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Sample records for swedish pharmacies views

  1. Health promotion at Swedish pharmaciesviews of the staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björkman I

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of pharmacy has changed dramatically during the last decades, which has led to new demands on pharmacy personnel. Objective: This study aims at exploring the attitudes of Swedish pharmacy personnel on their role as public health promoters and to look at the opportunities and obstacles they identify in the efforts to widen the pharmacy remit to include a wider health approach. Method Eight focus group discussions were conducted with a strategic sample of pharmacy personnel working in two counties in Sweden. The discussions were transcribed verbatim and analysed by qualitative inductive analysis. Results Five themes were identified, “Pharmacy activities impact on public health”, “The employer, Apoteket AB”, “The new role welcomed”, “Obstacles in the new role”, and “Need of change and support”. Conclusion The concept of pharmacy personnel as public health promoters was not initially in the mindset of the participants. In the process of discussion, the impact of traditional pharmacy practice as well as new pharmacy based initiatives on public health gradually became more obvious to them. The findings show a pharmacy staff involved in a process of change. The participants have not yet landed in their new role as public health promoters and the study shows that practical as well as conceptual support is needed in order for pharmacy personnel to play a more important role in public health.

  2. Reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisell, Kristin; Winblad, Ulrika; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2015-01-01

    for the reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector in 2009. The method used was a qualitative content analysis of written political documents regarding the reregulation. The primary rationales for the reregulation were better availability, efficiency, price pressure, and safe usage of medicines. During...... the preparatory work, the rationales of diversity on the market and entrepreneurship were added, while the original rationales of efficiency, price pressure, and better usage of medicines were abandoned. The reform can be seen as a typical New Public Management reform influenced by the notion that private actors...

  3. Reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector-A qualitative content analysis of the political rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisell, Kristin; Winblad, Ulrika; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2015-05-01

    In 2009, a reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector took place, and a fundamental change in ownership and structure followed. The reregulation provides an opportunity to reveal the politicians' views on pharmacies. The aim of this study was to explore and analyze the political arguments for the reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector in 2009. The method used was a qualitative content analysis of written political documents regarding the reregulation. The primary rationales for the reregulation were better availability, efficiency, price pressure, and safe usage of medicines. During the preparatory work, the rationales of diversity on the market and entrepreneurship were added, while the original rationales of efficiency, price pressure, and better usage of medicines were abandoned. The reform can be seen as a typical New Public Management reform influenced by the notion that private actors are better equipped to perform public activities. The results point to that the reform was done almost solely in order to introduce private ownership in the pharmacy sector, and was not initiated in order to solve any general problems, or to enhance patient outcomes of medicine use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Trends in pharmacy staff’s perception of patient safety in Swedish community pharmacies after re-regulation of conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Nordén-Hägg, Annika

    2014-01-01

    pharmacies prior to and after the 2009 changes in regulation of the Swedish community pharmacy market. Methods: Questionnaires targeted at pharmacy staff before and after the changes in regulation (in 2008, 2011/12, and 2012/13 respectively) used four identical items, making comparisons of some aspects......Background: All changes in the regulation of pharmacies have an impact on the work carried out in pharmacies and also on patient safety, regardless of whether this is the intention or not. Objective: To compare staff apprehension regarding some aspects of patient safety and quality in community......, in order to counteract conceivable decline in factors including patient safety and working conditions....

  5. Marketing of Nicotine Replacement Therapy Products in a Deregulated Swedish Pharmacy Market

    OpenAIRE

    Tozlikian, Shant; Falk, Erik

    2009-01-01

                    The thesis will provide a description of the previous Swedish NRT marketing mix, a description of the present plans of Swedish NRT marketers for the marketing mix of their products, and the present marketing mix of the previously deregulated pharmacy markets in Finland and Norway. The purpose is to develop conclusions on how marketers of NRT products could change their marketing mix in response to the deregulation of the Swedish pharmacy market.    This thesis relies on a des...

  6. Trends in pharmacy staff's perception of patient safety in Swedish community pharmacies after re-regulation of conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Nordén-Hägg, Annika

    2014-10-01

    All changes in the regulation of pharmacies have an impact on the work carried out in pharmacies and also on patient safety, regardless of whether this is the intention or not. To compare staff apprehension regarding some aspects of patient safety and quality in community pharmacies prior to and after the 2009 changes in regulation of the Swedish community pharmacy market. Questionnaires targeted at pharmacy staff before and after the changes in regulation (in 2008, 2011/12, and 2012/13 respectively) used four identical items, making comparisons of some aspects possible. All four items demonstrated a significant decrease in the first survey after the changes as compared to before. In the second survey significant differences were found on the two items representing safety climate whereas the items representing team climate and management showed no significant differences. The comparison carried out in this study indicates a negative effect in Swedish community pharmacies on safety and quality issues, as experienced by pharmacy staff. It is recommended that the possible effects of healthcare reforms are assessed before implementation, in order to counteract conceivable decline in factors including patient safety and working conditions.

  7. Consumer preferences for over-the-counter drug retailers in the reregulated Swedish pharmacy market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkonsen, Helle; Sundell, Karolina Andersson; Martinsson, Johan; Hedenrud, Tove

    2016-03-01

    Following a large regulatory reform in 2009, which ended the state's pharmacy monopoly, non-pharmacy retailers in Sweden today sell certain over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate consumer preferences regarding OTC drug retailers and the reasons for choosing a pharmacy versus non-pharmacy retailer. We conducted a web survey aimed at Swedish adults. Out of a stratified sample of 4058 persons, 2594 agreed to take part (48% women; mean age: 50.3 years). Questions related to OTC drug use, retailer choice and factors affecting the participants' preferences for OTC drug retailers. Logistic regression was conducted to analyse OTC drug use and reasons for retailer choice in relation to sex, age and education. Nine in ten participants reported OTC drug use in the 6 months prior to the study. For their last OTC purchase, 76% had gone to a pharmacy, 20% to a grocery shop and 4% to a convenience store, gas station or online. Geographic proximity, opening hours and product range were reported as the most important factors in retailer choice. Counselling by trained staff was important to 57% of participants. The end of the state's pharmacy monopoly and the increase in number of pharmacies seem to have impacted more on Swedish consumers' purchase behaviours compared with the deregulation of OTC drug sales. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pharmacist-patient communication in Swedish community pharmacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Erika; Ingman, Pontus; Ahmed, Ban

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is important that pharmacists counsel patients about their prescribed medicines, as it leads to improved therapeutic outcome, increases compliance, and decreases confusion and insecurity. Studies have shown that the number of patients getting any pharmaceutical counseling varies...... greatly. Swedish pharmacists claim that the focus of the dialog with the patient has switched from pharmaceutical counseling to economy and regulations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the content and time disposition of the patient-pharmacist communication during dispensing...

  9. Using Bourdieu’s Theoretical Framework to Examine How the Pharmacy Educator Views Pharmacy Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To explore how different pharmacy educators view pharmacy knowledge within the United Kingdom MPharm program and to relate these findings to Pierre Bourdieu’s theoretical framework. Methods. Twelve qualitative interviews were conducted with 4 faculty members from 3 different types of schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom: a newer school, an established teaching-based school, and an established research-intensive school. Selection was based on a representation of both science-based and practice-based disciplines, gender balance, and teaching experience. Results. The interview transcripts indicated how these members of the academic community describe knowledge. There was a polarization between science-based and practice-based educators in terms of Bourdieu’s description of field, species of capital, and habitus. Conclusion. A Bourdieusian perspective on the differences among faculty member responses supports our understanding of curriculum integration and offers some practical implications for the future development of pharmacy programs. PMID:26889065

  10. Using Bourdieu's Theoretical Framework to Examine How the Pharmacy Educator Views Pharmacy Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterfield, Jon

    2015-12-25

    To explore how different pharmacy educators view pharmacy knowledge within the United Kingdom MPharm program and to relate these findings to Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework. Twelve qualitative interviews were conducted with 4 faculty members from 3 different types of schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom: a newer school, an established teaching-based school, and an established research-intensive school. Selection was based on a representation of both science-based and practice-based disciplines, gender balance, and teaching experience. The interview transcripts indicated how these members of the academic community describe knowledge. There was a polarization between science-based and practice-based educators in terms of Bourdieu's description of field, species of capital, and habitus. A Bourdieusian perspective on the differences among faculty member responses supports our understanding of curriculum integration and offers some practical implications for the future development of pharmacy programs.

  11. Swedish students' and preceptors' perceptions of what students learn in a six-month advanced pharmacy practice experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallman, Andy; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark; Gustavsson, Maria; Lindblad, Asa Kettis; Johansson, Markus; Ring, Lena

    2011-12-15

    To identify what pharmacy students learn during the 6-month advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in Sweden. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 pharmacy APPE students and 17 pharmacist preceptors and analyzed in a qualitative directed content analysis using a defined workplace learning typology for categories. The Swedish APPE provides students with task performance skills for work at pharmacies and social and professional knowledge, such as teamwork, how to learn while in a work setting, self-evaluation, understanding of the pharmacist role, and decision making and problem solving skills. Many of these skills and knowledge are not accounted for in the curricula in Sweden. Using a workplace learning typology to identify learning outcomes, as in this study, could be useful for curricula development. Exploring the learning that takes place during the APPE in a pharmacy revealed a broad range of skills and knowledge that students acquire.

  12. Pharmacies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Pharmacies in the United States and Territories A pharmacy is a facility whose primary function is to store, prepare and legally dispense prescription drugs under...

  13. The UK Pharmacy Care Plan service: Description, recruitment and initial views on a new community pharmacy intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Twigg

    Full Text Available The UK government advocates person-centred healthcare which is ideal for supporting patients to make appropriate lifestyle choices and to address non-adherence. The Community Pharmacy Future group, a collaboration between community pharmacy companies and independents in the UK, introduced a person-centred service for patients with multiple long-term conditions in 50 pharmacies in Northern England.Describe the initial findings from the set up and delivery of a novel community pharmacy-based person-centred service.Patients over fifty years of age prescribed more than one medicine including at least one for cardiovascular disease or diabetes were enrolled. Medication review and person-centred consultation resulted in agreed health goals and steps towards achieving them. Data were collated and analysed to determine appropriateness of patient recruitment process and quality of outcome data collection. A focus group of seven pharmacists was used to ascertain initial views on the service.Within 3 months of service initiation, 683 patients had baseline clinical data recorded, of which 86.9% were overweight or obese, 53.7% had hypertension and 80.8% had high cardiovascular risk. 544 (77.2% patients set at least one goal during the first consultation with 120 (22.1% setting multiple goals. A majority of patients identified their goals as improvement in condition, activity or quality of life. Pharmacists could see the potential patient benefit and the extended role opportunities the service provided. Allowing patients to set their own goals occasionally identified gaps to be addressed in pharmacist knowledge.Pharmacists successfully recruited a large number of patients who were appropriate for such a service. Patients were willing to identify goals with the pharmacist, the majority of which, if met, may result in improvements in quality of life. While challenges in delivery were acknowledged, allowing patients to identify their own personalised goals was

  14. Multilingualism and multiculturalism in the Swedish-medium primary school classroom in Finland - some teacher views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikaela Björklund

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Finnish society, including the Swedish-medium school, has traditionally been considered linguistically and culturally homogeneous. During the last twenty years there has been a distinct development towards increasingly heterogeneous municipalities and schools, but with great local variations. The aim of his article is to present some teacher perspectives on this development towards linguistically and culturally more heterogeneous primary school classrooms, what kind of new challenges teachers experience and what tools they express the need for. The data consist of qualitative interviews and focus discussions with teachers and headmasters in Swedish-medium classrooms and CLIL classrooms, representing both urban and rural settings. The results show some variation concerning the types of multilingualism evident in different contexts and the views on multilingualism and multiculturalism. A number of challenges and needed tools are identified. These call for a professional, facilitating teacher role, as well as for complex societal networks.

