Sample records for sweepers

  1. Raman assisted lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Rottwitt, Karsten


    We present a Lightwave Synthesized Frequency Sweeper comprising a Raman amplifier for loss compensation. The generated pulse train contains 123 pulses and has a flat signal level as well as a low noise level.......We present a Lightwave Synthesized Frequency Sweeper comprising a Raman amplifier for loss compensation. The generated pulse train contains 123 pulses and has a flat signal level as well as a low noise level....

  2. A synchronous beam sweeper for heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogaty, J.M.


    The Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) facility at Argonne National Laboratory provides a wide range of accelerated heavy ions from the periodic table. Frequently, the beam delivery rate of 12 MHz is too fast for the type of experiment on line. Reaction by-products from a target bombardment may have a decay interval much longer than the dead time between beam bunches. To prevent data from being corrupted by incoming ions a beam sweeper was developed which synchronously eliminates selected beam bunches to suit experimental needs. As the SWEEPER is broad band (DC to 6 MHz) beam delivery rates can be instantaneously changed. Ion beam bunches are selectively kicked out by an electrostatic dipole electrode pulsed to 2 kVDC. The system has been used for almost three years with several hundred hours of operating time logged to date. Beam bunch delivery rates of 6 MHz down to 25 kHz have been provided. Since this is a non-resonant system any beam delivery rate from 6 MHz down to zero can be set. In addition, burst modes have been used where beam is supplied in 12 MHz bursts and then shut down for a period of time set by the user. 3 figs

  3. Accurate simulation of Raman amplified lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Olesen, Anders Sig; Rottwitt, Karsten


    A lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper using a Raman amplifier for loss compensation is presented together with a numerical model capable of predicting the shape of individual pulses as well as the overall envelope of more than 100 pulses. The generated pulse envelope consists of 116 pulses wi...

  4. Occupational health hazards in street sweepers of Chandrapur city, central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Patil Priyanka


    Full Text Available Street sweepers play an important role in maintaining health and hygiene in cities. They are exposed to road dust and other contaminants while cleaning streets. Exposure of this dust and contaminants irritates respiratory symptoms and airway obstruction. Twenty workers were selected as sample size (10 male and 10 female and 10 individual as control (5 male and 5 female for analysis of occupational health hazards in street sweepers of Chandrapur city. The study was carried out from November 2015 to January 2016. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate analysis which was carried out through Breath-o meter and other occupational health hazards through interview schedule specially designed and developed for this study. The results of the study showed that, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate values were lower in exposed workers (sample population as compared with control group. These workers were exposed to number of environmental and occupational hazards leading to musculoskeletal disorders (100%, respiratory problems (95%, dermatological problems (90%, headache (75% and gastrointestinal problems (15% during work. It was further observed that theses workers were suffering from allergies (100%, cough and cold (75%, asthma and bronchitis lungs (65%, hearing disorder (50%, malaria and typhoid (25%, fever (15% and vomiting (10% after completion of work. To reduce occupational health hazards in sweepers, they must be made alert and aware of potential health risk arising from their work. Reduction in exposure and use of personal protective equipments should be encouraged.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTVolume-6, Issue-2, Mar-May 2017, Page: 9-18

  5. Survey of occupational high risk behaviors leading to infection in sweepers working in one of the districtsof Tehran municipality in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Keshavarzian


    Full Text Available Background and aim Although sweepers are one of the high risk groups for HIV and HBV infections; nevertheless, there is a paucity of research into high risk behaviors of sweepers. The aim of this study was to determine occupational high risk behaviors leading to infection in sweepers who are working in district twenty, Tehran municipality.   MethodsThis study is a descriptive-analytical type. A convenience sample included 400 sweepers working in district twenty, Tehran municipality were selected by simple sampling. Demographic and occupational high risk behavior lead to infection inventories were two instruments for collecting data in the present study. Reliability and validity of scales had estimated. Statistical analysis of data was performed with SPSS 16 software for Windows.   Results Thirty percents of sweepers had a history of needle stick injuries and 35/5% of them had a history of cuts of hand from blades existing rubbishes. %25/5 of sweepers had not action encounter to discarded syringes and needles in streets and other places.   In the case of needle stick injury occurred, 2/5 percent of sweepers were washing damaged organ with clean water, 3/8% with soap and water and 7/8% with alcohol. 0/5% of them were sent out blood of damaged organ with pressure, 11 percent reported the incident to a doctor to get post-exposure treatment and 74/5% had not action. 4/8% of sweepers never wear gloves for collecting garbage and only 54% of sweepers were using gloves regularly. 4/8% of sweepers were never using boots when collecting garbage and only 41/5% of sweepers were using boots regularly . 65 percent of sweepers reported that municipal contractors provides boots and gloves and 53 percents of them reported that these tools are unsafe and thin.   Conclusion  Results of this study demonstrated that there are numerous occupational high risk behaviors which may lead to infection in sweepers. Educational talks were given to sweepers and municipal

  6. Sweeper’s lung disease: a cross-sectional study of an overlooked illness among sweepers of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar SK


    Full Text Available Shaikh Khurshid Anwar, Naeem Mehmood, Nasir Nasim, Maryam Khurshid, Bilal Khurshid Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS, Islamabad, Pakistan Background: Sweepers are prone to develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease even without tobacco smoking. Purpose: To investigate roadside dust as a cause of air flow obstruction among sweepers, and the role of spirometry in its preclinical diagnosis. Material and methods: One-hundred nonsmoking sweepers (aged 30–60 years of both sexes sweeping on roads for 8–12 hours a day for the Capital Development Authority of Islamabad, Pakistan were used as study participants (Group A. One-hundred healthy nonsmokers (aged 30–60 years in the same socioeconomic group and living in the same environment represented the nonsweeper group (Group B. After proper clinical evaluation and chest X-rays, spirometric evaluation was carried out in both groups. Comparisons were drawn between various spirometric parameters. Results: Pulmonary function tests showed that the mean forced vital capacity was 78 ± 1.40 in the sweeper group (Group A and 83 ± 0.86 in the nonsweeper group (Group B. Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second was 66 ± 1.67 in Group A and 85 ± 0.85 in Group B (P < 0.05, a difference of 19%. The forced midexpiratory flow was 41% lower in Group A than in Group B (P < 0.0001. The pattern of pulmonary function obstruction was shown to be proportional to the duration of exposure to dust caused by sweeping. Conclusion: Occupational exposure to dust leads to an obstructive pattern among sweepers. Spirometry is the simplest, noninvasive technique to detect preclinical disease. Keywords: COPD, sweepers, dust, spirometry

  7. Investigation of noise in Lightwave Synthesized Frequency Sweeper seeded LIDAR anemometers from leakage through the Acousto Optic Modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Lindelöw, Per Jonas Petter


    Train (FSPT) modulated lidars the leakage will give rise to rapidly growing noise in the bins which corresponds to the signal from low radial wind velocities. It is likely that noise canceling techniques similar to those used for RIN removal has to be deployed for measurements of low wind velocities.......Lightwave Synthesized Frequency Sweepers (LSFS) have potential use as lightsources in lidar anemometers. In this paper noise due to leakage in the acousto optic modulators in an LSFS is investigated. Theoretical expressions describing the build-up of noise in the LSFS due to leakage are derived...

  8. Electrostatic Insect Sweeper for Eliminating Whiteflies Colonizing Host Plants: A Complementary Pest Control Device in An Electric Field Screen-Guarded Greenhouse. (United States)

    Takikawa, Yoshihiro; Matsuda, Yoshinori; Kakutani, Koji; Nonomura, Teruo; Kusakari, Shin-Ichi; Okada, Kiyotsugu; Kimbara, Junji; Osamura, Kazumi; Toyoda, Hideyoshi


    Our greenhouse tomatoes have suffered from attacks by viruliferous whiteflies Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) over the last 10 years. The fundamental countermeasure was the application of an electric field screen to the greenhouse windows to prevent their entry. However, while the protection was effective, it was incomplete, because of the lack of a guard at the greenhouse entrance area; in fact, the pests entered from the entrance door when workers entered and exited. To address this, we developed a portable electrostatic insect sweeper as a supplementary technique to the screen. In this sweeper, eight insulated conductor wires (ICWs) were arranged at constant intervals along a polyvinylchloride (PVC) pipe and covered with a cylindrical stainless net. The ICWs and metal net were linked to a DC voltage generator (operated by 3-V alkaline batteries) inside the grip and oppositely electrified to generate an electric field between them. Whiteflies on the plants were attracted to the sweeper that was gently slid along the leaves. This apparatus was easy to operate on-site in a greenhouse and enabled capture of the whiteflies detected during the routine care of the tomato plants. Using this apparatus, we caught all whiteflies that invaded the non-guarded entrance door and minimized the appearance and spread of the viral disease in tomato plants in the greenhouse.

