3 ton ha-1 Vermi-compost. Results of this research showed that the best grain yield and quality, and forage yield and quality of sweet corn were obtained in integrated farming and organic methods in Rasht region conditions and same climatology conditions.

  9. Activity of Soil Microorganisms During the Second Growing Season of Sweet Corn (Zea Mays Saccharata Sturt Applied with Organonitrophos and Biochar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermiyati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to increase the production of sweet corn can be done, among others, by the application of fertilizers, either inorganic, organic or its combination. In addition, the application of soil amendments such as biochar is expected to improve soil fertility that will further increase the production of sweet corn. Organonitrophos fertilizer is an organic fertilizer developed by lecturers of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Lampung. The research was aimed to study the effect of the combination of organonitrophos and inorganic fertilizers, biochar and the interaction between fertilizer combination and biochar on soil respiration and soil microbial biomass.The research was conducted at the Agriculture Experimental Field of University of Lampung using a Randomized Block Design with 6×2 factorials and 3 replications. The first factor was six levels of combination of organonitrophos and inorganic fertilizers (P0, P1, P2, P3, P4, and P5. The second factor was two levels of biochar dosage (B0 and B1. The data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance and further tested using the Least Significant Difference (LSD Test at 5% significance level. The variables measured were soil respiration and soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC. The results showed that the highest soil respiration was observed in the plots with P3B1 treatment (300 kg Urea ha-1, 125 kg SP-36 ha-1, 100 kg KCl ha-1 + 2500 kg organonitrophos ha-1 at 60 days after planting (DAP. Among other treatments, the highest SMBC was observed in the plots with P5 treatment (5,000 kg Organonitrophos ha-1 at 60 and 90 DAP. Soil respiration and SMBC were higher in the plots with B1 treatment (5,000 kg biochar ha-1 compared to that in the plots with B0 treatment (0 kg biochar ha-1. There was an interaction effect between combination of organonitrophos and inorganic fertilizers, and biochar on soil respiration at 90 DAP. However, there was no interaction effect between fertilizer combination and biochar

  10. Field-Evolved Resistance in Corn Earworm to Cry Proteins Expressed by Transgenic Sweet Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dively, Galen P.; Finkenbinder, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Background Transgenic corn engineered with genes expressing insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) are now a major tool in insect pest management. With its widespread use, insect resistance is a major threat to the sustainability of the Bt transgenic technology. For all Bt corn expressing Cry toxins, the high dose requirement for resistance management is not achieved for corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), which is more tolerant to the Bt toxins. Methodology/Major Findings We present field monitoring data using Cry1Ab (1996–2016) and Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2 (2010–2016) expressing sweet corn hybrids as in-field screens to measure changes in field efficacy and Cry toxin susceptibility to H. zea. Larvae successfully damaged an increasing proportion of ears, consumed more kernel area, and reached later developmental stages (4th - 6th instars) in both types of Bt hybrids (Cry1Ab—event Bt11, and Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2—event MON89034) since their commercial introduction. Yearly patterns of H. zea population abundance were unrelated to reductions in control efficacy. There was no evidence of field efficacy or tissue toxicity differences among different Cry1Ab hybrids that could contribute to the decline in control efficacy. Supportive data from laboratory bioassays demonstrate significant differences in weight gain and fitness characteristics between the Maryland H. zea strain and a susceptible strain. In bioassays with Cry1Ab expressing green leaf tissue, Maryland H. zea strain gained more weight than the susceptible strain at all concentrations tested. Fitness of the Maryland H. zea strain was significantly lower than that of the susceptible strain as indicated by lower hatch rate, longer time to adult eclosion, lower pupal weight, and reduced survival to adulthood. Conclusions/Significance After ruling out possible contributing factors, the rapid change in field efficacy in recent years and decreased susceptibility of H. zea to Bt

  11. Field-Evolved Resistance in Corn Earworm to Cry Proteins Expressed by Transgenic Sweet Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dively, Galen P; Venugopal, P Dilip; Finkenbinder, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic corn engineered with genes expressing insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) are now a major tool in insect pest management. With its widespread use, insect resistance is a major threat to the sustainability of the Bt transgenic technology. For all Bt corn expressing Cry toxins, the high dose requirement for resistance management is not achieved for corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), which is more tolerant to the Bt toxins. We present field monitoring data using Cry1Ab (1996-2016) and Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2 (2010-2016) expressing sweet corn hybrids as in-field screens to measure changes in field efficacy and Cry toxin susceptibility to H. zea. Larvae successfully damaged an increasing proportion of ears, consumed more kernel area, and reached later developmental stages (4th - 6th instars) in both types of Bt hybrids (Cry1Ab-event Bt11, and Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2-event MON89034) since their commercial introduction. Yearly patterns of H. zea population abundance were unrelated to reductions in control efficacy. There was no evidence of field efficacy or tissue toxicity differences among different Cry1Ab hybrids that could contribute to the decline in control efficacy. Supportive data from laboratory bioassays demonstrate significant differences in weight gain and fitness characteristics between the Maryland H. zea strain and a susceptible strain. In bioassays with Cry1Ab expressing green leaf tissue, Maryland H. zea strain gained more weight than the susceptible strain at all concentrations tested. Fitness of the Maryland H. zea strain was significantly lower than that of the susceptible strain as indicated by lower hatch rate, longer time to adult eclosion, lower pupal weight, and reduced survival to adulthood. After ruling out possible contributing factors, the rapid change in field efficacy in recent years and decreased susceptibility of H. zea to Bt sweet corn provide strong evidence of field-evolved resistance in H

  12. Supplemental control of lepidopterous pests on Bt transgenic sweet corn with biologically-based spray treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Robert R; Shepard, B Merle; Shapiro, Martin; Hassell, Richard L; Schaffer, Mark L; Smith, Chad M

    2009-01-01

    Biologically-based spray treatments, including nucleopolyhedroviruses, neem, and spinosad, were evaluated as supplemental controls for the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), on transgenic sweet corn, Zea mays (L.) (Poales: Poaceae), expressing a Cry1Ab toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) (Bt). Overall, transgenic corn supported lower densities of both pests than did nontransgenic corn. Control of the fall armyworm was improved in both whorl-stage and tassel-stage corn by the use of either a nucleopolyhedrovirus or neem, but the greatest improvement was seen with spinosad. Only spinosad consistently reduced damage to ears, which was caused by both pest species. In general, efficacy of the spray materials did not differ greatly between transgenic and nontransgenic corn.

  13. Efecto de la aplicación de vinazas en las propiedades físicas y la actividad de deshidrogenasas en suelos cultivados con maíz dulce (Zea mays L. Effect of vinasse application on physical properties and dehydrogenases activity in soils under sweet corn (Zea mays L. cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Narváez Castillo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la aplicación de vinazas en algunas propiedades físicas y en la actividad de las deshidrogenasas en un Entic dystropept y en un Fluventic haplustoll del Valle de Cauca, Colombia. Para suplir los requerimientos de K+ del cultivo de maíz dulce (Zea mays L. se utilizaron seis tratamientos (T1 = 100% de K+ como vinaza, T2 = 100% de K+ con KCl; T3 = 50% de K+ como vinaza y KCl, T4 = 75% de K+ con vinaza y 25% de K+ como KCl, T5 = testigo absoluto sin planta, T6 = testigo más planta que fueron dispuestos en un diseño completamente al azar con cinco repeticiones. En el Entic dystropept la densidad aparente disminuyó y en consecuencia la porosidad total aumentó, mientras que en el Fluventic haplustoll sucedió lo contrario. La actividad de las deshidrogenasas fue significativamente mayor (P The effect of vinasse application was assessed on physical properties and dehydrogenases activity in Entic Dystropept and Fluventic Haplustoll of Valle del Cauca, Colombia. To meet the requirements of K+ in sweet corn (Zea mays L. six treatments were used (T1 = 100% of K+ as vinasse; T2 = 100% of K+ with KCl; T3 = 50% of K+ as vinasse and KCl; T4 = 75% of K+ with vinasse and 25% of K+ as KCl; T5 = absolute control without plants; T6 = control plus plants arranged in a completely randomized design with five replications. In Dystropept Entic bulk density decreased and consequently the total porosity increased, while the opposite happened in Haplustoll Fluventic. The dehydrogenase activity was significantly higher (P <0.05 in the Dystropept Entic than in Haplustoll Fluventic presenting low values. The results showed that the changes that are generated as a result of the application of vinasse are different for each type of soil.

  14. Effect of different levels of municipal solid waste compost and nitrogen on some grain elements concentration of sweet corn (Zea mays L. saccharata and some soil properties under Marvdasht conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mojab Ghasrodashti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted in order to study the influence of different levels of municipal solid waste compost and nitrogen rate on grain quality of sweet corn (Zea mays L. saccharata and some soil properties under Marvdasht conditions during growing season of 2008-2009. The experiment was arranged as split plots based on a randomized complete block design with two factors and three replications. Main plot included five levels of nitrogen fertilizer (100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 kg N.ha-1 and sub plots included four levels of municipal solid waste compost (10, 20, 30 and 40 t.ha-1. The Results showed that the highest fresh ear and grain yield resulted from application of 200 kg N.ha-1 and 40 t.ha-1 compost. The grain quality analysis showed that nitrogen had significant effect on grain nitrogen percent and had not significant effect on grain phosphorus and nitrogen content. Also, compost had significant effect on grain nitrogen and phosphorus percent but had no significant effect on grain potassium percent. Soil analysis results showed that effect of compost on organic matter, EC and pH and interactions between nitrogen and compost were significant only on soil nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus percent. Nitrogen had no significant effect only on soil nitrogen percent. Also, the results showed that optimum amount of grain nitrogen and phosphorus percent were gained by using 40 t.ha-1 municipal solid waste compost and optimum amount of grain potassium percent was achieved by using 30 t.ha-1 municipal solid waste compost. Application of 250 kg N.ha-1 and 40 t.ha-1 municipal solid waste compost consequences to optimum amount of soil nitrogen and potassium was gained and optimum amount of soil phosphorus was gained in 150 kg N.ha-1 and 40 t.ha-1 municipal solid waste compost treatments. In general, to achieve the optimum growth of this crop in similar soils, application of 250 kg N.ha-1 and 40 t.ha-1 municipal solid waste compost treatments could

  15. Multi-state trials of Bt sweet corn varieties for control of the corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, A M; Olmstead, D L; Burkness, E C; Hutchison, W D; Dively, G; Welty, C; Sparks, A N

    2013-10-01

    Field tests in 2010-2011 were performed in New York, Minnesota, Maryland, Ohio, and Georgia to compare Bt sweet corn lines expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 and Cry1Ab with their non-Bt isolines, with and without the use of foliar insecticides. The primary insect pest in all locations during the trial years was Heliocoverpa zea (Boddie), which is becoming the most serious insect pest of sweet corn in the United States. At harvest, the ears were measured for marketability according to fresh market and processing standards. For fresh market and processing, least squares regression showed significant effects of protein expression, state, and insecticide frequency. There was a significant effect of year for fresh market but not for processing. The model also showed significant effects of H. zea per ear by protein expression. Sweet corn containing two genes (Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2) and a single gene (Cry1Ab) provided high marketability, and both Bt varieties significantly outperformed the traditional non-Bt isolines in nearly all cases regardless of insecticide application frequency. For pest suppression of H. zea, plants expressing Bt proteins consistently performed better than non-Bt isoline plants, even those sprayed at conventional insecticide frequencies. Where comparisons in the same state were made between Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 and Cry1Ab plants for fresh market, the product expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 provided better protection and resulted in less variability in control. Overall, these results indicate Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 and Cry1Ab plants are suitable for fresh market and processing corn production across a diversity of growing regions and years. Our results demonstrate that Bt sweet corn has the potential to significantly reduce the use of conventional insecticides against lepidopteran pests and, in turn, reduce occupational and environmental risks that arise from intensive insecticide use.

  16. Selection indices for yield and quality traits in sweet corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghar, M.J.; Mehdi, S.S.

    2010-01-01

    The efficiency of three selection indices, viz., Smith-Hazel index (SHI), Desired gain index (DGI) and Base Index (BI) was compared for the improvement of an open pollinated sweet corn (Zea mays L. Saccharata) population. The data of genetic studies on various yield and quality traits among S1 families were used to construct these selection indices. Smith-Hazel index was found to be the most efficient in improving the aggregate genotype of yield traits for most of the selection strategies. Base index proved to be more efficient as compared to Smith-Hazel index in the improvement of aggregate genotype for five out of six selection strategies of quality traits. Both smith-hazel and Base indices were found useful for the improvement of sweetness and sweet flavour for all the selection strategies. When selection was confined to eight yield and four quality traits simultaneously, Base index proved to be more efficient as compared to Smith-Hazel index and desired gain index in improving the aggregate genotype for almost all the selection strategies. (author)

  17. SSR markers in characterization of sweet corn inbred lines

    OpenAIRE

    Srdić Jelena; Nikolić Ana; Pajić Zorica

    2008-01-01

    Sweet corn differs from field corn in many important traits. So its breeding although includes some standard procedures demand application of techniques that are important for determining special traits, all because of the specificity of its usage. Application of molecular markers becomes almost a necessity for the breeding of sweet corn, especially because this is the type of maize in which still no definitive heterotic patterns have been determined. So getting to know genetic divergence of ...

  18. 7 CFR 457.129 - Fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions. 457... sweet corn crop insurance provisions. The fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions for the 2008... Reinsured Policies Fresh Market Sweet Corn Crop Provisions 1. Definitions Allowable cost.—The dollar amount...

  19. 7 CFR 457.154 - Processing sweet corn crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing sweet corn crop insurance provisions. 457... sweet corn crop insurance provisions. The Processing Sweet Corn Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998... policies: Processing Sweet Corn Crop Provisions If a conflict exists among the policy provisions, the order...

  20. Extraction of corn colorants (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Gamarra, Felix Martin Cabajal; Leme, Gisele Costa; Tambourgi, Elias Basile; Bittencourt, Edison

    2009-01-01

    Os corantes naturais foram amplamente utilizados de forma artesanal até antes do surgimento dos corantes sintéticos. O estudo e uso dos corantes naturais voltaram a ter importância nestes últimos anos devido aos questionamentos dos organismos internacionais da saúde e dos consumidores pelo uso indiscriminado dos corantes sintéticos, ligados ao desenvolvimento de doenças degenerativas e ao impacto ambiental. O corante extraído do milho roxo (Zea mays L.) tem sido utilizado ao longo da história...

  1. Supersweet Sweet Corn Cultivar Evaluation for Northern Indiana, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Maynard, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Indiana sweet corn acreage harvested for fresh market averaged 5,233 acres annually from 2011- 2013, with a yield of 63 hundreweight per acre (149 crates or 3.1 tons per acre) and an annual value of $13.9 million (USDA NASS, 2014). Sweet corn fields for fresh market sales are located throughout the state. In northern Indiana, bicolor corn is most commonly grown. Varieties with improved eating quality are of interest to both producers and consumers. The term ‘supersweet’ commonly refers to ...

  2. [Super sweet corn hybrids adaptability for industrial processing. I freezing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Braunnier; Camacho, Candelario; Ortiz de Bertorelli, Ligia; De Venanzi, Frank

    2002-09-01

    With the purpose of evaluating adaptability to the freezing process of super sweet corn sh2 hybrids Krispy King, Victor and 324, 100 cobs of each type were frozen at -18 degrees C. After 120 days of storage, their chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics were compared with a sweet corn su. Industrial quality of the process of freezing and length and number of rows in cobs were also determined. Results revealed yields above 60% in frozen corns. Length and number of rows in cobs were acceptable. Most of the chemical characteristics of super sweet hybrids were not different from the sweet corn assayed at the 5% significance level. Moisture content and soluble solids of hybrid Victor, as well as total sugars of hybrid 324 were statistically different. All sh2 corns had higher pH values. During freezing, soluble solids concentration, sugars and acids decreased whereas pH increased. Frozen cobs exhibited acceptable microbiological rank, with low activities of mesophiles and total coliforms, absence of psychrophiles and fecal coliforms, and an appreciable amount of molds. In conclusion, sh2 hybrids adapted with no problems to the freezing process, they had lower contents of soluble solids and higher contents of total sugars, which almost doubled the amount of su corn; flavor, texture, sweetness and appearance of kernels were also better. Hybrid Victor was preferred by the evaluating panel and had an outstanding performance due to its yield and sensorial characteristics.

  3. Investigating Seed Germination Indices and Absorption Rate of Sodium, Chloride, Calcium, and Potassium in Different Parts of Seedlings of Sweet Corn KSC 403 (Zea Mays L var. Saccharata Under Salinity Stress and Seed Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nasrolah alhossini,

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of different levels of seed priming on germination indices and nutrient absorption at early growth stages of sweet corn (Golden Kernel Hybrid a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design was conducted with three replications in 2011. The experiment consists of 6 levels of primings (seeds without priming, priming with tap water, priming with distilled water, priming with sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and hydrous calcium chloride and five levels of salinity (zero, 4, 8, 12 and 16 ds/m sodium chloride. The characteristics studied were germination percentage, germination rate, root and shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedling, root to shoot ratio and determination of sodium, chloride, calcium, and potassium concentration in different parts of seedlings (stems, roots and seed. The results indicated that increasing salinity stress levels decreased all parameters measured. Priming seeds with hydrated calcium chloride responded to significantly to salinity stress better than other treatments. Results also showed that increasing concentration of sodium chloride salt, increased absorption rate of sodium but concentration of calcium and potassium were reduced. Because application of hydrous calcium chloride stimulates cell in using calcium under salinity conditions it leads to improved seedling growth parameters. To achieve a more accurate results slicing interaction effect of seed priming×salinity levels was performed. Hydrous calcium chloride treatments improved all traits under study except sodium and potassium concentration. This represents a better performance of seeds germination under salinity stress when seeds primed with hydrous calcium chloride.

  4. THE EFFECT OF FORMULATION HUMIC SUBSTANCE AND Trichoderma sp TO INCREASE PRODUCTION AND GROWTH OF CORN (Zea Mays,L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruly Eko Kusuma Kurniawan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research to determine of formulation humic subtance and Trichoderma sp to increase the production and growth of corn (zea mays,L. This research was conducted by extracting humic substance with fractionation organic matter method from cattle manure organic material. Trichoderma sp grow on corn medium and harvested after reaching a density of 1015 cfu. Created this compound formulation with mixing humic substance and Trichoderma sp. Indicator plant with F1 sweet corn Jago varieties. Aplication used humic substance in range 8%, 16%, and 32% on the recommended use NPK fertilizer for corn, as well as control without humic substance. The result showed application use 8% humic substance most good for plant growth and harvest. Additionally, nutrient uptake NPK fertilizer efficiency is increased and more effective than control and use of the formulation 16% and 32% humic substance.

  5. Evaluation of drought tolerance in new Bulgarian sweet corn genotypes with using stress tolerance indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shtereva Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two inbred lines and their heterotic F1 hybrid of sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. rugosa Bonaf. were evaluated to assess their reaction for PEG-mediated water stress at the seedling stage in terms of various physiological and biochemical traits. Water potentials were: zero as control and -0.6, -0.9, -1.2 and -1.5 MPa as treatments. Stress- determining parameters such as proline content, malondiadehyde, and hydrogen peroxide were measured. In water stress, the germination was inversely proportional to the Polyethylene glycol concentrations in all three genotypes; roots and shoots length, fresh and dry weight decreased with an increasing of polyethylene glycol concentration. Malondiadehyde, proline, and hydrogen peroxide were found to be increased at different osmotic gradients in comparison to control. The data observed in the experiments revealed that the line C-6 might be used as a very promising parent to breed and select new drought tolerant sweet corn hybrids. Such a suggestion needs to be further explored by involving a larger set of sweet corn lines and hybrids.

  6. Characteristics and functional properties of purple corn (Zea mays L. var. subnigroviolaceo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhoseline Guillén-Sánchez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Zea Mays L. variety purple (purple corn is a plant native of America, which has the episperm seeds (grains and the cobs (cob in purple, which gives special characteristics to the pigments that have (between 1.5% and 6.0%, called anthocyanins, which belong to the group of flavonoids. Due to its high content of anthocyanins (cianin C3G-3-glucose as its main color and phenolic compounds act as powerful natural antioxidant and anticancer, Further having functional properties due to these bioactive compounds. The purple corn also provides significant amounts of starch, about 80% (complex carbohydrate, 10% of sugars provide sweetness, up to 11% protein, up to 2% minerals and B vitamins and ascorbic acid, concentrated in endosperm (grain free envelope. Also the nutritional value, the purple corn has a rich composition of phytochemicals, which have beneficial effects on our body, such as neutralize free radicals and act as antimutagenic. His review paper aimed to collect information on the studies undertaken to purple corn as an alternative to artificial food dyes and health benefits when included in the diet. Benefits such as cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, lowering cholesterol, fighting diabetes, being the most remarkable antioxidant action (wrinkle.

  7. Bt Sweet Corn: What Is It and Why Should We Use It?

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, Vonny M.; Kuhar, Thomas Patrick, 1969-; Speese, John

    2009-01-01

    This publication reviews Transgenic Bt sweet corn hybrids which are a genetically modified organism (GMO) that are the result of combining commercially available sweet corn varieties with genes from a naturally occurring soil bacterium called Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner or Bt.

  8. 78 FR 55171 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Processing Sweet Corn Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ...-0001] RIN 0563-AC37 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Processing Sweet Corn Crop Insurance Provisions... Corporation (FCIC) finalizes the Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Processing Sweet Corn Crop Insurance... changes to the Common Crop Insurance Regulations (7 CFR part 457), Processing Sweet Corn Crop Insurance...

  9. SSR markers in characterization of sweet corn inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet corn differs from field corn in many important traits. So its breeding although includes some standard procedures demand application of techniques that are important for determining special traits, all because of the specificity of its usage. Application of molecular markers becomes almost a necessity for the breeding of sweet corn, especially because this is the type of maize in which still no definitive heterotic patterns have been determined. So getting to know genetic divergence of the sweet corn inbred lines is of great importance for its breeding. In this paper we analyzed genetic similarity of six sweet corn inbreds based on SSR markers. 40 SSR primers were used in DNA amplification. Results were compared and correlated with the data on specific combining ability, obtained by the diallel analysis. The results of SCA were in concurrence with genetic similarity. Values of rank correlation coefficient were negative, indicating that more similar inbred lines had smaller estimates of SCA, and lines that were less similar had higher estimates of SCA. Rank correlation coefficient between SCA and GS according to Dice coefficient was between -0,16 and -0,57*.

  10. Complementation of sweet corn mutants: a method for grouping ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Maize endosperm mutant genes that affect quality of sweet corn can be grouped in two classes. One group of mutants namely brittle1 (bt1), brittle2 (bt2) and shrunken2 (sh2) .... significant influence on yield improvement, efficient test- ing of hybrids, and increasing the probability of identify- ing desirable hybrids (Tracy 1990).

  11. Performance Evaluation of Drip Irrigation System Using Sweet Corn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gravitational drip irrigation system was developed using available materials. The system consisting of 4.0 l/hr Netafim pressure-compensating emitters was used to irrigate 0.0015 ha of land where sweet corn was planted under variable water applications in a randomised complete block design with three treatments.

  12. a method for grouping sweet corn genotypes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ity improvement and plant nutrition. I. Genetic mutations affect- ing carbohydrate properties of the maize endosperm. Qual. Plant. Mat. Veget. 13, 86–97. Holder D. G., Glover D. V. and Shannon J. C 1974 Interaction of shrunken-2 with five other carbohydrate genes in Zea mays L. endosperm. Crop Sci. 14, 643–646. Hossain ...

  13. SWEET CORN FARMING: THE EFFECT OF PRODUCTION FACTOR, EFFICIENCY AND RETURN TO SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwijatenaya I.B.M.A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the effect of production factors on the sweet corn production, the efficiency of sweet corn farming, and the return to scale of sweet corn production. The sampling technique was taken by proportionate stratified random sampling method with the sample number of 57 people while the analyzer used was the program of Frointer 4.1c. The results show that the production factors of the land farm, seed, and fertilizer have a positive and significant effect on sweet corn production. On the other hand, labor production factors have a positive but not significant effect on sweet corn production. It also found that technical efficiency, price efficiency, and economic efficiency of sweet corn farming in Muara Wis Sub-district of Kutai Kartanegara Regency are not efficient yet. The return to scale of sweet corn yield has an increasing return to scale condition.

  14. Cannibalism of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic corn versus non-Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcutt, Charles F

    2006-06-01

    Because of the importance of cannibalism in population regulation of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn, Zea mays L., it is useful to understand the interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic corn and cannibalism. To determine the effects of Bt corn on cannibalism in H. zea, pairs of the same or different instars were taken from Bt or non-Bt corn and placed on artificial diet in proximity. Cannibalism occurred in 91% of pairs and was approximately 7% greater for pairs of larvae reared from Bt transgenic corn (95%) than from non-Bt corn (88%). Also, first instar by first instar pairs had a lower rate of cannibalism than other pairs. Time until cannibalism was not different for larvae from Bt corn versus non-Bt corn. Pupation rate of cannibals and surviving victims was not different for pairs from Bt corn versus non-Bt corn. Finally, cannibalism increased pupation rate of cannibals from both Bt and non-Bt corn by approximately 23 and 12%, respectively, although the increases were not significant. Thus, negative effects of Bt on larvae were compensated by increased cannibalism in comparison with larvae reared on non-Bt corn, which increased larval survival to levels comparable with larvae reared on non-Bt plants.

  15. Evaluation of Sowing Date, Plant Density and Harvest Method on Growth, Yield and Yield Components of Baby Corn (Zea mays L. var. SC403su

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rahmani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering importance of baby corn, the study was consisted of sowing date (14th June, 3th July and 24th July as main Plots and plant densities (6.5, 8.5 and 10.5. plant m-2 as sub Plots and two harvest methods (baby corn, as first harvest sweet corn and next ear as baby corn on Growth parameter and yield of baby corn (Zea mays L. Var SC403su in agricultural Research Center and Natural Resources of Khorasan Razavi Province, Mashhad on 2009. The experiment was carried out in a factorial split plot design based on randomized completely block design with 4 replications. The results showed the highest plant height on sowing date 3thJuly with average 168.6 cm. Also the highest standard ear percentage that one of the important factors for food manufactory had on sowing date 24th July with plant density 10.5 plants plant m-2, by harvesting method baby corn with 63.9 percentages. Also The results showed the highest substandard ear percentage of baby corn was belonged to sowing date 24th July with 8.5 plant m-2, by harvesting method (baby corn sweet corn with 74.6%. The highest harvest ear index was belonged to sowing date14thJune, by harvesting method (baby corn sweet corn with 35.29 percentages. Therefore, sowing date 3thJuly for forage production with average 4 kg m-2 by harvesting method baby corn are recommended for lateral produce production. Considering to Mashhad weather conditions, producing the highest and best standard ear percentage, density, 10.5 plants per square meter and 24th July planting is recommended.

  16. Morpho-Productive and Chemical Composition of Local and Foreign Sweet Corn Hybrids Grown in the Conditions of Transylvania Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana PĂCURAR

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sweet corn (Zea mays L. belongs to the Gramineae family, var. rugosa (Bonof convar. Saccharate (Sturt. and can be distinguished from normal corn by presence of one or more mutant genes that affect carbohydrate metabolism in endosperm. Purpose of this research is to compare behavior of sweet corn hybrids created at SCDA Turda, but also foreign hybrids, in terms of quality elements and chemical composition, in conditions of Transylvania plateau, in two localities: Turda and Viişoara. As biological material following domestic sweet corn hybrids were chosen: ‘Prima’, ‘Estival’, ‘Deliciul verii’, ‘Dulcin’, ‘Delicios’, ‘Estival M’ and foreign hybrid ‘Jubilee’. These hybrids were also analyzed in terms of chemical composition. Weight of ‘Estival’ hybrid has the best behavior in both localities; as regards to cobs length, ‘Delicios’ hybrid has registered increases very significant positive, differences between plant height in the two localities confirm significant influence of environment on formation of this important typical qualitative characteristics, highest performances in terms of β-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin content, are recorded by ‘Jubilee’ in both localities, ‘Deliciul Verii’ hybrid records significant value for lutein content, also recording an important addition of carbohydrates in Turda, ‘Prima’ and ‘Estival’ hybrids recorded highest values of sucrose in both localities.

  17. Assessment of the physiological potential of super sweet corn seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarenga,Renata Oliveira; Marcos-Filho,Julio; Timóteo,Tathiana Silva

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of physiological potential is essential in seed quality control programs. This study compared the sensitivity of different procedures for evaluating super sweet corn seed vigor, focusing on the primary root protrusion test. Six seed lots, each of the SWB 551 and SWB 585 hybrids, were used. Seed physiological potential was evaluated by germination and vigor tests (speed of germination, traditional and saturated salt accelerated aging, cold test, seedling length, seedling emergen...

  18. Genetic diversity assessed by microsatellite markers in sweet corn cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Daniela Lopes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information on genetic diversity is essential to the characterization and utilization of germplasm. The genetic diversity of twenty-two sweet corn cultivars (seventeen open-pollinated varieties, OPV, and five hybrids, H was investigated by applying simple sequence repeat markers. A total of 257 primers were tested, of which 160 were found to be usable in terms of high reproducibility for all the samples tested; 45 were polymorphic loci, of which 30 were used to assess the genetic diversity of sweet corn cultivars. We detected a total of 86 alleles using 30 microsatellite primers. The mean polymorphism was 82 %. The highest heterozygosity values (Ho = 0.20 were found in the PR030-Doce Flor da Serra and BR427 III OPVs, whereas the lowest values (0.14 were recorded in the MG161-Branco Doce and Doce Cubano OPVs. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.19 (Umc2319 to 0.71 (Umc2205. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that most of the genetic variability was concentrated within the cultivars of sweet corn (75 %, with less variability between them (25 %. The consensus tree derived from the neighbor-joining (NJ algorithm using 1,000 bootstrapping replicates revealed seven genetically different groups. Nei’s diversity values varied between 0.103 (Doce do Hawai × CNPH-1 cultivars and 0.645 (Amarelo Doce × Lili cultivars, indicating a narrow genetic basis. The Lili hybrid was the most distant cultivar, as revealed by Principal Coordinates Analysis and the NJ tree. This study on genetic diversity will be useful for planning future studies on sweet corn genetic resources and can complement the breeding programs for this crop.

  19. Heterosis performance in industrial and yield components of sweet corn

    OpenAIRE

    Assunção,Aracelle; Brasil,Edward Madureira; Oliveira,Jaison Pereira de; Reis,Américo José dos Santos; Pereira,André Ferreira; Bueno,Luíce Gomes; Ramos,Michelle Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    Heterosis and its components were evaluated in a diallel crossing system of sweet corn. In the 38 treatments, eigth parents, 28 hybrids and two controls were used, arranged in a randomized block design with three replications.The diallel analysis followed the methodology of Gardner and Eberhart (1966). The following traits were evaluated: male and female flowering, plant and ear height, ear index (number of ears/number of plants), ºBrix, total ear weight, standard ear weight, industrial yield...

  20. Effects of Plant Density on Sweet and Baby Corn (Hybrid KSC 403 Yield and Yield Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bavi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sweet corn is the one of the most important types of corn. There is a high amount of sugar in the endosperm of sweet corn than dent corn. Baby corn is the ear of corn that is being harvested in the silking stage before the end of pollination. This crop has an interesting using methods as salad, conserve production and vegetative consumption. Both two sweet and baby corn is obtained from one plant in different growth stages and could be harvested from one corn hybrid. Best yield and quality of baby corn is obtained from sweet corn hybrids, because of high amounts of sugar in the grains and ears. Sweet corn and baby corn could be harvested at early dough stage (with about 30 % of humidity and early silking stage before the pollination is completed, respectively. Plant density is the most important factor in growing corn, especially in sweet and baby corn. Khuzestan province is one of the main regions of corn production in Iran. In Khuzestan, forage and silage corn have the most production among the summer crops. Corn is planted in two planting date in Khuzestan: early spring and early summer. Spring corn planting produces little grain yield due to Simultaneity of silking stage with hot early summer days. Because of little production and little research about sweet and baby corn, this study was performed and designed. Materials and Methods In order to investigate the effects of plant density and harvesting method on sweet corn and baby corn yield, an experiment was performed during 2012-13, in research farm of Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, located in southwest of Iran. In this experiment, four plant densities (7, 9, 11 and 13 plants.m-2 and two harvesting methods (baby corn and sweet corn were investigated in an RCB statistical design with four replications. The KSC 403 hybrid was used and investigated in the experiment, as a sweet corn hybrid. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS 9.1 through

  1. THE EFFECT OF WINTER CATCH CROPS ON WEED INFESTATION IN SWEET CORN DEPENDING ON THE WEED CONTROL METHODS

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    Robert Rosa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out in east-central Poland (52°06’ N, 22°55’ E over 2008–2011 to study the effect of winter catch crops on the weed infestation, number, and fresh matter of weeds in sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. saccharata. The following winter catch crops were grown: hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth., white clover (Trifolium repens L., winter rye (Secale cereale L., Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L. and winter turnip rape (Brassica rapa var. typica Posp.. The catch crops were sown in early September and incorporated in early May. The effect of the catch crops was compared to the effect of FYM (30 t·ha-1 and control without organic manuring (NOM. Three methods of weed control were used: HW – hand weeding, twice during the growing period, GCM – the herbicide Guardian Complete Mix 664 SE, immediately after sowing of corn seeds, Z+T – a mixture of the herbicides Zeagran 340 SE and Titus 25 WG applied at the 3–4-leaf stage of sweet corn growth. Rye and turnip rape catch crops had least weeds in their fresh matter. Sweet corn following winter catch crops was less infested by weeds than corn following farmyard manure and non-manured corn. Least weeds and their lowest weight were found after SC, BRT and VV. LM and BRT reduced weed species numbers compared with FYM and NOM. The greatest weed species diversity, determined at the corn flowering stage, was determined after SC and FYM. The number and weight of weeds were significantly lower when chemically controlled compared with hand weeding. The best results were observed after a post-emergent application of the mixture Z+T. The weed species diversity on Z+T-treated plots was clearly lower compared with GCM and HW.

  2. Managing the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, using Bt corn and insecticide treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Juliano R; Costa, Ervandil C; Guedes, Jerson V C; Arbage, Alessandro P; Neto, Armando B; Bigolin, Mauricio; Pinto, Felipe F

    2013-01-01

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are important pests of corn in Brazil and have not been successfully managed, because of the difficulty of managing them with pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bt corn MON810, transformed with a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) insecticide seed treatment, and foliar insecticide spray using treatments developed for control of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is the major pest of corn. The experiments were done under field conditions in early- and late-planted corn in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and in the laboratory. The MON810 corn reduced infestations and damage by D. saccharalis and H. zea. The insecticides used in seed treatments or foliar sprays did not affect D. saccharalis and H. zea infestations or damage levels. The exception was the insecticide seed treatment in non-transformed corn, which reduced early infestations of D. saccharalis. The MON810 corn, therefore, can be used for managing these two pest species, especially D. saccharalis.

  3. Water deficit stress effects on corn (Zea mays, L.) root: shoot ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted at Akron, CO, USA, on a Weld silt loam in 2004 to quantify the effects of water deficit stress on corn (Zea mays, L.) root and shoot biomass. Corn plants were grown under a range of soil bulk density and water conditions caused by previous tillage, crop rotation, and irrigation...

  4. Effects of Interplanting Flowering Plants on the Biological Control of Corn Earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Sweet Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, Roshan; Wright, Mark G

    2016-02-01

    Natural enemy exploitation of food resources and alternative hosts in noncrop vegetation has been shown to be an effective means of enhancing natural enemy populations in diversified agro-ecosystem. Field trials were conducted in Hawaii to examine effects of interplanting flowering plants on 1) parasitism of corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) eggs by Trichogramma spp., and 2) abundance of Orius spp. in relation to prey (H. zea eggs and thrips [primarily, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Frankliniella williamsi Hood]). Sweet corn (maize), Zea mays L., was interplanted with three flowering plants, buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), and sunn hemp, Crotolaria juncea L., at 2:1 and 4:1 (corn: flowering plant) ratios in 2009 and 2010, respectively. In 2009, the abundance of Orius spp. was significantly greater in the buckwheat-interplanted treatment compared to the monocrop control at similar levels of prey availability, indicating buckwheat flowers might have provided both prey and nectar resources. In 2010, cowpea and sunn hemp flowering plants provided a source of an alternate host insect's eggs for Trichogramma spp. oviposition, resulting in significantly higher parasitism of H. zea eggs in the cowpea- and sunn hemp-interplanted treatments compared to the monocrop control. Despite of differences in pest and natural enemy interactions in two field trials, our findings suggested that provisioning of an alternate host insect's eggs through flowering plants is an effective means for enhancing Trichogramma spp. and provisioning of both nectar and prey resources through flowering plants is important for enhancing predation by Orius spp. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii: lessons learned from a xylem-dwelling pathogen of sweet corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, M Caroline

    2011-09-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii is a Gram-negative enteric bacterium that primarily infects sweet corn. Studies of this bacterium have provided useful insight into how xylem-dwelling bacteria establish themselves and incite disease in their hosts. Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii is a remarkable bacterial system for laboratory studies because of its relative ease of propagation and genetic manipulation, and the fact that it appears to employ a minimal number of pathogenicity mechanisms. In addition, P. stewartii subsp. stewartii produces copious amounts of its quorum sensing (QS) signal, acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL), making it an excellent organism for studying QS-controlled gene regulation in a plant-pathogenic bacterium. In fact, P. stewartii subsp. stewartii has become the microbial paradigm for QS control of gene expression by both repression and activation via a QS regulator that binds DNA in the absence and dissociates in the presence of the signal ligand. Moreover, P. stewartii subsp. stewartii is a member of the Enterobacteriaceae, and lessons learned from its interaction with plants may be extrapolated to other plant-associated enterics, such as Erwinia, Dickeya and Pectobacterium spp., or enteric human pathogens associated with plants, such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. Bacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; family Enterobacteriaceae; genus Pantoea; species stewartii (Mergaert et al., 1993). Gram-negative, motile, yellow pigmented, mucoid, facultative anaerobe. Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Smith, 1898) Dye causes Stewart's wilt of corn (Zea mays). Early-maturing sweet corn varieties and some elite inbred maize lines are particularly susceptible. There are two major phases of Stewart's wilt disease: (i) wilt and (ii) leaf blight. The wilt phase occurs when young seedlings are infected with P. stewartii subsp. stewartii (Fig. 1A). Water-soaked lesions first appear on the young expanding leaves and, later, seedlings may become severely wilted

  6. CAMBIOS EN LAS PROPIEDADES QUÍMICAS Y EN LA ACTIVIDAD DE LAS FOSFATASAS EN SUELOS CULTIVADOS CON MAÍZ DULCE (ZEA MAYS L. FERTILIZADOS CON VINAZA CHANGES IN CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND PHOSPHATASES ACTIVITY IN SOILS UNDER SWEET CORN (ZEA MAYS L. CULTIVATION FERTILIZED WITH VINASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Narváez Castillo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evalúo el efecto de la aplicación de vinaza en las propiedades químicas y la actividad de las fosfatasas ácidas y alcalinas de dos suelos del Valle del Cauca, Colombia (Typic Argiudoll y Fluventic Haplustoll en condiciones controladas. Se establecieron seis tratamientos y cinco repeticiones distribuidos en un diseño completamente al azar, cuatro de ellos buscaban suplir los requerimientos de K+ del cultivo maíz dulce de la siguiente forma: T1, 100% del K+ con vinazas, T2 100% de K+ con KCl, T3 50% de K+ con Vinaza y 50% con KCl, y T4 75% del K+ con vinaza y 25% con KCl, T5 fue el testigo absoluto sin planta y T6 el testigo más planta. Las evaluaciones se realizaron en un periodo de 76 días y las muestras se tomaron entre 0-5 cm de profundidad. El pH, K+, B y relación Ca + Mg/K disminuyeron, muy significativamente (PIt was evaluated the effect of vinasse application on chemical properties and activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases of two soils of Valle del Cauca Colombia (Typic Argiudoll and Fluventic Haplustoll under controlled conditions. Six treatments and five replicates arranged in a completely randomized design were stablished; four of them, sought meet the requirements of K+ crop sweet corn as follows: T1, 100% of K+ with vinasse, T2 100% K+ with KCl T3 50% of K+ with vinasse and 50% KCl, and T4 75% of K+ with vinasse and 25% with KCl, T5 was the absolute control without plant and T6 the witness more plant. The evaluations were conducted over a period of 76 days and samples were taken from 0 - 5 cm deep. The pH, K+, B and Ca + Mg / K decreased significantly (P<0.01, while the contents of K+ and B were increased in both soils The P, Cu, Na and Fe increased differently in each soil. Alkaline phosphatase was significantly higher in the Fluventic Haplustoll and maximum activity occurred at 10 days after sowing (DAS; however, no significant differences between soils with reference to acid phosphatase and increased activity

  7. Development, survival and fitness performance of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in MON810 Bt field corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, T A; Dively, G P; Herbert, D A

    2003-06-01

    Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) development, survival, and feeding injury in MON810 transgenic ears of field corn (Zea mays L.) expressing Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki (Bt) Cry1Ab endotoxins were compared with non-Bt ears at four geographic locations over two growing seasons. Expression of Cry1Ab endotoxin resulted in overall reductions in the percentage of damaged ears by 33% and in the amount of kernels consumed by 60%. Bt-induced effects varied significantly among locations, partly because of the overall level and timing of H. zea infestations, condition of silk tissue at the time of egg hatch, and the possible effects of plant stress. Larvae feeding on Bt ears produced scattered, discontinuous patches of partially consumed kernels, which were arranged more linearly than the compact feeding patterns in non-Bt ears. The feeding patterns suggest that larvae in Bt ears are moving about sampling kernels more frequently than larvae in non-Bt ears. Because not all kernels express the same level of endotoxin, the spatial heterogeneity of toxin distribution within Bt ears may provide an opportunity for development of behavioral responses in H. zea to avoid toxin. MON810 corn suppressed the establishment and development of H. zea to late instars by at least 75%. This level of control is considered a moderate dose, which may increase the risk of resistance development in areas where MON810 corn is widely adopted and H. zea overwinters successfully. Sublethal effects of MON810 corn resulted in prolonged larval and prepupal development, smaller pupae, and reduced fecundity of H. zea. The moderate dose effects and the spatial heterogeneity of toxin distribution among kernels could increase the additive genetic variance for both physiological and behavioral resistance in H. zea populations. Implications of localized population suppression are discussed.

  8. Extraction Of Corn Colorants (zea Mays L.) [extração De Corantes De Milho (zea Mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Gamarra F.M.C.; Leme G.C.; Tambourgi E.B.; Bittencourt E.

    2009-01-01

    Natural colorants were craftly made and widely used before the discovery of the synthetic colorants. The study and the use of natural colorants have become important again in the last few years due to questions raised by the international health organizations and consumers related to the indiscriminate use of synthetic colorants which were linked to the development of degenerative illnesses and environmental impact. The colorant extracted from purple corn (Zea Mays L.) was used by the Inca ci...

  9. Studies on the Rapid Methods for Evaluating Seed Vigor of Sweet Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guangwu; Yang, Linlin; Wang, Jianhua; Zhu, Zhujun

    Since the germination test is still the main method for evaluating seed vigor of sweet corn, it is necessary to study the rapid methods for evaluating their vigor. First, two vigor levels of 9 super sweet corn and 9 sugar enhanced corn hybrids were distinguished by accelerated ageing treatment. Next, their vigor statuses were tested by rapid methods such as electrical conductivity (EC), soluble sugar (SS), volatile aldehyde (VA), dehydrogenase activity (DA) and Q2 oxygen sensing technology. Correlation relationship was analyzed between the above tested values and vigor performances. The results showed that EC, SS, VA, DA, oxygen metabolism rate (OMR), critical oxygen pressure (COP) were all suitable to evaluate seed vigor of sweet corn. Furthermore, VA was optimal for evaluating seed vigor of super sweet corn. DA was optimal for evaluating sugar enhanced corn.

  10. Inducing salt tolerance in sweet corn by magnetic priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Karimi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates seed germination and growth of sweet corn under NaCl stress (0, 50, and 100 mM, after exposing the seeds to weak (15 mT or strong (150 mT magnetic fields (MF for different durations (0, 6, 12, and 24 hours. Salinity reduced seed germination and plant growth. MF treatments enhanced rate and percentage of germination and improved plant growth, regardless of salinity. Higher germination rate was obtained by the stronger MF, however, the seedling were more vigorous after priming with 15 mT MF. Proline accumulation was observed in parallel with the loss of plant water content under 100 mM NaCl stress. MF prevented proline accumulation by improving water absorption. Positive correlation between H2O2 accumulation and membrane thermostability (MTI was found after MF treatments, which revealed that MF primed the plant for salinity by H2O2 signaling. However, over-accumulation of H2O2 after prolonged MF exposure adversely affected MTI under severe salt stress. In conclusion, magnetic priming for 6 hours was suggested for enhancing germination and growth of sweet corn under salt stress.

  11. The Effect of Organic Phosphorus and Nitrogen Enriched Manure on Nutritive Value of Sweet Corn Stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukiwati, D. R.; Pujaningsih, R. I.; Murwani, R.

    2018-02-01

    The experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of some manure enriched with phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) organic (‘manure plus’) on crude protein and mineral production of sweet corn (Zea mays saccharata)and quality of fermented stover as livestock feed. A field experiment was conducted on a vertisol soil (low pH, nitrogen and low available Bray II extractable P). Randomized block design with 9 treatments in 3 replicates was used in this experiment. The treatments were T1(TSP), T2 (SA), T3 (TSP+SA), T4 (manure), T5 (manure+PR), T6 (manure+guano), T7 (manure+N-legume), T8 (manure+PR+N-legume), T9 (manure +guano+N-legume). Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the differences between treatment means were examined by Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT). Results of the experiment showed that the treatment significantly affected to the crude protein and calcium production of stover and nutrient concentration of fermented stover, but it is not affected to P production of stover. The result of DMRT showed that the effect of ‘manure plus’ was not significantly different on CP and Ca production of stover, mineral concentration, in vitro DMD and OMD of fermented stover, compared to inorganic fertilization. Conclusion, manure enriched with organic NP, resulted in similar on CP and Ca production of stover and nutrient concentration of fermented stover compared to inorganic fertilizer. Thus, organic-NP enriched manure could be an alternative and viable technology to utilize low grade of phosphate rock, guano and Gliricidea sepium to produce sweet corn in vertisol soil.

  12. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the diapause hormone receptor in the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea

    Science.gov (United States)

    The diapause hormone (DH) in the heliothine moth has shown its activity in termination of pupal diapause, while the orthology in the silkworm is known to induce embryonic diapause. In the current study, we cloned the diapause hormone receptor from the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (HzDHr) and tested ...

  13. Aphrodisiac Activity of the Aqueous Crude Extract of Purple Corn ( Zea mays) in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro-Juárez, Miguel; Rodríguez-Santiago, Magdalena G; Franco, Miguel Angel; Hueletl-Soto, María Eugenia

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, the aphrodisiac properties of the purple corn ( Zea mays) in male rats were analyzed. The aqueous crude extract of purple corn (at 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg) was administered to ( a) copulating male rats and ( b) anesthetized and spinal cord transected male rats. Behavioral parameters of copulatory behavior and parameters of the genital motor pattern of ejaculation previous to its inhibition, under the influence of the purple corn extract, are described. Administration of the aqueous crude extract of purple corn significantly facilitates the arousal and execution of male rat sexual behavior without significant influences on the ambulatory behavior. In addition, purple corn extract elicit a significant increase in the number of discharges of the ejaculatory motor patterns and in the total number of genital motor patterns evoked in spinal rats. The present findings show that the aqueous crude extract of purple corn possesses aphrodisiac activity.

  14. Effects of MON810 Bt field corn on adult emergence of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, T A; Dively, G P; Herbert, D A

    2003-06-01

    A 3-yr study (1996-1998) was conducted to evaluate the effects of MON810 Bt corn on Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) emergence and to determine whether delayed larval development as a result of Bt intoxication results in higher levels of diapause induction and pupal mortality. In the 1997 study, there was no difference in prepupal mortality between corn types, although significantly more prepupae from Bt plots than from non-Bt plots died in emergence buckets before constructing pupal chambers in 1998. In all years, significantly fewer moths emerged from prepupae collected from Bt plots, suggesting that effects of the expressed Cry1Ab extended to the prepupal and pupal stages. Late plantings of corn showed the greatest reductions in moth emergence from Bt corn because environmental conditions were more conducive to trigger diapause at the time H. zea was developing in these plantings. This was supported by a significantly greater proportion of diapausing pupae remaining in the ground in the late plantings of both Bt and non-Bt corn. For April and early May plantings, larval feeding on Bt corn delayed the time to pupation, although there was no significant difference in moth emergence between corn types for those larvae that successfully pupated. Although Bt expression had less impact on the proportion of moths emerging, the actual number of moths emerging from Bt corn was significantly reduced because fewer larvae reached pupation. Delays in adult emergence, along with significant reductions in adult emergence from MON810 Bt corn, should reduce the rates of colonization in soybean and other late host crops but may also result in asynchrony of mating between individuals emerging from Bt and non-Bt corn. This, in turn, may contribute to the evolution of resistance to Bt corn.

  15. The use of corn (ZEA MAYS) biomass in drying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kricka, T.; Pliestic, S.

    1996-01-01

    The most important agricultural crop in the world, besides wheat and rice is corn. In the last 10 years, Republic of Croatia has produced about 2000000 tons of corn. Most of that is used for food and feed and for seed production and it is 1000000 tons in quantity. This quantity demands between 35000 to 40000 tons of oil. For the reason, this paper describes the possibilities of the substitution of oil with corn biomass after harvesting. (author)

  16. Genetic variation between Spanish and American versions of sweet corn inbred lines

    OpenAIRE

    Revilla Temiño, Pedro; Abuín, María del Carmen; Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana; Soengas Fernández, María del Pilar; Ordás López, Bernardo; Ordás Pérez, Amando

    2005-01-01

    Conservation of maize inbred lines in different stations causes variability among strains. The objective of this research was to determine agronomic and molecular differences in American sweet corn inbreds maintained in Spain. American and Spanish strains of five sweet corn inbred lines were characterized by using 34 RAPD primers that produced 168 consistent bands. Strains of four of these inbreds were crossed in a diallel design, and hybrids were evaluated in four environments in northwester...

  17. Aracnidae diversity in soil cultivated with corn (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Vanessa da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies carried out on the diversity and abundance of spiders may provide a rich information base on the degree of integrity of agricultural systems where they are found. In transgenic corn, Bacillus thuringiensis proteins are expressed in great amounts in plant tissues and may affect arthropod communities. Thus, the main goal of this work was to identify the spider diversity associated to transgenic and conventional corn hybrids. Pitfall collections were performed in conventional and transgenic corn plots during the 2010/2011 crop season, at the experimental field of the Agronomy Course of the University of Cruz Alta, RS. A total of 559 spiders were collected, from which 263 were adults and 296 young individuals. In the transgenic corn 266 spiders were collected and in the conventional one 293. Eleven families were determined and the adult individuals grouped in 27 morphospecies. Families with the largest number of representatives were Linyphiidae (29.70%, Theridiidae (5.72% and Lycosidae (5.01%. The most abundant morphospecies were Lyniphiidae sp. with 77 individuals, Erigone sp. with 40 individuals, Lynyphiidae sp. with 33 individuals, Theridiidae sp. with 21 individuals, Lycosa erythrognatha with 14 individuals and Lycosidae sp. with 13 individuals. The Shannon Diversity Index was higher for transgenic corn (H” =1.01 in February and smaller (H’=0.54 in the December collection in the conventional corn, and the Margaleff Richness Index showed higher diversity in December and February for the conventional corn (M=18.3, and smaller diversity for the transgenic corn in November (M=11.3. Families were classified in five guilds; two weavers: Irregular web builders and sheet web builders, and three hunter guilds: Night soil runners, ambush spiders and aerial night runners. The relative proportion of the spiders morphospecies found in this research, as well as the guilds, suggest that this group may not have been affected by the genetically

  18. Reproductive sink of sweet corn in response to plant density and hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improvements in plant density tolerance have played an essential role in grain corn yield gains for ~80 years; however, plant density effects on sweet corn biomass allocation to the ear (the reproductive ‘sink’) is poorly quantified. Moreover, optimal plant densities for modern white-kernel shrunke...

  19. Goss’s wilt incidence in sweet corn is independent of transgenic traits and glyphosate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently claims have been made that the use of glyphosate and transgenic crop traits increases the risk of plant diseases. Transgenic traits used widely for years in dent corn are now available in commercial sweet corn cultivars, specifically, the combination of glyphosate resistance (GR) and Lepid...

  20. Utilisation of corn (Zea mays) bran and corn fiber in the production of food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Devin J; Inglett, George E; Liu, Sean X

    2010-04-30

    The milling of corn for the production of food constituents results in a number of low-value co-products. Two of the major co-products produced by this operation are corn bran and corn fiber, which currently have low commercial value. This review focuses on current and prospective research surrounding the utilization of corn fiber and corn bran in the production of potentially higher-value food components. Corn bran and corn fiber contain potentially useful components that may be harvested through physical, chemical or enzymatic means for the production of food ingredients or additives, including corn fiber oil, corn fiber gum, cellulosic fiber gels, xylo-oligosaccharides and ferulic acid. Components of corn bran and corn fiber may also be converted to food chemicals such as vanillin and xylitol. Commercialization of processes for the isolation or production of food products from corn bran or corn fiber has been met with numerous technical challenges, therefore further research that improves the production of these components from corn bran or corn fiber is needed.

  1. Organic Based Glutinous Corn (Zea maize Supplemented With Seaweeds Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayrome S. Butay

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was therefore design to generate scientific information that are vital for organic farming advocates as it uses natural organic farm inputs in the production of corn. It was conducted because of the insurmountable rising cost of inorganic fertilizers perspective the farmers have to look for alternative measures to sustain the profitability of their farming business by evaluating the efficacy of seaweeds emulsion (Carrageenan as nutrient supplement to organic fertilizer on glutinous corn production, a study was conducted at the Cagayan State University – Lal-lo, Cagayan from July 17 to September 25, 2016with the following treatments: T1- Control, T2 – 3 tons Organic Fertilizer, T3 - 1.5 liters Seaweeds Emulsion ha-1 , T4 - 3 liters Seaweeds Emulsion ha-1 , T5 - 4.5 liters Seaweeds Emulsion ha-1 and T6 - 6 liters Seaweeds Emulsion ha-1 arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The treatments have no significant effect on plant height. Application of seaweed emulsion affected the grain development as manifested by longer and heavier corn ear. Higher rates (3-6 li ha-1 proved to more efficient as indicated by the bigger ear, highest yield and ROI of 909.62 percent. The study revealed that 3 tons Organic Fertilizer with liters of seaweed emulsion improved glutinous corn production. Further study is recommended to validate the result and come up with a more reliable conclusion.

  2. Analyzing and Comparing Biomass Feedstock Supply Systems in China: Corn Stover and Sweet Sorghum Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantian Ren

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the rural Chinese biomass supply system and models supply chain operations according to U.S. concepts of logistical unit operations: harvest and collection, storage, transportation, preprocessing, and handling and queuing. In this paper, we quantify the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum in China under different scenarios. We analyze three scenarios of corn stover logistics from northeast China and three scenarios of sweet sorghum stalks logistics from Inner Mongolia in China. The case study estimates that the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk to be $52.95/dry metric ton and $52.64/dry metric ton, respectively, for the current labor-based biomass logistics system. However, if the feedstock logistics operation is mechanized, the cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk decreases to $36.01/dry metric ton and $35.76/dry metric ton, respectively. The study also includes a sensitivity analysis to identify the cost factors that cause logistics cost variation. Results of the sensitivity analysis show that labor price has the most influence on the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk, with a variation of $6 to $12/dry metric ton.

  3. Value of Neonicotinoid Insecticide Seed Treatments in Mid-South Corn (Zea mays) Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, J H; Gore, J; Catchot, A L; Stewart, S D; Lorenz, G M; Musser, F R; Cook, D R; Kerns, D L; Leonard, B R; Dodds, D M

    2018-02-09

    Neonicotinoid seed treatments are one of several effective control options used in corn, Zea mays L., production in the Mid-South for early season insect pests. An analysis was performed on 91 insecticide seed treatment trials from Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee to determine the value of neonicotinoids in corn production systems. The analysis compared neonicotinoid insecticide treated seed plus a fungicide to seed only with the same fungicide. When analyzed by state, corn yields were significantly higher when neonicotinoid seed treatments were used compared to fungicide only treated seed in Louisiana and Mississippi. Corn seed treated with neonicotinoid seed treatments yielded 111, 1,093, 416, and 140 kg/ha, higher than fungicide only treatments for Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee, respectively. Across all states, neonicotinoid seed treatments resulted in a 700 kg/ha advantage compared to fungicide only treated corn seed. Net returns for corn treated with neonicotinoid seed treatment were $1,446/ha compared with $1,390/ha for fungicide only treated corn seed across the Mid-South. Economic returns for neonicotinoid seed treated corn were significantly greater than fungicide-only-treated corn seed in 8 out of 14 yr. When analyzed by state, economic returns for neonicotinoid seed treatments were significantly greater than fungicide-only-treated seed in Louisiana. In some areas, dependent on year, neonicotinoid seed treatments provide significant yield and economic benefits in Mid-South corn. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Evapotranspiration of a corn crop (Zea mays, L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcache, M.; Engel, G.

    1984-01-01

    The real and potential evapotranspiration of corn crop is calculated in a field experiment. The potential evapotranspiration (PET) is estimated using the Penman Method with a Type 'A' evaporation tank. The real evapotranspiration (RET) is measured using the Mass Balance Method based on periodic calculations of the volumetric moisture of the soil using a neutron probe and the matrix potential using tensiometers. (M.A.C.) [pt

  5. Organic Based Glutinous Corn (Zea maize) Supplemented With Seaweeds Emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Jayrome S. Butay

    2017-01-01

    The study was therefore design to generate scientific information that are vital for organic farming advocates as it uses natural organic farm inputs in the production of corn. It was conducted because of the insurmountable rising cost of inorganic fertilizers perspective the farmers have to look for alternative measures to sustain the profitability of their farming business by evaluating the efficacy of seaweeds emulsion (Carrageenan) as nutrient supplement to organic fertilizer ...

  6. Fumonisins in corn (Zea mays L.) from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scussel, Vildes M; Savi, Geovana D; Costas, Lea Luzia Freitas; Xavier, José Junior Mendonça; Manfio, Daniel; Bittencourt, Karoline O; Aguiar, Kin; Stein, Stephanie M

    2014-01-01

    A total of 232 samples of corn commercialised in Santa Catarina state, Southern Brazil (temperate zone climate), were evaluated from 2007 to 2012 for fumonisins (FBs: FB1 and FB2). Before performing this study, a FBs method with liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection (ex. 335; em. 440 nm) was validated first. FBs were detected in 46.6% (108 samples), with values ranging from 66 to 7832 µg kg(-1) for FB1 and 110 to 1201 µg kg(-1) for FB2. The number of contaminated corn samples for FB1 and FB2 varied and often presented contamination of FB1 only. Per year of analysis, the numbers were: n = 22/8(FB1/FB2), 44/5(FB1/FB2), 25/12(FB1/FB2), 4(FB1), 6(FB1) and 7(FB1) in 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. The contamination percentage was 42.3/15.4, 59.5/6.8, 43.8/21.1, 36.4, 35.3 and 33.3%, respectively, during these years. Consumers can be exposed to these mycotoxins and their health can be at risk through the consumption of contaminated corn.

  7. Quality control of fresh sweet corn in controlled freezing-point storage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... appearances of husk, silk and kernel were visual evaluation, kernel firmness was tested by finger press and ear .... induced by cold stress (Galindo et al., 2007), so sugar content increased after 5 days. Sweet .... In this work, the mean freezing point of fresh sweet corn was -2.55°C (±0.18°C) and the mean ...

  8. Preventive Effect of Zea mays L. (Purple Waxy Corn on Experimental Diabetic Cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paphaphat Thiraphatthanavong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, substances possessing antioxidant can prevent cataractogenesis of diabetic cataract. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the anticataract effect of Zea mays L. (purple waxy corn, a flavonoids rich plant, in experimental diabetic cataract. Enucleated rat lenses were incubated in artificial aqueous humor containing 55 mM glucose with various concentrations of Zea mays L. (purple waxy corn ranging between 2, 10, and 50 mg/mL at room temperature for 72 h. At the end of the incubation period, the evaluation of lens opacification, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, and AR in lens were performed. The results showed that both medium and high doses of extract decreased lens opacity together with the decreased MDA level. In addition, medium dose of extract increased GPx activity while the high dose decreased AR activity. No other significant changes were observed. The purple waxy corn seeds extract is the potential candidate to protect against diabetic cataract. The mechanism of action may occur via the decreased oxidative stress and the suppression of AR. However, further research in vivo is still essential.

  9. Characteristics and functional properties of purple corn (Zea mays L.) var. subnigroviolaceo

    OpenAIRE

    Jhoseline Guillén-Sánchez; Sigry Mori-Arismendi; Luz María Paucar-Menacho

    2014-01-01

    Zea Mays L. variety purple (purple corn) is a plant native of America, which has the episperm seeds (grains) and the cobs (cob) in purple, which gives special characteristics to the pigments that have (between 1.5% and 6.0%), called anthocyanins, which belong to the group of flavonoids. Due to its high content of anthocyanins (cianin C3G-3-glucose as its main color) and phenolic compounds act as powerful natural antioxidant and anticancer, Further having functional properties due to these bio...

  10. [Effects of simulated acid rain on seed germination and seedling growth of different type corn Zea mays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Yan

    2013-06-01

    Taking normal corn, waxy corn, pop corn, and sweet corn as test materials, this paper studied their seed germination and seedling growth under effects of simulated acid rain (pH 6.0, 5.0, 4.0, 3.0, 2.0, and 1.0). Simulated acid rain at pH 2.0-5.0 had no significant effects on the seed germination and seedling growth, but at pH 1.0, the germination rate of normal corn, waxy corn, pop corn, and sweet corn was 91.3%, 68.7%, 27.5%, and 11.7%, respectively. As compared with those at pH 6.0 (CK), the germination rate, germination index, vigor index, germination velocity, shoot height, root length, shoot and root dry mass, and the transformation rate of stored substances at pH 1.0 had significant decrease, and the average germination time extended apparently. At pH 1.0, the effects of acid rain were greater at seedling growth stage than at germination stage, and greater on underground part than on aboveground part. Due to the differences in gene type, normal corn and waxy corn had the strongest capability against acid rain, followed by pop corn, and sweet corn. It was suggested that corn could be categorized as an acid rain-tolerant crop, the injury threshold value of acid rain was likely between pH 1.0 and pH 2.0, and normal corn and waxy corn would be prioritized for planting in acid rain-stricken area.

  11. Extração de corantes de milho (Zea mays L. Extraction of corn colorants (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Martin Cabajal Gamarra

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Os corantes naturais foram amplamente utilizados de forma artesanal até antes do surgimento dos corantes sintéticos. O estudo e uso dos corantes naturais voltaram a ter importância nestes últimos anos devido aos questionamentos dos organismos internacionais da saúde e dos consumidores pelo uso indiscriminado dos corantes sintéticos, ligados ao desenvolvimento de doenças degenerativas e ao impacto ambiental. O corante extraído do milho roxo (Zea mays L. tem sido utilizado ao longo da história pela civilização Inca na preparação de alimentos e no tingimento de fibras têxteis. Neste trabalho, os pigmentos do grupo das antocianinas foram extraídos das variedades de milho roxo e do milho vermelho (Z. mays L. e depois foram caracterizados. Três métodos de extração foram utilizados: imersão, lixiviação com algumas modificações e extração supercrítica (ESC. O melhor método para extração foi o da lixiviação que alcançou 88% (m/m de rendimento, em função da massa do corante extraído e da matéria-prima. Também utilizando a lixiviação modificada, foi possível concentrar em 3% os compostos acilados, assim como recuperar 85% dos solventes utilizados. Um indicador de pH foi obtido pela fixação das antocianinas num papel de filtro, com base na estabilidade das antocianinas, ferramenta que pode ser utilizada em laboratórios de ensino de química.Natural colorants were craftly made and widely used before the discovery of the synthetic colorants. The study and the use of natural colorants have become important again in the last few years due to questions raised by the international health organizations and consumers related to the indiscriminate use of synthetic colorants which were linked to the development of degenerative illnesses and environmental impact. The colorant extracted from purple corn (Zea Mays L. was used by the Inca civilization to prepare food and to dye textile fibers. In this work, pigments from the

  12. Extending the shelf life of fresh sweet corn by shrink-wrapping, refrigeration, and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deak, T.