  15. The UK Pharmacy Care Plan service: Description, recruitment and initial views on a new community pharmacy intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Twigg, Michael J.; Wright, David; Kirkdale, Charlotte L.; Desborough, James A.; Thornley, Tracey

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The UK government advocates person-centred healthcare which is ideal for supporting patients to make appropriate lifestyle choices and to address non-adherence. The Community Pharmacy Future group, a collaboration between community pharmacy companies and independents in the UK, introduced a person-centred service for patients with multiple long-term conditions in 50 pharmacies in Northern England. Objective Describe the initial findings from the set up and delivery of a novel com...

  16. Pharmacy customers' experiences with the national online service for viewing electronic prescriptions in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lämsä, Elina; Timonen, Johanna; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Ahonen, Riitta

    2017-01-01

    To investigate (1) Finnish pharmacy customers' familiarity with My Kanta, the national online service for viewing electronic prescriptions (ePrescriptions), (2) how commonly My Kanta is used, (3) who the typical users are, and (4) users' experiences of the usability of My Kanta. A survey was conducted among pharmacy customers (aged ≥18) purchasing medicines for themselves. Questionnaires (N=2915) were distributed from 18 community pharmacies across Finland in autumn 2015. The data obtained was stored in SPSS for Windows and subjected to descriptive analysis, chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis. In total, 1288 respondents were included (response rate 44%). Most (62%) of the customers were familiar with My Kanta. The majority of them (78%) were using it to view their ePrescriptions. My Kanta was perceived as clear, easy to use and to provide a good overall picture of the prescribed medications. Familiarity with My Kanta was associated with a higher education than basic school, regular use of prescription medicines, and sufficient information received about ePrescriptions. Men used My Kanta more often than women. Respondents aged 75 or older were less likely to be familiar with and to use the service compared to 18-34year olds. Most of the Finnish pharmacy customers were familiar with the national online service, My Kanta, for viewing ePrescriptions. Service users perceived it as easy to use and beneficial in managing their overall medication. Customers under 75, those educated beyond basic school, those using prescription medicines regularly, and those who had obtained sufficient information about ePrescriptions were most likely to be familiar with My Kanta. Men and customers under 75 were the typical users of the service. Some customers, however, were unaware of the service, or unable or reluctant to use it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Division of housework and his and her view of housework fairness: A typology of Swedish couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Ruppanner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Housework studies have long documented a fairness paradox, whereby unequal divisions of housework are evaluated as fair. Gender equality, both at home and at work, is strongly normative in a highly egalitarian country like Sweden, but not always matched by an equally egalitarian situation in the family which are often viewed as fair. Objective: To explore the relationship between housework-sharing and perceived fairness of this division, using both partners' reports, to identify how Swedish couples cluster across these measures and what individual characteristics predict cluster membership. Methods: Using the couple-level design of the 2009 wave of the Young Adult Panel Study (YAPS, n=1,026, we are able to advance the research field and evaluate housework experience within broader couple dynamics. Our approach is exploratory and develops a typology using latent class analysis. Results: We identify six latent groups, with distinct features. The modal Swedish-couple category comprises those who share housework equally and agree that this arrangement is fair (33Š of the couples. Applying a distributive justice perspective, we find that childhood socialization, presence of children in the household, and the distribution of employment, education, income, and egalitarianism across couples are important predictors of cluster membership. Conclusions: We find that equal-sharing/fair couples are most common in the Swedish context, suggesting clear benefits from Sweden's expansive gender policies. Yet, there seems to be a generational divide, whereby Swedish women who witnessed housework inequality in their parental home are increasingly dissatisfied when this inequality replicates in their own lives. Contribution: Demonstrating that housework allocations, conflict and fairness may reflect different types of couples rather than associations across those measures.

  18. Use and views on social networking sites of pharmacy students in the United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Maurice; Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Huey, Gwyneth

    2013-02-12

    Objective. To investigate students' use and views on social networking sites and assess differences in attitudes between genders and years in the program.Methods. All pharmacy undergraduate students were invited via e-mail to complete an electronic questionnaire consisting of 21 questions relating to social networking.Results. Most (91.8%) of the 377 respondents reported using social networking Web sites, with 98.6% using Facebook and 33.7% using Twitter. Female students were more likely than male students to agree that they had been made sufficiently aware of the professional behavior expected of them when using social networking sites (76.6% vs 58.1% p=0.002) and to agree that students should have the same professional standards whether on placement or using social networking sites (76.3% vs 61.6%; pnetworking use and potentially inappropriate attitudes towards professionalism were found among pharmacy students. Further training may be useful to ensure pharmacy students are aware of how to apply codes of conduct when using social networking sites.

  19. Use and Views on Social Networking Sites of Pharmacy Students in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Huey, Gwyneth

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate students' use and views on social networking sites and assess differences in attitudes between genders and years in the program. Methods. All pharmacy undergraduate students were invited via e-mail to complete an electronic questionnaire consisting of 21 questions relating to social networking. Results. Most (91.8%) of the 377 respondents reported using social networking Web sites, with 98.6% using Facebook and 33.7% using Twitter. Female students were more likely than male students to agree that they had been made sufficiently aware of the professional behavior expected of them when using social networking sites (76.6% vs 58.1% p=0.002) and to agree that students should have the same professional standards whether on placement or using social networking sites (76.3% vs 61.6%; psocial networking use and potentially inappropriate attitudes towards professionalism were found among pharmacy students. Further training may be useful to ensure pharmacy students are aware of how to apply codes of conduct when using social networking sites. PMID:23459621

  20. Public health in community pharmacy: A systematic review of pharmacist and consumer views

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The increasing involvement of pharmacists in public health will require changes in the behaviour of both pharmacists and the general public. A great deal of research has shown that attitudes and beliefs are important determinants of behaviour. This review aims to examine the beliefs and attitudes of pharmacists and consumers towards pharmaceutical public health in order to inform how best to support and improve this service. Methods Five electronic databases were searched for articles published in English between 2001 and 2010. Titles and abstracts were screened by one researcher according to the inclusion criteria. Papers were included if they assessed pharmacy staff or consumer attitudes towards pharmaceutical public health. Full papers identified for inclusion were assessed by a second researcher and data were extracted by one researcher. Results From the 5628 papers identified, 63 studies in 67 papers were included. Pharmacy staff: Most pharmacists viewed public health services as important and part of their role but secondary to medicine related roles. Pharmacists' confidence in providing public health services was on the whole average to low. Time was consistently identified as a barrier to providing public health services. Lack of an adequate counselling space, lack of demand and expectation of a negative reaction from customers were also reported by some pharmacists as barriers. A need for further training was identified in relation to a number of public health services. Consumers: Most pharmacy users had never been offered public health services by their pharmacist and did not expect to be offered. Consumers viewed pharmacists as appropriate providers of public health advice but had mixed views on the pharmacists' ability to do this. Satisfaction was found to be high in those that had experienced pharmaceutical public health Conclusions There has been little change in customer and pharmacist attitudes since reviews conducted nearly 10 years

  1. Public health in community pharmacy: A systematic review of pharmacist and consumer views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson Jill S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing involvement of pharmacists in public health will require changes in the behaviour of both pharmacists and the general public. A great deal of research has shown that attitudes and beliefs are important determinants of behaviour. This review aims to examine the beliefs and attitudes of pharmacists and consumers towards pharmaceutical public health in order to inform how best to support and improve this service. Methods Five electronic databases were searched for articles published in English between 2001 and 2010. Titles and abstracts were screened by one researcher according to the inclusion criteria. Papers were included if they assessed pharmacy staff or consumer attitudes towards pharmaceutical public health. Full papers identified for inclusion were assessed by a second researcher and data were extracted by one researcher. Results From the 5628 papers identified, 63 studies in 67 papers were included. Pharmacy staff: Most pharmacists viewed public health services as important and part of their role but secondary to medicine related roles. Pharmacists' confidence in providing public health services was on the whole average to low. Time was consistently identified as a barrier to providing public health services. Lack of an adequate counselling space, lack of demand and expectation of a negative reaction from customers were also reported by some pharmacists as barriers. A need for further training was identified in relation to a number of public health services. Consumers: Most pharmacy users had never been offered public health services by their pharmacist and did not expect to be offered. Consumers viewed pharmacists as appropriate providers of public health advice but had mixed views on the pharmacists' ability to do this. Satisfaction was found to be high in those that had experienced pharmaceutical public health Conclusions There has been little change in customer and pharmacist attitudes since reviews

  2. Viewing child pornography: prevalence and correlates in a representative community sample of young Swedish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Michael C; Hermann, Chantal A; Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Långström, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Most research on child pornography use has been based on selected clinical or criminal justice samples; risk factors for child pornography use in the general population remain largely unexplored. In this study, we examined prevalence, risk factors, and correlates of viewing depictions of adult-child sex in a population-representative sample of 1,978 young Swedish men (17-20 years, Mdn = 18 years, overall response rate, 77 %). In an anonymous, school-based survey, participants self-reported sexual coercion experiences, attitudes and beliefs about sex, perceived peer attitudes, and sexual interests and behaviors; including pornography use, sexual interest in children, and sexually coercive behavior. A total of 84 (4.2 %) young men reported they had ever viewed child pornography. Most theory-based variables were moderately and significantly associated with child pornography viewing and were consistent with models of sexual offending implicating both antisociality and sexual deviance. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, 7 of 15 tested factors independently predicted child pornography viewing and explained 42 % of the variance: ever had sex with a male, likely to have sex with a child aged 12-14, likely to have sex with a child 12 or less, perception of children as seductive, having friends who have watched child pornography, frequent pornography use, and ever viewed violent pornography. From these, a 6-item Child Pornography Correlates Scale was constructed and then cross-validated in a similar but independent Norwegian sample.