  9. Establishing the identity and assessing the dynamics of invasion in the Mediterranean Sea by the dusky sweeper, Pempheris rhomboidea Kossmann & Räuber, 1877 (Pempheridae, Perciformes)

    KAUST Repository

    Azzurro, Ernesto


    © 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. We investigate the genetic diversity of the sweeper Pempheris, a biological invader that entered the Mediterranean Sea via the Suez Canal. Two mitochondrial regions and one nuclear region were sequenced and topological reconstructions investigated from samples collected from the eastern Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea and three Indo-Pacific localities. Morphological and molecular analyses assigned samples from this study to three distinct species of Pempheris in the Red Sea (P. flavicyla, P. rhomboidea, and P. tominagai) and confirmed a misidentification of the Mediterranean sweepers, previously identified as P. vanicolensis and now recognized as P.rhomboidea. Pempheris rhomboidea clustered in a single clade including specimens from Madagascar and South Africa. Similarly to most other studied Lessepsian bioinvaders, no evidence of a genetic bottleneck in its invasive Mediterranean population was found. Yet, lowered gene flow levels were observed between Red Sea and Mediterranean populations in this species. These findings highlight the importance of molecular tools to the proper identification of morphologically challenging alien organisms and contribute to the understanding of the dynamics of Lessepsian invasions.

  10. Analysis of the plasma sweeper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glanz, J.; Motley, R.W.


    The coupling of lower hybrid waves to a plasma can be modified by placing potentials on electrodes near the mouth of a phased array. Positive potentials on the electrodes create an electric field that sweeps the plasma away at a velocity c anti E x anti B/B 2 . In this paper we derive the electric field created by the applied potential from the nondivergent character of the current flow and the ion momentum equation, in which ion-neutral charge-exchange collisions are retained, and we compare the predictions with experimental data

  11. Desregulamentação do trabalho e desregulação da atividade: o caso da terceirização da limpeza urbana e o trabalho dos garis Work deregulation and deregulation of the activity: the case of outsourcing of urban cleaning and the street sweeper work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cristiano de Oliveira Santos


    Full Text Available Os mecanismos precisos que associam terceirização e saúde do trabalhador ainda são pouco conhecidos. Mesmo que as relações entre terceirização e saúde pareçam evidentes, não é trivial demonstrar que existem relações causais diretas e específicas entre a mudança da relação contratual e o adoecimento. Embora reais, os diversos aspectos da precarização jurídica, social e econômica não explicam per se o aumento dos agravos à saúde do trabalhador terceirizado. Apoiando-nos no conceito de (desregulação da atividade de trabalho, mostramos como a desregulamentação das relações de trabalho que acompanham a terceirização dos serviços de limpeza urbana pode levar ao adoecimento ou aumentar os agravos à saúde dos garis terceirizados. Para isto, recorreu-se à Análise Ergonômica do Trabalho para compreender o cotidiano dos trabalhadores terceirizados.The precise mechanisms associating outsourcing and occupational health are not well known yet. Even being the relations between outsourcing and health apparently evident, it isn't easy to demonstrate the existence of direct and specific causal relations between the change of the contractual relations and occupational diseases. The various aspects of juridical, social and economic deregulations, although real, do not explain themselves the increasing damages on the external workers' health. Based on the concept of deregulation of the work activity if will be shown how the deregulation of the work relations that come along with outsourcing of urban cleaning services can produce or grow the occupational diseases and accidents of the street sweepers. For this it was appealed to work ergonomic analyzes to understand the daily activity of the street sweepers.

  12. Method and Apparatus of Implementing a Magnetic Shield Flux Sweeper (United States)

    Sadleir, John E. (Inventor)


    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus of protecting magnetically sensitive devices with a shield, including: a non-superconducting metal or lower transition temperature (T.sub.c) material compared to a higher transition temperature material, disposed in a magnetic field; means for creating a spatially varying order parameter's |.PSI.(r,T)|.sup.2 in a non-superconducting metal or a lower transition temperature material; wherein a spatially varying order parameter is created by a proximity effect, such that the non-superconducting metal or the lower transition temperature material becomes superconductive as a temperature is lowered, creating a flux-free Meissner state at a center thereof, in order to sweep magnetic flux lines to the periphery.

  13. Establishing the identity and assessing the dynamics of invasion in the Mediterranean Sea by the dusky sweeper, Pempheris rhomboidea Kossmann & Räuber, 1877 (Pempheridae, Perciformes)

    KAUST Repository

    Azzurro, Ernesto; Goren, Menachem; Diamant, Ariel; Galil, Bella; Bernardi, Giacomo


    between Red Sea and Mediterranean populations in this species. These findings highlight the importance of molecular tools to the proper identification of morphologically challenging alien organisms and contribute to the understanding of the dynamics

  14. Significance of investigating allelopathic interactions of marine organisms in the discovery and development of cytotoxic compounds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, A.; Thakur, N.L.

    like (1) growth interactions (e.g. overgrowth by corals) [27], (2) aggressive behaviour (e.g., induced development of sweeper tentacles by bryozoans [28], (3) feeding interactions (e.g., extracoelenteric digestion via mesenteries filaments...

  15. 30 CFR 77.1109 - Quantity and location of firefighting equipment. (United States)


    ... equipment such as portable drills, sweepers, and scrapers, when operated more than 600 feet from equipment... tank. (f) Vehicles transporting explosives and blasting agents shall be equipped with fire protection...

  16. mRNA-Seq of single prostate cancer circulating tumor cells reveals recapitulation of gene expression and pathways found in prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon M Cann

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTC mediate metastatic spread of many solid tumors and enumeration of CTCs is currently used as a prognostic indicator of survival in metastatic prostate cancer patients. Some evidence suggests that it is possible to derive additional information about tumors from expression analysis of CTCs, but the technical difficulty of isolating and analyzing individual CTCs has limited progress in this area. To assess the ability of a new generation of MagSweeper to isolate intact CTCs for downstream analysis, we performed mRNA-Seq on single CTCs isolated from the blood of patients with metastatic prostate cancer and on single prostate cancer cell line LNCaP cells spiked into the blood of healthy donors. We found that the MagSweeper effectively isolated CTCs with a capture efficiency that matched the CellSearch platform. However, unlike CellSearch, the MagSweeper facilitates isolation of individual live CTCs without contaminating leukocytes. Importantly, mRNA-Seq analysis showed that the MagSweeper isolation process did not have a discernible impact on the transcriptional profile of single LNCaPs isolated from spiked human blood, suggesting that any perturbations caused by the MagSweeper process on the transcriptional signature of isolated cells are modest. Although the RNA from patient CTCs showed signs of significant degradation, consistent with reports of short half-lives and apoptosis amongst CTCs, transcriptional signatures of prostate tissue and of cancer were readily detectable with single CTC mRNA-Seq. These results demonstrate that the MagSweeper provides access to intact CTCs and that these CTCs can potentially supply clinically relevant information.

  17. mRNA-Seq of single prostate cancer circulating tumor cells reveals recapitulation of gene expression and pathways found in prostate cancer. (United States)

    Cann, Gordon M; Gulzar, Zulfiqar G; Cooper, Samantha; Li, Robin; Luo, Shujun; Tat, Mai; Stuart, Sarah; Schroth, Gary; Srinivas, Sandhya; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Brooks, James D; Talasaz, Amirali H


    Circulating tumor cells (CTC) mediate metastatic spread of many solid tumors and enumeration of CTCs is currently used as a prognostic indicator of survival in metastatic prostate cancer patients. Some evidence suggests that it is possible to derive additional information about tumors from expression analysis of CTCs, but the technical difficulty of isolating and analyzing individual CTCs has limited progress in this area. To assess the ability of a new generation of MagSweeper to isolate intact CTCs for downstream analysis, we performed mRNA-Seq on single CTCs isolated from the blood of patients with metastatic prostate cancer and on single prostate cancer cell line LNCaP cells spiked into the blood of healthy donors. We found that the MagSweeper effectively isolated CTCs with a capture efficiency that matched the CellSearch platform. However, unlike CellSearch, the MagSweeper facilitates isolation of individual live CTCs without contaminating leukocytes. Importantly, mRNA-Seq analysis showed that the MagSweeper isolation process did not have a discernible impact on the transcriptional profile of single LNCaPs isolated from spiked human blood, suggesting that any perturbations caused by the MagSweeper process on the transcriptional signature of isolated cells are modest. Although the RNA from patient CTCs showed signs of significant degradation, consistent with reports of short half-lives and apoptosis amongst CTCs, transcriptional signatures of prostate tissue and of cancer were readily detectable with single CTC mRNA-Seq. These results demonstrate that the MagSweeper provides access to intact CTCs and that these CTCs can potentially supply clinically relevant information.