    1987-01-01

    Chemical, physical, sensory, and microbiological changes were monitored during storage of unwrapped and shrink-wrapped fresh sweet corn at 10 degree and 20 degree C. Wrapping essentially eliminated moisture loss and resulted in elevated carbon dioxide and decreased oxygen concentrations within packages. These effects, together with refrigeration markedly reduced the changes associated with senscence and post harvest deterioration, and hence resulted in at least a threefold extension in shelf life. The water-saturated atmosphere, however, enhanced microbial growth on shrink-wrapped corn. The initial microbial population was effectively decreased by treating the wrapped corn with 0.5 or 1.0 kGy (Co 60 ) irradiation

  13. Fertilizer residence time affects nitrogen uptake efficiency and growth of sweet corn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zotarelli, L.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Dukes, M.D.; Munoz-Carpena, R.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding plant N uptake dynamics is critical for increasing fertilizer N uptake efficiency (FUE) and minimize the risk of N leaching. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of residence time of N fertilizer on N uptake and FUE of sweet corn. Plants were grown in 25 L columns

  14. QTL analysis of kernel soluble sugar content in super- sweet corn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    sweet corn population consisting of 208 F2 individuals from the cross Ji557 (sh2) × Ji165 (sh2). Density of the linkage groups varied from 2.2 cM to 65.3 cM, with an average of 13.0 2 cM between two adjacent markers. The map.

  15. The Effect of Seed Priming and Transplanting on Morphological Characteristics, Yield and Yield Components of SuperSweet Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    matin haghighi khah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Corn (Zea mays L. is the third most important cereal crop in the world after wheat and rice (Lashkari et al., 2011. Corn production has been extended in to the whole world during the course of the last century due to its compatibility. It has more diversity compare to other cereal. Many corn types are cultivated, including field corn, ornamental corn, popcorn, sweet corn and several different supersweet corns. Sweet corn, considered a vegetable, is a special type of corn with particular characteristics, such as sweet taste, thin pericarp and endosperm with delicate texture, and high nutritional value. It is destined exclusively for human consumption, in fresh form or in processed foods, whereas the straw can be used for silage after harvest (Santos et al., 2014. Sweet corn seeds germinate slowly and exhibit poor seedling vigour. Poor germination in sweet corn has been attributed to low seed vigour and susceptibility to seed and soilborne diseases (Ratin et al., 2006. Seed priming is the one of efficient method to improve germination and emergence. In addition, transplanting provides optimal environmental conditions for seed germination and avoids planting seeds in disease-contaminated soil (Khalid et al., 2012. Materials and methods To investigate the effect of seed priming and transplanting on morphological characteristics, yield and yield components of supersweet corn a series of greenhouse and field experiments were conducted in a factorial based design on a randomized complete block in 2013. This experiment was conducted in the greenhouse to determine the best seed priming treatments. The treatments were hydro priming, Poly ethylene glycol (6000 -0.4 and -0.8 MPa, Sodium Sulphate 0.1 and 0.5%, Zinc Sulphate 1 and 0.5%, Copper Sulphate 0.1 and 0.5% and Control for 36 hours. After that the seeds washed by distillated water and dried back in laboratory conditions. Then treated seeds were sown in trays that contained by cocopeatand

  16. Promoting Student Inquiry Using "Zea Mays" (Corn) Cultivars for Hypothesis-Driven Experimentation in a Majors Introductory Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Amy C.; Peters, Brenda J.; Bendixen, Conrad W.

    2014-01-01

    The AAAS Vision and Change report (2011) recommends incorporating student research experiences into the biology curriculum at the undergraduate level. This article describes, in detail, how "Zea mays" (corn) cultivars were used as a model for a hypothesis-driven short-term research project in an introductory biology course at a small…

  17. Influence of Dual-Bt Protein Corn on Bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), Survivorship on Bollgard II Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Kanel, M B; Gore, J; Catchot, A; Cook, D; Musser, F; Caprio, M

    2016-04-01

    Similar Cry proteins are expressed in both Bt corn, Zea mays L., and cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), commercial production systems. At least one generation of corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), completes development on field corn in the Mid-South before dispersing across the landscape into other crop hosts like cotton. A concern is that Bt corn hybrids may result in selection for H. zea populations with a higher probability of causing damage to Bt cotton. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of H. zea offspring from moths that developed on non-Bt and VT Triple Pro (VT3 PRO) field corn to lyophilized Bollgard II cotton tissue expressing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. Offspring of individuals reared on VT3 PRO expressing Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab had a significantly higher LC50 two out of the three years this study was conducted. Excess larvae were placed on artificial diet and allowed to pupate to determine if there were any inheritable fitness costs associated with parental development on VT3 PRO corn. Offspring resulting from males collected from VT3 PRO had significantly lower pupal weight and longer pupal duration compared with offspring of individuals collected from non-Bt corn. However, offspring from females collected from VT3 PRO were not different from non-Bt offspring. Paternal influence on offspring in insects is not commonly observed, but illustrates the side effects of development on a transgenic plant expressing less than a high dose, 25 times the concentration needed to kill susceptible larvae.

  18. A morel improved growth and suppressed Fusarium infection in sweet corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dan; Bu, Fangfang; Hou, Jiaojiao; Kang, Yongxiang; Yu, Zhongdong

    2016-12-01

    A post-fire morel collected from Populus simonii stands in Mt. Qingling was identified as Morchella crassipes Mes-20 by using nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer phylogeny. It was inoculated into sweet corn to observe colonized roots in purified culture and in greenhouse experiments. The elongation and maturation zones of sweet corn were remarkably colonized at the cortex intercellular and intracellular cells, vessel cells, and around the Casparian strip, forming ectendomycorrhiza-like structures. Colonization was also observed in the zone of cell division proximal to the root cap. Greenhouse assays with sweet corn showed that this morel stimulated the development of the root system and significantly increased the dry root biomass. M. crassipes also significantly reduced the incidence of Fusarium verticillioides in the kernels of mature ears when inoculated into young ears before Fusarium inoculation and prevented Fusarium infection in corn ears compared with that of the control in the greenhouse. When grown under axenic conditions, M. crassipes produced the phytohormones abscisic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, and salicylic acid. The benefits to plants elicited by M. crassipes may result from these phytohormones which may improve the drought resistance, biomass growth and resistance to Fusarium.

  19. Banding urea and lignosulfonate in corn (Zea mays L.) production and 15N recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkanani, T.; MacKenzie, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    The use of urea in corn (Zea mays L.) production is common. Under current N fertilizer recommendations for corn, urea may have adverse effects on corn growth when applied in a band. The effects of ammonium lignosulfonate (LS) on corn growth and on N uptake from the banded application of urea and diammonium phosphate (DAP) mixtures were investigated on two soils from eastern Quebec. Field experiments were initiated in the first week of May 1991 on an Ormstown silty clay and a Ste. Rosalie clay soils (fine, mixed, nonacid, mesic Typic Humaquepts). Treatments were two rates of urea (30 and 90 kg urea-N ha -1 ) in a combination with DAP (14kg N ha 1 ), with or without banded fertilizer solutions of LS (8 kg N ha -1 ) applied at planting 5 cm to the side and 3 cm below the seed. A no treatment control was included. The low rate of urea compared with the unfertilized plots. When compared with the unfertilized treatment, the high rate of urea and DAP (no LS added) caused 10% increase in grain yield. However, addition of LS to the high rate of urea and DAP increase grain yield by band 20%. In general, LS significantly increased corn N uptake from urea on both soils. Separate 15 N field experiments were initiated in June 1991. Mean recovery of 15 N ranged from 17.8% to 30.9% of the applied labelled urea. The rate of urea-N banded had no significant effect on immobilization, but LS resulted in significantly less 15 N immobilized. These observations suggest that LS can reduce the biological immobilization of urea-N and increase the efficiency of urea fertilizer by reducing the negative effects of banding high levels of urea, while attaining benefits of band placement. (author). 29 refs., 6 tabs

  20. Comparison of different extraction methods for giberelic acid obtention from corn (Zea mays L. germinated seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Rivera

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Corn (Zea mays L. is the second most cultivated cereal in the world and is use as raw material for different kind of industries. To date no reports about obtaining giberellic acid (GA3 from corn have been found. In the present study two methods for extracting solid samples were evaluated: lixiviation and dynamic sonication-assisted solvent extraction (DSASE, for obtaining giberellic acid from corn germinated seeds. In lixiviation, the physical method (agitation and sonication, solvent, and time were the parameters analyzed; while in DSASE the variables were: solvent, flow, and time. The most efficient technique was DSASE employing acetonitrile-formic acid 5% (80:20, v:v as solvent at a flow of 0.4 mL/min for 25,0 min, obtaining a concentration 30.012 mg/kg giberellic acid. The identification and quantification were performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with diode array detector (DAD. These results showed that dynamic sonication-assisted solvent extraction (DSASE is a novel and powerful alternative technique for obtaining giberellic acid, because of its high efficiency; low solvent consumption and simplicity in obtaining the extract.

  1. Influence of Corn (Zea mays L. Cultivar Development on Grain Nutrient Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Fernanda Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While corn productivity has been increased by the adoption of high-yield hybrids, there are concerns that increased grain potential may be associated with diminished grain nutrient concentration. Ten corn (Zea mays L. cultivars representing five technological levels (landrace variety, commercial variety, and double, triple, and single cross-hybrids were cropped on a Rhodic Ferralsol Eutric soil with high fertility in 2006 (dry year and 2007 (normal year in Rolândia County, Brazil. At maturity, grain was evaluated for concentrations of P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu. In general, differences among cultivars were noted for all nutrients in both years. Concentrations of P, K, Fe, and Mn were lower in the dry year, while Ca, Mg, Cu, and Zn were higher. Soil water availability appeared to exert more influence on grain nutrient concentration than did cultivar development; nutrient removal due to grain harvest was also greatly influenced by rainfall patterns and their impact on corn productivity. Even though genetic differences were noted, which may be useful to breeding programs, long-term testing in subtropical environments will be required to clarify the interaction between genetics and climate events on grain nutrient quality and exportation.

  2. Phytochemical screening, total phenolic content and phytotoxic activity of corn (Zea mays) extracts against some indicator species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hiwa M

    2018-03-01

    Allelopathic effects of corn (Zea mays) extracts was studied, against seed germination and seedling growth of Phalaris minor, Helianthus annuus, Triticumaestivum, Sorghum halepense, Z. mays. Bioassay results showed that aqueous extracts of corn root and shoot, markedly affected seed germination, and other parameters compared with related controls. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of various phytochemicals such as tannins, phlobatannins, flavonoids, terpenoids and alkaloids in both roots and shoot aqueous extracts. However, saponins were only present in the shoot aqueous extract, while in shoot ethanol extracts, only terpenoids and alkaloids were detected. Additionally, total polyphenolic (TPC) content in aqueous extracts of corn root and shoot, plus ethanol extracts of corn shoot were determined using an Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Results revealed TPC content of the corn shoot aqueous extract showed the highest yield, compared to other extracts. These findings suggest that phytochemicals present in Z. mays extracts may contribute to allelopathy effect.

  3. Effect of MON810 Bt field corn on Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) cannibalism and its implications to resistance development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, T A; Dively, G P

    2003-06-01

    Pairs of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) larvae reared on diet-incorporated MON810 transgenic leaf tissue of field corn (Zea mays L.) were observed in the laboratory to characterize effects of sublethal levels of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki (Bt) Cry1Ab endotoxins on cannibalistic behavior and mortality. Feeding on sublethal levels of Bt corn reduced the frequency of cannibalistic behaviors exhibited by H. zea when uneven instars were paired together. Exposure to the Bt endotoxin had no significant effect on when cannibalistic mortality occurred or the level of mortality as a result of cannibalism. Assuming that H. zea larvae reared on nonBt corn tissue behaved in a similar way that resistant larvae would if feeding on Bt tissue, sublethal effects of Cry1Ab intoxication may reduce the chances of successful cannibalism by susceptible larvae and thus play a disproportionate role in the survival of multiple ear infestations. Furthermore, cannibalistic encounters could result in partially resistant larvae feeding on nontoxic food, thus temporarily providing an escape from exposure to the Bt endotoxin. These behavior alterations could increase the selective differential between susceptible individuals and those carrying resistance genes.

  4. Evaluation of growth traits and yield of new forage corn (Zea mays L. single cross combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khavari Khorasani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study 18 forage corn (Zea mays L. hybrid varieties were evaluated based on RCBD with four replications in Khorasan Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Centre, Iran, on 2008-2009. Result of analysis of variance showed that there was significantly difference between hybrids in forage yield, ear weight and ear to biomass ratio. Results of hybrids mean comparison with Duncan’s multiple range test showed that SC700 was higher than other investigated hybrids in forage yield trait. But hybrid 3 with 85.31 forage yield was the best hybrid in weight of ear and ear to biomass ratio. Though the SC704 hybrid was better than others for stem dry weight, ear dry weight and leaf area but there was not any significant difference between this hybrid and hybrid 3.

  5. Genetic variability and correlation among yield and quality traits in sweet corn

    OpenAIRE

    M C Dagla, R N Gadag, O P Sharma And Narendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The 45 hybrids generated by half diallel mating design using ten inbred lines of sweet corn were evaluated at IARI, New Delhi during kharif-2008. There were significant differences with respect to all the studied yield and biochemical attributes. High genotypic and phenotypic variance were recorded by plant height, cob placement height, grain rows cob-1, hundred grains weight, grain yield and starch content. The difference between genotypic coefficient of variation and phenotypic coefficient ...

  6. Ensuring microbiological safety and extending the shelf life of shelled sweet corn kernels using hurdle technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Gautam, Satyendra

    2015-01-01

    Shelled sweet corn kernels are prone to microbial contaminations due to high moisture and nutrient contents. Post harvest handling further aggravates the condition and makes the product highly perishable and unsafe. In freshly shelled kernels total aerobic plate count, yeast mold count and presumptive coliforms were found to be ∼ 8, 7, and 4 log cfu/g, respectively. IMViC analysis confirmed presence of opportunistic pathogens like Escherichia coli and Enterobacteraerogenes in these samples. Besides, occurrence of mycotoxin such as ochratoxin A (OTA), classified as a possible carcinogenic compound, was found to be high in sweet corn samples spiked with toxigenic strain. To address this issue, a combination process including NaOCl washing (200 ppm for 5 min), hot water blanching (60℃ for 5 min), air drying, LDPE packaging, and finally gamma radiation (5 kGy) treatment was developed. The developed combination process was found to reduce microbial load to below detectable level and quite effectively inactivated Aspergillusochraceus spores as well as pre-formed toxin. These treatments were not found to affect the contents of biochemical constituents such as total and reducing sugars, proteins, phenolics, and flavonoids during storage. Prophylactic properties in terms of antioxidant capacity and potential to suppress chemical induced mutagenesis were not affected in these samples. Physical properties and sensory qualities were also found to be similar to fresh (control). Thus, the developed combination process ensured microbiological safety and extended shelf life of sweet corn kernels up to 30 days at 4℃ . (author)

  7. Contact and leaf residue activity of insecticides against the sweet Corn pest Euxesta stigmatias (Diptera: Otitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuessly, Gregg S; Hentz, Matthew G

    2004-04-01

    Damage by Euxesta stigmatias Loew larvae to sweet corn renders the ears unmarketable. This report evaluates the efficacy of insecticides labeled for armyworm control in Florida sweet corn against E. stigmatias adults. Tests were performed in controlled settings by using direct contact and dried plant residues of esfenvalerate, cyfluthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos, methyl parathion, methomyl, and thiodicarb. Direct application of all insecticides except thiodicarb quickly killed or caused incapacitating sublethal affects (uncoordinated movement, uncontrolled twitching, and hyperextension of mouthparts and ovipositor) to > 75% of the flies. Low rates (0.56 kg [AI]/ha) of chlorpyrifos and methyl parathion provided the most efficient control, killing 100 and 93%, respectively, within 2 h of direct contact. Low rates of pyrethroids induced low mortality but high sublethal effects that together immobilized nearly 100% of adults within 1 h of exposure. Mortality reached 95% within 2 h of direct contact in flies treated with high rates of pyrethroids. Methomyl killed as many as 94%, but required 24 h to reach this level after direct treatment. Residues on dipped leaves and field-treated plants of all tested insecticides except methyl parathion were less effective at killing adults compared with direct contact tests. Pyrethroid residues (particularly cyfluthrin) on field planted sweet corn induced significantly higher levels of sublethal effects (57-70%), and for a longer period of time, compared with materials in the other classes of chemistry.

  8. Determination of the genotoxic effects of Convolvulus arvensis extracts on corn (Zea mays L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunar, Serap; Yildirim, Nalan; Aksakal, Ozkan; Agar, Guleray

    2013-06-01

    In this research, the methanolic extracts of Convolvulus arvensis were tested for genotoxic and inhibitor activity on the total soluble protein content and the genomic template stability against corn Zea mays L. seed. The methanol extracts of leaf, stem and root of C. arvensis were diluted to 50, 75 and 100 μl concentrations and applied to corn seed. The total soluble protein and genomic template stability results were compared with the control. The results showed that especially 100 μl extracts of diluted leaf, stem and root had a strong inhibitory activity on the genomic template stability. The changes occurred in random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles of C. arvensis extract treatment included variation in band intensity, loss of bands and appearance of new bands compared with control. Also, the results obtained from this study revealed that the increase in the concentrations of C. arvensis extract increased the total soluble protein content in maize. The results suggested that RAPD analysis and total protein analysis could be applied as a suitable biomarker assay for the detection of genotoxic effects of plant allelochemicals.

  9. Exogenous melatonin improves corn (Zea mays L.) embryo proteome in seeds subjected to chilling stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziejczyk, Izabela; Dzitko, Katarzyna; Szewczyk, Rafał; Posmyk, Małgorzata M

    2016-04-01

    Melatonin (MEL; N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) plays an important role in plant stress defense. Various plant species rich in this indoleamine have shown a higher capacity for stress tolerance. Moreover, it has great potential for plant biostimulation, is biodegradable and non-toxic for the environment. All this indicates that our concept of seed enrichment with exogenous MEL is justified. This work concerns the effects of corn (Zea mays L.) seed pre-sowing treatments supplemented with MEL. Non-treated seeds (nt), and those hydroprimed with water (H) or with MEL solutions 50 and 500 μM (HMel50, HMel500) were compared. Positive effects of seed priming are particularly apparent during germination under suboptimal conditions. The impact of MEL applied by priming on seed protein profiles during imbibition/germination at low temperature has not been investigated to date. In order to identify changes in the corn seed proteome after applying hydropriming techniques, purified protein extracts of chilling stressed seed embryos (14 days, 5°C) were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Then proteome maps were graphically and statistically compared and selected protein spots were qualitatively analyzed using mass spectrometry techniques and identified. This study aimed to analyze the priming-induced changes in maize embryo proteome and at identifying priming-associated and MEL-associated proteins in maize seeds subjected to chilling. We attempt to explain how MEL expands plant capacity for stress tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Costs of jasmonic acid induced defense in aboveground and belowground parts of corn (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuanjiao; Wang, Jianwu; Luo, Shiming; Fan, Huizhi; Jin, Qiong

    2012-08-01

    Costs of jasmonic acid (JA) induced plant defense have gained increasing attention. In this study, JA was applied continuously to the aboveground (AG) or belowground (BG) parts, or AG plus BG parts of corn (Zea mays L.) to investigate whether JA exposure in one part of the plant would affect defense responses in another part, and whether or not JA induced defense would incur allocation costs. The results indicated that continuous JA application to AG parts systemically affected the quantities of defense chemicals in the roots, and vice versa. Quantities of DIMBOA and total amounts of phenolic compounds in leaves or roots generally increased 2 or 4 wk after the JA treatment to different plant parts. In the first 2 wk after application, the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots was accompanied by a significant decrease of root length, root surface area, and root biomass. Four weeks after the JA application, however, no such costs for the increase of defense chemicals in leaves and roots were detected. Instead, shoot biomass and root biomass increased. The results suggest that JA as a defense signal can be transferred from AG parts to BG parts of corn, and vice versa. Costs for induced defense elicited by continuous JA application were found in the early 2 wk, while distinct benefits were observed later, i.e., 4 wk after JA treatment.

  11. Characterization of silage made from sweet potato vines using corn meal as additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Corrêa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the fermentative and nutritional characteristics of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas vine silage using different levels of corn meal as additive. A completely randomized design consisting of seven levels of the additive (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% corn meal and four replicates was used, totaling 28 laboratory mini-silos (experimental units. The different levels of additive in sweet potato vine silage exerted quadratic effects on the content of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent insoluble protein (NDIP, acid detergent insoluble protein (ADIP, and total carbohydrates. There was an increase in DM content with inclusion of the additive and CP was reduced from 11.23% (no additive to 9.46% (30% additive in sweet potato vine silage. NDIP and ADIP content was lower in sweet potato vine silage containing 30% additive (1.15% and 0.70%, respectively. No significant differences in organic matter, ashes, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, or total digestible nutrients were observed between the different levels of additive. Regarding fermentative parameters, a quadratic effect of sweet potato vine silage containing different additive levels was observed on pH, ammoniacal nitrogen as a percentage of total nitrogen [N-NH3 (%NT], and losses from gases and effluent. A lower pH was observed at a level of the additive of 15% (3.31 and higher values at levels of 20%, 25% and 30% (3.88, 3.89 and 3.88, respectively. The  N-NH3 values (%NT ranged from 2.84% (no additive to 3.59% (15% additive, and the lowest loss from gases and effluents was 2.38% DM and 199 kg/t in sweet potato vine silages containing 30% and 10% additive, respectively. Sweet potato vine is a good-quality roughage alternative that can be stored as silage, as along as a water-absorbing additive such as corn meal is used at a level no less than 20%.

  12. Euxesta spp. NEW PEST IN Zea mays L. VAR. rugosa: ASSOCIATION WITH Heliothis zea ATTACKS IN SPRING AND SUMMER SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Curis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The "corn silk fly" of maize (Euxesta spp. Loew, 1868 appeared in 2005 in Santa Fe (Argentina, causing damage to the ears. The attacks are related to temperature, crop growth stage and previous attack of other pests. For this new pest, we determined the species present, the damage on Bt sweet corn plantings in two seasons (August and February, the association of attacks with Heliothis zea (Boddie, 1850 and the presence of parasitoids. Larvae counts of H. zea and Euxesta spp. began in the phenological stage of R2 and ended in R5 and consisted of removing at random from each batch (three for each planting season four ears. In laboratory we determined the percentage of damage on the ears and number of larvae of Euxesta spp. and H. zea, discriminated by size. Fly was identified as E. eluta, damage was greatest in the early spring planting corn. Attacks were correlated with H. zea.

  13. SHIFTING WEED COMPOSITIONS AND BIOMASS PRODUCTION IN SWEET CORN FIELD TREATED WITH ORGANIC COMPOSTS AND CHEMICAL WEED CONTROLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marulak Simarmata

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were to study the shift of weed compositions in sweet corn field treated with organic compost and chemical weed controls and to compare the effect of treatment combinations on weed growth, weed biomass and sweet corn biomass. The research was conducted in Bengkulu, Indonesia, from April to July 2014. Results showed that the number of weed species decreased after the trials from 14 to 13. There was a shift in weed compositions because 5 species of weeds did not emerge after the trials, but 4 new species were found. Chemical weed control used a herbiside mixture of atrazine and mesotrione applied during postemergence was the most effective method to control weeds, which was observed on decreased weed emergence and weed biomass down to 22.33 and 25.00 percent of control, respectively. Subsequently, biomass production of sweet corn increased up to 195.64 percent at the same trials. Biomass of weeds and sweet corn were also affected by the organic composts. Weed biomass was inhibited by treatment of composted empty fruith bunches of oil palm, whereas significantly increased of sweet corn biomass were observed in the plots of organic manure.

  14. Risk assessment for Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance on dual-gene versus single-gene corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kristine T; Caprio, Michael A; Allen, K Clint; Musser, Fred R

    2013-02-01

    Recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) decisions regarding resistance management in Bt-cropping systems have prompted concern in some experts that dual-gene Bt-corn (CrylA.105 and Cry2Ab2 toxins) may result in more rapid selection for resistance in Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) than single-gene Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-corn (CrylAb toxin). The concern is that Bt-toxin longevity could be significantly reduced with recent adoption of a natural refuge for dual-gene Bt-cotton (CrylAc and Cry2Ab2 toxins) and concurrent reduction in dual-gene corn refuge from 50 to 20%. A population genetics framework that simulates complex landscapes was applied to risk assessment. Expert opinions on effectiveness of several transgenic corn and cotton varieties were captured and used to assign probabilities to different scenarios in the assessment. At least 350 replicate simulations with randomly drawn parameters were completed for each of four risk assessments. Resistance evolved within 30 yr in 22.5% of simulations with single-gene corn and cotton with no volunteer corn. When volunteer corn was added to this assessment, risk of resistance evolving within 30 yr declined to 13.8%. When dual-gene Bt-cotton planted with a natural refuge and single-gene corn planted with a 50% structured refuge was simulated, simultaneous resistance to both toxins never occurred within 30 yr, but in 38.5% of simulations, resistance evolved to toxin present in single-gene Bt-corn (CrylAb). When both corn and cotton were simulated as dual-gene products, cotton with a natural refuge and corn with a 20% refuge, 3% of simulations evolved resistance to both toxins simultaneously within 30 yr, while 10.4% of simulations evolved resistance to CrylAb/c toxin.

  15. Evaluation of seed yield and competition indices of corn (Zea mays L. intercropped with different bean (Phaseolus spp. types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakime Ziaei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the intercropping of corn (Zea mays L. and bean cultivars (Phaseolus spp. an experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replicaties at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University during growing season of 2010. The experimental treatments consisted of sole cropping of corn, white bean, bush bean, red bean, pinto bean and sword bean and 50:50 ratio of corn and bean types. In this experiment, the corn-bush bean and corn-pinto bean intercropping had the highest seed yield (5734.4 and 5674.3 kg/ha-1, respectively and land equivalent ratio (LER=1.13 and 1.21, respectively. Evaluated intercropping indices indicated that red bean (k= 1.85, pinto bean (k= 2.41 and sword bean (k= 2.80 had the highest crowding coefficient whereas the maximum aggressivity value was belonged to pinto bean intercropped with corn (A= -0.02. Also, both the red bean and pinto bean (CR=0.75 and CR=0.98, respectively had the maximum competitive ratio. Furthermore, the most corn crowding coefficient (K=1.15 was belonged to corn and sword bean intercropping and maximum corn aggressivity value was observed in corn intercropped with white bean (A=+0.60 and bush bean (A=+0.69. In conclusion, according to competition indices, intercropping of 50% corn + 50 % red bean and pinto bean plants were superior as compared to other combinations.Also, both the red bean and pinto bean (CR=0.75 and CR=0.98, respectively had the maximum competitive ratio. Furthermore, the most corn crowding coefficient (K=1.15 was belonged to corn and sword bean intercropping and maximum corn aggressivity value was observed in corn intercropped with white bean (A=+0.60 and bush bean (A=+0.69. In conclusion, according to competition indices, intercropping of 50% corn + 50 % red bean and pinto bean plants were superior as compared to other combinations.

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during the...

  17. Demarcation of informative chromosomes in tropical sweet corn inbred lines using microsatellite DNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Kashiani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of genetic variation among 10 pairs of chromosomes extracted from 13 tropical sweet corn inbred lines, using 99 microsatellite markers, revealed a wide range of genetic diversity. Allelic richness and the number of effective alleles per chromosome ranged from 2.78 to 4.33 and 1.96 to 3.47, respectively, with respective mean values of 3.62 and 2.73. According to the Shannon's information index (I and Nei's gene diversity coefficient (Nei, Chromosome 10 was the most informative chromosome (I = 1.311 and Nei = 0.703, while Chromosome 2 possessed the least (I = 0.762 and Nei = 0.456. Based on linkage disequilibrium (LD measurements for loci less than 50 cM apart on the same chromosome, all loci on Chromosomes 1, 6 and 7 were in equilibrium. Even so, there was a high proportion of genetic variation in Chromosomes 4, 5, 8, 9 and 10, thereby revealing their appropriateness for use in the genetic diversity investigations among tropical sweet corn lines. Chromosome 4, with the highest number of loci in linkage disequilibrium, was considered the best for marker-phenotype association and QTL mapping, followed by Chromosomes 5, 8, 9 and 10.

  18. Comparative transcriptome analysis of sweet corn seedlings under low-temperature stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihua Mao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress induced by low temperature, which represents a widespread environmental factor, strongly affects maize growth and yield. However, the physiological characteristics and molecular regulatory mechanisms of maize seedlings in response to cold remain poorly understood. In this study, using RNA-seq, we investigated the transcriptome profiles of two sweet corn inbred lines, “Richao” (RC and C5, under cold stress. A total of 357 and 455 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified in the RC and C5 lines, respectively, 94 DEGs were detected as common DEGs related to cold response in both genotypes, and a total of 589 DEGs were detected as cold tolerance-associated genes. By combining protein function clustering analysis and significantly enriched Gene Ontology (GO terms analysis, we suggest that transcription factors may play a dominating role in the cold stress response and tolerance of sweet corn. Furthermore, 74 differentially expressed transcription factors were identified, of those many genes involved in the metabolism and regulation of hormones. These results expand our understanding of the complex mechanisms involved in chilling tolerance in maize, and provide a set of candidate genes for further genetic analyses.

  19. An evaluation of cassava, sweet potato and field corn as potential carbohydrate sources for bioethanol production in Alabama and Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziska, Lewis H.; Tomecek, Martha; Sicher, Richard [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Crop Systems and Global Change Lab, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Building 1, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Runion, G. Brett; Prior, Stephen A.; Torbet, H. Allen [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Soil Dynamics Laboratory, 411 South Donahue Drive, Auburn, AL 36832 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    The recent emphasis on corn production to meet the increasing demand for bioethanol has resulted in trepidation regarding the sustainability of the global food supply. To assess the potential of alternative crops as sources of bioethanol production, we grew sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and cassava (Manihot esculentum) at locations near Auburn, Alabama and Beltsville, Maryland in order to measure root carbohydrate (starch, sucrose, glucose) and root biomass. Averaged for both locations, sweet potato yielded the highest concentration of root carbohydrate (ca 80%), primarily in the form of starch (ca 50%) and sucrose (ca 30%); whereas cassava had root carbohydrate concentrations of (ca 55%), almost entirely as starch. For sweet potato, overall carbohydrate production was 9.4 and 12.7 Mg ha{sup -1} for the Alabama and Maryland sites, respectively. For cassava, carbohydrate production in Maryland was poor, yielding only 2.9 Mg ha{sup -1}. However, in Alabama, carbohydrate production from cassava averaged {proportional_to}10 Mg ha{sup -1}. Relative to carbohydrate production from corn in each location, sweet potato and cassava yielded approximately 1.5 x and 1.6 x as much carbohydrate as corn in Alabama; 2.3 x and 0.5 x for the Maryland site. If economical harvesting and processing techniques could be developed, these data suggest that sweet potato in Maryland, and sweet potato and cassava in Alabama, have greater potential as ethanol sources than existing corn systems, and as such, could be used to replace or offset corn as a source of biofuels. (author)

  20. The impact of sewage irrigation on the uptake of mercury in corn plants (Zea mays) from suburban Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenberg, S.E. [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing, 100085 (China); Environmental Science and Engineering Program, Box 951772 CHS, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1772 (United States)], E-mail: srothenb@ucla.edu; Du, X.; Zhu, Y.-G. [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing, 100085 (China); Jay, J.A. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Box 951593 Boelter Hall, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1593 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    The impact of sewage irrigation on the uptake and translocation of mercury (Hg) in corn plants (Zea mays) was investigated. Corn plants were harvested the same day from two nearby fields in suburban Beijing, one irrigated historically with sewage effluent, and one irrigated solely with groundwater. Hg content was analyzed in the soil, roots and stems, while percent moisture and soil organic content were analyzed in the soil samples. The concentration of Hg in the soil and roots, and the soil organic content were not significantly different between the two fields, despite the historic practice of sewage irrigation. Hg content in roots was positively correlated with soil Hg concentration (r = 0.95, n = 6). The transfer coefficients between roots and stems were significantly higher in the control site (control: 2.06, sewage-irrigated: 0.44, p < 0.05), indicating that the barrier effect of the roots was not consistent between the two fields. - Hg content in the roots of corn plants (Zea mays) was positively correlated with soil Hg content, but negatively correlated with Hg content in stems.

  1. EFFECTS OF AMELIORANT COMPOSITIONS ON NITROGEN MINERALIZATION AND UPTAKE BY SWEET CORN IN DEGRADED PEATLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Maftu’ah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Peat soil is characterized by poor nitrogen (N availability. Ameliorants are expected to rectify this problem. This research  aimed to study the effect of ameliorant on N availability and N uptake by sweet corn plant in degraded peatland. The experiment was conducted in the greenhouse in May-July 2011 and on peatland of Kalampangan Village, Palangkaraya, Central Kalimantan in September-December 2011. Burnt peat soil of Kalampangan was used in the greenhouse experiment and sweet corn was used as an indicator plant. The treatments consisted of two factors, i.e. compositions of ameliorants by weight (A1 = 80% chicken manure + 20% dolomite; A2 = 80% local farm weed + 20% dolomite; A3 = 80% mineral soil + 20% dolomite; A4 = 20% chicken manure + 20% local farm weed + 20% residue of Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis + 20% mineral soil + 20% dolomite; and A5 = 19% chicken manure + 71.5% mineral soil + 9.5% dolomite and rates of those ameliorants (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 t ha-1. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Data were collected every two weeks for five times. Observations were made on soil pH, available N (NH4+, NO3-, plant height, and N uptake in root and shoot. The results showed that  treatment A1 increased soil pH and availability of NH4+ and NO3-  in peat soils at the maximum vegetative stage. Treatment A1 provided the highest N availability and N uptake by the plant. Field experiment showed that N uptake increased  with the plant yield. Optimum yield of fresh corn cob was obtained from treatment A1 at the rate of 20 t ha-1. This research reconfirms the effectiveness of chicken manure and dolomite as peat soil ameliorant.

  2. Crescimento e produtividade de inhame e de milho doce em cultivo associado Growth and productivity of taro and sweet corn under intercropping conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Puiatti

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar a viabilidade agronômica e econômica da associação inhame e milho doce, foi desenvolvido um trabalho em área da horta de pesquisas da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, em sistema de consórcio (associação aditiva, utilizando-se inhame (Colocasia esculenta 'Chinês' como cultura principal e milho doce (Zea mays 'Doce Cristal' como cultura contrastante. O inhame foi plantado em sulcos de 12 cm de profundidade, no espaçamento de 100 x 30 cm, e o milho doce em covas de 3 cm de profundidade, na fileira de plantio, entre as plantas de inhame, 40 dias após plantio do inhame. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, no esquema fatorial (3 x 2 + 2 (três arranjos de plantas: uma planta de milho a cada 30 cm; duas plantas de milho a cada 60 cm e três plantas de milho a cada 90 cm x dois manejos das plantas de milho: sem e com corte e retirada da parte aérea das plantas de milho no momento da colheita das espigas verdes + dois controles: monoculturas de inhame e de milho doce. Foram avaliadas características de crescimento e de produção das culturas, além dos índices de eficiência dos consórcios. As duas espécies são adequadas para plantio em sistema de consórcio. O arranjo com uma planta de milho a cada 30 cm propiciou maiores produtividades e índices de eficiência dos consórcios. Com exceção do arranjo com três plantas de milho/cova a cada 90 cm com corte da parte aérea das plantas de milho na colheita das espigas, no qual ocorreram menores índices de eficiência dos consórcios e rendimento financeiro total inferior ao da monocultura do inhame, as demais associações estudadas demonstraram-se viáveis agronômica e economicamente.An experiment was conducted to evaluate some crop production characteristics and economic viability of intercropping systems using taro (Colocasia esculenta 'Chinês', as major crop, and sweet corn (Zea mays 'Doce Cristal' as minor crop. Taro

  3. Potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) for phytoremediation of dredging sludge contaminated by trace metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbaoui, Sarra; Evlard, Aricia; Mhamdi, Mohamed El Wafi; Campanella, Bruno; Paul, Roger; Bettaieb, Taoufik

    2013-07-01

    The potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) for accumulation of cadmium and zinc was investigated. Plants have been grown in lysimetres containing dredging sludge, a substratum naturally rich in trace metals. Biomass production was determined. Sludge and water percolating from lysimeters were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. No visible symptoms of toxicity were observed during the three- month culture. Kenaf and corn tolerate trace metals content in sludge. Results showed that Zn and Cd were found in corn and kenaf shoots at different levels, 2.49 mg/kg of Cd and 82.5 mg/kg of Zn in kenaf shoots and 2.1 mg/kg of Cd and 10.19 mg/kg in corn shoots. Quantities of extracted trace metals showed that decontamination of Zn and Cd polluted substrates is possible by corn and kenaf crops. Tolerance and bioaccumulation factors indicated that both species could be used in phytoremediation.

  4. Micromonospora zeae sp. nov., a novel endophytic actinomycete isolated from corn root (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yue; Zhang, Yuejing; Liu, Chongxi; Wang, Xiangjing; Zhao, Junwei; Jia, Feiyu; Yang, Lingyu; Yang, Deguang; Xiang, Wensheng

    2014-11-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-gq9(T), was isolated from corn root (Zea mays L.) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. The organism was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of the genus Micromonospora. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies, strain NEAU-gq9(T) was most closely related to Micromonospora zamorensis CR38(T) (99.3%), Micromonospora jinlongensis NEAU-GRX11(T) (99.2%), Micromonospora saelicesensis Lupac 09(T) (99.2%), Micromonospora chokoriensis 2-19(6)(T) (98.9%), Micromonospora coxensis 2-30-b(28)(T) (98.6%) and Micromonospora lupini Lupac 14N(T) (98.5%). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene and gyrB gene demonstrated that strain NEAU-gq9(T) is a member of the genus Micromonospora and supported the closest phylogenetic relationship to M. zamorensis CR38(T), M. jinlongensis NEAU-GRX11(T), M. saelicesensis Lupac 09(T), M. chokoriensis 2-19(6)(T) and M. lupini Lupac 14N(T). A combination of DNA-DNA hybridization, morphological and physiological characteristics indicated that the novel strain could be readily distinguished from the closest phylogenetic relatives. Therefore, it is proposed that strain NEAU-gq9(T) represents a novel species of the genus Micromonospora, for which the name Micromonospora zeae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-gq9(T) (=CGMCC 4.7092(T)=DSM 45882(T)).

  5. An evaluation of cassava, sweet potato and field corn as potential carbohydrate sources for bioethanol production in Alabama and Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent emphasis on corn production to meet the increasing demand for bioethanol has resulted in trepidation regarding the sustainability of the global food supply. To assess the potential of alternative crops as sources of bioethanol production, we grew sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and cassav...

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF WEATHER CONDITIONS OF EASTERN POLAND ON SWEET CORN YIELDS AND LENGTH OF GROWING SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rosa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of weather components (air temperature, precipitation on the growth, yield and the length of the growing season of sweet corn cultivated in eastern Poland. The results come from a field experiment conducted in 2006–2011. Weather conditions in the successive years of the study significantly modified the yield of ears, weight and number of formatted ears, high of plants and the length of the growing season of sweet corn. Good yielding of sweet corn favoured years with moderate air temperatures in July and uniform distribution of precipitation during the growing season. The highest yield of ears was found in 2011, the lowest in the very difficult in terms of weather 2006. The shortest growing season was characterized corn grown in the years 2006 and 2010 with the high air temperatures in July and August, the longest in the years 2009 and 2011, in which the temperatures in the period June-August were the lowest of all the years of research. Irrespective of the year of study, cv ‘Sheba F1’ was formatted eras with higher weight than cv ‘Sweet Nugget F1’.

  7. Using deficit irrigation with treated wastewater to improve crop water productivity of sweet corn, chickpea, faba bean and quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz HIRICH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several experiments were conducted in the south of Morocco (IAV-CHA, Agadir during two seasons 2010 and 2011 in order to evaluate the effect of deficit irrigation with treated wastewater on several crops (quinoa, sweet corn, faba bean and chickpeas. During the first season (2010 three crops were tested, quinoa, chickpeas and sweet corn applying 6 deficit irrigation treatments during all crop stages alternating 100% of full irrigation as non-stress condition and 50% of full irrigation as water deficit condition applied during vegetative growth, flowering and grain filling stage. For all crops, the highest water productivity and yield were obtained when deficit irrigation was applied during the vegetative growth stage. During the second season (2011 two cultivars of quinoa, faba bean and sweet corn have been cultivated applying 6 deficit irrigation treatments (rainfed, 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of full irrigation only during the vegetative growth stage, while in the rest of crop cycle full irrigation was provided except for rainfed treatment. For quinoa and faba bean, treatment receiving 50% of full irrigation during vegetative growth stage recorded the highest yield and water productivity, while for sweet corn applying 75% of full irrigation was the optimal treatment in terms of yield and water productivity.

  8. Identification and characterization of endophytic bacteria from corn (Zea mays L.) roots with biotechnological potential in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi-Zecchin, Vivian Jaskiw; Ikeda, Angela Cristina; Hungria, Mariangela; Adamoski, Douglas; Kava-Cordeiro, Vanessa; Glienke, Chirlei; Galli-Terasawa, Lygia Vitória

    2014-01-01

    Six endophytic bacteria of corn roots were identified as Bacillus sp. and as Enterobacter sp, by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Four of the strains, CNPSo 2476, CNPSo 2477, CNPSo 2478 and CNPSo 2480 were positive for the nitrogen fixation ability evaluated through the acetylene reduction assay and amplification of nifH gene. Two Bacillus strains (CNPSo 2477 and CNPSo 2478) showed outstanding skills for the production of IAA, siderophores and lytic enzymes, but were not good candidates as growth promoters, because they reduced seed germination. However, the same strains were antagonists against the pathogenic fungi Fusarium verticillioides, Colletotrichum graminicola, Bipolaris maydis and Cercospora zea-maydis. As an indication of favorable bacterial action, Enterobacter sp. CNPSo 2480 and Bacillus sp. CNPSo 2481 increased the root volume by 44% and 39%, respectively, and the seed germination by 47% and 56%, respectively. Therefore, these two strains are good candidates for future testing as biological inoculants for corn.

  9. Asian corn borer (ACB) and non-ACB pests in GM corn (Zea mays L.) in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afidchao, Miladis M; Musters, C J M; de Snoo, Geert R

    2013-07-01

    The Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), has become the most damaging pest in corn in south-east Asia. Corn farmers in the Philippines have incurred great yield losses in the past decades because of ACB infestation. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and Bt herbicide-tolerant (BtHT) corns have been developed to reduce borer attacks worldwide. This study assessed the extent of ACB and non-ACB pest infestations in both GM and non-GM corn in Isabela Province, the Philippines. Specific aims were to reinvestigate the efficacy of Bt corn in controlling ACB, to evaluate what parts of Bt corn plants are susceptible to ACB, to monitor the potential development of ACB resistance and to evaluate whether secondary pests dominate in an ACB-free Bt corn environment. The study involved preparatory interviews with farmers, site selection, field scouting and visual inspection of 200 plants along 200 m transect lines through 198 cornfields. Bt corn can efficiently reduce the ACB pest problem and reduce borer damage by 44%, to damage levels in Bt and BtHT corn of 6.8 and 7% respectively. The leaves of Bt corn were more susceptible, while cobs of Bt corn were less affected by ACB. Non-ACB pests were common in Bt toxin-free cornfields and reduced in non-GM cornfields where ACB was abundant. No secondary pest outbreaks were found in ACB-free Bt cornfields. Bt and BtHT corn hybrids containing the Cry1Ab protein performed well in Isabela Province. Reduced cob damage by ACB on Bt fields could mean smaller economic losses even with ACB infestation. The occurrence of ACB in Bt and BtHT cornfields, although at a moderate and insignificant level, could imply the potential development of resistance to Bt toxin. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Effects of Vermi compost and Compost tea Application on the Growth criteria of Corn (Zea mays

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    R Afsharmanesh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Maize (Zea mays is a cereal crop that is grown widely throughout the world in a range of agroecological environments. .Its value as a cost-effective ruminant feed is one of the main reasons that farmers grow it. However, lack of nutrients such as N and P, are the principal obstacles - to crop production under low input agricultural systems leading to dependency on chemical fertilizers. Long-term use of chemical fertilizers destroy soil physicochemical properties and it reduced permeability which restricts root growth, nutrient uptake and plant production. Therefore, the use of organic fertilizers can help to enrich the soil root zone As a result growth and yield will improve. Materials and Methods In order to study the effects of different levels of vermicompost and foliar application of tea compost on growth characteristics of the hybrid maize genotype 713, a greenhouse experiment was conducted as a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications at the Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, during 2013. Treatments were included vermicompost (0, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% pot weight and tea composts (foliar application, non-foliar application. Measured traits were included root dry weight, root volume, leaf dry weight, stem dry weight, macro nutrient concentration (N and P and micro nutrient concentration (Zn, Mn, Fe and Cu. All the data were subjected to the statistical analysis (two-way ANOVA using SAS software (SAS 9.1.3. Differences between the treatments were performed by Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT at 1% confidence interval. Results and Discussion Results indicated that leaf and stem dry weight affected by the application of vermicompost and tea compost. However, the interaction effects had no significant effects on the leaf and stem dry weight. Application of tea compost increased 20% and 50% leaf dry weight and stem dry weight of corn compared to non- foliar application

  11. Intraear Compensation of Field Corn, Zea mays, from Simulated and Naturally Occurring Injury by Ear-Feeding Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckel, S; Stewart, S D

    2015-06-01

    Ear-feeding larvae, such as corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), can be important insect pests of field corn, Zea mays L., by feeding on kernels. Recently introduced, stacked Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) traits provide improved protection from ear-feeding larvae. Thus, our objective was to evaluate how injury to kernels in the ear tip might affect yield when this injury was inflicted at the blister and milk stages. In 2010, simulated corn earworm injury reduced total kernel weight (i.e., yield) at both the blister and milk stage. In 2011, injury to ear tips at the milk stage affected total kernel weight. No differences in total kernel weight were found in 2013, regardless of when or how much injury was inflicted. Our data suggested that kernels within the same ear could compensate for injury to ear tips by increasing in size, but this increase was not always statistically significant or sufficient to overcome high levels of kernel injury. For naturally occurring injury observed on multiple corn hybrids during 2011 and 2012, our analyses showed either no or a minimal relationship between number of kernels injured by ear-feeding larvae and the total number of kernels per ear, total kernel weight, or the size of individual kernels. The results indicate that intraear compensation for kernel injury to ear tips can occur under at least some conditions. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Heterosis and antioxidant compounds of sweet corn breeding lines and their F1 hybrid

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    Kraptchev Boris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the mid-parent heterosis and the levels of phenolic, flavonoids compounds and antioxidants activity among two selected sweet corn parental lines and their F1 hybrid Zaharina were evaluated. Substantial positive mid-parent heterosis (MPH was found for parent-hybrid triplet for ear weight and for plant height. Among all other traits, insertion height had the greatest heterosis and ear diameter had the lowest. Negative mid-parent heterosis exhibited only the trait 1000-kernel weight. Data analysis indicated significant differences in the contents of total phenolic content, total flavonoids content, water-soluble antioxidant capacity, lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity, and antioxidant activity among parent-hybrid triplet. The results suggest that F1 hybrid Zaharina can be considered as good source of natural antioxidants since it extracts were found to possess high antioxidant activity.

  13. Effects of salt stress and mycorrhiza fungi on morpho-physiological characteristics of sweet corn

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    seyed Abdolreza kazemeini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the interaction of mycorrhizal fungi and salinity on growth and physiological characteristics of sweet corn, a greenhouse experiment was conducted at College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, in 2014. The experimental design was factorial based on Completely Randomized Design in three replications. Treatments included salinity at four levels (0.4 (control, 4, 7, 10 dS m-1, and the fungi at three levels (no fungi (control, Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices. Results indicated that at flowering stage, with increasing salinity levels, leaf chlorophyll a, b and a+b content and carotenoid decreased at a rate of 18.9, 52.4, 33.1, and 34.5 respectively. Application of mycorrhiza under salinity, partially offset the negative impacts and increased tolerance of maize to NaCl by enhancing SOD and CAT activities, chlorophyll contents, carotenoid and K concentrations in leaves, plant height, leaf area, and total dry weight at flowering stage significantly, compared to control. The Na/K ratio at salinity level of 10 dS m-1 in treatments inoculated with GIN and GM fungi decreased by 39.69 and 40.45 percentage, respectively. Increases plant height, leaf area, total dry weight, concentrations of chlorophyll a, b, chlorophyll a+b and carotenoid and K, the activity of antioxidant enzymes compared with the control. Moreover, GIN type fungi had a greater advantage over GM and reduced the negative effects of salinity. Results indicated that application of mycorrhiza alleviated the adverse effect of salinity stress and improve the sweet corn dry weight up to 38 percentage at salinity level of 10 dS m-1.

  14. THE STRUCTURE AND YIELD LEVEL OF SWEET CORN DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF WINTER CATCH CROPS AND WEED CONTROL METHOD

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    Robert Rosa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic manuring is suggested to be necessary in sweet corn cultivation. It is not always possible to use farmyard manure due to economic, production or technical reasons. Catch crops used as green manures can be an alternative source of organic matter. The experiment was carried out in central-east Poland (52°06’N, 22°55’E, in years 2008–2011. The successive effect of winter catch crops (hairy vetch, white clover, winter rye, Italian ryegrass, winter turnip rape and the type of weed control on the growth and yielding of sweet corn was examined. The catch crops were sown in early September, incorporated in early May. The effect of the winter catch crops on yield was compared to the effect of FYM at a rate of 30 t·ha-1 and the control without organic manuring. The sweet corn was grown directly after organic fertilization. Three methods of weed control was used: Hw – hand weeding, twice during the growing period, GCM – herbicide Guardian CompleteMix 664 SE, immediately after sowing the seed corn, Z+T – a mixture of herbicides Zeagran 340 SE + Titus 25 WG, in the 3–4 leaf stage sweet corn. The highest yields of biomass were found for winter rye (35.5 t·ha-1 FM and 7.3 t·ha-1 DM, the most of macroelements accumulated winter turnip rape (480.2 kg N+P+K+Ca+Mg·ha-1. Generally, leguminous catch crops had similar to the FYM and better than non-leguminous catch crops yield-forming effect. The highest yield of marketable ears of sweet corn was obtained after FYM (14.4 t·ha-1 and after hairy vetch catch crop (14.0 t·ha-1. A similar yield-forming effect also had white clover and Italian ryegrass. The most of ears from 1 ha was achieved after white clover catch crop (59.3 tausend, similar after FYM and hairy vetch catch crop. The highest kernel yields were found after FYM (10.7 t·ha-1. The yields of kernel after hairy vetch and white clover catch crops were significantly higher than after non-leguminous catch crops. Z+T weed control

  15. Elevated carbon dioxide reduces emission of herbivore induced volatiles in Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpene volatiles produced by sweet corn (Zea mays) upon infestation with pests such as beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) function as part of an indirect defense mechanism by attracting parasitoid wasps; yet little is known about the impact of atmospheric changes on this form of plant defense. To in...

  16. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of corn (Zea mays L.) multiple shoots

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Shi-liang; Masilamany, Pathmalojiny; Li, Wen-bin; Pauls, K. Peter

    2014-01-01

    An Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated corn transformation method based on multiple shoot tissue cultures was developed, which is effective with a variety of corn inbred lines and standard binary vectors. Six factors that affected the success of corn transformation were tested, including A. tumefaciens strain, corn genotype, tissue culture growth stage, medium composition, co-culture temperature and surfactant treatment. Agropine-type bacteria (EHA 101 and AGL 1) were eightfold more effective ...

  17. Tillage and Water Deficit Stress Effects on Corn (Zea mays, L.) Root Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    One goal of soil management is to provide optimum conditions for root growth. Corn root distributions were measured in 2004 from a crop rotation – tillage experiment that was started in 2000. Corn was grown either following corn or following sunflower with either no till or deep chisel tillage. Wate...

  18. Effect of Filter Cake on Physiological Traits and Ear Yield of Sweet Corn under Late Drought Stress Condition

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    aziz karmollachaab

    2017-10-01

    Filter Cake, due to high salinity and salt accumulation in the root zone, causes secondary oxidative stress and increases damage to cell membranes and reduces the economic benefit. In order to investigate the effect of Filter Cake levels application on some morpho-physiological characteristics and ear yield of sweet corn (Zea mays var saccharata under late drought stress condition, an experiment was conducted in Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University, Khuzestan, at 2012. The experiment was arranged in split-plots design in RCBD (Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Treatments of experiment were drought stress (irrigation after 25, 50 and 75% depletion of available water content in main plots and filter cake (0, 10, 20 and 30 ton.ha-1 arranged in sub-plots. Results showed that the effect of drought stress significant on more traits and led to decrease of plant height, leaf area index (LAI, membrane stability index(MSI, leaf osmotic potential, soluble protein contents, ear and biological yield while effect of drought stress on shoot sodium concentration was not significant. The intensive drought stress led to decrease 21.7 and 27.3% ear and biological yield compared to control respectively. Application of filter cake on non-stress led to increase height of plant and ear and biological yield. But high levels of filter cake in intensive stress led to increase salinity and damage to cell membranes and reduce LAI and MSI and thus reduce economic performance. It also the amount of 30 ton.ha-1 of filter cake in intensive stress condition has been decrease ear and biological yield 18.7 and 23.3% compared to non-filter cake application respectively.

  19. The effect of different sowing depths on fresh ear yield and some ear characteristics of sweet corn

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    Bekir Atar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted with aim to investigate effect on fresh ear yield and some ear characteristics of sweet corn of sowing at different depths during 2015 and 2016 years in Isparta. The experiments were set up according to randomized complete block design with three replicates using BATEM TATLI sweet corn cultivar. Furrows were opened at depths of 10 and 20 cm after the soil preparation, and seeds were sown in the 4-5 cm depth in to these furrows. According to means of years, while furrow sowing increased ear diameter, ear weigh, number of kernels per ear and fresh ear yield compared to control, it was not effect on ear length. In the research, between 10 cm and 20 cm furrow sowing wasn’t significant statistically. Fresh ear yield in control, 10 cm and 20 cm furrow sowing were measured as 1110.9 kg ha-1 , 1228.4 kg ha-1 and 1289.4 kg ha-1 , respectively. According to results of research, 5 cm deep sowing in 10 cm furrows should be advised in sweet corn cultivation.

  20. Dynamics of seed germination, seedling growth and physiological responses of sweet corn under peg-induced water stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.; Zhang, X.; Li, G.; Suo, H.; Ashraf, U.; Mo, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Stress induced variations in seed germination of various crops has been well reported but germination potential of sweet corn seeds under osmotic stress with relation to time dynamics is still elusive. Present study explored the water absorption, germination potential and physiological indices and of sweet corn seeds exposed to five different levels of PEG-induced water stress i.e., 0, -0.3, -0.6, -0.9 and -1.2 M Pa water potential (Psi /sub w/) with respect to time dynamics. Results showed that enhanced water stress for prolonged time period (96 h) led to substantial reduction in water absorption and seed moisture contents, seed germination and vigor index as well as seedlings growth and fresh and dry biomass. Osmotic stress triggered antioxidant defense system like super-oxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) and accumulation of soluble sugars, proline and protein contents considerably. Initially, activities of SOD and CAT were higher but then reduced as stress persisted, however, POD showed a linear increase with respect to stress exposure time. Water stress also increased MDA contents up to 36 h then declined. Further, alpha-amylase activity and soluble protein showed significant correlations with maize seed germination. Overall, germination potential decreased with increase in osmotic stress in sweet corn seeds. (author)

  1. VHDL, a larval storage protein from the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, is a member of the vitellogenin gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sum, Herbert; Haunerland, Norbert H

    2007-10-01

    The hemolymph of last instar larvae of the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea contains a blue very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) that is selectively taken up into fat body prior to pupation. Its amino-terminal sequence was determined by Edman degradation, and used to design a degenerate primer for PCR amplification. With 5' and 3' RACE techniques, the entire cDNA coding for VHDL was amplified and sequenced. Conceptual translation reveals a 173 kDa protein that contains a 15 amino acid signal sequence immediately before the experimentally determined N-terminus of the mature protein. The protein contains a typical lipoprotein N-terminal domain, and shows high sequence similarity to vitellogenins from Lepidoptera and other insect species. VHDL mRNA was not detectable in adult H. zea, and antibodies raised against VHDL did not react with adult hemolymph or yolk proteins. Therefore VHDL, although a member of the vitellogenin gene family, seems to be distinct from the vitellogenin expressed in adult females.

  2. In silico identification of transcription factors associated with the biosynthesis of carotenoids in corn ( Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zinati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids, a diverse group of colorful pigments, contribute to the development, light harvesting and photoprotection in plants as well as human health. Due to the interesting properties of carotenoids, enhanced carotenoid biosynthesis has been of ongoing interest. Recent advances in computational biology and bioinformatics make it more feasible to understand the transcriptional regulatory network underlying carotenoid biosynthesis. Studies on carotenoid biosynthesis in corn ( Zea mays L. have indicated the pivotal role of the phytoene synthase gene PSY1 (accession: GRMZM2G300348 in endosperm color and carotenoid accumulation in corn kernels. Computational approaches such as Genomatix, PlantPAN, PlantCARE, PlantTFDB and IGDE6 have been used for promoter prediction, regulatory features and transcription factor identification, as well as pairwise promoter comparisons. Four transcripts have been identified for the PSY1 gene. Based on Genomatix and PlantPAN, the promoter predicted for GRMZM2G300348_T01 was different from that predicted for the other three transcripts (GRMZM2G300348_T02, GRMZM2G300348_T03 and GRMZM2G300348_T04. The results indiated that the promoter of GRMZM2G300348_T01 has more diverse motifs involved in hormonal/environmental stress responses. The most significant result obtained from this study is the discovery of two transcription factors belonging to the HB family that are co-expressed with all four transcripts of PSY1 under environmental stresses. It is, therefore, likely that these transcription factors may act as critical regulators of PSY1 gene expression in corn. Identification of the proteins acting upstream of PSY1 within corn will shed light on the fine tuning of PSY1 expression regulation. Such an understanding would also contribute to metabolic engineering aimed at enhanced carotenoid biosynthesis.

  3. TOXICITY OF METHYL-TERT BYTYL ETHER (MTBE) TO PLANTS (AVENA SATIVA, ZEA MAYS, TRITICUM AESTIVUM, AND LACTUCA SATIVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the germination of seeds and growth of the plant were studied in some laboratory experiments. Test plants were wild oat (Avena sative), sweet corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed germination,...

  4. The evaluation of IAA-production ability in indigenous Azospirillum isolates and their growth promoting effects on sweet corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahdi arab

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been years that Azospirillum is known to promote plant growth. Phytohormone (especially Auxin production has the most important role in increasing the yield of inoculated plants. According to this, 60 strains of this genus were isolated, identified, and purified. This ability was evaluated in both qualitative and quantitative assays using colorimetric method and the effects of superior isolate on sweet corn were measured. Results revealed that the abundance and probability of the bacteria isolation is low and 17%. About 31.2% and 100% of Azospirillum strains were capable of producing IAA in qualitative and quantitative methods respectively. In greenhouse experiment, bacteria treatments had significant effects on corn fresh weight, total dry weight, root dry weight and total nitrogen and phosphorus content of the plant. This was considered to be as the result of more lateral root formation which enhances nutrition uptake. In conclusion, the green house results in respect to in vitro achievements show that fortunately it can be claimed that bacteria of the genus Azospirillum can be used widely for not only strategic gramineous plants like: corn, wheat, barely etc. but also for other useful plants. Key words: Azospirillum, Auxin, qualitative and quantitative methods, sweet corn.

  5. Aflatoxin and Fumonisin in corn (Zea mays) infected by common smut Ustilago maydis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn infected with Ustilago maydis (common smut) produces galls that are valued food in certain cultures, but may be contaminated with mycotoxins. Field studies conducted in Elizabeth, Mississippi used near isogenic Bt and non-Bt corn hybrids. The levels of aflatoxin and fumonisin were determined i...

  6. Diversification of Sweet Potato Blends and Utilization for Malnutrition and Poverty Alleviation

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Ladele; N. T. Meludu; O. Ezekiel; T. F. Olaoye; O. M. Okanlawon

    2015-01-01

    Value addition to agricultural produce is of possible potential in reducing poverty, improving food security and malnutrition, therefore the need to develop small and microenterprises of sweet potato production. A study was carried out in Nigeria to determine the acceptability of blends sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) and commodities yellow maize (Zea mays), millet (Pennisetum glaucum), soybean (Glycine max), bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean), guinea corn (Sorghum vulg...

  7. The effect of different crop plant densities on radiation absorption and use efficiency by corn (Zea mays L. and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. intercropped canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rostami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to determinate the effects of plant densities in intercropped corn (Zea mays L. and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. on radiation absorption and use efficiency, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during growing season of 2007-2008. This experiment was conducted in low input system. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Treatments were included bean intercropping with corn in normal density of bean plus 10%, 20% and 30% excess bean C (B+10%, C (B+20%, C (B+30%, increasing in density bean intercropping with corn in normal density of corn plus 10%, 20% and 30% excess corn B (C+10%, B (C+20%, B (C+30% and sole crops of corn (C and bean (B. Results indicated that leaf area index, radiation absorption, total dry matter and radiation use efficiency of corn increased in all intercropped treatments compared to sole cropping, but it reversed for bean. It seems that complementary and facilitative effects of intercropping were more for corn. Range of corn and bean radiation use efficiency was from 1.92 g.MJ-1 (in sole cropping and 0.72 g.MJ-1 {in (C+30% (B+30%} to 2.30 g.MJ-1 {in C (B+30%} and 1.45 g.MJ-1 (in sole cropping, respectively.

  8. Physicochemical, Thermal, and Sensory Properties of Blue Corn (Zea Mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Ceren; Arslan-Tontul, Sultan; Candal, Cihadiye; Kilic, Ozlem; Erbas, Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate some physicochemical and sensory properties of blue corn cultivated in Turkey. The length and width of the cob with kernels, hectoliter, and 1000-kernel weight of blue corn were measured as 7.66, 2.02 mm, 84.40 kg/100 L, and 44.27 g, respectively. The gelatinization onset, peak, and end temperatures were measured as 61.12 °C, 64.35 °C, and 75.65 °C, respectively. The water activity, moisture content, total protein, lipid, and crude fiber contents of the blue corn sample were detected as 0.44, 9.39%, 13.13%, 4.30%, and 2.68%, respectively. Total starch and resistant starch contents of blue corn were determined as 63.94% and 8.89%, respectively. Also, total monomeric anthocyanin content and antioxidant capacity of blue corn were detected as 915.43 mg CGE/kg and 7.99 μmol TE/g, respectively. Additionally, the major fatty acids detected in blue corn samples were palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids. Blue corn can be utilized in the production of enjoyable and healthier snacks, such as popcorn and chips, because of its color and high phenolic, anthocyanin, and fiber contents. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Distinguishing nitrogen fertilization levels in field corn (Zea mays L.) with actively induced fluorescence and passive reflectance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurtrey, J.E. III; Chappelle, E.W.; Kim, M.S.; Meisinger, J.J.; Corp, L.A

    1994-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) is an active sensing technique capable of capturing immediate and specific indications of changes in plant physiology and metabolism as they relate to the concentration and photosynthetic activity of the plant pigments. Reflectance is a passive sensing technique that can capture differences in the concentration of the primary plant pigments. Fluorescence and reflectance were compared for their ability to measure levels of plant stress that are of agronomic importance in corn (Zea mays L.) crops. Laboratory LIF and reflectance spectra were made on excised leaves from field grown corn. Changes in the visible region of the spectrum were compared between groups of plants fertilized with seven different levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization. A pulsed nitrogen laser emitting photons at a wavelength of 337 nm was used as a fluorescence excitation source. Differences in maximum intensity of fluorescence occurred at 440 nm, 525 nm, 685 nm, and 740 nm. Significant separations were found between levels of N fertilization at several LIF wavelength ratios. Several reflectance algorithms also produced significant separations between certain levels of N fertilization

  10. Using in situ pore water concentrations to estimate the phytotoxicity of nicosulfuron in soils to corn (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kailin; Cao, Zhengya; Pan, Xiong; Yu, Yunlong

    2012-08-01

    The phytotoxicity of an herbicide in soil is typically dependent on the soil characteristics. To obtain a comparable value of the concentration that inhibits growth by 50% (IC50), 0.01 M CaCl(2) , excess pore water (EPW) and in situ pore water (IPW) were used to extract the bioavailable fraction of nicosulfuron from five different soils to estimate the nicosulfuron phytotoxicity to corn (Zea mays L.). The results indicated that the phytotoxicity of nicosulfuron in soils to corn depended on the soil type, and the IC50 values calculated based on the amended concentration of nicosulfuron ranged from 0.77 to 9.77 mg/kg among the five tested soils. The range of variation in IC50 values for nicosulfuron was smaller when the concentrations of nicosulfuron extracted with 0.01 M CaCl(2) and EPW were used instead of the amended concentration. No significant difference was observed among the IC50 values calculated from the IPW concentrations of nicosulfuron in the five tested soils, suggesting that the concentration of nicosulfuron in IPW could be used to estimate the phytotoxicity of residual nicosulfuron in soils. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  11. Dispersal behavior of neonate European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razze, J M; Mason, C E

    2012-08-01

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), has historically been a significant economically important insect pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in the United States and Canada. The development in the 1990s of genetically modified corn expressing genes derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that encodes insecticidal crystalline (Cry) proteins has proven to be effective in controlling this insect as well as other corn pests. The purpose of this study was to assess the movement and dispersal behavior of neonate European corn borer on Bt corn. We examined differences in neonate European corn borer dispersal behavior for the first 4 h after eclosion in the field among a stacked pyramid (Cry1F X Cry1Ab X Cry34/35Ab1) Bt corn, a Cry1F Bt corn, and a non-Bt sweet corn; and in the laboratory among a Bt corn hybrid containing Cry1F, a hybrid containing Cry1Ab, a pyramid combining these two hybrids (Cry1F X Cry1Ab), and a non-Bt near isoline corn. In field experiments, we found that dispersal was significantly higher on Bt corn compared with sweet corn. In laboratory experiments, dispersal was significantly higher on Cry1Ab Bt corn and Cry1F X Cry1Ab Bt corn than on non-Bt near isoline corn. Results indicated that neonate dispersal may be significantly greater in Bt cornfields compared with non-Bt cornfields. The findings on dispersal behavior in this study will be useful in evaluating the efficacy of a blended seed refuge system for managing European corn borer resistance in Bt corn.