  3. Swedish child health nurses' views of early father involvement: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Michael B; Varga, Gabriella; Kerstis, Birgitta; Sarkadi, Anna

    2013-07-01

    To explore Swedish child health nurses' views on their role of involving fathers at the Child Health Centres (CHCs). Interviews with 17 experienced Swedish Child Health nurses were recorded, transcribed and analysed using systematic text condensation. Following the first analysis, the transtheoretical model of behavioural change was used to interpret the results. Four themes emerged during the analysis: (1) the nurses' own agenda; (2) nurses' opinion about the father's role; (3) nurses' gatekeeping; and (4) wanting more father involvement. Most nurses were in the precontemplation stage according to the transtheoretical model when they expressed their roles as nurses (Theme 1), how they perceived the father's role within the family (Theme 2) and how they actively encouraged mothers, but not fathers, to visit the CHCs (Theme 3/Mothers are our priority). Nurses in the contemplation stage started to consider involving fathers in the CHCs (Theme 3/The gate is closed...). Still others were in the preparation (Theme 4/Fathers are worthy of change) and action stages (Theme 4/Active in involving fathers), respectively. Child Health nurses place more emphasis on engaging mothers than fathers in the services. To increase father involvement, nurses need support to become aware, initiate and maintain action. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Occupational radiation protection at Swedish Nuclear Power Plants: Views on present status and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, Ingemar; Erixon, Stig; Godaas, Thommy; Hofvander, Peter; Malmqvist, Lars; Thimgren, Ingela; Oelander Guer, Hanna [Department of Occupational and Medical Exposures, Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SE-171 16 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    The occupational radiation doses at Swedish NPPs have decreased with roughly a factor of two from the beginning of the 1990's until today. The average collective dose during the last five years is 10 manSv for eleven operating reactors. During the same period, the average annual individual dose to the personnel has decreased from 3 - 4 mSv/year to about 2 mSv/year. In this presentation, the measures taken to improve the radiological conditions at the NPPs are briefly reviewed and the present status is described. The expectations for the future are outlined. The SSI summarises past experiences and the prerequisites for preserving good radiation protection conditions by the following catch words: Competence, Experience Feedback, Preventive Measures, and Long-Term Planning. Finally, it is the view of the SSI that essential efforts to improve the radiation protection conditions at the Swedish nuclear power plants have been made. The radiation protection conditions are good, which is a result of long-term efforts on reducing radiation levels, improving work procedures as well as increasing the knowledge of, and the commitment to, radiation protection issues at the staff level. (authors)

  5. Acting at a disaster site: views expressed by Swedish nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suserud, B O

    1993-04-01

    There is a common interest in Swedish society in preparing nurses well for disasters. A special course in the basic nurse education programme is devoted to disaster nursing. The aim of this study is to investigate nursing students' knowledge and views of their own action at the disaster site, both in their professional role and as private persons. The present study is a descriptive one based on the students' written answers. The result shows that the students emphasize contacting the overall disaster officer, surveying the situation and carrying out basic life-saving measures in Sweden known as the ABCs. They also stress the importance of staying calm and, to a lesser extent, seeing to the needs of the mentally shocked. Thus the nursing students seem to regard treatment of physical injuries as most important in the disaster situation.

  6. Trade Union Cooperation in the EU: Views Among Swedish Trade Unions and Their Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Furåker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article compares views among Swedish trade unions with those of their members regarding cross-national union cooperation in Europe or the EU. Data are derived from two different surveys, one among trade unions in 2010–2011 and the other among employees in 2006. It turns out that trade unions are generally more affirmative than their members to transnational union cooperation. In the employee survey, differences appear between members of the three peak-level organizations—the LO (manual workers, the TCO (white-collar workers, and Saco (professionals. However, controlling for education, these differences cannot be verified statistically. Higher education—which above all Saco members have—is linked to more positive attitudes toward transnational union cooperation. The gap between the organizations and their affiliates concerning engagement in European issues appears to be larger in the LO than in Saco, with the TCO somewhere in the middle.

  7. Same but Different? An Examination of Swedish Upper Secondary School Teachers' and Students' Views and Use of ICT in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Ola J.; Olofsson, Anders D.; Fransson, Göran

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine Swedish upper secondary school teachers' and students' views and use of ICT in education. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 25 individual teachers and 39 students in small focus groups were interviewed. A qualitative content analysis was performed using NVivo11. The analysis was conducted in…

  8. The influence of generic substitution on the content of patient-pharmacist communication in Swedish community pharmacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Erika; Wallach-Kildemoes, Helle; Ahmed, Ban

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective was to study the relationship between the length and content of patient-pharmacist communication in community pharmacies, and generic substitution. METHODS: The study was conducted in six community pharmacies in Sweden. Non-participant observations with audio recordings...... and short structured interviews were conducted. Out of 32 pharmacists 29 agreed to participate (90.6%), as did 282 out of 407 patients (69.3%). Logistic regression analysis was applied to calculate odds ratio for occurrence of generic substitution. Linear regression (β-coefficients) was applied to test...... literacy. This study suggests that pharmacists need to further embrace their role in promoting rational use of medicines, not least when generic substitution occurs....

  9. Community pharmacy owners' views of star ratings and performance measurement: In-depth interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeter, Benjamin S; Fox, Brent I; Garza, Kimberly B; Harris, Stanley G; Nau, David P; Owensby, Justin K; Westrick, Salisa C

    2016-01-01

    The star rating system implemented by Medicare has the potential to positively affect patient health and may have financial implications for community pharmacies. Learning from owners of community pharmacies with high performance on these quality measures may help us to identify and further understand factors contributing to their success. This study described high-performing community pharmacy owners' current awareness and knowledge of star ratings, attitudes toward star ratings and performance measurement, and initiatives being offered in pharmacies that aim to improve the quality of care. Qualitative interviews with owners of independent community pharmacies were conducted in Spring 2015. Fifteen community pharmacies with high performance on the star rating measures were invited to participate. Recruitment did not end until the saturation point had been reached. All interviews were transcribed verbatim. Interview data were analyzed with the use of ATLAS.ti by 2 coders trained in thematic analysis. Krippendorf's alpha was calculated to assess intercoder reliability. Ten high-performing pharmacy owners participated. Analysis identified 8 themes, which were organized into the following categories: 1) current awareness and knowledge (i.e., superficial or advanced knowledge); 2) attitudes toward star ratings (positive perceptions, skeptical of performance rewards, and lack a feeling of control); and 3) pharmacy initiatives (personal patient relationships, collaborative employee relationships, and use of technology). Intercoder reliability was good overall. Interviews with high-performing pharmacies suggested that awareness of the star rating measures, overall positive attitudes toward the star ratings, the relationships that pharmacy owners have with their patients and their employees, and the use of technology as a tool to enhance patient care may contribute to high performance on the star rating measures. Future research is needed to determine if and how these

  10. Employing the nominal group technique to explore the views of pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women on community pharmacy weight management services and educational resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakih, Souhiela; Marriott, Jennifer L; Hussainy, Safeera Y

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate how pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women feel about community pharmacy involvement in weight management, and to identify what pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women want in weight management educational resources. Three homogenous and one heterogeneous nominal group (NG) sessions of up to 120-min duration were conducted with nine women, ten pharmacists and eight pharmacy assistants. The NG technique was used to conduct each session to determine the most important issues that should be considered surrounding community pharmacy weight management services and development of any educational resources. The heterogeneous NG session was used to finalise what women, pharmacists and pharmacy assistants want in educational resources. Overall, pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women believe that pharmacy staff have an important role in the management of overweight and obesity because of their accessibility, trust and the availability of products in pharmacy. Regarding the most suitable healthcare professional(s) to treat overweight and obesity, the majority of participants believed that no one member of the healthcare team was most suitable and that overweight and obesity needs to be treated by a multidisciplinary team. The importance of having weight management educational resources for pharmacy staff and women that come from trustworthy resources without financial gain or commercialisation was also emphasised. Pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women feel that community pharmacies have a definite role to play in weight management. Pharmacy-specific weight management educational resources that are readily available to pharmacy staff and women are highly desirable. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Radiological protection of the environment from the Swedish point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, Lars-Erik; Hubbard, Lynn; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Sundell-Bergman, Synnoeve

    2002-01-01

    The current system of radiological protection is aimed at protecting human health, and largely neglects both the effects of radiation on the environment and the managerial aspects of environmental protection. The Swedish Radiation Protection Act was revised in 1988 and includes environmental protection as one of its aims. In practice, little guidance had been given in the regulations based on the Act until 1998, when the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) formulated environmental aims in its regulations concerning protection of human health and the environment in connection to the final management of spent nuclear fuel and waste. These regulations focus on protection of biodiversity and biological resources, based on ecosystem characterisation. In a broader perspective, the Swedish Parliament established 15 national environmental quality objectives in 1999, covering all aspects of protecting the environment, including the effects of radiation. This paper reviews the background for radiological protection of the environment from both an international and a Swedish perspective, describing the aims and current activities in establishing a system for assessing environmental effects and their consequences that can be used in decision-making. Such activities are largely a result of the European Union research project FASSET (Framework for Assessment of Environmental Impact), carried out under the 5th Framework Programme of the Union. This work is complemented at the Swedish national level by government support to initiate a national environmental monitoring and assessment programme for characterising the radiation environment, which will provide the foundation for decision-making. (review)

  12. Swedish Technology Teachers' Views on Assessing Student Understandings of Technological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooner, Patrick; Klasander, Claes; Hallström, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    Technology education is a new school subject in comparison with other subjects within the Swedish compulsory school system. Research in technology education shows that technology teachers lack experience of and support for assessment in comparison with the long-term experiences that other teachers use in their subjects. This becomes especially…

  13. The Role of Biotechnology in Sustainable Agriculture: Views and Perceptions among Key Actors in the Swedish Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Edvardsson Björnberg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have put forward agricultural biotechnology as one possible tool for increasing food production and making agriculture more sustainable. In this paper, it is investigated how key actors in the Swedish food supply chain perceive the concept of agricultural sustainability and the role of biotechnology in creating more sustainable agricultural production systems. Based on policy documents and semi-structured interviews with representatives of five organizations active in producing, processing and retailing food in Sweden, an attempt is made to answer the following three questions: How do key actors in the Swedish food supply chain define and operationalize the concept of agricultural sustainability? Who/what influences these organizations’ sustainability policies and their respective positions on agricultural biotechnology? What are the organizations’ views and perceptions of biotechnology and its possible role in creating agricultural sustainability? Based on collected data, it is concluded that, although there is a shared view of the core constituents of agricultural sustainability among the organizations, there is less explicit consensus on how the concept should be put into practice or what role biotechnology can play in furthering agricultural sustainability.

  14. Two Approaches to Vocational Education and Training. A View from Pharmacy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterfield, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the relationship between theoretical knowledge and professional practice within pharmacy education. The discussion takes two different approaches to examine the selected literature. The first approach is concerned with how curriculum changes may potentially contribute to the improvement of professional practice. This…

  15. Views on safety culture at Swedish and Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammar, L.; Wahlstroem, B.; Kettunen, J.

    2000-02-01

    The report presents the results of interviews about safety culture at Swedish and Finnish nuclear power plants. The aim is to promote the safety work and increase the debate about safety in nuclear power plants, by showing that the safety culture is an important safety factor. The interviews point out different threats, which may become real. It is therefor necessary that the safety aspects get support from of the society and the power plant owners. (EHS)

  16. Suberythemal Sun Exposures at Swedish Schools Depend on Sky Views of the Outdoor Environments - Possible Implications for Pupils' Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagels, Peter; Wester, Ulf; Söderström, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    , offer enough shade to protect children from overexposure during seasons with potentially harmful solar UV radiation. Pupils' outdoor stay may be extended during September and March. In May extended outdoor stay of the youngest pupils requires a more UVR-protective environment.......More scheduled outdoor stay is increasingly advocated for school children. This study measured 2nd, 5th and 8th graders' erythemal UV-exposure in September, March and May at four Swedish schools. We related those exposures, as fractions of total available ambient radiation, to the schools outdoor...... environments differing in amount of shade, vegetation, and peripheral city-scape quantified as percentage of free sky view calculated from fish-eye photographs. Exposures correlated with the sky views (with exceptions in May) and were suberythemal. The exposures were also below the threshold limit...