  18. 78 FR 41492 - Buy America Policy (United States)


    ... equipment, such as street sweepers, backhoes, refuse trucks, dump trucks, graders, etc.? Should the FHWA... marine diesel engines, electrical switchboards and switchgear, electric motors, pumps, ventilation fans... assembly is the standard for a vehicle, should the FHWA be concerned about Buy America when an engine is...

  19. Frequency noise in frequency swept fiber laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Rottwitt, Karsten


    This Letter presents a measurement of the spectral content of frequency shifted pulses generated by a lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper. We found that each pulse is shifted in frequency with very high accuracy. We also discovered that noise originating from light leaking through the acousto......- optical modulators and forward propagating Brillouin scattering appear in the spectrum. © 2013 Optical Society of America....

  20. Exploring Neutron-Rich Oxygen Isotopes with MoNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, N.; Gade, A.; Peters, W. A.; Thoennessen, M.; Baumann, T.; Bazin, D.; Lecouey, J.-L.; Scheit, H.; Schiller, A.; Brown, J.; DeYoung, P. A.; Finck, J. E.; Hinnefeld, J.; Howes, R.; Luther, B.


    The Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) was used in conjunction with a large-gap dipole magnet (Sweeper) to measure neutron-unbound states in oxygen isotopes close to the neutron dripline. While no excited states were observed in 24 O, a resonance at 45(2) keV above the neutron separation energy was observed in 23 O

  1. 77 FR 50502 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In-Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles (As... (United States)


    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL 9716-9] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In- Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles (As Applicable to Yard Trucks and Two-Engine Sweepers); Opportunity... control of emissions from new nonroad engines which are used in construction equipment or vehicles or used...

  2. ATLAS accelerator laboratory report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Hartog, P.


    The operation of the ATLAS Accelerator is reported. Modifications are reported, including the installation of conductive tires for the Pelletron chain pulleys, installation of a new high frequency sweeper system at the entrance to the linac, and improvements to the rf drive ports of eight resonators to correct failures in the thermally conductive ceramic insulators. Progress is reported on the positive-ion injector upgrade for ATLAS. Also reported are building modifications and possible new uses for the tandem injector

  3. Coherent lidar modulated with frequency stepped pulse trains for unambiguous high duty cycle range and velocity sensing in the atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelöw, Per Jonas Petter; Mohr, Johan Jacob


    Range unambiguous high duty cycle coherent lidars can be constructed based on frequency stepped pulse train modulation, even continuously emitting systems could be envisioned. Such systems are suitable for velocity sensing of dispersed targets, like the atmosphere, at fast acquisition rates....... The lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper is a suitable generator yielding fast pulse repetition rates and stable equidistant frequency steps. Theoretical range resolution profiles of modulated lidars are presented....

  4. Human Capital Management Through the Use of a Standard Integrated Personnel System in Royal Saudi Naval Forces (United States)


    Management System MHC Costal Mine Hunter MOD Ministry Of Defense MSC Coastal Mine Sweeper NLP Natural Language Programming NSIPS Navy Standard...seas, the Red Sea on the west and the Arabian Gulf on the east. It borders Kuwait, Iraq, and Jordan in the north and Qatar and the United Arab ...Persians from trying to invade the Arabian Peninsula. The Arabs repelled the Persian Army and defeated it in 609, causing a scandal for the ancient

  5. Development of a Novel Method to Detect Prostate Cancer Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) Based on Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Biology (United States)


    prostate cancer162. Other immunomagnetic-based systems, such as the AdnaTest (AdnaGen, Langenhagen, Germany ), MagSweeper Table 1. CTC enrichment based on...of p53 is common in metastatic PC, and loss of p53 function may promote EMT through TWIST1 deregulation , or through a separate pathway involving...microRNA deregulation [55]. Inhibitor of differentiation/DNA binding (Id-1) is another bHLH transcription factor that has a dominant negative effect on

  6. Health care waste management practice in a hospital. (United States)

    Paudel, R; Pradhan, B


    Health-care waste is a by-product of health care. Its poor management exposes health-care workers, waste handlers and the community to infections, toxic effects and injuries including damage of the environment. It also creates opportunities for the collection of disposable medical equipment, its re-sale and potential re-use without sterilization, which causes an important burden of disease worldwide. The purpose of this study was to find out health care waste management practice in hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Narayani Sub-Regional Hospital, Birgunj from May to October 2006 using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Study population was four different departments of the hospital (Medical/Paediatric, Surgical/Ortho, Gynae/Obstetric and Emergency), Medical Superintendent, In-charges of four different departments and all sweepers. Data was collected using interview, group discussion, observation and measurement by weight and volume. Total health-care waste generated was 128.4 kg per day while 0.8 kg per patient per day. The composition of health care waste was found to be 96.8 kg (75.4%) general waste, 24.1 kg (8.8%) hazardous waste and 7.5 kg (5.8%) sharps per day by weight. Health staffs and sweepers were not practicing the waste segregation. Occupational health and safety was not given due attention. Majority of the sweepers were unaware of waste management and need of safety measures to protect their own health. Health care waste management practice in the hospital was unsatisfactory because of the lack of waste management plan and carelessness of patients, visitors and staffs. Therefore the hospital should develop the waste management plan and strictly follow the National Health Care Waste Management Guideline.

  7. Ground state energy and width of 7He from 8Li proton knockout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denby, D. H.; DeYoung, P. A.; Hall, C. C.; Baumann, T.; Bazin, D.; Spyrou, A.; Breitbach, E.; Howes, R.; Brown, J.; Frank, N.; Gade, A.; Mosby, S. M.; Peters, W. A.; Thoennessen, M.; Hinnefeld, J.; Hoffman, C. R.; Jenson, R. A.; Luther, B.; Olson, C. W.; Schiller, A.


    The ground state energy and width of 7 He has been measured with the Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) and superconducting dipole Sweeper magnet experimental setup at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. 7 He was produced by proton knockout from a secondary 8 Li beam. The measured decay energy spectrum is compared to simulations based on Breit-Wigner line shape with an energy-dependent width for the resonant state. The energy of the ground state is found to be 400(10) keV with a full-width at half-maximum of 125( -15 +40 ) keV

  8. Performance Of Animal-drawn, Ripper Attached Maize-Cum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    በፊት ከተሰራው በእርፍና ሞፈር ሊይ ታስሮ ከሚሰራ መዝሪያ (sweeper attached planter, SAP) እና መሬቱን. በነባሩ የአስተራረስ ዘዴ አዘጋጅቶ የሰው ሃይሌ (በእጅ) ዘር ...

  9. Õhtutähele : [luuletused] / William Blake ; tlk. Märt Väljataga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Blake, William


    Sisu: Õhtutähele ; Korstnapühkija ; Taevatõusmispüha : "See oli taevatõusmispäev, reas sajad lastepaarid..." ; Saviklomp ja kivike ; Taevatõusmispüha : "Kas on see mõni püha pilt..." ; Korstnapühkija ; Haige roos ; Armastuse aed ; London. Saatesõna lk. 12. Orig.: To the Evening Star ; The chimney sweeper ; Holy thursday (1789) ; The clod and pebble ; Holy thursday (1794) ; Holy thursday (1794) ; The sick rose ; The garden of love ; London

  10. 現代インドにおける都市下層カーストの就労・生活状況─デリー市の清掃カースト世帯調査に基づく一考察─


    鈴木 真弥


    This paper explores the current socio-economic marginalization of the untouchables in a case study of the sweeper community (known by the caste name of Balmiki) in India through a household survey conducted between 2006 and 2009 by the author. The caste-based occupation of the Balmiki community ─ sweeping of certain streets or households and removing night soil from latrines ─ has been one aspect of India’ s traditional caste system. The caste system is a form of social stratification wherein...

  11. Maintenance measures for preservation and recovery of permeable pavement surface infiltration rate--The effects of street sweeping, vacuum cleaning, high pressure washing, and milling. (United States)

    Winston, Ryan J; Al-Rubaei, Ahmed M; Blecken, Godecke T; Viklander, Maria; Hunt, William F


    The surface infiltration rates (SIR) of permeable pavements decline with time as sediment and debris clog pore spaces. Effective maintenance techniques are needed to ensure the hydraulic functionality and water quality benefits of this stormwater control. Eight different small-scale and full-scale maintenance techniques aimed at recovering pavement permeability were evaluated at ten different permeable pavement sites in the USA and Sweden. Maintenance techniques included manual removal of the upper 2 cm of fill material, mechanical street sweeping, regenerative-air street sweeping, vacuum street sweeping, hand-held vacuuming, high pressure washing, and milling of porous asphalt. The removal of the upper 2 cm of clogging material did not significantly improve the SIR of concrete grid paves (CGP) and permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP) due to the inclusion of fines in the joint and bedding stone during construction, suggesting routine maintenance cannot overcome improper construction. For porous asphalt maintenance, industrial hand-held vacuum cleaning, pressure washing, and milling were increasingly successful at recovering the SIR. Milling to a depth of 2.5 cm nearly restored the SIR for a 21-year old porous asphalt pavement to like-new conditions. For PICP, street sweepers employing suction were shown to be preferable to mechanical sweepers; additionally, maintenance efforts may become more intensive over time to maintain a threshold SIR, as maintenance was not 100% effective at removing clogging material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Diagnostics for low energy buncher stability at PLF, Mumbai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, S.; Karande, J.N.; Dhumal, P.; Takke, A.N.; Nanal, V.; Pillay, R.G.