  12. The manipulation of gene expression and the biosynthesis of Vitamin C, E and folate in light-and dark-germination of sweet corn seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengyuan; Xiang, Nan; Hu, Jian Guang; Shijuan, Yan; Xie, Lihua; Brennan, Charles Stephen; Huang, Wenjie; Guo, Xinbo

    2017-08-08

    This study investigates the potential interrelationship between gene expression and biosynthesis of vitamin C, E and folate in sweet corn sprouts. Germination of sweet corn kernels was conducted in light and dark environments to determine if this relationship was regulated by photo-illumination. Results indicated that light and dark environments affected the DHAR, TMT and GTPCH expression and that these genes were the predominant genes of vitamin C, E and folate biosynthesis pathways respectively during the germination. Levels of vitamin C and folate increased during the germination of sweet corn seeds while vitamin E had a declining manner. Sweet corn sprouts had higher vitamin C and E levels as well as relevant gene expression levels in light environment while illumination had little influence on the folate contents and the gene expression levels during the germination. These results indicate that there might be a collaborative relationship between vitamin C and folate regulation during sweet corn seed germination, while an inhibitive regulation might exist between vitamin C and E.

  13. Utilization of metarhizium anisopliae and vegetable extract for control of the spodoptera frugiperda and helicoverpa zea (lepidoptera: noctuidae) in the corn

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Barbosa Beserra; Aldeni Barbosa da Silva; José Pires Dantas; Aldeni Barbosa da Silva; Eduardo Barbosa Beserra; José Pires Dantas

    2008-01-01

    The potential use of the vegetable extracts and Metarhizium anisopliae about the population and damage of the Spodoptera frugiperda and Helicoverpa zea in corn, it was evaluated when planted in two spacings. The experiment was installed in the culture of corn, in the city of Lagoa Seca/PB, in two areas of 500 m2, in the spacings 0,8 x 0,4 and 0,4 x 0,4 m, with two and one plant for hole. The basis was constituited of: 1) Water as witness; 2) Metarhizium anisopliae; 3) Extracts of Mormodica ch...

  14. Cry1Ab protein quantification in leaves, stems and grains, and effectiveness to control Spodoptera frugiperda and Helicoverpa zea on two hybrids of genetically modified corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Balieiro Neto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to evaluate the infestation and associated damages to the presence of the Spodoptera frugiperda and Helicoverpa zea caterpillars, in two genetically modified (GM corn, Dekalb DKB390 and Agroceres AG8088, expressing the cry1Ab protein. For this objective, an split-splot design with two factors (hybrid x gene was carried out. Negative controls were made with the same corn hybrids without the gene cry1Ab (NoGM. The concentration of the protein Cry1Ab was determined by the ELISA (enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay technique in previously dehydrated stems, leaves and grains of GM corns. Caterpillars sampling of S. frugiperda and associated damage survey were accomplished at 15, 22, 29, 36 and 42 days after the sowing, according to a damage scale with 5 levels (0- pest absence to 5- dead plant. Countings of H. zea caterpillars and associated damage were assessed at 57, 71, 78 and 85 days after the sowing, according to a damage scale with 4 levels (0-pest absence curse to 4-gallery in the corn cob minor than 3cm. Sampled caterpillars were divided in two groups, smaller or equal to 15mm and bigger than 15mm. No insecticide application was accomplished in the GM blocks while NoGM blocks were sprayed with deltametrina (2,8%, 42 days after the sowing. The infestation level and associated damage due to S. frugiperda presence was significantly smaller (p < 0,05 in the GM corns in comparison to NoGM corns. Nevertheless, the number and associated damage of S. frugiperda caterpillars, smaller than 15 mm, were superior in the GM DKB390 corn when compared to the GM AG8088 corn. Differences were not observed in the S. frugiperda infestation and associated damage between GM corns and between NoGM corns. On average, the concentration of Cry1Ab protein was significantly superior in leaves and stems in comparison to the grain and, usually, superior in the GM AG8088 corn comparatively to GM DKB390 corn. No differences were found on level damages

  15. The Effect of Relative Emergence Time and Density of Common Lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L. on Corn (Zea mays L. Grain and Biological Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    v Sarabi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To study the effect of competitive potential of corn (Zea mays, in competition with common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album an experiment was conducted in 2006, at the farm of Agricultural Faculty of Ferdowsi University. In this experiment the effect of relative emergence time of common lambsquarters on single Cross 704 corn yield was studied in different densitis of the weed. The experimental design was split plot based on randomized completed block design with three replications. The emergence time at 3 levels (emergence of the weed 14 days earlier, 7 days earlier and simultaneously with corn was considered as main plots and density of weed at 6 levels (0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 plants m-2 as sub plots. The results showed a decrease in grain and biological yield of corn, as the emergence time of corn delayed in comparison with the emergence time of weed. The maximum yield reduction of 100 and 99% was observed respectively, in the earliest emergence time of common lambsquarters compared to corn and in the highest density of weed (20 plants m-2 where the corn plants were fully shaded by the weed canopy and no ear was produced. The yield loss of corn was higher when the earlier emergence time of weed was occurred in higher weed densities. based on the results of this research it can be concluded that the decrease of competitive potential of corn with increasing the relative emergence time of common lambsquarters was led to significant yield loss of corn crop. While the increase in weed density resulted in corn yield reduction, there was no difference in yield loss in high weed densities. Keywords: Biomass, Competition, Weed interference model, Yield loss

  16. Effect of Aerated Compost Tea on the Growth Promotion of Lettuce, Soybean, and Sweet Corn in Organic Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jeong Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the chemical characteristics and microbial population during incubation of four kinds of aerated compost teas based on oriental medicinal herbs compost, vermicompost, rice straw compost, and mixtures of three composts (MOVR. It aimed to determine the effects of the aerated compost tea (ACT based on MOVR on the growth promotion of red leaf lettuce, soybean and sweet corn. Findings showed that the pH level and EC of the compost tea slightly increased based on the incubation time except for rice straw compost tea. All compost teas except for oriental medicinal herbs and rice straw compost tea contained more NO⁻₃-N than NH⁺₄-N. Plate counts of bacteria and fungi were significantly higher than the initial compost in ACT. Microbial communities of all ACT were predominantly bacteria. The dominant bacterial genera were analyzed as Bacillus (63.0%, Ochrobactrum (13.0%, Spingomonas (6.0% and uncultured bacterium (4.0% by 16S rDNA analysis. The effect of four concentrations, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% MOVR on the growth of red leaf lettuce, soybean and sweet corn was also studied in the greenhouse. The red leaf lettuce with 0.4% MOVR had the most effective concentration on growth parameters in foliage part. However, 0.8% MOVR significantly promoted the growth of root and shoot of both soybean and sweet corn. The soybean treated with higher MOVR concentration was more effective in increasing the root nodule formation by 7.25 times than in the lower MOVR concentrations Results indicated that ACT could be used as liquid nutrient fertilizer with active microorganisms for culture of variable crops under organic farming condition.

  17. Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on NPK Uptake and Production of Sweet Corn in Inceptisol Soil of Lowland Swamp Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlina Neni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study objective was to determine the dose of organic and inorganic fertilizers which can increase N, P and K nutrients uptake as well as the growth and yield of sweet corn on inceptisol soil of lowland swamp. Inceptisol soil has low soil fertility and relatively low to moderate levels of organic matter content. Application of organic fertilizer on inceptisol soil of lowland swampis expected capable to increase N, P and K nutrients as well as yield of sweet corn. This research was conducted from April to July 2014 at Experimental Farm Area of Pulau Semambu Village, Indralaya Utara Subdistrict, Ogan Ilir District, South Sumatra Province. The method used in this research was randomized block design consisting treatments as follows: 75% inorganic fertilizer + 5 ton.ha−1organic fertilizer, 50% inorganic fertilizer + 5 ton.ha−1organic fertilizer, 25% inorganic fertilizer + 5 ton.ha−1 organic fertilizer, 0% inorganic fertilizer + 5 ton.ha−1organic fertilizer with six replications. The recommended dose of inorganic fertilizerswas 200 kg.ha−1 urea, 100 kg.ha−1 SP-36 and 100 kg. ha−1 KCl. The results showed that treatment of 75% of inorganic fertilizer + 5 ton.ha−1organic fertilizer had produced N, P and K nutrients uptake with magnitude of 1.850, 0.418 and 2.374 g.plant−1 respectively as well as good growth and yield of sweet corn with magnitude of 356.36 g. plant−1or 15.21 ton ha−1.

  18. Effect of Coated Urea Fertilizer on Yield and Yield Components of Sweet Corn (KSC 403 under Deficit Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Farid

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the effect of coated urea fertilizer on yield and yield components of sweet corn (KSC 403 under different irrigation regimes, in Ramin Agriculture and Natural Sciences University, Iran by using strip split plot in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Three levels of deficit irrigation (100%, 80 and 60% of calculated water requirement of sweet corn were assigned as vertical factor and six sources of urea fertilizer (without urea, un-coated urea, sulfur-coated urea fertilizer, starch-coated urea, agar-coated urea and chitin-coated urea were assigned to horizontal factor. Effects of deficit water and source of fertilizer were statistically significant on plant height, 1000 kernel weight, ear diameter, and number of rows per ear, ear yield, biological yield and harvest index. Maximum of plant height (153.23 cm, 1000 kernel weight (104.51 g, grain yield (9853.3 kg/ha and biological yield (12471.6 kg/ha were obtained in chitin coated urea fertilizer. Maximum of ear diameter (4.67 cm and number of row per ear (13.22 were achieved in agar coated urea fertilizer and that of harvest index (45.79% was indicated by starch-coated urea. Maximum of length of ear, number of kernels per row and grain yield were 23.65cm, 25.83 and 7142 kg/ha, respectively, and were obtained with the using of chitin-coated urea fertilizer and 100% water requirement. Minimum values of these traits were 13.54 cm, 5.56 and 871 kg/ha, respectively, and were obtained by using of control (no urea application and 60% water requirement. Results showed that biopolymer coated urea is potent to improve some morphological characteristics and increase grain yield of sweet corn.

  19. Effect of Aerated Compost Tea on the Growth Promotion of Lettuce, Soybean, and Sweet Corn in Organic Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jeong; Shim, Chang Ki; Kim, Yong Ki; Hong, Sung Jun; Park, Jong Ho; Han, Eun Jung; Kim, Jin Ho; Kim, Suk Chul

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the chemical characteristics and microbial population during incubation of four kinds of aerated compost teas based on oriental medicinal herbs compost, vermicompost, rice straw compost, and mixtures of three composts (MOVR). It aimed to determine the effects of the aerated compost tea (ACT) based on MOVR on the growth promotion of red leaf lettuce, soybean and sweet corn. Findings showed that the pH level and EC of the compost tea slightly increased based on the incubation time except for rice straw compost tea. All compost teas except for oriental medicinal herbs and rice straw compost tea contained more NO−3-N than NH+4-N. Plate counts of bacteria and fungi were significantly higher than the initial compost in ACT. Microbial communities of all ACT were predominantly bacteria. The dominant bacterial genera were analyzed as Bacillus (63.0%), Ochrobactrum (13.0%), Spingomonas (6.0%) and uncultured bacterium (4.0%) by 16S rDNA analysis. The effect of four concentrations, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% MOVR on the growth of red leaf lettuce, soybean and sweet corn was also studied in the greenhouse. The red leaf lettuce with 0.4% MOVR had the most effective concentration on growth parameters in foliage part. However, 0.8% MOVR significantly promoted the growth of root and shoot of both soybean and sweet corn. The soybean treated with higher MOVR concentration was more effective in increasing the root nodule formation by 7.25 times than in the lower MOVR concentrations Results indicated that ACT could be used as liquid nutrient fertilizer with active microorganisms for culture of variable crops under organic farming condition. PMID:26361474

  20. Inhibition of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Growth by Transgenic Corn Expressing Bt Toxins and Development of Resistance to Cry1Ab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisig, Dominic D; Reay-Jones, Francis P F

    2015-08-01

    Transgenic corn, Zea mays L., that expresses the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry1Ab is only moderately toxic to Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and has been planted commercially since 1996. Growth and development of H. zea was monitored to determine potential changes in susceptibility to this toxin over time. Small plots of corn hybrids expressing Cry1F, Cry1F × Cry1Ab, Cry1Ab × Cry3Bb1, Cry1A.105 × Cry2Ab2 × Cry3Bb1, Cry1A.105 × Cry2Ab2, and Vip3Aa20 × Cry1Ab × mCry3A were planted in both 2012 and 2013 inNorth and South Carolina with paired non-Bt hybrids from the same genetic background. H. zea larvae were sampled on three time periods from ears and the following factors were measured: kernel area injured (cm(2)) by H. zea larvae, larval number per ear, larval weight, larval length, and larval head width. Pupae were sampled on a single time period and the following factors recorded: number per ear, weight, time to eclosion, and the number that eclosed. There was no reduction in larval weight, number of insect entering the pupal stadium, pupal weight, time to eclosion, and number of pupae able to successfully eclose to adulthood in the hybrid expressing Cry1Ab compared with a non-Bt paired hybrid. As Cry1Ab affected these in 1996, H. zea may be developing resistance to Cry1Ab in corn, although these results are not comprehensive, given the limited sampling period, size, and geography. We also found that the negative impacts on larval growth and development were greater in corn hybrids with pyramided traits compared with single traits. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Effect of biochanin A on corn grain (Zea mays) fermentation by bovine rumen amylolytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, B E; Flythe, M D; Aiken, G E

    2017-04-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of biochanin A (BCA), an isoflavone produced by red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), on corn fermentation by rumen micro-organisms. When bovine rumen bacterial cell suspensions (n = 3) were incubated (24 h, 39°C) with ground corn, amylolytic bacteria including group D Gram-positive cocci (GPC; Streptococcus bovis; enterococci) proliferated, cellulolytic bacteria were inhibited, lactate accumulated and pH declined. Addition of BCA (30 μg ml -1 ) inhibited lactate production, and pH decline. BCA had no effect on total amylolytics, but increased lactobacilli and decreased GPC. The initial rate and total starch disappearance was decreased by BCA addition. BCA with added Strep. bovis HC5 supernatant (containing bacteriocins) inhibited the amylolytic bacteria tested (Strep. bovis JB1; Strep. bovis HC5; Lactobacillus reuteri, Selenemonas ruminatium) to a greater extent than either addition alone. BCA increased cellulolytics and dry matter digestibility of hay with corn starch. These results indicate that BCA mitigates changes associated with corn fermentation by bovine rumen bacteria ex vivo. BCA could serve as an effective mitigation strategy for rumen acidosis. Future research is needed to evaluate the effect of BCA on mitigating rumen acidosis in vivo. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Effect of Organic Amendments and Chemical Fertilization in Production of Corn (Zea Mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Emilio Forero Ulloa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Corn is grown in 135 countries, and because of its uses and nutritional benefits is the world's most important cereal. In Colombia it is grown in various agro-ecological conditions of production. The bagasse is an organic residue resulting from the grinding of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L., used for the production of jaggery (solid resulting of boiling and evaporation of the juice from sugar cane, which can be used as an amendment and is a soil conditioner, as a rich source of phosphorus, calcium and nitrogen. The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of bagasse against the application of other organic sources and chemical fertilization in maize, variety ICA-V-305. For this, a completely random statistical design with four treatments and absolute control was established. Results were subjected to analysis of variance and Tukey comparison test. Applying Bagasse + Abimgra® produced the greatest number of ears of corn, while the use of only bagasse, presented the second best results in terms of number of grains / ear and weight of 100 grains of corn, therefore bagasse becomes , through time, an important option as organic amendment, which would favor the production of corn, and an option as organic fertilizer.

  3. Prediction models for transfer of arsenic from soil to corn grain (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Li, Zhaojun; Long, Jian; Liang, Yongchao; Xue, Jianming; Davis, Murray; He, Wenxiang

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the transfer of arsenic (As) from soil to corn grain was investigated in 18 soils collected from throughout China. The soils were treated with three concentrations of As and the transfer characteristics were investigated in the corn grain cultivar Zhengdan 958 in a greenhouse experiment. Through stepwise multiple-linear regression analysis, prediction models were developed combining the As bioconcentration factor (BCF) of Zhengdan 958 and soil pH, organic matter (OM) content, and cation exchange capacity (CEC). The possibility of applying the Zhengdan 958 model to other cultivars was tested through a cross-cultivar extrapolation approach. The results showed that the As concentration in corn grain was positively correlated with soil pH. When the prediction model was applied to non-model cultivars, the ratio ranges between the predicted and measured BCF values were within a twofold interval between predicted and measured values. The ratios were close to a 1:1 relationship between predicted and measured values. It was also found that the prediction model (Log [BCF]=0.064 pH-2.297) could effectively reduce the measured BCF variability for all non-model corn cultivars. The novel model is firstly developed for As concentration in crop grain from soil, which will be very useful for understanding the As risk in soil environment.

  4. Microwave heat treatment of dent corn ( Zea mays var. indentata sturt.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is on the determination of drying kinetics of corn and selecting proper model in microwave drying method. For this purpose, semi-mathematical models earlier specified were run with test results; the coefficients in the equations as well as X2, root mean square error (RMSE) and R2 values were found and they ...

  5. Study of yield and yield components of corn ( Zea mays L.) inbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to study the effects of drought stress on yield and yield components of seven corn inbred lines, a field trial was conducted under non-stress and different drought stress conditions (stress at vegetative (6 to 7 leaves), pollination and grain filling stages) at the Agricultural College of Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar ...

  6. Uptake, distribution, and velocity of organically complexed plutonium in corn (Zea mays)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Shannon W.; Molz, Fred J.; Fjeld, Robert A.; Kaplan, Daniel I.

    2012-01-01

    Lysimeter experiments and associated simulations suggested that Pu moved into and through plants that invaded field lysimeters during an 11-year study at the Savannah River Site. However, probable plant uptake and transport mechanisms were not well defined, so more detailed study is needed. Therefore, experiments were performed to examine movement, distribution, and velocity of soluble, complexed Pu in corn. Corn was grown and exposed to Pu using a “long root” system in which the primary root extended through a soil pot and into a hydroponic container. To maintain solubility, Pu was complexed with the bacterial siderophore DFOB (Desferrioxamine B) or the chelating agent DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid). Corn plants were exposed to nutrient solutions containing Pu for periods of 10 min to 10 d. Analysis of root and shoot tissues permitted concentration measurement and calculation of uptake velocity and Pu retardation in corn. Results showed that depending on exposure time, 98.3–95.9% of Pu entering the plant was retained in the roots external to the xylem, and that 1.7–4.1% of Pu entered the shoots (shoot fraction increased with exposure time). Corn Pu uptake was 2–4 times greater as Pu(DFOB) than as Pu 2 (DTPA) 3 . Pu(DFOB) solution entered the root xylem and moved 1.74 m h −1 or greater upward, which is more than a million times faster than Pu(III/IV) downward movement through soil during the lysimeter study. The Pu(DFOB) xylem retardation factor was estimated to be 3.7–11, allowing for rapid upward Pu transport and potential environmental release. - Highlights: ► By measuring radioactivity, we recorded the uptake of plutonium (Pu) by corn roots. ► Unlike Pu behavior in soil, Pu complexes moved rapidly through plant tissues. ► Pu accumulated in the root tissue external to the xylem and in the corn leaves. ► The 58 cm travel time from roots to leaves was between 10 and 20 min.

  7. Uptake, distribution, and velocity of organically complexed plutonium in corn (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Shannon W; Molz, Fred J; Fjeld, Robert A; Kaplan, Daniel I

    2012-10-01

    Lysimeter experiments and associated simulations suggested that Pu moved into and through plants that invaded field lysimeters during an 11-year study at the Savannah River Site. However, probable plant uptake and transport mechanisms were not well defined, so more detailed study is needed. Therefore, experiments were performed to examine movement, distribution, and velocity of soluble, complexed Pu in corn. Corn was grown and exposed to Pu using a "long root" system in which the primary root extended through a soil pot and into a hydroponic container. To maintain solubility, Pu was complexed with the bacterial siderophore DFOB (Desferrioxamine B) or the chelating agent DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid). Corn plants were exposed to nutrient solutions containing Pu for periods of 10 min to 10 d. Analysis of root and shoot tissues permitted concentration measurement and calculation of uptake velocity and Pu retardation in corn. Results showed that depending on exposure time, 98.3-95.9% of Pu entering the plant was retained in the roots external to the xylem, and that 1.7-4.1% of Pu entered the shoots (shoot fraction increased with exposure time). Corn Pu uptake was 2-4 times greater as Pu(DFOB) than as Pu(2)(DTPA)(3). Pu(DFOB) solution entered the root xylem and moved 1.74 m h(-1) or greater upward, which is more than a million times faster than Pu(III/IV) downward movement through soil during the lysimeter study. The Pu(DFOB) xylem retardation factor was estimated to be 3.7-11, allowing for rapid upward Pu transport and potential environmental release. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa History for Young People, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on corn. Iowa is the number one corn producing state in the United States. The featured articles in the issue concern, among other topics, Iowa children who live on farms, facts and statistics about corn, the Mesquakie Indians and corn shelling, corn hybrids, a short story, and the corn palaces of Sioux City. Activities,…

  9. The critical period of weed control in corn Zea mays at Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majid abaspoor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the critical period of weed control in corn, an experiment was conducted at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in year 2000. The experiment consisted of two discrete periods, a weed-free and a weed infested period. The weed-free period consisted of removing all weeds till 4th (19 days after planting, 7th (34 days after planting, 11th (48 days after planting, 13th (52 days after planting, and 17th (59 days after planting, leaf growth stages and weed free check for growing season (123 days after planting, and the critical time of weed infested consisted of removing all weeds from fourth (19 days after planting, 7th (34 days after planting, 11th (48 days after planting, 13th (52 days after planting, and 17th (59 days after planting, leaf growth stages and weedy infested check for growing season. All treatments were compared in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The results showed that by prolonging weed-infested period, dry matter and leaf surface area of weeds per square meter were increased, but by increasing weed-infested period, weed density was decreased. The lowest weed density (23 weed plants per m2 was shown at infested all period of corn growing season. By passing the growing season, C4 weed species such as red root pigweed and barnyard grass were dominant compared with C3 weed species. At weed infested all period of corn growing season, red root pigweed had the highest dry matter (93% of all weeds dry matter and leaf surface area (86% of all weeds leaf surface compared with other weed species. At the first treatment of critical weed-free (19 days after planting the regrowth of weeds were substantial which resulted in decreasing growth of corn. Grain yield of corn were significantly higher at 52, 59 and 123 days after planting in weed free treatments compared with 48, 52, 59 and 123 days after planting in weed infested treatments. However, there were no

  10. Cloning and expression of the VHDL receptor from fat body of the corn ear worm, Helicoverpa zea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deryck R. Persaud

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In Noctuids, storage proteins are taken up into fat body by receptor-mediated endocytosis. These include arylphorin and a second, structurally unrelated very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL. Previously, we have isolated a single storage protein receptor from the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, which binds both VHDL and arylphorin. The receptor protein is a basic, N-terminally blocked, ?80 kDa protein that is associated with fat body membranes. Microsequencing of proteolytic fragments of the isolated receptor protein revealed internal sequences that were used to clone the complete cDNA of the VHDL receptor by 3' and 5' RACE techniques. The receptor protein, when expressed in vitro via a suitable insect expression vector, reacted with antibodies against the native VHDL receptor and bound strongly to its ligand VHDL, thus confirming that the cloned cDNA represents indeed the previously purified VHDL receptor. The receptor protein and a second, similar protein also found associated with the fat body membrane show considerable homology to putative basic juvenile hormone suppressible proteins cloned previously from other Noctuid species. Sequence analysis revealed that the receptor is likely a peripheral membrane protein that may mediate the selective uptake of VHDL.

  11. Cloning and expression of the VHDL receptor from fat body of the corn ear worm, Helicoverpa zea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Deryck R; Haunerland, Norbert H

    2004-01-01

    In Noctuids, storage proteins are taken up into fat body by receptor-mediated endocytosis. These include arylphorin and a second, structurally unrelated very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL). Previously, we have isolated a single storage protein receptor from the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, which binds both VHDL and arylphorin. The receptor protein is a basic, N-terminally blocked, approximately 80 kDa protein that is associated with fat body membranes. Microsequencing of proteolytic fragments of the isolated receptor protein revealed internal sequences that were used to clone the complete cDNA of the VHDL receptor by 3' and 5' RACE techniques. The receptor protein, when expressed in vitro via a suitable insect expression vector, reacted with antibodies against the native VHDL receptor and bound strongly to its ligand VHDL, thus confirming that the cloned cDNA represents indeed the previously purified VHDL receptor. The receptor protein and a second, similar protein also found associated with the fat body membrane show considerable homology to putative basic juvenile hormone suppressible proteins cloned previously from other Noctuid species. Sequence analysis revealed that the receptor is likely a peripheral membrane protein that may mediate the selective uptake of VHDL.

  12. Microwave heat treatment of dent corn (Zea mays var. indentata sturt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-07

    Feb 7, 2012 ... the drying curves at the practices at 400, 550, 700 and 800 W, but Page 2 is the best model at 300 W in drying corn by microwave. .... electronic balance reading to 0.01 g (Radwag PS 4500/C/2,. Poland). The surface ... Osaka, Japan; light source: pulsed xenon lamp, port size: 229 x 91 x 60 mm, standard ...

  13. Time course study of substrate utilization by Aspergillus flavus in medium simulating corn (Zea mays) kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, Jay E; Dowd, Michael K; Cotty, Peter J

    2002-01-30

    Utilization of the three major corn reserve materials, starch, triglycerides (refined corn oil), and zein (storage protein), by Aspergillus flavus was monitored in vitro over a 7-day fermentation. Medium composition in which proportions of reserve materials initially approximated proportions in mature corn kernels changed little over the first 18 h. Subsequently, hydrolysis of both starch and triglycerides occurred simultaneously, with peak concentrations of glucose and free fatty acids on day 2 of the fermentation period. Fatty acid concentrations dropped relatively rapidly after day 2 but increased again after day 6. Aflatoxin B(1) production increased after 36 h, with a peak at day 4. Aflatoxin B(1) production paralleled fungal biomass production during the exponential growth phase. A. flavus did not appear to preferentially utilize any of the released fatty acids. A number of fungus-specific metabolites were detected, including arabitol, erythritol, mannitol, trehalose, and kojic acid. Mannitol exceeded the other metabolites in concentration, and the timing of mannitol production closely paralleled that of aflatoxin B(1). Kojic acid concentrations peaked at day 6. In contrast to previously described selective use of simple carbohydrates by A. flavus, less discrimination was displayed when faced with utilization of complex substrates such as starch or triglycerides.

  14. Weed Control in Corn (Zea mays L. as Influenced by Preemergence Herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis W. Janak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted in central and south-central Texas from 2013 through 2015 to evaluate crop tolerance and efficacy of various preemergence herbicides alone and in combination for weed control in field corn. Acetochlor and pendimethalin alone, S-metolachlor plus mesotrione, and the three-way combination of S-metolachlor plus atrazine plus mesotrione provided the most consistent control of annual grasses including browntop panicum (Panicum fasciculatum L., Texas millet (Urochloa texana L., barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli L., and sprawling signalgrass (Brachiaria reptans L.. Palmer amaranth [Amaranthus palmeri (S. Wats.] control was at least 90% with fluthiacet-methyl plus pyroxasulfone, atrazine plus either acetochlor, alachlor, dimethenamid-P, S-metolachlor, or S-metolachlor plus mesotrione, saflufenacil plus dimethenamid-P, and S-metolachlor plus mesotrione. Hophornbeam copperleaf (Acalypha ostryifolia L. was difficult to control; however, acetochlor, saflufenacil or pyroxasulfone alone, saflufenacil plus dimethenamid-P, and S-metolachlor plus mesotrione provided at least 90% control. Acetochlor or saflufenacil alone, thiencarbazone-methyl plus isoxaflutole, dimethenamid-P plus atrazine, rimsulfuron plus mesotrione, and saflufenacil plus dimethenamid-P controlled common sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. at least 90%. Corn injury was minimal (≤3% with all herbicides. In general, corn grain yield was greatest with herbicide treatments containing more than one active ingredient compared with a single active ingredient.

  15. The effect of Planting Pattern of corn (Zea mays L. in Reducing Foramsulfuron Dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran SafarKhanloo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate of using planting pattern for reducing herbicides dose in corn (single cross 704, a field experiment was conducted in 2007 at research field of Collage of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University branch of Takestan. The experimental design was randomized complete block with 18 treatments and using factorial design with 4 replications. Treatments consisted of corn planting pattern in 3 levels (single row, rectangular twin row and crinkle twin row, and weed control treatments in 6 levels (rates of 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 l/ha foramsulfuron, A weed free as control and full season hand weeding control. Biomass of weed species 15 and 45 days after post emergence herbicide application, and seed yield of corn were measured. Results of statistical analysis showed that different dose of herbicide in each planting pattern had a various effect on weeds. Application of low rates of herbicide in crinkle planting pattern was similar to higher dosages of herbicide in rectangular and single planting pattern. The most seed yield was occurred in the crinkle planting pattern with rate of 2 l.ha-1 foramsulfuron and the lowest seed yield was belong to single row planting pattern. Environmental and economical advantages can be obtained by reducing herbicide rates, and selecting an appropriate planting pattern.

  16. Planting pattern and weed control method influence on yield production of corn (Zea mays L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purba, E.; Nasution, D. P.

    2018-02-01

    Field experiment was carried out to evaluate the influence of planting patterns and weed control methods on the growth and yield of corn. The effect of the planting pattern and weed control method was studied in a split plot design. The main plots were that of planting pattern single row (25cm x 60cm), double row (25cm x 25cm x 60cm) and triangle row ( 25cm x 25cm x 25cm). Subplot was that of weed control method consisted five methods namely weed free throughout the growing season, hand weeding, sprayed with glyphosate, sprayed with paraquat, and no weeding.. Result showed that both planting pattern and weed control method did not affect the growth of corn. However, planting pattern and weed control method significantly affected yield production. Yield resulted from double row and triangle planting pattern was 14% and 41% higher, consecutively, than that of single row pattern. The triangle planting pattern combined with any weed control method produced the highest yield production of corn.

  17. The Effect of Zinc Sulfate Different Amount Soil and Foliar Application on Correlated Grain Characters in Sweet Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mahmoodi,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate the effects different concentrations of zinc sulfate applications at different growth stages on sweet corn at the Research Station of Faculty of Agriculture in Islamic Azad University, Tabriz branch in 2012. The study was conducted in split plot experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Treatments were seven levels of zinc sulfate application methods: (control, soil application, foliar application at 6-8 leaf growth stage, tasseling, grain filling stage, foliar application at three stages, soil application with foliar application at three stages as main plot, three levels of foliar and soil application of zinc sulfate: (0.003, 0.005 and 0.007 for foliar application and 15, 25 and 35 kg/ha for soil application as sub plot. Results showed that the highest grain yield correlated characters were obtained in foliar application at three stages and soil application with foliar application at three stages. In these conditions increasing of dry grain yield and ear were more than 50%. The higher values for grain production were obtained in Zn foliar application with 0.005 concentration (25 kg/ha soil application. Zinc sulfate increased Zn content of grains produced more than 100%. Thus, using Zn not only increases sweet corn grain and ear yield but also increased quality of products.

  18. The Growth and Yield of Sweet Corn Fertilized by Dairy Cattle Effluents Without Chemical Fertilizers in Inceptisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Sastro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Several research has proven the role of dairy cattle effluents in improving the growth and yield of some crops. However, its role in supporting the growth and yield of sweet corn, especialy in Inceptisols, has not been reported. The study aims to determine the effect of dairy cattle effluents on growth and yield of sweet corn in Inceptisols. The pot study was conducted in a greenhouse of the Assessment Institute for Agriculture Technology of Jakarta. The treatments were fertilization using dairy cattle effluents (without dilution, dilution with water 1:1 and 1:2, a mixture of Urea, SP-36 and KCl (NPK, and without fertilizer. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five replications. Compared to a without fertilizer treatment, dairy cattle effluents were significantly increased plant height (114%, leaf number (136%, cob weight (131%, cob length (124%, and cob diameters (128%. Base on cob weight, relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE of dairy cattle effluents reached 38.4% (without dilution, 47.5% (dilution with water 1:1, and 62.1% (dilution with water 1:2.

  19. Formulation, nutritive value and sensory evaluation of a new weaning food based on sweet corn (Nutrimaiz) dehydrated pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliza, R; Sgarbieri, V C; Rosenthal, A

    1990-12-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop a formulation for complementary infant and child feeding employing linear programing as a mathematical model for optimization. High lysine/high tryptophan sweet corn pulp in the dehydrated form was used as the main ingredient. The restrictions imposed on the model were nutrient requirements, adequate protein/energy ratio and minimum cost. The formula derived by the computer (FC) matched the amino acid requirements, the protein/energy ratio (NDPCal%) and was rated high in laboratory tests in terms of sensory qualities. The cost determined for this formula was competitive in relation to commercial products used for the same purpose. Formula A, which contained 5% more sweet corn pulp and 10% less whole powdered milk, did not differ in nutritional, sensorial and functional properties from the formula FC and was chosen for the field acceptability trial because of its lower cost. Formula A had protein efficiency ratio and Biological Value similar to casein for the rat but protein digestibility and net protein utilization were statistically lower (p less than 0.05) for formula A than for casein. Acceptability tested on children who were 8-18 months of age ranged from 80-90%, average value 87%.

  20. Milk line as an indicator of the harvesting time of three hybrid seeds of corn (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célio Trzeciak dos Santos

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to evaluate the time for harvesting seeds of three hybrids of corn (Zea mays L. at their best physiological quality and the use of the milk line as an indicator of the physiological seed maturity. Single hybrids CD 1723 and CD 5501 and double hybrid OC 705 seeds were collected for 59 days, every four days, starting 23 days after female flowering. Seed dry weight, moisture content, germination, vigour (cold and accelerated aging tests, black layer formation and seed milk line development were analysed. The harvesting time started 47 days after female flowering with high physiological quality of the seeds identified by a joint analysis of those seven characteristics of them. The milk line at stage 4 proved to be the best indicator of the time to harvest corn seeds for maximum physiological quality, because different stages of milk line development in corn seeds could be easily identified in the filed without any special equipment.O experimento foi conduzido durante o ano agrícola de 1996/97 em área experimental da Cooperativa de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Tecnológico (Coodetec, em Cascavel, Paraná, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da época de colheita de três híbridos de milho (Zea mays L. na qualidade fisiológica das sementes e o uso da linha de solidificação do endosperma como indicativo da maturidade fisiológica das sementes. O plantio foi realizado em 30 de setembro de 1996. Amostras de sementes dos híbridos simples CD 1723 e CD 5501, bem como do híbrido duplo OC 705, foram colhidas em intervalos de quatro dias, durante 59 dias, iniciando-se a colheita no vigésimo terceiro dia após o florescimento feminino. As características avaliadas nas sementes foram o acúmulo de matéria seca, o conteúdo de umidade, a germinação, o vigor (pelos testes de frio e de envelhecimento acelerado, a formação da camada preta e o desenvolvimento da linha de solidificação do endosperma. A colheita dos tr

  1. Descriptive and hedonic analyses of low-Phe food formulations containing corn (Zea mays) seedling roots: toward development of a dietary supplement for individuals with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Margaret A; Law, Jessica R; Lücker, Joost; Scaman, Christine H; Kermode, Allison R

    2016-01-15

    Seedling roots of anthocyanin-rich corn (Zea mays) cultivars contain high levels of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity. The development of a natural dietary supplement containing corn roots could provide the means to improve the restrictive diet of phenylketonuria (PKU) patients by increasing their tolerance to dietary phenylalanine (Phe). Therefore this research was undertaken to explore the sensory characteristics of roots of four corn cultivars as well as to develop and evaluate food products (cereal bar, beverage, jam-like spread) to which roots had been added. Sensory profiles of corn roots were investigated using ten trained judges. Roots of Japanese Striped corn seedlings were more bitter, pungent and astringent than those of white and yellow cultivars, while roots from the Blue Jade cultivar had a more pronounced earthy/mushroom aroma. Consumer research using 24 untrained panelists provided hedonic (degree-of-liking) assessments for products with and without roots (controls). The former had lower mean scores than the controls; however, the cereal bar had scores above 5 on the nine-point scale for all hedonic assessments compared with the other treated products. By evaluating low-Phe food products containing corn roots, this research ascertained that the root-containing low-Phe cereal bar was an acceptable 'natural' dietary supplement for PKU-affected individuals. © 2015 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Phytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles and the released Zn(II) ion to corn (Zea mays L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruichang; Zhang, Haibo; Tu, Chen; Hu, Xuefeng; Li, Lianzhen; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Toxicity of engineered nanoparticles on organisms is of concern worldwide due to their extensive use and unique properties. The impacts of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on seed germination and root elongation of corn (Zea mays L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were investigated in this study. The role of seed coats of corn in the mitigation toxicity of nanoparticles was also evaluated. ZnO NPs (1,000 mg L(-1)) reduced root length of corn and cucumber by 17 % (p germination. In comparison with Zn(2+), toxicity of ZnO NPs on the root elongation of corn could be attributed to the nanoparticulate ZnO, while released Zn ion from ZnO could solely contribute to the inhibition of root elongation of cucumber. Zn uptake in corn exposed to ZnO NPs during germination was much higher than that in corn exposed to Zn(2+), whereas Zn uptake in cucumber was significantly correlated with soluble Zn in suspension. It could be inferred that Zn was taken up by corn and cucumber mainly in the form of ZnO NPs and soluble Zn, respectively. Transmission electron microscope confirmed the uptake of ZnO NPs into root of corn. Although isolation of the seed coats might not be the principal factor that achieved avoidance from toxicity on germination, seed coats of corn were found to mitigate the toxicity of ZnO NPs on root elongation and prevent approximately half of the Zn from entering into root and endosperm.

  3. Extraction of anthocyanins from purple corn cobs of Zea mays L.

    OpenAIRE

    Gorriti G., Arilmí; Quispe J., Fredy; Arroyo A., Jorge L.; Córdova R., Augusta; Jurado T., Bertha; Santiago A., Ilario; Taype E., Evelyng

    2014-01-01

    At the present investigation the good conditions for the extraction of anthocyanins from purple corn cobs were investigated, by means of the employment of a complete design at random with factorial arrangement 2A3B4C4D. The factors studied were pH, solvent, time and temperature. The results showed anthocyanins between 8,404 and 47,984 mg/g of cob according to the method of differential pH. Analysis of four factors were presented. En el presente trabajo se investigaron las condiciones óptim...

  4. Nematode suppression and growth stimulation in corn plants (Zea mays L.) irrigated with domestic effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Kenia Kelly; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; Florencio, Lourdinha

    2012-01-01

    Treated wastewater has great potential for agricultural use due to its concentrations of nutrients and organic matter, which are capable of improving soil characteristics. Additionally, effluents can induce suppression of plant diseases caused by soil pathogens. This study evaluates the effect of irrigation with effluent in a UASB reactor on maize (Zea mays L.) development and on suppression of the diseases caused by nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne. Twelve lysimeters of 1 m(3) each were arranged in a completely randomized design, with four treatments and three replicates. The following treatments were used: T1 (W+I), irrigation with water and infestation with nematodes; T2 (W+I+NPK), irrigation with water, infestation with nematodes and fertilization with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K); T3 (E+I), irrigation with effluent and infestation with nematodes; and T4 (E+I+P), irrigation with effluent, infestation with nematodes and fertilization with phosphorus. The plants irrigated with the effluent plus the phosphorus fertilizer had better growth and productivity and were more resistant to the disease symptoms caused by the nematodes. The suppression levels may have been due to the higher levels of Zn and NO(3)(-) found in the leaf tissue of the plants irrigated with the effluent and phosphorus fertilizer.

  5. Respiratory dynamics of fresh baby corn (Zea mays L.) under modified atmospheres based on enzyme kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manpreet; Kumar, Ashok; Kaur, Preetinder

    2014-09-01

    The respiratory behaviour of baby corn - whole and end-cut, under different temperatures and gas conditions was evaluated to study its respiratory dynamics based upon enzyme kinetics. The dependence of respiration rate on the O2 and CO2 concentrations has been described assuming the enzyme kinetics model for combined type of inhibition caused by CO2. Various respiratory parameters viz. maximal O2 consumption rate Michaelis-Menten constants, Inhibition constants under the specified environmental conditions of 5, 12.5, 20°C and 75% relative humidity (RH) were estimated using non-linear regression technique. The enzyme kinetics parameters were analyzed according to Arrhenius law to study their temperature dependence. Based upon the overall analysis, it was found that storage temperature had substantial affect on the partial pressures within the closed containers and subsequently the respiration rates. The concentration of O2 inside the container and surrounding temperature had synergistic effect on the rate of respiration and respiratory parameters. Though the inhibition by evolved CO2 was observed to be of combined type, it changed from predominantly competitive at 5°C to predominantly uncompetitive at 12.5 and 20°C. This study can be utilized for design of modified atmosphere packages for storage of fresh and minimally processed baby corn.

  6. Nitrogen fixation by Gliricidia sepium: decomposition of its leaves in soil and effects on sweet-corn yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaharah, A.R.; Sharifuddin, H.A.H.; Anular, R.; Bah, A.R.; Mwange, K.Nk.; Kathuli, P.; Juma, P.

    1998-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation by Gliricidia sepium subjected to three pruning regimes (one, two or four cuts per year) was measured using the 15 N-dilution technique with Cassia siamea as the reference species. Over a 4-year period, estimates of the fraction of N derived from fixation, generally 2 fixer. Gliricidia sepium leaves were placed in litter-bags, buried in an ultisol and sampled at intervals over 70 days. The half-life for dry matter was 17 days, and about 60% of the N was lost within 10 days; K and Ca were the most rapidly released nutrients, with half-lives of only 1 and 3 days, respectively. The N contributions from G. sepium leaves and roots to alley-cropped sweet corn were quantified by the 15 N-dilution technique over three growing seasons. The application of leaves with roots resulted in increased N uptake and dry matter yield in corn. Below-ground competition between hedgerow and corn, assessed using 32 P with the third crop, occurred under conditions of low nutrient-availability. The data imply that there is no advantage of the cut-and-carry system over permanent hedgerows, provided that prunings are applied at the time of nutrient demand in the crop. (author)

  7. Sweet corn water productivity under several deficit irrigation regimes applied during vegetative growth stage using treated wastewater as water irrigation source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Rami, A.; Laajaj, K.

    2012-01-01

    Yield and Crop Water Productivity are crucial issues in sustainable agriculture, especially in high-demand resource crops such as sweet corn. This study was conducted to investigate agronomic responses such as plant growth, yield and soil parameters (EC and Nitrate accumulation) to several deficit...

  8. Assaying total carotenoids in flours of corn and sweet potato flours by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luterotti, S.; Bicanic, D.D.; Kijak, K.; Grbesa, D.; Martinez, E.; Spruijt, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the application of the laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) for quantification of total carotenoids (TC) in corn flours and sweetpotato flours. Overall, thirty-three different corn flours and nine sweetpotato flours were investigated. All PAS measurements were performed at

  9. Effect of specific plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on growth and uptake of neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam in corn (Zea mays L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myresiotis, Charalampos K; Vryzas, Zisis; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

    2015-09-01

    Corn (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crops in the world and is used for food, feed and energy. Inoculation with plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) would reduce the use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides and could be suggested as an alternative practice for sustainable production of corn in modern agricultural systems. In this study, the effect of two Bacillus PGPR formulated products, Companion (B. subtilis GB03) and FZB24 (B. subtilis FZB24), on corn growth and root uptake of insecticide thiamethoxam was investigated. All bacterial treatments enhanced root biomass production by 38-65% compared with the uninoculated control, with no stimulatory effect of PGPR on above-ground biomass of corn. The uptake results revealed that, in plants inoculated with the PGPR B. subtilis FZB24 and B. subtilis GB03, singly or in combination, the uptake and/or systemic translocation of thiamethoxam in the above-ground corn parts was significantly higher at the different growth ages compared with the control receiving no bacterial treatment. The findings suggest that the PGPR-elicited enhanced uptake of thiamethoxam could lead to improved efficiency of thiamethoxam using reduced rates of pesticides in combination with PGPR as an alternative crop protection technique. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Biology and natural enemies of Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead in corn (Zea mays L., in systems of polycrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Tulio García González

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was done in Fomento municipality, Sancti Spíritus, in Cuba, from 2011 through 2013 in two ecosystems and in two sowing times (rainy and dry seasons. The objectives were to describe the life cycle of Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead and the damage caused to corn (Zea mays L., to identify the main pest bio-regulators naturally occurring in two agro-ecosystems, and to determine the predator-prey relationship. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design. The data were collected through observation at weekly intervals. In order to estimate the number of pest insects and bio-regulators occurring on the plants, 25 plants per parcel were selected for a total of 100 plants per treatment (maize/squash, maize/beans, maize/ Sesame, maize/sunflower, and maize monoculture. Once the research was accomplished, it was concluded that P maidis had been present since the first week, and reached its population peak in week six. The lower indexes of affectation occurred in the pre-mountain agro-ecosystems, and with more frequency in the maize/sesame and maize/squash polyculture, which depended on the time of the year and the season. Fifteen species of P. maidis control insects of were identified, and Scymnus sp was found in all treatments. The life cycle of P maidis averaged 5.4 days more in the dry season than in rain season. The predator-prey relationship showed relatively superior indexes in the polyculture systems than in monocrops systems.

  11. Movement and leaching losses of N-CO(15NH2)2 fertilizer in a alfisol under a corn crop (Zea mays, L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Silva, J.C. de.

    1982-01-01

    In an oxid Paleudalf (Terra Roxa Estruturada) the nitrogen leaching losses are studied in a corn crop (Zea mays, L.) during one growing cycle (from 1979 October to 1980 February), through the study of soil water dynamics. The complete crop water balance is established using Hg manometer tensiometers. The variations of the NO - 3 -N concentration with the time and soil depth (60, 90 and 120cm) were followed by ceramic porous cup samples, some suggestions about the use of tensiometers and oil solutions samplers are presented, as well as, an apendice methodology used to determine the soil water conduction coefficients. (M.A.C.) [pt

  12. Induction of DIMBOA accumulation and systemic defense responses as a mechanism of enhanced resistance of mycorrhizal corn (Zea mays L.) to sheath blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuan Yuan; Cao, Man; Xie, Li Jun; Liang, Xiao Ting; Zeng, Ren Sen; Su, Yi Juan; Huang, Jing Hua; Wang, Rui Long; Luo, Shi Ming

    2011-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizas are the most important symbioses in terrestrial ecosystems and they enhance the plant defense against numerous soil-borne pathogenic fungi and nematodes. Two corn (Zea mays) varieties, Gaoyou-115 that is susceptible to sheath blight disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani and Yuenong-9 that is resistant, were used for mycorrhizal inoculation in this study. Pre-inoculation of susceptible Gaoyou-115 with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus mosseae significantly reduced the disease incidence and disease severity of sheath blight of corn. HPLC analysis showed that AMF inoculation led to significant increase in 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2 H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4 H)-one (DIMBOA) accumulation in the roots of both corn varieties and in leaves of resistant Yuenong-9. R. solani inoculation alone did not result in accumulation of DIMBOA in both roots and leaves of the two corn varieties. Our previous study showed that DIMBOA strongly inhibited mycelial growth of R. solani in vitro. Real-time PCR analysis showed that mycorrhizal inoculation itself did not affect the transcripts of most genes tested. However, pre-inoculation with G. mosseae induced strong responses of three defense-related genes PR2a, PAL, and AOS, as well as BX9, one of the key genes in DIMBOA biosynthesis pathway, in the leaves of corn plants of both Yuenong-9 and Gaoyou-115 after the pathogen attack. Induction of defense responses in pre-inoculated plants was much higher and quicker than that in non-inoculated plants upon R. solani infection. These results indicate that induction of accumulation of DIMBOA, an important phytoalexin in corn, and systemic defense responses by AMF, plays a vital role in enhanced disease resistance of mycorrhizal plants of corn against sheath blight. This study also suggests that priming is an important mechanism in mycorrhiza-induced resistance.

  13. Sensory and Quality Evaluation of Traditional Compared with Power Ultrasound Processed Corn (Zea Mays) Tortilla Chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janve, Bhaskar; Yang, Wade; Sims, Charles

    2015-06-01

    Power ultrasound reduces the traditional corn steeping time from 18 to 1.5 h during tortilla chips dough (masa) processing. This study sought to examine consumer (n = 99) acceptability and quality of tortilla chips made from the masa by traditional compared with ultrasonic methods. Overall appearance, flavor, and texture acceptability scores were evaluated using a 9-point hedonic scale. The baked chips (process intermediate) before and after frying (finished product) were analyzed using a texture analyzer and machine vision. The texture values were determined using the 3-point bend test using breaking force gradient (BFG), peak breaking force (PBF), and breaking distance (BD). The fracturing properties determined by the crisp fracture support rig using fracture force gradient (FFG), peak fracture force (PFF), and fracture distance (FD). The machine vision evaluated the total surface area, lightness (L), color difference (ΔE), Hue (°h), and Chroma (C*). The results were evaluated by analysis of variance and means were separated using Tukey's test. Machine vision values of L, °h, were higher (P < 0.05) and ΔE was lower (P < 0.05) for fried and L, °h were significantly (P < 0.05) higher for baked chips produced from ultra-sonication as compare to traditional. Baked chips texture for ultra-sonication was significantly higher (P < 0.05) on BFG, BPD, PFF, and FD. Fried tortilla chips texture were higher significantly (P < 0.05) in BFG and PFF for ultra-sonication than traditional processing. However, the instrumental differences were not detected in sensory analysis, concluding possibility of power ultrasound as potential tortilla chips processing aid. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Microbial development in distillers wet grains produced during fuel ethanol production from corn (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, R Michael; Rosentrater, Kurt A

    2007-09-01

    Distillers grains are coproduced with ethanol and carbon dioxide during the production of fuel ethanol from the dry milling and fermentation of corn grain, yet there is little basic microbiological information on these materials. We undertook a replicated field study of the microbiology of distillers wet grains (DWG) over a 9 day period following their production at an industrial fuel ethanol plant. Freshly produced DWG had a pH of about 4.4, a moisture content of about 53.5% (wet mass basis), and 4 x 10(5) total yeast cells/g dry mass, of which about 0.1% were viable. Total bacterial cells were initially below detection limits (ca. 10(6) cells/g dry mass) and then were estimated to be approximately 5 x 10(7) cells/g dry mass during the first 4 days following production. Culturable aerobic heterotrophic organisms (fungi plus bacteria) ranged between 10(4) and 10(5) CFU/g dry mass during the initial 4 day period, and lactic acid bacteria increased from 36 to 10(3) CFU/g dry mass over this same period. At 9 days, total viable bacteria and yeasts and (or) molds topped 10(8) CFU/g dry mass and lactic acid bacteria approached 10(6) CFU/g dry mass. Community phospholipid fatty acid analysis indicated a stable microbial community over the first 4 days of storage. Thirteen morphologically distinct isolates were recovered, of which 10 were yeasts and molds from 6 different genera, 2 were strains of the lactic-acid-producing Pediococcus pentosaceus and only one was an aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, Micrococcus luteus. The microbiology of DWG is fundamental to the assessment of spoilage, deleterious effects (e.g., toxins), or beneficial effects (e.g., probiotics) in its use as feed or in alternative applications.

  15. Organic manure of the corn (Zea mays L.) in alluvial soils of intermediate climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamayo V, Alvaro; Munoz A, Rodrigo; Diaz A; Carlos

    1997-01-01

    With the purpose to evaluate the effect on the yield of com ICA V.303 variety, using four sources of organic matter (hen manure, pig manure, cow manure, earthworm manure) in two doses (500 and 1.000 kg/ha), compared with a chemical treatment (300 kg/ha of 10-30-10 plus 150 kg of urea), and a control, an experiment was carried out at Tulio Ospina Research Center, located at Bello (Antioquia), with 1.320 m.s.n.m. The experiment was established using an alluvial soil (tropofluvent), frank, with low content of organic matter (3.1%), and potassium (0.11 meq/l00 g), and medium content of phosphorus (2 ppm). The results, after four consecutive harvests on the same plots, showed highly significative differences among treatments, compared with the control. The highest yield (4.709 kg/ha) was obtained with the chemical treatment (300 kg/ha of 10-30-10 plus 150 kg of urea). The addition of 500 and 1.000 kg/ha of hen manure and pig manure showed an average yield of corn of 4.315,4.539 .4.246, and 4.487 kg/ha respectively. the control only produced 2.620 kg/ha. The great profitability was obtained with 500 kg/ ha of cow manure, 1.000 kg/ha of pig manure and the chemical treatment (300 kg/ha 10-30-10 and 150 kg/ha of urea y 1.000 kg/ha hen manure). There were not significative differences between the chemical fertilization and the organic fertilization; these results show that organic matter is an alternative for fertilization with respect to the development of a sustained and biological agriculture

  16. Effect of the diatomaceous earth in the soil chemical properties in corn crops (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Fabila Martínez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed out of the need to provide products and services intended for the field that meet the nutritional needs of plants without implicating environmental damage by means of chemical fertilizers and insecticides. The study assessed the fertilizer effect of two diatomaceous earth and a liquid fertilizer to corroborate empirical evidence of several producers who used a commercial product based on the study`s materials and achieved higher levels of performance in different crops. A sample of the experimental area was carried out before establishing the crop after its completion. Two commercial diatomaceous earth identified as 289 and 400 P produced by International Celite, were assessed at two concentrations 20 kg ha-1 and 40 kg ha-1 and 18 kg ha-1 and 36 kg ha-1 res­pectively, and a organic liquid fertilizer (FOL at doses of 2 L ha-1 and 4 L ha-1 was considered as control soil sample taken before the application of treatments. The experimental design used in the field for the application of the treatments was randomized complete block (DBA with 5 repetitions. The test plant was the corn hybrid HC8. The variables evaluated in the soil throudgh laboratory analysis were: physical properties of texture and bulk density (BD, and chemical pH, organic carbon (OC, organic matter (OM, electrical conductivity (EC, cation exchange capacity (CIC, nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg and sodium (Na. The results were analyzed under a ANOVA and Tukey test for comparison of means for treatment, using the JMP statistical package. Laboratory results indicated that the­re were changes in the chemical characteristics of the soil between the control and treatments in the majority of the chemical characteristics analyzed (pH, CO, MO, N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Na. However statistically and under a statistical significance of 5%, differences were only observed in the properties of CO, MO, CE, N, K and Na.  

  17. Radionuclide concentrations in pinto beans, sweet corn, and zucchini squash grown in Los Alamos Canyon at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Mullen, M.A.; Naranjo, L. Jr.; Armstrong, D.R.

    1997-05-01

    Pinto beans, sweet corn, and zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo var. black beauty) were grown in a randomized complete-block field/pot experiment at a site that contained the highest observed levels of surface gross gamma radioactivity within Los Alamos Canyon (LAC) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Soils as well as washed edible and nonedible crop tissues were analyzed for various radionuclides and heavy metals . Most radionuclides, with the exception of {sup 3}H and {sup tot}U, in soil from LAC were detected in significantly higher concentrations (p <0.01) than in soil collected from regional background (RBG) locations. Similarly, most radionuclides in edible crop portions of beans, squash, and corn were detected in significantly higher (p <0.01 and 0.05) concentrations than RBG. Most soil-to-plant concentration ratios for radionuclides in edible and nonedible crop tissues from LAC were within the default values given by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Environmental Protection Agency. All heavy metals in soils, as well as edible and nonedible crop tissues grown in soils from LAC, were within RBG concentrations. Overall, the total maximum net positive committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE)--the CEDE plus two sigma for each radioisotope minus background and then all positive doses summed--to a hypothetical 50-year resident that ingested 160 kg of beans, corn, and squash in equal proportions, was 74 mrem y{sup -1}. This dose was below the International Commission on Radiological Protection permissible dose limit (PDL) of 100 mrem y{sup -1} from all pathways; however, the addition of other internal and external exposure route factors may increase the overall dose over the PDL. Also, the risk of an excess cancer fatality, based on 74 mrem y{sup -1}, was 3.7 x 10{sup -5} (37 in a million), which is above the Environmental Protection Agency`s (acceptable) guideline of one in a million. 31 refs., 15 tabs.

  18. Agronomic traits and chemical composition of single hybrids of sweet corn Caracteres agronômicos e composição química de híbridos simples de milho doce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Kwiatkowski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the greengrocery market of sweet corn has been expanding along the country. In contrast, there have been few agri-industries canning sweet corn (Zea mays because of the lack of cultivars with agronomic characteristics proper to industrial purposes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the general combining ability (GCA of seven inbred lines of sweet corn, and the specific combining ability (SCA of their hybrid combinations based on their agronomic traits, and the chemical composition of the grain. In the growing season 2006/2007, twenty-one single hybrids were evaluated in the Iguatemi Research Station, Maringá County, Northwestern Paraná, in Brazil using a complete randomized block design with four replications. Data were subjected to the analysis of variance and the genotypes were clustered by the Scott-Knott test. We estimated the GCA and SCA effects using the Griffing's method IV with the fixed model for plant height (PH, height of ear (EH, dehusked ears yield (DEY, reducing (RS and total sugars (TS, starch (ST, proteins (PTN, ether extract (EE and fibers (FB. The inbred line L4, which was originated from the 'Doce de Cuba', had the best GCA for crop yield and grain quality and therefore should be used in the next hybrid combinations. The hybrids L4xL5 and L3xL7 were the most promising with regard to crop yield and grain quality.No Brasil, poucas indústrias envazam o milho doce (Zea mays por causa da falta de cultivares para o processamento industrial. Em compensação, o mercado de milho verde doce aumentou. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a capacidade geral de combinação (CGC de sete linhagens de milho doce e da capacidade específica de combinação (CEC das combinações híbridas, com base em características agronômicas e composição química dos grãos. Os vinte e um híbridos simples foram avaliados em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, durante o ano agrícola 2006/2007, no distrito de Iguatemi

  19. Cross-pollination of nontransgenic corn ears with transgenic Bt corn: efficacy against lepidopteran pests and implications for resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkness, E C; O'Rourke, P K; Hutchison, W D

    2011-10-01

    The efficacy of nontransgenic sweet corn, Zea mays L., hybrids cross-pollinated by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) sweet corn hybrids expressing Cry1Ab toxin was evaluated in both field and laboratory studies in Minnesota in 2000. Non-Bt and Bt hybrids (maternal plants) were cross-pollinated with pollen from both non-Bt and Bt hybrids (paternal plants) to create four crosses. Subsequent crosses were evaluated for efficacy in the field against European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and in laboratory bioassays against O. nubilalis. Field studies indicated that crosses with maternal Bt plants led to low levels of survival for both O. nubilalis and H. zea compared with the non-Bt x non-Bt cross. However, the cross between non-Bt ears and Bt pollen led to survival rates of 43 and 63% for O. nubilalis and H. zea larvae, respectively. This intermediate level of survival also was reflected in the number of kernels damaged. Laboratory bioassays for O. nubilalis, further confirmed field results with larval survival on kernels from the cross between non-Bt ears and Bt pollen reaching 60% compared with non-Bt crossed with non-Bt. These results suggest that non-Bt refuge plants, when planted in proximity to Bt plants, and cross-pollinated, can result in sublethal exposure of O. nubilalis and H. zea larvae to Bt and may undermine the high-dose/refuge resistance management strategy for corn hybrids expressing Cry1Ab.

  20. Effect of different crop management systems on net primary productivity and relative carbon allocation coefficients for corn (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khorramdel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of different crop management practices on corn (Zea mays L. net primary productivity (NPP and relative carbon allocation coefficients, a field experiment was conducted based on a completely randomized block design with four replications in the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during two growing season 2008-2009 and 2009-2010. Treatments including two low input management systems based on application of cow manure and compost municipal made from house-hold waste, a medium input system and a high input system. Application of inputs and management practices were based on a basic assumption made prior to the start of the experiment. On the other words, for each of the management system the particular set of inputs were allocated. In this respect, for low input system 30 t.ha-1 cow manure or 30 t.ha-1 compost municipal made from house-hold waste, twice hand weeding were used. In medium management system, 15 t.ha-1 compost municipal made from house-hold waste, 150 kg.ha-1 urea, two seed bed operations, 1.5 l.ha-1 2, 4-D herbicide applied at five-leaf stage and one time hand weeding were used. In high input system, the inputs were two seed bed operations, 2 l.ha-1 Paraquat herbicide used after seeding and 1.5 l.ha-1 2, 4-D applied at five-leaf stage. Results showed that the effect of different crop management practices on the shoot biomass, seed weight, root biomass, total biomass, shoot biomass: root biomass (S:R, SRL and HI were significant (p≥0.01. High input management system enhanced total biomass and S:R and decreased seed weight, root biomass and SRL. The highest and the lowest total biomass observed in high input (18.3 kg.m-2.yr-1 and low input with using compost (10.3 kg.m-2.yr-1, respectively. The maximum SRL observed in low input based on cow manure application (19.8 cm.cm-3 soil and the minimum SRL was in high input (1.3 cm.cm-3 soil. Range of relative carbon allocation

  1. PENGARUH DEKSTRIN DAN GUM ARAB TERHADAP SIFAT KIMIA DAN FISIK BUBUK SARI JAGUNG MANIS (Zeamays saccharata [The Effects of Dextrin and Arabic Gum on Chemical and Physical Properties of Sweet Corn (Zeamays saccharata Milk-like Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutardi*

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the effects of type and amount of binder on the chemical and physical properties of sweet corn milk-like powder. Sweet corn milk-like powder was prepared from sweet corn kernel extracted with water with ratio of water and kernel of 2:1 (v/w, then dehydrated by spray dryer. Dextrin and arabic gum in various amount i.e. 2.5; 5.0; and 7.5% (w/v, respectively were added to the sweet corn milk-like before drying, and control was also made. The reducing sugar and total sugar, protein, fat, and moisture content, and as well as bulk density, colour, and solubility of the powder were then analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of sweet corn milk-like powder with addition of dextrin and arabic gum in the amount of 2.5; 5.0; and 7.5% (w/v were significantly different (p > 0.05. According to all aspects studied, sweet corn milk-like powder with addition of dextrin in the amount of 2.5% was the best product of all, which had reducing sugar of 5.00% (db; total sugar 17.01% (db; protein13.67% (db; fat 5.97% (db; moisture 5.38%; bulk density 0.47 g/cm3; and solubility of 93.70%.

  2. A new genus and species of Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae parasitoid of Euxesta eluta Loew (Diptera, Otitidae attacked Bt sweet corn in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana E. Gallardo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Euxestophaga Gallardo, a new genus of Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae and Euxestophaga argentinensis Gallardo, sp. n. from Argentina, are described and illustrated. This new genus belongs to the Ganaspini and morphologically resembles Epicoela Borgmeier and Striatovertex Schick, Forshage and Nordlander. A key to differentiate these genera is given. Specimens were reared from pupae of Euxesta eluta Loew (Diptera: Otitidae, attacked Bt sweet corn in Santa Fe province and other in Tucumán province (Argentina.

  3. Application of agonist-receptor modeling to the sweetness synergy between high fructose corn syrup and sucralose, and between high-potency sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, P A; Bridges, J R; Wicklund, R

    2010-03-01

    The agonist-receptor-transducer model of D. Ennis is applied to beverage formulations sweetened with high fructose corn syrup, sucralose, and other high-potency sweeteners, confirming the utility of the model, and supports the growing volume of evidence for multiple binding sites on the sweetness receptor. The model is further simplified to require less parameters for other sweetener blend systems whenever potency information is available for the single sweeteners.

  4. Studies on the Production of Bio-Ethanol from Brown Guinea Corn (Sorghum Bicolor L.), Pearl Millet (Penisetum Typhoides) and Sweet Potato (Ipomea Batatas) Using Modified Method

    OpenAIRE

    Ubwa, Simon Terver; Abah, J.; Igbum, O.G.; Nwadinigwe, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    This study determined mean volume distillate, percentage purity and specific gravity of bio-ethanol produced by the modification of the methods of Benue Brewery Limited (BBL), Makurdi and that of Mathewson using guinea corn, pearl millet and sweet potato as feedstocks. The modified reaction pathway yielded bio-ethanol of significantly (P < 0.01) higher mean volume distillate and percentage purity. Pearl millet feedstock yielded the highest mean volume distillate (98.00cm3) while gu...