  17. Community Pharmacists' Views and Practices Regarding Natural Health Products Sold in Community Pharmacies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubaka Ogbogu

    Full Text Available Reports of regulatory and evidentiary gaps have raised concerns about the marketing and use of natural health products (NHPs. The majority of NHPs offered for sale are purchased at a community pharmacy and pharmacists are "front-line" health professionals involved in the marketing and provision of NHPs. To date, the involvement of pharmacists in pharmacy care involving NHPs and the degree to which concerns over the safety, efficacy, marketing and regulation of NHPs are addressed in pharmacy care in Canada have not been studied.Using Qualtrics, a web-based data collection and analysis software, and a study instrument made up of fifteen (15 open-ended, closed and rating scale questions, we surveyed the attitudes and practices of 403 community pharmacists in the Canadian province of Alberta regarding NHPs offered for sale in community pharmacies.The majority of pharmacists surveyed (276; 68% recommend NHPs to clients sometimes to very often. Vitamin D, calcium, multivitamins, prenatal vitamins, probiotics and fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids were the most frequently recommended NHPs. The most common indications for which NHPs are recommended include bone and musculoskeletal disorders, maintenance of general health, gastrointestinal disorders and pregnancy. Review articles published in the Pharmacist's Letter and Canadian Pharmacists Journal were the primary basis for recommending NHPs. The majority of pharmacists surveyed (339; 84% recommend the use of NHPs concurrently with conventional drugs, while a significant number and proportion (125; 31% recommend alternative use. Pharmacists in the study overwhelmingly reported providing counselling on NHPs to clients based on information obtained mainly from the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database.The study findings indicate a high prevalence of pharmacy care relating to NHPs among study participants. Although pharmacists' practices around NHPs are consistent with the existing licensing framework, we

  18. The perceived meaning of a (wholistic view among general practitioners and district nurses in Swedish primary care: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borgquist Lars

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The definition of primary care varies between countries. Swedish primary care has developed from a philosophic viewpoint based on quality, accessibility, continuity, co-operation and a holistic view. The meaning of holism in international literature differs between medicine and nursing. The question is, if the difference is due to different educational traditions. Due to the uncertainties in defining holism and a holistic view we wished to study, in depth, how holism is perceived by doctors and nurses in their clinical work. Thus, the aim was to explore the perceived meaning of a holistic view among general practitioners (GPs and district nurses (DNs. Methods Seven focus group interviews with a purposive sample of 22 GPs and 20 nurses working in primary care in two Swedish county councils were conducted. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results The analysis resulted in three categories, attitude, knowledge, and circumstances, with two, two and four subcategories respectively. A professional attitude involves recognising the whole person; not only fragments of a person with a disease. Factual knowledge is acquired through special training and long professional experience. Tacit knowledge is about feelings and social competence. Circumstances can either be barriers or facilitators. A holistic view is a strong motivator and as such it is a facilitator. The way primary care is organised can be either a barrier or a facilitator and could influence the use of a holistic approach. Defined geographical districts and care teams facilitate a holistic view with house calls being essential, particularly for nurses. In preventive work and palliative care, a holistic view was stated to be specifically important. Consultations and communication with the patient were seen as important tools. Conclusion 'Holistic view' is multidimensional, well implemented and very much alive among both

  19. Swedish Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borgvall, Jonathan; Lif, Patrik

    2005-01-01

    .... The military research work presented here includes the three military administrations, FOI -- Swedish Defence Research Agency, FMV -- Swedish Defence Materiel Administration, and SNDC -- Swedish...

  20. Stretching the Boundaries: Tanzanian Pharmacy Workers' Views and Experiences of Providing STI Services for Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Larsson

    Full Text Available To explore the views and experiences of providing assistance and treatment of sexually transmitted infections to same-sex practicing male clients among service providers at pharmacies and drugstores in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Previous research suggests that sexually transmitted infections are an increasing concern for this population. Due to stigma and discrimination, men who have sex with men face limited access to treatment, which might contribute to increased self-medication. However, limited research has been conducted on the role of the pharmaceutical service provider with regards to this population in sub-Saharan Africa.In January 2016, 16 service providers at private pharmacies and drugstores with previous experience of providing services to this population were purposively selected for open-ended face-to-face interviews. The analysis was guided by the grounded theory approach.The process that emerged was labelled "Stretching Boundaries for Pharmaceutical Responsibilities". This reflected informants' perceptions of themselves as being involved in a transition from having limited engagement in the care of same-sex practicing male clients to becoming regular service-providers to this group. Findings further revealed that the emotional commitment they developed for clients through this process led to a transgression of provider-client boundaries, which undermined objective decision-making when clients lacked prescription. Financial interests also emerged as an underlying motivation for providing incomplete or inaccurate drug dosages.Further studies are required to better address incentives related to unregulated sale of drugs. Inter-professional networks between pharmacy and healthcare workers could support the development of targeted treatment for men who have sex with men and other key populations.

  1. Pharmacists’ views on involvement in pharmacy practice research: Strategies for facilitating participation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armour C

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In order for community pharmacy practice to continue to evolve, pharmacy practice research on potential new services is essential. This requires the active participation of community pharmacists. At present the level of involvement of community pharmacists in pharmacy practice research is minimal. Objectives: To ascertain the attitudes of a group of research-experienced community pharmacists towards participating in research; to investigate the barriers and facilitators to participation; to identify potential strategies to increase the involvement of community pharmacists in research. Methods: A focus group was conducted with a purposive sample of 11 research-experienced community pharmacists. A pharmacist academic moderated the focus group using a semi-structured interview guide. The participants were asked about their attitudes towards research, previous involvement in research, barriers to their involvement and strategies to overcome these barriers. The session was audio-taped and notes were taken by an observer. Thematic analysis of the notes and audio-tape transcripts was conducted.Results: Three themes emerged around pharmacists’ attitudes towards research: pharmacists’ perception of the purpose of research, pharmacists’ motivation for involvement in research, and pharmacists’ desired role in research. Barriers to research participation were grouped into four themes: pharmacists’ mindset, communication, infrastructure (time, money and staff, and skills/knowledge. Strategies to address each of these barriers were suggested.Conclusions: Participants recognised the importance of research towards advancing their profession and this was a motivating factor for involvement in research. They perceived their role in research primarily as data collection. A series of practical strategies to overcome the barriers to participation were offered that researchers may wish to consider when promoting research outcomes and designing research

  2. Pharmacists' views on involvement in pharmacy practice research: Strategies for facilitating participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Carol; Brillant, Martha; Krass, Ines

    2007-01-01

    In order for community pharmacy practice to continue to evolve, pharmacy practice research on potential new services is essential. This requires the active participation of community pharmacists. At present the level of involvement of community pharmacists in pharmacy practice research is minimal. To ascertain the attitudes of a group of research-experienced community pharmacists towards participating in research; to investigate the barriers and facilitators to participation; to identify potential strategies to increase the involvement of community pharmacists in research. A focus group was conducted with a purposive sample of 11 research-experienced community pharmacists. A pharmacist academic moderated the focus group using a semi-structured interview guide. The participants were asked about their attitudes towards research, previous involvement in research, barriers to their involvement and strategies to overcome these barriers. The session was audio-taped and notes were taken by an observer. Thematic analysis of the notes and audio-tape transcripts was conducted. Three themes emerged around pharmacists' attitudes towards research: pharmacists' perception of the purpose of research, pharmacists' motivation for involvement in research, and pharmacists' desired role in research. Barriers to research participation were grouped into four themes: pharmacists' mindset, communication, infrastructure (time, money and staff), and skills/knowledge. Strategies to address each of these barriers were suggested. Participants recognised the importance of research towards advancing their profession and this was a motivating factor for involvement in research. They perceived their role in research primarily as data collection. A series of practical strategies to overcome the barriers to participation were offered that researchers may wish to consider when promoting research outcomes and designing research projects.

  3. Safety and ethical aspects on retrievability: A Swedish nuclear regulator's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toverud, Oe.; Wingefors, S.

    2000-01-01

    An important contribution to the discussion on retrieval in Sweden has been the ethical principle of the Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste (KASAM). ''The KASAM Principle'' means that the present generation, which has reaped the benefits of nuclear energy, must also take care of the waste and not transfer the responsibility to future generations; a repository should be designed and constructed so that monitoring and remedial actions are not necessary in the future. However, future generations, probably with better knowledge and other values, must still have the freedom to make their own decisions; we should therefore not make monitoring and remedial action unnecessarily difficult. SKI generally supports the KASAM principle but its application in the individual case should be based on solid evidence that both aspects have been covered in a suggested repository design. There may be a number of possible reasons for retrieval of spent nuclear fuel from a repository and they range from technical to purely political. SKI supports that the repository shall not be designed so that it unnecessarily impairs future attempts to retrieve the waste, monitor or ''repair'' the repository. However, measures to facilitate any kind of access to the repository must not reduce the long term safety of the repository. SKI concludes that: Future generations may wish to retrieve the spent fuel from a sealed repository. Disposal method and repository design should consider this and not make such retrieval unnecessarily difficult. On the other hand, any measures taken to facilitate retrieval must not significantly impair the long term safety functions of the repository. It must be shown that the safety aspects have been adequately considered. Retrievability must always be discussed with caution, so that it will not give the impression of doubts concerning the safety of the repository. (author)

  4. Swedish Upper Secondary Students' Views of the Origin and Development of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Lena; Redfors, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The article is addressing how students reason about the origin and development of the universe. Students' own views as well as their descriptions of physical models are analysed. Data consists of written surveys, and interviews of a subset of the students. Most of the students relate to the Big Bang model when describing the origin of the…

  5. Swedish female hairdressers' views on their work environment--a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Kerstin Kronholm; Nielsen, Jörn; Andersson, Edith

    2014-01-01

    Hairdressers have several work-related health hazards. Little is known of their strategies for the work environment. The aim of this study was to explore female hairdressers' own views on their physical, social and psychological work environment and possibilities of influencing it, implementation of their knowledge, financial impacts and how work-related symptoms affect their views. Fourteen hairdressers working for four years were subjected to open-ended interviews covering aspects of the physical, social and psychological work environment. Content analysis was applied. An awareness of the impact of the work environment and the possibilities of influencing it emerged, but also an inability to achieve preventive improvements. This included reflections concerning ventilation, health issues, job strain, hair products, financial issues, knowledge from school and concern for having to leave the profession. The organization and acceptance of the work environment were important issues. Making the work environment an active part of their business was not common. Female hairdressers had an awareness of their work environment but lacked the means and strategies to make it an active part of their business. The main focus was on the customers and the work techniques. Having various symptoms did not alter this. Organizational and financial issues could put limitations on the work environment. Teachers were crucial in making the work environment interesting. Hairdressing was seen with advantages and disadvantages, and its future was seen as being insecure in terms of the occupational health risks. The hairdressers expressed a great pride in their profession providing possibilities for development.