    The buncher system at Pelletron Linac Facility (PLF), Mumbai consists of room-temperature double-harmonic drift bunchers, situated at the entrance of the Pelletron accelerator and a superconducting cavity at the injection of the LINAC. Low energy (LE) bunchers operate at sub harmonic of the LINAC reference clock (∼150 MHz)) with a bunching efficiency ∼ 66% and a typical FWHM of 1.5 ns.The dark current between adjacent bunches is swept away by RF parallel plate sweeper situated at exit of the Pelletron operating at f/32. The transit time variation arising due to Pelletron terminal voltage fluctuations are compensated by locking the reference of the LE bunchers to the phase detector operating at f/4 and situated at the injection of the LINAC. For a stable injection in the LINAC, the LE bunchers, the sweeper and the phase detector need too be phase synchronized with the LINAC master clock. To achieve a better stability on the phase lock, detailed phase stability measurements of the RF subsystem consisting of various RF devices, which operate at different sub harmonic of LINAC clock (f/32, f/16, f/8, f/4 and f) have been carried out. It was observed that temperature instabilities, ground loops and poor RF/EMI shielding due to aging effects were responsible for the phase jitter and drifts. The long term drifts and phase noise in the RF control of the LE buncher system have been minimized to a level better than 50 ps. (author)

  13. A laminated-iron fast-pulsed magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Faugeras, Paul E; Mayer, M; Schröder, G H


    In the SPS Beam Dumping System , two pairs of fast pulsed magnets deflect the circulating beam vertically and horizontally from its normal closed orbit, and onto a large absorber block. Two MKDV kickers produce a quasi-rectangular field pulse of 23 µs duration (this being the SPS revolution period) causing a vertical deflection of 44 mm at the absorber block, while two MKDH sweepers give a horizontal deflection ramping during 23 µs to a peak of 25 mm. On the 'flat top' of the MKDV pulse, oscillations of ± 10 % of the primary deflection are introduced. The proton beam is thus dumped into the absorber block during one revolution. Dumping may occur at any energy, but the dumping of a 400 GeV/c pencil beam of $10^{13}$ proton would produce thermal shock waves which would ultimately deform any solid absorber. The sweeper's 25 mm horizontal deflection and the kicker's 10 % oscillations were introduced to sweep the dumped beam over an area of about 200 $mm^{2}$ giving a reduction of one to two orders of magnitude...

  14. A multiframe soft x-ray camera with fast video capture for the LSX field reversed configuration (FRC) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, E.A.


    Soft x-ray pinhole imaging has proven to be an exceptionally useful diagnostic for qualitative observation of impurity radiation from field reversed configuration plasmas. We used a four frame device, similar in design to those discussed in an earlier paper [E. A. Crawford, D. P. Taggart, and A. D. Bailey III, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 2795 (1990)] as a routine diagnostic during the last six months of the Large s Experiment (LSX) program. Our camera is an improvement over earlier implementations in several significant aspects. It was designed and used from the onset of the LSX experiments with a video frame capture system so that an instant visual record of the shot was available to the machine operator as well as facilitating quantitative interpretation of intensity information recorded in the images. The camera was installed in the end region of the LSX on axis approximately 5.5 m from the plasma midplane. Experience with bolometers on LSX showed serious problems with ''particle dumps'' at the axial location at various times during the plasma discharge. Therefore, the initial implementation of the camera included an effective magnetic sweeper assembly. Overall performance of the camera, video capture system, and sweeper is discussed

  15. Aerosol studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, G.A.; Fish, M.E.


    As part of the continuing studies of the effects of very severe reactor accidents, an effort was made to develop, test, and improve simple, effective, and inexpensive methods by which the average citizen, using only materials readily available, could protect his residence, himself, and his family from injury by toxic aerosols. The methods for protection against radioactive aerosols should be equally effective against a clandestine biological attack by terrorists. The results of the tests to date are limited to showing that spores of the harmless bacterium, bacillus globegii (BG), can be used as a simulant for the radioactive aerosols. An aerosol generator of Lauterbach type was developed which will produce an essentially monodisperse aerosol at the rate of 10 9 spores/min. Analytical techniques have been established which give reproducible results. Preliminary field tests have been conducted to check out the components of the system. Preliminary tests of protective devices, such as ordinary vacuum sweepers, have given protection factors of over 1000

  16. Fiber Laser for Wind Speed Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Sig

    This PhD thesis evaluates the practical construction and use of a Frequency Stepped Pulse Train modulated coherent Doppler wind lidar (FSPT lidar) for wind speed measurement. The concept of Doppler lidar is introduced as a means to measure line of sight wind speed by the Doppler shift of reflected...... Sweeper (LSFS) is introduced and analyzed as a light source for the FSPT lidar. The setup of the LSFS is discussed, and the necessary concepts for modeling and analyzing LSFS noise are developed. The model and measurements are then used to discuss the growth of optical noise in the LSFS and the impact...... on its use in the FSPT lidar. A complex ABCD model is developed and described as a method for calculating spatial and frequency dependency of a lidar’s signal strength. The model includes both spatial and temporal components of the lidar system, enabling a model capable of describing both CW, pulsed...

  17. Minefield Mapping Using Cooperative Multirobot Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Khamis


    Full Text Available This paper presents a team-theoretic approach to cooperative multirobot systems. The individual actions of the robots are controlled by the Belief-Desire-Intention model to endow the robots with the know-how needed to execute these actions deliberately. The cooperative behaviors between the heterogeneous robots are governed by the Team-Log theory to endow all the robots in the team with the know-how-to-cooperate and determine the team members’ commitments to each other despite their different types, properties, and goals. The proposed approach is tested for validity with the real life problem of minefield mapping. Different minefield sweeping strategies are studied to control the mobility of the mobile sweepers within the minefield in order to maximize the area coverage and improve picture compilation capability of the multirobot system.

  18. Pollutant emissions of commercial and industrial wood furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbach, G.; Angerer, M.


    Based on literature surveys, personal contacts to designers, manufactures and users of woold furnaces, as well as informations of experts from Austria and Switzerland, the used wood fuels and combustion techniques and the potentially by commercial and industrial wood burning emitted air pollutants are described; including the mechanism of pollutant formation, concentrations, and their environmental relevance. The actual situation in Baden-Wuerttemberg concerning the used wood fuels, the state of installed and operated furnaces and the amount of emitted pollutants is presented basing on informations of the 'Statistical Country Bureau' and a country-wide inquiry round the chimney-sweepers. In order to realize the described existing possibilities to reduce pollutant emissions the introduction of a general brand test and certification mode is proposed. (orig.). 53 figs., 118 refs [de

  19. Emergent quantum mechanics without wavefunctions (United States)

    Mesa Pascasio, J.; Fussy, S.; Schwabl, H.; Grössing, G.


    We present our model of an Emergent Quantum Mechanics which can be characterized by “realism without pre-determination”. This is illustrated by our analytic description and corresponding computer simulations of Bohmian-like “surreal” trajectories, which are obtained classically, i.e. without the use of any quantum mechanical tool such as wavefunctions. However, these trajectories do not necessarily represent ontological paths of particles but rather mappings of the probability density flux in a hydrodynamical sense. Modelling emergent quantum mechanics in a high-low intesity double slit scenario gives rise to the “quantum sweeper effect” with a characteristic intensity pattern. This phenomenon should be experimentally testable via weak measurement techniques.