  5. Evaluation of phosphorous biofertilizer and chemical phosphorous influence on fodder quality of corn (Zea mays L. and grass pea (Lathyrus sativa L. intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naghizadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping is considered as a method for increasing yield per unit and stability. In order to evaluate the effects of phosphorous biofertilizer and chemical phosphorous on fodder quality of corn (Zea mays L. and grass pea (Lathyrus sativa L. intercropping, two field experiments were conducted as factorial based on randomized complete block design with four replications at two places simultaneously in Kerman and Bardsir during growing season of 2009-2010. The investigated factors included four levels of phosphorous fertilizer (100 g.ha-1 of phosphorous biofertilizer, 150 kg.ha-1 of chemical fertilizer, %50 phosphorous biofertilizer+%50 chemical phosphorous and control and five replacement intercropping patterns consist of sole crop of corn and grass pea, various proportions of corn and grass pea (75:25, 50:50 and 25:75. The result showed that the location effect on dry matter digestibility, crude protein, ash percentage, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber was significant but location effect on water soluble carbohydrate was not significant. Moreover, dry matter digestibility, crude protein, ash percentage, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and water soluble carbohydrate influenced by various proportions of intercropping, extremely. Also, phosphorous applying on all of mentioned traits was significant, unless ash percentage. Dry matter digestibility, water soluble carbohydrate and crude protein of fodder influenced by various proportions of intercropping×phosphorous fertilizer interaction. Various proportions of corn and grass pea intercropping had higher fodder quality than sole cop of them; because, they had higher values of dry Matter digestibility, crude protein, water soluble carbohydrate and ash Percentage and lower values of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber. Dabble application of phosphorous biofertilizer and chemical phosphorous promote fodder quality due to increase solubility of insoluble

  6. The effects of selenium and other micronutrients on the antioxidant activities and yield of corn (Zea mays L.) under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajedi, Nour Ali; Ardakani, Mohammad Reza; Madani, Hamid; Naderi, Ahmad; Miransari, Mohammad

    2011-07-01

    The effects of selenium (Se) on plant growth under drought stress and in the presence of micronutrients are yet to be investigated. Hence, in a field experiment in 2007 the effects of Se and micronutrients including iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), boron (B) and molybdenum (Mo) were evaluated on corn (Zea mays L.) grain yield under drought stress. Main- and sub-plots were devoted to irrigation (control and water stressed at the eight-leaf, blister and grain filling stages) and micronutrients treatments, respectively. Micronutrients were foliarly applied at 2 l ha(-1) at the six-leaf stage, one week before tasseling, using a corn fertilizer, called biomin containing (on the basis of dry weight percentage) Fe (2.6), Zn (4.1), Cu (1.5), Mn (2.6), B (1.5), Mo (0.5) and Mg (4.1). Se was used as sodium selenite (Na2SeO3), at the rate of 20 g ha(-1) two weeks before treating the plants with drought stress. Effects of drought stress on plant growth were determined based on the activity or level of antioxidants. With increasing the stress level, addition of Se or micronutrients significantly enhanced the antioxidant activity and level as well as corn grain yield. The interaction effects between Se and micronutrients adversely affected antioxidant activity as well as corn grain yield. Se addition at the grain filling stage resulted in the highest grain yield under drought stress. The single but not the combined use of Se or micronutrients can alleviate the unfavorable effects of drought stress on corn yield by affecting plant metabolism including antioxidant activity.

  7. Extraction Of Bioactive Compounds From Cob And Pericarp Of Purple Corn (zea Mays L.) By Sequential Extraction In Fixed Bed Extractor Using Supercritical Co2, Ethanol, And Water As Solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Monroy; Yaneth M.; Rodrigues; Rodney A. F.; Sartoratto; Adilson; Cabral; Fernando A.

    2016-01-01

    Purple corn (Zea mays L.) is traditionally used in Peru in the preparation of desserts and juices. Purple corn cob and kernel extracts have intense color and are rich in anthocyanins and phenolic compounds. Purple corn cob, whole grain, ground grain, and pericarp extracts were obtained by supercritical fluid technology in a fixed bed at 50 degrees C and 400 bar in a sequential extraction process using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)) as a solvent in the first step, ethanol in a second s...

  8. EFFECTS OF BIOFERTILIZER “M-STAR” ON LAND PRODUCTIVITY AND GROWTH OF SWEET CORN IN ACID SULPHATE SOIL OF SWAMPLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhlis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to test the effectiveness of biofertilizer “M-Star” in increasing land productivity, growth of sweet corn and the efficiency of inorganic fertilizer used in acid sulphate soil of swampland. Research was conducted from May – July, 2012 in acid sulphate soil of Barambai, Barito Kuala Regency, South Kalimantan. The treatments involved (B1 Biofertilizer 25 kg/ha, (B2 Biofertilizer 15 kg/ha, (P1 NPK (recommendation dose, (P2 NPK (1/2 recommendation dose, (B1P1 Biofertilizer 25 kg/ha + NPK (recommended dose, (B1P2 Biofertilizer 25 kg/ha + NPK (1/2 recommended dose, (B2P1 Biofertilizer 15 kg/ha + NPK (recommended dose, (B2P2 Biofertilizer 15 kg/ha + NPK (1/2 recommended dose, and (K No fertilizer. The treatments were arranged by randomized completely block design with 3 replications. Recommended dose of NPK fertilizer was at 90-60-50 NPK kg/ha. Observations were conducted on soil pH, soil and plant nutrients, growth of sweet corn (plant height and biomass weight, and microbial population. Research results showed that 15 kg/ha biofertilizer “M-Star” combined with inorganic NPK fertilizer could increase soil nutrients and sweet corn growth. This biofertilizer also increased the efficiency of inorganic fertilizer by 50%.

  9. Effects of Row Spacing and Plant Density on Yield and Yield Components of Sweet Corn in Climatic Conditions of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khodaeian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of row spacing and plant density on yield and yield components of sweet corn, variety KSC403, an experiment was conducted in Research Farm of Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran, in 2007, as randomized complete block design with a split-plot layout and three replications. The main plots were allocated to two row spacing (60 and 75 cm and the sub-plots accommodated four levels of plant density (50000, 70000, 90000 and 110000 plants per ha. There was significant increase in leaf area index, shoot dry weight, 100-grain fresh weight and grain fresh yield, as row width was decreased from 75 to 60 cm but the plant height was decreased. There was no significant effect of row spacing on number of rows per ear, number of grains per row and number of grains per ear. Plant height, leaf area index, shoot dry weight per m2 and number of ears per m2 were increased with an increase in plant density. The number of rows per ear, number of grains per row, number of grains per ear, 100-grain fresh weight and grain fresh yield were significantly higher under plant densities of 90000 and 110000 as compared to 50000 and 70000 plants per ha. There was significant interaction between row spacing and plant density for leaf area index, shoot dry weight, number of grains per ear, 100-grain fresh weight and grain fresh yield. Under all plant densities, the grain fresh yield was higher in 60-cm row width compared to 70-cm row width. However, the difference between these two row spacing was not significant in plant densities of 50000 and 110000 plants per ha. The highest grain fresh yield (33940 kg/ha was achieved under row spacing 60 cm and 70000 plants per ha and the least grain fresh yield (20750 kg/ha was obtained in under 75 cm row width and 110000 plants per ha. Considering the obtained results of this experiment, to have maximum grain fresh yield of sweet corn under Isfahan climate, the row spacing of 60 cm and plant density of

  10. Effects of water-saving superabsorbent polymer on antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in corn (Zea mays L.) under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Robiul; Hu, Yuegao; Mao, Sishuai; Jia, Pengfei; Eneji, A Egrinya; Xue, Xuzhang

    2011-03-30

    Drought is the most important abiotic stress factor limiting corn (Zea mays L.) growth and productivity. Therefore efficient management of soil moisture and study of metabolic changes in response to drought are important for improved production of corn. The objective of the present study was to gain a better understanding of drought tolerance mechanisms and improve soil water management strategies using a water-saving superabsorbent polymer (SAP) at 30 kg ha(-1) under three irrigation levels (adequate, moderate and deficit) using a new type of hydraulic pressure-controlled auto-irrigator. The results showed that relative water content and leaf water potential were much higher in corn treated with SAP. Although application of SAP reduced biomass accumulation by 11.1% under adequate irrigation, it increased the biomass markedly by 39.0% under moderate irrigation and 98.7% under deficit irrigation. Plants treated with SAP under deficit irrigation showed a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in leaves compared with control plants. The results of this study suggest that drought stress causes the production of oxygen radicals, leading to increased lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in plants, and the application of a superabsorbent polymer could conserve soil water, making it available to plants for quenching oxidative stress and increasing biomass accumulation, especially under severe water stress. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Effects of Mineral Phosphorous Fertilization and cd Loading on cd Translocation from Soil to Corn (Zea mays L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    been identified as hazardous (H) waste (W) sites (S)(HWS) because of the presence of elevated concentrations of these elements. They will remain a threat to the environment until they are removed or immobilized. We can test and improve these situation by using different plant species, as corn (Zea mays L.) x macro nutrients as phosphorous experimental methods. Maize has a very great biomass (B) production (P) potential (P)(BPP) and important role in soil fertility by the design of plant rotation to field plant production, the animal foraging as a fodder-crop with a high carbohydrate (70%) and protein (10%) content (70%) and via pytoremediation possibilities. Cd is considered to be a nonessential element for maize, it is effectively absorbed by both the root and leaf system. By these ways a great proportion of the cadmium is to be accumulated in root tissues, even when Cd enters the plant via foliar system from the polluted air and precipitation. The most chief geobiochemical property of cadmium ions is their strong affinity for sulfhydryl groups of several compounds (OSHA 1992; Richardson 1992; RAIS 1991; Sittig 1991; TAP 1999; WA 1996; WHO 1992, 2001). Furthermore Cd shows an affinity for other side chains of protein and for phosphate groups too. The Cd content of maize is of the highest concern as a Cd reservoir and as the patway of cadmium to soil-plant-animal-man chain (FOOD CHAIN). Thus, tolerance and adaptation of corn to higher Cd levels, although important from the environmental poin of view, create a helth risc. Material and Method The phosphorus (P2O5) mineral fertilization and cadmium loading effects were studied in a long-term field experiment set up at Experimental Station of the Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences on a calcareous chernozem soil at Nagyhörcsök in 1977. The soil had the following agrogeochemical characteristics: pH (KCl) 7.3, humus 3.0%, ammonlactate (AL) soluble-P2O5 60

  12. Contribution of the pruning of gliricidia sepium on production and N uptake by sweet corn in ultisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haryanto; Firdaus, Afdhal; Zahara A R

    1998-01-01

    an upland field experiment has been conducted in Puchong Farm Experimental Station belonging to Agriculture Faculty, UPM to study contribution of the Gliricidia sepium pruning on sweet corn production and N availability in Ultisol. Randomized complete Block Design with 4 replications was used in this experiment. Eight treatments tested were : (P1) hedge row of Gliricidia sepium (GS), without pruning application, (P2) hedge row GS with pruning application, (P3) hedge row GS, with root residue and without pruning application, (P4) hedge row GS, with root residue and pruning application, (P5) without hedge row, root residue and pruning application (control treatment); (P6) without hedge row, with pruning application; residue, (P7) without hedge row, with root residue, and without pruning application and (P8)without hedge row, with root residue and pruning application . The contribution of pruning on the N availability in ultisol was studied by 1 5N isotope technique, 1 5N labeled ammonium sulphate with 10.1% 1 5N atom was applied to all microplots at 20 kg N/ha. Results obtained in this experiment showed that the contribution of Gliricidia sepium pruning on the N availability in ranges from 23.1 - 59.1% by the control treatment and this contribution increased by the root residue in soil. The highest total N-uptake was 106.61 kg N/ha obtained by treatment (P8). (author)

  13. Sweet sorghum bagasse and corn stover serving as substrates for producing sophorolipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samad, Abdul; Zhang, Ji; Chen, Da; Chen, Xiaowen; Tucker, Melvin; Liang, Yanna

    2016-12-28

    To make the process of producing sophorolipids by Candida bombicola truly sustainable, we investigated production of these biosurfactants on biomass hydrolysates. This study revealed: (1) yield of sophorolipds on bagasse hydrolysate decreased from 0.56 to 0.54 and to 0.37 g/g carbon source when yellow grease was dosed at 10, 40 and 60 g/L, respectively. In the same order, concentration of sophorolipids was 35.9, 41.9, and 39.3 g/L; (2) under similar conditions, sophorolipid yield was 0.12, 0.05 and 0.04 g/g carbon source when corn stover hydrolysate was mixed with soybean oil at 10, 20 and 40 g/L. Sophorolipid concentration was 11.6, 4.9, and 3.9 g/L for the three oil doses from low to high; and (3) when corn stover hydrolysate and yellow grease served as the substrates for cultivating the yeast in a fermentor, sophorolipid concentration reached 52.1 g/L. Upon further optimization, sophorolipids production from ligocellulose will be indeed sustainable.

  14. Agro-ecological zoning for wheat (Triticum aestivum, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris and corn (Zea mays on the Mashhad plain, Khorasan Razavi province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Neamatollahi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate is the most important factor determining the sustainability of agricultural production systems. A qualitative land evaluation was carried out for the Mashhad plain, Khorasan Razavi province, Iran, to assess the suitability of the land to grow the locally most important crops, i.e. wheat (Triticum aestivum, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris and corn (Zea mays using a Geographical Information System (GIS. The possible growing seasons were defined as early (10 September–20 June and late (10 October–20 July season for wheat, early (15 March–15 October and late (15 April–15 November season for sugar beet, and early (1 May–1 November and late (15 May–15 November season for corn. The study area covered approximately 99.915 ha−1. Climate variables were taken into account including maximum, optimum and minimum daily average temperatures and were obtained from 30 years agro-meteorological data set from 12 synoptic stations. Growing Degree Days (GDDs were determined for wheat, sugar beet, and corn crops from sowing to harvest. To produce digital elevation model for Mashhad plain two sources were used on utilization of the IRS III satellite images with resolution that is 23.5 m, and topographic maps with scale of 1:25000. Aspect and slope layers were produced by Arc GIS 9.2 software. The study identified suitable elevation, slope, and GDDs for optimal growth and indicated that high yields are possible for wheat, sugar beet, and corn on the Mashhad plain. The study also identified the most suitable regions of the Mashhad plain for each crop.

  15. A lysimeter study of nitrate leaching, optimum fertilisation rate and growth responses of corn (Zea mays L.) following soil amendment with water-saving super-absorbent polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Robiul; Mao, Sishuai; Xue, Xuzhang; Eneji, A Egrinya; Zhao, Xingbao; Hu, Yuegao

    2011-08-30

    Nitrate leaching and the resulting groundwater contamination from intensive cereal production has become a major concern for long-term farmland efficiency and environmental sustainability in northern China. The aim of this study was to evaluate a water-saving super-absorbent polymer (SAP) for minimising NO(3)(-) leaching from soil and optimising corn growth and yield. Thirty-six undisturbed soil lysimeters were installed in a field lysimeter facility in drought-affected northern China to study the growth and yield characteristics of summer corn (Zea mays L.) as well as the amount of NO(3)-leaching losses under different fertiliser (standard, medium or 75% and low, or 50% of conventional fertilisation rate) and SAP (control, 0; level-1, 15 kg ha(-1) and level-2, 30 kg ha(-1)) treatments. Corn yield fell by 19.7% under medium and 37.7% under low fertilisation; the application of SAP increased yield significantly by 44.4% on level-1 and 80.3% on level-2. Similarly, plant height, leaf area, number of grains as well as protein, soluble sugar and starch contents in the grain also increased with SAP treatment. Application of SAP at 30 kg ha(-1) plus half of conventional fertilisation can reduce maximum (64.1%) nitrate leaching losses from soil. Application of SAP at 30 kg ha(-1) plus only half the amount of conventional fertiliser rate (150 kg urea, and 50 kg each of superphosphate and potassium sulfate) would be a more appropriate practice both for minimising nitrate leaching and sustainable corn production under the arid and semiarid conditions of northern China. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Ostrinia nubilalis parasitism and the field abundance of non-target insects in transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguet, Denis; Chaufaux, Josette; Micoud, Annie; Delos, Marc; Naibo, Bernard; Bombarde, Fany; Marque, Gilles; Eychenne, Nathalie; Pagliari, Carine

    2002-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated in field trials the effects on non-target species, of transgenic corn producing the Cry1Ab toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). In 1998, we collected Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) larvae from transgenic Bt corn (Novartis Hybrid 176) and non-Bt corn at four geographical sites. We found a significant variation in parasitism by the tachinids Lydella thompsoni (Herting) and Pseudoperichaeta nigrolineata (Walker) among sites, and more parasitism in non-Bt than in Bt fields. The Bt effect did not vary significantly among fields. In 1999, we performed a field experiment at two sites, comparing the temporal abundance of non-target arthropods in Bt corn (Monsanto Hybrid MON810) and non-Bt corn. The non-target insects studied included the aphids Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) and Sitobion avenae (F.), the bug Orius insidiosus (Say), the syrphid Syrphus corollae (Meigen), the ladybird Coccinella septempunctata (L.), the lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), thrips and hymenopteran parasitoids. For all species but one, the number of individuals varied greatly over the season but did not differ between the types of corn. The only exception was thrips which, at one site, was significantly more abundant in Bt corn than in non-Bt corn. However this difference did not remain significant when we took the multiple tests into account. Implications for pest resistance management, population dynamics and risk assessment are discussed.

  17. Mercury in some chemical fertilizers and the effect of calcium superphosphate on mercury uptake by corn seedlings (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiulan; Wang, Dingyong

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contents in ten chemical fertilizers were determined, and the effect of calcium superphosphate (CSP) on the uptake and translocation of Hg in corn seedlings was investigated by pot experiments. CSP was applied at the levels of 0, 66.7, and 133.4 mg P2O5/kg to Hg-treated (2 mg/kg) and untreated soils. CSP had the highest Hg content (5.1 mg/kg), followed by the NPK compound fertilizer 15-5-5 (15% N, 5% P2O5, 5% K2O) (1.2 mg/kg), then by nitrogen fertilizers (except for ammonia sulfate) and potassium fertilizers. Application of CSP did not obviously influence the biomass of corn roots, but it significantly increased the biomass of corn shoots in Hg-treated soil. Application of CSP at the levels of 66.7 and 133.4 mg P2O5/kg did not obviously influence the uptake of Hg by corn seedlings on soils without Hg treatment, but it decreased the Hg uptake of corn seedlings significantly on Hg-treated soils. The transfer coefficient of Hg in corn seedlings improved slightly on soils without Hg treatment, but decreased slightly on Hg-treated soils with the application of CSP. These results implied that CSP could ameliorate Hg toxicity to corn seedlings by inhibiting the uptake and the translocation of Hg in plants on Hg-polluted soils.

  18. Agro-industrial by-products as roughage source for beef cattle: Chemical composition, nutrient digestibility and energy values of ensiled sweet corn cob and husk with different levels of Ipil – Ipil leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Sruamsiri

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to determine the nutritive value of agro-industrial by-products and nutrient digestibility of ensiled sweet corn cob and husk with different levels of Ipil - Ipil leaves (Leucaena leucocephala. Four native cattle were assigned by Latin Square Design to receive all dietary treatments in four experimental periods i.e. ensiled sweet corn cob and husk (ESCH, ensiled sweet corn cob and husk + 10 % Ipil - Ipil leaves (ESCH + 10% IL, ensiled sweet corn cob and husk + 20% Ipil - Ipil leaves (ESCH + 20% IL and ensiled sweet corn cob and husk + 30% Ipil - Ipil leaves (ESCH + 30% IL, respectively. Total collection method was used to determine the digestibility coefficients. Results showed that digestibility coefficients in ESCH were low (P>0.05 in all the nutrients. Supplementation of Ipil - Ipil leaves in ESCH increased digestibility coefficients. Total digestible nutrients (TDN and digestible energy were higher in the silages supplemented with Ipil - Ipil leaves. Average TDN contents of ESCH, ESCH + 10% IL, 20% IL and 30% IL were 62.78 + 6.14, 70.41 + 4.04, 72.73 + 2.78 and 63.07 + 4.06 %DM, respectively.

  19. Evaluation of multi-species weed competition and weeds population dynamic in corn Zea mays L. field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mijani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the multi-species weed competition in corn field an experiment as an interval mapping was carried out at the Agricultural Research field of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during growing season 2009-2010. At 3-4 leafy stages of corn, 20 non-destructive quadrates determine and the density of weeds was counted separately. At the same time, 20 destructive quadrates determine and in addition of counting number of plants, leaf area index and dry weight of each species were recorded separately. By using data from previous section, hyperbolic functions were fitted. In these functions number of species serve as the independent variable, weight or leaf area was considered as the dependent variable. With the help of these functions and leaf dry weight of each species was determined for non-destructive quadrates at this stage. Relative leaf area at early season as independent variables and natural logarithm of individual plant weight at later season as dependent variable in a multiple linear regression was fitted to obtain the interspecies competition coefficients. Based on ln of weight of single plant equation the weed interference effects on the corn yield can be divided into two groups: inhibition (negative sign and stimulation (positive sign. Among all weeds, night shade (Solanum nigrum L., redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. and lambsquarter (Chenopodium album L. had positive effects on corn yield, respectively. In fact, these weeds had competition and negative impacts on other weeds and reduced their competition power with corn and caused facilitation role on corn yield. At the end of growing season of corn, population of lambsquarter and Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. decreased while population of barnyard grass(Echinochloa crus-galli L., redroot pigweed and night shade increased.

  20. Climate change, transgenic corn adoption and field-evolved resistance in corn earworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, P Dilip; Dively, Galen P

    2017-06-01

    Increased temperature anomaly during the twenty-first century coincides with the proliferation of transgenic crops containing the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) to express insecticidal Cry proteins. Increasing temperatures profoundly affect insect life histories and agricultural pest management. However, the implications of climate change on Bt crop-pest interactions and insect resistance to Bt crops remains unexamined. We analysed the relationship of temperature anomaly and Bt adoption with field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ab Bt sweet corn in a major pest, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). Increased Bt adoption during 1996-2016 suppressed H. zea populations, but increased temperature anomaly buffers population reduction. Temperature anomaly and its interaction with elevated selection pressure from high Bt acreage probably accelerated the Bt-resistance development. Helicoverpa zea damage to corn ears, kernel area consumed, mean instars and proportion of late instars in Bt varieties increased with Bt adoption and temperature anomaly, through additive or interactive effects. Risk of Bt-resistant H. zea spreading is high given extensive Bt adoption, and the expected increase in overwintering and migration. Our study highlights the challenges posed by climate change for Bt biotechnology-based agricultural pest management, and the need to incorporate evolutionary processes affected by climate change into Bt-resistance management programmes.

  1. Climate change, transgenic corn adoption and field-evolved resistance in corn earworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dively, Galen P.

    2017-01-01

    Increased temperature anomaly during the twenty-first century coincides with the proliferation of transgenic crops containing the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) to express insecticidal Cry proteins. Increasing temperatures profoundly affect insect life histories and agricultural pest management. However, the implications of climate change on Bt crop–pest interactions and insect resistance to Bt crops remains unexamined. We analysed the relationship of temperature anomaly and Bt adoption with field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ab Bt sweet corn in a major pest, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). Increased Bt adoption during 1996–2016 suppressed H. zea populations, but increased temperature anomaly buffers population reduction. Temperature anomaly and its interaction with elevated selection pressure from high Bt acreage probably accelerated the Bt-resistance development. Helicoverpa zea damage to corn ears, kernel area consumed, mean instars and proportion of late instars in Bt varieties increased with Bt adoption and temperature anomaly, through additive or interactive effects. Risk of Bt-resistant H. zea spreading is high given extensive Bt adoption, and the expected increase in overwintering and migration. Our study highlights the challenges posed by climate change for Bt biotechnology-based agricultural pest management, and the need to incorporate evolutionary processes affected by climate change into Bt-resistance management programmes. PMID:28680673

  2. Effect of Planting Patterns' and Plant Population on Some of Morphological Traits, Harvest Index and Conservable Grain Yield of Sweet Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nasrolah Alhossini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sweet corn is one of the most important crops in Iran and due to its short period of growth, it has been an important position after wheat and barley in khorasane Razavi Province. In this study two methods of planting (one raised bed and furrow planting and 3 plant densities (65000, 75000 and 85000 plant/ha was evaluated on some of Morphological Traits, harvest index and conservable grain yield of sweet Corn(Chase and KSC403su Varieties in Torbat-e-Heidarie in saline (4.060ds/m condition on 2009. The experimental design was factorial based on RCBC with 4 replications. The result of ANOVA showed significant differences between Anthesis silking interval (ASI, tassel length, plant height, ear height, stem diameter, harvest index, and conservable grain yield of sweet corn varieties that effected by planting methods. the highest harvest index was belonged to Chase in 75000 Plant/ha on one raised bed planting method with 31.75% and the lowest mean was belonged to KSC403su in 85000 Plant/ha on furrow planting method with 14.93%. In addition the highest grain yield was belonged to chase variety at 75000 plant/ha and furrow planting method with 11.912 ton/ha, while the lowest grain yield was belonged to KSC403su variety at 85000 plant/ha and raised bed planting (3.610 ton/ha. The Chase variety was better than KSC403su Due to its canopy and photo period is shorter than KSC403su. The superiority of Chase variety can be related to better distribution of leaves, highest harvest index, conservable grain yield and plant arrangement in the row.

  3. [Determination of 32 sulfonylurea herbicide residues in sweet corns and green soybeans by QuEChERS-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianzhu; Huang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dengfei; Chen, Yong; Xu, Dunming; Zhou, Yu

    2015-05-01

    A fast method based on QuEChERS methodology for the simultaneous determination of 32 sulfonylurea herbicide residues in sweet corns and green soybeans was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The clean-up effects of three dispersive sorbents were evaluated in terms of the residue mass for extracts after evaporation and recoveries. The three sorbents were C18, a mixture of two sorbents--silica coated with zirconium dioxide (Z-Sep) and C18, a bonded C18 zirconia-coated silica (Z-Sep+). As a result, the best effects were obtained from using Z-Sep/C18 sorbents. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile, and salted out with anhydrous magnesium sulphate and sodium chloride. The extracts were cleaned up with dispersive solid phase extraction using Z-Sep/C18 sorbents. Chromatographic analysis was carried out using a CSH C18 column with gradient elution. The pesticides were analyzed by negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry under scheduled multiple reaction monitoring mode. The quantification was achieved using matrix-matched standard calibrations as the external standard. The recoveries at fortification levels of 10, 20, 100 µg/kg in sweet corns and green beans ranged from 80.0% to 108.2% with the relative standard deviations of 1.2%-13.0%. The limits of quantification (S/N ≥ 10) were 0.2-5.0 µg/kg. The method has been proven to be simple, sensitive, environmental, and thus suitable for the determination of the 32 sulfonylurea herbicide residues in sweet corns and green soy- beans.

  4. Effects of Biofertilizer “M-star” on Land Productivity and Growth of Sweet Corn in Acid Sulphate Soil of Swampland

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhlis, Mukhlis; Lestari, Yuli

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to test the effectiveness of biofertilizer “M-Star” in increasing land productivity, growth of sweet corn and the efficiency of inorganic fertilizer used in acid sulphate soil of swampland. Research was conducted from May – July, 2012 in acid sulphate soil of Barambai, Barito Kuala Regency, South Kalimantan. The treatments involved (B1) Biofertilizer 25 kg/ha, (B2) Biofertilizer 15 kg/ha, (P1) NPK (recommendation dose), (P2) NPK (1/2 recommendation dose), (B1P1) Biofertiliz...

  5. VIGOR DE SEMENTES DE MILHO (Zea mays L. AVALIADO PELA PRECOCIDADE DE EMISSÃO DA RAIZ PRIMÁRIA EVALUATION OF CORN (Zea mays L. SEED VIGOR THROUGH THE PRECOCITY OF PRIMARY ROOT EMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ferraz de Toledo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi desenvolvido trabalho baseado na determinação da precocidade da emissão da raiz primária de sementes de milho, em dez lotes de um mesmo cultivar. Este processo constou da distribuição de 200 sementes de cada lote sobre folhas de papel umedecido e, também, rolos de papel, que permaneceram em germinador a 25 °C; de 12 em 12 horas, aquelas que apresentaram emissão da raiz primária foram removidas, contadas e anotadas. Para estabelecer comparação entre os métodos e os lotes, paralelamente, as sementes eram avaliadas através da determinação do grau de umidade, dos testes de germinação e de vigor (primeira contagem, teste de frio com solo e emergência de plântulas em campo. Concluiu-se que há possibilidade de se utilizar o teste de emissão da raiz primária, em rolos de papel, para a avaliação do vigor de sementes de milho.The objectives of this study were to evaluate the variability of the emission of seed radicle of corn (Zea mays L. and to establish indexes of primary root emission to test the vigor of commercial seed lots. Samples of corn seeds not treated with fungicides, were taken from ten lots of the same cultivar. Two hundred seeds from each lot were distributed on wetted paper towels and also within paper rolles at 25 °C. Each 12 hours, seeds with primary root emission were counted and removed. Indexes of primary root emission were calculated and compared to conventional laboratory tests (first count; accelerated aging; cold test and field emergence. It was concluded that the primary root emission test, in rolled paper towels can be of great value for evaluating the vigor of corn seeds.

  6. Effects of low intensity ultrasound on the germination of corn seeds (Zea mays L.) under different water availabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Hebling, S.A.; Silva, W.R. da

    1995-01-01

    Foram estudados os efeitos do ultra-som de baixa intensidade (230 e 1750 W/m²) sobre o desempenho de sementes de milho (Zea mays L.) utilizando situações variáveis quanto à disponibilidade hídrica. A emergência e o desenvolvimento de estruturas embrionárias reagem proporcionalmente à disponibilidade de água, não havendo influência marcante do tratamento com ultra-som nos fenômenos envolvidos na germinação das sementes. Contudo, são detectáveis tendências indicadoras de interferência positiva ...

  7. Influence of Agricultural Management on Phytochemicals of Colored Corn Genotypes ( Zea mays L.). Part 1: Nitrogen Fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Debora; Beta, Trust; Vanara, Francesca; Blandino, Massimo

    2018-04-19

    In this study, the influence of nitrogen (N) fertilization (170 versus 300 kg of N/ha) on the content of bioactive compounds of whole-meal flour of 10 different colored corn genotypes was investigated. Considerable differences in antioxidant capacity and phytochemical concentrations were observed among genotypes. Higher N fertilization rates significantly ( p corn cultivation, the application of high N fertilization rates, generally carried out to obtain higher grain yields, could positively influence the content of some bioactives particularly in years characterized by high rainfall levels responsible for N leaching from the soil.

  8. Purple Corn (Zea mays L.) Phenolic Compounds Profile and Its Assessment as an Agent Against Oxidative Stress in Isolated Mouse Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Escudero, Fernando; Muñoz, Ana María; Alvarado-Ortíz, Carlos; Alvarado, Ángel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study was designed to determine the contents of total polyphenols, flavonoids, flavonols, flavanols, and anthocyanins of purple corn (Zea mays L.) extracts obtained with different methanol:water concentrations, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N). Another objective was to determine the antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and deoxyribose assay, individual phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and endogenous antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], and total peroxidase [TPX]) activity and lipid peroxidation activity (thiobarbituric acid–reactive substances [TBARS] assay) in isolated mouse organs. Overall, the highest total content of polyphenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, flavonols, and flavanols was obtained with the 80:20 methanol:water extract, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N). The 50% inhibitory concentration values obtained by the DPPH and ABTS assays with this extract were 66.3 μg/mL and 250 μg/mL, respectively. The antioxidant activity by the FRAP assay was 26.1 μM Trolox equivalents/g, whereas the deoxyribose assay presented 93.6% inhibition. Because of these results, the 80:20 methanol:water extract, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N), was used for the remaining tests. Eight phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC: chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, morin, quercetin, naringenin, and kaempferol. Furthermore, it was observed that the purple corn extract was capable of significantly reducing lipid peroxidation (lower malondialdehyde [MDA] concentrations by the TBARS assay) and at the same time increasing endogenous antioxidant enzyme (CAT, TPX, and SOD) activities in isolated mouse kidney, liver, and brain. On the basis of the results, it was concluded that the purple corn extract contained various bioactive phenolic compounds that exhibited

  9. Purple corn (Zea mays L.) phenolic compounds profile and its assessment as an agent against oxidative stress in isolated mouse organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Escudero, Fernando; Muñoz, Ana María; Alvarado-Ortíz, Carlos; Alvarado, Ángel; Yáñez, Jaime A

    2012-02-01

    This study was designed to determine the contents of total polyphenols, flavonoids, flavonols, flavanols, and anthocyanins of purple corn (Zea mays L.) extracts obtained with different methanol:water concentrations, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N). Another objective was to determine the antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and deoxyribose assay, individual phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and endogenous antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], and total peroxidase [TPX]) activity and lipid peroxidation activity (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS] assay) in isolated mouse organs. Overall, the highest total content of polyphenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, flavonols, and flavanols was obtained with the 80:20 methanol:water extract, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N). The 50% inhibitory concentration values obtained by the DPPH and ABTS assays with this extract were 66.3 μg/mL and 250 μg/mL, respectively. The antioxidant activity by the FRAP assay was 26.1 μM Trolox equivalents/g, whereas the deoxyribose assay presented 93.6% inhibition. Because of these results, the 80:20 methanol:water extract, acidified with 1% HCl (1 N), was used for the remaining tests. Eight phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC: chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, morin, quercetin, naringenin, and kaempferol. Furthermore, it was observed that the purple corn extract was capable of significantly reducing lipid peroxidation (lower malondialdehyde [MDA] concentrations by the TBARS assay) and at the same time increasing endogenous antioxidant enzyme (CAT, TPX, and SOD) activities in isolated mouse kidney, liver, and brain. On the basis of the results, it was concluded that the purple corn extract contained various bioactive phenolic compounds that exhibited considerable in vitro

  10. Variations in fuel characteristics of corn (Zea mays) stovers: General spatial patterns and relationships to soil properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Shaojun [Unit of Biomass Technology and Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeaa (Sweden); College of Life Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Zhang, Yufen [College of Life Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Zhuo, Yue [Biomass Engineering Centre, China Agricultural University, Beijing (China); Lestander, Torbjoern; Geladi, Paul [Unit of Biomass Technology and Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeaa (Sweden)

    2010-06-15

    The geographic variations in corn stover fuel and soil characteristics from 22 sites in the Kerchin region (43.8-45.0 N, 122.7-125.1 E), north-east China, were examined in both 2006 and 2007. The correlations between fuel characteristics and soil parameters were analysed using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLS). The main emphasis was on the feasibility of using corn stovers as feedstock in direct combustion for heat and power generation. The examined corn stovers from Kerchin generally have similar characteristics to energy grasses grown in Europe and may be used as biofuels. However, large variations, up to several orders of magnitude, in the fuel characteristics existed among the samples. With PCA, the studied soils showed a clear distinction between soluble and less soluble elements, with a trend for higher insoluble element (such as Si) concentrations in south-western soils and a higher pH in the more northern soils. The component for fuel characteristics showed a distinct trend with latitude that can be explained by the above-mentioned soil component pattern. PLS regression models suggested some important relationships that may be used to predict corn stover fuel characteristics using soil and environment properties; for example, latitude, soil pH and Si are the most important predictors for Ca content in corn stovers, but not for K that is best predicted by soil K. Although limited by numbers of samples and sites, this study indicated that this approach can be used to predict biofuel quality. (author)

  11. A comparison of corn (Zea mays L.) residue and its biochar on soil C and plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Francisco J; Benjamin, Joseph; Vigil, Merle F

    2015-01-01

    In order to properly determine the value of charring crop residues, the C use efficiency and effects on crop performance of biochar needs to be compared to the un-charred crop residues. In this study we compared the addition of corn stalks to soil, with equivalent additions of charred (300 °C and 500 °C) corn residues. Two experiments were conducted: a long term laboratory mineralization, and a growth chamber trial with proso millet plants. In the laboratory, we measured soil mineral N dynamics, C use efficiency, and soil organic matter (SOM) chemical changes via infrared spectroscopy. The 300 °C biochar decreased plant biomass relative to a nothing added control. The 500°C biochar had little to no effect on plant biomass. With incubation we measured lower soil NO3 content in the corn stalk treatment than in the biochar-amended soils, suggesting that the millet growth reduction in the stalk treatment was mainly driven by N limitation, whereas other factors contributed to the biomass yield reductions in the biochar treatments. Corn stalks had a C sequestration use efficiency of up to 0.26, but charring enhanced C sequestration to values that ranged from 0.64 to 1.0. Infrared spectroscopy of the soils as they mineralized showed that absorbance at 3400, 2925-2850, 1737 cm-1, and 1656 cm-1 decreased during the incubation and can be regarded as labile SOM, corn residue, or biochar bands. Absorbances near 1600, 1500-1420, and 1345 cm-1 represented the more refractory SOM moieties. Our results show that adding crop residue biochar to soil is a sound C sequestration technology compared to letting the crop residues decompose in the field. This is because the resistance to decomposition of the chars after soil amendment offsets any C losses during charring of the crop residues.

  12. Chemical form of technetium in corn (Zea mays) and the gastrointestinal absorption of plant-incorporated Tc by laboratory rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Myttenaere, C.; Vandecasteele, C.M.; Kirchmann, R.; Van Bruwaene, R.

    1984-01-01

    The food chain availability of technetium incorporated into plant tissue, its chemical form in corn leaves, and the potential for gastrointestinal absorption of plant-incorporated technetium was investigated. Technetium-95m was incorporated into corn leaves via root uptake. Chemical fractionation of the /sup 95m/Tc in leaves showed that 60% was extractable with boiling ethanol and weak mineral acids. The remainder was associated with cell walls and was extractable by harsh chemical treatment. Gel permeation chromatography of the cytosol, indicated that 50% of the /sup 95m/Tc co-chromatographed with anionic pertechnetate; however, it was impossible to distinguish if this pure pertechnetate or technetium complexed with organic molecules. Technetium-95m was administered to laboratory rats in a single dose as: (1) intravenous injection of pertechnetate, (2) pertechnetate mixed with standard laboratory food, and (3) a meal containing /sup 95m/Tc biologically incorporated into corn leaves. High concentrations of /sup 95m/Tc were found in the thyroids, hair, kidneys, and liver of rats. Technetium rapidly disappeared from the liver, kidneys, and other tissues, but remained in the thyroids and hair. Urinary excretion of technetium decreased, and fecal excretion increased when technetium was fed to rats as a /sup 95m/Tc incorporated into corn leaves. The percent of the administered dose absorbed into thyroid gland and the kidneys was less when technetium was biologically incorporated into corn leaves than when pertechnetate was mixed with food. Biological incorporation of technetium into plants appears to reduce its potential for food chain transfer by decreasing its availability for gastrointestinal absorption. 5 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  13. Chemical form of technetium in corn (Zea mays) and the gastrointestinal absorption of plant-incorporated Tc by laboratory rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Myttenaere, C.; Vandecasteele, C.M.; Kirchmann, R.; Van Bruwaene, R.

    1984-01-01

    The food chain availability of technetium incorporated into plant tissue, its chemical form in corn leaves, and the potential for gastrointestinal absorption of plant-incorporated technetium was investigated. Technetium-95m was incorporated into corn leaves via root uptake. Chemical fractionation of the /sup 95m/Tc in leaves showed that 60% was extractable with boiling ethanol and weak mineral acids. The remainder was associated with cell walls and was extractable by harsh chemical treatment. Gel permeation chromatography of the cytosol, indicated that 50% of the /sup 95m/Tc co-chromatographed with anionic pertechnetate; however, it was impossible to distinguish if this pure pertechnetate or technetium complexed with organic molecules. Technetium-95m was administered to laboratory rats in a single dose as: (1) intravenous injection of pertechnetate, (2) pertechnetate mixed with standard laboratory food, and (3) a meal containing /sup 95m/Tc biologically incorporated into corn leaves. High concentrations of /sup 95m/Tc were found in the thyroids, hair, kidneys, and liver of rats. Technetium rapidly disappeared from the liver, kidneys, and other tissues, but remained in the thyroids and hair. Urinary excretion of technetium decreased, and fecal excretion increased when technetium was fed to rats as a /sup 95m/Tc incorporated into corn leaves. The percent of the administered dose absorbed into thyroid gland and the kidneys was less when technetium was biologically incorporated into corn leaves than when pertechnetate was mixed with food. Biological incorporation of technetium into plants appears to reduce its potential for food chain transfer by decreasing its availability for gastrointestinal absorption. 5 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  14. Progresso da ferrugem tropical do milho (Zea mays L., sob diferentes tratamentos fungicidas Progress of the tropical rust of corn Zea mays L., under different fungicide treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Magno da Costa

    2008-09-01

    dados. Não foi observado diferença significativa entre os efeitos dos tratamentos, no que se refere a produtividade.Among the three rusts diseases in the of corn crop, the tropical rust caused by Physopella zeae (Mains Cummins & Ramachar is highlighting by its aggressiveness. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fungicides mixtures action azoxystrobin + cyproconazole and epoxiconazole + pyraclosytrobin in the control of the tropical rust of corn in the culture of the crop. The experiment was carried out in the experimental area of the Department of crop protection of UNESP, Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil, during in the period of January to May of 2006. Were evaluated in the field plots were arranged in the complete randomized blocks, with 6 treatments and 4 replications. The used treatments were (mL of c.p./ha: 1- control; 2-epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin 500,; 3-epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin 750,; 4-azoxystrobin + cyproconazole 300 + mineral oil 0,50%,; 5-azoxystrobin + cyproconazole 300 + mineral oil 0,50% and 6 - azoxystrobin + cyproconazole 450 + mineral oil 0,50%. All the treatments fungicide spray were applied to maize at the stage V8, and the treatment 5 was replicated in the beginning of the tasseling. It was realized seven evaluations of the disease severity were performed every seven days. The curves of progress of the disease were analyzed by using three transformations models (monomolecular, logistico and of Gompertz. The AUDPC (Area Under the Disease Progress Curve was calculated from which the analysis of variance was performed and the averages were compared by the Tukey test at the level of 5% of probability. The analysis no found difference significant statistics among the treatments 6, 5 and 4, which these showed smaller AUDPC. We concluded that the monomolecular model it was best model adjusted to the data.

  15. Effectiveness of a water-saving super-absorbent polymer in soil water conservation for corn (Zea mays L.) based on eco-physiological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Robiul; Hu, Yuegao; Mao, Sishuai; Mao, Jinzhu; Eneji, A Egrinya; Xue, Xuzhang

    2011-08-30

    The objective was to study soil water conservation and physiological growth of corn (Zea mays L.) using water-saving super-absorbent polymer (SAP) at 30 kg ha(-1). The effectiveness of SAP was studied under three irrigation levels (adequate, moderate and deficit) using a new type of negative hydraulic pressure controlled auto-irrigator in the years 2009 and 2010 in a greenhouse at Beijing, P.R. China. Eight weeks after sowing, plant height and leaf area increased significantly by 41.6 and 79.6% under deficit irrigation for SAP treatment. The SAP had little effect on shoot dry mass under adequate and moderate irrigation but increased it significantly by 133.5% under deficit irrigation. Similarly, the efficiency of water use also increased by 97.1%. Leaf water potential under adequate and moderate irrigation differs slightly for SAP application, whereas under deficit irrigation the values were exceeded significantly by 27.8%. The superior growth and water use efficiency of corn treated with SAP under deficit irrigation was ascribed to maintenance of higher relative water contents in leaves as well as intercellular carbon dioxide concentration, net photosynthesis and transpiration rate. Our results suggested that plant growth and different physiological activities are restricted by drought stress and the application of super-absorbent polymer could conserve soil water, making same available to plants for increased growth and biomass accumulation especially under severe water stress. Thus, application of SAP is a suitable soil management practice for the locations characterised by severe water stress. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Identification of multi-insecticide residues using GC-NPD and the degradation kinetics of chlorpyrifos in sweet corn and soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peidan; Rashid, Muhammad; Liu, Jie; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua

    2016-12-01

    Because more than one insecticide is applied to crops to protect plants from pests, an analytical multi-residue determination method was developed using gas chromatography with a nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC-NPD). The retention time for 12 insecticides was 3.7-27.7min. Under the selected conditions, the limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) and in the range of 0.00315-0.05μgmL(-1) and 0.01-0.165μgmL(-1), respectively. Using GC-NPD, we investigated the dissipation dynamics and final residual levels of chlorpyrifos in sweet corn and soil and determined that the half-lives was 4-7days, that is, that chlorpyrifos is safe to use on sweet corn with a pre-harvest interval of 16-22days before harvest. These results provide new insights into chlorpyrifos degradation in plants and its environmental behavior. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. ZEA MAIZE: A MODERN CRAZE

    OpenAIRE

    Dhamija Isha; Parle Milind

    2013-01-01

    Zea stands for ‘sustaining life’ and Mays stands for ‘life giver’. Zea mays is one of the oldest and most dynamic crop species, which has gained popularity in modern world too, due to its applications in diverse dishes. Corn is produced in every continent of the world with the exception of Antarctica. It is an annual monoecious sunny plant, surviving perfectly in nutrient rich, well-drained soil. Each and every part of the corn, from husk to corn silk is beneficial for the society. There are ...

  18. Potential of Microbispora sp. V2 as biocontrol agent against Sclerotium rolfsii, the causative agent of southern blight of Zea mays L (Baby corn)--in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, N N; Waghmode, M S; Gaikwad, P S; Gajbhiye, M H; Gunjal, A B; Nawani, N N; Kapadnis, B P

    2014-11-01

    The study was undertaken with the aim of exploring novel and beneficial agro activities of rare actinomycetes like Microbispora sp. V2. The antagonistic activity of Microbispora sp. V2 was evaluated as a biocontrol agents against Sclerotium rolfsii, a soil-borne fungal plant pathogen. The methodology performed for evaluation of biocontrol agent was in vitro evaluation assay which comprised of three tests viz., cellophane overlay technique, seed germination test and Thiram (fungicide) tolerance of Microbispora sp. V2. The isolate was found to inhibit the fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii to 91.43% in cellophane assay. In seed germination assay, Microbispora sp. V2 treated seeds resulted in 25.75% increased germination efficiency, as compared to seeds infected by Sclerotium rolfsii. The isolate Microbispora sp. V2 could tolerate 1000 microg mL(-1) of Thiram (fungicide). The in vitro assay studies proved that Microbispora sp. V2 can be used as antifungal antagonist and thus posses' great potential as biocontrol agent against southern blight caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Zea mays L (Baby corn) which causes large economical losses.

  19. Assesment of corn (zea mays l.) genotypes in relation to nitrogen fertilization under irrigated cropping conditions in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrikci, H.; Ulger, A.C.; Buyuk, G.; Korkmaz, K.; Ryan, J.; Karnez, E.; Cakir, B.; Konuskan, O.

    2012-01-01

    Efficient nitrogen (N) fertilizer management in crop production is based on supplying adequate amounts of the nutrient for optimum economic yield, while minimizing losses to the environment. Exploiting genotypic differences in N use is an additional consideration in achieving nutrient-use efficiency. Thus, in order to identify N-efficient corn genotypes, we established N-response field trials at 2 locations (University Research Farm, and Cutaem) for 2 years (1999, 2000) in the Cukurova region of Turkey. Ten corn genotypes, commonly grown in the region, were fertilized with N at application rates of 160, 240, 320 and 400kg N ha/sup -1/. The optimum N fertilizer rate was probably in the 160-240 kg N ha/sup -1/ rate based on response data. There were no significant or consistent differences between genotypes and N application for grain yield and N uptake. The average agronomic efficiency ranged between 20 to 65% across the genotypes and decreased with increasing N application rates. The pattern was similar for other efficiency indices with decreases with applied N, but little or no genotype differences. It is apparent that the genotypes used were bred for N as well as yield. There was little evidence of differences between genotypes or their response to N. Thus, while genotypic selection of corn can be one of the suitable potential N management practices in the Mediterranean region where genetic diversity exists, it is not appropriate considering genotypes are homogenous with respect to N use. (author)

  20. Production, carbon and nitrogen in stover fractions of corn ( Zea mays L. in response to cultivar development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julierme Zimmer Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Changes in quantity and quality of corn crop stover can have a large impact on soil conservation and soil carbon (C sequestration over large areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in production, concentration and amount of C and nitrogen (N in corn stover fractions due to cultivar development. Two field experiments were conducted in the city of Rolândia (Paraná State, Brazil using ten cultivars representing five technological levels: single cross hybrids, double or triple hybrids, commercial varieties, and creole cultivars. Plant heights and stalk, leaf, cob, husk and tassel weights were determined at final harvest. Elemental C and N analyses were performed in triplicate for each stover fraction. In general, the creole cultivars had greater height, more dry matter (kg ha-1 and C content (kg ha-1 in husks, leaves, tassels and stalks, particularly when compared to single cross hybrids or others hybrids. There was a direct relationship between C/N ratio and corn selection for husks in both years and for the others fractions in one study year. This was due to the combined effects of increasing C and decreasing N due to crop selection. Large differences were observed within the same technological levels for the evaluated properties, suggesting a wide variation in genetic background. The quantity and quality of stover fractions vary among cultivars and may affect their use for soil cover, animal feed, biomass energy and other applications.

  1. Environmental effect of conventional and GM crops of cotton (Gossipium hirsitum L. and corn (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Ávila

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the corn belt of Valle de San Juan and in the cotton zone of El Espinal, municipalities in the department of Tolima (Colombia, 10 conventional corn producers, 10 producers of genetically modified corn, five producers of conventional cotton and 15 producers of transgenic cotton were surveyed in the first half of 2009 to contrast the differences in the environmental impact associated with use of insecticides and herbicides, which were evaluated by estimating the environmental index quotient-EIQ. In the case of maize, an EIQ of 42 was found in the conventional type, while transgenic technology had an EIQ of 3.03. In the cultivation of cotton, an EIQ of 263.59 was found for the conventional type while for transgenic technology this value varied between 335.75 (Nuopal BG/RR and 324.79 (DP 455 BG/RR. These data showed a lower environmental impact using GM technology in the cultivation of maize when compared to the conventional counterpart, in connection with the use of insecticides and herbicides, in the context of time, space and genotypic analysis. This effect was not observed in the case of cotton, where environmental impacts were similar

  2. Pectic polysaccharide from corn (Zea mays L.) effectively inhibited multi-step mediated cancer cell growth and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Smitha; Kapoor, Sabeeta; Dharmesh, Shylaja M

    2015-06-25

    Corn pectic polysaccharide (COPP) inhibited galectin-3 mediated hemagglutination at Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 4.08 μg/mL as opposed to citrus pectin (25 μg/mL), a well known galectin-3 inhibitor and lactose (4.16 μg/mL)--sugar specific to galectin-3. COPP effectively (72%) inhibited invasion and metastasis in experimental animals. In vivo results were substantiated by modulation of cancer specific markers such as galectin-3, which is a key molecule for initiation of metastatic cascade, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that enhances angiogenesis, matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 that are required for invasion, NF-κB, a transcription factor for proliferative potency of tumor cells and a phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI), the activity of which favors cancer cell growth. Structural characterization studies indicate the active component (relatively less acidic, 0.05 M ammonium carbonate, 160 kDa fraction) which showed antimetastatic potency in vitro with MIC of 0.09 μg/mL, and ∼ 45 fold increase in the activity when compared to that of COPP. Gas liquid chromatographic analysis indicated the presence of rhamnose (1%), arabinose (20%), xylose (3%), mannose (4%), galactose (54%) and uronic acid (10%) in different proportions. However, correlative data attributed galectin-3 inhibitory activity to enhanced levels of arabinose and galactose. FTIR, HPLC and NMR spectroscopic analysis further highlights that COPP is an arabinogalactan with methyl/ethyl esters. It is therefore suggested that the blockade of galectin-3 mediated lung metastasis appears to be a result of an inhibition of mixed functions induced during metastasis. The data signifies the importance of dietary carbohydrate as cancer-preventive agent. Although pectin digestibility and absorption are issues of concern, promising in vivo data provides evidence for the cancer preventive property of corn. The present study reveals for the first time a new component of corn, i.e.,--corn pectin

  3. Uptake, translocation and physiological effects of magnetic iron oxide (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles in corn (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junli; Hu, Jing; Ma, Chuanxin; Wang, Yunqiang; Wu, Chan; Huang, Jin; Xing, Baoshan

    2016-09-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3 NPs) have emerged as an innovative and promising method of iron application in agricultural systems. However, the possible toxicity of γ-Fe2O3 NPs and its uptake and translocation require further study prior to large-scale field application. In this study, we investigated uptake and distribution of γ-Fe2O3 NPs in corn (Zea mays L.) and its impacts on seed germination, antioxidant enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and chlorophyll content were determined. 20 mg/L of γ-Fe2O3 NPs significantly promoted root elongation by 11.5%, and increased germination index and vigor index by 27.2% and 39.6%, respectively. However, 50 and 100 mg/L γ-Fe2O3 NPs remarkably decreased root length by 13.5% and 12.5%, respectively. Additionally, evidence for γ-Fe2O3 NPs induced oxidative stress was exclusively found in the root. Exposures of different concentrations of NPs induced notably high levels of MDA in corn roots, and the MDA levels of corn roots treated by γ-Fe2O3 NPs (20-100 mg/L) were 5-7-fold higher than that observed in the control plants. Meanwhile, the chlorophyll contents were decreased by 11.6%, 39.9% and 19.6%, respectively, upon NPs treatment relative to the control group. Images from fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that γ-Fe2O3 NPs could enter plant roots and migrate apoplastically from the epidermis to the endodermis and accumulate the vacuole. Furthermore, we found that NPs mostly existed around the epidermis of root and no translocation of NPs from roots to shoots was observed. Our results will be highly meaningful on understanding the fate and physiological effects of γ-Fe2O3 NPs in plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental effect of conventional and GM crops of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and corn (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaparro Giraldo Alejandro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In the corn belt of Valle de San Juan and in the cotton zone of El Espinal, municipalities in the department of Tolima (Colombia, 10 conventional corn producers, 10 producers of genetically modified corn, five producers of conventional cotton and 15 producers of transgenic cotton were surveyed in the first half of 2009 to contrast the differences in the environmental impact associated with use of insecticides and herbicides, which were evaluated by estimating the environmental index quotient-EIQ. In the case of maize, an EIQ of 42 was found in the conventional type, while transgenic technology had an EIQ of 3.03. In the cultivation of cotton, an EIQ of 263.59 was found for the conventional type while for transgenic technology this value varied between 335.75 (Nuopal BG/RR and 324.79 (DP 455 BG/RR. These data showed a lower environmental impact using GM technology in the cultivation of maize when compared to the conventional counterpart, in connection with the use of insecticides and herbicides, in the context of time, space and genotypic analysis. This effect was not observed in the case of cotton, where environmental impacts were similar.

  5. Effect of germination on antinutritional factors, total, and extractable minerals of high and low phytate corn (Zea mays L.) genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Awad M. Sokrab; Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed; Elfadil E. Babiker

    2012-01-01

    Two corn genotypes, Var-113 (high phytate) and TL-98B-6225-9×TL617 (low phytate) were germinated for 6 days. The germinated seeds were dried and milled. Phytic acid, polyphenols, and hydrochloric acid (HCl) extractable minerals were determined at intervals of two days of germination. Phytic acid decreased significantly (P ⩽ 0.05) with a concomitant increase in HCl extractable minerals, while polyphenol contents increased significantly (P ⩽ 0.05) with an increase in germination time. However, ...

  6. Response of corn silage (Zea mays L.) to zinc fertilization on a sandy soil under field and

    OpenAIRE

    Saad Drissi; Abdelhadi Aït Houssa; Ahmed Bamouh; Mohamed Benbella

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the experiments was to evaluate zinc (Zn) fertilization effect on growth, yield and yield components of corn silage grown on a sandy soil under field and outdoor container conditions. Six rates of Zn supply (0 or control; 1.5; 3; 5; 10 and 50 mg kg−1) were tested. They were split at three different times during the growing season: (i) 50% immediately after sowing, (ii) 25% at 4–5 leaf stage and (iii) 25% at 8–9 leaf stage. These Zn rates were applied to the soil surface as a so...

  7. Técnica de amostragem para comparar o dano causado pela lagarta-da-espiga, Heliothis zea (Boddie, em cultivares de milho Sampling techniques to compare the damage by Heliothis zea (Boddie in corn varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Nagai

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, realizado no Instituto Agronômico, determinou-se o tamanho da amostra para estudos de danos causados pela lagarta-da-espiga, Heliothis zea (Boddie, avaliados pelo método de Widstrom. Foram utilizados dados de dois experimentos de campo, com um cultivar resistente (Asteca Prolífico VRPE VII, um suscetível (híbrido duplo IAC Hmd 7974, o 'Maya XVI' e o híbrido simples HS 7777, em 1978/79 e 1979/80. O critério para estimar o tamanho da amostra foi de que esse tamanho permitisse detectar uma diferença de 10 ou de 20% da média geral entre médias de danos, em cultivares de milho, e avaliar o dano médio por cultivar com erro-padrão de 10 ou de 20% da média. Para definir o processo de amostragem, utilizou-se o método de componentes de variância, estimados a partir de dois modelos matemáticos. O tamanho da amostra foi bastante variável entre cultivares, sendo maior no resistente. Entre os possíveis tamanhos mínimos de amostra para detectar uma diferença de 10% da média geral entre médias de danos de tratamentos, podem ser utilizados seis blocos com quatro linhas de 24 plantas; para uma diferença de 20% de média, cinco blocos com três linhas de seis plantas são suficientes. Para estimar a média de danos por cultivar, com erro-padrão de 10% de média, são necessários sete blocos com quatro linhas de 30 plantas, no cultivar Asteca, e cinco blocos com duas linhas de 24 plantas nos cultivares Hmd 7974, HS 7777 e Maya e, com erro-padrão de 20% de média, cinco blocos de três linhas com doze plantas, no 'Asteca', e cinco blocos com duas linhas de seis plantas nos demais cultivares.A study was made to determine the sample size for research on corn resistance to corn ear worm Heliothis zea (Boddie. The damage was measured using the Widstrom centimeter scale. The criteria used to select the sample sizes were such that a difference between two treatments of ten percent or twenty percent of the overall mean should be

  8. Resistance to Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Euxesta stigmatias (Diptera: Ulidiidae) in sweet corn derived from exogenous and endogenous genetic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuessly, G S; Scully, B T; Hentz, M G; Beiriger, R; Snook, M E; Widstrom, N W

    2007-12-01

    Field trials using Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Euxesta stigmatias Loew (Diptera: Ulidiidae) were conducted to evaluate resistance and potential damage interactions between these two primary corn, Zea mays L., pests against Lepidoptera-resistant corn varieties derived from both endogenous and exogenous sources. The endogenous source of resistance was maysin, a C-glycosyl flavone produced in high concentrations in varieties 'Zapalote Chico 2451' and 'Zapalote Chico sh2'. The exogenous resistance source was the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)11 gene that expresses Cry1A(b) insecticidal protein found in 'Attribute GSS-0966'. Damage by the two pests was compared among these resistant varieties and the susceptible 'Primetime'. Single-species tests determined that the Zapalote Chico varieties and GSS-0966 effectively reduced S. frugiperda larval damage compared with Primetime. E. stigmatias larval damage was less in the Zapalote Chico varieties than the other varieties in single-species tests. E. stigmatias damage was greater on S. frugiperda-infested versus S. frugiperda-excluded ears. Ears with S. frugiperda damage to husk, silk and kernels had greater E. stigmatias damage than ears with less S. frugiperda damage. Reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of nonpollinated corn silk collected from field plots determined that isoorientin, maysin, and apimaysin plus 3'-methoxymaysin concentrations followed the order Zapalote Chico sh2 > Zapalote Chico 2451 > Attribute GSS-0966 = Primetime. Chlorogenic acid concentrations were greatest in Zapalote Chico 2451. The two high maysin Zapalote Chico varieties did as well against fall armyworm as the Bt-enhanced GSS-0966, and they outperformed GSS-0966 against E. stigmatias.

  9. Humic acid effect on catalase activity and the generation of reactive oxygen species in corn (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Flávio Couto; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; Silveira, Vanildo; de Souza, Sonia Regina

    2011-01-01

    Humic acids (HAs) have positive effects on plant physiology, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these events are only partially understood. The induction of root growth and emission of lateral roots (LRs) promoted by exogenous auxin is a natural phenomenon. Exogenous auxins are also associated with HA. Gas nitric oxide (NO) is a secondary messenger produced endogenously in plants. It is associated with metabolic events dependent on auxin. With the application of auxin, NO production is significantly increased, resulting in positive effects on plant physiology. Thus it is possible to evaluate the beneficial effects of the application of HA as an effect of auxin. To investigate the effects of HA the parameters of root growth, Zea mays was studied by evaluating the application of 3 mM C L⁻¹ of HA extracted from Oxisol and 100 µM SNP (sodium nitroprusside) and the NO donor, subject to two N-NO₃⁻, high dose (5.0 mM N-NO₃⁻) and low dose (5.0 mM N-NO₃⁻). Treatments with HA and NO were positively increased, regardless of the N-NO₃⁻ taken, as assessed by fresh weight and dry root, issue of LRs. The effects were more pronounced in the treatment with a lower dose of N-NO₃⁻. Detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vivo and catalase activity were evaluated; these tests were associated with root growth. Under application of the bioactive substances tested, detection of ROS and catalase activity increased, especially in treatments with lower doses of N-NO₃⁻. The results of this experiment indicate that the effects of HA are dependent on ROS generation, which act as a messenger that induces root growth and the emission of LRs.

  10. The Effect of Nozzle Types and Time of Herbicide Incorporation in Soil on Corn (Zea mays L. Weed Control

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    K Gerami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study the effect of nozzle types and the time of herbicide incorporation in soil on weed control, using split plot design by randomized block design. The main plots were soil and herbicide mixing time and the subplots were nozzle types with three replications. This study was performed in Karaj station of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, located 25 km west of Tehran, in 2008. Treatments were including: T-Jet standard nozzle, Flood-Jet nozzle and Air induction nozzle as well as mixing with the soil immediately, three, six and nine hours after spraying. The parameters were measured includes: the number of weeds before spraying, 15 days and 30 days after spraying; dry weed at two stages of 15 and 30 days after the spraying; and yield of corn. The results revealed that the spraying quality coefficient was greater for T-jet nozzle compared to the other types. However Flood-jet nozzle had a wide range of corn weeds control in comparison to other treatments. Regardless of the nozzle type, the immediate incorporation of herbicide in soil after spraying significantly increased the yield. The time of herbicide incorporation in soil and poison intermixture with soil, from zero to 4.5 hours after spraying was superior to the other times. This was mainly due to different weeds reactions to the times of herbicide incorporation in soil after spraying, and also treatments effect on yield and weed dry weight. Combined data analysis showed that treatment combination of T-Jet nozzle (with time of herbicide incorporation in soil immediately and three hours after spraying, Flood-jet nozzle (with time of herbicide incorporation in soil immediately after spraying and air induction nozzle (with time of herbicide incorporation in soil immediately, three and six hours after spraying produced the highest yield than the other treatment combinations.

  11. Possível fonte de resistência ao caruncho (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, 1855 em Milho-de-palha(Zea Mays, L. A possible source of resistance to Sitophilus zeamais in corn in the husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Marques Rezende

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se em condições de laboratório o comportamento, em relação ao Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky 1855 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, de milhos sintéticos (composto flint, composto dent. e centralmex, híbridos comerciais (Ag 152 e Hmd 7974, pipoca comercial (pirapoca e um milho supostamente resistente (acre. Analisaram-se as correlações. existentes entre o comprimento da palha além da ponta da espiga, compacidade, dureza do grão, ataque de Heliothis zea Boddie, 1850 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, com o ataque de Sitophilus zeamais. Os resultados sugerem que o fator mais importante na resistência do milho-em-palha, a Sitophilus zeamais é a compacidade da mesma, vindo em segundo lugar o furo causado pela saída da lagarta Heliothis zea que atinge o solo para entrar no estádio de pupa.Under laboratory conditions and artificial infestations, it was demonstrated that the open pollinated corn variety Acre collected in the Amazonas region was less infested by Sitophilus zeamais than six other corn germplasms (synthetics and hybrids utilized as checks. The Acre has longer husks beyond the tip, more compact husks, is a flint type corn and had the lowest percentage of ears with exit holes made by the Heliothis zea caterpillar. It is probable that the favorable combination of these four characteristics in only one variety explains its lower degree of infestation by the rice weevil. The compactness of the husk was the factor that showed the highest correlation with the degree of infestation by the weevil.