  6. Imprisonment--a Matter of Letting People Live or Stay Alive? Some Reasoning from a Swedish Point of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Svenolov

    1996-01-01

    Overemphasis on punishment undermines successful reintegration of offenders into society. The Swedish prison system emphasizes the journey back to society from the first day in prison, choosing to think of inmates as "citizens in prison." (SK)

  7. How well does midwifery education prepare for clinical practice? Exploring the views of Swedish students, midwives and obstetricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schytt, Erica; Waldenström, Ulla

    2013-02-01

    midwifery education in many countries has been adapted to the academic system by a stronger focus on research methodology and scientific evidence. This development has often taken place without extending the programs. We were interested in exploring views about current content of midwifery education in Sweden with a focus on clinical competencies and the new research components. to investigate views about Swedish midwifery education held by students prior to graduation and after 1 year of practice, and by experienced midwives and obstetricians, with special focus on clinical competency. nationwide surveys conducted between June 2007 and January 2008, and 1 year later (follow-up of students). self-administered questionnaires completed by 171 (83%) students and 121 (59%) of these participants after 1 year of midwifery practice, and by 162 (54%) midwives and 108 (40%) obstetricians with at least 5 years of clinical experience. The responders were asked to assess predefined intrapartum competencies, which components of the education were allocated too little and too much time, and how well the education prepared for clinical practise overall. Content analysis of open-ended questions and descriptive analyses was used. most students, midwives and obstetricians were 'very' or 'fairly' satisfied with how the education prepared midwives for clinical practice and 1.8%, 4.7% and 17.6%, respectively, were dissatisfied. About half of the obstetricians and one-third of the experienced midwives rated new midwives' ability to identify deviations from normal progress as low or lacking, compared with 10% of the students. A majority found that too little time, of the 60 weeks programme, was allocated to intrapartum care and medical complications and too much time to research and writing a minor thesis. although few were dissatisfied with how midwifery education prepared for clinical practice in general, the majority of participants would have liked more time for medical complications

  8. Health discourse in Swedish television food advertising during children's peak viewing times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prell, Hillevi; Palmblad, Eva; Lissner, Lauren; Berg, Christina M

    2011-06-01

    Food marketing influences children's food preferences and consumption and is important to consider in the prevention of child obesity. In this paper, health messages in commercials during children's peak viewing times were analysed by examining how food is articulated in the health discourse. In total, 82 food commercials from 66h of television recordings of the most popular commercial channels with children in Sweden (TV3, TV4 and Channel 5) were analysed with discourse theoretical tools according to Laclau and Mouffe and with a focus on rhetoric. Physical, mental and social health aspects were present in 71% of the commercials. Three health discourse types; a medical (food as protection and treatment), a hedonic (food as feeling good) and a social discourse type (food as caring) were discerned. In relation to these, the heart symbol, lifestyle associations and nature/the natural were elements that could be interpreted in different ways. Moreover, foods carrying unhealthy associations were promoted in the health discourse and presented as especially healthy by offensive rhetoric. The analysis raises awareness of the prevailing health messages in food marketing. Children and parents should be encouraged to develop their critical thinking about television food advertising and how it may influence social norms and dietary practices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Multilingualism and Multiculturalism in the Swedish-Medium Primary School Classroom in Finland--Some Teacher Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Mikaela

    2013-01-01

    Finnish society, including the Swedish-medium school, has traditionally been considered linguistically and culturally homogeneous. During the last twenty years there has been a distinct development towards increasingly heterogeneous municipalities and schools, but with great local variations. The aim of his article is to present some teacher…

  10. Does the Subject Content of the Pharmacy Degree Course Influence the Community Pharmacist’s Views on Competencies for Practice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, Jeffrey; De Paepe, Kristien; Pozo, Antonio Sánchez; Rekkas, Dimitrios; Volmer, Daisy; Hirvonen, Jouni; Bozic, Borut; Skowron, Agnieska; Mircioiu, Constantin; Marcincal, Annie; Koster, Andries|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070975558; Wilson, Keith; van Schravendijk, Chris; Wilkinson, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Do community pharmacists coming from different educational backgrounds rank the importance of competences for practice differently—or is the way in which they see their profession more influenced by practice than university education? A survey was carried out on 68 competences for pharmacy practice

  11. The Role of Biotechnology in Sustainable Agriculture: Views and Perceptions among Key Actors in the Swedish Food Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Björnberg, Karin; Jonas, Elisabeth; Marstorp, Håkan; Tidåker, Pernilla

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have put forward agricultural biotechnology as one possible tool for increasing food production and making agriculture more sustainable. In this paper, it is investigated how key actors in the Swedish food supply chain perceive the concept of agricultural sustainability and the role of biotechnology in creating more sustainable agricultural production systems. Based on policy documents and semi-structured interviews with representatives of five organizations active in producing, p...

  12. The perceived meaning of a (w)holistic view among general practitioners and district nurses in Swedish primary care: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Eva Lena; Ovhed, Ingvar; Borgquist, Lars; Wilhelmsson, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Background The definition of primary care varies between countries. Swedish primary care has developed from a philosophic viewpoint based on quality, accessibility, continuity, co-operation and a holistic view. The meaning of holism in international literature differs between medicine and nursing. The question is, if the difference is due to different educational traditions. Due to the uncertainties in defining holism and a holistic view we wished to study, in depth, how holism is perceived by doctors and nurses in their clinical work. Thus, the aim was to explore the perceived meaning of a holistic view among general practitioners (GPs) and district nurses (DNs). Methods Seven focus group interviews with a purposive sample of 22 GPs and 20 nurses working in primary care in two Swedish county councils were conducted. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results The analysis resulted in three categories, attitude, knowledge, and circumstances, with two, two and four subcategories respectively. A professional attitude involves recognising the whole person; not only fragments of a person with a disease. Factual knowledge is acquired through special training and long professional experience. Tacit knowledge is about feelings and social competence. Circumstances can either be barriers or facilitators. A holistic view is a strong motivator and as such it is a facilitator. The way primary care is organised can be either a barrier or a facilitator and could influence the use of a holistic approach. Defined geographical districts and care teams facilitate a holistic view with house calls being essential, particularly for nurses. In preventive work and palliative care, a holistic view was stated to be specifically important. Consultations and communication with the patient were seen as important tools. Conclusion 'Holistic view' is multidimensional, well implemented and very much alive among both GPs and DNs. The word

  13. Does the Subject Content of the Pharmacy Degree Course Influence the Community Pharmacist’s Views on Competencies for Practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Atkinson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Do community pharmacists coming from different educational backgrounds rank the importance of competences for practice differently—or is the way in which they see their profession more influenced by practice than university education? A survey was carried out on 68 competences for pharmacy practice in seven countries with different pharmacy education systems in terms of the relative importance of the subject areas chemical and medicinal sciences. Community pharmacists were asked to rank the competences in terms of relative importance for practice; competences were divided into personal and patient-care competences. The ranking was very similar in the seven countries suggesting that evaluation of competences for practice is based more on professional experience than on prior university education. There were some differences for instance in research-related competences and these may be influenced, by education.

  14. Does the Subject Content of the Pharmacy Degree Course Influence the Community Pharmacist’s Views on Competencies for Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Jeffrey; De Paepe, Kristien; Sánchez Pozo, Antonio; Rekkas, Dimitrios; Volmer, Daisy; Hirvonen, Jouni; Bozic, Borut; Skowron, Agnieska; Mircioiu, Constantin; Marcincal, Annie; Koster, Andries; Wilson, Keith; van Schravendijk, Chris; Wilkinson, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Do community pharmacists coming from different educational backgrounds rank the importance of competences for practice differently—or is the way in which they see their profession more influenced by practice than university education? A survey was carried out on 68 competences for pharmacy practice in seven countries with different pharmacy education systems in terms of the relative importance of the subject areas chemical and medicinal sciences. Community pharmacists were asked to rank the competences in terms of relative importance for practice; competences were divided into personal and patient-care competences. The ranking was very similar in the seven countries suggesting that evaluation of competences for practice is based more on professional experience than on prior university education. There were some differences for instance in research-related competences and these may be influenced, by education. PMID:28975909

  15. Does the Subject Content of the Pharmacy Degree Course Influence the Community Pharmacist's Views on Competencies for Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Jeffrey; De Paepe, Kristien; Pozo, Antonio Sánchez; Rekkas, Dimitrios; Volmer, Daisy; Hirvonen, Jouni; Bozic, Borut; Skowron, Agnieska; Mircioiu, Constantin; Marcincal, Annie; Koster, Andries; Wilson, Keith; van Schravendijk, Chris; Wilkinson, Jamie

    2015-09-01

    Do community pharmacists coming from different educational backgrounds rank the importance of competences for practice differently-or is the way in which they see their profession more influenced by practice than university education? A survey was carried out on 68 competences for pharmacy practice in seven countries with different pharmacy education systems in terms of the relative importance of the subject areas chemical and medicinal sciences. Community pharmacists were asked to rank the competences in terms of relative importance for practice; competences were divided into personal and patient-care competences. The ranking was very similar in the seven countries suggesting that evaluation of competences for practice is based more on professional experience than on prior university education. There were some differences for instance in research-related competences and these may be influenced, by education.

  16. Pharmacy students' perceptions of natural science and mathematics subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Julie; Wilson, Sarah Ellen; Wan, Kai-Wai

    2014-08-15

    To determine the level of importance pharmacy students placed on science and mathematics subjects for pursuing a career in pharmacy. Two hundred fifty-four students completed a survey instrument developed to investigate students' perceptions of the relevance of science and mathematics subjects to a career in pharmacy. Pharmacy students in all 4 years of a master of pharmacy (MPharm) degree program were invited to complete the survey instrument. Students viewed chemistry-based and biology-based subjects as relevant to a pharmacy career, whereas mathematics subjects such as physics, logarithms, statistics, and algebra were not viewed important to a career in pharmacy. Students' experience in pharmacy and year of study influenced their perceptions of subjects relevant to a pharmacy career. Pharmacy educators need to consider how they can help students recognize the importance of scientific knowledge earlier in the pharmacy curriculum.

  17. Views of pharmacy graduates and pharmacist tutors on evidence-based practice in relation to over-the-counter consultations: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Peter; Hughes, Carmel; Hanna, Lezley-Anne

    2015-12-01

    Health care services offered to the public should be based on the best available evidence. We aimed to explore pharmacy tutors' and trainees' views on the importance of evidence when making decisions about over-the-counter (OTC) medicines and also to investigate whether the tutor influenced the trainee in practice. Following ethical approval and piloting, semi-structured interviews were conducted with pharmacy graduates (trainees) and pharmacist tutors. Transcribed interview data were entered into the NVivo software package (version 10), coded and analysed via thematic analysis. Twelve trainees (five males, seven females) and 11 tutors (five males, six females) participated. Main themes that emerged were (in)consistency and contradiction, confidence, acculturation, and continuation and perpetuation. Despite having an awareness of the importance and potential benefits, an evidence-based approach did not seem to be routinely or consistently implemented in practice. Confidence in products was largely derived from personal use and patient feedback. A lack of discussion about evidence was justified on the basis of not wanting to lessen patient confidence in requested product(s) or possibly negating the placebo effect. Trainees became acculturated to 'real-life' practice; university teaching and evidence was deemed less relevant than meeting customer expectations. The tutor's actions were mirrored by their trainee resulting in continuation and perpetuation of the same professional attitudes and behaviours. Evidence appeared to have limited influence on OTC decision making. The tutor played a key role in the trainee's professional development. More work could be performed to investigate how evidence can be regarded as relevant and something that is consistently implemented in practice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Patients' choice of payment system in the Swedish Public Dental Service--views on dental care and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, Anna-Lena; Ahlström, Birgitta; Hakeberg, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to generate new knowledge of considerations and factors having impacted the patients' choice of payment system and their views on oral health. Moreover, their later attitudes to the prepaid risk-related payment system, having been enrolled or not, were explored. A qualitative design was chosen and data was collected through semi-structured interviews.Twenty patients in the Public Dental Service (PDS) in western Sweden were strategically sampled with reference to gender, age (older/younger adults), residence (rural/urban), and choice of payment system:fee-for-service or capitation plan.The interview guide covered areas concerning the payment systems, patient considerations before choosing system, views of their own oral health and experiences of received dental care within the chosen system.The analysis was performed according to basic principles of qualitative content analysis. The results revealed two themes expressing the latent content. In the theme "The individual's relation to the PDS", expectations of the care, feelings of safety and aspects of responsibility emerged.The theme"Health-related attitudes and perceptions" revealed that views on health and self-assessment of oral health influenced the patients' considerations. Moreover, the perceived influence on oral health and risk thinking emerged as important factors in this theme. The conclusion was that the individual's relation to the PDS together with his/her health-related attitudes and perceptions were the main factors impacting the choice of payment system in the PDS. A health promotion perspective should be applied, empowering the patients to develop their risk awareness and their own resources.