  20. Emergent quantum mechanics without wavefunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascasio, J Mesa; Fussy, S; Schwabl, H; Grössing, G


    We present our model of an Emergent Quantum Mechanics which can be characterized by “realism without pre-determination”. This is illustrated by our analytic description and corresponding computer simulations of Bohmian-like “surreal” trajectories, which are obtained classically, i.e. without the use of any quantum mechanical tool such as wavefunctions. However, these trajectories do not necessarily represent ontological paths of particles but rather mappings of the probability density flux in a hydrodynamical sense. Modelling emergent quantum mechanics in a high-low intesity double slit scenario gives rise to the “quantum sweeper effect” with a characteristic intensity pattern. This phenomenon should be experimentally testable via weak measurement techniques. (paper)

  1. MOC Efficiency Improvements Using a Jacobi Inscatter Approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stimpson, Shane; Collins, Benjamin; Kochunas, Brendan


    In recent weeks, attention has been given to resolving the convergence issues encountered with TCP_0 by trying a Jacobi (J) inscatter approach when group sweeping, where the inscatter source is constructed using the previous iteration flux. This is in contrast to a Gauss-Seidel (GS) approach, which has been the default to-date, where the scattering source uses the most up-to-date flux values. The former is consistent with CASMO, which has no issues with TCP_0 convergence. Testing this out on a variety of problems has demonstrated that the Jacobi approach does indeed provide substantially more stability, though can take more outer iterations to converge. While this is not surprising, there are improvements that can be made to the MOC sweeper to capitalize on the Jacobi approximation and provide substantial speedup. For example, the loop over groups, which has traditionally been the outermost loop in MPACT, can be moved to the interior, avoiding duplicate modular ray trace and coarse ray trace setup (mapping coarse mesh surface indexes), which needs to be performed repeatedly when group is outermost.

  2. Characterization of heavy metal desorption from road-deposited sediment under acid rain scenarios. (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Liu, An; Wu, Guangxue; Li, Dunzhu; Guan, Yuntao


    Road-deposited sediments (RDS) on urban impervious surfaces are important carriers of heavy metals. Dissolved heavy metals that come from RDS influenced by acid rain, are more harmful to urban receiving water than particulate parts. RDS and its associated heavy metals were investigated at typical functional areas, including industrial, commercial and residential sites, in Guangdong, Southern China, which was an acid rain sensitive area. Total and dissolved heavy metals in five particle size fractions were analyzed using a shaking method under acid rain scenarios. Investigated heavy metals showed no difference in the proportion of dissolved fraction in the solution under different acid rain pHs above 3.0, regardless of land use. Dissolved loading of heavy metals related to organic carbon content were different in runoff from main traffic roads of three land use types. Coarse particles (>150μm) that could be efficiently removed by conventional street sweepers, accounted for 55.1%-47.1% of the total dissolved metal loading in runoff with pH3.0-5.6. The obtained findings provided a significant scientific basis to understand heavy metal release and influence of RDS grain-size distribution and land use in dissolved heavy metal pollution affected by acid rain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. SPARCLE: Electrostatic Dust Control Tool Proof of Concept (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Curtis, S. A.; Minetto, F.; Marshall, J.; Nuth, J.; Calle, C.


    Successful exploration of most planetary surfaces, with their impact-generated dusty regoliths, will depend on the capabilities to keep surfaces free of the performance-compromising dust. Once in contact with surfaces, whether set in motion by natural or mechanical means, regolith fines, or dust, behave like abrasive Velcro, coating surfaces, clogging mechanisms, making movement progressively more difticult, and being almost impossible to remove by mechanical mcans (brushing). The successful dust removal strategy will deal with dust dynamics resulting from interaction between Van der Waals and Coulombic forces. Here, proof of concept for an electrostatically-based concept for dust control tool is described and demonstrated. A low power focused electron beam is used in the presence of a small electrical field to increase the negative charge to mass ratio of a dusty surface until dust repulsion and attraction to a lower potential surface, acting as a dust collector, occurred. Our goal is a compact device of less than 5 kg mass and using less than 5 watts of power to be operational in less than 5 years with heritage from ionic sweepers for active spacecraft potential control (e.g ., on POLAR). Rovers could be fitted with devices that could hamess the removal of dust for sampling as part of the extended exploration process on Mercury, Mars, asteroids or outer solar system satellites, as well as the Moon.

  4. End-joining inhibition at telomeres requires the translocase and polySUMO-dependent ubiquitin ligase Uls1. (United States)

    Lescasse, Rachel; Pobiega, Sabrina; Callebaut, Isabelle; Marcand, Stéphane


    In eukaryotes, permanent inhibition of the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair pathway at telomeres ensures that chromosome ends do not fuse. In budding yeast, binding of Rap1 to telomere repeats establishes NHEJ inhibition. Here, we show that the Uls1 protein is required for the maintenance of NHEJ inhibition at telomeres. Uls1 protein is a non-essential Swi2/Snf2-related translocase and a Small Ubiquitin-related Modifier (SUMO)-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligase (STUbL) with unknown targets. Loss of Uls1 results in telomere-telomere fusions. Uls1 requirement is alleviated by the absence of poly-SUMO chains and by rap1 alleles lacking SUMOylation sites. Furthermore, Uls1 limits the accumulation of Rap1 poly-SUMO conjugates. We propose that one of Uls1 functions is to clear non-functional poly-SUMOylated Rap1 molecules from telomeres to ensure the continuous efficiency of NHEJ inhibition. Since Uls1 is the only known STUbL with a translocase activity, it can be the general molecular sweeper for the clearance of poly-SUMOylated proteins on DNA in eukaryotes.

  5. Energy from biomass. Teaching material; Energie aus Biomasse. Ein Lehrmaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The textbook discusses the available options for power and heat generation from biomass as well as the limits of biomass-based power supply. The main obstacle apart from the high cost is a lack of knowledge, which the book intends to remedy. It addresses students of agriculture, forestry, environmental engineering, heating systems engineering and apprentice chimney sweepers, but it will also be useful to all other interested readers. [German] Biomasse kann aufgrund seiner vielfaeltigen Erscheinungs- und Umwandlungsformen sowohl als Brennstoff zur Waerme- und Stromgewinnung oder als Treibstoff eingesetzt werden. Die energetische Nutzung von Biomasse birgt zudem nicht zu verachtende Vorteile. Zum einen wegen des Beitrags zum Klimaschutz aufgrund der CO{sub 2}-Neutralitaet oder einfach, weil Biomasse immer wieder nachwaechst und von fossilen Ressourcen unabhaengig macht. All den bisher erschlossenen Moeglichkeiten der energetischen Nutzung von Biomasse moechte dieses Lehrbuch Rechnung tragen. Es zeigt aber auch die Grenzen auf, die mit der Energieversorgung durch Bioenergie einhergehen. Hohe Kosten und ein erhebliches Informationsdefizit behinderten bisher eine verstaerkte Nutzung dieses Energietraeges. Letzterem soll dieses Lehrbuch entgegenwirken. Das vorliegende Lehrbuch wurde fuer die Aus- und Weiterbildung erstellt. Es richtet sich vor allem an angehende Land- und Forstwirte, Umwelttechniker, Heizungsbauer und Schornsteinfeger, ist aber auch fuer all diejenigen interessant, die das Thema ''Energie aus Biomasse'' verstehen und ueberblicken moechten. (orig.)

  6. Occupational exposure to the municipal solid waste workers in Chandigarh, India. (United States)

    Ravindra, Khaiwal; Kaur, Kamalpreet; Mor, Suman


    Manual handling of municipal solid waste is of serious concern owing to emerging occupational risks. Considering this, health risks of municipal solid waste workers involved in street sweeping, waste collection, waste processing and rag picking were assessed in Chandigarh, India, using an interview schedule as a study tool. Result shows that the waste worker profession is mainly dominated by males, except in rag pickers, and with a lower literacy rate. Age distribution shows that 16% of waste collectors and 11% of rag pickers were below 18 years of age. Daily income of the waste workers ranges from ₹100 to ₹200. It was observed that 22.2% of waste collectors, 43.2% of street sweepers and 25.5% of rag pickers do not use any type of protective gears owing to their casual attitude, which results in various types of injuries. The major occupational health issues reported by various categories of waste workers were respiratory disorders, injuries and allergies having prevalence of 12.3%-17.6%, 4.9%-44.4% and 35.3%-48.9%, respectively. Waste workers are vulnerable to occupational health hazards and hence there is a need to safeguard them through formulation of new laws and policies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. New AMS method to measure the atom ratio {sup 146}Sm/{sup 147}Sm for a half-life determination of {sup 146}Sm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, N. [Tandem Accelerator Complex, Research Facility Center for Science and Technology, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Paul, M., E-mail: [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Alcorta, M. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Bowers, M.; Collon, P. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556-5670 (United States); Deibel, C.M. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 46624 (United States); DiGiovine, B. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Goriely, S. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, CP-226, Brussels 1050 (Belgium); Greene, J.P.; Henderson, D.J.; Jiang, C.L. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Kashiv, Y. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556-5670 (United States); Kay, B.P.; Lee, H.Y.; Marley, S.T. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Nakanishi, T. [Faculty of Chemistry, Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University (Japan); Pardo, R.C.; Patel, N.; Rehm, K.E. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Robertson, D. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556-5670 (United States); and others


    The extinct p-process nuclide {sup 146}Sm (t{sub 1/2} = 103 {+-} 5 Myr) is known to have been present in the Early-Solar System and has been proposed as an astrophysical chronometer. {sup 146}Sm is also intensely used to date meteorite and planetary differentiation processes, enhancing the importance of an accurate knowledge of the {sup 146}Sm half-life. We are engaged in a new determination of the {sup 146}Sm half-life in which the {sup 146}Sm/{sup 147}Sm atom ratio is determined by accelerator mass spectrometry at the ATLAS facility of Argonne National Laboratory. In order to reduce systematic errors in the AMS determination of the {sup 146}Sm/{sup 147}Sm ratios (in the range of 10{sup -7}-10{sup -9}), {sup 146}Sm and {sup 147}Sm ions were alternately counted in the same detector in the focal plane of a gas-filled magnet, respectively in continuous-wave and attenuated mode. Quantitative attenuation is obtained with the 12 MHz pulsed and ns-bunched ATLAS beam by chopping beam pulses with an RF sweeper in a ratio (digitally determined) down to 1:10{sup 6}. The experiments and preliminary results are discussed.