  12. Soil water capture trends over 50 years of single-cross maize (Zea mays L.) breeding in the US corn-belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Andres; Messina, Carlos D; Hammer, Graeme L; Liu, Lu; van Oosterom, Erik; Lafitte, Renee; Cooper, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Breeders have successfully improved maize (Zea mays L.) grain yield for the conditions of the US corn-belt over the past 80 years, with the past 50 years utilizing single-cross hybrids. Long-term improvement for grain yield under water-limited conditions has also been reported. Grain yield under water-limited conditions depends on water use, water use efficiency, and harvest index. It has been hypothesized that long-term genetic gain for yield could be due, in part, to increased water capture from the soil. This hypothesis was tested using a set of elite single-cross hybrids that were released by DuPont Pioneer between 1963 and 2009. Eighteen hybrids were grown in the field during 2010 and 2011 growing seasons at Woodland, CA, USA. Crops grew predominantly on stored soil water and drought stress increased as the season progressed. Soil water content was measured to 300cm depth throughout the growing season. Significant water extraction occurred to a depth of 240-300cm and seasonal water use was calculated from the change in soil water over this rooting zone. Grain yield increased significantly with year of commercialization, but no such trend was observed for total water extraction. Therefore, the measured genetic gain for yield for the period represented by this set of hybrids must be related to either increased efficiency of water use or increased carbon partitioning to the grain, rather than increased soil water uptake. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  13. Improving Soil Properties and Yield of Corn (Zea Mays L. by Application of Organic Amendment on Abandoned Tin-Mining Land in Bangka Island

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    Asmarhansyah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An abandoned land after tin-mining activities are degraded lands with undulating and destructed land scape and low soil fertility status. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of organic amendments on the soil properties, growth, and grain yield of corn (Zea mays L. on abandoned tin-mining areas in Bangka Island, Bangka Belitung Archipelago. The field experiment was conducted at the abandoned tin-mining areas in Cambai Village, Bangka Belitung Archipelago. Five treatments of organic amendments were applied and replicated three times and laid out in a Randomized Completely Block Design. All treatments were applied with the recommended rate fertilizer of 135 kg N ha-1, 72 kg P2O5 ha-1, and 120 kg K2O ha-1. The treatments were T1= 20 Mg chicken manure ha-1;T2= 20 Mg cattle manure ha-1; T3= 20 Mg rice straw compost ha-1; T4 : 10 Mg of chicken manure ha-1 + 10 Mg rice straw compost ha-1; and T5= 10 Mg cattlemanure ha-1 + 10 Mg rice straw compost ha-1. Application of organic amendments (chicken manure, cattle manure, and rice straw compost on abandoned tin-mining land improved soil fertility due to the increasing of soil pH and nutrient availability, especially available-P and -K, and exchangeable bases. Application of chicken manure and cattle manure were significantly better than rice straw compost to improving soil fertility, nutrient uptake, growth and yield of maize. Application of cattle manure gave the highest yield of maize, namely 6.24 Mg ha-1.

  14. Growth, 14C-sucrose uptake, and metabolites of starch synthesis in apical and basal kernels of corn (Zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Developing field-grown kernels of corn (Zea mays L. cv. Cornell 175) from the base and apex of the ear were sampled from seven to 70 days after pollination (DAP) an compared with respect to dry weight, ability to take up 14 C-sucrose from solution in vitro, and content of sucrose, glucose, starch, glucose-1-P (G1P), glucose-6-P (G6P), fructose-6-P (F6P), ADP-glucose (ADPG), and UDP-glucose (UDPG). ADPG and UDPG were analyzed by HPLC. All other metabolites were analyzed enzymatically. Simultaneous hand-pollination of all ovaries in an ear did not reduce the difference between apical and basal kernels in dry weight, indicating that the latter fertilization of apical kernels was not responsible for their lesser mature dry weight. Detached kernels took up 14 C-sucrose (0.3-400 mM) and glucose (5-100 mM) at rates linearly proportional to the sugar concentration. Glucose, fructose, and sorbitol did not inhibit uptake of 14 C-sucrose. Uptake was not stimulated by 5 mM CaCl 2 or the addition of buffers (pH 4.5-6.7) to the medium. Sulfhydryl reagents (PCMBS, NEM) and metabolic inhibitors (TNBS, DNP, NaF) did not reduce uptake. These observations suggest that sucrose is taken up by a non-saturable, non-energy-requiring mechanism. Sucrose uptake increased throughout development, especially at the stage when basal kernels began to accumulate more dry weight than apical kernels (10-20 DAP in freely pollinated ears; 25 DAP in synchronously pollinated ears). Hydrolysis of incorporated sucrose increased from 87% at 14 DAP to 99% by 57 DAP

  15. The Impact of Inter-Kernel Movement in the Evolution of Resistance to Dual-Toxin Bt-Corn Varieties in Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprio, Michael A; Martinez, Jeannette C; Porter, Patrick A; Bynum, Ed

    2016-02-01

    Seeds or kernels on hybrid plants are primarily F(2) tissue and will segregate for heterozygous alleles present in the parental F(1) hybrids. In the case of plants expressing Bt-toxins, the F(2) tissue in the kernels will express toxins as they would segregate in any F(2) tissue. In the case of plants expressing two unlinked toxins, the kernels on a Bt plant fertilized by another Bt plant would express anywhere from 0 to 2 toxins. Larvae of corn earworm [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)] feed on a number of kernels during development and would therefore be exposed to local habitats (kernels) that varied in their toxin expression. Three models were developed for plants expressing two Bt-toxins, one where the traits are unlinked, a second where the traits were linked and a third model assuming that maternal traits were expressed in all kernels as well as paternally inherited traits. Results suggest that increasing larval movement rates off of expressing kernels tended to increase durability while increasing movement rates off of nonexpressing kernels always decreased durability. An ideal block refuge (no pollen flow between blocks and refuges) was more durable than a seed blend because the refuge expressed no toxins, while pollen contamination from plants expressing toxins in a seed blend reduced durability. A linked-trait model in an ideal refuge model predicted the longest durability. The results suggest that using a seed-blend strategy for a kernel feeding insect on a hybrid crop could dramatically reduce durability through the loss of refuge due to extensive cross-pollination. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. A Study on the Effects of Pulp and Paper Industry Sludge on Sweet Corn Crops Grown in Containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Krasteva – Malinova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sludge which are produced from waste-water treatment facilities represent a serious environmental problem in terms of their storage. However, they also represent an organic reserve, biomass rich in macro and micronutrients for soils. Thus, sludge could be used to recover the balance of organic matter in soils. We aimed in the present study to determine the influence of sludge produced from a pulp factory on the development of mays (Zea mays in laboratory conditions.

  17. Yield and quality of sweet corn at different plant populationsProdutividade e qualidade do milho doce em diferentes populações de plantas

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    Renan Soares de Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the plant population density effect upon yield components and the chemical composition of grains in two sweet corn hybrids in “Winter-Spring” cultivation. The experimental design used was the complete randomized blocks with four replications. The treatments were based on the combination between two sweet corn hybrids (Tropical Plus e RB-6324 and five plant populations (40,000, 55.000, 70,000, 85,000 and 100,000 plants ha-1, in a factorial scheme 2 x 5, evaluated in two “winter-spring” growing seasons (2009 and 2010. The increment in the population of 40,000 to 100,000 plants ha-1 resulted in higher husked commercial corn ear productivity in both hybrids, Tropical Plus and RB-6324. The increase of plant population reduced the length and diameter of corn ears in Tropical Plus and RB-6324. The mass of the corn ears from Tropical Plus also reduced; however, it did not affect the commercial standard and industrial use. In larger plant populations the hybrid RB-6324 produced corn ears with grains that were sweeter and with lower starch content. The hybrid Tropical Plus presented higher mass, length, productivity, sugar content and lower diameter of corn ears when compared to RB-6324.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito da população de plantas sobre os componentes de produção e a composição química de grãos de dois híbridos de milho doce no cultivo de “Inverno – Primavera”. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos completos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se da combinação entre híbridos de milho doce (Tropical Plus e RB-6324 e populações de plantas (40.000, 55.000, 70.000, 85.000 e 100.000 plantas ha-1, no esquema fatorial 2 x 5, avaliados em dois anos agrícolas (2009 e 2010, em cultivo de Inverno-Primavera. O incremento na população de plantas de 40.000 até 100.000 plantas ha-1 resultou em maiores produtividades de

  18. Effect of germination on antinutritional factors, total, and extractable minerals of high and low phytate corn (Zea mays L. genotypes

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    Awad M. Sokrab

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Two corn genotypes, Var-113 (high phytate and TL-98B-6225-9×TL617 (low phytate were germinated for 6 days. The germinated seeds were dried and milled. Phytic acid, polyphenols, and hydrochloric acid (HCl extractable minerals were determined at intervals of two days of germination. Phytic acid decreased significantly (P ⩽ 0.05 with a concomitant increase in HCl extractable minerals, while polyphenol contents increased significantly (P ⩽ 0.05 with an increase in germination time. However, the major mineral content was initially decreased and then increased while that of trace minerals was increased with germination time. After 6 days of germination, the high phytate sample (Var-113 exhibited higher extractable calcium compared to the other genotype, whereas the low phytate sample (TL-98B-6225-9×TL617 showed higher extractable phosphorus. Iron extractability was higher for the low phytate samples, while that of magnesium was higher for the high phytate sample. High correlation between lower phytate and higher extractable minerals was noted as a function of longer germination time. Nevertheless, no correlation was observed between polyphenol content and mineral extractability level.

  19. Carbon Sequestration and Nitrogen Mineralization in Soil Cooperated with Organic Composts and Bio-char During Corn (Zea mays) Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joung-Du; Lee, Sun-Ill; Park, Wu-Gyun; Choi, Yong-Su; Hong, Seong-Gil; Park, Sang-Won

    2014-05-01

    Objectives of this study were to estimate the carbon sequestration and to evaluate nitrogen mineralization and nitrification in soils cooperated with organic composts and bio-char during corn cultivation. For the experiment, the soil used in this study was clay loam types, and application rates of chemical fertilizer and bio-char were recommended amount after soil test and 2 % to soil weight, respectively. The soil samples were periodically taken at every 15 day intervals during the experimental periods. The treatments were consisted of non-application, cow manure compost, pig manure compost, swine digestate from aerobic digestion system, their bio-char cooperation. For the experimental results, residual amount of inorganic carbon was ranged from 51 to 208kg 10a-1 in soil only cooperated with different organic composts. However it was estimated to be highest at 208kg 10a-1 in the application plot of pig manure compost. In addition to bio-char application, it was ranged from 187.8 to 286kg 10a-1, but was greatest accumulated at 160.3kg 10a-1 in the application plot of cow manure compost. For nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates, it was shown that there were generally low in the soil cooperated with bio-char compared to the only application plots of different organic composts except for 71 days after sowing. Also, they were observed to be highest in the application plot of swine digestate from aerobic digestion system. For the loss of total inorganic carbon (TIC) by run-off water, it was ranged from 0.18 to 0.36 kg 10a-1 in the different treatment plots. Also, with application of bio-char, total nitrogen was estimated to be reduced at 0.42(15.1%) and 0.38(11.8%) kg 10a-1 in application plots of the pig manure compost and aerobic digestate, respectively.

  20. Dynamic of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (AM fungus in a Humic Dystrudepts sowed with corn Zea mays L. and Green Compost (GC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Vélez Zabala

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Green Compost (GC have a positive impact on physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil, among them, the expression of the MA. In a Humic Dystrudepts in a mountainous area of Palmira (Valle five treatments were established: (T, fertilization of insdustrial chemical synthesis (FQ, green manure (AV, Compost (C and green manure compost (AVC, in a settlement of randomized complete blocks with three replications. As GC intermingled Canavalia ensiformis L. and Axonopus scoparius F., were harvested in prefloration of the legume, incorporated and became the first planting of corn, variety ICA V-354, monitored during 150 days, until time of fill of cob, when assessed length total external mycelium, LMET (Technical of the membrane filter method and the intercepted of Miller and Jastrow, that alive and active LMEV (succinate dehydrogenase, Hamel et al., 1990 and percentage of colonization by branch out manifold (Phillips and Hayman, 1980, described by Sieverding, 1983 and adapted for this crop, Sanchez et al. , 2010. The analysis of variance (SASR software version 9.1.3 showed that LMET, LMEV and % of branch out manifold showed highly significant differences between treatments. Greater LMET, coincided with increases in LMEV, colonization by branch out manifold and is presented in GC C, followed by AV, C and T, which did not vary among themselves, and, the lowest in CF. The coincidence of these three variables, would indicate that through LMET and especially, LMEV is absorbing and transporting P to the inside of the plants, and this supply, coinciding with higher % of colonization by branch out manifold, traces the path of the conjunction P in the soil-plantorganic fertilization, with their consequences on the economy of the agroecosystem and farmer.

  1. Thermal Requirement and the Response of Corn Hybrids (Zea mays L. to Different Planting Dates in Isfahan

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    P. Vafa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To study the thermal requirements of grain corn hybrids, at different planting dates, a field experiment was carried out in the Agricultural Research Center of Isfahan, Iran in 2007 - 2008. It was conducted in split plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Planting dates (June, 5- June, 20 and July, 5 were assigned to main plots and hybrids (BC404، KSC320، OSSK552، KSC500، OSSK713 and KSC704 to sub plots. Results indicated that there was no significant difference for growing degree-days (GDD requirements from planting to germination among hybrids and planting dates. However, KSC704 hybrid in the first planting date needed the highest GDD during its different growth stages. KSC 500 hybrid with 6.31 (t/ha and OSSK 713 hybrid with 6.48 (t/ha produced the highest grain yields. The highest number of grains per ear row belonged to KSC320 Hybrid (18.83. KSC704, OSSK713, OSSK 552, and BC404 possessed the highest kernels per ear row, 44.63, 44.59 and 44.74 kernels respectively. The highest thousand kernel weight (288.12 g was also observed in BC 404 hybrids. The highest protein content was related to the third planting date. However, its percentages in all hybrids, except KSC 320 hybrid, were similar. KSC 500 hybrid had the highest phosphorous content (243 mg/100g. The highest plant disease incidences were observed in KSC 320 and KSC 404 hybrids. KSC 704 hybrid, in the mean time, showed the highest ear contamination percentage. The conclusion is that OSSK713 hybrid and the second planting date produced the highest seed yield in Isfahan, Iran.

  2. Response of corn silage (Zea mays L. to zinc fertilization on a sandy soil under field and

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    Saad Drissi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the experiments was to evaluate zinc (Zn fertilization effect on growth, yield and yield components of corn silage grown on a sandy soil under field and outdoor container conditions. Six rates of Zn supply (0 or control; 1.5; 3; 5; 10 and 50 mg kg−1 were tested. They were split at three different times during the growing season: (i 50% immediately after sowing, (ii 25% at 4–5 leaf stage and (iii 25% at 8–9 leaf stage. These Zn rates were applied to the soil surface as a solution of Zn sulfate (ZnSO4·7H2O. Zn deficiency symptoms appeared at an earlier stage (4–5 leaf stage as white stripes between the midrib and the margin of leaves for a Zn rate below or equal to 5 mg kg−1. Severity of these symptoms manifested more in container than in field. For both experiments, Zn supply induced a significant increase in stem height and leaf area. Furthermore, in both experiments, control plants showed a notable delay in achieving anthesis, silking, pollination and kernels maturity. The maximum shoot dry weight at harvest was recorded with Zn supply of 5 mg kg−1 in field experiment and 10 mg kg−1 in containers experiment. The shoot dry weight was especially linked to kernels dry weight. This latter was mainly enhanced through two compounds: 1000 kernels dry weight and pollination rate. On the other hand, outdoor container results can be used to help predict field plant responses to Zn except for control treatment.

  3. Optimasi Konsentrasi Ekstrak Alang-Alang (Imperata cylindrica L. untuk Memacu Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Jagung Manis (Zea mays Saccharata Sturt

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    Mayta Novaliza Isda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sweet corn (Zea mays saccharata Struts a type of corn of high economic value, not only used for consumption also used to make syrup. Imperata is one of the weeds that interfere with crop cultivation, but efforts continue to be made use of weeds as an addition to soil organic matter. The study was conducted to determine the concentration of the extract Imperata (Imperata cylindrica L. appropriate in the sweet corn growth and determine the concentration of extract proper Imperata in the growth and production. The research method is a Completely Randomized Design (CRD with 9 treatments and 3 replicates. The results showed that treatment of Imperata extracts with varying concentrations significantly influenced the growth of plant height and leaf number. But not significantly to the growth of the leaf length, leaf width, stem diameter, number of rows per cob, number of seeds per row and plant dry weight. At a concentration of 200 g / 250 ml was able to reduce the vegetative and generative growth of sweet corn.

  4. PENDUGAAN UMUR SIMPAN JAGUNG MANIS BERDASARKAN KANDUNGAN TOTAL PADATAN TERLARUT DENGAN MODEL ARRHENIUS (Shelf Life Estimation of Sweet Corn Based on Its Total Soluble Solid by Using Arrhenius Model

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    Rita Khatir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sweet corn has short shelf life at room temperature storage in the tropical countries (28-33°C. The quality deterioration of sweet corn can be determined by the decrease of its sugar content. The study aimed to estimate the shelf life of sweet corn based on the reduction of its total soluble solid (TSS by using Arrhenius model. The samples were prepared from fresh harvested corn stored for 10 days at 3 different temperatures of 5, 15 and 28 °C. Total soluble solid (TSS were analyzed every day by using abbe refractrometer. Organoleptic analysis was used by using hedonic scales from 1 to 7. The analysis was conducted until respondents had graded the samples at score 5 (dislike slightly, 6 (dislike and approaches can be used to calculate the shelf life of sweet corn. The acceleration factor for the TSS degradation at null approach, it was estimated that if the sweet corn were stored at temperature of 30, 25, 20, 15, 10 and 5°C, the shelf temperatures, the shelf life of sweet corn would be 3.7, 4.5, 5.6, 6.8, 8.4, and 10.3 days. In conclusion, the shelf life predictions of sweet corn were valid well with the experimental results. Keywords: Sweet corn, shelf life, total soluble solid   ABSTRAK Umur simpan jagung manis relatif singkat apalagi kalau disimpan pada suhu ruang di negara-negara tropis (28-32°C. Kerusakan jagung manis dapat diindikasikan dengan penurunan kandungan gulanya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menduga umur simpan jagung manis berdasarkan reaksi penurunan kandungan total padatan terlarutnya (TPT dengan pendekatan model Arrhenius. Jagung manis segar yang baru siap panen segera disimpan selama 10 hari pada 3 kombinasi suhu yaitu 5, 15 dan 28°C. Setiap hari dilakukan analisis kandungan TPT dengan . Uji organoleptik dilakukan dengan skala hedonik 1-7. Proses pengamatan dihentikan apabila responden telah memberikan nilai 5 (agak tidak suka, 6 (tidak suka dan 7 (sangat tidak suka. Pendekatan model Arrhenius dilakukan dengan dua

  5. PHYSIOLOGIC QUALITY OF SEEDS AND AGRONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF SWEET CORN GENOTYPES QUALIDADE FISIOLÓGICA DE SEMENTES E DESEMPENHO AGRONÔMICO DE GENÓTIPOS DE MILHO DOCE

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    Aracelle Assunção

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    This study was developed to evaluate the agronomic performance and  physiological quality of seeds of six commercial sweet corn simple hybrids, fifteen double hybrids obtained from crossings among the simple hybrids, taken two by two, and one control. The field phase was conducted in Goiânia (16°35'S, 49°21'W and 730 m of altitude, in a clay Oxisol. It was used a randomized complete design,  with four replications. The yield, percentage of standard ears without straw, percentage of industrial yield, total soluble solids content, measured chlorophyll content, and total sugars content were determined. The germination tests cold without soil  (modified, accelerated aging, and tetrazolium were carried out for physiological quality seed evaluation. From the physiological tests, the percentage values and emission indexes of primary root were calculated. The results showed genetic potential among the genotypes tested for agronomic characters and seed quality. Thus, the use of those genotypes in plant breeding programs could happen through the composite  obtention of inbred lines, mainly for the characters productivity of ears with straw, industrial yield, chlorophyll content, and modified cold test.

    KEY-WORDS: Zea mays; total sugar; vigor; chlorophyll.

    Este estudo buscou avaliar o desempenho agronômico e a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de seis híbridos simples comerciais de milho doce, quinze híbridos duplos obtidos dos cruzamentos entre os híbridos simples, tomados dois a dois, e uma testemunha. A fase de campo foi conduzida em Goiânia (16°35'S, 49º21'W e altitude m

  6. The influence of microbial-based inoculants on N2O emissions from soil planted with corn (Zea mays L.) under greenhouse conditions with different nitrogen fertilizer regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Pamela; Watts, Dexter B; Kloepper, Joseph W; Torbert, H Allen

    2016-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions are increasing at an unprecedented rate owing to the increased use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers. Thus, new innovative management tools are needed to reduce emissions. One potential approach is the use of microbial inoculants in agricultural production. In a previous incubation study, we observed reductions in N 2 O emissions when microbial-based inoculants were added to soil (no plants present) with N fertilizers under laboratory incubations. This present study evaluated the effects of microbial-based inoculants on N 2 O and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions when applied to soil planted with corn (Zea mays L.) under controlled greenhouse conditions. Inoculant treatments consisted of (i) SoilBuilder (SB), (ii) a metabolite extract of SoilBuilder (SBF), and (iii) a mixture of 4 strains of plant-growth-promoting Bacillus spp. (BM). Experiments included an unfertilized control and 3 N fertilizers: urea, urea - ammonium nitrate with 32% N (UAN-32), and calcium - ammonium nitrate with 17% N (CAN-17). Cumulative N 2 O fluxes from pots 41 days after planting showed significant reductions in N 2 O of 15% (SB), 41% (BM), and 28% (SBF) with CAN-17 fertilizer. When UAN-32 was used, reductions of 34% (SB), 35% (SBF), and 49% (BM) were obtained. However, no reductions in N 2 O emissions occurred with urea. Microbial-based inoculants did not affect total CO 2 emissions from any of the fertilized treatments or the unfertilized control. N uptake was increased by an average of 56% with microbial inoculants compared with the control (nonmicrobial-based treatments). Significant increases in plant height, SPAD chlorophyll readings, and fresh and dry shoot mass were also observed when the microbial-based treatments were applied (with and without N). Overall, results demonstrate that microbial inoculants can reduce N 2 O emissions following fertilizer application depending on the N fertilizer type used and can enhance N uptake and plant growth. Future

  7. PENAMBAHAN SUSU BUBUK FULL CREAM PADA PEMBUATAN PRODUK MINUMAN FERMENTASI DARI BAHAN BAKU EKSTRAK JAGUNG MANIS [Addition of Full Cream Milk Powder in the Production of Fermented Drink Made from Sweet Corn Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartati Chairunnisa*

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the effect of full cream milk powder addition to the quality of fermented drink from sweet corn extract. The quality examined were total bacteria, total solid, lactic acid content, and acceptability including colour, texture, flavor, and overall acceptance. The experiment was set up in a Completly Randomized Design with five levels of full cream milk powder (8, 10, 12, 14, 16% and four replications. The results showed that addition 12% of full cream milk powder in sweet corn extract resulted in acceptable fermented drink containing of 11.2 x 109 cfu/g lactic acid bacteria, 17.8% total solid, and 0.95% lactic acid. This formula had yellow color, desired texture & flavor and recieived the highest score of overall acceptance.

  8. Comparação de modelos matemáticos para descrição das curvas de dessorção de sementes de milho-doce Comparison of mathematical models for description of desorption curves of sweet corn seeds

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    Eduardo Fontes Araújo

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as curvas de dessorção das sementes de milho-doce (Zea mays L., cultivares Superdoce e Doce Cristal, e ajustar diferentes modelos matemáticos aos dados obtidos. As sementes das duas cultivares foram submetidas à dessorção em diversos níveis de temperatura (30, 40, 50 e 60°C, combinados com diferentes umidades relativas do ar (30, 40, 50 e 60%, até atingirem a umidade de equilíbrio. Os seguintes modelos matemáticos foram ajustados por análise de regressão: Henderson-Thompson, Chung-Pfost, Copace, Sigma-Copace, Sabbah e Smith. As sementes das duas cultivares apresentaram umidades de equilíbrio higroscópico semelhantes. Os valores da variância explicada e do desvio-padrão, bem como a distribuição dos resíduos, das duas cultivares, indicam que as equações de Chung-Pfost, Sabbah e Smith foram as que melhor se ajustaram aos dados experimentais, com pequena superioridade da primeira.This work had the goal to determine the desorption curves of seeds of sweet corn cultivars Superdoce and Doce Cristal, and to adjust mathematical models to obtained data. Corn seeds were submitted to desorption under different temperature conditions (30, 40, 50 and 60°C, associated with different relative humidity (30, 40, 50 and 60% until reaching the equilibrium humidity. The following models of regression analysis were adjusted to the experimental data: Henderson-Thompson, Chung-Pfost, Copace, Sigma-Copace, Sabbah and Smith. Seeds of both cultivars showed similar hygroscopic equilibrium. For both cultivars, the equations of Chung-Pfost, Sabbah and Smith, showed the best adjustments to the experimental data, with slight superiority of the first one.

  9. Corn Culture: A Story of Intelligent Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Jude

    2008-01-01

    Scientists are not sure of how corn was created. There were two competing genetic theories about how corn came to be. One theory maintains that corn had been teased out of a wheatlike grass called teosinte (genus Zea), and the other contends that one now-extinct ancestor of corn had crossed with another grass, "Tripsacum," several millennia ago.…

  10. INFLUENCE OF CROP SEQUENCES ON AGRONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CORN (Zea mays L. UNDER NO-TILLAGE INFLUÊNCIA DE SUCESSÃO DE CULTURAS SOBRE CARACTERÍSTICAS AGRONÔMICAS DO MILHO (Zea mays L. EM PLANTIO DIRETO

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    Liovando Marciano da Costa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Evoluated agronomic characteristics of corn in six crop sequences (corn-corn, soybean-corn, sunflower-corn, pearl milletcorn, sorghum-corn and pigeon pea-corn under no-tillage for three years, in Rio Verde, Goiás State. Significance was observed by the test F for plant height, 100 grain weight and grain moisture. Pigeon pea, soybean, sunflower and pearl millet, resulted in taller corn plants. No statistical differences were found between crop sequences for corn grain yield and other characteristics.

    KEY-WORDS: Crop sequences; corn; agronomic characteristics.

    Avaliaram-se características agronômicas na cultura do milho em seis sucessões de culturas (milho-milho, soja-milho,girassol-milho, milheto-milho, sorgo-milho e guandu milho em plantio direto, durante três anos, em Rio Verde, Goiás. Observou-se significância, pelo teste F, para altura de planta, peso de 100 grãos e umidade dos grãos na colheita. Guandu, soja, girassol e milheto proporcionaram maior altura da planta de milho. Não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas entre as sucessões para produtividades de grãos e demais características avaliadas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Sucessão de culturas; milho; características agronômicas.

  11. Monitoring the environmental effects of CeO2 and ZnO nanoparticles through the life cycle of corn (Zea mays) plants and in situ μ-XRF mapping of nutrients in kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lijuan; Sun, Youping; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Hong, Jie; Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Niu, Genhua; Duarte-Gardea, Maria; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-03-03

    Information about changes in physiological and agronomic parameters through the life cycle of plants exposed to engineered nanoparticles (NPs) is scarce. In this study, corn (Zea mays) plants were cultivated to full maturity in soil amended with either nCeO2 or nZnO at 0, 400, and 800 mg/kg. Gas exchange was monitored every 10 days, and at harvest, bioaccumulation of Ce and Zn in tissues was determined by ICP-OES/MS. The effects of NPs exposure on nutrient concentration and distribution in ears were also evaluated by ICP-OES and μ-XRF. Results showed that nCeO2 at both concentrations did not impact gas exchange in leaves at any growth stage, while nZnO at 800 mg/kg reduced net photosynthesis by 12%, stomatal conductance by 15%, and relative chlorophyll content by 10% at day 20. Yield was reduced by 38% with nCeO2 and by 49% with nZnO. Importantly, μ-XRF mapping showed that nCeO2 changed the allocation of calcium in kernels, compared to controls. In nCeO2 treated plants, Cu, K, Mn, and Zn were mainly localized at the insertion of kernels into cobs, but Ca and Fe were distributed in other parts of the kernels. Results showed that nCeO2 and nZnO reduced corn yield and altered quality of corn.

  12. The effect of extrusion and drying on roller techniques concerning the rheological characteristics of rice-, corn-, sweet potato-, bean- and cassava root- and leaf- based composite flour

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    Johanna Aristizábal Galvis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Promoting food security in Latin-America and the Caribbean is directly related to agricultural products. The region faces a food crisis which has reduced large population groups’ access to food. This work contributes to the study of obtaining precooked composite flour made from biofortified crops using protein, vitamin A and/or minerals. This study evaluated the effect of precooked flour’s composition and precooking on its solubility in water, water absorption capacity, consistency and viscosity; such flour was obtained by extrusion and drying on rollers. The composite flours were obtained from cassava roots, sweet potato tubers, corn, rice and bean grains and cassava leaves. Four composite flours were formulated taking four- to six-year-old children’s daily nutrient requirements (protein, iron, zinc and beta-carotenes as a basis. The extruder was operated at 90ºC, 300 rpm screw rotation speed, 17.64 g/min feed flow, with 30% moisture mixture. The dryer rollers were operated at 4 rpm roller rotation speed, 90ºC surface temperature and 1 mm separation between rollers. It was determined that flour dried on rollers led to more complete cooking and modified starch granule structure than precooking by extrusion, thereby producing flour having greater solubility in water, less water absorption, higher consistency and smaller viscosity, comparable to that of pattern flour.

  13. Efektivitas Amelioran pada Lahan Gambut Terdegradasi untuk Meningkatkan Pertumbuhan dan Serapan NPK Tanaman Jagung Manis (Zea mays L. var. saccharata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Maftu’ah

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the effectiveness of several of ameliorant formulas to increase plant growthand NPK uptake on sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. saccharata on degraded peatlands. The research was conducted in thegreenhouse of Balittra during May to July 2011. Sweet corn was planted in pot with soil taken from previously burnt peatin Kalampangan, Palangkaraya. The treatment consisted of two factors, i.e., combination of ameliorant (A1=80% chicken manure + 20% dolomite, A2=80% agricultural weeds + 20% dolomite, A3=80% mineral soil (Spodosol + 20% dolomite,A4=20% chicken manure + 20% agricultural weeds + 20% Eleocharis dulcis + 20% mineral soil + 20% dolomite, andA5=19% chicken manure + 71.5% mineral soil + 9.5% dolomite and application rates at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 ton ha-1, arranged in a randomized complete block design, with 3 replications. The results showed that ameliorants and application rates affected growth and NPK uptake of sweet corn. Application of 20 ton ameliorant (80% chicken manure + 20% dolomite ha-1 produced the highest dry weight of root and shoot, and NPK uptake.Keywords: ameliorants, degraded peatland, nitrogen, phosphate, potassium

  14. Conservação pós-colheita de espigas de milho verde minimamente processado sob diferentes temperaturas Post-harvest conservation of fresh-cut corn on the cob (Zea maiz L. under different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Mara Goulart Nunes Mamede

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito de três temperaturas (5ºC, 8ºC e 11ºC, na qualidade de híbridos de milho verde (Zea maiz L. com endosperma normal, minimamente processado, durante oito dias de armazenamento, com avaliações a cada dois dias. Foram utilizadas espigas de dois híbridos, sendo um comercial da Sementes Agroceres (Ag 1051 e outro do programa de melhoramento da Embrapa Milho e Sorgo (Embrapa HT1. A temperatura de 5ºC foi a que melhor preservou a qualidade das espigas dos híbridos de milho verde estudados, por proporcionar perda de massa reduzida e manutenção dos teores de sólidos solúveis, frutose e glicose. O híbrido Ag 1051 apresentou menor perda de massa, maiores valores de umidade e maior teor de frutose. O Embrapa HT1 apresentou maiores valores iniciais e finais para os teores de sólidos solúveis e maior valor para a coloração b*. O valor L*, que indica quãoclaro e escuro é produto, também diminuiu ao longo do armazenamento, indicando escurecimento das espigas ao longo do armazenamento.This work had the aim of evaluating the effect of three temperatures (5ºC, 8ºC and 11ºC on the quality of fresh-cut corn on the cob (Zea maiz L. with normal endosperm, for 8 days, with analyses taken every two days. Corn on the cob of two hybrids was used, a commercial common type from Sementes Agroceres (Ag 1051 and the other from the breeding program Embrapa Milho e Sorgo (Embrapa HT1. The temperature of 5ºC was more efficient to preserve the quality of normal corn by promoting reduced mass loss and higher contents of soluble solids, fructose and glucose. The hybrid Ag 1051 presented lower mass loss, higher contents of moisture and higher content of fructose. The hybrid Embrapa HT1 presented higher initial and final values for soluble solids and higher b* value. The L* value also decreased along storage, indicating browning of the corns along the storage.

  15. Water stress and nitrogen limitation effects on corn (Zea mays L.) competition with a C3 and a C4 weed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, E; Soufizadeh, S; Eskandari, A

    2006-01-01

    To examine how drought and nitrogen limitation might affect crop competitive ability with C3 or C4 weeds, a two year experiment was conducted at the research field of Plant Pest and Disease Research Institute, Karaj, in 2002 and 2003. Irrigation interval (every 7d and 14d (moderate drought stress)), nitrogen rate (recommended and 1/4 recommended), and crop-weed competition (corn, corn-common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.), corn-redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), and corn-common lambsquarters-redroot pigweed) were studied in a split-factorial design with 4 replications, with irrigation interval as the main plot, and factorial combination of the other two factors as the sub-plot. Grain yield, harvest index (HI), water and nitrogen use efficiencies (WUE and NUE, respectively) were measured at harvest. Drought and nitrogen deficiency reduced corn grain yield and HI (except for corn-redroot pigweed and corn-common lambsquarters treatments under drought stress). Redroot pigweed was found inhibitorier to corn compared to common lambsquarters in all irrigation and nitrogen levels. Corn WUE reduced under drought condition and competition, but drought caused less reduction in corn WUE when it competed with common lambsquarters compared to redroot pigweed. This shows that drought has more negative effect on C3 weeds (probably due to higher reduction in stomatal conductance and increment in photo-respiration under these conditions compared to a C4 plant). The same result was obtained for corn NUE under nitrogen limitation and competition. In other words, nitrogen deficiency had more inhibitory effect on common lambsquarters competitive ability compared with redroot pigweed. Totally, it was concluded that drought stress and nitrogen deficiency, as the two results of climate change, had more negative effect on C3 weeds compared with C4.

  16. 7 CFR 810.401 - Definition of corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of corn. 810.401 Section 810.401... GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Terms Defined § 810.401 Definition of corn. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of shelled dent corn and/or shelled flint corn (Zea mays L...

  17. [Suitability study for super sweet corn on the ears hybrids under refrigerated conditions evaluating chemicals microbiological and sensorial characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, C; Alfonzo, B; Ortiz de Bertorelli, L; De Venanzi, F

    2001-06-01

    Krispy King, Víctor and 324, super sweet hybrids (sh2) were cultivated in San Joaquín, estado Carabobo, Venezuela. The scheme was stablished to produce refrigerated fresh ears to be commercialized. The chemistry, microbiology and sensorial characteristics were evaluated at 0; 7; 14; 21 and 28 days of storage. One hundred ears of each hybrid were picked at the ripe fresh stage and packed in polystyrene trays covered with polyethylene. The storage temperature was 4 degrees C +/- 1 degree C. The scheme used was well adapted, allowing a good stability of the ears until 28 days of storing. The plastic cover avoid the lost of humidity. The soluble solids, total sugars and pH went down during the storage. The acidity and the microorganisms increased as expected. The sensorial variables kept the same for Krispy king and Víctor, while the hybrid 324 shown the lowest humidity content, the highest count of microorganisms and the poorest sensorial quality.

  18. Diapause hormone in the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea: Optimum temperature for activity, structure–activity relationships, and efficacy in accelerating flesh fly pupariation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, Q.; Žďárek, Jan; Nachman, R. J.; Denlinger, D. L.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2008), s. 196-205 ISSN 0196-9781 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : diapause hormone * neuropeptide analogs * diapause termination * pupariation * Helicoverpa zea Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.565, year: 2008

  19. Zea mays

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr kelechi

    The effect of spent oil pollution on the growth and performance of Zea mays at different stages of growth was investigated in this study. It involved addition of different quantities of spent oil to soils where Zea mays plants at different stages of growth were growing on. The plants showed differential response to quantities of ...

  20. Double-Mutated 5-Enol Pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate Synthase Protein Expressed in MZHG0JG Corn (Zea mays L.) Has No Impact on Toxicological Safety and Nutritional Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Bethany A; Launis, Karen L; Bauman, Patricia A; Juba, Nicole C

    2017-09-27

    MZHG0JG corn will offer growers the flexibility to alternate between herbicides with two different modes of action in their weed-management programs, helping to mitigate and manage the evolution of herbicide resistance in weed populations. The proteins conferring herbicide tolerence in MZHG0JG corn, double-mutated 5-enol pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase protein (mEPSPS) and phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT), as well as the MZHG0JG corn event, have been assessed by regulatory authorities globally and have been determined to be safe for humans, animals, and the environment. In addition to the safety data available for these proteins, further studies were conducted on MZHG0JG corn to assess levels of mEPSPS as compared to previously registered genetically modified (GM) corn. The results support the conclusion of no impact on toxicological safety or nutritional composition.

  1. Effect of planting time and density of Corn, Zea mays L on growth and yield of Taro Colocasia esculenta (L. Schott var. Antiquorum under policulture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Tri Purnamasari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research are to study effect of planting time and plant density of corn to growth and yield of taro using policulture system. The research carried out at September 2012- Juli 2013 in Landungsari Village, Malang. Research applied with split plot design, where planting time as main plot consisting: 30 days before taro planting, same time taro and corn planting and 30 days after taro planting. The density between subplots are 15.000 plants/ha, 29.000 plants/ha and 43.000 plants/ha which repeated three times. Result showed the best planting time in policulture of taro and corn is planted corn 30 days afer planted taro, taro yield 14,12 ton/ha. The corn best density is 15.000 plant/ha which resulting yield 16,13 ton/ha.

  2. Efeitos do ultra-som de baixa intensidade na germinação de sementes de milho (Zea mays L. sob diferentes condições de disponibilidade hídrica Effects of low intensity ultrasound on the germination of corn seeds (Zea mays L. under different water availabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Hebling

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os efeitos do ultra-som de baixa intensidade (230 e 1750 W/m² sobre o desempenho de sementes de milho (Zea mays L. utilizando situações variáveis quanto à disponibilidade hídrica. A emergência e o desenvolvimento de estruturas embrionárias reagem proporcionalmente à disponibilidade de água, não havendo influência marcante do tratamento com ultra-som nos fenômenos envolvidos na germinação das sementes. Contudo, são detectáveis tendências indicadoras de interferência positiva desse tratamento no desenvolvimento das plántulas em situações de deficiência hídrica.The effects of low intensity ultrasound on the performance of corn seeds (Zea mays L., were investigated at two intensity levels, 230 and 175 mW/m². This study analysed the ultrasound effects on the germination under different water availabilities. The emergence and development of embryonic structures do react proportionally to the water availability and the treatment with ultrasound has no pronounced influency on the phenomena related to seed germination. However, a tendency of positive interference of this treatment in the seedling development in hidrie deficiency situations is detectable.

  3. Bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of free phenolic compounds and oligosaccharides from corn (Zea mays L.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) chips during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and simulated colonic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo-Ocampo, I; Campos-Vega, R; Gaytán-Martínez, M; Preciado-Ortiz, R; Mendoza, S; Loarca-Piña, G

    2017-10-01

    Corn (Zea mays L.) and common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are alternative suitable ingredients for snacks, because of their content of bioactive compounds such as phenolic compounds (PC) and oligosaccharides (OS). However, there is no information about the transformation of these compounds associated with food matrix during gastrointestinal digestion. Therefore, the objective of this work was to simulate the whole digestion process (mouth to colon) to estimate bioaccessibility and small intestine permeability of free PC and OS, and the antioxidant capacity of free PC. Digested nixtamalized corn-cooked common bean chips exhibited significant different quantities of free PC and OS, and higher antioxidant activity compared to methanolic extract. The free PC showed high values of apparent permeability coefficients (0.023-0.729×10 -3 ), related with their absorption in the small intestine. Both free PC and OS were retained in the non-digestible fraction of chips (10.24-64.4%) and were able to reach the colon. Our results suggest the digestion potential to increase chip bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Additional studies are required to evaluate their in vivo effects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Composition of grain and forage from insect-protected and herbicide-tolerant corn, MON 89034 × TC1507 × MON 88017 × DAS-59122-7 (SmartStax), is equivalent to that of conventional corn (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundry, Denise R; Burns, J Austin; Nemeth, Margaret A; Riordan, Susan G

    2013-02-27

    Monsanto Company and Dow AgroSciences LLC have developed the combined-trait corn product MON 89034 × TC1507 × MON 88017 × DAS-59122-7 (SmartStax, a registered trademark of Monsanto Technology LLC). The combination of four biotechnology-derived events into a single corn product (stacking) through conventional breeding provides broad protection against lepidopteran and corn rootworm insect pests as well as tolerance to the glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium herbicide families. The purpose of the work described here was to assess whether the nutrient, antinutrient, and secondary metabolite levels in grain and forage tissues of the combined-trait product are comparable to those in conventional corn. Compositional analyses were conducted on grain and forage from SmartStax, a near-isogenic conventional corn hybrid (XE6001), and 14 conventional reference hybrids, grown at multiple locations across the United States. No statistically significant differences between SmartStax and conventional corn were observed for the 8 components analyzed in forage and for 46 of the 52 components analyzed in grain. The six significant differences observed in grain components (p corn, as previously demonstrated for the single-event products.

  5. Zea mays

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 mars 2016 ... pour la culture de maïs (Zea mays) dans la Région de Mbujimayi, RDC. 9416. Contribution à l'étude de la gestion intégrée de la fertilité du sol pour la culture de maïs (Zea mays) dans la Région de Mbujimayi, RDC. Nkongolo Mulambuila Michel, Mutombo Tshibamba Jean Michel, Cibanda Mutombo Justin, ...

  6. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping of Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Host Plant Resistance in Two Populations of Doubled Haploid Lines in Maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Martin O; Marroquin, Juan J; Flint-Garcia, Sherry; Dashiell, Kenton; Willmot, David B; Hibbard, Bruce E

    2018-02-09

    Over the last 70 yr, more than 12,000 maize accessions have been screened for their level of resistance to western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (LeConte; Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), larval feeding. Less than 1% of this germplasm was selected for initiating recurrent selection or other breeding programs. Selected genotypes were mostly characterized by large root systems and superior root regrowth after root damage caused by western corn rootworm larvae. However, no hybrids claiming native (i.e., host plant) resistance to western corn rootworm larval feeding are currently commercially available. We investigated the genetic basis of western corn rootworm resistance in maize materials with improved levels of resistance using linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches. Two populations of topcrossed doubled haploid maize lines (DHLs) derived from crosses between resistant and susceptible maize lines were evaluated for their level of resistance in three to four different environments. For each DHL topcross an average root damage score was estimated and used for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. We found genomic regions contributing to western corn rootworm resistance on all maize chromosomes, except for chromosome 4. Models fitting all QTL simultaneously explained about 30 to 50% of the genotypic variance for root damage scores in both mapping populations. Our findings confirm the complex genetic structure of host plant resistance against western corn rootworm larval feeding in maize. Interestingly, three of these QTL regions also carry genes involved in ascorbate biosynthesis, a key compound we hypothesize is involved in the expression of western corn rootworm resistance. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Desempenho produtivo de juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 alimentados com rações contendo farinha de crueira de mandioca (Manihot esculenta, Crantz em substituição ao milho (Zea mays Performance of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 fed diets containing crueira manioc flour (Manihot esculenta, Crantz in replacement of corn (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Pereira Pereira Junior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desempenho produtivo de juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, alimentados com níveis crescentes de farinha de crueira de mandioca, Manihot esculenta (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100%, como substituto do milho (Zea mays. Os peixes (peso médio inicial de 6,6 ± 0,1 g foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em 24 grupos (20 peixes/grupo e alimentados com as dietas experimentais em quatro repetições para avaliação da performance de crescimento, eficiência alimentar, composição corporal e os custos de produção. As performances de crescimento não foram afetados pelos tratamentos. O teor de lipídio no músculo foi diferentemente significativo em peixes alimentados com 40% e 100% em relação aos outros tratamentos. O custo de produção de milho diminuiu linearmente com a substituição. O valor da dieta diminuiu de R $ 1,43 kg-1 a R $ 1,21 kg-1 e o peixe de R $ 1,54 kg-1 a R $ 1,30 peixe kg-1. Concluiu-se que o milho pode ser totalmente substituído por farinha de crueira de mandioca na dieta de juvenil de tambaqui, sem prejudicar o seu desempenho.The main objective of this study was to evaluate the productive performance of young tambaqui (Colossoma macropum, fed with increasing levels of cassava flour, Manihot esculenta (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100%, as corn (Zea mays replacement. Fish (initial body weight 6.6 ± 0.1 g were randomly distributed in 24 groups (20 fish/group with four replications. They were fed with the experimental diets for evaluation of growth performances, feed utilization, body composition and production costs. Growth performances were not affected by the dietary treatments. Lipid content in muscle were significant different in fish fed 40% and 100% substitution when compared to the other treatments. The production cost decreased linearly with corn substitution. Diet decreased from R$ 1.43 kg-1 to R$ 1.21 kg-1 and fish production cost from R$ 1.54 kg-1 to R$ 1.30 kg-1 fish. It was

  8. Granules morphology and rheological behavior of green banana (Musa cavendishii and corn (Zea mays starch gels Morfologia dos grânulos e comportamento reológico dos géis de amido de banana verde (Musa cavendishii e milho (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Rosalyn Izidoro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, it was used starch obtained from green banana (Musa cavendishii and commercial corn (Zea mays starch in order to compare the granule morphology and the rheological behavior of these gel-starches. Images of starch granules morphology were obtained from scanning electron microscope (SEM. The banana starch granules presented an oval and ellipsoidal shape with irregular diameters. Neverthless, the granules of corn starch showed a poliedric shape, with different sizes. The rheological behavior of gel starch solutions showed a non-newtonian character with a pseudoplastic behavior. Herschel-Bulkley model gave a good description on the rheological behavior of the gel starch. Banana gel-starch solutions showed higher values of shear stress and apparent viscosity when compared with corn gel-starch solutions. A progressive decrease in shear stress and viscosity occurred with the addition of sodium chloride and sucrose.No presente trabalho foi utilizado amido obtido de banana verde (Musa cavendishii e amido de milho (Zea mays comercial, com o objetivo de comparar a morfologia dos grânulos e o comportamento reológico dos géis. As imagens da morfologia dos grânulos foram obtidas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os grânulos de amido da banana apresentaram forma oval e elipsoidal com diâmetros irregulares, todavia, os grânulos do amido de milho mostraram forma poliédrica e diferentes tamanhos. As análises reológicas dos géis das soluções de amido mostraram caráter não-newtoniano, pseudoplástico. O modelo de Herschel-Bulkley foi o que melhor representou comportamento reológico dos géis. O gel de amido de banana verde obteve maiores valores de tensão de cisalhamento e viscosidade aparente quando comparada ao gel de amido de milho. Ocorreu um decréscimo progressivo na tensão de cisalhamento e na viscosidade com a adição de cloreto de sódio e sacarose aos géis.

  9. OCORRÊNCIA DE PLANTAS DANINHAS NA CULTURA DO MILHO (Zea mays L. EM SUCESSÃO A CULTURAS DE SAFRINHA NO SISTEMA PLANTIO DIRETO WEEDS IN THE DOUBLE CROPPING WITH CORN (Zea mays L. UNDER NO-TILLAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Pasqualetto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Objetivou-se avaliar a ocorrência de espécies daninhas na cultura do milho após diversas culturas de safrinha, no sistema plantio direto. As culturas de safrinha foram milho, soja, milheto, girassol, sorgo, aveia e guandu. As plantas daninhas foram avaliadas aos 30 dias após a semeadura, por meio de amostragens ao acaso na parcela, utilizando um quadro de 0,45 m2 (1,5 m x 0,3 m, colocado perpendicularmente às linhas de semeadura e recolhendo-se todo o material verde de plantas daninhas existentes na amostra, classificando-o por espécie vegetal, agrupando as principais monocotiledôneas, principais dicotiledôneas e outras plantas daninhas. Os resultados demonstraram maior ocorrência das espécies Digitaria horizontalis e Commelina benghalensis na cultura do milho, independentemente da sucessão estabelecida. C. benghalensis predominou na sucessão milho-milho, e D. horizontalis na sucessão soja-milho. A menor infestação de plantas daninhas foi observada na área em que a cultura do girassol antecede a cultura do milho. Utilizando-se o milheto como cultura de safrinha, há maior ocorrência de espécies dicotiledôneas na cultura do milho, especialmente a Euphorbia heterophylla.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Sucessões de culturas; milho; plantas daninhas.

    It was observed to evaluate the occurrence of the weeds, after 3 years of cultivation with successions of double cropping cultures with the culture of the corn. The double cropping cultures were: corn, soybean, pearl millet, sunflower, sorghum, oat and pigeon pea. The weeds were appraised to the 30 days after the sowing, by means of sampling to the maybe in the portion, using a icture of 0.45 m2 (1.5 m x 0.3 m, placed in a perpendicular way to the plantation lines

  10. An investigation on different harvesting methods on young pods of KKU # 922 maize (Zea mays L.) cultivar for baby corn production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasikranan, S

    2011-04-01

    This study aimed to search for the best indicator to be used for the harvest of maize pods for baby corn production. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications was used. The treatments are: T1 (Control) Taking sample when silks of female flower had extended from tip of pod up to 3 cm long T2, silks had extended 1 cm long T3, silks had extended 2 cm long T4, blooming of female flower for 2 days T5, blooming of female flowers for 4 days T6, blooming of female flower for 6 days T7, one third blooming of male flower T8, two third blooming of male flower and T9, full bloom of male flower. Five baby corn Characteristics were used i.e., (1) fresh weight of whole ears, (2) fresh weight of ears without husk, (3) commercial standard ears, (4) off standard ears and (5) disordered kernel-rows of ears. A range of scores from 1 to 9 was applied to judge quality and yield in each item of the five baby corn characteristics. A score of 1 = the best whilst further increases in scores indicated the decline in quality of baby corn. The results showed that an indicator for use in harvesting pods of maize for baby corn production was found with T6, i.e. the best time for the harvest of pods is when the female flowers had bloomed for 6 days after the appearance of silks.

  11. Geographic information systems in corn rootworm management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp. Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are serious pests of corn (Zea mays) in the United States and Europe. Control measures for corn rootworms (CRW) were historically based upon chemical pesticides and crop rotation. Pesticide use created environmental and economic concerns. In...

  12. Evaluation effect of density and weeds control in corn (Zea mays L and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L intercropping by competition indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Rajaii

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Evaluating yield in intercropping systems is based on selecting compatible plants with appropriate characteristics to establish minimum competition and maximum cooperation, and the application of suitable agricultural practices (crop density and intercropping ratio. The use of plant species with different morphological characteristics in terms of nutrient uptake and utilization of growth environment, and the least competitive species in ecological and environmental factors in a fixed nest causes possibility of presence of two plants in the same ecological niche and better use of resources (Banik et al, 2006; Mushagalusa et al., 2008. Competitive ability of species in the intercropping is estimated using the relative interference parameters and determining the dominant species (Dhima et al., 2007. One of the indicators to evaluate intercropping is competitive ratio which is the competitive ability of the crop in the form of a better expression (Dhima et al., 2007. In general, the intercropping is one of the ways that increases the stability of agroecosystems. Materials and methods In order to study the effects of density, weedy and various proportion of corn (704 Variety and peanut (Goli Variety intercropping an experiment was conducted in 2012 in the Agriculture Research Station (Chah Nimeh of Zabol University. The experiment design was factorial in randomized complete block design with three replications. Experiment factors consisted of planting proportions in 4 levels (sole crop of corn, 50% corn +50% peanut, 100% corn + 100% peanut and sole crop of peanut, weedy in 3 levels (non-weedy, once-weedy and twice-weedy and the space between rows in 2 levels (40 and 50 centimeter. For appointment of dominant treatment, Relative Crowding Coefficient (RCC, Competitive Ratio (RC, Aggressivity and Land equivalent ratio (LER were calculated. All treatments were planted in a row of peanut and a row of corn. In intercropping alternative

  13. EFEK PERLAKUAN KIMIAWI DAN HIDROTERMOLISIS PADA BIOMAS TANAMAN JAGUNG (Zea mays L. SEBAGAI SUBSTRAT PRODUKSI BIOETANOL The Effects of Chemical and Hydrothermolysis Pretreatment of Corn Stover Biomass (Zea mays L. as The Bioethanol Production Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagiman Wagiman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to obtain a fermentation substrate with a high content of cellulose and hemicellulose, as well as to decrease the cellulose cystalinity. Dried corn stover was crushed to pass 40 mesh, added by Ca(OH and water, then heated at a certain time. The experimental design was prepared using a four-factor central composite design (CCD. The results of the chemical pretreatment were treated using hydrothermolysis methods for enhancing the lignin removal and decreasing cellulose crystalinity. The suitable process condition for chemical pretreatment was achieved at the loading of 0.075 g Ca(OH /g corn stover and 6.25 ml water/g corn stover, temperature 74.6 OC at 2 hours. After hydrothermolysis, cellulose and hemicellulose were dissolved at the percentages of 52.40 % and 31.84 % respectively, while the fraction of solid substrate had a composition of cellulose of 42.68 % and hemicellulosa of 34.68 %. The crystalinity of cellulose from the leaves, cobs, and cornhusk decreased significantly. The SEM results indicated that the surface of cell wall of corn stover had been perforated by these pretreatment processes. These pores might increase the enzymatic hydrolysis of the lignocellulosic corn stover. ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian adalah mendapatkan substrat fermentasi dengan kandungan selulosa dan hemiselulosa tinggi serta menurunkan kristalinitas komponen selulosa. Limbah tanaman jagung yang sudah kering dihancurkan hingga lolos 40 mesh, ditambah Ca(OH dan air, kemudian dipanaskan pada suhu dan waktu tertentu. Rancangan percobaan disusun dengan menggunakan central composite design (CCD dengan empat faktor. Hasil terbaik tahap ini diberi perlakuan hidrotermolisis untuk meningkatkan penyisihan komponen lignin dan menurunkan kristalinitas selulosa. Hasil pene­ litian menunjukkan bahwa kondisi proses terbaik adalah penambahan 0,075 g Ca(OH /g biomas dan 6,25 ml air/g biomas, suhu pemanasan 74,6 OC dengan waktu 2 jam

  14. Optimum proportion of sweet corn by-product silage (SCW and rice straw in total mixed ration using in vitro gas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaintip Kraiprom

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro gas technique was used to study the effects of different proportions of sweet corn by-product silage (SCW and rice straw (RS on in vitro fermentation. The dietary treatments were ratios of SCW and RS all on a on a dry matter (DM basis: T1 = SCW: RS at 60:40; T2 = SCW: RS at 50:50; and T3 = SCW:RS at 40:60. The ration of concentrate and roughage was 60:40 on a DM basis. The DM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, acid detergent fiber (ADF and neutral detergent fiber (NDF of SCW were 22.56, 7.11, 1.89, 41.34 and 78.45%, respectively. The results showed that cumulative gas production at 48 h and 72 h after incubation with the ratio of SCW to RS at 60:40 on a DM basis was significantly (p < 0.05 higher than the results from the ratio of SCW to RS at either 50:50 or 40:60 on a DM basis. The proportion of SCW and RS among treatments had no effect on true digestibility parameters. However, the in vitro organic matter digestibility parameters in the treatment group with SCW:RS at 60:40 on a DM basis were higher (p < 0.05 than in the other two treatments. The total volatile fatty acid in the treatment group with SCW:RS at 50:50 and 40:60 on a DM basis were higher (p < 0.05 than in the treatment group with SCW:RS at 60:40 on a DM basis. Acetic acid (C2, propionic acid (C3 butyric acid (C4 and the proportion of C2:C3 were not different (p < 0.05 among treatments. The levels of NH3N in all groups were not significant (p < 0.05 among treatments. It was concluded that the optimum level of SCW:RS was 60:40 on a DM basis.

  15. Efficiency of a zinc lignosulfonate as Zn source for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) under hydroponic culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Ortiz, Diego; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Gárate, Agustin

    2009-01-14

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a zinc lignosulfonate (ZnLS) as Zn source for wheat and corn plants under hydroponic conditions. The Zn-complexing capacity of three commercial lignosulfonates (byproducts of the paper and pulp industry) was tested, and a LS-NH4, from spruce wood, was selected. Its efficacy as Zn fertilizer for wheat and corn plants was assessed at different pH values (7.0 and 8.0) in comparison with a chelate (ZnEDTA) and an inorganic salt (ZnSO4). For wheat at pH 7.0, it was concluded that the efficacy of the Zn fertilizers followed the sequence Zn-EDTA > Zn-LS approximately ZnSO4 > zero-Zn; and for wheat and corn at pH 8.0, similar results were obtained: Zn-LS > ZnSO4 approximately 0 Zn. These data give evidence that ZnLS could be used as Zn source to the roots of wheat and corn and seems to be more efficient than ZnSO4 to correct Zn deficiency in both plants.

  16. Quantitative trait loci mapping of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) host plant resistance in two populations of doubled haploid lines in maize (Zea mays L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last 70 years, more than 12,000 maize accessions have been screened for their level of resistance to western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, larval feeding. Less than 1% of this germplasm was selected for initiating recurrent selection or other breeding programs. Sele...

  17. Intercropping of corn with cowpea and bean: Biomass yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... quality of corn (Zea mays indendata) mixed with legumes such as various cowpea (Vigna ungiuculata) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) ... seeding of soybean with corn in alternate-rows as 1 corn + 1 soybean or 1 corn + 2 ..... And also silage quality is many times more significant property than quantity.

  18. Effects of different irrigation methods and plant densities on silage quality parameters of PR 31Y43 hybrid corn cultivar (Zea mays L. var. indentata [Sturtev.] L.H. Bailey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Karasahin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The yield and quality of corn silage is related to genotype as well as factors such as climate, soil conditions, altitude, planting time, plant density, irrigation, and harvesting time. This study was conducted to determine the effects of different irrigation methods (drip, subsoil drip, and subsoil capillary and different plant densities (102 040, 119 040, and 142 850 plant ha-1 on silage quality parameters of PR 31Y43 hybrid corn (Zea mays L. var. indentata [Sturtev.] L.H. Bailey in 2011 and 2012 under ecological conditions in Eskipazar-Karabuk, Turkey. Plant densities were significantly different on fresh ear ratio and plant crude protein (CP yield in both years under study. The highest fresh ear ratio values were obtained with 102 040 and 119 040 plant ha-1 densities and the highest plant CP yield with 142 850 plant ha-1. While the irrigation method x plant density interactions were significant for silage CP ratio in the first year, they were significant on fresh ear ratio in the second year. The highest fresh ear ratio values were obtained from subsoil capillary x 119 040 plant ha-1 and drip x 119 040 plant ha-1 interactions; the highest plant and silage CP ratio values were obtained from subsoil capillary x 142 850 plant ha-1 and subsoil drip x 102 040 plant ha-1 interactions. As a result of the research, high Flieg scores were obtained from each irrigation method and plant density. When plant CP yield is taken into consideration, the 142 850 plant ha-1 density is more important.

  19. Study of Agronomical and Ecological Parameters of Additive and Replacement Intercropping Systems of Corn (Zea maize L. and Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Piri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Intercropping is a multiple cropping agricultural practice involves growing two or more crops in close proximity. Intercropping of compatible plants also encourages biodiversity, by providing a habitat for a variety of insects and soil organisms that would not be present in a monocrop environment. This in turn can help limit outbreaks of crop pests by increasing predator biodiversity. Additionally, reducing the homogeneity of crops increases the barriers against biological dispersal of pests through the crops. Cereal–legume intercropping plays an important role in subsistence food production in developing countries, especially in the situations of limited resources. Nitrogen fixing legumes can be included to a greater extent in arable cropping systems via intercrops. Legumes contribute to maintaining the soil fertility via nitrogen fixation, which is increased in intercrops due to the more competitive character of the cereal for soil inorganic N. Ariel et al., (2013 showed that,Legume-Cereal Intercropping of corn and soybean may be advantageous compared to monocultures. Corn and soybean intercropping produce high yields of green matter and seed concentrates especially when the corn-soybean ratio is 1:2. Due to the importance of cereal–legume intercropping in the sustainability of agricultural systems, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of cereal-legume intercropping on the total biomass and grain yield and to find the best pattern of additive and replacement intercropping systems in Iranshahr Region. Material and Methods In order to study the agronomical and ecological parameters of additive and replacement intercropping systems of corn and soybean, a field experiment was conducted in 2012-13 in the south of Iranshahr city on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments consisted of 8 different intercropping ratios: corn monoculture (C100S0 and soybean monoculture (C0S100 as sole

  20. Novel Vip3A Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize approaches high-dose efficacy against Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under field conditions: Implications for resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkness, Eric C; Dively, Galen; Patton, Terry; Morey, Amy C; Hutchison, William D

    2010-01-01

    Sweet corn, Zea mays L., transformed to express a novel vegetative insecticidal protein, Vip3A (event MIR162, Syngenta Seeds, Inc..), produced by the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), was evaluated over four field seasons in Maryland and two field seasons in Minnesota for efficacy against the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). Hybrids expressing the Vip3A protein and pyramided in hybrids also expressing the Cry1Ab Bt protein (event Bt11, ATTRIBUTE(®), Syngenta Seeds, Inc.) were compared to hybrids expressing only Cry1Ab or to genetically similar non-Bt hybrids each year. In addition to H. zea efficacy, results for Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) are presented. Over all years and locations, the non-Bt hybrids, without insecticide protection, averaged between 43 and 100% ears infested with a range of 0.24 to 1.74 H. zea larvae per ear. By comparison, in the pyramided Vip3A x Cry1Ab hybrids, no larvae were found and only minimal kernel damage (likely due to other insect pests) was recorded. Hybrids expressing only Cry1Ab incurred a moderate level of H. zea feeding damage, with surviving larvae mostly limited to the first or second instar as a result of previously documented growth inhibition from Cry1Ab. These results suggest that the Vip3A protein, pyramided with Cry1Ab, appears to provide the first "high-dose" under field conditions and will be valuable for ongoing resistance management.

  1. Acetylation of banana (Musa paradisiaca L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) starches using a microwave heating procedure and iodine as catalyst: II. Rheological and structural studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rivera, Mirna M; Almanza-Benitez, Sirlen; Bello-Perez, Luis A; Mendez-Montealvo, Guadalupe; Núñez-Santiago, María C; Rodriguez-Ambriz, Sandra L; Gutierrez-Meráz, Felipe

    2013-02-15

    The effect of iodine concentration on the acetylation of starches with low and moderate degree of substitution (DSbanana starch. The viscosity of acetylated starches decreased relative to unmodified starches while, acetylated corn starch had lower value than acetylated banana starch. In the flow curves, a non-Newtonian pattern (shear-thinning) was shown in the pastes of native and modified starches. Storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G") showed low dependence on frequency (G'αω(0.1); G"αω(0.2)) on frequency sweep test, which is characteristic of a viscoelastic gel. Debranched native banana and corn starches presented trimodal chain-length distribution. The pattern was maintained in the acetylated starches, but with different level of short and long chains. The structural differences in native and acetylated samples explain the rheological characteristics in both starches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Endophytic fungi from selected varieties of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and corn (Zea mays L.) grown in an agricultural area of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, María L; Pelizza, Sebastián A; Cabello, Marta N; Stenglein, Sebastián A; Vianna, María F; Scorsetti, Ana C

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous and live within host plants without causing any noticeable symptoms of disease. Little is known about the diversity and function of fungal endophytes in plants, particularly in economically important species. The aim of this study was to determine the identity and diversity of endophytic fungi in leaves, stems and roots of soybean and corn plants and to determine their infection frequencies. Plants were collected in six areas of the provinces of Buenos Aires and Entre Ríos (Argentina) two areas were selected for sampling corn and four for soybean. Leaf, stem and root samples were surface-sterilized, cut into 1cm(2) pieces using a sterile scalpel and aseptically transferred to plates containing potato dextrose agar plus antibiotics. The species were identified using both morphological and molecular data. Fungal endophyte colonization in soybean plants was influenced by tissue type and varieties whereas in corn plants only by tissue type. A greater number of endophytes were isolated from stem tissues than from leaves and root tissues in both species of plants. The most frequently isolated species in all soybean cultivars was Fusarium graminearum and the least isolated one was Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Furthermore, the most frequently isolated species in corn plants was Aspergillus terreus whereas the least isolated one was Aspergillus flavus. These results could be relevant in the search for endophytic fungi isolates that could be of interest in the control of agricultural pests. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Endophytic fungi from selected varieties of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and corn (Zea mays L.) grown in an agricultural area of Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, María L.; Pelizza, Sebastián A.; Cabello, Marta Noemí; Stenglein, Sebastián A.; Vianna, María F.; Scorsetti, Ana C.

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous and live within host plants without causing any noticeable symptoms of disease. Little is known about the diversity and function of fungal endophytes in plants, particularly in economically important species. The aim of this study was to determine the identity and diversity of endophytic fungi in leaves, stems and roots of soybean and corn plants and to determine their infection frequencies. Plants were collected in six areas of the provinces of Buenos Aires an...

  4. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Physico-Chemical Properties of Corn Stover (Zea mays L. Biochar and Feasibility for Carbon Capture and Energy Balance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khalid Rafiq

    Full Text Available This study examined the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics and evaluated its suitability for carbon capture and energy production. Biochar was produced from corn stover using slow pyrolysis at 300, 400 and 500°C and 2 hrs holding time. The experimental biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, BET, FTIR, TGA/DTA, NMR (C-13. Higher heating value (HHV of feedstock and biochars was measured using bomb calorimeter. Results show that carbon content of corn stover biochar increased from 45.5% to 64.5%, with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. A decrease in H:C and O:C ratios as well as volatile matter, coupled with increase in the concentration of aromatic carbon in the biochar as determined by FTIR and NMR (C-13 demonstrates a higher biochar carbon stability at 500°C. It was estimated that corn stover pyrolysed at 500°C could provide of 10.12 MJ/kg thermal energy. Pyrolysis is therefore a potential technology with its carbon-negative, energy positive and soil amendment benefits thus creating win- win scenario.