  19. Pharmacy alternatives (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common source for obtaining prescriptions is the local pharmacy. Usually the pharmacy is located in a drug or grocery store. ... some insurance companies have chosen is mail-order pharmacy. Once a pharmacy has been chosen it is ...

  20. State’s Medical Experts in Local Practice: Provincial Doctors View of Themselves as Public Health Promoters: an Example from the Swedish Countryside, 1880–1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Prestjan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study focus upon Swedish provincial doctors as practitioners in a sparsely populated medical district in Sweden 1881-1920, and their positions as state’s medical experts in a period when the first steps towards a welfare state were taken. The question to be answered is how the doctors themselves looked upon their possibilities to promote public health in the Swedish countryside? The study shows that the provincial doctors for sure identified themselves as representatives of the Swedish state, medical science and modernisation, and that they agreed upon their own importance in the crusade of bringing modern welfare to the Swedish countryside. In practice, though, their possibilities to implementation and influence seem to have been limited – something that the doctors were well aware of. The explanation is probably lack of confidence, as a result of the doctors’ tendency to distance themselves from the simple, ignorant and reactionary locals.

  1. Parents' views of including young boys in the Swedish national school-based HPV vaccination programme: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottvall, Maria; Stenhammar, Christina; Grandahl, Maria

    2017-02-28

    To explore parents' views of extending the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme to also include boys. Explorative qualitative design using individual, face-to-face, interviews and inductive thematic analysis. 11 strategically chosen municipalities in central Sweden. Parents (n=42) who were offered HPV vaccination for their 11-12 years old daughter in the national school-based vaccination programme. The key themes were: equality from a public health perspective and perception of risk for disease . Parents expressed low knowledge and awareness about the health benefits of male HPV vaccination, and they perceived low risk for boys to get HPV. Some parents could not see any reason for vaccinating boys. However, many parents preferred gender-neutral vaccination, and some of the parents who had not accepted HPV vaccination for their daughter expressed that they would be willing to accept vaccination for their son, if it was offered. It was evident that there was both trust and distrust in authorities' decision to only vaccinate girls. Parents expressed a preference for increased sexual and reproductive health promotion such as more information about condom use. Some parents shared that it was more important to vaccinate girls than boys since they believed girls face a higher risk of deadly diseases associated with HPV, but some also believed girls might be more vulnerable to side effects of the vaccine. A vaccine offered only to girls may cause parents to be hesitant to vaccinate, while also including boys in the national vaccination programme might improve parents' trust in the vaccine. More information about the health benefits of HPV vaccination for males is necessary to increase HPV vaccination among boys. This may eventually lead to increased HPV vaccine coverage among both girls and boys. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Irradiated fuel storage and transport: A Swedish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennerdahl, D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives the views of the author and may not correspond to the views of the Swedish industry or the licensing authority. The views are based on experience from consultation to the Swedish licensing authority and from participation in international cooperation, in particular in the OECD/NEA NSC Working Group on Burnup Credit. (author)

  3. Students' Satisfaction with a Web-Based Pharmacy Program in a Re-Regulated Pharmacy Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Maria; Mattsson, Sofia; Gallego, Gisselle

    2017-08-25

    In response to the shortage of pharmacists in Northern Sweden, a web-based Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy program was established at Umeå University in 2003. In 2009, the Swedish pharmacy market was re-regulated from a state monopoly to an open market, but it is unknown what impact this has had on education satisfaction. The objectives of this study were to examine the level of satisfaction among graduates from a web-based pharmacy program and to describe what subjects and skills students would have liked more or less of in their education. A secondary objective was to compare the level of satisfaction before and after the Swedish pharmacy market was re-regulated. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2015 with all alumni who had graduated from the pharmacy program between 2006 and 2014 ( n = 511), and responses to questions about graduates' satisfaction with the program were analyzed ( n = 200). Most graduates (88%) agreed or strongly agreed that the knowledge and skills acquired during their education were useful in their current job. The graduates stated that they would have wanted more applied pharmacy practice and self-care counselling, and fewer social pharmacy and histology courses. Further, 82% stated that they would start the same degree program if they were to choose again today, and 92% agreed or strongly agreed that they would recommend the program to a prospective student. Graduates were more likely to recommend the program after the re-regulation ( p = 0.007). In conclusion, pharmacy graduates were very satisfied with their education, and no negative effects of the re-regulation could be observed on program satisfaction.

  4. Stakeholders' expectations and perceived effects of the pharmacy ownership liberalization reform in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisell, Kristin; Winblad, Ulrika; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reforms in the health-care sector, including the pharmacy sector, can have different rationales. The Swedish pharmacies were prior to 2009 organized in a state-owned monopoly. In 2009, a liberalization of the ownership took place, in which a majority of the pharmacies were sold...... in the Swedish pharmacy sector, and also to compare the expectations with the perceived outcomes. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with representatives from key stakeholder organizations; i.e., political, patient, and professional organizations. The analysis was performed in steps, and themes...... were developed in an inductive manner. RESULTS: One expectation among the political organization participants was that the ownership liberalization would create opportunities for ideas. The competition introduced in the market was supposed to lead to a more diversified pharmacy sector. After...

  5. Addressing issues raised by stakeholders: impacts on process, content, and behaviour in waste organisations: the Swedish radiation protection authority's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedberg, Bjoern

    2004-01-01

    In Sweden, there is a strong involvement for contributing to and for developing the work in the process aimed at building the Swedish repository sites of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear wastes. The discussions in the focus groups showed that: - the participants had substantial comments on the content and the shaping of the guidelines which will be of use to SSI (one of the Swedish authorities) in the current work; - involved participants' needs for knowledge, as well as their comments, reach far beyond the outline of the guidelines. One can find questions on basic concepts and technical details of measurements as well as on issues of legal, health related, organisational and social aspects and consequences, ranging from today and far into the distant future. This will be of use for building an information database that can place radiation protection criteria concerning final disposal into a broader context. SSI plans to put forward a draft of the guidelines to be discussed further in the municipalities, followed by discussions with other actors. The guidelines are planned to be ready at the end of 2004

  6. Professional Stereotypes of Interprofessional Education Naive Pharmacy and Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Maria Miller; Harris, Elaine C.; Ryan, Gina J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To assess and compare interprofessional education (IPE) naive pharmacy and nursing student stereotypes prior to completion of an IPE activity. Methods. Three hundred and twenty-three pharmacy students and 275 nursing students at Mercer University completed the Student Stereotypes Rating Questionnaire. Responses from pharmacy and nursing students were compared, and responses from different level learners within the same profession also were compared. Results. Three hundred and fifty-six (59.5%) students completed the survey. Pharmacy students viewed pharmacists more favorably than nursing students viewed pharmacists for all attributes except the ability to work independently. Additionally, nursing students viewed nurses less favorably than pharmacy students viewed nurses for academic ability and practical skills. There was some variability in stereotypes between professional years. Conclusion. This study confirms the existence of professional stereotypes, although overall student perceptions of their own profession and the other were generally positive. PMID:28720912

  7. Handling of unused prescription drugs--knowledge, behaviour and attitude among Swedish people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Matilda; Sabelström, Emma; Gunnarsson, Bo

    2009-07-01

    Unused prescription drugs can pose a security risk particularly for children or addicts; and they can pose an environmental risk if they are not disposed of properly through correct destruction. The general recommendation in Sweden is to return the unused medicines to a pharmacy. The Swedish Association of the Pharmaceutical Industry AB (LIF) has together with the Swedish retail chain Apoteket AB conducted surveys in 2001, 2004 and 2007 to investigate the level of knowledge in the general public on this issue. The result from the survey in 2007 shows, inter alia: 85% knew that correct disposal was to return unused medicines to a pharmacy and 43% had in fact returned their medicines to a pharmacy during the last 12 months. Of those who saved their medicines, 55% implied they would in the future return it to a pharmacy. 50% answered that they returned the unused medicines for environmental reasons and 42% answered that they worry about the environmental impact of medicines. Comparing the results from the earlier surveys it can be concluded that an increasing number of the Swedish population does return unused medicines to a pharmacy for correct disposal. Environmental concerns are getting more important than security concerns as a reason for returning unused medicines to a pharmacy and a growing fraction is worried about the environmental impact of pharmaceuticals.

  8. Pharmacy Education in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedouch, Pierrick; Nguyen, Thi-Hoai; Nguyen, Thi-Lien-Huong; Hoang, Thi-Kim-Huyen; Calop, Jean; Allenet, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacy education programs in Vietnam are complex and offer various career pathways. All include theory and laboratory modules in general, foundation, and pharmaceutical knowledge; placements in health facilities; and a final examination. The various pharmacy degree programs allow specialization in 1 or more of 5 main fields: (1) drug management and supply, (2) drug development and production, (3) pharmacology and clinical pharmacy, (4) traditional medicine and pharmacognosy, and (5) drug quality control, which are offered as main specialization options during the reformed undergraduate and postgraduate programs. However, pharmacy education in Vietnam in general remains product oriented and clinical pharmacy training has not received adequate attention. Only students who have obtained the bachelor of pharmacy degree, which requires a minimum of 5 years of study, are considered as fully qualified pharmacists. In contrast, an elementary diploma in pharmacy awarded after 1 year of pharmacy study permits entry into more junior pharmacy positions. Since the 2000s, there has been a surge in the number and types of schools offering pharmacy qualifications at various levels. PMID:23966717

  9. Implementation of information systems at pharmacies - a case study from the re-regulated pharmacy market in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammar, Tora; Ohlson, Mats; Hanson, Elizabeth; Petersson, Göran

    2015-01-01

    When the Swedish pharmacy market was re-regulated in 2009, Sweden moved from one state-owned pharmacy chain to several private pharmacy companies, and four new dispensing systems emerged to replace the one system that had previously been used at all Swedish pharmacies for more than 20 years. The aim of this case study was to explore the implementation of the new information systems for dispensing at pharmacies. The vendors of the four dispensing systems in Sweden were interviewed, and a questionnaire was sent to the managers of the pharmacy companies. In addition, a questionnaire was sent to 350 pharmacists who used the systems for dispensing prescriptions. The implementation of four new dispensing systems followed a strict time frame set by political decisions, involved actors completely new to the market, lacked clear regulation and standards for functionality and quality assurance, was complex and resulted in variations in quality. More than half of the pharmacists (58%) perceived their current dispensing system as supporting safe dispensing of medications, 26% were neutral and 15% did not perceive it to support a safe dispensing. Most pharmacists (80%) had experienced problems with their dispensing system during the previous month. The pharmacists experienced problems included reliability issues, usability issues, and missing functionality. In this case study exploring the implementation of new information systems for dispensing prescriptions at pharmacies in Sweden, weaknesses related to reliability, functionality and usability were identified and could affect patient safety. The weaknesses of the systems seem to result from the limited time for the development and implementation, the lack of comprehensive and evidence-based requirements for dispensing systems, and the unclear distribution of quality assurance responsibilities among involved stakeholders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Swedish Government Minister at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research recently visited CERN. The Swedish Minister was greeted by Swedish scientists working at CERN. Signing of the Swedish Computing Memorandum of Understanding. Pär Omling, Director-General of the Swedish Research Council (left), and Jos Engelen, CERN’s Chief Scientific Officer. Lars Leijonborg, the Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research, was welcomed to CERN by Director-General Robert Aymar on 10 March. After an introduction to the Laboratory’s activities, the Minister was given guided tours of the control room, the ATLAS surface hall and experiment cavern and the adjoining LHC tunnel. Mr Leijonborg was then greeted by Swedish scientists and given an overview of the Swedish research programme at CERN. Five Swedish university groups are taking part in LHC research. Swedish universities are notably involved in the manufacture of parts for the sub-detectors of AT...