  8. Normal blood magnesium levels in volunteers of Rawalpindi by atomic absorption absorption technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.; Rehman, S.; Yawar, W.; Rusheed, A.; Ahraf, M.; Syed, N.H.


    Magnesium levels in whole blood samples of 67 healthy volunteers (mean 6.46 -+ 0.221; range 1.345 - 13.163 mg/dL) of Rawalpindi district have been determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. Magnesium levels of 41 male and 26 female subjects including doctors, nurses, patients attendees, medical students, sweepers and peons of Rawalpindi Medical College and Rawalpindi General Hospital revealed the normal mean blood levels of 6.088 - + 0.258 mg/dL (range 1.345 - 10.679 mg/dL)and 7.060 -+ 0.375 mg/dL (range 4.495 - 13.163 mg/dL),P<0.05 respectively. Only 10 male volunteers were smokers exhibiting 6.768 -+ 0.558 mg/dL (range 4.466 -10.679 mg/dL). Significant relationship was found in magnesium levels between males and females of poor socio-economic group (P<0.05). No relationship occurred between male smokers and non-smokers and magnesium levels in the age groups of males or females or both, when data was compared by 't' test. (author)

  9. Lionfishes Pterois miles and Pterois volitans in the North-eastern Mediterranean Sea: Distribution, Habitation, Predation and Predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Turan


    Full Text Available The lionfish Pterois miles was first recorded in the Iskenderun Bay on 2014 in Turkish Marine waters, and then its distribution was extended to Mersin and Antalya Bays in 2014 in the Mediterranean part of Turkey. The first observation of P. miles in the Aegean Sea was from Fethiye region in July 2015. The extension of P. miles in Turkish marine waters seems to be fast even though it’s slow moving feature. Second species of the lionfish, red lionfish Pterois volitans, was also recorded from Turkish Marine waters on May 2016 by a commercial purse seine at 30 m depth at İskenderun Bay and underwater observation was also recorded on October 2016 at Antakya Bay. Therefore, the number of Pterois species in the Mediterranean Sea has reached to two, P. miles and P. volitans. Based on underwater observations, P. miles and P. volitans are usually observed in rocky and cave habitats and prefer 10-40 meters for feeding that may cause the reduction of populations of vanikoro sweeper (Pemperis spp., cardinal fish (Apagon spp. and red coat (Holocentrus rubrum species. P. miles and P. volitans also show cohabitation and gathering usually with 2-5 individuals. Grouper species such as dusky gruper Ephinephelus marginatus and goldblotch grouper Ephinephelus costae are the main predators of the lionfishes.

  10. Environmental carcinogens and prophylaxis of malignant tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabad, L M


    A short history of a relatively new branch of cancer research, hygienic oncology, is reviewed. Occupational skin tumors (papillomas and even squamous-cell carcinoma) are described not only among chimney-sweepers, but also among the workers of petroleum refineries. Of 512 workers who had prolonged exposure to various petroleum products, 53.2% developed skin carcinoma. Occupational malignant tumors of the respiratory tract are observed among the workers of nickel industries. Workers who experienced prolonged exposure to asbestos had an increased incidence of lung and stomach cancer. To prevent occuptional cancer of the urinary bladder, such carcinogens as 2-napthylamine, 3,3-dichlorobenzidine, 3,3-dioxybenzidine, and para-amino-azobenzene were banned. Environmental pollution with the products of incomplete fuel combustion, especially with polycyclic aromatic carbohydrates constitutes a hazard to the urban population. The level of benzopyrene (BP) in soil samples taken in different localities averaged 5 microg/kg. Legislatively approved permissible concentrations of BP in the air are 0.1 microg/100 cubic meters, and in the water 0.005 microg/liter. 23 references.

  11. Health care waste management (HCWM) in Pakistan: current situation and training options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Khan, E.A.; Ahmed, J.; Khan, Z.; Magan, M.; Nousheen; Mughal, M.I.


    Hospitals in Pakistan produce about 250,000 tons of waste per year. Hospital waste has been reported to be poorly handled and managed by the hospital staff and administration respectively. This leads to environmental and health consequences within hospitals as well as to outside population. Our study aimed to describe the qualitative results of observations of ten large private and public hospitals in the cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad Pakistan. Methods: The qualitative data was obtained through direct and indirect observations on hospital staff including doctors, nurses, sweepers and persons in administration and the way they handled the waste. Also direct observations of the hospitals premises inside and outside were made and noted. We also describe the process of involving the hospital staff for training. Results: Our results showed that almost all of the hospitals did not have practice of HCWM on their priority. Segregation, handling, storage, transportation and disposal of waste were below WHO and Pakistan bio-safety rules 2005 standards. The ten hospitals did not have HCWM rules and regulations in place hence the staff do not follow the best practices in this regard which causes numerous health and environmental consequences not only within the catchment area but also to patients and staff. Conclusions: Our study highlights the lack of HCWM practices within the ten public and private hospitals in two major cities in Pakistan. There is need of training of hospital staff in Pakistan. We also found that such training s are highly feasible if accompanied with incentives to participants. (author)

  12. Potential effects of structural controls and street sweeping on stormwater loads to the lower Charles River, Massachusetts (United States)

    Zarriello, Phillip J.; Breault, Robert F.; Weiskel, Peter K.


    The water quality of the lower Charles River is periodically impaired by combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and non-CSO stormwater runoff. This study examined the potential non-CSO load reductions of suspended solids, fecal coliform bacteria, total phosphorus, and total lead that could reasonably be achieved by implementation of stormwater best management practices, including both structural controls and systematic street sweeping. Structural controls were grouped by major physical or chemical process; these included infiltration-filtration (physical separation), biofiltration-bioretention (biological mechanisms), or detention-retention (physical settling). For each of these categories, upper and lower quartiles, median, and average removal efficiencies were compiled from three national databases of structural control performance. Removal efficiencies obtained indicated a wide range of performance. Removal was generally greatest for infiltration-filtration controls and suspended solids, and least for biofiltration-bioretention controls and fecal coliform bacteria. Street sweeping has received renewed interest as a water-quality control practice because of reported improvements in sweeper technology and the recognition that opportunities for implementing structural controls are limited in highly urbanized areas. The Stormwater Management Model that was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the lower Charles River Watershed was modified to simulate the effects of street sweeping in a single-family land-use basin. Constituent buildup and washoff variable values were calibrated to observed annual and storm-event loads. Once calibrated, the street sweeping model was applied to various permutations of four sweeper efficiencies and six sweeping frequencies that ranged from every day to once every 30 days. Reduction of constituent loads to the lower Charles River by the combined hypothetical practices of structural controls and street sweeping was estimated for a range

  13. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In the 14 MeV Neutron Laboratory, we have continued the development of a facility that is now the only one of its kind in operation in the United States. We have refined the klystron bunching system described in last year's report to the point that 1.2 nanosecond pulses have been directly measured. We have tested the pulse shape discrimination capability of our primary NE 213 neutron detector. We have converted the RF sweeper section of the beamline to a frequency of 1 MHz to replace the function of the high voltage pulser described in last year's report which proved to be difficult to maintain and unreliable in its operation. We have also overcome several other significant experimental difficulties, including a major problem with a vacuum leak in the main accelerator column. We have completed additional testing to prove the remainder of the generation and measurement systems, but overcoming some of these experimental difficulties has delayed the start of actual data taking. We are now in a position to begin our first series of ring geometry elastic scattering measurements, and these will be underway before the end of the current contract year. As part of our longer term planning, we are continuing the conceptual analysis of several schemes to improve the intensity of our current pulsed beam. These include the provision of a duoplasmatron ion source and/or the provision of preacceleration bunching. Additional details are given later in this report. A series of measurements were carried out at the Tandem Dynamatron Facility involving the irradiation of a series of yttrium foils and the determination of activation cross sections using absolute counting techniques. The experimental work has been completed, and final analysis of the cross section data will be completed within several months

  14. Levantamento soroepidemiológico de leptospirose em trabalhadores do serviço de saneamento ambiental em localidade urbana da região sul do Brasil Serological survey of leptospirosis among environmental sanitation workers in an urban locality in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Pereira de Almeida