  5. Protection of color and chemical degradation of anthocyanin from purple corn (Zea mays L.) by zinc ions and alginate through chemical interaction in a beverage model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Vital, Diego; Cortez, Regina; Ongkowijoyo, Paulina; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira

    2018-03-01

    Anthocyanin-rich purple corn pericarp water extract (PCW) has the potential to be used as a natural pigment in beverages. However, it has a limited shelf-life in aqueous solutions. The aim was to evaluate the effect of zinc ion (Zn 2+ ) and alginate on color and chemical stability of anthocyanins from colored corn (PCW) in a beverage model for 12weeks. PCW was incorporated to Kool-Aid® Invisible™ along with ZnCl 2 and/or alginate. Individual ANC were quantified through HPLC, and color stability was evaluated through the CIE-L*a*b* color system. Complexation between PCW and Zn/alginate was evaluated with fluorescence spectroscopy. The combination of Zn and alginate was the most effective treatment improving the half-life of total ANC concentration (10.4weeks), cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (7.5weeks) and chroma (18.4weeks), compared to only PCW (6.6, 4.5 and 12.7weeks, respectively). Zn and alginate had bimolecular quenching constants (Zn k q : 3.4×10 11 M -1 S -1 and AA k q : 1.0×10 12 M -1 S -1 ) suggesting that fluorescence quenching was binding rather than collisional. Results suggested that Zn/alginate interacted with ANC from purple corn slowing its chemical degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Physico-Chemical Properties of Corn Stover (Zea mays L.) Biochar and Feasibility for Carbon Capture and Energy Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Khalid; Bachmann, Robert Thomas; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; Shang, Zhanhuan; Joseph, Stephen; Long, Ruijun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics and evaluated its suitability for carbon capture and energy production. Biochar was produced from corn stover using slow pyrolysis at 300, 400 and 500°C and 2 hrs holding time. The experimental biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, BET, FTIR, TGA/DTA, NMR (C-13). Higher heating value (HHV) of feedstock and biochars was measured using bomb calorimeter. Results show that carbon content of corn stover biochar increased from 45.5% to 64.5%, with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. A decrease in H:C and O:C ratios as well as volatile matter, coupled with increase in the concentration of aromatic carbon in the biochar as determined by FTIR and NMR (C-13) demonstrates a higher biochar carbon stability at 500°C. It was estimated that corn stover pyrolysed at 500°C could provide of 10.12 MJ/kg thermal energy. Pyrolysis is therefore a potential technology with its carbon-negative, energy positive and soil amendment benefits thus creating win- win scenario.

  7. Evaluating residues from batai trees (Paraserianthes falcataria) as alternative sources of nitrogen for grain corn (zeas mays l.) in the humid tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaharah, A.R.; Chintu, R.; Ghizan, S.

    2002-01-01

    The use of chemical fertilizers for mitigating N deficiency is unsustainable in many tropical areas because of economic constraints and possible deleterious effects on environmental quality. Although organic inputs such as green manures and litter from legumes have shown some potential for improving soil N status, the synchrony of N release from these residues with crop demand needs to be seriously addressed. The potential of above- and below-ground residues of Batai (Paraserianthes falcataria) to improve soil N availability and uptake by corn in an Ultisol (Bungor series) was evaluated under field and controlled conditions. The effect of residue quality on the kinetics of N release and accumulation in the soil was studied in field and laboratory incubation studies, whilst N uptake by grain corn was quantified using direct and indirect 1 5 N isotope labeling techniques. Treatments consist of fresh leaves, roots and 1:1 mixture of roots and leaves of Batai. Residue quality in terms of lignin + polyphenol-to-N ratio, and N mineralization was in the order roots 3 -N leaching occurred between 30 and 60 days after treatment (DAT). Significant amounts of Ca, Mg and K were also leached beyond 20 cm after 60 days. Both 15 N-labeling methods showed that N recovery in corn was much higher in the root than the leaf treatments. However, integrating Batai residues with an inorganic N source could be a more effective management strategy for improving N use efficiency and mitigating soil acidity. (Author)

  8. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Physico-Chemical Properties of Corn Stover (Zea mays L.) Biochar and Feasibility for Carbon Capture and Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Khalid; Bachmann, Robert Thomas; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; Shang, Zhanhuan; Joseph, Stephen; Long, Ruijun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics and evaluated its suitability for carbon capture and energy production. Biochar was produced from corn stover using slow pyrolysis at 300, 400 and 500°C and 2 hrs holding time. The experimental biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, BET, FTIR, TGA/DTA, NMR (C-13). Higher heating value (HHV) of feedstock and biochars was measured using bomb calorimeter. Results show that carbon content of corn stover biochar increased from 45.5% to 64.5%, with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. A decrease in H:C and O:C ratios as well as volatile matter, coupled with increase in the concentration of aromatic carbon in the biochar as determined by FTIR and NMR (C-13) demonstrates a higher biochar carbon stability at 500°C. It was estimated that corn stover pyrolysed at 500°C could provide of 10.12 MJ/kg thermal energy. Pyrolysis is therefore a potential technology with its carbon-negative, energy positive and soil amendment benefits thus creating win- win scenario. PMID:27327870

  9. Phenolic Composition and Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Free and Bound Phenolic Fractions from a Peruvian Purple Corn (Zea mays L.) Accession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez Ranilla, Lena; Christopher, Ashish; Sarkar, Dipayan; Shetty, Kalidas; Chirinos, Rosana; Campos, David

    2017-12-01

    Beneficial effects on overall gut health by phenolic bioactives-rich foods are potentially due to their modulation of probiotic gut bacteria and antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria. Based on this rationale, the effect of the free and bound phenolic fractions from a Peruvian purple corn accession AREQ-084 on probiotic lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus helveticus and Bifidobacterium longum and the gastric cancer-related pathogen Helicobacter pylori was evaluated. The free and bound phenolic composition was also determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Anthocyanins were the major phenolic compounds (310.04 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents/100 g dry weight, DW) in the free phenolic fraction along with hydroxycinnamic acids such as p-coumaric acid derivatives, followed by caffeic and ferulic acid derivatives. The bound phenolic form had only hydroxycinnamic acids such as ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and a ferulic acid derivative with ferulic acid being the major phenolic compound (156.30 mg/100 g DW). These phenolic compounds were compatible with beneficial probiotic lactic acid bacteria such as L. helveticus and B. longum as these bacteria were not inhibited by the free and bound phenolic fractions at 10 to 50 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL of sample doses, respectively. However, the pathogenic H. pylori was also not inhibited by both purple corn phenolic forms at same above sample doses. This study provides the preliminary base for the characterization of phenolic compounds of Peruvian purple corn biodiversity and its potential health benefits relevant to improving human gut health. This study provides insights that Peruvian purple corn accession AREQ-084 can be targeted as a potential source of health-relevant phenolic compounds such as anthocyanins along with hydroxycinnamic acids linked to its dietary fiber fraction. Additionally, these phenolic fractions did not affect the gut health associated beneficial bacteria nor the pathogenic

  10. Seletividade de herbicidas para a cultura de milho (Zea mays aplicados em diferentes estádios fenológicos da cultura Selectivity to corn crop (Zea mays of herbicides applied in different crop phenological stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. López-Ovejero

    2003-12-01

    -emergence herbicides on corn crop under no-tillage system, kept weed-free throughout the crop cycle. The corn hybrid Pioneer 3027 was sown and the experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with 22 treatments and 3 replications. The following herbicide treatments (in g a.i. ha-1 were applied in the respective phenological stages (number of definitive leaves = NF: atrazine + metolachlor (1,400 + 2,100 under pre-emergence conditions of the crop; (atrazine + metolachlor + nicosulfuron [(1,000 + 1,500 + 20] with the crop presenting NF = 2; atrazine + vegetal oil (2,400 + 1,800, NF = 2, 4 and 8, atrazine + simazine (1,250 + 1,250, NF = 2, 4 and 8; nicosulfuron (40 - NF = 2, 4 and 8; 20 _ NF = 4 and 8 and 52 _ NF = 4 and 8; (atrazine + vegetal oil + nicosulfuron [(800 + 600 + 20; (800 + 600 + 40 e (800 + 600 + 52, NF = 4 and 8. Visual evaluations of the phytotoxicity symptoms were performed at 7, 14, and 21 days after each herbicide application, adopting the European Weed Research Council grading, besides parameters related to crop yield components and final yield. The results indicated that the herbicides did not affect the duration of the phenological stage of the crop. When sprayed at the phenological stage 2 (NF = 8, some herbicides reduced crop yield due to the decrease in total number of corn grain rows per ear, total number of grains per row, and mass of 1,000 grains; being thus advisable to apply herbicides in the corn crop from seeding through the phenological stage 1 (NF = 4, in order to avoid phytotoxicity to the corn crop.

  11. Efecto vasodilatador mediado por óxido nítrico del extracto hidroalcohólico de Zea mays L. (maíz morado en anillos aórticos de rata Vasodilator effect mediated by nitric oxide of the Zea mays L (andean purple corn hydroalcoholic extract in aortic rings of rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Moreno-Loaiza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la respuesta vasodilatadora e inhibidora de la vasoconstricción del extracto hidroalcohólico de Zea mays L. (maíz morado y determinar si esta respuesta es mediada por óxido nítrico (NO. Materiales y métodos. Se obtuvo un extracto de las corontas de maíz morado maceradas durante ocho días en etanol al 70%, y posterior concentración del producto. Se trabajó con anillos aórticos de rata en cámara de órganos aislados, bañada con solución Krebs-Hensleit (K-H y se registró la actividad vasomotora con un transductor de tensión isométrica. Se produjo una contracción basal con KCl 120 mM sobre la cual determinó el efecto vasodilatador de tres dosis del extracto: 0,1; 0,5 y 1,0 mg/mL. Se utilizó L-NG-Nitroarginina metil ester (L-NAME para comprobar que la vasodilatación depende de la óxido nítrico sinteasa (NOs. Luego se comparó la inhibición de la contracción vascular tras la incubación durante 30 minutos, con extracto de maíz morado y captopril 10-5 M. Resultados. Se observó una reducción de la contracción máxima (100% a 85,25 ± 2,60%, 77,76 ± 3,23% y 73,3 ± 4,87%, para las dosis de 0,1; 0,5 y 1,0 mg/mL, respectivamente. La vasodilatación fue inhibida por la incubación previa con L-NAME. El extracto de maíz morado no inhibió la contracción vascular, a diferencia del captopril (reducción a 75,27 ± 8,61%. Conclusión. El extracto hidroalcohólico de Zea mays L produce vasodilatación dependiente de la síntesis de NO.Objective: To evaluate the vasodilator response of the hydroalcoholic extract of Zea mays L. (Andean purple corn and to determine if this response is mediated by nitric oxide (NO. Material and methods: We obtained an extract by maceration for eight days of Andean purple corn cobs in 70% ethanol and subsequent concentration of the product. Thoracic aortic rings were evaluated in an isolated organ chamber, bathed with Krebs-Hensleit solution (KH, and vasomotor activity was recorded

  12. Effect of different calcium sources on the antioxidant stability of tortilla chips from extruded and nixtamalized blue corn (Zea mays L.) flours

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Madrigal, Miguel Ángel; Quintero-Ramos, Armando; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando; Meléndez-Pizarro, Carmen Oralia; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Martha Graciela

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed to develop tortilla chips (TC) high in antioxidants from extruded and nixtamalized blue corn flours prepared with calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 and calcium lactate C6H10O6Ca. Tortilla chips were made with extruded flours [0.1% Ca(OH)2; 0.9% C6H10O6Ca; without calcium] and nixtamalized flours [1% Ca(OH)2; 2.95% C6H10O6Ca] using the frying process. Total anthocyanin, total phenolics content, antioxidant activity, color, texture, and oil content were determined. T...

  13. Physicochemical and sensory evaluation of reinforce bread with partial replacement of wheat flour (Triticum aestivum) by corn (Zea mays) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) flours

    OpenAIRE

    Obregón, Antonio; Centro Latinoamericano de Enseñanza e Investigación en Bacteriología Alimentaria - CLEIBA. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Contreras, Eliana; Instituto de Investigación en Química Biológica, Microbiología y Biotecnología, “Marco Antonio Garrido Malo”. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Muñoz, Ana María; Instituto de Investigación en Química Biológica, Microbiología y Biotecnología, “Marco Antonio Garrido Malo”. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Ayquipa, Rita; Escuela Académica de Ciencia de los Alimentos. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Fernández, Wendy; Escuela Académica de Ciencia de los Alimentos. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.

    2014-01-01

    It was realized the sensorial evaluation and were studied the chemical composition and nutritional value of iron-fortified bread, with partial replacement of 10% of its wheat flour content by potato and corn flour, obtaining a bread with soft texture, palatable and very good acceptability for children of school age. The elaborated bread contains protein 13,10%; fat 9,80% and carbohydrates 50,32%, with an energy value of 341,88 kcal/100 g and an iron content 10,13 mg/100 g, that satisfies the ...

  14. Assay for applying super absorbent polymer in a low input corn (Zea mays L. production system aimed to reduce drought stress under Mashhad conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jahan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of super absorbent polymer application on reduction of drought stress to corn, a split plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at Research Field of Agriculture Faculty of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during growing season of 2010-11. The main plot treatments were 1 application of 40 kg.ha-1 super absorbent, 2 application of 80 kg.ha-1 super absorbent and 3 no application of super absorbent polymer. Three irrigation intervals (7, 10 and 14 days assigned to sub plots. The results showed that super absorbent application affected plant height (H, and dry matter production (DM as the highest of these traits resulted from level 2 of super absorbent application (140.5 cm, and 144.5 g.m-2, respectively. H, DM, canopy temperature (CT, cob number (N, fresh yield (FY, economic yield (EY and 100-seed weight affected by irrigation intervals. There was no significant difference between 10 and 14 days irrigation interval as H, DM, CT, harvest Index (HI and 100-seed weight, these results could be important concerning to reduce used water to irrigate corn. As experimental treatments did not have any effect on Leaf Area Index (LAI, and HI, it seems the positive effects of treatments revealed due to improved soil water holding capacity, soil physical properties improvement and reduction of drought stress. Interaction between super absorbent and irrigation intervals indicates that by level 2 super absorbent applications there are no significant differences between 14 and 10 days irrigation intervals, considering all traits. The same interaction just as before happened for 7 and 14 days irrigation intervals, except of EY and DM. In the other hand, by increasing application of super absorbent it could be possible to increase corn irrigation intervals from 7 to 14 days in Mashhad conditions without any reduction in yield and yield components. In general, these results

  15. Assay for applying super absorbent polymer in a low input corn (Zea mays L.) production system aimed to reduce drought stress under Mashhad conditions

    OpenAIRE

    M. Jahan; N. Kamayestani; F. Ranjbar

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of super absorbent polymer application on reduction of drought stress to corn, a split plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at Research Field of Agriculture Faculty of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during growing season of 2010-11. The main plot treatments were 1) application of 40 kg.ha-1 super absorbent, 2) application of 80 kg.ha-1 super absorbent and 3) no application of super absorbent polyme...

  16. Correlation between the infestation level of Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, 1855 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae and the quality factors of stored corn, Zea mays L. (Poaceae

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    Maria Aparecida Braga Caneppele

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the effect of Sitophilus zeamais on physical, physiological and sanitary quality of stored corn. Samples of 500 g of the hybrid OC-705, in three replicates, were conditioned in glasses covered with a screened lid, and kept in chamber at 25±2ºC, 70±5% RH and 12 h of photophase, for 150 days. The infestation levels were 0, 5, 15 and 50 adults/replicate, for the storage periods of 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days. The moisture content, classification, weight loss, germination and internal infestation were evaluated monthly. Significant inverse correlations were verified between the number of insects and both the germination and the weight loss; also between the internal infestation and the germination and the standard type. The presence of S. zeamais showed a positive correlation with the weight loss, what means that the internal and external infestations contribute to the reduction of physiological and physical quality of corn seeds. The mean dry matter loss was 0,36%/day, corresponding to a consumption of 0,0001%/insect/month. As the result of those damages, the product suffered reduction of the commercial grade in 30 days, with significant loss in all quality factors.

  17. Single-Kernel FT-NIR Spectroscopy for Detecting Supersweet Corn (Zea mays L. Saccharata Sturt Seed Viability with Multivariate Data Analysis

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    Guangjun Qiu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The viability and vigor of crop seeds are crucial indicators for evaluating seed quality, and high-quality seeds can increase agricultural yield. The conventional methods for assessing seed viability are time consuming, destructive, and labor intensive. Therefore, a rapid and nondestructive technique for testing seed viability has great potential benefits for agriculture. In this study, single-kernel Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR spectroscopy with a wavelength range of 1000–2500 nm was used to distinguish viable and nonviable supersweet corn seeds. Various preprocessing algorithms coupled with partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA were implemented to test the performance of classification models. The FT-NIR spectroscopy technique successfully differentiated viable seeds from seeds that were nonviable due to overheating or artificial aging. Correct classification rates for both heat-damaged kernels and artificially aged kernels reached 98.0%. The comprehensive model could also attain an accuracy of 98.7% when combining heat-damaged samples and artificially aged samples into one category. Overall, the FT-NIR technique with multivariate data analysis methods showed great potential capacity in rapidly and nondestructively detecting seed viability in supersweet corn.

  18. Production cost analysis and use of pesticides in the transgenic and conventional corn crop [Zea mays (L.)] in the valley of San Juan, Tolima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Kelly Avila; Chaparro Giraldo, Alejandro; Moreno, Giovanni Reyes; Castro, Carlos Silva

    2011-01-01

    A survey of 10 producers of conventional corn (Hybrids PAC 105 and Maximus) and 10 producers of transgenic corn (Pioneer Hybrid 30T17) was carried out in the municipality of Valle de San Juan in the territorial division of Tolima (Colombia), in order to analyze the differences in production costs and environmental impacts of these two agricultural technologies.  The environmental impacts were determined by calculating the field "Environmental Index Quotient" (EIQ). In the production cost analysis, a difference of 15% was found in benefit of the transgenic technology. The structure of costs of the transgenic technology was benefited by the reduced use of pesticides (insecticides and herbicides). In regards to production, the transgenic technology showed a greater yield, 5.22 ton/ha in comparison to 4.25 ton/ha the conventional technology, thus a 22% difference in yield. Finally, the EIQ calculation showed quantitative differences of 196.12 for the conventional technology (EIQ insecticides 165.14 + EIQ herbicides 30.98), while the transgenic technology was of 4.24 (EIQ insecticides 0 + EIQ herbicides 4.24). These results show a minor environmental impact when using the transgenic technology in comparison to the conventional technology, in regards to the use of insecticides and herbicides in a temporal, spatial and genotypical context analysis. :

  19. Single-Kernel FT-NIR Spectroscopy for Detecting Supersweet Corn (Zea mays L. Saccharata Sturt) Seed Viability with Multivariate Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guangjun; Lü, Enli; Lu, Huazhong; Xu, Sai; Zeng, Fanguo; Shui, Qin

    2018-03-28

    The viability and vigor of crop seeds are crucial indicators for evaluating seed quality, and high-quality seeds can increase agricultural yield. The conventional methods for assessing seed viability are time consuming, destructive, and labor intensive. Therefore, a rapid and nondestructive technique for testing seed viability has great potential benefits for agriculture. In this study, single-kernel Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy with a wavelength range of 1000-2500 nm was used to distinguish viable and nonviable supersweet corn seeds. Various preprocessing algorithms coupled with partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were implemented to test the performance of classification models. The FT-NIR spectroscopy technique successfully differentiated viable seeds from seeds that were nonviable due to overheating or artificial aging. Correct classification rates for both heat-damaged kernels and artificially aged kernels reached 98.0%. The comprehensive model could also attain an accuracy of 98.7% when combining heat-damaged samples and artificially aged samples into one category. Overall, the FT-NIR technique with multivariate data analysis methods showed great potential capacity in rapidly and nondestructively detecting seed viability in supersweet corn.

  20. Valor nutritivo de silagens de milho (Zea mays L. produzidas com inoculantes enzimo-bacterianos Nutritive value of corn silage (Zea mays L. produced with enzymatic-bacterial inoculants

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    Karina Dosualdo Rocha

    2006-04-01

    valor para a silagem tratada com o inoculante Biomax (66,0%. A adição de inoculantes à planta de milho não promoveu alterações na composição química e no consumo dos nutrientes das silagens.Two inoculated corn silage experiments are reported. In the first one, pH value, ammonia nitrogen in total nitrogen (N-NH3/Total N, chemical composition and in vitro drymatter digestibility of corn silages with or without enzymatic-bacterial inoculants were evaluated in laboratory silos. A 6 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments, with six fermentation periods (01, 03, 07, 14, 28 and 56 days x three inoculants (control and two commercial inoculants: Maize All (Alltech of Brazil and Biomax (Christian Hansen was used in a completely randomized design, with three replications. Effect of the inoculant × fermentation period interaction was detected on silages DM content, larger values corresponding to the inoculated silages, independent of the fermentation period. Inoculants favored silage crude protein (CP concentration, the smallest value (6.23% being observed in control silage. It was also observed an effect of fermentation period on neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF, which decreased by 0.302353 and 0.063321 units/fermentation day, respectively. The in vitro dry matter digestibility increased with fermentation period, with increments of 0.0546305 unit/day. In the second experiment, intake and total apparent digestibility of silage nutrients were evaluated with rams. Eighteen castrated adult rams were assigned to three treatments, in a randomized blocks design, with six replicates. The diets consisted of 90:10 forage to concentrate ratio in a dry matter basis. The intake of nutrients was not influenced by the experimental diets, being observed mean values of 1.26; 0.14 and 0.84 kg/day for dry matter (DM, crude protein intake (CP and total digestive nutrients (TDN intake, respectively. An inoculant effect was observed on CP apparent digestibility

  1. EVALUASI KESESUAIAN LAHAN UNTUK TANAMAN JAGUNG MENGGUNAKAN METODE ANALISIS SPASIAL Land Suitability Assessment Of Corn (Zea mays L. Using Spasial Analysis Method

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    Ruslan Wirosoedarmo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Land suitability assessment was needed to plan productive and sustainable land use. The aim of this research was to de- liver an informative data about land suitability of corn using spatial analysis model. The research was conducted from July 2007 to January 2008, located in Blitar district. The land survey and analysis covered several parameters needed for suitability assessment for corn such as temperature, rainfall, soil drainage, soil texture, pH, effective depth of soil, organic- C, soil content, Cation Exchange Capacity of clay, slope, altitude, and erosion endangered. The land suitability classes were classified into four classes, those were very suitable, suitable, marginally suitable, and not suitable. The data were finally analyzed using Map Calculator in Arc View GIS Software.The results showed that there were three classes of land suitability for corn i.e. very suitable, suitable and marginally suitable which accounted for 85 %, 10 %, and 5 % of 150.96 hectare areas in Blitar. The suitable class mainly located in the northern of Blitar district, while the marginally suitable class mostly located in more than 1200 meters height above sea level covered 10, 117, and 52 hectares area of Wlingi, Gandusari, and Doko county area respectively. ABSTRAK Evaluasi kesesuaian lahan diperlukan untuk perencanaan penggunaan lahan yang produktif dan lestari. Tujuan peneli- tian adalah untuk menyajikan data dan informasi tentang evaluasi kesesuaian lahan bagi tanaman jagung menggunakan model analisa spasial. Penelitian dilaksanakan mulai bulan Juli 2007 sampai bulan Januari 2008. Lokasi penelitian dilaksanakan di Blitar, Jawa Timur. Data yang diperlukan meliputi data spasial berupa peta kontur dan peta jenis tanah skala 1:25000 serta data atribut berupa data klimatologi wilayah dan hasil pengamatan lapangan terhadap sifat fisik, morfologi dan kimia tanah. Parameter kesesuaian untuk tanaman jagung yang ditetapkan meliputi temperatur, curah hujan

  2. Delaying corn rootworm resistance to Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Gould, Fred

    2012-06-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect control have been successful, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. To delay pest resistance to Bt crops, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has required refuges of host plants that do not produce Bt toxins to promote survival of susceptible pests. Such refuges are expected to be most effective if the Bt plants deliver a dose of toxin high enough to kill nearly all hybrid progeny produced by matings between resistant and susceptible pests. In 2003, the EPA first registered corn, Zea mays L., producing a Bt toxin (Cry3Bb1) that kills western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. The EPA requires minimum refuges of 20% for Cry3Bb1 corn and 5% for corn producing two Bt toxins active against corn rootworms. We conclude that the current refuge requirements are not adequate, because Bt corn hybrids active against corn rootworms do not meet the high-dose standard, and western corn rootworm has rapidly evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Accordingly, we recommend increasing the minimum refuge for Bt corn targeting corn rootworms to 50% for plants producing one toxin active against these pests and to 20% for plants producing two toxins active against these pests. Increasing the minimum refuge percentage can help to delay pest resistance, encourage integrated pest management, and promote more sustainable crop protection.

  3. Characterisation of nutrient profile of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus), and purple corn (Zea mays L.) consumed in the North of Argentina: proximates, minerals and trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Ana Cláudia; Mota, Carla; Coelho, Inês; Gueifão, Sandra; Santos, Mariana; Matos, Ana Sofia; Gimenez, Alejandra; Lobo, Manuel; Samman, Norma; Castanheira, Isabel

    2014-04-01

    Quinoa, amaranth and purple corn are Andean cereals largely consumed in North of Argentina. Nutrient analysis with the purpose of inclusion in the Argentinean FCDB and e-search EuroFIR has become urgent matter. In this work proximate and mineral profile of Andean cereals cultivated in the North of Argentina were determined and compared with rice. Proximate analysis showed that Andean cereals have similar profile but significantly higher (pquinoa content could contribute up to 55% of consumers DRI. Andean cereals and rice are poor sources of potassium. To guarantee the interchange of data among users and producers of FCDB component values were obtained in compliance with EuroFIR guidelines for compilation process. Present work provides necessary information to FCDB users who wish to have access to food reference analytical parameters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influences of Chemical Fertilizers and a Nitrification Inhibitor on Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in a Corn (Zea mays L.) Field in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumadi, Oslan; Hala, Yusminah; Muis, Abd; Ali, Alimuddin; Palennari, Muhiddin; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Inubushi, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    The influences of chemical fertilizers and a nitrification inhibitor on greenhouse gas fluxes (N(2)O and CH(4)) in a corn field in Indonesia were investigated using a closed chamber. Plots received 45+45 kg-N ha(-1) of nitrogen fertilizer by split applications of urea, a single application of controlled-release fertilizer (CRF-LP30) or urea+dicyandiamide (DCD; a nitrification inhibitor), and no nitrogen application (control). Cumulative amounts of N(2)O emitted from the field were 1.87, 1.70, 1.06, and 0.42 kg N(2)O-N ha(-1) season(-1) for the urea, CRF-LP30, urea+DCD, and control plots, respectively. The application of urea+DCD reduced the emission of N(2)O by 55.8% compared with urea. On the other hand, the soil acted as a sink for CH(4) in the CRL-LP30, control, and urea+DCD plots with value of -0.09, -0.06 and -0.06 kg CH(4)-C ha(-1) season(-1), respectively. When the viability of AOB (ammonia-oxidizing bacteria) and NOB (nitrite-oxidizing bacteria) were monitored, AOB numbers were correlated with the N(2)O emission. These results suggest that 1) there is a potential for reducing emissions of N(2)O by applying DCD, and 2) corn fields treated with CRF or urea+DCD can act as a sink for CH(4) in a tropical humid climate.

  5. Determinação da lâmina ótima de água para cultura do milho doce na região de Sete Lagoas, MG Determination of the optimal irrigation depth for sweet corn in Sete Lagoas, MG

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    Alexandre B. Heinemann

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho, propõe-se determinar a lâmina de água que resulta na maior receita líquida para a cultura do milho doce (Zea mays, L. na região de Sete Lagoas, MG, no período de dezembro a fevereiro (época das chuvas utilizando-se análise de decisão. Quatro lâminas de irrigação (385, 289, 193 e 96 mm foram utilizadas. A lâmina de 385 mm é a que fornece a máxima produtividade física, obtida através de uma função de produção. Os resultados indicaram, pela análise de sensibilidade que, para o preço da unidade de água até R$ 0,36 para cada 10 m³, a lâmina de irrigação de 385 mm apresentou a maior receita líquida. Para um preço da unidade de água maior que R$ 0,36 para cada 10 m³, a lâmina correspondente a 75% da lâmina máxima (289 mm proporcionou a maior receita líquida.The objective of this study was to determine the optimal irrigation application that gives the maximum revenue of sweet corn during the rainy season, in Sete Lagoas, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Decision criterion was used to determine the optimal irrigation application. Four irrigation depths were used (385, 289, 193 and 96 mm. The irrigation water amount of 385 mm was calculated from a production function and this water amount gave the maximum yield. The results showed that the 385 mm gave the best revenue, considering the water price up to R$ 0.36 per 10 m³. With a higher water price, the best revenue was obtained when the irrigation water depth was 289 mm.

  6. Growth and Production of Some Variety Corn (Zea mays L.). Planted under the Canopy of Palm Oil 12 Years Old in Swamp Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafrullah; Marlina, N.; Rahim, S. E.; Aminah, R. I. S.; Midranisiah; Rosmiah; Sakalena, F.

    2017-06-01

    This research was conducted in wetlands Semambu Village, District of North Indralaya, Ogan Ilir, South Sumatra Province, Indonesia, which lasted from July 2015 to February 2016. The observation of a microclimate indicate that the average intensity of light outside the auspices of the plot 1968.9 m2s mol1, under waranet 1502.40 mol1 m2s, below paranet 721.99 mol1 m2s-1 and under waranet 439.25 μmol m2s-1 - equivalent to the light interception 1 or 100%, 76%, 37% and 22%. Results of soil chemical analysis that the soil has a low fertility study (H2O pH of 3.32, organic C 4.47%, total N 0.35%, Bray P 13.30 ppm, K-ea 0.26 me / 100g, CEC 19.6 rne / 100g and Al-ea 3.28 me / 100g). Tests on 22 genotypes of maize grown with light interception 100%, 76%. 37% and 22%, by calculating tolerance index based on the weight of dry seed cob-1 was found four genotypes of maize tend to be tolerant to low-intensity light that were genotype B 41, Pioneer 27, Sukmaraga and Sugihan. The test results of corn planted in beds shade with light interception 100%, 76%, 37% and 22% for groups of maize tolerant and sensitive, followed by application of urea 0 kg ha1, 100 kg ha-1 200 kg ha-1, 300 kg ha-1 and 400 kg ha-1 indicate that maize and 41 and Pioneer 27 by Urea 300 kg ha-1 gives better results than other varieties at different intensities of light oil palm age of 12 years with applications Urea fertilizer 300 kg ha-1, indicating that the B 41 and Pioneer 27 tends to give better results compared with other varieties. The application of a polyculture system palm-maize can produce 1000 kg of dry grain of corn in a 1 ha of oil palm cultivation.

  7. DIALLEL ANALYSIS OF RESISTANCE TO BACTERIAL STALK ROT (Pectobacterium chrysanthemi pv. zeae Burk., McFad. and Dim. IN CORN (Zea mays L.

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    Nuning A. Subekti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the major disease problems affecting maize farming in the Philippines is bacterial stalk rot (BSR caused by Pectobacterium chrysanthemi pv. zeae Burk., McFad. and Dim., which is formerly known as Erwinia chrysanthemi. The annual loss due to BSR is estimated at PhP. 20 million equivalent to Rp3.5 billion. At present, there is no effective control method against BSR and, therefore, varietal improvement through breeding resistant germplasms is needed. The present study aimed to determine the combining ability and the extent of additive and non-additive genetic effects in corn inbred lines with a range of reaction to BSR. Four resistant lines (S3YB 137-1-1-B, TUPI (S3 5-1-B, TUPI (S3 15-2-B, and 97-835 and two susceptible lines (CML 295 and 97-733 were used as genetic materials. Generation of test entries and evaluation of disease resistance were conducted at the experimental farm station of University of the Philippines Los Banos and Institute of Plant Breeding Los Banos, respectively, during 2002 to 2003 wet seasons. Griffing’s diallel mating system Model 1, Method 1 was followed in generating the test entries to make a total of 36 entries (six selfed parental lines and 15 each of F1 crosses and their reciprocalcrosses. The entries were then evaluated for disease resistance in a yield trial following a randomized complete block design (RCBD with two replications. Results of diallel analysisshowed two lines, S3YB 137-1-1-B and TUPI (S3 5-1-B, exhibited the best general combining ability (GCA for resistance to BSR, while the crosses S3YB 137-1-1-B x TUPI (S3 5-1-B and TUPI (S3 5-1-B x 97-835 performed the best specific combining ability (SCA for the resistance. GCA effect was greater than that of SCA. This indicated that additive gene effects were found to be more important than non-additive gene effects in the expression of resistance to BSR in the six corn lines used. Therefore, breeding programs towards

  8. Efeitos da densidade e proporção de plantas de milho (Zea mays L. e caruru (Amaranhus retroflexus L. em competição Density and porportion effects among corn (Zea mays L. and pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. under competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Christoffoleti

    1996-01-01

    plants in a mixture of species, nor the importance of intra and inter-specific competition and niche diferentiation. Therefore, this research was developed aiming to describe the competitive interaction and competitive indexes between corn (Zea mays L. and pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. plants. The methodology was a replacement series experiment with a total density of 400 plants/m2 and 5 proportions, besides the monoculture that varied from 50 to 800 plants/m2, conducted in a randomized completely block desing, four replications. The results were analyzed through conventional replacement series analysis, using reciprocal total and per plant yield. Corn was the superior competitor and the intra-specific competition was more important than the inter-specific for this species. The reverse was true for pigweed. Both species were competing for the same natural resources since the niche diferentiation index was lower than 1,0. The influence of density and proportion of species in a competition study is very important in the understanding of competitive interactions.

  9. Testes de vigor utilizados na avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de lotes de sementes de milho-doce (sh2 Vigor tests for selection of sweet corn (sh2 seeds lot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério de Andrade Coimbra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de um programa de controle de qualidade, a avaliação do vigor de sementes é fundamental e necessária para o sucesso da produção. Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência de diferentes testes de vigor na avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de milho-doce na tentativa de diferenciação de lotes quanto ao nível de vigor e previsão de emergência de plântulas em campo e ao potencial de armazenamento, 10 lotes do híbrido DO-04 shrunken-2 (sh-2 foram submetidos a teste de germinação, primeira contagem, precocidade de emissão de raiz primária (32, 48, 56 e 72h, teste de frio, condutividade elétrica (50 sementes 75mL-1 de água; 25°C/4, 6, 8 e 24h, envelhecimento acelerado (42°C em água destilada (100%UR, solução saturada de cloreto de potássio (87%UR e solução saturada de cloreto de sódio (76% UR, avaliando-se quatro períodos de exposição (24, 48, 72 e 96h, teor de água, emergência de plântulas em campo e germinação após armazenamento das sementes (10°C e 40%UR, avaliada quadrimestralmente por 16 meses. A condutividade elétrica (por 6, 8 e 24h foi o único teste eficiente na diferenciação do vigor de lotes de sementes de milho-doce (sh2; no entanto, não apresentou correlação com a emergência de plântulas em campo ou armazenamento.In a program of seed quality assurance, the evaluation of seed vigor is fundamental and necessary to the global production process outcome. The objective of this experiment was to verify the efficiency of different vigor tests for evaluation of sweet corn seeds quality towards lots differentiation and prevision of seedling emergence and storage capacity of those. Ten lots of DO-04 shrunken-2 (sh2 hybrid sweet corn seeds were submitted to the following evaluations: germination, first counting of germination test, earliness of primary root emission (32, 48, 56 and 72 hours, cold test, electrical conductivity test (50 seeds into 75ml of water, at 25°C for 4, 6, 8 and

  10. Interferências mútuas entre a cultura do milho, espécies forrageiras e plantas daninhas em um sistema de consórcio: I - implicações sobre a cultura do milho (Zea mays Mutual interferences among corn crop, forage species and weeds under a consortium system: I - implications on corn crop (Zea mays

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    F.J. Severino

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de avaliar as conseqüências da adoção de um sistema de consórcio sobre a supressão das plantas daninhas e o conseqüente crescimento e produtividade da cultura do milho. Os tratamentos resultaram da combinação entre cinco níveis do fator plantas forrageiras (Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria brizantha, Panicum maximum, milho sem forrageira e em convivência com plantas daninhas e milho capinado e três níveis do fator plantas daninhas (Ipomoea grandifolia - corda-de-viola, Amaranthus hybridus - caruru-roxo e Digitaria horizontalis - capim-colchão. Durante a condução do experimento avaliaram-se a área foliar (cm² por planta, a massa seca (g por planta e o rendimento (t ha ¹ obtido pela cultura do milho, em cada tratamento. Pôde-se observar que a consorciação da cultura do milho com as plantas forrageiras, embora também provoque reduções de produtividade, atenua as perdas que ocorrem quando a cultura está em competição exclusiva com as plantas daninhas e garante o maior dinamismo, utilização e proteção do solo. Como conclusão geral, a pesquisa demonstrou a viabilidade da aplicação do sistema de consórcio, sobretudo no âmbito da agricultura familiar.The objective of this work was to evaluate the consequences of adopting a consortium system on weed suppression and consequent corn crop growth and yield. The treatments consisted of combinations of five levels of the factor grass forages (Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria brizantha, Panicum maximum, corn without forage and with weed competition and hand-weeded corn and three levels of the factor weeds (Ipomoea grandifolia, Amaranthus hybridus and Digitaria horizontalis.Leaf area (cm² per plant, dry mass (g per plant and yield (t ha-1 obtained by the corn crop were evaluated in each treatment. Although also causing yield reductions, corn crop consortium with the grass forages was found to attenuate the losses occurring when the

  11. Danos mecânicos associados a patógenos e desempenho de sementes de milho Mechanical damages associated with pathogens and performance of corn seeds (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Moure Cicero

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available As danificações provocadas nas sementes por operações mecanizadas realizadas durante a produção podem atuar negativamente na qualidade do material obtido. Essa redução qualitativa, segundo a literatura específica, pode ser agravada quando a injúria interage com microrganismos presentes na superfície das sementes ou no solo, por ocasião da semeadura. Dessa forma, o presente trabalho, realizando inoculações de patógenos e injúrias nas regiões da calota endospermática, do ápice do escutelo e da camada negra em sementes de milho (Zea mays L., objetivou verificar as relações existentes entre as danificações mecânicas, a presença de microrganismos e o desempenho das sementes. Após a realização de testes sanitários e fisiológicos, concluiu-se que as danificações, particularmente quando Aspergillus sp. e Fusarium moniliforme se encontram presentes nas sementes, promovem prejuízos qualitativos progressivos à medida que se aproximam do embrião. Quando comparadas entre si, as interferências negativas de Aspergillus sp. e de F. moniliforme são mais evidentes do que as de Penicillium sp.The damages caused to seeds due to mechanized operations performed along the production process can negatively affect the quality of the material obtained. According to specific literature, this qualitative reduction can be aggravated when the injury interacts with the microorganisms found in the seed surface or in the soil at seeding. Thus, by performing pathogen inoculations and injuries in the region of the endosperm cap, top of scutellum and black layer of corn seeds, the aim of this paper was to verify the existing relationship between the mechanical damages, the presence of microorganisms and seed performance. After sanitary and physiological tests were carried out it was concluded that the damages, particularly when Aspergillus sp. and Fusarium moniliforme were found in the seeds, promote progressive qualitative losses as they

  12. Pertumbuhan Vegetatif dan Kadar Gula Biji Jagung Manis (Zea mays saccharata, Sturt di Pekanbaru

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    Surtinah Surtinah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Research conducted an experiment using a completely randomized design environment with four replications, and the design of treatment used is six varieties of sweet corn. Analysis of data using polynomial regression, the parameters measured were plant height, leaf number, leaf length, leaf width, and sugar beans, followed by analyzing the relationship between the growth of plants with a sugar content of sweet corn kernels. The results showed that leaf width gives a weak relationship to the sugar content of sweet corn seed, and leaf length, number of leaves and plant height had a close relationship to the sugar content of sweet corn kernels. Keywords: varieties, sweet corn, correlation, sugar content  

  13. Larval and pupal stage of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in sweet and field corn genotypes Fases larval e pupal de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em genótipos de milho doce e comum

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    L. M. Santos

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera frugiperda, the fall armyworm, is a very significant polyphagous pest due to the damages it causes, and control difficulties. Lack of information about its impact on sweet corn motivated a comparison of its biology, with respect to the larval and pupal stages, among the genotypes ELISA, BR 400 (sweet corns, and BR PAMPA (field corn. In laboratory conditions (25 ± 1ºC; 70 ± 10% RH; photophase 12 hours, 35 caterpillars were individualized and fed daily with 3.14 cm² sections of corn leaves from the referred-to genotypes, cultivated in plots in the experimental area of the Departament of Fitossanidade, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS from October to November 2000. The caterpillars were weighed daily; after each molt, the cephalic capsules were collected and measured (in width, to establish growth rate; pupae were weighed and sexed when 24 hours old. The duration of the larval instars, the pupal sex ratio, and the mortality of larvae and pupae were evaluated. In the first three instars there were no differences registered in capsule width. In the fourth and fifth instars, capsules of caterpillars kept in BR 400 were smaller. The weight of caterpillars and pupae, instar duration and sex ratio did not differ among the genotypes. Pupal phase duration was less in females kept in BR 400. Mortality was greater in the larval phase in ELISA and in the pupal phase in BR PAMPA.Spodoptera frugiperda, a lagarta-do-cartucho-do-milho, é uma praga polífaga de grande importância agrícola pelos danos e dificuldade de controle. A ausência de informações sobre seu impacto em milho doce motivou a comparação de sua biologia, no que tange as fases larval e pupal, entre os genótipos de milho ELISA, BR 400 (milhos doces e BR PAMPA (milho comum. Em condições de laboratório (25 ± 1ºC; 70 ± 10% UR; fotofase 12 horas, 35 lagartas foram individualizadas e alimentadas, diariamente, com seções de folhas de 3,14 cm² dos referidos genótipos, provenientes

  14. Field infestation of three maize ( Zea mays l.) genotypes by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two field experiments were conducted in July and August 2004 to determine the effect of date of planting and rate of application of carbofuran (Furadan 3G) on damage by stem borers to flint, sweet and pop maize (Zea mays L) genotypes. Each experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD), with a ...

  15. Diferentes graus de compactação e fornecimento de fósforo influenciando no crescimento de plantas de milho (Zea mays L. cultivadas em solos distintos Different compaction degrees and phosphorus supply influencing the corn plants growth (Zea mays L. cultivated in different soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislene Aparecida dos Santos

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento e desenvolvimento das plantas podem ser limitados por impedimentos físicos e químicos que impedem o desenvolvimento radicular e restringe a absorção de nutrientes. Com a finalidade de avaliar o efeito de diferentes graus de compactação e doses de fósforo, na produção de matéria seca, teores de fósforo e fósforo acumulado na parte aérea do milho (Zea mays L., um experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação, usando três solos, sendo um mais argiloso, Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico típico (LVd, um com textura média, Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo Distrófico (LVAd e um com textura arenosa, Neossolo Quartzarênico (RQ. Na montagem dos vasos, foi feita a calagem com calcário dolomítico e a adubação básica, sendo os graus de compactação obtidos mediante o ensaio de Proctor Normal. As maiores produções de MSPA, TPPA e PAPA foram obtidas nos graus de compactação 65 e 75% e na maior dose de fósforo aplicada. Em um mesmo grau de compactação a maior produção de matéria seca da parte aérea (MSPA, os maiores teores de fósforo (TPPA e os maiores teores de fósforo acumulado na parte aérea (PAPA, ocorreram na maior dose de fósforo aplicado. O fósforo aplicado funcionou como um fator de aliviamento da compactação do solo, resultando em uma maior produção para um mesmo grau de compactação.The growth and development of the plants can be limited by physical and chemical impediments that limit roots development and restricts nutrients absorption. With the purpose of evaluating the effect of different degrees of compaction and phosphorus doses, in the production of dry matter, level of phosphorus and accumulated phosphorus in the aerial part of the corn (Zea mays L., an experiment was set up in a green house conditions, using three soils, being a clay one, distrofic Red Latosol, one with loamy texture, distrofic Red Yellow Latosol and one with sandy texture, Quartzarenic Neosol. In the assembly of the vases

  16. Avaliação do comportamento agronômico da planta e valor nutritivo da silagem de diferentes híbridos de milho (Zea mays, L. Evaluation of the agronomic behavior of the plant and nutritive value of silage from different corn (Zea mays, L. hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joilmaro Rodrigo Pereira Rosa

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento agronômico produtivo da planta e as características químico-bromatológicas e fermentativas da silagem de diferentes híbridos de milho (Zea mays, L.: Agroceres AG-5011, Braskalb XL-344 e Cargill C-806. Para as avaliações agronômicas dos híbridos, utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado e, para a avaliação das silagens, o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, sendo o critério de bloqueamento o período de utilização da silagem. O híbrido C-806 foi o mais precoce, com intervalo de 100 dias da semeadura à colheita para ensilagem, enquanto o híbrido XL-344 foi o mais tardio, com intervalo de 121 dias. As características fenotípicas da planta de milho determinaram o potencial produtivo dos híbridos, tendo o híbrido AG-5011 apresentado a maior altura de planta e potencial produtivo de matéria verde e matéria seca por hectare, em relação aos híbridos C-806 e XL-344. Verificou-se, nos híbridos AG-5011 e C-806, maior população final de plantas em relação ao híbrido XL-344. O híbrido C-806 apresentou menor proporção de grãos em relação à planta inteira. Com base nos teores de MS e DIVMS, as silagens dos híbridos AG-5011, C-806 e XL-344 são classificadas como de boa qualidade. Com relação às características fermentativas, N-NH3/NT e pH, as silagens dos três híbridos são classificadas como de muito boa qualidade.The experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the agronomic production behavior of the plant and the chemical, qualitative and fermentation characteristics of silage from different corn (Zea mays, L. hybrids: Agroceres AG-5011, Braskalb XL-344 and Cargill C-806. For the agronomic behavior of the hybrids a complete randomized experimental design was used, and for silages evaluation a randomized block design was used, where the silage utilization period was the blocking criterion. C-806 hybrid was

  17. Selección de rizobios adaptados a ecosistemas ganaderos de Sancti Spíritus, Cuba, inoculados en maíz (Zea mays, L.: Fase I: Invernadero Selection of rhizobia adapted to livestock production ecosystems of Sancti Spiritus, Cuba, inoculated in corn (Zea mays L..: Stage I: Greenhouse

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    C.J Bécquer

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un ensayo en invernadero con el objetivo de seleccionar cepas de rizobio inoculadas en maíz (Zea mays, L.. Para ello se utilizaron 30 cepas nativas cubanas pertenecientes a Bradyrhizobium sp., así como 12 cepas comerciales, pertenecientes a diferentes géneros y especies de rizobio. Los inóculos se confeccionaron en medio CLM y fueron agitados hasta alcanzar un título de 10(6-10(8 cél./mL. Se utilizaron los métodos estándar para la inoculación de cereales. Se evaluaron las variables: peso seco aéreo (PSA, peso seco raíz (PSR, longitud del tallo (LT, diámetro del tallo (DT y presencia de mazorcas (PM. En las variables PSA, LT y DT se hallaron tratamientos superiores al control absoluto, y en el caso de la LT, dos tratamientos presentaron valores sin diferencias significativas a los del control fertilizado. No se detectaron diferencias estadísticas entre tratamientos en la PM. En el PSR los tratamientos inoculados fueron inferiores al control fertilizado, excepto JI2, TD1, SP7 y SP12. Se obtuvo una agrupación en conglomerados, mediante la cual se selecciona­ron las cepas TD, JK, SP, SP, TE, JK, SP, USDA 110, JI, JJ, USDA 76, SP, 25B6, SP, NITRAGIN, ATCC 10317, que se destacaron para su posterior evaluación en condiciones de campo. Los tratamientos seleccionados en el dendrograma constituyeron el 69% para las cepas nativas y el 31% para las comerciales. Al evaluar los tratamientos inoculados en cuanto al grado de dependencia de las diferentes variables con respecto al PSR, se determinó que el índice de regresión fue débil, pero al analizarlos por separado, se observó una regresión fuerte en las variables DT (cepas nativas y PSA (cepas comerciales. Se recomienda la conti­nuación de estas investigaciones en condiciones de campo.A greenhouse trial was carried out with the objective of selecting rhizobia strains inoculated in corn (Zea mays, L.. Thirty Cuban native strains belonging to Bradyrhizobium sp. were used, as

  18. Avaliação de cinco híbridos de milho (Zea mays, L. em diferentes estádios de maturação: 3. Composição químico-bromatológica Evaluation of five corn hybrids (Zea mays, L. at different maturity stages: 3. Chemical-bromatology composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Maria Zeoula

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar cinco híbridos de milho (Zea mays L. Pioneer: superprecoce P32R21, os precoces P30R07, P3041 e P30F33 e o semiprecoce P30F80, quanto à composição química, em diferentes estádios de maturação. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. A colheita das amostras dos híbridos de milho foi adotada estimando-se os cinco estádios de maturação da planta: 30, 34, 38, 42 e 46% de matéria seca (MS. Para cada estádio de maturação, procedeu-se à separação de colmo + bainha, lâmina foliar e do grão para posteriores analises químicas. Da fração grão, foram determinados os teores de nitrogênio total e de amido, nos cinco estádios de maturação. Nas frações de lâmina foliar e colmo + bainha, foram determinados os teores de fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, lignina, nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente ácido (NIDA e nitrogênio total. Para os parâmetros avaliados observou-se diferença entre os híbridos de milho e efeito de dias pós-plantio. Com o avanço do estádio de maturação, observou-se que houve ligeira redução nos teores de proteína bruta (PB e os teores de amido praticamente não variaram no grão. Para a fração lâmina foliar, verificou-se que, com o aumento nos teores de matéria seca da planta, houve queda nos teores de PB e NIDA, ao contrário da fração colmo + bainha, cujos teores aumentaram. Os teores de FDN, FDA e lignina na lâmina foliar aumentaram, porém esses nutrientes na fração colmo + bainha dos híbridos de milho, praticamente, não variaram com o avanço do estádio de maturação.The objective of this study was evaluate, of the chemical composition of five corn (Zea mays L. hybrids Pioneer: P32R21, P30R07, P3041, P30F33 and P30F80, at different maturity stages. The treatments were used in plots of 7 x 8 m in a randomized block design, with four replicates. The samples

  19. Feeding non-preference of the corn leaf aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, 1856 (Hemiptera: Aphididae to corn plants (Zea mays L. treated with silicon Não-preferência do pulgão-da-folha Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, 1856 (Hemiptera: Aphididae para plantas de milho (Zea mays L. tratadas com silício

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Campos Moraes

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A tactic for control to corn leaf Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, 1856 would be the use of resistant materials, but, for not being a key pest of the crop, there are not yet corn genotypes availables with those characteristics. So, it was aimed in this work to evaluate the effect of silicon on the aphid's development on corn plants. Preference tests with leaves detached from the plants and on corn plants were accomplished. Its was found that the treatments where silicon was applied to the soil plus a foliar sprayed fertilization or through two foliar applications were the ones which contained a lower number of aphids, increasing the resistance of leaves and making the feeding of those insects difficult. In general, the results showed that silicon affected the leaf aphid's preference.Uma tática para o controle do pulgão-do-milho Rhopalosiphum maids (Fitch, 1856 seria a utilização de materiais resistentes, porém, por não se tratar de uma praga-chave da cultura, não há, ainda, disponibilidade de genótipos de milho com essas características. Assim com o presente trabalho objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do silício na preferência do pulgão-da-folha em plantas de milho. Os tratamentos consistiram na aplicação de silício via solo e/ou foliar e testemunha. Foram realizados testes de não-preferência com folhas destacadas e diretamente em plantas de milho. Verificou-se que os tratamentos nos quais o silício foi aplicado via solo mais uma adubação foliar, ou mediante duas aplicações foliares, foram os que apresentaram menor número de pulgões, aumentando a resistência das folhas e dificultando a alimentação desses insetos. De modo geral, o silício afetou a preferência do pulgão-da-folha.

  20. Sweet Stuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    2001-11-01

    Readers wanting to nibble some sweet stuff can find a sizable collection of Journal articles via an online search with "sugar" in the title field. The papers cover topics varying from structure and nomenclature, demonstrations, and experiments for laboratories at all levels, to the history and technology of commercial sugar production. A separate search using the title word "sweet" locates additional articles covering all types of sweeteners and models relating sweetness to chemical structure.

  1. Sensibilidade do clorofilômetro para diagnóstico nutricional de nitrogênio no milho Sensitivity of the chlorophyll meter for nutritional diagnostic of nitrogen in corn (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Manuel Carmelino Hurtado

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A obtenção de altas produtividades de milho (Zea mays L. torna-se difícil, dentre outros fatores, pela complexa quantificação dos requerimentos de nitrogênio (N da cultura do milho ao longo do seu ciclo, o que dificulta o seu dimensionamento, ainda mais, considerando a variada capacidade de suprimento de N em solos brasileiros. Nesse sentido, os teores relativos de clorofila surgem como uma opção para o manejo do N. Objetivou-se, neste estudo avaliar a sensibilidade do clorofilômetro em indicar o estado nutricional do milho em resposta ao N, em solos com teores de argila contrastantes e sob diferentes condições de suprimento de N. Para isso, foram realizados experimentos em condições controladas e de lavoura. Em condições controladas, foram testados três solos com teores de argila contrastantes e cinco doses de N, sendo avaliados, aos 55 dias após a emergência (estádio prévio ao VT, os teores relativos de clorofila, de N foliar e a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea. Em condições de lavoura foram avaliados seis tratamentos, resultantes da combinação de três doses de nitrogênio em cobertura, na presença e ausência de calcário, sendo a maior dose de N correspondente à condição na qual não haveria limitação de disponibilidade quanto ao suprimento do nutriente. A nutrição nitrogenada foi monitorada semanalmente com uso do clorofilômetro. Foram avaliados também os teores de N na folha e no grão, o N mineral no solo, a matéria seca da parte aérea e a produtividade de grãos. Os resultados permitiram concluir que há sensibilidade do clorofilômetro em detectar diferenças no estado nutricional do milho em resposta a diferentes características de solo e de suprimento de N, servindo como indicador da necessidade de adubação nitrogenada de cobertura.High corn yields are conditioned by the different factors involved in the quantification of nitrogen requirements for the crop throughout its cycle, which

  2. Examination of the pest status of corn-infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Gaurav; Nuessly, Gregg S; Seal, Dakshina R; Steck, Gary J; Capinera, John L; Meagher, Robert L

    2012-10-01

    Larvae of 11 species of picture-winged flies (Diptera: Ulididae) are known to feed on corn plants (Zea mays L.) in the western hemisphere. Larvae emerge from eggs deposited in leaf axils and corn silk to feed mostly within ears, but the primary versus secondary nature (i.e., pest status) of their infestation is not known for all of these species. Choice and no-choice tests by using a split-plot design were conducted in greenhouse and field trials to determine the pest status on sweet corn of three of these species found in Florida: Chaetopsis massyla (Walker), Euxesta eluta Loew, and E. stigmatias Loew. The main treatments (uninfested ears and ears experimentally infested with either Spodoptera frugiperda [Lepidoptera: Noctuidae] or E. eluta larvae) were applied at first silk. The subtreatments (C. massyla, E. eluta, or E. stigmatias adults caged on ears) were applied 7 d later and maintained for 10 d. All three fly species were reared from uninfested and experimentally infested ears in both choice and no-choice tests in greenhouse and field trials confirming both primary and secondary modes of ear infestation. More flies of all three species emerged from ears that were preinfested with S. frugiperda compared with uninfested ears suggesting either preference for or greater survival within ears previously infested by S. frugiperda. Fewer E. eluta and E. stigmatias emerged from ears preinfested with E. eluta in no-choice field tests, suggesting that previous infestation by this fly may negatively affect oviposition or that older fly larvae affect survival of neonate larvae. All three species studied here should be considered primary pests that can render unprotected sweet corn ears unmarketable.

  3. Sweet Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Shuk-kwan S.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article features Sweet play math, a "math by the month" activity that involves decorating and making sugar cubes. Teachers may want to substitute straws, paper squares, alphabet blocks, or such commercially made manipulatives as Unifix[R] cubes for the real sweets. Given no allergy concerns, teachers and students alike would enjoy some sweet…

  4. Sweet Conclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Britt M.; Wooldridge, Barbara Ross; Camp, Kerri M.

    2012-01-01

    Jen Harrington is the owner and pastry chef of Sweet Conclusion, a bakery in Tampa, Florida. Most of Harrington's business comes from baking wedding cakes, but she has been attempting to attract customers to her retail bakery, where she sells cupcakes, pies, ice cream, and coffee. Nearly four years she opened Sweet Conclusion, the retail part of…

  5. Enzymic synthesis of indole-3-acetyl-1-O-beta-d-glucose. I. Partial purification and characterization of the enzyme from Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leznicki, A. J.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    The first enzyme-catalyzed reaction leading from indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to the myo-inositol esters of IAA is the synthesis of indole-3-acetyl-1-O-beta-D-glucose from uridine-5'-diphosphoglucose (UDPG) and IAA. The reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme, UDPG-indol-3-ylacetyl glucosyl transferase (IAA-glucose-synthase). This work reports methods for the assay of the enzyme and for the extraction and partial purification of the enzyme from kernels of Zea mays sweet corn. The enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 46,500 an isoelectric point of 5.5, and its pH optimum lies between 7.3 and 7.6. The enzyme is stable to storage at zero degrees but loses activity during column chromatographic procedures which can be restored only fractionally by addition of column eluates. The data suggest either multiple unknown cofactors or conformational changes leading to activity loss.

  6. Avaliação da silagem de diferentes híbridos de milho (Zea mays, L. por meio do desempenho de bezerros confinados em fase de crescimento Evaluation of silages of different corn hybrids (Zea mays, L. by feedlot performance of calves, during the growing phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joilmaro Rodrigo Pereira Rosa

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar, por meio do desempenho animal, silagens de três híbridos de milho (Zea mays, L.: Agroceres AG-5011, Braskalb XL-344 e Cargill C-806. Foram utilizados 27 machos, não-castrados, mestiços Nelore x Charolês, com idade média de 10 meses e peso médio inicial de 252 kg, confinados durante 84 dias, subdivididos em quatro períodos de 21 dias. As silagens dos híbridos testados corresponderam a 70% da matéria seca ofertada. Não houve interação do híbrido de milho testado com o período de avaliação em confinamento, para os parâmetros estudados. A dieta que incluiu a silagem do híbrido AG-5011 resultou em maior consumo voluntário médio diário de matéria seca, expresso por 100 kg de peso vivo e tamanho metabólico, e maior consumo médio diário de fibra em detergente ácido, expresso nas diferentes formas, em relação aos híbridos XL-344 e C-806, que, por sua vez, foram semelhantes entre si. As dietas que incluíram silagens dos híbridos AG-5011, XL-344 e C-806 apresentaram semelhanças quanto ao consumo voluntário de matéria seca, expresso em kg/animal/dia (6,73; 6,05; e 6,19, consumo médio diário de FDN, em kg/dia (3,054; 2,837; e 2,836, e energia digestível, expressa nas diferentes formas, ganho de peso médio diário, em kg/dia (1,283; 1,219; e 1,249, ganho em estado corporal, conversão alimentar (5,26; 4,98; e 4,97 e eficiência energética (14,02; 13,68; e 13,21. Os três híbridos são indicados como materiais genéticos de muito boa qualidade para produção de silagem, promovendo ganhos de peso diário superior a 1,2 kg/animal/dia, quando utilizados em dietas com relação volumoso:concentrado de 70:30.The objective of the experiment was to evaluate, through feedlot performance of calves, three corn hybrids (Zea mays, L.: Agroceres AG-5011, Braskalb XL-344 and Cargill C-806. For the evaluation, 27 Nellore x Charolais non-castrated crossbred males with average age of 10 months and average initial

  7. Effects of Pyramided Bt Corn and Blended Refuges on Western Corn Rootworm and Northern Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keweshan, Ryan S; Head, Graham P; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2015-04-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and the northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), are major pests of corn (Zea mays L). Several transgenic corn events producing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kill corn rootworm larvae and reduce injury to corn roots. However, planting of Bt corn imposes selection on rootworm populations to evolve Bt resistance. The refuge strategy and pyramiding of multiple Bt toxins can delay resistance to Bt crops. In this study, we assessed the impact of four treatments--1) non-Bt corn, 2) Cry3Bb1 corn, 3) corn pyramided with Cry3Bb1 and Cry34/35Ab1, and 4) pyramided corn with a blended refuge--on survival, time of adult emergence, and size of western and northern corn rootworm. All treatments with Bt corn led to significant reductions in the number of adults that emerged per plot. However, at one location, we identified Cry3Bb1-resistant western corn rootworm. In some cases Bt treatments reduced size of adults and delayed time of adult emergence, with effects most pronounced for pyramided corn. For both species, the number of adults that emerged from pyramided corn with a blended refuge was significantly lower than expected, based solely on emergence from pure stands of pyramided corn and non-Bt corn. The results of this study indicate that pyramided corn with a blended refuge substantially reduces survival of both western and northern corn rootworm, and as such, should be a useful tool within the context of a broader integrated pest management strategy. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in northeastern field corn: infestation levels and the value of transgenic hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnenblust, Eric; Breining, Jim; Fleischer, Shelby; Roth, Gregory; Tooker, John

    2013-06-01

    Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), is a polyphagous noctuid pest of agricultural crops across the United States that is gaining attention as a pest of field corn. Before the introduction of transgenic insect-resistant hybrids, this pest was largely ignored in field corn, but now many Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn hybrids have activity against corn earworm. However, the value of control in the northeastern United States is unclear because the risk posed by corn earworm to field corn has not been well characterized. To understand the threat from corn earworm and the value of Bt hybrids in field corn, we assessed corn earworm injury in Bt and non-Bt hybrids at 16 sites across four maturity zones throughout Pennsylvania in 2010, and 10 sites in 2011. We also used corn earworm captures from the PestWatch pheromone trapping network to relate moth activity to larval damage in field corn. Corn earworm damage was less than one kernel per ear at 21 of 26 sites over both years, and the percentage of ears damaged was generally Bt hybrids suppressed corn earworm damage relative to non-Bt hybrids, but we found no differences among Bt traits. Cumulative moth captures through July effectively predicted damage at the end of the season. Currently, the additional benefit of corn earworm control provided by Bt hybrids is typically less than US$4.00/ha in northeastern field corn.

  9. Fusarium toxins in corn food products: a survey of the Serbian retail market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torović, Ljilja

    2018-01-19

    This paper presents data on the occurrence of Fusarium toxins - zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FUMs) B1 and B2 - in corn flours and corn flakes marketed in Serbia. A total of 71 samples were collected over 2013-2016 and analysed using HPLC with UV or fluorescence detection. In the case of corn flours, none of the samples taken in 2013 exhibited the presence of ZEA or DON, whereas 90% were positive for FUMs. In 2015, occurrence was very high: ZEA 93%, DON 86% and FUMs 100% (mean 43.3, 322.6 and 323.0 μg kg -1 , respectively), with 21% of the samples exceeding the maximum level for ZEA and 7% for DON and FUMs. In 2016, a lower occurrence was recorded in the case of ZEA (75%) and DON (38%), with drastically lower mean contamination levels (six- and 10-fold, respectively), while FUMs stayed at 97%, with twofold lower mean. The maximum level was exceeded only for ZEA (3%). The frequency of ZEA-DON-FB1 co-occurrence was 86% in 2015 and 25% in 2016. Regarding corn flakes, occurrence summarised for the study period was 87% ZEA, 73% FUMs and 40% DON. One sample (7%) exceeded the maximum levels for both ZEA and DON. Observed occurrence changes were in agreement with the climatic conditions during corn growing seasons preceding the market release of the processed products.

  10. Response of maize (Zea mays L.) to combined application of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-11-04

    Nov 4, 2015 ... farmyard manure, poultry manure and nitrogen for Corn (Zea mays. L.) productivity. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 6(2):260-263. Makinde EA, Ayoola AA (2008). Residual influence of early season crop fertilization and cropping systems on growth and yield of cassava. Amer. J. Agric. Biol. Sci. 3(4): 712-715. PME (2013).

  11. 21 CFR 184.1866 - High fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true High fructose corn syrup. 184.1866 Section 184.1866... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1866 High fructose corn syrup. (a) High fructose corn syrup, a sweet, nutritive saccharide mixture containing either approximately 42 or 55 percent...

  12. Diet improvement for western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is the most serious insect pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in the United States and parts of Europe, and arguably the world’s most expensive pest to control. Several diet formulations are currently used by industry and researchers t...

  13. Integration of biological control and transgenic insect protection for mitigation of mycotoxins in corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control is known to be effective in reducing aflatoxin contamination of corn and some transgenic corn hybrids incur greatly reduced damage from corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea). We conducted seven field trials over two years to test the hypothesis that transgenic insect protection and biol...

  14. A Corn Tissue Culture Cell Line with Altered Lipid Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Yue-ie C, Hsing; Jack M, Widholm; Robert W, Rinne; Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica; Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana; Plant Physiology and Genetics Research Unit, Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service and Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana

    1991-01-01

    A variant corn callus line derived from callus which originated from etiolated leaves of Illinois High Oil corn (Zea mays L.) has been identified. The variant corn callus line had increased lipid content concomitant with increased acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity and altered biotin-containing protein patterns relative to the wild type callus. The variant callus line also had altered fatty acid composition concomitant with decreased oleate desaturase activity compared to the wild type callus. T...