  11. Promoting weight management services in community pharmacy: perspectives of the pharmacy team in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmann, Anita Elaine; MacLure, Katie; Marshall, Sarah; Gray, Gwen; Stewart, Derek

    2015-08-01

    Obesity has reached pandemic levels with more than 1.4 billion adults affected worldwide. While there is a need to systematically develop and evaluate community pharmacy based models of weight management, it is imperative to describe and understand the perspectives of pharmacy staff. In the UK, trained and accredited community pharmacy medicines counter assistants (MCAs) are commonly the front line staff involved in patient consultations and sale of over-the-counter medicines. To explore the beliefs and experiences of pharmacists and MCAs in the North-East of Scotland on community pharmacy weight management. All 135 community pharmacies in the North-East of Scotland. A qualitative approach of semi-structured telephone interviews with 31 pharmacists and 20 MCAs in the North-East of Scotland. The semi-structured interview schedule was developed with reference to key domains describing professional practice (i.e. awareness and knowledge, skills, practicalities, motivation, acceptance and beliefs) and contextualised with policy documents and published research on community pharmacy based weight management. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Pharmacists' and MCAs' beliefs and experiences with delivering weight management services in community pharmacy. There were mixed responses from pharmacists and MCAs around pharmacy based weight management services from positive views of providing the service in community pharmacy to those more reticent who would always favour patients visiting their physician. While all described similar services e.g. measurement of weight, healthy eating advice, supply of products, they acknowledged that support was often opportunistic at the request of customers, with little integration of other providers. Roles described varied from pharmacist only functions to any staff member. While pharmacists generally felt comfortable and confident, MCAs gave more diverse responses. Both Pharmacist and MCAs highlighted

  12. Pharmacy settles suit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-02

    A suit was filed by an HIV-positive man against a pharmacy that inadvertently disclosed his HIV status to his ex-wife and children. His ex-wife tried to use the information in a custody battle for their two children. The suit against the pharmacy was settled, but the terms of the settlement remain confidential.

  13. An Innovative Approach to Pharmacy Law Education Utilizing a Mock Board of Pharmacy Meeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Todd Bess

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A thorough understanding of pharmacy law by students is important in the molding of future pharmacy practitioners, but a standardized template for the best way to educate students in this area has not been created. A mock Board of Pharmacy meeting was designed and incorporated into the Pharmacy Law course at the University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy. Students acted as Board of Pharmacy members and utilized technology to decide outcomes of cases and requests addressed in a typical 2 day Tennessee Board of Pharmacy meeting. The actual responses to those cases, as well as similar cases and requests addressed over a 5 year period, were revealed to students after they made motions on mock scenarios. The mock Board of Pharmacy meeting engages the students in a way that lectures alone often fail to achieve with some initial evidence of successful student learning. Utilizing this teaching format as a law education tool challenges the status quo of pharmacy education and may serve as an impetus and catalyst for future innovations. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents, and royalties. Dr. Wang’s time was partly supported by the National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01AG040146 and R01AG049696. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.   Type: Idea Paper

  14. Costs of Loyalty Programmes Implementation in Pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sierpińska

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Receiving the customer is in todays market realities top marketing companies. The build a sustainable partnership relation between the seller and the buyer is decide on businesses, takings and profit potential. Increasingly, therefore, perpetuates the view that create lasting relationships is an essential factor in improving the effectiveness of marketing activities conducted by modern businesses. The paper presents the implementation costs of loyalty programmes in pharmacies. These costs are presented based on a study of one of the largest pharmacy loyalty programmes in Poland: I care for health.

  15. Pharmacy and freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, D L

    1984-03-01

    The development of pharmacy in Western civilization has been influenced by ideas of individual liberty; the impact of these ideas is traced. For a short time during the French Revolution, individuals without qualifications could practice pharmacy, but abuses prompted return of regulation; from 1803, pharmacy was closely regulated by the state. Liberal thinking in 19th-century Britain left control of pharmacy mainly within the profession; regulation was definitive rather than restrictive. With the influence of Jacksonian Democracy and freedom of trade in the United States, there were no effective pharmacy regulations until the late 19th century and few educational requirements for licensure until the 1920s. In Germany, the old system of concessions and privileges was upset after World War II when any qualified pharmacist was allowed to open a shop wherever desired in the American-occupied zone; the courts upheld this policy as the basis for establishment of pharmacies in West Germany. Liberty in dispensing drugs has been limited out of concern for the well-being of individuals and of society as a whole. In Great Britain and the U.S., restrictions on dispensing antedated laws establishing qualifications for pharmacists. The history of pharmacy demonstrates that there are moral and social barriers to realization of the ideals of liberty. History also suggests that if pharmacists assume responsibilities that use their specialized training, they can defend against inroads by nonpharmacists.

  16. Pharmacists’ social authority to transform community pharmacy practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy McPherson, PhD, RPh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaders in the profession of pharmacy have articulated a vision of pharmacists as providers of patient-centered care (PCC services and the Doctor of Pharmacy was established as the required practice degree to achieve this vision. Pharmacist-provided PCC services have been shown to reduce medication costs and improve patient compliance with therapies. While community pharmacists are capable of, and are ideally placed for, providing PCC services, in fact they devote most of their time to prescription dispensing rather than direct patient care. As professionals, community pharmacists are charged with protecting society by providing expert services to help consumers manage risks associated with drug therapies. Historically pharmacists fulfilled this responsibility by accurately dispensing prescription medications, verifying doses, and allergy checking. This limited view of pharmacy practice is insufficient in light of the modern view of pharmacists as providers of PCC. The consumers’ view of community pharmacy as a profession represents a barrier to transforming the basis of community pharmacy from product distribution to providing PCC services. Community pharmacists are conferred with social authority to dictate the manner in which their professional services are provided. Pharmacists can therefore facilitate the transition to PCC as the primary function of community pharmacy by exercising their social authority to engage consumers in their roles in the new patient-pharmacist relationship. Each pharmacist must decide to provide PCC services. Suggestions for initiating PCC services in community pharmacy are offered.

  17. Refer-To-Pharmacy: Pharmacy for the Next Generation Now! A Short Communication for Pharmacy

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    Refer-to-Pharmacy is the first fully integrated hospital to community pharmacy referral system. This article explains the importance of these referrals for patients and health economies to improve medicines optimisation, and how Refer-to-Pharmacy works in both hospital and community pharmacies.

  18. Is a Pharmacy Student the Customer or the Product?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Academic entitlement and student consumerism have been described as a cause for unprofessional behavior in higher education. Colleges and schools of pharmacy may inadvertently encourage student consumerism and academic entitlement by misunderstanding who is the primary customer of pharmacy education. Pharmacy colleges and schools who view students as the primary customer can unintentionally pressure faculty members to relax expectations for professionalism and academic performance and thereby cause a general downward spiral in the quality of pharmacy graduates. In contrast, this paper argues that the primary customer of pharmacy education is the patient. Placing the patient at the center of the educational process is consistent with the concepts of pharmaceutical care, medication therapy management, the patient-centered home, and the oath of the pharmacist. Emphasizing the patient as the primary customer discourages academic entitlement and student consumerism and encourages an emphasis on learning how to serve the medication-related needs of the patient. PMID:24558271

  19. OneVA Pharmacy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The OneVA Pharmacy application design consists of 3 main components: VistA Medication Profile screen, Health Data Record Clinical Data Service (HDR/CDS), and OneVA...

  20. Community pharmacy incident reporting: a new tool for community pharmacies in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Certina; Hung, Patricia; Lee, Gary; Kadija, Medina

    2010-01-01

    Incident reporting offers insight into a variety of intricate processes in healthcare. However, it has been found that medication incidents are under reported in the community pharmacy setting. The Community Pharmacy Incident Reporting (CPhIR) program was created by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices Canada specifically for incident reporting in the community pharmacy setting in Canada. The initial development of key elements for CPhIR included several focus-group teleconferences with pharmacists from Ontario and Nova Scotia. Throughout the development and release of the CPhIR pilot, feedback from pharmacists and pharmacy technicians was constantly incorporated into the reporting program. After several rounds of iterative feedback, testing and consultation with community pharmacy practitioners, a final version of the CPhIR program, together with self-directed training materials, is now ready to launch. The CPhIR program provides users with a one-stop platform to report and record medication incidents, export data for customized analysis and view comparisons of individual and aggregate data. These unique functions allow for a detailed analysis of underlying contributing factors in medication incidents. A communication piece for pharmacies to share their experiences is in the process of development. To ensure the success of the CPhIR program, a patient safety culture must be established. By gaining a deeper understanding of possible causes of medication incidents, community pharmacies can implement system-based strategies for quality improvement and to prevent potential errors from occurring again in the future. This article highlights key features of the CPhIR program that will assist community pharmacies to improve their drug distribution system and, ultimately, enhance patient safety.

  1. Consumers and Carers Versus Pharmacy Staff: Do Their Priorities for Australian Pharmacy Services Align?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Sara S; Kelly, Fiona; Sav, Adem; Kendall, Elizabeth; King, Michelle A; Whitty, Jennifer A; Wheeler, Amanda J

    2015-10-01

    Health professionals, including pharmacists, are encouraged to meet the needs of their consumers in an efficient and patient-centred manner. Yet, there is limited information as to what consumers with chronic conditions need from pharmacy as a healthcare destination or how well pharmacy staff understand these needs. The aim of this study was to identify service user priorities for ideal community pharmacy services for consumers with chronic conditions and their carers, and compare these priorities with what pharmacy staff think these groups want. The nominal group technique was undertaken with pharmacist, pharmacy support staff, consumer and carer groups in four Australian regions between December 2012 and April 2013. Participant ideas and priorities for ideal services or care were identified, and contextual insight was obtained by thematic analysis. Twenty-one nominal group sessions are accepted, including 15 consumer and carer, four pharmacist and two pharmacy support staff groups. Pharmacy staff views generally aligned with consumer priorities, such as access, affordability, patient-centred care and continuity and coordinated care, yet diverged with respect to consumer information or education on medication and services. Fundamentally, consumers and carers sought streamlined access to information and medication, in a coordinated, patient-centred approach. Alleviating financial burden was a key consumer priority, with a call for the continuation and extension of medication subsidies. Overall, pharmacy staff had a reasonable understanding of what consumers would prioritise, but further emphasis on the importance, delivery, or both, of consumer information is needed. Greater consideration is needed from policy makers regarding the financial barriers to accessing medication for consumers with chronic conditions.