    Full Text Available A pesquisa de aglutininas anti-Leptospira, pela técnica de soroaglutinação microscópica, em soros de trabalhadores dos serviços de águas, bueiros e galerias, esgotos, coleta de lixo e limpeza pública, do Município de Pelotas, RS, Brasil, revelou 10,4% de reagentes a um ou mais sorovares; não houve diferenças significantes entre as proporções de reagentes de cada um dos setores de trabalho. Foram identificados 12 sorovares diferentes; castelonis e australis, apesar de mais freqüentes, não apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes com os demais. Constatou-se que 86,9% das amostras apresentavam títulos aglutinantes compreendidos entre 100 e 400; as proporções de soros com títulos iguais a 100 e 400 foram superiores às dos títulos 800, 1.600 e 3.200 (p Sera from 386 environmental sanitation workers, concerned with water supply, drains and drainage galleries, sewers, garbage collection and road sweepers, were examined for leptospiral agglutinins by the microscopic agglutination test. Altogether 40 of the 386 workers (10.4% were positive to one or more serovars; however, the difference in seropositivity between the professional categories was not significant (p > 0.05. Twelve serovars were recorded among the seropositive workers with predominance of L. castelonis and L. australis; but the difference between the serovars was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. Of the seropositive workers, 86.9% had agglutination titres > 100 and < 400; the rates for titres 100 and 400 were higher than 800, 1,600 and 3,200 (p < 0.05.

  15. Dietary flexibility in three representative waterbirds across salinity and depth gradients in salt ponds of San Francisco Bay (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Miles, A.K.; Tsao-Melcer, D. C.; Schoellhamer, D.H.; Fregien, S.; Athearn, N.D.


    Salt evaporation ponds have existed in San Francisco Bay, California, for more than a century. In the past decade, most of the salt ponds have been retired from production and purchased for resource conservation with a focus on tidal marsh restoration. However, large numbers of waterbirds are found in salt ponds, especially during migration and wintering periods. The value of these hypersaline wetlands for waterbirds is not well understood, including how different avian foraging guilds use invertebrate prey resources at different salinities and depths. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary flexibility of waterbirds by examining the population number and diet of three feeding guilds across a salinity and depth gradient in former salt ponds of the Napa-Sonoma Marshes. Although total invertebrate biomass and species richness were greater in low than high salinity salt ponds, waterbirds fed in ponds that ranged from low (20 g l-1) to very high salinities (250 g l -1). American avocets (surface sweeper) foraged in shallow areas at pond edges and consumed a wide range of prey types (8) including seeds at low salinity, but preferred brine flies at mid salinity (40-80 g l-1). Western sandpipers (prober) focused on exposed edges and shoal habitats and consumed only a few prey types (2-4) at both low and mid salinities. Suitable depths for foraging were greatest for ruddy ducks (diving benthivore) that consumed a wide variety of invertebrate taxa (5) at low salinity, but focused on fewer prey (3) at mid salinity. We found few brine shrimp, common in higher salinity waters, in the digestive tracts of any of these species. Dietary flexibility allows different guilds to use ponds across a range of salinities, but their foraging extent is limited by available water depths. ?? 2009 USGS, US Government.

  16. Summary session B: more observations at existing accelerators and concerns for future machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkay, K.


    Beginning with the International Workshop on Multibunch Instabilities in Tsukuba (KEK, 1997) (1), and continuing with special Electron Cloud workshops in Santa Fe (LANL/ANL, 2000) (2), Tsukuba (KEK, 2001) (3), Geneva (CERN, 2002) (4) and the present workshop, it is remarkable that new observations of electron cloud effects continue to be reported, spreading from proton rings to positron and electron rings to heavy-ion linacs and rings. This paper summarizes a rich collection of recent observations, as well as issues for future machines, presented in Session B. An attempt is also made to summarize conclusions and questions raised by the presenters. Efforts at several proton, positron, electron (colliders), and ion rings and linacs continue to characterize and finetune our understanding of electron cloud effects and the generation and suppression of electron clouds. An incomplete outline of the topics presented and related machines follows: (1) EC suppression - (a) Scrubbing (SPS, RHIC); (b) Solenoid (PEPII, KEKB, KEK-PS, RHIC, PSR); (c) TiN, NEG (PEPII, PSR, RHIC, SPS, others); and (d) EC Collectors (HCX, KEK-PS); (2) EC vs. pressure (RHIC, SPS, KEKB, PEPII); (3) Bunch length effect (SPS, RHIC); (4) Memory effect and EC lifetime (PSR, KEKB, KEKPS, SPS); and (5) New EC diagnostics - (a) RFA in quads (SPS, PSR (planned)); (b) EC sweeper (PSR, KEK-PS); (c) HCX GESD: electron and gas emission rates; (d) Microwave TE (more work needed). Significant progress has been made in identifying and quantifying those surface parameters most critical in the accurate prediction of electron cloud effects. A strong focus of experimental efforts is in benchmarking analytical and numerical modeling with measured data, and some consistency is emerging, although work remains to be done.

  17. A Method to Estimate Students’ Exposure to Road Traffic Noise Events

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    Simone Secchi


    Full Text Available The correlation between exposure to traffic noise and students’ performance and annoyance has been investigated in literature mainly considering the relationship between indoor equivalent A-weighted sound pressure level (LAeq and students’ cognitive impairment. Annoyance is frequently related to the effect of short-duration noise events characterized by high sound pressure levels, such as those due to aircraft fly-over and pass-by of buses, heavy trucks, motorcycles, or street sweepers. These noise events are often described, over specific measurement periods, in terms of maximum A-weighted sound pressure level, LAmax, or statistical levels, such as LA1 or LA10. This aspect is not considered in the noise maps drawn in accordance with the European Environmental Noise Directive, as they provide the LAeq only, determined over day, evening, and night periods. In this paper, students’ exposure to road traffic noise is analyzed by means of regression equations obtained by the authors between LAeq and A-weighted maximum and statistical levels due to road traffic noise. The traffic noise of 28 urban streets was monitored during the opening period of Italian schools. A method is described to estimate students’ exposure to noise from data made available on noise maps by the municipalities of metropolitan areas. The application of this method to the case study of Florence shows that almost 60% of students from municipal primary and lower secondary schools could be exposed to the maximum sound pressure level (SPL inside the classroom greater than 55 dB(A every hour, probably exceeding the typical background noise in classrooms by more than 10 dB.

  18. Emprego de quatro exames imunológicos na determinação da prevalência da doença de chagas nos garis do serviço de limpeza urbana do distrito federal

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    Douglas L. Tinoco


    Full Text Available A prevalência da infecção chagásica em 368 garis do Serviço de Limpeza Urbana (SLU do Distrito Federal foi inicialmente indicada pelos exames de hemaglutinação e imunofluorescência, quando encontrou-se 32,1% e 47,6% de resultados positivos, respectivamente, para cada exame. Em vista das discrepâncias obsevadas. utilizou-se o teste cutâneo com o antígeno T12E para esclarecimento do diagnóstico em 15,5% dos que tinham apenas um teste sorológico positivo. O teste cutâneo foi positivo em 38,6% dos garis. A análise dos resultados de 183 garis mostrou 47% dos casos com três exames concordantes positivos. Mais 19, 7% tiveram dois exames concordantes positivos. Porém, 33,3% dos garis tinham apenas um dos três exames positivo. Empregou-se também o "immunoblot" na tentativa de esclarecer o diagnóstico nos 61 casos com apenas um resultado positivo. Foram encontrados 37,5% (3/8 dos casos positivos pela hemaglutinação, 11,5% (3/26 pelo teste cutâneo, e apenas 3,7% (1/27 pela imunofluorescência. Após a adição desses casos positivos pelo "immunoblot", o total de chagásicos passou a ser de 129, ou seja, 35%/ dos garis da amostra estudada.Seropositivity for Trypanosoma cruzi infection was studied in 308 street-sweepers of the SLU. Federal District. Brazil, with the aid of haemaglutination. immunofluorescence and, also, a delayed-type skin test to the parasite T12E antigen. It showed 32,1%, 42.7% and 38.6% positive results, respectively for cach assay. Among these, however, only 47% were positive with each of three exams performed. In addition, 19.7% were positive with two out of three exams performed. The remaining 33-3% sera yielded one positive result out of three exams employed and were submitted to the immunoblot assay. This analysis confirmed 3 cases (37.5% positive by hemmaglutination. 3 (11.5% positive by skin test, and 1 (3-7% positive by immunofluorescence. At the end of the analysis, it was shown that 129 (35% individuals

  19. Improvement of transport-corrected scattering stability and performance using a Jacobi inscatter algorithm for 2D-MOC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stimpson, Shane; Collins, Benjamin; Kochunas, Brendan