  15. Elevated carbon dioxide reduces emission of herbivore-induced volatiles in Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Anna; Vaughan, Martha M; Christensen, Shawn A; Alborn, Hans T; Tumlinson, James H

    2017-09-01

    Terpene volatiles produced by sweet corn (Zea mays) upon infestation with pests such as beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) function as part of an indirect defence mechanism by attracting parasitoid wasps; yet little is known about the impact of climate change on this form of plant defence. To investigate how a central component of climate change affects indirect defence, we measured herbivore-induced volatile emissions in plants grown under elevated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). We found that S. exigua infested or elicitor-treated Z. mays grown at elevated CO 2 had decreased emission of its major sesquiterpene, (E)-β-caryophyllene and two homoterpenes, (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene and (3E,7E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene. In contrast, inside the leaves, elicitor-induced (E)-β-caryophyllene hyper-accumulated at elevated CO 2 , while levels of homoterpenes were unaffected. Furthermore, gene expression analysis revealed that the induction of terpene synthase genes following treatment was lower in plants grown at elevated CO 2 . Our data indicate that elevated CO 2 leads both to a repression of volatile synthesis at the transcriptional level and to limitation of volatile release through effects of CO 2 on stomatal conductance. These findings suggest that elevated CO 2 may alter the ability of Z. mays to utilize volatile terpenes to mediate indirect defenses. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Substituição do milho Zea mays por milheto Pennisetum americanum em rações para alevinos de carpa-capim Ctenopharyngodon idella - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i1.1365 Replacement of corn Zea mays by millet Pennisetum americanum in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella fingerlings diets - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i1.1365

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Figueiredo Lacerda

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento com duração de 45 dias foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da substituição do milho Zea mays (0,00%; 33,00%; 66,67% e 100,00% pelo milheto Pennisetum americanum, em rações sobre o desempenho de alevinos de carpa-capim Ctenopharyngodon idella. Foram utilizados 112 alevinos de carpa-capim (0,75 g, distribuídos em 16 tanques-rede (160 L, em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com 4 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Cada bloco correspondeu a uma caixa de fibrocimento (1.000 L com 4 tanques-rede, onde cada um deles contendo 7 alevinos foi considerado uma unidade experimental. As variáveis avaliadas foram peso final médio, ganho de peso, comprimento final médio, conversão alimentar aparente, fator de condição e taxa de sobrevivência. Não foram observados efeitos da utilização do milheto sobre os parâmetros de desempenho produtivo analisados (p > 0,01. Os valores médios de temperatura, pH, condutividade elétrica e oxigênio dissolvido durante o período experimental foram de 24,5 ± 1,39ºC; 7,51 ± 0,32; 0,16 ± 0,01 µS/cm e 6,04 ± 1,28 mg/L, respectivamente. Conclui-se que o milheto pode ser incluído na ração para alevinos de C. idella em até 33,7%, substituindo totalmente o milho sem afetar o desempenho dos animaisThe present experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of the replacement of corn Zea. Mays (0.00%; 33.00%; 66.67% e 100.00% by millet P. americanum in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella fingerlings diets, during a 45 days period. One hundred and twelve carp grass fingerlings (0.75 g were used, distributed in 16 net ponds (160 L, in randomized blocks with four treatments and four replicates. Each block corresponded to one fiber cement tank (1000 L with four net ponds. Each net pond containing seven grass carp fingerlings was considered one experimental unit. The variables evaluated were: mean weight, mean weight gain, mean length, outward feed conversion, condition

  17. genome-wide association and metabolic pathway analysis of corn earworm resistance in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marilyn L. Warburton; Erika D. Womack; Juliet D. Tang; Adam Thrash; J. Spencer Smith; Wenwei Xu; Seth C. Murray; W. Paul Williams

    2018-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays mays L.) is a staple crop of economic, industrial, and food security importance. Damage to the growing ears by corn earworm [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)] is a major economic burden and increases secondary fungal infections and mycotoxin levels. To identify biochemical pathways associated with native resistance mechanisms, a genome-wide...

  18. A comparative investigation of the metabolism of the herbicide glufosinate in cell cultures of transgenic glufosinate-resistant and non-transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and corn (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhland, Monika; Engelhardt, Gabriele; Pawlizki, Karlheinz

    2002-10-01

    To obtain information on differences between the metabolic pathways of the herbicide glufosinate (trade names: BASTA, LIBERTY) in non-transgenic, glufosinate-sensitive plants and in transgenic, glufosinate-resistant plants, the metabolism of 14C-labeled glufosinate and its enantiomers L- and D-glufosinate was studied using cell cultures of oilseed rape and corn. Transformation of glufosinate in both sensitive and transgenic rape cells remained at a low rate of about 3-10% in contrast to corn cells, where 20% was transformed in sensitive and 43% in transgenic cells after 14 days of incubation, the rest remaining as unchanged glufosinate. In sensitive rape and corn cells the main metabolite was 4-methylphosphinico-2-oxo-butanoic acid (PPO) with 7.3 and 16.4%, respectively, together with low amounts of 3-methylphosphinicopropionic acid (MPP), 4-methylphosphinico-2-hydroxybutanoic acid (MHB), 4-methylphosphinicobutanoic acid (MPB) and 2-methylphosphinicoacetic acid (MPA). An additional metabolite formed in transgenic cell cultures was 2-acetamido-4-methylbutanoic acid (N-acetyl-L-glufosinate, NGA), which was formed at rates of 3.2% in rape and 16.1% in corn. A further minor metabolite, not yet identified, was detected in both cell types. The liberation of 0.2% 14CO2 indicates further metabolic steps prior to a limited mineralization in plant cell cultures. L-glufosinate was transformed into the same metabolites as the glufosinate racemate. D-glufosinate was not metabolized.

  19. Selection and breeding of corn to enhance associative bacterial nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, S.W.; Anderson, M.A.; Brill, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    We have increased, through screening and breeding, the ability of corn (maize, Zea mays L.) to support bacterial nitrogen fixation in or on corn roots. Isotopic N fixed from /sup 15/N/sub 2/ was found on the roots. Even though the nitrogen-fixing association depends on germ plasm from tropical corn, the activity can be bred into corn currently used in midwestern United States agriculture.

  20. Application of Near-Surface Remote Sensing and computer algorithms in evaluating impacts of agroecosystem management on Zea mays (corn) phenological development in the Platte River - High Plains Aquifer Long Term Agroecosystem Research Network field sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalebo, J. A.; Das Choudhury, S.; Awada, T.; Suyker, A.; LeBauer, D.; Newcomb, M.; Ward, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Long-term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is a USDA-ARS effort that focuses on conducting research that addresses current and emerging issues in agriculture related to sustainability and profitability of agroecosystems in the face of climate change and population growth. There are 18 sites across the USA covering key agricultural production regions. In Nebraska, a partnership between the University of Nebraska - Lincoln and ARD/USDA resulted in the establishment of the Platte River - High Plains Aquifer LTAR site in 2014. The site conducts research to sustain multiple ecosystem services focusing specifically on Nebraska's main agronomic production agroecosystems that comprise of abundant corn, soybeans, managed grasslands and beef production. As part of the national LTAR network, PR-HPA participates and contributes near-surface remotely sensed imagery of corn, soybean and grassland canopy phenology to the PhenoCam Network through high-resolution digital cameras. This poster highlights the application, advantages and usefulness of near-surface remotely sensed imagery in agroecosystem studies and management. It demonstrates how both Infrared and Red-Green-Blue imagery may be applied to monitor phenological events as well as crop abiotic stresses. Computer-based algorithms and analytic techniques proved very instrumental in revealing crop phenological changes such as green-up and tasseling in corn. This poster also reports the suitability and applicability of corn-derived computer based algorithms for evaluating phenological development of sorghum since both crops have similarities in their phenology; with sorghum panicles being similar to corn tassels. This later assessment was carried out using a sorghum dataset obtained from the Transportation Energy Resources from Renewable Agriculture Phenotyping Reference Platform project, Maricopa Agricultural Center, Arizona.

  1. (Zea mays L.) GENOTYPES BY LEPIDOPTEROUS STEM BORERS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    The three maize endosperm types used in the experiment were susceptible to stem borer infestation, but there was no statistical difference with respect to stem borer infestation and severity of damage for July and August cropping, although, sweet corn tended to be more susceptible than the other endosperm types (flint and.

  2. Incidência de patógenos e vigor de sementes de milho doce submetidas a danos mecânicos Pathogen incidence and vigor in sweet corn seed after mechanical damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Guilhien Gomes Junior

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a incidência de patógenos e o vigor de sementes de milho doce de diferentes classes de tamanhos submetidas a diferentes níveis de danos mecânicos, sementes do híbrido 'SWB551' Dow AgroSciences® foram classificadas em peneiras com crivos de diferentes tamanhos e formas (RG, RM1, RM2 e RP com crivos circulares de 8,7; 7,9; 7,1 e 6,4 mm de diâmetro, respectivamente, e CG, CM e CP com crivos oblongos com dimensões de 8,7 x 19,0, 7,9 x 19,0, 6,4 x 19,0 mm, respectivamente, submetidas a impactos contra uma placa metálica de maneira que fossem obtidos tratamentos com diferentes intensidades de danos mecânicos (0, 1, 3, 5 e 7 impactos e armazenadas por 5 meses em ambiente com temperatura de 20ºC e 50-60% de umidade relativa do ar. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, perfazendo um fatorial 7 x 5 (7 peneiras x 5 intensidades de danos, totalizando 35 tratamentos. Foram realizadas as avaliações de teor de água das sementes, teste de danos mecânicos (tintura de iodo, teste de germinação, teste de frio e teste de sanidade. Foram evidenciadas variações nos níveis de incidência de patógenos entre as sementes de milho doce com diferentes tamanhos e formas. O aumento da intensidade dos danos mecânicos não favoreceu o aumento da incidência de patógenos nas sementes, mas reduziu o vigor das mesmas.The objective of this study was to evaluate pathogen incidence and vigor in different size classes of sweet corn seeds, after mechanical damage. Hybrid seeds 'SWB551' Dow AgroSciences® were classified by sieves with different sizes and forms (RG, RM1, RM2 and RP, with circular sieves of 8.7, 7.9, 7.1 and 6.4 mm of diameter, respectively, and CG, CM and CP with oblong sieves with dimensions of 8.7 x 19.0, 7.9 x 19.0, 6.4 x 19.0 mm, respectively. Seeds were submitted for impacts against a metallic plate in order to have different intensities of mechanical damage (0, 1, 3, 5 and

  3. Larval mortality and development for rotation-resistant and rotation-susceptible populations of the western corn rootworm on Bt corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is one of the most economically important insect pests threatening the production of corn, Zea mays (L.), in the United States. Throughout its history, this insect has displayed considerable adaptability by overcoming a variety of pe...

  4. Métodos de analise dos danos da lagarta da espiga¹, em médias de gerações envolvendo IAC Maya e Zapalote Chico Method for analysis of damage of the corn earworm heliothis zea in generation means from IAC Maya and Zapalote Chico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Marques Rezende

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available O milho Zapalote Chico 2451 (ZC 2451, referido na literatura como a melhor fonte de resistência à lagarta da espiga, Heliothis zea (Boddie, 1850, e o IAC Maya XII foram observados em condições de campo, juntamente com as gerações F1, e F2 resultantes do cruzamento de ambos, bem como os respectivos retrocruzamentos da população F1, para cada um dos pais, a fim de estudar métodos de análises de dados obtidos através da escala de dano revista por WIDSTROM e, conseqüentemente, fornecer subsídios para trabalhos de estudo da herança da resistência envolvendo esse cruzamento. Para analisar os dados, dividiram-se as notas de dano em quatro classes distintas agrupadas duas a duas, zero mais 1 e > 2, e zero e > 1, e aplicou-se o método do quiquadrado (c2 para verificar qual divisão melhor se ajustava. Os resultados revelaram que o grupo das classes zero mais 1 e > 2 apresentou melhor uniformidade dos dados entre as repetições dentro de cada tratamento. A análise da variância para cada classe de dano, separadamente, apresentou valores de F altamente significativos para as classes zero e zero mais 1, enquanto para as classes > 1 e > 2, os mesmos não permitiram diferenciar os tratamentos. Entre as classes zero e zero mais 1, esta última revelou maior significância e melhor precisão dos dados. O milho ZC 2451, quando comparado com a variedade IAC Maya XII, exibiu boa resistência à lagarta da espiga nas condições de Campinas (SP, resistência essa relacionada com fatores de não preferência e/ou antibiose, devido ã maior porcentagem de espigas não danificadas do ZC 2451.The line Zapalote Chico 2451 (ZC 2451 resistant to the corn earworm, Heliothis zea, the commercial synthetic Brazilian variety IAC Maya XII, the F1 and F2 obtained with their cross, and the two back crosses between the F1 and both parents, were planted in the field in a randomized block with 10 replications. The earworm damage done to the ears was graded

  5. Effects of humic acids (carbovit on phosphorus, bases and micronutrients of a molisol, with corn as an indicator plant (Zea mays L. Efectos de los ácidos húmicos (Carbovit sobre el fosforo, las bases y los micronutrientes de un molisol, utilizando como planta indicadora el maíz (Zea mays L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guarin Sandra

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish the influence of humic substances (Carbovit on phosphorus, bases exchanges and microelements of a Molisol, greenhouse essays were peñormed at the College of Agriculture of the National Universityof Colombia located in Santafé de Bogotá, during the second semester of 1992. The experiment was taken into plastic vases using com (Zea mays L. as an indicator plant until sixty days after sowing. Resutts show that the humic acid molecule acts as a transport of solouble fertilizers appliedto the soil. Besides, elements like phosphorus,
    iron, magnesium and zinc showed increased levels of those elements in solution in to the soil. It was also found an equilibrium activity among bases relation ship, altributed to the humic acid molecule.
    Con el objeto de establecer la influencia de los ácidos húmicos (Carbovit sobre el fósforo, las bases de cambio y los micro elementos de un suelo calcáreo (Molisol, se realizó un ensayo en los invernaderos de la Facultad de Agronomla de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, durante el segundo semestre de 1992. El experimento se llevo a cabo en materas
    plasticas utilizando como planta indicadora el maíz (Zea mays L. hasta los 60dlas después de siembra. Los resultados muestran que la molécula del ácido húmico actua como transportadora de los fertilizantes solubles aplicados al suelo. Además, elementos como el fósforo, hierro, magnesio y zinc se solubilizaron apreciablemente elevando los niveles de dichos elementos en la solución del suelo. También, se encontró una actividad equilibrante entre las relaciones de las bases, atribuida a la molecula del ácido húmico.

  6. Economic and energetic analysis of corn crop (Zea mays) in no tillage production system in familiar farms at Pratania, SP, Brazil; Analise energetica e economica da producao de milho (Zea Mays) em sistema de plantio direto em propriedades familiares no municipio de Pratania, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pracucho, Tanise Theresa Gomes Martins [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Agronomia]. E-mail: tthera@fca.unesp.br; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias. Programa. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial]. E-mail: maura@fca.unesp.br; osmar@fca.unesp.br

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this paper was analyze the relationship between economic and energetic indicators of corn crop in no tillage production system in familiar farmers at Pratania town in Sao Paulo state. It was collected data from two meanly farmers of this municipal district to compose the production systems of the corn crop. It was also collected data of the monthly average prices of corn, inputs and inflation rates, in the period of 2001 to 2005. The energetic results were presented by the structure of the energetic expenses by type, source and shape in Mega joules (MJ) unit and energetic and cultural efficiency indicators. The economic results were presented in the probability distribution of economic index, given by rate of monetary output and inputs, estimated by the gross income and operational costs, respectively. Both systems showed a dependence of industrial and fossil sources of energy, mainly chemical fertilizers and Diesel oil. For both systems, the economic efficiency indicator was lower than the cultural energetic efficiency indicators, considering the prices of harvest season (March and April). It was verified that economic and energetic efficiency indicators are not coincident and that efficient energetic systems may not be efficient from the economic view. (author)

  7. Especies del género Euxesta Loew (Diptera: Ulidiidae (= Otitidae plagas de maíces dulces Bt en la provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina Species of the genus Euxesta Loew (Diptera: Ulidiidae (=Otitidae, pests of Bt sweet corn in Santa Fe province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Bertolaccini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los maíces dulces Bt son atacados por especies del género Euxesta Loew, antes consideradas como plagas secundarias, lo que provoca daños severos en los maíces dulces del cinturón hortícola santafesino. Se han identificado dos especies del género, E. mazorca Steykal y E. eluta Loew, que aparecen en forma simultánea y causan severas pérdidas. En los ataques, las larvas comienzan a dañar los estigmas, luego se produce el vaciado de los granos, especialmente los apicales, aunque el daño pueden extenderse a toda la espiga. La acción de estas larvas constituye además una vía de ingreso de microorganismos saprofíticos, lo que se traduce en la pérdida del producto e impide su comercialización para consumo directo. El género Dettmeria Borgmeier (Hymenoptera: Figitidae fue identificado parasitando larvas del género Euxesta, aunque en bajo porcentaje.Bt sweet corn is attacked by species of the genus Euxesta Loew that were considered as secondary pests, causing severe damage to sweet corn in Santa Fe province (Argentina. Two species have been identified: E. mazorca Steycal and E. eluta Loew, both appearing simultaneously and producing serious losses. Larvae attack the silks and consume the kernel contents, especially in the tips, although they can extend to all the ear length. The activity of these larvae constitutes one way of entrance for saprophytic microorganisms, making the product unmarketable for direct consumption. Dettmeria Borgmeier (Hymenoptera: Figitidae was identified parasitizing larvae of the genus Euxesta, but at a low level.

  8. Baked corn (Zea mays L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) snack consumption lowered serum lipids and differentiated liver gene expression in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet by inhibiting PPARγ and SREBF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Uscanga, Astrid; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira

    2017-12-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of consuming a baked white corn/bean snack (70/30% blend) on improving diet-induced dyslipidemia and liver differential gene expression in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6 mice were randomized into six groups and different doses of the snack (0.5-2.0 g/d) supplemented to a basal HFD for 12 weeks. Unsupplemented HFD and a standard diet were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Groups receiving HFD1.0, HFD1.5 and HFD2.0 showed attenuation in body weight gain (20%). Serum cholesterol and triglycerides were reduced (Psnack. Histological analysis showed a reduction in adipocyte diameters (PSnack consumption induced differential expression of 529 genes in the liver; RGS16 was the highest up-regulated molecule (+15-fold change). Increased expression of this gene could have improved glucose metabolism in HFD2.0. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis downstream analysis showed a predicted inhibition of target genes of peroxisome PPARγ and key regulators of lipogenic genes in the liver. The results suggest that consumption of a white corn/bean snack (70%/30% blend) attenuates weight gain, fat mass accumulation, adipocyte size and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in HFD-fed mice by inhibiting PPARγ and SREBF2. The study proposes that this type of product might be beneficial by preventing dyslipidemia, obesity and hepatic steatosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Localized search cues in corn roots for western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernklau, E J; Bjostad, L B; Meihls, L N; Coudron, T A; Lim, E; Hibbard, B E

    2009-04-01

    Cues that elicit a characteristic localized search behavior by neonate larvae of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), were extracted from living corn, Zea mays L., roots with acetone. Larvae were exposed to corn roots or to an acetone extract of corn roots and then transferred into a bioassay arena where their movements were tracked and recorded. After a 5-min exposure to live corn roots, larvae produced highly convoluted tracks that were indicative of a localized search behavior, and these distinctive tracks were also produced by larvae exposed to an acetone extract of corn roots. Larvae exposed to a filter paper control moved in relatively straight paths that were indicative of ranging behavior. Larval tracks were recorded by means of a videocamera and tracking software, and four parameters of movement were used to quantify the tracks: mean turn angle, mean meander, total distance, and maximum distance from origin. For every parameter measured, tracks resulting from exposure to the control were significantly different from tracks resulting from exposure to live corn roots and to all doses of the corn root extract. In a separate experiment, larvae exposed to corn root pieces or corn root juice exhibited the localized search behavior, but larvae exposed to oat root pieces and oat root juice (nonhost) exhibited ranging behavior.

  10. Insecticide enhancement with feeding stimulants in corn for western corn rootworm larvae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernklau, E J; Bjostad, L B

    2005-08-01

    Amounts of the insecticide thiamethoxam required for 50% mortality of western corn rootworm larvae, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, were reduced 100-fold when extracts of germinating corn, Zea mays L., were used to entice neonate larvae to feed on it. In behavioral bioassays, neonate rootworm larvae fed vigorously on filter paper disks treated with liquid pressed from corn roots. Moreover, disks treated with an acetone extract of corn (dried and rewetted with water) also elicited strong feeding from larvae. Larvae wandered away from filter paper disks treated with distilled water without feeding. Dilutions of thiamethoxam were tested in the bioassay alone or with corn extract and the efficacy of this insecticide was improved by the addition of the corn extract. For solutions containing 10 ppm thiamethoxam, 95% larval mortality occurred after 30 min of exposure when corn extract was present, but only 38% mortality occurred when the same concentration of insecticide alone (no feeding stimulants) was tested. Larval mortality after 24 h was significantly higher for corn extract-treated disks with 0.01, 0.1, 1, or 10 ppm insecticide than for the same concentrations without corn extract. Thiamethoxam did not deter larval feeding on corn extract, even at the highest concentration of thiamethoxam tested.

  11. Impact of corn earworm injury on yield of transgenic corn producing Bt toxins in the Carolinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Reisig, Dominic D

    2014-06-01

    Transgenic corn, Zea mays L., hybrids expressing insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and insecticide applications to suppress injury from Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) were evaluated in Florence, SC, and in Plymouth, NC, in 2012 and 2013. Based on kernel area injured, insecticide applications (chlorantraniliprole) every 3-4 d from R1 until H. zea had cycled out of corn reduced injury by 80-93% in Florence and 94-95% in Plymouth. Despite intensive applications of insecticide (13-18 per trial), limited injury still occurred in all treated plots in 2012, except in DKC 68-03 (Genuity VT Double PRO), based on kernels injured (both locations) and proportion of injured ears (Florence only). In 2013, ear injury was low in Plymouth, with no kernel injury in any insecticide-treated plots, except P1498R (non-Bt) and P1498YHR (Optimum Intrasect). Injury in Florence in 2013 did not occur in treated plots of DKC 68-04 (non-Bt), DKC 68-03 (Genuity VT Double PRO), and N785-3111 (Agrisure Viptera). Yields were not significantly affected by insecticide treatment and were not statistically different among near-isolines with and without Bt traits. Yields were not significantly associated with kernel injury based on regression analyses. The value of using Bt corn hybrids to manage H. zea is discussed.

  12. Attraction, Oviposition Preferences, and Olfactory Responses of Corn-Infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera) to Various Host-Based Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, D; Nuessly, G S; Kendra, P E; Colquhoun, T A; Seal, D R

    2017-08-01

    Fresh market sweet corn (Zea mays L., convar. saccharata var. rugosa, Poales: Poaceae) ears produced in Florida are damaged by the larvae of Euxesta stigmatias Loew, Euxesta eluta Loew, and Chaetopsis massyla Walker (Diptera: Ulidiidae) that renders ears unmarketable. No standard lure exists for monitoring these pests. Oviposition substrate and attractant bioassays were designed to identify attractive substrates for further semiochemical investigation. Frass from the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was more attractive than other ovipositional substrates tested for E. eluta and C. massyla, and resulted in greater ovipositional output. Tassel-derived armyworm frass was more attractive than leaf-derived frass for oviposition. Frass also resulted in greater oviposition output by two species. In attraction bioassays, frass was generally preferred over the corresponding corn tissue, and only C. massyla demonstrated a preference for silk-frass over tassel-frass. The most promising substrates were then evaluated by electroantennography (EAG) to quantify olfactory responses. Frass volatiles also elicited greater antennal responses than corn volatiles. With tassel-frass, greater amplitude EAG responses were recorded from immature E. eluta female antennae, while mature female E. stigmatias exhibited greater responses. Equivalent antennal response to silk-frass was observed from E. eluta. Overall, silk-frass elicited the greatest EAG responses among all three fly species. Our results indicate that armyworm frass is an important resource in the chemical ecology of corn-infesting silk flies, and this substrate warrants further investigation for potential attractants that may facilitate development of novel management tools for these pests. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. 21 CFR 155.130 - Canned corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sweet corn packed with a suitable liquid packing medium which may include water and the creamy component...) Lemon juice or concentrated lemon juice. (d) Butter or margarine in a quantity not less than 3 percent... husk per 400 g. (14 ounces) of drained weight. Place all pieces of cob under a measured amount of water...

  14. Stover removal effects on continuous corn yield and nitrogen use efficiency under irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) residue or stover is harvested as supplemental feed for livestock and is a primary feedstock for cellulosic biofuels. Limited information is available on corn residue removal effects on grain yield under different nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates, irrigation rates and amelioration pr...

  15. Comparison of corn, grain sorghum, soybean, and sunflower under limited irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] constitute a large share of the annual total irrigated planted area in the central Great Plains. This study aimed to determine the effect of limited irrigation on grain yield, water use, and profitability of corn and soybean in comparison with ...

  16. Corn grain yield and soil properties after 10 years of broiler litter amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of broiler litter nutrients for crop production benefits crops, soils, and aids in disposing manure. Understanding corn (Zea mays L.) grain production and soil properties resulting from long-term poultry litter amendment helps establish a sustainable animal manure based corn production with low ...

  17. Corn stover harvest strategy effects on grain yield and soil quality indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of technologies to use cellulosic biomass as a feedstock for biofuel production was recognized as an important research focus because cellulose is a more widely-available feedstock than corn starch. Our objective was to compare various corn (Zea mays L.) stover harvest strategies to ...

  18. Extraction of anthocyanins from black corn cultivated in Tunshi-Chimborazo subjected to different heat treatments for scalding

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Díaz; Marcia Pesántez; Lidia Castro

    2016-01-01

    In order to avoid the loss of anthocyanins during the preparation of black corn (Zea mays L.) as food, and for the extraction of these metabolites for industrial purposes, it is necessary to determine the effect of several factors that influence its final content. The objective of this work was to extract anthocyanins from black corn cultivated in Tunshi-Chimborazo, Ecuador subjected to different heat treatments for scalding. Black corn seeds were used and planted manually. The corn cobs harv...

  19. Produção e qualidade de silagens de híbridos de milho (Zea mays e de híbridos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor Forage production and quality of corn (Zea mays and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor hybrids silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Moraes Genro

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a produção e a qualidade de cinco híbridos de milho (Zea mays e três híbridos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor, foi conduzido um experimento no Departamento de Zootecnia, UFSM. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram: híbridos de milho - Pioneer 3072 (P 3072, Agroceres 211 (AG 211, Cargill 525 (C 525, Pioneer 3232 (P 3232 e Agroceres 213 (AG 213; sorgo -todos os híbridos foram da Agroceres: AG 2004E, AG 2002 e AG 2005E. A população estabelecida foi de 50.000 e 160.000 plantas/ha para milho e o sorgo, respectivamente. As plantas foram cortadas a 15cm do solo, quando atingiram o estádio de grão farináceo. Posteriormente, os híbridos foram picados e ensilados em vidros vedados, colocados em tubos de concreto e tapados com o material verde restante. Com relação à produção de Matéria Seca, o híbrido P 3072 destacou-se em relação aos demais, sendo superior (PA trial was conducted to evaluate forage production and quality of fíve comercial com hybrids (Zea mays and three sorghum hybrids (Sorghum bicolor. The experimental design was randomized blocks with three replicates. The five com hybrids were: Pioneer 3072 (P 3072, Agroceres 211 (AG 211, Cargill 525 (C 525, Pioneer 3232 (P 3232 and Agroceres 213 (AG 213 and the three sorghum hybrids were: Agroceres 2004 E, 2002 and 2005 E (AG 2004 E, AG 2002 and AG 2005 E, respectively. Plant population was about 50.000 and 160,000 plants/ha for com and sorghum, respectively. The crops were havested at a height of 15cm of soil surface, at grain powdering stage. After the harvested, the forage were ensiled in glass recipients, wich were conserved in a higher silum. The dry matter production of the P 3072 was higher than AG 213 and the three sorghum hybrids. Although all mean value results were adequate for silage conservation and quality, there was only significant difference for pH. The digestibility estimatives

  20. Zea mays L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Markus

    near Jos, during the 2007 and 2008 planting seasons, to study the productivity of seven (7) hybrid varieties of maize. (Zea maysL.), namely SUWAN-1-Y, 'Kenya Kitali', ACR-9776-2, TZMSR-W, DMESR-Y, ACROSS-98 and TZPBSR-W. The experiments were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three ...

  1. Uptake and distribution of cadmium in corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peel, J.W.; Vetter, R.J.; Christian, J.E.; Kessler, W.V.; McFee, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    The uptake and distribution of cadmium in corn (Zea mays) treated at various time intervals after planting and sampled at various times after treatment were measured. Cadmium was found to accumulate in all parts sampled. As shown in field studies, stems and leaves generally concentrated more cadmium than did husks, cobs, kernels, silks, or tassels. Samples of stems and leaves from corn treated 23 days after planting and sampled 5 days later exhibited higher concentrations of cadmium than samples taken 25, 45, 65, or 85 days after treatment. Concentrations generally decreased with time. Greenhouse studies showed that corn exposed to cadmium for the longest period of time accumulated the greatest total cadmium. The highest cadmium concentrations were found in the base or lowest leaves sampled 45 days after planting; this suggests a useful technique for quick screening corn crops for cadmium pollution

  2. Proteasome inhibitory, antioxidant, and synergistic antibacterial and anticandidal activity of green biosynthesized magnetic Fe3O4nanoparticles using the aqueous extract of corn (Zea mays L.) ear leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Ali, Md Sarafat; Oh, In-Gyung; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Herein, Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles synthesized using aqueous extract of corn ear leaves were investigated for proteasome inhibitory activity, antioxidant activity, synergistic antibacterial, and anticandidal potential. The UV-Vis spectrum displayed an absorption band at 355 nm that indicated the formation of nano-sized Fe 3 O 4 particles. Vibrating sample magnetometer analysis revealed its superparamagnetic nature. Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles exhibited strong proteasome inhibitory potential and antioxidant activity and exerted strong synergistic antibacterial and anticandidal activity. Its significant proteasome inhibitory potential could be useful in cancer treatment and drug delivery. Furthermore, strong antioxidant, antibacterial, and anticandidal activity make them a promising candidate for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications.

  3. Utilização do biossólido da CAESB na produção de milho no Distrito Federal Use of biosolids for corn (Zea mays, L. production in the Federal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Lemainski

    2006-08-01

    activities. The Companhia de Saneamento Ambiental do Distrito Federal (CAESB processes 400 t of biosolids a day that is rich in mineral nutrients and organic matter. Despite the lack of local agronomic criteria for use, biosolids has found a growing demand in grain, fruit crops, coffee and pastures cultivation. To evaluate the immediate (first year and residual (second year effects on corn production, humid biosolids (water content 900 g kg-1 was applied onto a dystrophic clayey Red Latosol at rates of 7.5, 15, 30, and 45 t ha-1 and compared to a mineral fertilizer mixture applied in equivalent N, P2O5 and K2O amounts. Both biosolids and mineral fertilizer were applied once before the first crop. A random block design was used with three replications. Corn yields in the first and second crops seasons amounted to, respectively, 7.41 and 5.70 t ha-1 of grains (at the rate of 30 t ha-1 of biosolids and 7.38 and 5.88 t ha-1 (at the rate of 45 t ha-1. All grain yields were higher than average Brazilian standards for corn and showed the immediate and residual effects of biosolids as fertilizer. Based on the second degree equation adjusted to average data: Y = 768.24** + 320.56**x - 4.2335**x², R² = 0.9995 (Y, yield and x, biosolids rate, the estimated maximum corn productivity (6.84 t ha-1 would be obtained at a rate of 37.8 t ha-1. The best cost-benefit ratio (1.90, average of two growing seasons was obtained with the application of 30 t ha-1. The biosolids were on average 21 % more efficient than mineral fertilizers. Results indicate that the CAESB biosolids have a good potential to be used as fertilizer for corn production in the Federal District.

  4. Atividade microbiana e produção de milho (Zea mays e de Brachiaria brizantha sob diferentes métodos de controle de plantas daninhas Microbial activity and production of corn (Zea mays and Brachiaria brizantha under different methods of weed control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jakelaitis

    2007-03-01

    biomass production of corn and Brachiaria brizantha intercroping. The treatments were constituted of corn and B. brizantha intercropping, treated with atrazine (1,500 g ha-1, or with atrazine + nicosulfuron (0, 4 and 32 g ha-1 and two controls represented by intercropping control with and without weeds. Herbicides were applied 30 days after corn emergence (DAE. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, with four replicates. Microbial biomass (MB, respiration and metabolic quotient (qCO2 obtained from soil samples seven days after herbicide application on corn flowerage and pre-harvesting were evaluated. No-treated soil samples were collected in field and treated with atrazine (1,500 g ha-1 + nicosulfuron (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 g ha-1 under laboratory condition. Weed and B. brizantha dry matter and corn grain yield were evaluated at corn pre- harvesting. Methods of control did not influence respiration, MB nor qCO2 but higher MB in flowerage and higher qCO2 were observed after seven days of application. Higher weed dry matter production was observed in the control treated only with atrazine. Forage yield of B. brizantha was superior in the control plots without weeds, while corn grain yield was superior both in the control plots without weeds and treated with nicosulfuron.

  5. Detecting adulterated commercial sweet sorghum syrups with ion chromatography oligosaccharide fingerprint profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial sweet sorghum syrups can be adulterated with inexpensive sugar syrups, particularly high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or corn syrup, and sold at a relatively low market price or even mis-branded. This undermines the economic stability of the current small-scale producers of food-grade swee...

  6. Avaliação de cinco híbridos de milho (Zea mays, L. em diferentes estádios de maturação: 1. Produtividade, características morfológicas e correlações Evaluation of five corn hybrids (Zea mays, L. at different maturity stages: 1. Productivity, morphologic traits and correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Ricardo Fontanini Beleze

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido para se avaliarem produtividade e as características morfológicas de cinco híbridos de milho Pioneer: superprecoce P32R21, os precoces P30R07, P3041, P30F33 e o semiprecoce P30F80, em cinco estádios de maturação. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. A colheita das amostras dos híbridos de milho foi adotada estimando-se cinco estádios de maturidade da planta: 30, 34, 38, 42 e 46% de matéria seca. Por ocasião da colheita, no primeiro estádio de maturação, foram tomados alguns parâmetros para avaliação, como altura da planta, altura inserção de espiga, peso da planta, diâmetro de colmo e número médio de espigas. Para cada estádio de maturação, procedeu-se à separação de colmo + bainha, lâmina foliar, grão, sabugo e palha. Os híbridos superprecoce P32R21 e o precoce P3041 apresentaram maiores peso, diâmetro de colmo e altura de planta. As produções de matéria seca (MS, massa verde, grãos, lâmina foliar e colmo + bainha, expressas em toneladas/ha, diferiram entre os híbridos avaliados e houve efeito de dias pós-plantio (DPP. O aumento na produção de MS verificado com o avanço do estádio de maturidade dos híbridos foi correlacionado positivamente com o aumento da produção de grãos (R² = 64,3%. A produção de MS correlacionou-se positivamente com a percentagem de espiga (R² = 56,0% e negativamente (R² = -56,7% com a percentagem de colmo + bainha (em relação a planta inteira.This study was conducted to evaluate productivity and morphologic traits of five hybrids of Pioneer corn: P32R21, P30R07, P3041, P30F33 and P30F80 at different maturity stages. The treatments were used in plots of 7 x 8 m in a randomized block design, with four replicates. The samples collected, of corn hybrid, were adopted trying to estimate phases of maturity of the plant (30, 34, 38, 42 and 46% of dry matter [DM]. In the first maturation stage

  7. Establishment and function of cover crops interseeded into corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops can provide ecological services and improve the resiliency of annual cropping systems; however, cover crop use is low in corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotations in the upper Midwest due to challenges with establishment. Our objective was to compare three planting me...

  8. Sustainability of corn stover harvest strategies in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul R. Adler; Benjamin M. Rau; Gregory W. Roth

    2015-01-01

    Pennsylvania farmers have a long history of harvesting corn (Zea mays L.) stover after grain harvest for animal bedding and feed or as a component of mushroom compost, or as silage for dairy cattle feed. With the shallow soils and rolling topography, soil erosion and carbon losses have been minimized through extensive use of cover crops, no-till, and...

  9. AVALIAÇÃO DO USO DE GRÃOS DE MILHETO (Pennisetum americanum E MILHO (Zea mays NA ALIMENTAÇÃO DE PEIXES NA FASE DE RECRIA, EM SISTEMA DE POLICULTIVO EVALUATION OF PEARL MILLET (Pennisetum americanum AND CORN (Zea mays GRAINS IN FEEDING FOR JUVENILE FISH ON POLYCULTURE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Roberto Maia

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Avaliou-se a produção de peixes em sistema de policultivo, em tanques de terra com 40m2 de área, contendo cada um 30 tambaquis (Colossoma macropomum e 10 carpas (Cyrinus carpio, fertilizados diariamente com esterco fresco de suínos, sendo os peixes suplementados com grãos de milho e milheto.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Peixes; recria; policultivo; milheto.

    Tambaqui (75% was reared in polyculture with common carp (25% from 5.5g and 3.4g mean weight respectively for a period of 505 days. Ponds of 40m2 were stocked at a total density of 10000 ha-1, and daily manured with 150 kg.ha-¹, of swine fresh manure. Fish were supplemented fed with corn or pearl millet grain, offered in submersed trays at a daily rate calculated as 3% of total biomass. The experiment polyculture had a mean net yield of 6.6; 5.2 and 2.1 t.ha-¹.year-¹ of pearl millet, corn and manure respectively. The result of this study indicates that rearing tambaqui in semi-intensive polyculture without supplementary feed had a low growth and the pearl millet fed fish showed a high performance.

    KEY-WORDS: Fishes; polyculture; pearl millet.

  10. Comparison of Chemical and Degradability Characteristics of Green Forage and Silage of Sorghums Varieties with Corn Using In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hedayatipour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical and fermentative parameters of three fresh forages and silages of sorghum including Sweet, Pegah and Speedfeed varieties were compared with corn using in vitro method, also degradability coefficients of forages and silages were determined by in situ method. Forages were planted in the same condition and harvested in soft dough stage, then ensilaged in four replicates for each time of 30, 60 and 90 days of preservation in mini silos. Buffering capacity in green Sweet sorghum was lower than corn and Speedfeed, and acid detergent fiber and water soluble carbohydrates respectively were significantly highest and lowest in fresh forage of Speedfeed sorghum. In time of 60 days, percent of acid detergent lignin of corn silage was lower than Sweet and Speedfeed sorghum silages; similarly, residual water soluble carbohydrate was lowest in corn silage. The lactate Concentration in corn and Pegah sorghums was higher than Sweet and Speedfeed silages. In corn and Sweet sorghum silages, Contents of acetic acid and ammonium nitrogen were highest and lowest, respectively. In nylon bag experiment, Degradation rate of corn and Pegah sorghum forages were significantly higher than Sweet and Speedfeed sorghums that cause to more effective degradability with passage rate of 0.08 in this forages. Also, the slowly degradation coefficient of corn silage was higher than sorghums silages. In conclusion, Speedfeed sorghum forage is not suitable for making silage in comparison others, and corn silage had more potential of degradability.

  11. zea mays l.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEFFAN

    Kahndo Prudence DEFFAN et al. Évaluation morphologique et nutritionnelle de variétés locales et améliorées de maïs (zea mays l.) produites en Côte d'Ivoire. Kahndo Prudence DEFFAN1, 2*, Louise ..... En effet les techniques et les conditions de culture influent sur la levée et donc sur le nombre de plants [22]. Le grain de ...

  12. AVALIAÇÃO DE HÍBRIDOS COMERCIAIS DE MILHO (Zea mays L. VISANDO À PRODUÇÃO DE SILAGENS EVALUATION OF CORN HIBRIDS FOR SILAGE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Carrijo dos Santos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O trabalho objetivou avaliar o valor nutricional de seis híbridos de milho de ciclo precoce para produção de silagem. Os híbridos estudados, todos produzidos pela Cargill Agrícola S.A., foram: C901, C915, C125, C855, C808 e C805. A degradabilidade in situ da matéria seca (DegMS e fibra em detergente neutro (DegFDN, bem como a digestibilidade verdadeira in situ da MS (DISVMS, foram avaliadas utilizando três novilhas ExZ, com cânula no rúmen e recebendo ad libitum uma ração composta por silagem de resíduo de milho, farelo de soja e sal mineralizado. Após 13 dias de adaptação à ração, amostras de 3,5 g dos seis híbridos foram colocadas em sacolas de náilon de 12 x 7 cm e incubadas no rúmen por 6, 12, 24, 48 e 96 horas. As comparações entre médias foram feitas pelo teste de Tukey (p < 0,10. Os resultados para DISVMS, DegMS (Potencial e Efetiva e DegFDN (Potencial e Efetiva foram: C901 - 81,1 ab.; 83,0 a.; 50,0 a.; 62,0 a.; 24,2; C9l5 - 81,5 a.; 83,2 a.; 52,0 a.; 54,2 bc.; 21,8; C125 - 72,8 c.; 74,9 c.; 43,7 bc.; 56,2 abc.; 21,4; C855 - 78,0 abc.; 78,4 b.; 43,2 c; 59,7 ab.; 23,5; C808 - 76,9 abc.; 78,0 b.; 49,0 ab.; 50,9 c.; 20,9; C805 - 76,0 bc.; 77,3 bc; 46,5 abc.; 57,0 abc; 23,1. Portanto, foi possível concluir que os híbridos C901 e C915 apresentaram o maior potencial para produção de silagem de alto valor nutritivo.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Digestibilidade; degradabilidade; nutrição; ruminantes.

    The experiment was carried out to study the nutritional value of six corn hybrids for silage production. The hybrids studied were: C901, C915, C125, C855, C808 and C805. Three crossbred heifers

  13. Dietas contendo silagem de milho (Zea maiz L. e feno de capim-tifton 85 (Cynodon spp. em diferentes proporções para bovinos Corn silage and tifton 85 bermudagrass hay-based diets for steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara Rodrigues Cavalcante

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo, a digestibilidade, o pH e concentração de amônia ruminais e a taxa de passagem em bovinos alimentados com dietas contendo feno de capim-tifton 85 (TIF e silagem de milho (SM em diferentes proporções. Utilizaram-se quatro animais castrados, com peso médio de 523kg, fistulados no rúmen, distribuídos em um quadrado latino 4 x 4, recebendo 60% de volumoso e 40% de concentrado, na base da matéria seca. O volumoso consistiu das seguintes proporções (%: 100 TIF:0 SM; 67 TIF:33 SM; 33 TIF:67 SM e 0 TIF:100 SM. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS, de matéria orgânica (MO e de matéria orgânica digestível (MOD, de proteína bruta (PB, de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e de carboidratos totais (CHOT e digeríveis (CHOD não foram influenciados pelas diferentes proporções de feno de capim-tifton 85: silagem de milho nas dietas, registrando-se valores médios de 9,2; 8,7; 6,4; 1,1; 3,7; 7,3 e 5,4 kg/dia, respectivamente. O consumo de extrato etéreo (EE elevou linearmente com o aumento da silagem de milho nas dietas. As digestibilidades aparentes da MS, MO, PB, EE e CHO também não foram influenciadas pelas diferentes proporções de silagem de milho, obtendo-se, respectivamente, valores médios de 71,8; 73,0; 69,5; 69,2 e 73,9%. Para a digestibilidade da FDN, observou-se efeito quadrático, estimando-se valor máximo de 65,2% para dietas contendo 30,98% de silagem de milho. Estimou-se concentração máxima de amônia de 12,0 mg/100 ml e valor mínimo de pH de 5,98 às 2,44 e 6,82 horas após a alimentação, respectivamente. A taxa de passagem não foi influenciada pelas diferentes proporções de feno:silagem, no volumoso, apresentando valor médio de 4,2%/hora.The intake, digestibility, ruminal pH and ammonia concentrations and passage rate were evaluated in steers fed corn silage (CS and Tifton 85 bermudagrass hay (T85H-based diets, at different forage proportions. Four rumen fistulated steers with 523 kg of live

  14. EVALUATION OF THE SUBSTITUTION OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CORN (Zea mays BY PEARL MILLETS (Pennisetun americanun IN RATIONS FOR FINISHING SWINE AVALIAÇÃO DA SUBSTITUIÇÃO DE DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE MILHO (Zea mays PELO MILHETO (Pennisetum americanum EM RAÇÕES PARA SUÍNOS NA FASE DE TERMINAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Nunes Bandeira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A trial was carried out in order to evaluate the inclusion of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum in swine finisher ration. Twenty cross-bred swine (Landrace x Large White weighing 53.00kg had in their rations different levels of millet (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% in substitution to the digestible energy furnished by corn. The experimental design used was the completely randomized in a factorial scheme (5 replacement levels x 2 sexes. With the results obtained in this experiment, one may infer that the substitution of corn by millet is possible to finisher swine rations.

    KEY-WORDS: Millets; pig; finishing.

    Foi conduzido um experimento para avaliar a substituição de diferentes níveis de milho pelo milheto na formulação de ração para suínos na fase de terminação. Foram utilizados 20 suínos mestiços (Landrace x Large White com peso médio inicial de 53,00kg. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 X 2 ( 5 níveis de substituição x 2 sexos. Com os resultados obtidos neste experimento, concluiu-se que é viável a substituição do milho pelo milheto em rações para suínos na fase de terminação.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Milheto; suínos; terminação.

  15. Preliminary investigation into the pressing process of sweet pearl millet and sweet sorghum biomass for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crepeau, M.; Khelifi, M.; Vanasse, A. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Soil Science and Agri-Food Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Corn is the main source for biofuel production in North America. However, both sweet pearl millet and sweet sorghum crops represent an interesting alternative to corn for ethanol production because of their high biomass yield under a wide range of environmental conditions and high concentration of readily fermentable sugars. Coproducts such as pressing residues can be also be utilized so that nothing is lost in the process. However, in order to improve the extraction of juice for ethanol production, the pressing process of this biomass must be optimized. Preliminary experiments were therefore conducted to optimize the juice extraction from sweet pearl millet and sweet sorghum using 2 different presses, notably a screw press and a manually operated hydraulic press. Both types of biomass were either chopped finely or coarsely and were exposed to various pressures with the hydraulic press. The volume of juice extracted from both crops increased linearly with increasing pressure. Sweet sorghum appeared to be a better feedstock for ethanol production because it produced about 0.03 to 0.06 litre of juice per kg of biomass more than sweet pearl millet. Juice extraction was more effective with the screw press, but only a small difference was noted between the 2 chopping modes.

  16. Study Interactions of Competition between Climbing Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Corn (Zea mays L. Plants Sowed Associate Relaciones de Competencia entre el Fríjol Trepador (Phaseolus vulgaris L. y el Maíz (Zea mays L. Sembrados en Asocio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León Darío Vélez Vargas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Associated corn and bean is one of several systems to produce climbing bean. The main characteristic of the associated is the greater yield by area than monoculture of two species, although the competence between them reduces the yield bean in 40% and 20% in corn. Research about physiological processes affected by competence between these species is still scarce. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of competence on the physiological behavior of bean. In a randomized block design with 4 replications were established the following treatments: bean without competition, competition between bean and maíze by light, competition between bean and maíze by soil resources and simultaneous competition between bean and maíze by both resources light and soil. The variables measured were accumulated dry matter and its accumulation rate, leaf area, stem longitude, and the yield components of bean. The variance analysis, comparison of means and simple correlations were used. The types of competition significantly reduced the accumulated dry matter, the rates of accumulation, the yield and the yield components. The types of competence did not show significant differences on seed weigh and accumulated total dry matter of plants. Although during the plants ontogeny there were significant differences between them, feedback processes were established within each type of competition. Therefore, the effects of competence in the final stage were not distinguished. It suggests that bean plant is an integrated unit through the physiological processes.Una forma de cultivar fríjol trepador es en asocio con maíz. Su principal característica es el mayor rendimiento por unidad de área con respecto a los unicultivos de cada especie, aunque la competencia que se presenta entre ellas reduce los rendimientos del fríjol en más del 40% y los de maíz en 20%. La investigación sobre los procesos fisiológicos afectados por la competencia y su din

  17. A new artificial diet for western corn rootworm larvae is compatible with and detects resistance to all current Bt toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect resistance to transgenic crops expressing one or more genes from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) is a growing concern for farmers, regulatory agencies, the seed industry, and researchers alike. Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) is a pest of corn (Zea mays L.)...

  18. Transgenic Bt corn varietal resistance against the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Cramibidae) and implications to sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), attacks crops including corn, Zea mays L.; rice, Oryza sativa L.; sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench; and sugarcane, Saccharum spp., but strongly resistant varieties of any kind, native or otherwise, have not been identified. A field plot corn varie...

  19. CORRELATION BETWEEN CLAY CONTENT AND SEED DEPTH IN NO-TILLAGE CORN (Zea mays L. / CORRELAÇÃO ENTRE O CONTEÚDO DE ARGILA E A PROFUNDIDADE DE DEPOSIÇÃO DAS SEMENTES MILHO (Zea mays L. EM PLANTIO DIRETO

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    PEDRO HENRIQUE WEIRICH NETO

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe region of Campos Gerais, in the State of Paraná, is leader in grain yields and state-of-the-art no-tillage farming. The widely adopted  no-tillage system tends to increment soil variability. There are several studies about spatial variability of soil characteristics affecting grain yield, but not enough attention has been given to the variability resulting of human actions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation of soil clay content and the depth of placement of corn seeds on areas under no-till systems management. The four selected cornfields areas for the study are property of local farm cooperatives associates. The points for evaluation were defined considering the local mapping of soil texture. Clay content varied from 94 to 489 g kg-1 on Plot 1; from 222 to 414 g kg-1 on Plot 2; from 269 to 509 of rows to be considered for plant distribution and seed depth analyses. The coefficient of variation (CV of plant distribution was between 23 and 56%. For seed depth, the CV was between 18 and 34%. The regression analysis showed high coefficients of determination (r2 for plots 1 and 2 (r2=0,85 and 0,83. The clay content was generally higher on plots 3 and 4. In this case, the analysis of variance was not significant, and the coefficients of determination were low (r2=0,22 and 0,01. Results indicate that clay content values may be used to delimit g kg-1 on plot 3; and from 368 to 698 g kg-1 on plot 4. The type of planter determined the number management zones on the field, where the depth of seed placing in the planting process can be regulated in different ways.Keywords: Soil Texture, Planting Process, Management Zones

  20. Effects of Cry34/35Ab1 corn on the survival and development of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudeen, Melissa L; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2013-06-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a major agricultural pest that is managed with transgenic corn, Zea mays L., expressing genes from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt). The effects of Bt corn producing Cry34/35Ab1 (event DAS-59122-7) and entomopathogens on the survival and development of larval D. v. virgifera were examined in laboratory, field and greenhouse experiments. Larvae preferred non-Bt over Bt corn in a laboratory experiment, and there was higher recovery from non-Bt corn than from Bt corn in a field experiment. In a greenhouse study, survival at 17 days did not differ significantly among non-Bt corn, Bt corn and a blend of Bt and non-Bt corn, but development was delayed on Bt corn. Older larvae fed non-Bt corn had lower survival when entomopathogenic nematodes were added, but no other effects of pathogen were detected. Bt corn producing Cry34/35Ab1 delayed larval development of D. v. virgifera and deterred feeding. In a mixture of Bt and non-Bt corn, larval development and survival were similar to non-Bt corn alone, suggesting that non-Bt plants in a blended refuge or a pure stand may produce a similar number of adult insects, and that timing of adult emergence may also be similar. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Efeito residual da adubação verde no rendimento de brócolo (Brassica oleraceae L. var. Italica cultivado em sucessão ao milho (Zea mays L. Residual effect of the green manures in broccoli (Brassica oleraceae var. Italica yield cultivated in succession to corn (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Perin

    2004-12-01

    residual effects of the single and intercropped sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea and millet (Pennisetum americanum as green manures on nitrogen transfer and yield of broccoli crop in succession to corn in absence and presence of fertilization of 150kg ha-1 of N. The experiment is a randomized block in split plot design and four replicates. The plot treatments were the previous cultivation of sunnhemp, millet, sunnhemp + millet and spontaneous vegetation. On subplots, the treatments were 150kg ha-1 of N and control (absence of N-fertilizer on broccoli. The succession involved the cultivation of the green manures (September, 26th, 2001 to December, 03th, 2001, followed by corn crop (December, 04th, 2001 to May, 28th, 2002 and broccoli hybrid Big Sur (June, 05th, 2002 to August, 10th, 2002 in zero tillage on the corn residues. It was not detected residual effect of the green manures on the diameter, dry weight of flower buds and dry mass yield of broccoli, either in the absence or presence of N-fertilizer. The presence of the single sunnhemp on crop rotation elevated the content and accumulation of N in the leaves and flower buds of broccoli, either in the absence or presence of 150kg ha-1 of N. In the intercrop sunnhemp and millet, the presence of the leguminous elevated the content and accumulation of N in inflorescences, comparatively to the single millet. In the plots without N-fertilizer and cultivated with sunnhemp the diameter of broccoli buds was similar to spontaneous vegetation + 150kg ha-1 of N. However, the yield of broccoli and the content and accumulation of N in buds were greater after spontaneous vegetation + 150kg ha-1 of N than after green manures without N-fertilizer. The utilization the N from biological fixation by broccoli inflorescences was 9.15% when single and 8.48% when intercropped.

  2. Effects of manure and cultivation on carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide emissions from a corn field under Mediterranean conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Hadar; Bar-Tal, Asher; Tamir, Guy; Bloom, Paul; Venterea, Rodney T; Chen, Dong; Zhang, Yi; Clapp, C Edward; Fine, Pinchas

    2010-01-01

    The use of organic residues as soil additives is increasing, but, depending on their composition and application methods, these organic amendments can stimulate the emissions of CO(2) and N(2)O. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of management practices in irrigated sweet corn (Zea mays L.) on CO(2) and N(2)O emissions and to relate emissions to environmental factors. In a 3-yr study, corn residues (CR) and pasteurized chicken manure (PCM) were used as soil amendments compared with no residue (NR) under three management practices: shallow tillage (ST) and no tillage (NT) under consecutive corn crops and ST without crop. Tillage significantly increased (P Carbon dioxide and N(2)O fluxes were correlated with soil NH(4) concentrations and with days since tillage and days since seeding. Fluxes of CO(2) were correlated with soil water content, whereas N(2)O fluxes had higher correlation with air temperature. Annual CO(2) emissions were higher with PCM than with CR and NR (9.7, 2.9, and 2.3 Mg C ha(-1), respectively). Fluxes of N(2)O were 34.4, 0.94, and 0.77 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) with PCM, CR, and NR, respectively. Annual amounts of CO(2)-C and N(2)O-N emissions from the PCM treatments were 64 and 3% of the applied C and N, respectively. Regardless of cultivation practices, elevated N(2)O emissions were recorded in the PCM treatment. These emissions could negate some of the beneficial effects of PCM on soil properties.

  3. Efficacy of pyramided Bt proteins Cry1F, Cry1A.105, and cry2Ab2 expressed in Smartstax corn hybrids against lepidopteran insect pests in the northern United States.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rule, D.M.; Nolting, S.P.; Prasfika, P.L.; Storer, N.P.; Hopkins, B.W.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Siebert, M.W.; Hendrix, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Commercial field corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids transformed to express some or all of the lepidopteran insect-resistant traits present in SmartStax corn hybrids were evaluated for insecticidal efficacy against a wide range of lepidopteran corn pests common to the northern United States, during 2008 to

  4. Corn Cultivation to Reduce the Mycotoxin Contamination

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    Yangseon Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of insecticide and fungicide treatment were investigated to reduce mycotoxin contamination of corn (Zea mays L. seeds. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone contents were reduced in the treated seeds, but aflatoxin, ochratoxin A, fumonisin, and T-2 toxin were not effective by chemical treatments. The chemical treatment did not affect the growth of saprophyte, but inhibited the pathogenic fungi such as Fusarium verticillioides, F. graminearum and F. equiseti. Myotoxin contents at different harvesting time were compared. As the harvest time was delayed, both levels of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone and frequency of Fusarium spp. increased. However, the major nutrient contents of corn seeds were not affected by harvesting period. These results show that chemical treatments are necessary to reduce the fungal contamination of corn and harvest without delay is important as well.

  5. Sistemas de control de malezas en maiz (Zea mays L.: efecto de metodos de control, densidad y distribucion del cultivo Weed control systems in corn: effects of control methods, density and plant distribution

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    G. Martinez

    1982-12-01

    realización de una escarda adicional no mejora significativamente el control de malezas, no afectando tampoco la incidencia de enfermedades, ni el desarrollo del cultivo, por lo cual resulta innecesaria. Las escardas tienen como principal efecto eliminar la interfe rencia presentada por las malezas y si éstas son eliminadas de otra manera, la realización de aquéllas no apareja beneficios significativos.An experiment was conducted at the Research Station of the University of Chapingo (Mexico (2250 m above sea level, average annual rainfall 550 mm( loamy soil, 1,7% O.M., where different cultural practices were combined in order to design a weed control system for corn. The work was done under rainfed conditions and the variables included were: two population densities (44.400 and 66.600 pl/ha, two plant distributions (normal and equidistant and seven weed control methods (cyanazine + alachlor (1,2 + 1,92 kg/ha, atrazine + alachlor (1,2 + 1,44 kg/ha, one cultivation, two cultivations, a weeded check, a weeded check + two cultivations and a weedy check. The main weed species were: pigweed (Amaranthus sp., Lopezia mexicana Jacq., hairy galinsoga (Galin-soga parviflora Cay., Encelia mexicana Mart., Sporobulus poiretti (Roem. et Sch. Hich., and large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop.. The increase in plant population had no effect on the degree of weed control, incidence of diseases and crop growth. The equidistant distribution improved weed control over the normal one, but it also had a nigher incidence of diseases; this, is turn, may have caused the lack of differences in vegetative growth, a lower amount of cobs per ha and the lack of difference in grain yield between the two distributions. Atrazine + alachlor was better than cyanazine + alachlor in terms of weed control, although the difference was statistically observed only for the visual ratings. There were no differences between both chemical treatments in terms of incidence of diseases or their effect on crop

  6. REAÇÃO DE GENÓTIPOS DE MILHO (Zea mays L. AOS NEMATÓIDES DE GALHAS (Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita REACTION OF CORN GENOTYPES (Zea mays L. TO ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES (Melodoigyne javanica and M. incognita

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    Hércules Diniz Campos

    2007-09-01

    ="justify">Two experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions with the objective of evaluating the reaction of eight corn genotypes to the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita. Cultivars HATÃ-1001, HATÃ-1045, DINA-657 and FT-5140 presented smaller reproduction factors (RF for M. javanica. Therefore, the use of these cultivars may be indicated in the crop rotation program with soybean. All cultivars were suitable hosts for M. incognita, presenting RF higher than 3.98.

    KEY-WORDS: Resistance; root-knot; nematodes; corn.

  7. Battle in the New World: Helicoverpa armigera versus Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and the old world bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are allopatric species and occur in important agricultural crops. In maize, both species tend to infest the ear. The introduction of H. armigera in Brazil has created a new scenario, where these Helicoverpa species might cohabit and interact with one another, affecting the prevalence of each species in the agroecosystem, integrated pest management, and insect resistance management. In this study, larval occurrence and proportion of these species in maize was assessed in three regions of Brazil during three crop seasons. Interaction between the species was evaluated in interspecific and intraspecific scenarios under laboratory and field conditions. Helicoverpa zea was predominant in Rio Grande do Sul and the Planaltina, DF (central Brazil). In western Bahia, H. zea was predominant in the first collection, but approximately equal in number to H armigera in the second crop season. Both species exhibit high cannibalism/predation rates, and larval size was the primary factor for larval survival in the interaction studies. Larva of H. zea had higher survival when interacting with H. armigera, indicating that H. zea has an advantage in intraguild interactions with H. armigera in maize. Overall, the results from this study indicate that maize might play a role as a source of infestation or a sink of insecticide or Bt protein unselected H. armigera populations, depending on the H. zea:H. armigera intraguild competition and adult movement in the landscape. PMID:27907051

  8. Battle in the New World: Helicoverpa armigera versus Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José P F Bentivenha

    Full Text Available The corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie and the old world bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae are allopatric species and occur in important agricultural crops. In maize, both species tend to infest the ear. The introduction of H. armigera in Brazil has created a new scenario, where these Helicoverpa species might cohabit and interact with one another, affecting the prevalence of each species in the agroecosystem, integrated pest management, and insect resistance management. In this study, larval occurrence and proportion of these species in maize was assessed in three regions of Brazil during three crop seasons. Interaction between the species was evaluated in interspecific and intraspecific scenarios under laboratory and field conditions. Helicoverpa zea was predominant in Rio Grande do Sul and the Planaltina, DF (central Brazil. In western Bahia, H. zea was predominant in the first collection, but approximately equal in number to H armigera in the second crop season. Both species exhibit high cannibalism/predation rates, and larval size was the primary factor for larval survival in the interaction studies. Larva of H. zea had higher survival when interacting with H. armigera, indicating that H. zea has an advantage in intraguild interactions with H. armigera in maize. Overall, the results from this study indicate that maize might play a role as a source of infestation or a sink of insecticide or Bt protein unselected H. armigera populations, depending on the H. zea:H. armigera intraguild competition and adult movement in the landscape.