    The MPACT code, being developed collaboratively by the University of Michigan and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is the primary deterministic neutron transport solver being deployed within the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA) as part of the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). In many applications of the MPACT code, transport-corrected scattering has proven to be an obstacle in terms of stability, and considerable effort has been made to try to resolve the convergence issues that arise from it. Most of the convergence problems seem related to the transport-corrected cross sections, particularly when used in the 2D method of characteristics (MOC) solver, which is the focus of this work. Here in this paper, the stability and performance of the 2-D MOC solver in MPACT is evaluated for two iteration schemes: Gauss-Seidel and Jacobi. With the Gauss-Seidel approach, as the MOC solver loops over groups, it uses the flux solution from the previous group to construct the inscatter source for the next group. Alternatively, the Jacobi approach uses only the fluxes from the previous outer iteration to determine the inscatter source for each group. Consequently for the Jacobi iteration, the loop over groups can be moved from the outermost loop-as is the case with the Gauss-Seidel sweeper-to the innermost loop, allowing for a substantial increase in efficiency by minimizing the overhead of retrieving segment, region, and surface index information from the ray tracing data. Several test problems are assessed: (1) Babcock & Wilcox 1810 Core I, (2) Dimple S01A-Sq, (3) VERA Progression Problem 5a, and (4) VERA Problem 2a. The Jacobi iteration exhibits better stability than Gauss-Seidel, allowing for converged solutions to be obtained over a much wider range of iteration control parameters. Additionally, the MOC solve time with the Jacobi approach is roughly 2.0-2.5× faster per sweep. While the performance and stability of the Jacobi

  20. A historical context of municipal solid waste management in the United States. (United States)

    Louis, Garrick E


    Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in the United States is a system comprised of regulatory, administrative, market, technology, and social subcomponents, and can only be understood in the context of its historical evolution. American cities lacked organized public works for street cleaning, refuse collection, water treatment, and human waste removal until the early 1800s. Recurrent epidemics forced efforts to improve public health and the environment. The belief in anticontagionism led to the construction of water treatment and sewerage works during the nineteenth century, by sanitary engineers working for regional public health authorities. This infrastructure was capital intensive and required regional institutions to finance and administer it. By the time attention turned to solid waste management in the 1880s, funding was not available for a regional infrastructure. Thus, solid waste management was established as a local responsibility, centred on nearby municipal dumps. George Waring of New York City organized solid waste management around engineering unit operations; including street sweeping, refuse collection, transportation, resource recovery and disposal. This approach was adopted nationwide, and was managed by City Departments of Sanitation. Innovations such as the introduction of trucks, motorized street sweepers, incineration, and sanitary landfill were developed in the following decades. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), is the defining legislation for MSWM practice in America today. It forced the closure of open dumps nationwide, and required regional planning for MSWM. The closure of municipal dumps caused a 'garbage crisis' in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Private companies assumed an expanded role in MSWM through regional facilities that required the transportation of MSW across state lines. These transboundary movements of MSW created the issue of flow control, in which the US Supreme Court affirmed the protection

  1. Varredores de rua: acidentes de trabalho ocorridos na cidade de Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Barredores de la calle: accidentes de trabajo ocurridos en la ciudad de Ribeirão Preto, Provincia de São Paulo, Brasil Street orderlies: occupational accidents occurred in the city of Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Edilene Aparecida Araújo da Silveira


    datos específicos de los accidentes de trabajo. Para el logro de los objetivos, fueron analizadas las informaciones contenidas en las notificaciones de accidentes de trabajo archivadas en el Intituto Nacional de Seguridad Social, en la Oficina Regional de Salud (ERSA local y en la empresa de limpieza urbana empleadora de barredores. Los resultados fueron dados a conocer al empleador y al ERSA y los autores se colocaron a disposición para discutir en conjunto soluciones para los problemas ocupacionais encontrados.The work of street sweepers is to sweep waste materials thrown at public streets. It is considered insalubrious due to the close contact that exposes workers to agents present in the urban waste. As street orderlies perform their duties in an open environment, they are submitted to different types of problems. The purpose of this study is to investigate the registered occupational accidents occurred among street orderlies in the city of Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, during 1993 and 1994. Authors aimed at verifying: the number of works that suffered accidents and the notified occupational accidents; data related to the identification of those accidents at the employer company and specific data regarding the occupational accidents.Therefore, authors analyzed the occupational health reports recorded at the National Institute of Social Security at the Regional Bureau of Health (RBH and at the employer company. Results were shown to the employers and to the RBH. Authors organized meetings to discuss with them the occupational problems they found.

  2. Óbito durante tratamento da leishmaniose tegumentar americana com stibogluconato de sódio bp 88® (shandong xinhua Fatal case during treatment of american tegumentary leishmaniasis with sodium stibogluconate bp 88® (shandong xinhua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson M.L. Costa


    Full Text Available Os autores relatam a ocorrência de óbito em paciente portador da forma cutânea da LTA no município de Caxias-MA. Trata-se de paciente do sexo masculino, 22 anos, gari, portador de lesão ulcerada no membro inferior (perna esquerda, diagnosticado, após encontro do parasita (Leishmania na lesão, tratado com stibogluconato de sódio BP88® (Shandong Xinhua na dose de 10mg/Sb+5/kg/dia/20 dias. Após a 3ª dose apresentou dores articulares, naúseas, mal estar geral. Com a continuação da medicação houve agravamento do quadro com dor epigástrica e no hipocôndrio direito irradiando-se para o hemitórax homolateral. Após a 7ª dose apresentou dispnéia associado à dor torácica de leve intensidade. Na 9ª dose houve piora do quadro, mesmo assim continuou a usar o medicamento até a 11ª dose quando seu estado agravou-se. Foi internado, necessitando de tratamento intensivo. Nos exames realizados apresentou: 4,4 milhões de eritócitos, 10,6% de hemoglobina, 35% de hematócrito, 26.400 de leucócitos, basófilos e mielócitos (0, 59% de segmentados, 30% de linfócitos, 2% de monócitos, plaquetas (normais, glicose 42mg%, uréia 73mg%, creatinina (2,4mg%, eletrocardiograma (bloqueio de ramo direito. Veio a falecer tendo como causa do óbito, insuficiência cárdio respiratória. O relato atual mostra a necessidade de esclarecimento das equipes de saúde quanto ao uso dos Sb+5 e também lembrar o Ministério da Saúde quando da aquisição de novos produtos, preocupar-se com a qualidade e procedência do mesmo.The authors report the occurrence of a fatal case in patient with cutaneous leishmaniasis in the municipality of Caxias, MA. Male patient, 22 years old, road sweeper, presented with an ulcer in left leg, diagnosed as cutaneous leishmaniasis and treated with sodium stibogluconate BP88®(Sb+5 (Shandong Xinhua at a dose of 10mg/Sb+5/kg/day/20 days. After dose three he presented arthralgia, myalgia, nausea and weakness. During the therapy

  3. Edirne’de süpürge üretimi çalışanlarında SO2 etkisinin değerlendirilmesi - 2012/Evaluation of SO2 effetcs among workers of the broom-making business in Edirne-2012

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    Ufuk berberoğlu


    bölümde çalışma sırasında, kişisel koruyucu maske kullanılmalıdır. Anahtar kelimeler: İç ortam havası, SO2, süpürge işçileri, solunum fonksiyon testi  Abstract Objective: Sulphur dioxide (SO2,which is encountered in the ambient air of the working rooms used for making brooms, is a gas that primarily affects the respiratory system of the staff. Method: This study was conducted to investigate the exposure to SO2 which is used in the production process in broom-making in Edirne between January-February of 2012. A questionnaire was applied to 25 broom-makers and to 25 other individuals. The study included demographic data, a history and a physical examination of the respiratory system, and the results of spirometry. The amount of SO2 in the rooms used for the industrial processes were measure by a Gas Alert Micro 5 brand device. Results: The average age of the workers affected by SO2 and of the non exposured group were (47.6±1.2, 45.2±3.4 respectively and the rates of smoking were (64%, 64% similar (p>0.05. Differences in sputum levels (32% and 16%, p<0.05 and cough rates (24% and 12%, p<0.05 for the workers and controls respectively were statistically significant; whereas dyspnea (20% and 20%, p>0.05 and pathological respiratory sounds ratios (12% and 12%, p>0.05 were similar. Spirometry findings including FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC and MEF (FEF25-75% were significantly lower for the workers than the control group (p<0.05. Conclusion: SO2 room gas amounts were higher than both WHO and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH standards. SO2 gas amounts higher than the standards are harmful especially for the respiratory system of the workers. Workers in this industry should be warned of the potential risks and should be educated. Workers of the complex using SO2 should use masks during working hours and rooms should have efficient air-conditioning. Key Words: Indoor air, SO2, sweeper workers, pulmonary function test