  9. Atrazine Metabolism in Resistant Corn and Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, R. H.

    1968-01-01

    The metabolism of 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine (atrazine) in the resistant species, corn (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.) was not the same. In corn, atrazine was metabolized via both the 2-hydroxylation and N-dealkylation pathways while sorghum metabolized atrazine via the N-dealkylation pathway. Atrazine metabolism in corn yielded the metabolites, 2-hydroxy-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine (hydroxyatrazine), 2-hydroxy-4-amino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine (hydroxycompound I), and 2-hydroxy-4-amino-6-ethylamino-s-triazine (hydroxycompound II). None of these hydroxylated derivatives appeared as metabolites of atrazine in sorghum. Hydroxycompounds I and II were formed in 2 ways in corn: (1) by benzoxazinone-catalyzed hydrolysis of 2-chloro-4-amino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine (compound I) and 2-chloro-4-amino-6-ethylamino-s-triazine (compound II) that were formed by N-dealkylation of atrazine and (2) by N-dealkylation of hydroxyatrazine, the major atrazine metabolite in corn. The interaction of the 2-hydroxylation and N-dealkylation pathways in corn results in the formation of the 3 hydroxylated non-phytotoxic derivatives of atrazine. Images PMID:16656991

  10. Capacidade de combinação entre linhagens de milho visando à produção de milho verde Combining ability of inbred lines of sweet corn

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    Fabricio Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, há escassez de informações sobre a avaliação e obtenção de cultivares destinadas à produção de milho verde, bem como estudos genéticos de características envolvidas nesta produção. Deste modo, este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar o tipo de ação gênica predominante no controle das características e estimar a capacidade geral de combinação (CGC e a capacidade específica de combinação (CEC entre linhagens endogâmicas de milho visando à produção de milho verde. As oito linhagens e os 28 híbridos foram avaliados no ano agrícola de 2004/2005, no município de Lavras e em Ijaci, ambos localizados na Região Sul de Minas Gerais. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com duas repetições, sendo analisadas sete características de interesse agronômico e comercial para a produção de milho verde. Os resultados permitiram inferir que o componente quadrático referente à CEC foi superior, para todas as características avaliadas. Constata-se que os efeitos não aditivos foram mais importantes que os aditivos para a variação dos genótipos, o que possibilita inferir que a heterose é importante na seleção de híbridos para a produção de milho verde. Na linhagem L55 ocorreu maior concentração de alelos favoráveis para o incremento das características PEC, PEE, MASSA, COR e COMP, sendo a mais indicada para a formação de novos híbridos; nas combinações L22xL77 (HS27, L44xL88 (HS48 e L22xL44 (HS24 houve maior efeito heterótico e média alta para as características PEE, PEC e COMP, simultaneamente, sendo estes híbridos mais indicados ao mercado de milho verde in natura.In Brazil, there is limited information on the evaluation and development of new genotypes for vegetable corn production and also on genetic studies of traits involved in this production. Thus, this research was conducted to estimate the relative importance of the general combining ability (GCA and

  11. Correlação linear e espacial entre produtividade de milho (Zea mays L. e atributos físicos de um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico sob plantio direto do Cerrado Brasileiro = Linear and spatial correlation between corn grains productivity (Zea mays L. and physical attributes in a Haplic Acrustox under no-tillage in the Brazilian Savannah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Lustosa Santos

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A produtividade vegetal depende de vários fatores, dentre eles a densidade e a porosidade do solo. No ano agrícola 2004/2005, na Fazenda Experimental de Ensino e Pesquisa da Faculdade de Engenharia (Unesp, Campus de Ilha Solteira, Estado de São Paulo (22º23’’ latitude S; 51º27’’ longitude W, foram analisados a produtividade de grãos de milho (PG, irrigado com pivô central, as densidades da partícula (DP e do solo (DS e a porosidade total (PT de um Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico, sob plantio direto. O objetivo foi estudar as correlações lineares e espaciais entre os atributos. Foi instalada uma rede geoestatística, para a coleta dos dados do solo e da planta, contendo 120 pontos amostrais, numa área de 0,8 ha. Os atributos do solo apresentaram baixa variabilidade de seus dados, sendo média no da planta. A DS e a PT, na camada superficial, e a PG não variaram aleatoriamente. Elas seguiram padrões espaciais bem definidos, com alcances entre 28,6 e 60,6 m. As correlações lineares múltiplas indicaram que a PT1, a PT3 e a DS3 foram atributos significativos, quando correlacionados com a PG. Entre os atributos do solo, as correlações lineares simples variaram elasticamente. Contudo, quando correlacionados com a PG, tais correlações pouco variaram. Ainda que com reservas devido à baixa correlação, com o aumento da DS3 ocorreu uma diminuição da PG. Por outro lado, as correlações espaciais entre os atributos do solo e a PG foram praticamente nulas, sendo, contudo, elevadas quando exclusivamente entre aqueles do solo.Thevegetal productivity depends on several factors, including the bulk density and the soil porosity. The corn grains yield (GY, under no-tillage system and irrigated, and the following soil attributes (particle density-PD, bulk density-BD, and the total porosity-TP, in a Dystroferric Red Latosol (Haplic Acrustox, located at the Experimental Station of the Faculdade de Agronomia (Unesp, in Ilha

  12. Evolution of Resistance by Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Infesting Insecticidal Crops in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstad, David; Crain, Philip; Crespo, Andre; Hutchison, William; Buntin, David; Porter, Pat; Catchot, Angus; Cook, Don; Pilcher, Clint; Flexner, Lindsey; Higgins, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We created a deterministic, frequency-based model of the evolution of resistance by corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), to insecticidal traits expressed in crops planted in the heterogeneous landscapes of the southern United States. The model accounts for four generations of selection by insecticidal traits each year. We used the model results to investigate the influence of three factors on insect resistance management (IRM): 1) how does adding a third insecticidal trait to both corn and cotton affect durability of the products, 2) how does unstructured corn refuge influence IRM, and 3) how do block refuges (50% compliance) and blended refuges compare with regard to IRM? When Bt cotton expresses the same number of insecticidal traits, Bt corn with three insecticidal traits provides longer durability than Bt corn with two pyramided traits. Blended refuge provides similar durability for corn products compared with the same level of required block refuge when the rate of refuge compliance by farmers is 50%. Results for Mississippi and Texas are similar, but durabilities for corn traits are surprisingly lower in Georgia, where unstructured corn refuge is the highest of the three states, but refuge for Bt cotton is the lowest of the three states. Thus, unstructured corn refuge can be valuable for IRM but its influence is determined by selection for resistance by Bt cotton. PMID:26637533

  13. PENGARUH JENIS DAN DOSIS PUPUK KANDANG TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN PRODUKSI JAGUNG MANIS (Zea mays saccharata Sturt

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    A.A.A.S. Trisnadewi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The experiment that aimed to study the types and various levels of manure for improving growth and production of sweet corn was conducted for 9 weeks. Completely randomized design (CRD arranged with nested model was used in this experiment. The main plot consisted of three kind of manures, there were broiler manure (A, horse manure (K, and pig manure (B. As sub plot were levels of manure: without manure D0 (0 ton/ha, D1 (10 ton/ha = 87.51 g/pot, D2 (20 ton/ha = 175 g/pot, D3 (30 ton/ha = 262.5 g/pot, with three replication in each combination treatment. Variables measured in this experiment were plant high, stem diameter, fresh and dry weight of leaf, stem and maize-ear of corn, total dry weight of forage production (stem + leaf and dry weight ratio of stem and leaf of sweet corn. The result of the experiment showed that the effect of broiler, horse, and pig manure on all variables which measured in the experiment were not significantly different (P>0,05. The highest growth and production of sweet corn were obtained at 20 ton/ha level for all kind of manures that used in this experiment with total dry weight of forage production 48.88; 51.11; and 48.30 g/pot and dry weight of maize-ear production 23.80; 23.30 and 22.00 g/pot for broiler, horse and pig manure respectively. Based on results of the experiment it can be concluded that no different effect on type of manure (broiler, horse and pig to the growth and production of sweet corn and the using manure at 20 ton/ha level give the highest growth and production of sweet corn.

  14. Legumes and forage species sole or intercropped with corn in soybean-corn succession in midwestern Brazil

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    Gessí Ceccon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of no-tillage in the Cerrado (Savanna-like vegetation of Brazil depends on the production of sufficient above-ground crop residue, which can be increased by corn-forage intercropping. This study evaluated how above-ground crop residue production and yields of soybean and late-season corn in a soybean-corn rotation were influenced by the following crops in the year before soybean: corn (Zea mays L. intercropped with Brachiaria (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens cv. Basilisk, B. ruziziensis, cv. comum., Panicummaximum cv. Tanzânia, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp]; sole corn, forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench (cv. Santa Elisa], and ruzi grass. In March 2005, corn and forage species were planted in alternate rows spaced 0.90 m apart, and sole forage species were planted in rows spaced 0.45 m apart. In October 2005, the forages were killed with glyphosate and soybean was planted. After the soybean harvest in March 2006, sole late-season corn was planted in the entire experimental area. Corn grain and stover yields were unaffected by intercropping. Above-ground crop residue was greater when corn was intercropped with Tanzania grass (10.7 Mg ha-1, Marandu (10.1 Mg ha-1, and Ruzi Grass (9.8 Mg ha-1 than when corn was not intercropped (4.0 Mg ha-1. The intercropped treatments increased the percentage of soil surface covered with crop residue. Soybean and corn grain yields were higher after sole ruzi grass and intercropped ruzi grass than after other crops. The intercropping corn with Brachiaria spp. and corn with Panicum spp. increases above-ground crop residue production and maintains nutrients in the soil without reducing late-season corn yield and the viability of no-till in the midwestern region of Brazil.

  15. Uji Ketahanan Beberapa Varietas Dan Pengaruh Jarak Tanam Terhadap Penyakit Karat Daun (Puccinia Polysora Underw) Pada Tanaman Jagung (Zea Mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Aditya, Sukma

    2013-01-01

    Sukma Aditya, "Some Resistance Test Plant Varieties and Influence Distance Against Disease Leaf Rust (Puccinia polysora Underw) In the Corn Plantation (Zea mays l.) In the Lowlands". Supervised by Dr. Ir. Hasanuddin, MS, and Ir. Mukhtar Pinem Iskandar, M. Agr. This study aims to determine the resistance of some varieties of maize (Zea mays L.) and plant spacing influence on leaf rust disease (Puccinia polysora Underw.) In the lowlands. Research conducted in the village of Tanjung Selamat, Med...

  16. Caracterizacion de nueve genotipos de maiz (Zea mays L. en relacion a area foliar y coeficiente de extincion de luz Caracterização de nove genótipos de milho (Zea mays L. en relação à área foliar e coeficiente de extinção de luz Evaluation of nine corn (Zea mays L. genotypes in relation to leaf area and light extinction coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Camacho

    1995-08-01

    .A field experiment was carried out to evaluate nine corn genotypes (Arichuna, Baraure, B raquitico, Expe-rimental-2, Foremaiz PB, FM-6, Obregón, Proseca-71 and Tocorón in relation to: mean leaf area per plant, total leaf area per plant (TLA, leaf area index (LAI, grain yield (Y and light extinction coefficient (K at 0.50m, 1.00m, 1.50m, 2.00m and 2.50m of plant height (from soil to flag leaf. Also, correlation and single regression between LAI and yield was performed. Significant genotypical differences for all variables were found, except for mean leaf area per plant Ranging was: mean leaf area per plant (471 cm² for Foremaiz PB and 606 cm² for Baraure; TLA (5,327 cm² for Foremaiz PB and 8,411 for Braquítico; LAI (4.26, Foremaiz PB and 6.67, Braquítico; K (0.23 for Braquítico and 0.42, Arichuna; Y (2, 877, Braquítico and 4,784 kg.ha-1 for Tocoron.The relationship between Y and LAI was not significant (r = 0.07. The relationship of LAI and K was described very well by Beer's law.

  17. Arsenic accumulation in maize crop (Zea mays): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Castor, J M; Guzmán-Mar, J L; Hernández-Ramírez, A; Garza-González, M T; Hinojosa-Reyes, L

    2014-08-01

    Arsenic (As) is a metalloid that may represent a serious environmental threat, due to its wide abundance and the high toxicity particularly of its inorganic forms. The use of arsenic-contaminated groundwater for irrigation purposes in crop fields elevates the arsenic concentration in topsoil and its phytoavailability for crops. The transfer of arsenic through the crops-soil-water system is one of the more important pathways of human exposure. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, maize (Zea mays L.) is the most cultivated cereal in the world. This cereal constitutes a staple food for humans in the most of the developing countries in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Thus, this review summarizes the existing literature concerning the conditions involved in agricultural soil that leads to As influx into maize crops and the uptake mechanisms, metabolism and phytotoxicity of As in corn plants. Additionally, the studies of the As accumulation in raw corn grain and corn food are summarized, and the As biotransfer into the human diet is highlighted. Due to high As levels found in editable plant part for livestock and humans, the As uptake by corn crop through water-soil-maize system may represent an important pathway of As exposure in countries with high maize consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Induction of infection in Teosinte (Zea diploperennis through the phytopathogen Ustilago maydis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Concepción Pérez Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The corn and teosinte share morphological and molecular similarities latter being those that support the theory of teosinte (Zea parviglumis as its predecessor, both species are attacked by specific pathogens like Ustilago maydis. Objective: To analyze the infectious process that presents U. maydis on the variety of the teosinte Zea diploperennis. Materials and Methods: We used the strain of U. maydis FB-D12, which was kept a culture media rich in nutrients (CPES pH 7.0. Viable cells without morphological alterations to the inoculation method of puncture in teosinte seedlings were used. Monitoring of infection was carried out every 24 hours by measuring concentration of chlorophyll and plant tissue through microscopic observation Results: In the seedlings of Zea diploperennis inoculated with U. maydis the symptoms of the infection were presented, wilt and chlorosis in the leaves; The chlorosis was confirmed with the low concentration of chlorophyll 12 days later to the inoculation. In the microscopic observation of cuts of the tissue plant was found mycelium long and branched from the third day of the inoculation, until the appearance of tumors in seedlings of 45 days. Conclusions: The typical signs of infection with Ustilago maydis in the variety of teosinte Zea diploperennis do not differ from those reported for corn. Ustilago maydis presents its full life cycle within the plant, confirming that the diploperennis variety is susceptible.

  19. Carbon isotope ratios document that the elytra of western corn rootworm reflects adult versus larval feeding and later instar larvae prefer Bt corn to alternate hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L., worldwide. While exploring conventional approaches to management and more recently bioengineering, extended research has been conducted on ways to manage its root-feeding larvae. The nee...

  20. Antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in corn ( Zea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In arid and semiarid regions of northern China, there is an increasing interest in using reduced rate of inorganic fertilizer together with water-saving superabsorbent polymer (SAP) for field crop production. Thus, an efficient management of fertilizer and study of metabolic changes in response to SAP application is important ...

  1. Antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in corn (Zea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-31

    Aug 31, 2011 ... inorganic fertilizer together with water-saving superabsorbent polymer (SAP) for field crop production. Thus, an efficient ... polymer could conserve soil water and nutrients, making same available for plants to reduce oxidative stress and ... Drought stress limits crop growth and productivity more than any ...

  2. Aldose Reductase Inhibitory Activity of Compounds from??Zea mays L.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae Hyeon; Kim, Jin Kyu; Kang, Young-Hee; Lee, Jae-Yong; Kang, Il Jun; Lim, Soon Sung

    2013-01-01

    Aldose reductase (AR) inhibitors have a considerable therapeutic potential against diabetes complications and do not increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Through bioassay-guided fractionation of an EtOH extract of the kernel from purple corn (Zea mays L.), 7 nonanthocyanin phenolic compounds (compound 1?7) and 5 anthocyanins (compound 8?12) were isolated. These compounds were investigated by rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR) inhibitory assays. Kinetic analyses of recombinant human aldose reducta...

  3. Dielectric properties of Zea mays kernels - studies for microwave power processing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surducan, Emanoil; Neamtu, Camelia; Surducan, Vasile, E-mail: emanoil.surducan@itim-cj.r [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    Microwaves absorption in biological samples can be predicted by their specific dielectrical properties. In this paper, the dielectric properties ({epsilon}' and {epsilon}'') of corn (Zea mays) kernels in the 500 MHz - 20 GHz frequencies range are presented. A short analysis of the microwaves absorption process is also presented, in correlation with the specific thermal properties of the samples, measured by simultaneous TGA-DSC method.

  4. Physiological seed quality of sweet corn seeds as a function of the moisture content at harvest and the drying temperature / Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de milho doce BR 401 (su em função do teor de água na colheita e da temperatura de secagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Dutra Zanotto

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present research was to study physiological seed quality of sweet corn as a function of water content and drying temperatures of ears at harvesting time. Experiments were made in the Agriculture School of São Paulo State University located in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. Ears of sweet corn cultivar, BR 401 Doce de Ouro (sugary, were harvested at different times, starting at physiological seed maturity, and submitted to different drying temperatures (30o C and 40o C in an air circulation chamber. After drying, ears were shelled and seeds were stored in paper bags under laboratory environmental conditions. Field dried seeds, with 10.1% of moisture, were utilized as a control. Physiological seed quality for each harvesting date and drying temperature were analyzed before storage and six months after. The following characteristics were utilized: seedling emergency under field condition, speed of seedling emergence, seedling dry matter content, germination, first counting of germination, accelerated ageing test, cold test without soil, electrical conductivity and Ca, Mg, K and Na lixiviated from seeds in the water of the in conductivity test. The following conclusions were drawn: seeds showed a higher sensitivity to drying temperature of 40oC than to 30oC, in the first evaluation, but not after six months of storage. Artificial drying of seeds did not affect seed quality, if harvest occurred between 17.6% and 50.7% of moisture, when compared to field dried harvested seeds.Sementes de milho doce possuem, em geral, germinação inferior, sendo o baixo vigor que essas apresentam, em grande parte, resultado da inadequação da época de colheita e da temperatura de secagem utilizada. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de milho doce cv. BR 401 (su em função do teor de água na colheita e da temperatura de secagem em espiga. O experimento foi conduzido na FCA/Unesp, Botucatu- SP, em

  5. SILAGE QUALITY OF CORN AND SORGHUM ADDED WITH FORAGE PEANUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WALKÍRIA GUIMARÃES CARVALHO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn and sorghum are standard silage crops because of their fermentative characteristics. While corn and sorghum silages have lower crude protein (CP contents than other crops, intercropping with legumes can increase CP content. Furthermore, one way to increase CP content is the addition of legumes to silage. Consequently, the research objective was to evaluate the fermentative and bromatological characteristics of corn (Zea mays and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor silages added with forage peanuts (Arachis pintoi. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replicates. The treatments consisted of corn silage, sorghum silage, forage peanut silage, corn silage with 30% forage peanut, and sorghum silage with 30% forage peanut. The results showed that the corn and sorghum added with peanut helped to improve the silage fermentative and bromatological characteristics, proving to be an efficient technique for silage quality. The forage peanut silage had lower fermentative characteristics than the corn and sorghum silages. However, the forage peanut silage had a greater CP content, which increased the protein contents of the corn and sorghum silages when intercropped with forage peanuts.

  6. Sweeteners and sweetness enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloir, Christine; Neiers, Fabrice; Briand, Loïc

    2017-07-01

    The current review summarizes and discusses current knowledge on sweeteners and sweetness enhancers. The perception of sweet taste is mediated by the type 1 taste receptor 2 (T1R2)/type 1 taste receptor 3 (T1R3) receptor, which is expressed in the oral cavity, where it provides input on the caloric and macronutrient contents of ingested food. This receptor recognizes all the compounds (natural or artificial) perceived as sweet by people. Sweeteners are highly chemically diverse including natural sugars, sugar alcohols, natural and synthetic sweeteners, and sweet-tasting proteins. This single receptor is also the target for developing novel sweet enhancers. Importantly, the expression of a functional T1R2/T1R3 receptor is described in numerous extraoral tissues. In this review, the physiological impact of sweeteners is discussed. Sweeteners and sweetness enhancers are perceived through the T1R2/T1R3 taste receptor present both in mouth and numerous extraoral tissues. The accumulated knowledge on sugar substitutes raises the issue of potential health effects.

  7. Derivation of a regional active-optical reflectance sensor corn algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active-optical reflectance sensor (AORS) algorithms developed for in-season corn (Zea mays L.) N management have traditionally been derived using sub-regional scale information. However, studies have shown these previously developed AORS algorithms are not consistently accurate when used on a region...

  8. Visual soil structure effects of tillage and corn stover harvest in Iowa, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excessive harvest of corn (Zea mays L.) stover for ethanol production has raised concerns regarding negative consequences on soil structure and physical quality. Visual soil structure assessment methods have the potential to help address these concerns through simple, straightforward on-farm evaluat...

  9. An Active Sensor Algorithm for Corn Nitrogen Recommendations Based on a Chlorophyll Meter Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    In previous work we found active canopy sensor reflectance assessments of corn (Zea mays L.) N status acquired at two growth stages (V11 and V15) have the greatest potential for directing in-season N applications, but emphasized an algorithm was needed to translate sensor readings into appropriate N...

  10. Overview of a public-industry partnership for enhancing corn nitrogen research and datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to economic and environmental consequences of nitrogen (N) lost from fertilizer applications in corn (Zea mays L.), considerable public and industry attention has been devoted to development of N decision tools. Now a wide variety of tools are available to farmers for managing N inputs. However,...

  11. Is a Nitrogen-rich Reference Needed for Canopy Sensor-based Corn Nitrogen Applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nitrogen (N) supplying capacity of the soil available to support corn (Zea mays L.) production can be highly variable both among and within fields. In recent years, canopy reflectance sensing has been investigated for in-season assessment of crop N health and fertilization. Typically, the proced...

  12. Within-field Corn Nitrogen Response Related to Aerial Photograph Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision agriculture management of nitrogen (N) using aerial imagery of corn [Zea mays L.] canopy color has been a proposed strategy to understand crop N health and base within-season N fertilizer application rates. The objective of this study was to evaluate at field scale the relationship between...

  13. Interactions of a hairy vetch-corn rotation and P fertilizer on the NPK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-17

    Aug 17, 2011 ... corn (Zea mays L.) rotation system in a highland area of Yunnan Province, China. Effects of phosphate. (P) fertilization, combined with hairy vetch returned to the soil, on crop yield and soil fertility were studied, and the balances of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in the rotation system.

  14. Evaluation of the Haney Soil Health Nutrient Tool for corn nitrogen recommendations across eight Midwest states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use and development of soil biological tests for estimating soil N availability and subsequently corn (Zea mays L.) fertilizer N recommendations is garnering considerable interest. The objective of this research was to evaluate relationships between the Soil Health Nutrient Tool (SHNT), also known a...

  15. Improved Canopy Sensor-based Corn Nitrogen Recommendations Using Auxiliary Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nitrogen (N) supplying capacity of the soil available to support corn (Zea mays L.) production can be highly variable both among and within fields. Thus, the amount of N fertilizer applied should be site-specific and also climate-sensitive. In recent years, canopy reflectance sensing has been in...

  16. Corn nitrogen management influences nitrous oxide emissions in drained and undrained soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tile-drainage and nitrogen (N) fertilization are important for corn (Zea mays L.) production. To date, no studies have evaluated nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions of single vs. split-N fertilizer application under different soil drainage conditions. The objective of this study was to quantify season-lon...

  17. Relationships between soil-based management zones and canopy sensing for corn nitrogen management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrating soil-based management zones (MZ) with crop-based active canopy sensors to direct spatially variable nitrogen (N) applications has been proposed for improving N fertilizer management of corn (Zea mays L.). Analyses are needed to evaluate relationships between canopy sensing and soil-based...

  18. Evaluation of the soil health nutrient tool for corn nitrogen recommendations across the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use and development of soil biological tests for estimating soil N availability and subsequently corn (Zea mays L.) fertilizer N recommendations is garnering considerable interest. The objective of this research was to evaluate relationships between the Soil Health Nutrient Tool (SHNT), also known a...

  19. Interactions of a hairy vetch-corn rotation and P fertilizer on the NPK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vicia villosa Roth) and corn (Zea mays L.) rotation system in a highland area of Yunnan Province, China. Effects of phosphate (P) fertilization, combined with hairy vetch returned to the soil, on crop yield and soil fertility were studied, and the ...

  20. Energy issues affecting corn/soybean systems: Challenges for sustainable production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantifying energy issues associated with agricultural systems, even for a simple two-crop corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) rotation, is not a simple task. It becomes even more complicated if the goal is to include all aspects of sustainability (i.e., economic, environmental, ...

  1. Prohexadione-calcium rate and timing effects on alfalfa interseeded into silage corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohexadione-Ca (PHD) can enhance establishment of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, L.) interseeded into silage corn (Zea mays, L.), but optimal application rates and timing for this growth regulator are unknown. Two experiments examined how single or split applications of 0.25 to 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 of PHD o...

  2. Identification of feeding stimulants in corn roots for western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernklau, E J; Bjostad, L B

    2008-04-01

    Using a bioassay-driven approach, we have isolated and identified a blend of compounds from the roots of germinating corn, Zea mays L., that serve as feeding stimulants for neonate western corn rootworm larvae, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). The active blend is a combination of simple sugars (30:4:4 mg/ml glucose:fructose:sucrose in the corn root) plus at least one of the free fatty acids in germinating corn roots (2:5 mg/ml oleic acid:linoleic acid in the corn root). When an extract of germinating corn was partitioned into an ethyl acetate fraction and an aqueous fraction, full feeding occurred only when the two fractions were recombined, indicating that the phagostimulant was comprised of both polar and nonpolar components. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of root extracts from germinating corn seedlings revealed a blend of 20 compounds from a variety of chemical classes, including small sugars, diacids, amino acids, inorganic compounds, and free fatty acids. When the major components were tested in feeding bioassays, the sugars and lipids were shown to be essential for feeding by larvae, but the two classes of compounds were only effective when combined. The sugars alone elicited feeding by only 40% of larvae, but the percentage of larvae feeding was increased significantly with the addition of linoleic acid (91.7% larvae feeding) or oleic acid (85.8% larvae feeding). The amino acids alone were not essential elements for feeding by western corn rootworm larvae.

  3. Injury and interplant compensation for southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) infestations in field corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckel, S; Stewart, S D

    2013-04-01

    Growers that plant Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids are required to plant non-Bt corn for resistance management. Refuge in a bag (RIB) is an emerging approach for resistance management where, for some hybrids having multiple Bt traits for a target species, the refuge is planted as a blend of Bt and non-Bt corn. Studies were conducted to evaluate how southwestern corn borer (Diatraea grandiosella Dyar), when infested at different densities and growth stages, affected the yield of infested, non-Bt plants and neighboring Bt plants. Infesting non-Bt corn plants with southwestern corn borer larvae caused significant injury. Both the number of larvae infested on plants and the timing of these infestations affected the number of kernels per ear, total kernel weight, and the weight of individual kernels. Infestation timing was more important than the number of larvae inoculated onto plants, with pretassel infestations causing more yield loss. There was little compensation by Bt plants that were adjacent to infested plants. Thus, the risk of yield loss from stalk tunneling larvae in a refuge in a bag scenario should be directly proportional to the percentage of non-Bt plants and the level of yield loss observed in these non-Bt plants. Because current refuge in a bag systems have five or 10% non-Bt corn plants within the seed unit, the likelihood of substantial yield losses from infestations of corn boring larvae is remote given our results, especially for infestations that occur after silking has begun.

  4. Helicoverpa zea and Bt cotton in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttrell, Randall G; Jackson, Ryan E

    2012-01-01

    Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), the bollworm or corn earworm, is the most important lepidopteran pest of Bt cotton in the United States. Corn is the preferred host, but the insect feeds on most flowering crops and wild host plants. As a cotton pest, bollworm has been closely linked to the insecticide-resistance prone Heliothis virescens (F.), tobacco budworm. Immature stages of the two species are difficult to separate in field environments. Tobacco budworm is very susceptible to most Bt toxins, and Bt cotton is considered to be "high dose." Bollworm is less susceptible to Bt toxins, and Bt cotton is not "high dose" for this pest. Bt cotton is routinely sprayed with traditional insecticides for bollworm control. Assays of bollworm field populations for susceptibility to Bt toxins expressed in Bt cotton have produced variable results since pre-deployment of Bt cottons in 1988 and 1992. Analyses of assay response trends have been used by others to suggest that field resistance has evolved to Bt toxins in bollworm, but disagreement exists on definitions of field resistance and confidence of variable assay results to project changes in susceptibility of field populations. Given historical variability in bollworm response to Bt toxins, erratic field control requiring supplemental insecticides since early field testing of Bt cottons, and dramatic increases in corn acreage in cotton growing areas of the Southern US, continued vigilance and concern for resistance evolution are warranted.

  5. Uptake of Zn++ and aflatoxin from perlite and liquid culture by Zea mays seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llewellyn, G.C.; Reynolds, J.D.; Hurst, L.; Vance, R.A.; Dashek, W.V.

    1982-01-01

    The present paper reports our attempts to determine whether in inclusion of 0.0014 mM Zn ++ within a hydroponic culture medium affects the ability of 12-day-old Zea mays, cv. 'SS-522' to take-up [ 3 H]-aflatoxin B 1 . Data from the corollary experiment., i.e., whether inclusion of aflatoxin affects the ability of Zea mays, cvs. 'Truckers White', 'X-Sweet' and 'Merit' to take-up 65 ZnCl 2 are presented also. This report is a preliminary to one regarding an in-progress analysis of whether pollutant levels of Zn ++ affect aflatoxin uptake and distribution. In the absence of irrigating seedlings, which were grown in Perlite containing 65 ZnCl 2 , with a solution containing mixed aflatoxins, the stem contained the greatest amount of label with root plus seed the next highest and the leaf the least for each of the cvs. In contrast, when the seedlings were irrigated with a solution containing mixed aflatoxins, the root plus seed contained either an amount nearly identical to (cv. 'Truckers White') or in excess of that within the stem (cvs. 'X-Sweet' and 'Merit'). Calculation of the percentages of aflatoxin-induced diminutions in leaf, stem and root label suggested that the aflatoxins interfered with the translocation of 65 ZnCl 2 from the root to the stem and leaf, at least for cvs 'X-Sweet' and 'Merit'. (orig./AJ)

  6. Sweetness and food preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Mennella, Julie A; Johnson, Susan L; Bellisle, France

    2012-06-01

    Human desire for sweet taste spans all ages, races, and cultures. Throughout evolution, sweetness has had a role in human nutrition, helping to orient feeding behavior toward foods providing both energy and essential nutrients. Infants and young children in particular base many of their food choices on familiarity and sweet taste. The low cost and ready availability of energy-containing sweeteners in the food supply has led to concerns that the rising consumption of added sugars is the driving force behind the obesity epidemic. Low-calorie sweeteners are one option for maintaining sweet taste while reducing the energy content of children's diets. However, their use has led to further concerns that dissociating sweetness from energy may disrupt the balance between taste response, appetite, and consumption patterns, especially during development. Further studies, preferably based on longitudinal cohorts, are needed to clarify the developmental trajectory of taste responses to low-calorie sweeteners and their potential impact on the diet quality of children and youth.

  7. Effects of water stress on the photosynthetic assimilation and distribution of 14C-photosynthate in maize (Zea mays L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez y Huaman, C.A.; Cerri, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    The relationship between photosynthesis and distribution of 14 C-photosinthate as affected by water stress was evaluated. Corn (Zea mays L.) during the grain filling period and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) during flowering, representing a C-4 and a C-3 photosynthetic type, respectively, were studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  8. Dispersal and movement behavior of neonate European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on non-Bt and transgenic Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jessica A; Mason, Charles E; Pesek, John

    2010-04-01

    Neonate movement and dispersal behavior of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were investigated under controlled conditions on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and non-Bt corn, Zea mays L., to assess plant abandonment, dispersal from their natal plant, and silking behavior after Bt and non-Bt preexposure. With continuous airflow, neonates on a Bt corn plant for 24 h abandoned that plant 1.78 times more frequently than neonates on a non-Bt corn plant. Indirect evidence indicated that at least one third of the neonates were capable of ballooning within 24 h. In the greenhouse, some neonates were recovered after 24 h from plants 76 and 152 cm away that likely ballooned from their natal plant. After 1 h of preexposure on a Bt corn leaf, neonates placed on a new corn leaf and observed for 10 min began silking off of a new Bt leaf significantly sooner than a new non-Bt leaf. Results suggest that neonates are unable to detect Bt in the corn within 10 min but that they can detect it within the first hour.

  9. Análise dialélica de genótipos de milho doce e comum para caracteres agronômicos e proteína total Diallel analysis of sweet and regular corn genotypes for agronomic characters and total protein content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia do N. Bordallo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de investigar a capacidade combinatória, bem como o efeito recíproco em dialelo envolvendo genótipos de milho doce e comum, avaliaram-se seis caracteres de interesse agronômico e industrial: altura de plantas, estande, porcentagem de espigas atacadas por pragas, teor de proteína no grão, peso médio de espiga sem palha e comprimento médio de espiga sem palha. Os valores dos quadrados médios referentes à capacidade geral de combinação ( e capacidade específica de combinação (Sij foram significativos para as características altura de planta, peso médio de espiga sem palha, comprimento médio de espiga sem palha e teor de proteína no grão, indicando a presença de efeitos gênicos aditivos e não aditivos no controle dos caracteres. Para peso médio de espiga sem palha e comprimento médio de espiga sem palha, as médias dos quadrados dos efeitos não diferiram, sugerindo a utilização de métodos intrapopulacionais ou interpopulacionais de melhoramento. Os genótipos Doce 13 e Sol da Manhã são os mais indicados para programas de melhoramento pelo comportamento dos valores de . Com base nos efeitos de Sij, o melhor híbrido foi Doce 13 X Sol da Manhã.The combining ability as well as reciprocal effect in diallel of sweet and regular corn genotypes was investigated for six agronomic and industrial characters: plant height, stand, percentage of ears attacked by insects, grain protein content, and average (mean dehusked ear length and weight. General Combining Ability ( and Specific Combining Ability (Sij mean square values were statistically significant when evaluating the following characters: plant height, average (mean dehusked ear length and weight, and grain protein content, indicating that additive and non-additive genetic effects control these characters. There was no statistical difference regarding mean square effects of average (mean dehusked ear length and weight characters suggesting the utilization of

  10. Feeding behavior of neonate Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Cry1Ab Bt corn: implications for resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razze, J M; Mason, C E; Pizzolato, T D

    2011-06-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an economically important insect pest of corn, Zea mays L., in the United States and Canada. The development of genetically modified corn expressing genes derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that encodes insecticidal crystalline (Cry) proteins has proven to be effective in controlling this insect. To assess the feeding behavior of neonate O. nubilalis on Bt corn, we examined differences in feeding behavior, based on presence of plant material in the gut, between Cry1Ab Bt corn and non-Bt near isoline corn for four intervals over a 48-h period. Feeding experiments revealed that there was significantly less feeding on Bt corn compared with non-Bt near isoline corn. The behavior of neonates on the plant corresponded with the differences in feeding on the two corn lines. The findings also showed that > 50% of the larvae initially left the plant before there was evidence in the gut of feeding regardless of whether the source was Bt or non-Bt corn. A higher quantity of plant material was found in the gut of larvae recovered from leaves of non-Bt compared with Bt corn. At the end of 48 h among the larvae that had left the plant, a greater proportion from Bt corn had plant material in the gut than did those from non-Bt corn.

  11. The Spread of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and Coexistence with Helicoverpa zea in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio A. Pinto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Helicoverpa armigera, one of the world’s most destructive crop pests, was first documented in Brazil in 2013. Within a few months, this polyphagous insect had spread over the Northeast and Central-West of Brazil, causing great agricultural losses. With several reports of populations resistant to pesticides and Bt crops around the world, there is great concern about the spread of this pest in Brazil. There is confusion about the actual distribution of this species due to the high morphological similarity with the native corn earworm Helicoverpa zea, which may also coexist with H. armigera in the field. Our aims here were (i to confirm its presence in the State of Minas Gerais, one of the most important agricultural regions in the country; and (ii to assess the co-occurrence of this pest with the congeneric corn earworm H. zea. Using molecular screening, we confirmed the presence of H. armigera in Bt-crops of soybean and cotton, and non-Bt-crops of soybean, cotton and maize. Mixed infestations of H. armigera with H. zea were found in non-Bt maize (Viçosa, Southeastern Minas Gerais. These results highlight the need for adequate control strategies for H. armigera in Brazil, to deal with its polyphagous feeding habits, high dispersal capacity and possible risks of hybridization with congeneric species.

  12. Volatile Semiochemicals Increase Trap Catch of Green Lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Flower Flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) in Corn and Soybean Plots

    OpenAIRE

    Hesler, Louis S.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the attractiveness of volatile chemicals to green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and flower flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) as measured by catch on yellow sticky traps within corn [Zea mays L.?(Cyperales: Poaceae)] and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae)] plots. Green lacewings were attracted to eugenol-baited traps in two tests in soybean plots. Follow-up testing in corn showed that catch of green lacewings was enhanced when traps were baited with eugeno...

  13. Bt Maize Seed Mixtures for Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Larval Movement, Development, and Survival on Non-transgenic Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkness, Eric C; Cira, T M; Moser, S E; Hutchison, W D

    2015-12-01

    In 2012 and 2013, field trials were conducted near Rosemount, MN, to assess the movement and development of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) larvae on non-Bt refuge corn plants within a seed mixture of non-Bt and Bt corn. The Bt corn hybrid expressed three Bt toxins-Cry1Ab, Cry1F, and Vip3A. As the use of seed mixtures for insect resistance management (IRM) continues to be implemented, it is necessary to further characterize how this IRM approach impacts resistance development in ear-feeding Lepidopteran pests. The potential for Bt pollen movement and cross pollination of the non-Bt ears in a seed mixture may lead to Bt toxin exposure to larvae developing on those refuge ears. Larval movement and development by H. zea, feeding on non-Bt refuge plants adjacent to either transgenic Bt or non-Bt plants, were measured to investigate the potential for unintended Bt exposure. Non-Bt plants were infested with H. zea eggs and subplots were destructively sampled twice per week within each treatment to assess larval development, location, and kernel injury. Results indicate that H. zea larval movement between plants is relatively low, ranging from 2-16% of larvae, and occurs mainly after reaching the second instar. Refuge plants in seed mixtures did not produce equivalent numbers of H. zea larvae, kernel injury, and larval development differed as compared with a pure stand of non-Bt plants. This suggests that there may be costs to larvae developing on refuge plants within seed mixtures and additional studies are warranted to define potential impacts. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Larval Helicoverpa zea Transcriptional, Growth and Behavioral Responses to Nicotine and Nicotiana tabacum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Gog

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The polyphagous feeding habits of the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie, underscore its status as a major agricultural pest with a wide geographic distribution and host plant repertoire. To study the transcriptomic response to toxins in diet, we conducted a microarray analysis of H. zea caterpillars feeding on artificial diet, diet laced with nicotine and Nicotiana tabacum (L. plants. We supplemented our analysis with growth and aversion bioassays. The transcriptome reflects an abundant expression of proteases, chitin, cytochrome P450 and immune-related genes, many of which are shared between the two experimental treatments. However, the tobacco treatment tended to elicit stronger transcriptional responses than nicotine-laced diet. The salivary factor glucose oxidase, known to suppress nicotine induction in the plant, was upregulated by H. zea in response to tobacco but not to nicotine-laced diet. Reduced caterpillar growth rates accompanied the broad regulation of genes associated with growth, such as juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolase. The differential expression of chemosensory proteins, such as odorant binding-protein-2 precursor, as well as the neurotransmitter nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor subunit 9, highlights candidate genes regulating aversive behavior towards nicotine. We suggest that an observed coincidental rise in cannibalistic behavior and regulation of proteases and protease inhibitors in H. zea larvae signify a compensatory response to induced plant defenses.

  15. Impaired phloem loading in zmsweet13a,b,c sucrose transporter triple knock-out mutants in Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrutczyk, Margaret; Hartwig, Thomas; Horschman, Marc; Char, Si Nian; Yang, Jinliang; Yang, Bing; Frommer, Wolf B; Sosso, Davide

    2018-04-01

    Crop yield depends on efficient allocation of sucrose from leaves to seeds. In Arabidopsis, phloem loading is mediated by a combination of SWEET sucrose effluxers and subsequent uptake by SUT1/SUC2 sucrose/H + symporters. ZmSUT1 is essential for carbon allocation in maize, but the relative contribution to apoplasmic phloem loading and retrieval of sucrose leaking from the translocation path is not known. Here we analysed the contribution of SWEETs to phloem loading in maize. We identified three leaf-expressed SWEET sucrose transporters as key components of apoplasmic phloem loading in Zea mays L. ZmSWEET13 paralogues (a, b, c) are among the most highly expressed genes in the leaf vasculature. Genome-edited triple knock-out mutants were severely stunted. Photosynthesis of mutants was impaired and leaves accumulated high levels of soluble sugars and starch. RNA-seq revealed profound transcriptional deregulation of genes associated with photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) analyses may indicate that variability in ZmSWEET13s correlates with agronomical traits, especifically flowering time and leaf angle. This work provides support for cooperation of three ZmSWEET13s with ZmSUT1 in phloem loading in Z. mays. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Study of photosynthetic pigments changes of maize (Zea mays L.) under nano Tio2 spraying at various growth stages

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza, Elham; Moaveni, Payam; Farahani, Hossein Aliabadi; Kiyani, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Tests were done on the effects of treatments of titanium dioxide spray on corn (Zea mays L.). The study was conducted as a factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Treatments consisted of two factors; the first factor was stage of plant growth that spraying was applied (vegetative stage, appearance of male flowers and female flowers); and the second factor was that of different concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (Tio2) that consisted of ...

  17. Nitrogen Use and Carbon Sequestered by Corn Rotations in the Northern Corn Belt, U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L. Pikul

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversified crop rotation may improve production efficiency, reduce fertilizer nitrogen (N requirements for corn (Zea mays L., and increase soil carbon (C storage. Objectives were to determine effect of rotation and fertilizer N on soil C sequestration and N use. An experiment was started in 1990 on a Barnes clay loam (U.S. soil taxonomy: fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, frigid Calcic Hapludoll near Brookings, SD. Tillage systems for corn–soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. rotations were conventional tillage (CS and ridge tillage (CSr. Rotations under conventional tillage were continuous corn (CC, and a 4-year rotation of corn–soybean–wheat (Triticum aestivum L. companion-seeded with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.–alfalfa hay (CSWA. Additional treatments included plots of perennial warm season, cool season, and mixtures of warm and cool season grasses. N treatments for corn were corn fertilized for a grain yield of 8.5 Mg ha–1 (highN, of 5.3 Mg ha–1 (midN, and with no N fertilizer (noN. Total (1990–2000 corn grain yield was not different among rotations at 80.8 Mg ha–1 under highN. Corn yield differences among rotations increased with decreased fertilizer N. Total (1990–2000 corn yields with noN fertilizer were 69 Mg ha–1 under CSWA, 53 Mg ha–1 under CS, and 35 Mg ha–1 under CC. Total N attributed to rotations (noN treatments was 0.68 Mg ha–1 under CSWA, 0.61 Mg ha–1 under CS, and 0.28 Mg ha–1 under CC. Plant carbon return depended on rotation and N. In the past 10 years, total C returned from above- ground biomass was 29.8 Mg ha–1 under CC with highN, and 12.8 Mg ha–1 under CSWA with noN. Soil C in the top 15 cm significantly increased (0.7 g kg–1 with perennial grass cover, remained unchanged under CSr, and decreased (1.7 g kg–1 under CC, CS, and CSWA. C to N ratio significantly narrowed (–0.75 with CSWA and widened (0.72 under grass. Diversified rotations have potential to increase N use efficiency and reduce

  18. Stochastic Corn Yield Response Functions to Nitrogen for Corn after Corn, Corn after Cotton, and Corn after Soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Christopher N.; Larson, James A.; Roberts, Roland K.; McClure, Angela T.; Tyler, Donald D.; Zhou, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    Deterministic and stochastic yield response plateau functions were estimated to determine the expected profit-maximizing nitrogen rates, yields, and net returns for corn grown after corn, cotton, and soybeans. The stochastic response functions were more appropriate than their deterministic counterparts, and the linear response stochastic plateau described the data the best. The profit-maximizing nitrogen rates were similar for corn after corn, cotton, and soybeans, but relative to corn after ...

  19. Complementation of sweet corn mutants: a method for grouping ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vivekananda Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhand Sansthan (VPKAS), Almora 263601, India; Division of Genetics, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012, India; Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar 263 145, India; Indian Council ...

  20. A public-industry partnership for enhancing corn nitrogen research and datasets: project description, methodology, and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to economic and environmental consequences of nitrogen (N) lost from fertilizer applications in corn (Zea mays L.), considerable public and industry attention has been devoted to development of N decision tools. Now a wide variety of tools are available to farmers for managing N inputs. However,...

  1. Will algorithms modified with soil and weather information improve in-field reflectance-sensing corn nitrogen applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) needs to support corn (Zea mays L.) production can be highly variable within fields. Canopy reflectance sensing for assessing crop N health has been implemented on many farmers’ fields to side-dress or top-dress variable-rate N application, but at times farmers report the performance of...

  2. ASSESSING INTRA- AND INTER-FIELD VARIABILITY OF CORN NITROGEN FERTILIZER NEED USING GROUND-BASED REFLECTANCE SENSORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since soil types within and between corn (Zea mays L.) fields can be highly variable, the amount of nitrogen (N) provided by those different soil types to support production can also be highly variable. Ideally, the amount of N fertilizer added during a given growing season should be both climate-se...

  3. Drought tolerant (DT) and non-DT corn production under center pivot irrigation in the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) for feed is an important crop in the Texas High Plains region. However, it requires more water than the other major crops grown in the area to maximize grain yields. Pumping water for agriculture from the declining Ogallala Aquifer is of concern and improving irrigation water use ...

  4. Impact of glyphosate resistant corn, glyphosate applications, and tillage on soil nutrient ratios, exoenzyme activities, and nutrient acquisition ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report results of the last two years of a 7-year (2008-2014) field experiment designed to test the null hypothesis that applications of glyphosate on glyphosate resistant corn (Zea mays L.) as a routine weed control practice under both conventional and reduced tillage practices would have no effe...

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF LECTINS OF ZEA MAYS RAW MATERIAL AND THE STUDY OF LECTIN ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpiuk UV

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aime of the study was to identify lectins in the Zea mays raw material: roots, stems, heads, leaves and corn silk and study their activity. Lectins activity has been studied using the biological method of ratuserytroagglutination. This method is based on formation of aggregates of lectins and rats erythrocytes. The activity unit was the floor amount of lectins that agglutinate erythrocytes. The protein nature of extracts that agglutinate has been determined using Bradford method. The lectins activity of Zea mays roots was 6,21±0,11 unit/mg of protein; of heads – 2,61±0,17 unit/mg of protein; of leaves – 0,62 ±0,05 unit/mg of protein; of corn silk – 1,06±0,08 unit/mg of protein; of stems – 0,97±0,09 unit/mg of protein. The greatest lectins activity was in leaves, stems and corn silk.

  6. Farelo de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crants em substituição ao milho (Zea mays L. em rações para alevinos de carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i2.1228 Replacement of corn Zea mays L. by cassava Manihot esculenta crants meal in grass-carp Ctenopharyngodon idella fingerlings diets - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i2.1228

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Rogério Boscolo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a substituição do milho pelo farelo de mandioca em rações para alevinos de Carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella. Foram utilizados 120 alevinos de Carpa-capim, com peso vivo inicial de 2,51+ 0,05 g, distribuídos em 24 tanques-rede, em um delineamento em blocos casualizados com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições, cada bloco correspondendo a uma caixa de fibrocimento com 1.000 L de capacidade, com seis tanques-rede (120 L em seu interior. Cada tanque-rede com cinco alevinos foi considerado uma unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiam em rações (32% de proteína bruta e 3000 kcal/kg de energia digestível com diferentes níveis de inclusão de farelo de mandioca (0.00; 5.99; 11.98; 17.97; 23.95; 29.94, correspondendo a substituição de 0.0%; 20.0%; 40.0%; 60.0%; 80.0% e 100.0% do milho na ração. Não foram observados efeitos dos níveis de inclusão do farelo de mandioca sobre o peso final, comprimento final, conversão alimentar, fator de condição e sobrevivência dos alevinos. Os parâmetros físico-químicos médios da água foram 22,92oC, 24,54oC, 6,38 mg/L, 7,47; 0,16 mS/cm, respectivamente para temperatura matutina, temperatura vespertina, oxigênio dissolvido, pH e condutividade. Conclui-se que e farelo de varredura de mandioca pode substituir o milho em até 100% nas rações para alevinos de carpa-capimThe experiment was carried out aiming to evaluate different substitution levels of corn by cassava meal in grass carp ctenopharyngodon idella fingerlings diets. It was used 120 fingerlings with initial live weigh of 2.51+0.05 g, distributed in 24 net ponds at a randomized blocks design with six treatments and four replications, each block corresponding to a fiber-ciment 1000 L tank with six net ponds (120 L inside. Each net ponds with five fingerlings was considered an experimental unit. The treatments consisted in rations (32% crude protein and 3000 kcal

  7. Sandwich or sweets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Alexandra; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina

    2016-01-01

    Desire, purchase, and consumption of fast-moving consumer goods often follow actual motivational states instead of habitual preferences. This has led to an increasing interest within health sciences to investigate the causes for irrational eating behaviours among consumers, particularly...... foods (sandwich and sweets) on visual analogue scales, as well as implicit approach–avoidance tendencies and implicit positive–negative associations with two variants of the recoding-free Implicit Association Tests (IAT-RFs). At first, all participants (N = 108) unwrapped, smelled, and explicitly judged...... the two foods, then all watched a video clip (during which half of the participants were allowed to eat the sandwich but not the sweets), and finally they all performed the two indirect measurements. Thus, desire for the foods was experimentally manipulated between participants. We hypothesized...

  8. Results of mycological and mycotoxicological investigations of corn-based feed for dairy cow diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škrinjar Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fungal contamination was determined as well as total aflatoxin B1(AB1, ochratoxin A (OTA and zearalenon (ZEA levels in corn-based feed samples obtained from four different farms in Serbia (n=35 during one year. Mycotoxins were detected in feed using the VICAM fluorometric method. It was determined that 97.14% of all samples were contaminated with moulds which belonged to following genera: Absidia, Acremonium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Geotrichum, Eurotium, Fusarium, Mucor, Mortierella, Oidiodendron, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Scopulariopsis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Ulocladium and Wallrothiella. A total of 58 different species were identified. Total mould count per 1 g ranged from 1.00 log cfu/g (dried corn silage - autumn, fresh corn silage - summer and corn grain silage - spring to 7.32 log cfu/g (dried corn silage - winter. Mycotoxins were isolated from 28.5% of samples: ZEA was found in summer (220-240 μg/kg and in spring (240 μg/kg in concentrate samples; OTA was detected in winter in dried corn silage (16 μg/kg and in spring (12 μg/kg; all samples were AB1 free.

  9. (Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-16

    Apr 16, 2014 ... and Byregowda 2005) and used as vegetable (immature green soft pods and immature grains) and forage (NRC. 2006). It is cultivated either as a pure crop or intercropped with finger millet, groundnut, castor, corn, pearl millet or sorghum. In Karnataka, dolichos bean is grown in an area of 85,000 hectares ...

  10. Our Mother Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Developed to provide an understanding of the magnitude of the role of corn, referred to as Mother Corn in the cultures of the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes, the student text provides information on the tribes' basic lifestyles and the way they grew and used corn in three different parts of the United States. The section on the origin of corn…

  11. Influence of different fertilization systems on nutritional composition of corn Zea mays L. (Poaceae and the effects to attack of Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae to storage product/ Influência de diferentes sistemas de adubação na composição nutricional do milho Zea mays L. (Poaceae e seus efeitos no ataque de Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae no produto armazenado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lys Mary Bileski Cândido

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of nutritional composition of grains of different corn cultivars produced under different fertilization systems on resistance of dry kernel against the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. Five cultivars of corn were planted (EMCAPA 201, EMCAPA 202, Composto 1, Composto 2, and AG 405, under four fertilization systems: organic, mineral, organic and mineral combined, and in absence of fertilizer.The contents of minerals leaves were evaluated during the period of the feminine florescence. After harvesting, grain production, moisture content, ashes, lipids, proteins and carbohydrates were evaluated. The resistance level of the cultivars was evaluated based on biological parameters of the insect (biological cycle, number of emerged insects and adult weight, susceptibility index, and on grain weight loss caused by insect feeding. In absence of fertilization all the cultivars, in general, present a minor contents of leave minerals. The highest grain production was obtained from the plot with combined fertilization, and the lowest in the unfertilized plot. The content of ashes, lipids and proteins were lower in the kernels from the area without fertilizer, while the carbohydrate levels were higher in this system. The ash content, that reflects minerals levels in the grain, was higher in the organic and combined fertilization areas. The protein levels were higher under combined fertilization. The results did not indicate the existence of a significant effect of the nutritional composition of the grains of different cultivars on development, reproduction and susceptibility index, probably due to the narrow genetic bases of the cultivars tested here.O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a influência da composição nutricional de grãos de diferentes cultivares de milho, cultivados em diferentes sistemas de adubação, sobre a resistência do grão seco ao gorgulho-do milho Sitophilus zeamais. Foram

  12. Sweetness, satiation, and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, France; Drewnowski, Adam; Anderson, G Harvey; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet; Martin, Corby K

    2012-06-01

    Satiation and satiety are central concepts in the understanding of appetite control and both have to do with the inhibition of eating. Satiation occurs during an eating episode and brings it to an end. Satiety starts after the end of eating and prevents further eating before the return of hunger. Enhancing satiation and satiety derived from foodstuffs was perceived as a means to facilitate weight control. Many studies have examined the various sensory, cognitive, postingestive, and postabsorptive factors that can potentially contribute to the inhibition of eating. In such studies, careful attention to study design is crucial for correct interpretation of the results. Although sweetness is a potent sensory stimulus of intake, sweet-tasting products produce satiation and satiety as a result of their volume as well as their nutrient and energy content. The particular case of energy intake from fluids has generated much research and it is still debated whether energy from fluids is as satiating as energy ingested from solid foods. This review discusses the satiating power of foods and drinks containing nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners. The brain mechanisms of food reward (in terms of "liking" and "wanting") are also addressed. Finally, we highlight the importance of reward homeostasis, which can help prevent eating in the absence of hunger, for the control of intake.

  13. Organics and mineral fertilizers and biological control on the incidence of stalk rot and corn yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Blume

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of area under maize (Zea mays L. and the use of no tillage have favored the incidence of stalk rot on this crop. The study aimed to evaluate the organic fertilizers and the treatment of corn seeds with Trichoderma spp. on the production of dry matter (DM of shoot, incidence of stalk rot and corn yield. The experiment consisted in a factorial with split-plot in strips, on the randomized block design with four replicates, and the fertilization treatments (pig slurry; swine deep bedding; cattle slurry; mineral fertilizer; control treatment were applied to the plots and the seeds treatment (with and without Trichoderma spp. in the subplots. At the flowering stage, three corn plants per subplot were collected for the assessment of DM production. At physiological maturity stage, the incidence of stalk rot was assessed, and the ears of corn harvested for productivity assessment. The organic and mineral fertilizers increased the production of DM and productivity of corn. Trichoderma spp. increased the production of DM of corn, but had no reflection on productivity. The incidence of stalk rot in corn was higher in treatments with organic and mineral fertilization. Organic fertilizers increase dry matter production of shoot and corn yield, and Trichoderma spp. provides an increase in dry matter production of shoot.

  14. Model of Yield Response of Corn to Plant Population and Absorption of Solar Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Overman, Allen R.; Scholtz, Richard V.

    2011-01-01

    Biomass yield of agronomic crops is influenced by a number of factors, including crop species, soil type, applied nutrients, water availability, and plant population. This article is focused on dependence of biomass yield (Mg ha(-1) and g plant(-1)) on plant population (plants m(-2)). Analysis includes data from the literature for three independent studies with the warm-season annual corn (Zea mays L.) grown in the United States. Data are analyzed with a simple exponential mathematical model ...

  15. Differential Expression of Superoxide Dismutase Genes in Aphid-Stressed Maize (Zea mays L.) Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the expression patterns of superoxide dismutase genes (sod2, sod3.4, sod9 and sodB) in seedling leaves of the Zea mays L. Tasty Sweet (susceptible) and Ambrozja (relatively resistant) cultivars infested with one of two hemipteran species, namely monophagous Sitobion avenae F. (grain aphid) or oligophagous Rhopalosiphum padi L. (bird cherry-oat aphid). Secondarily, aphid-elicited alternations in the antioxidative capacity towards DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical in insect-stressed plants were evaluated. Comprehensive comparison of expression profiles of the four sod genes showed that both insect species evoked significant upregulation of three genes sod2, sod3.4 and sod9). However, aphid infestation affected non-significant fluctuations in expression of sodB gene in seedlings of both maize genotypes. The highest levels of transcript accumulation occurred at 8 h (sod2 and sod3.4) or 24 h (sod9) post-infestation, and aphid-induced changes in the expression of sod genes were more dramatic in the Ambrozja cultivar than in the Tasty Sweet variety. Furthermore, bird cherry-oat aphid colonization had a more substantial impact on levels of DPPH radical scavenging activity in infested host seedlings than grain aphid colonization. Additionally, Ambrozja plants infested by either hemipteran species showed markedly lower antioxidative capacity compared with attacked Tasty Sweet plants. PMID:24722734

  16. Differential expression of superoxide dismutase genes in aphid-stressed maize (Zea mays L. seedlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Sytykiewicz

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the expression patterns of superoxide dismutase genes (sod2, sod3.4, sod9 and sodB in seedling leaves of the Zea mays L. Tasty Sweet (susceptible and Ambrozja (relatively resistant cultivars infested with one of two hemipteran species, namely monophagous Sitobion avenae F. (grain aphid or oligophagous Rhopalosiphum padi L. (bird cherry-oat aphid. Secondarily, aphid-elicited alternations in the antioxidative capacity towards DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical in insect-stressed plants were evaluated. Comprehensive comparison of expression profiles of the four sod genes showed that both insect species evoked significant upregulation of three genes sod2, sod3.4 and sod9. However, aphid infestation affected non-significant fluctuations in expression of sodB gene in seedlings of both maize genotypes. The highest levels of transcript accumulation occurred at 8 h (sod2 and sod3.4 or 24 h (sod9 post-infestation, and aphid-induced changes in the expression of sod genes were more dramatic in the Ambrozja cultivar than in the Tasty Sweet variety. Furthermore, bird cherry-oat aphid colonization had a more substantial impact on levels of DPPH radical scavenging activity in infested host seedlings than grain aphid colonization. Additionally, Ambrozja plants infested by either hemipteran species showed markedly lower antioxidative capacity compared with attacked Tasty Sweet plants.

  17. Effect of hydrolysis enzymatic process of corn using protease crude (Rhizopus oligosporus-C1) to produce corn hydrolisate rich folic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryati, Yati; Susilowati, Agustine; Melanie, Hakiki; Lotulung, Puspa D.

    2017-11-01

    Corn hydrolyzate (Zea mays L) as a functional food fortificant derived from natural folic acid has been evaluated through a hydrolysis process using protease enzyme Rhizopus oligosporus strain C1. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out on two types of corn; yellow and white pearl variety corn, at concentration of protease enzyme (rough) 0.025; 0.125; and 0.225% (v/w of soluble nixtamal corn protein) with a hydrolysis time of 24 h at 30 °C, and pH 5.0. The results showed that the concentration of protease enzymes can increase the folic acid to the optimum condition, from the beginning to the end of the process time. Folic acid optimization of hydrolysis results in each corn was at the concentration of protease enzyme 0.225% (v/w of soluble nixtamal corn protein) in white corn and yellow corn at 24 hours hydrolysis, with folic acid composition, 283.56 µg/mL and 412.52 µg/mL, 1.07 and 1.04 mg/mL of soluble proteins, proteolytic activity 2.09 and 2.06 U/mL, total solids of 21.74 and 17.85%, total sugars of 0.56 and 2.22 mg/mL, and reducing sugar 91.72 and 48.47 mg/mL. In this condition, the increase of optimum folic acid for white corn was 33.57% and for yellow corn was 71.60% after hydrolysis.

  18. Sweet potato for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dangler, J.M.; Locascio, S.J.; Halsey, L.H.

    1984-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in 1980 and 1981 to determine the root and plant top yield of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam)) grown on a sandy soil. Cultivars 'GaTG-3', 'Morado', 'Rojo Blanco', 'Travis' and 'White Star' were evaluated at 2 harvest times. Mean starch yields from 'GaTG-3' at 105-115 days (7.2 t/hectare) and at 210-230 days (9.6 ton/hectare) during two seasons were higher than from the other cultivars. With an increase in the growth period from 105-115 to 210-230 days the means starch yield increased from 4.6 to 7.3 t/hectare but the starch concentration of all cultivars decreased significantly during the same period.

  19. Nitrate leaching, water-use efficiency and yield of corn with different irrigation and nitrogen management systems in coastal plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation management for corn (Zea mays L.) production on the typical low water holding capacity soil of the southeastern USA needs to be improved to increase irrigation efficiency and reduce losses of nitrate from fields. A three-year (2012-2014) field study was conducted to compare the effects of...

  20. Elemental concentration of a native fern from Greece that grows in a monoculture and of corn plants grown in the same soil with different levels of copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procopiou, J. (Ministry of Agriculture, Athens, Greece); Wallace, A.

    1982-07-01

    Analysis of a native fern (Pteridium aquilinum L.) growing in large tracts of soil at about 1200 meters mean sea level in Greece indicated that it tolerated low levels of copper. Corn plants (Zea mays L.) grown in potted soil from the area did respond slightly to Cu added to the soil.

  1. Evaluation of corn hybrids expressing Cry1F, cry1A.105, Cry2Ab2, Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1, and Cry3Bb1 against southern United States insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, M W; Nolting, S P; Hendrix, W; Dhavala, S; Craig, C; Leonard, B R; Stewart, S D; All, J; Musser, F R; Buntin, G D; Samuel, L

    2012-10-01

    Studies were conducted across the southern United States to characterize the efficacy of multiple Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) events in a field corn, Zea mays L., hybrid for control of common lepidopteran and coleopteran pests. Cry1F protein in event TC1507 and Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 proteins in event MON 89034 were evaluated against pests infesting corn on above-ground plant tissue including foliage, stalks, and ears. Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 proteins in event DAS-59122-7 and Cry3Bb1 in event MON 88017 were evaluated against the larvae of Mexican corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera zeae Krysan and Smith, which occur below-ground. Field corn hybrids containing Cry1F, Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2, Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1, and Cry3Bb1 insecticidal proteins (SmartStax) consistently demonstrated reductions in plant injury and/or reduced larval survivorship as compared with a non-Bt field corn hybrid. Efficacy provided by a field corn hybrid with multiple Bt proteins was statistically equal to or significantly better than corn hybrids containing a single event active against target pests. Single event field corn hybrids provided very high levels of control of southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella (Dyar), lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller), and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), and were not significantly different than field corn hybrids with multiple events. Significant increases in efficacy were observed for a field corn hybrid with multiple Bt events for sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and Mexican corn rootworm. Utilization of field corn hybrids containing multiple Bt events provides a means for managing insect resistance to Bt proteins and reduces non-Bt corn refuge requirements.

  2. Využití kukuřice seté (Zea mays L.) pro energetické účely

    OpenAIRE

    RATAJ, David

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the types of energy use of flint corn (Zea mays). It compares the suitability of hybrid maize lines. The thesis is to summarize and compare the literature data on other types of energy crops and compares them suitable for cultivation for energy recovery on the basis of some production capacity and energy parameters (dry matter yield, energy recovery, combustion heat and humidity).

  3. Sweetness prediction of natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chéron, Jean-Baptiste; Casciuc, Iuri; Golebiowski, Jérôme; Antonczak, Serge; Fiorucci, Sébastien

    2017-04-15

    Based on the most exhaustive database of sweeteners with known sweetness values, a new quantitative structure-activity relationship model for sweetness prediction has been set up. Analysis of the physico-chemical properties of sweeteners in the database indicates that the structure of most potent sweeteners combines a hydrophobic scaffold functionalized by a limited number of hydrogen bond sites (less than 4 hydrogen bond donors and 10 acceptors), with a moderate molecular weight ranging from 350 to 450g·mol -1 . Prediction of sweetness, bitterness and toxicity properties of the largest database of natural compounds have been performed. In silico screening reveals that the majority of the predicted natural intense sweeteners comprise saponin or stevioside scaffolds. The model highlights that their sweetness potency is comparable to known natural sweeteners. The identified compounds provide a rational basis to initiate the design and chemosensory analysis of new low-calorie sweeteners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transgenic Bt Corn, Soil Insecticide, and Insecticidal Seed Treatment Effects on Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Beetle Emergence, Larval Feeding Injury, and Corn Yield in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calles-Torrez, Veronica; Knodel, Janet J; Boetel, Mark A; Doetkott, Curt D; Podliska, Kellie K; Ransom, Joel K; Beauzay, Patrick; French, B Wade; Fuller, Billy W

    2018-02-09

    Northern, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and western, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), corn rootworms are economic pests of corn, Zea mays L. in North America. We measured the impacts of corn hybrids incorporated with Cry3Bb1, Cry34/35Ab1, and pyramided (Cry3Bb1 + Cry34/35Ab1) Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) proteins, tefluthrin soil insecticide, and clothianidin insecticidal seed treatment on beetle emergence, larval feeding injury, and corn yield at five locations from 2013 to 2015 in eastern North Dakota. In most cases, emergence was significantly lower in Bt-protected corn than in non-Bt corn hybrids. Exceptions included Wyndmere, ND (2013), where D. barberi emergence from Cry34/35Ab1 plots was not different from that in the non-Bt hybrid, and Arthur, ND (2013), where D. v. virgifera emergence from Cry3Bb1 plots did not differ from that in the non-Bt hybrid. Bt hybrids generally produced increased grain yield compared with non-Bt corn where rootworm densities were high, and larval root-feeding injury was consistently lower in Bt-protected plots than in non-Bt corn. The lowest overall feeding injury and emergence levels occurred in plots planted with the Cry3Bb1 + Cry34/35Ab1 hybrid. Time to 50% cumulative emergence of both species was 5-7 d later in Bt-protected than in non-Bt hybrids. Tefluthrin and clothianidin were mostly inconsequential in relation to beetle emergence and larval root injury. Our findings could suggest that some North Dakota populations could be in early stages of increased tolerance to some Bt toxins; however, Bt corn hybrids currently provide effective protection against rootworm injury in eastern North Dakota. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Conservation and Diversity of Seed Associated Endophytes in Zea across Boundaries of Evolution, Ethnography and Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston-Monje, David; Raizada, Manish N.

    2011-01-01

    Endophytes are non-pathogenic microbes living inside plants. We asked whether endophytic species were conserved in the agriculturally important plant genus Zea as it became domesticated from its wild ancestors (teosinte) to modern maize (corn) and moved from Mexico to Canada. Kernels from populations of four different teosintes and 10 different maize varieties were screened for endophytic bacteria by culturing, cloning and DNA fingerprinting using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) of 16S rDNA. Principle component analysis of TRFLP data showed that seed endophyte community composition varied in relation to plant host phylogeny. However, there was a core microbiota of endophytes that was conserved in Zea seeds across boundaries of evolution, ethnography and ecology. The majority of seed endophytes in the wild ancestor persist today in domesticated maize, though ancient selection against the hard fruitcase surrounding seeds may have altered the abundance of endophytes. Four TRFLP signals including two predicted to represent Clostridium and Paenibacillus species were conserved across all Zea genotypes, while culturing showed that Enterobacter, Methylobacteria, Pantoea and Pseudomonas species were widespread, with γ-proteobacteria being the prevalent class. Twenty-six different genera were cultured, and these were evaluated for their ability to stimulate plant growth, grow on nitrogen-free media, solubilize phosphate, sequester iron, secrete RNAse, antagonize pathogens, catabolize the precursor of ethylene, produce auxin and acetoin/butanediol. Of these traits, phosphate solubilization and production of acetoin/butanediol were the most commonly observed. An isolate from the giant Mexican landrace Mixteco, with 100% identity to Burkholderia phytofirmans, significantly promoted shoot potato biomass. GFP tagging and maize stem injection confirmed that several seed endophytes could spread systemically through the plant. One seed isolate

  6. Conservation and diversity of seed associated endophytes in Zea across boundaries of evolution, ethnography and ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Johnston-Monje

    Full Text Available Endophytes are non-pathogenic microbes living inside plants. We asked whether endophytic species were conserved in the agriculturally important plant genus Zea as it became domesticated from its wild ancestors (teosinte to modern maize (corn and moved from Mexico to Canada. Kernels from populations of four different teosintes and 10 different maize varieties were screened for endophytic bacteria by culturing, cloning and DNA fingerprinting using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP of 16S rDNA. Principle component analysis of TRFLP data showed