  2. The organizational framework of community pharmacies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Sílvia Filipa; van Mil, J W Foppe; da Costa, Filipa Alves

    2015-10-01

    The role of the pharmacist has undergone profound changes over the recent years. In most European countries, the tendency seems to be that pharmacists are moving from being product-oriented to service-oriented. An interesting series of papers describing care related services of pharmacy in various countries has been published in 2006, but much has changed since then. This paper aims to provide an updated view on the overall health care sector in Europe, with a special focus on services in community pharmacy. To list and compare health care and community pharmacy structure in Europe; and to discuss the facilitators and barriers that can be found in health care systems and may promote or hinder the implementation of new community pharmacy services. European community pharmacy practice. A cross-sectional study was undertaken where data were collected using an online survey sent to a purposive sample of representatives from 27 European countries. Main outcome measure variation in professional community pharmacy services across Europe. Data were obtained from 22 respondents in 19 countries (70.4%). Health care is mainly provided by a form of public National Health Services in 17 of the 19 countries. Demographic criteria for founding new pharmacies were present in 17 countries. Medicines are exclusively available in pharmacies in approximately one third of the countries. Smoking cessation (93.8%), drug waste management (81.3%) and pharmaceutical care programmes for specific diseases (77.8%) were reported as the most widely disseminated services in European pharmacies. There are still major differences between community pharmacy practice in Europe. Differences are mostly due to the legal framework and remuneration issues, which impact on the range of services available from pharmacies to the community of each country.

  3. Science communication and the Swedish acrylamide "alarm".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofstedt, Ragnar E

    2003-01-01

    On April 24, 2002 the Swedish National Food Administration along with a group of researchers at the University of Stockholm raised an alarm regarding potential health risks associated with eating fried and baked foods such as potatoes and bread. Scientists had found high levels of acrylamide (up to 500 times more acrylamide than that allowed in drinking water by the World Health Organisation), a substance widely believed to cause cancer, in cooked high starch foods. The outcomes of this "alarm" were immediate. In Sweden sales of chips fell by 30-50 percent over a 3-day period following the press conference, and share prices among several fried food manufacturers fell substantially, as stock analysts were fearful that consumption of fried foods would decrease significantly. Four days after the press conference, however, consumers began eating fried food as normal and a number of researchers and journalists in Sweden and elsewhere took the view that the alarm had been both exaggerated and ill placed. In this study, I evaluate the science communication process associated with the scare, based on a content analysis of a select group of Swedish broad sheets from just previous to the April 2002 press conference to the present time (December 2002). In addition, the study is based on interviews with the various Swedish regulators involved in the process itself (in particular at the Swedish National Food Administration) as well as with the scientists responsible for the study at Stockholm University and relevant journalists and politicians.

  4. The Swedish Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    2012-01-01

    The main characteristics of ‘the Swedish model’ are arguably related to the country's knowledge-intensive industry and its advanced welfare state. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the historical development of these two features of the Swedish economy. The first part looks at industrial...... development, highlighting both the reasons for the rapid industrialization in the late 19th century and the subsequent shift from raw materials to human capital and knowledge as the main competitive advantages. The second part turns to the development of welfare state, stressing the gradual increase...

  5. The Swedish financial system

    OpenAIRE

    Stenfors, Alexis; Clark, Eric; Farahani, Ilia; Hansen, Anders Lund; Passarella, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the evolution of the Swedish financial system since the 1980s. The concept of financialisation, with its different elements and perspectives, is used as a lens through which the key historical developments are analysed. The aim of the study is two-fold. First, by highlighting some unique country-specific features, it addresses the profound changes that have taken place in the Swedish financial system during the last decades in relation to the ‘rise and fall’ of the so-...

  6. Pharmacy specialists' attitudes toward pharmaceutical service quality at community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbonas, Gvidas; Jakušovaitė, Irayda; Savickas, Arūnas

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze pharmacy specialists' attitudes toward the quality of pharmaceutical services at Lithuanian community pharmacies. Between April and June 2009, a total of 471 Lithuanian community pharmacy specialists completed a questionnaire designed to evaluate their attitudes toward the quality of pharmaceutical services at community pharmacies. The main dimensions of pharmaceutical service quality were extracted by principal component analysis. Two main dimensions of pharmaceutical service quality were extracted: pharmacotherapeutic aspects (provision of information about drug therapy, possible side effects, health promotion, the amount of time spent with a patient, and the ascertainment that a patient understood the provided information) and socioeconomic aspects (considering patient's needs and financial capabilities, making a patient confident with the services provided). Pharmacy specialists evaluated the quality of both dimensions positively, but the quality of the first dimension was rated significantly worse than that of the second dimension. The attitudes of pharmacy specialists working at independent pharmacies were more positive toward pharmacotherapeutic aspects as compared to the specialists working at chain or state pharmacies. Pharmacotherapeutic aspects were rated better by pharmacy specialists, aged ≥ 55 years, than those younger than 45 years. Moreover, the attitudes of 45-54-year-old pharmacy specialists toward the socioeconomic aspects were more positive as compared with those of 35-44-year olds. Pharmacists rated the socioeconomic aspects of pharmaceutical service quality worse as compared with pharmacy technicians. The attitudes of pharmacy specialists working at pharmacies with 6-9 specialists were more negative toward pharmacotherapeutic aspects than those of the pharmacies with 1-2 specialists. Pharmacy specialists working at pharmacies with ≥ 10 specialists reported lower scores of socioeconomic

  7. Swedish teenagers and over-the-counter analgesics - responsible, casual or careless use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmström, Inger K; Bastholm-Rahmner, Pia; Bernsten, Cecilia; Röing, Marta; Björkman, Ingeborg

    2014-01-01

    Teenagers in Sweden were given greater access as consumers of OTC drugs in 2009 after the reregulation of the pharmacy market, which allowed for the establishment of private pharmacies and sale of specific over-the-counter (OTC) drugs in retail stores and gas stations. Increased access to OTC drugs could provide new opportunities for self-care but attenuates the opportunity for the traditional expert surveillance of pharmacists, thus increasing the possibility of inappropriate OTC drug use. Views of 16-19 year old Swedish teenagers on OTC drugs, with special regard to analgesic drugs were explored and described, based on the following questions: How and where did they acquire their knowledge and attitudes regarding OTC drugs? What perceptions did they have about the use of OTC drugs? A qualitative approach with a descriptive design was chosen. Data were collected in 2011 with 10 focus group discussions with high school students aged 16-19 years from different parts of Sweden. A total of 77 teenagers participated, 33 males and 44 females. A manifest qualitative content analysis was performed. While most teenagers appeared to have responsible attitudes toward OTC drugs and their use, some teenagers had attitudes that ranged from casual to careless. The focus group discussions also revealed knowledge gaps among teenagers regarding OTC drugs, and the significant influence of parents and peers on their OTC drug use. This study provides insight into how vulnerable some teenagers could be as new consumers of OTC drugs and suggested that educational efforts could be geared toward parents as well as teenagers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Swedish Verb "Lata" "Let" from a Synchronic and Diachronic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawoens, Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at highlighting the syntactic and semantic variation of the Swedish verb "lata" "let" from both a synchronic and diachronic point of view. On the basis of corpus data containing Old and Modern Swedish texts from the 13th to the 19th centuries, the syntactic and semantic development of the verb is investigated within the framework…

  9. Factors affecting pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in community pharmacy: A structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitadpakorn, Sujin; Farris, Karen B; Kittisopee, Tanattha

    2017-01-01

    The concept of customer engagement and devotion has been applied in various service businesses to keep the customers with business However, a limited number of studies were performed to examine the context of customer engagement and devotion in pharmacy business which focus on the impact of customer perceptions about pharmacists, perceived quality of pharmacy structure, medication price strategy on pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in a pharmacy providing pharmaceutical care to the customers. This study aimed to assess a conceptual model depicting the relationships among customer perceptions about pharmacists, pharmacy quality structure, medication price, customer engagement, and customer devotion. And also aimed to assess and measure if there is a direct or indirect relationship between these factors. A quantitative study was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires. Two hundred and fifty three customers who regularly visited the pharmacy were randomly recruited from a purposively selected 30 community pharmacies in Bangkok. The survey was completed during February to April 2016. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to assess the direct and indirect relationships between constructs. A total of 253/300 questionnaires were returned for analysis, and the response rate was 84%. Only perceptions about pharmacist in customers receiving professional pharmacy services was statically significant regarding relationship with pharmacy engagement (beta=0.45). Concurrently, the model from empirical data fit with the hypothetical model (p-value = 0.06, adjusted chi-square (CMIN/DF)=1.16, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI)=0.93, Comparatively Fit Index (CFI)=0.99, and Root Mean Square Error Approximation (RMSEA)=0.03). The study confirmed the indirect positive influence of customer perceptions about pharmacist on pharmacy customer devotion in providing pharmacy services via pharmacy engagement It was customer perceptions about pharmacist that influenced

  10. International Mentoring Programs: Leadership Opportunities to Enhance Worldwide Pharmacy Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaka, Chukwuemeka; Brechtelsbauer, Erich; Goff, Debra A

    2017-07-01

    Health-system and community pharmacy practice in the United States is experiencing transformational change; however, this transformation is lagging in the international arena. As a result, efforts are being made to provide support and education to the international pharmacy leaders and practitioners. This article describes one effort, the Mandela Washington Fellows Program, and suggests areas where pharmacy leaders can be involved to help advance the practice of pharmacy on an international level. The Mandela Washington Fellows Program for young Africa leaders consists of a US-Africa pharmacy-mentoring program identified ranging from educational opportunities to collaboration for implementation of patient care programs. The specifics of the mentoring program include daily meetings, clinic and ward rounds, round table discussions with mentors, and visits to various hospital care systems. Lessons were learned and strategies for sustaining the program are discussed. These types of programs represent leadership opportunities that may not be apparent to most pharmacy directors, but expanding their view to helping international pharmacists expand their practice only strengthens the professional goal of providing patient-centered pharmacy services.

  11. Pharmacy students' quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Horáková, Karolína

    2017-01-01

    1 ABSTRACT PHARMACY STUDENTS' QUALITY OF LIFE Student: Karolína Horáková Tutor: PharmDr. Jitka Pokladníková, Ph.D. Dept. of Social and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, Charles University, Czech Republic Introduction: The quality of life of pharmacy students may change throughout their university life and differ from the quality of life of the general population. In the Czech Republic, quality of life of pharmacy students was not yet examined. Aim: The aim was to deter...

  12. Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Pharmacy and Bioresources (JPB) publishes scientific work in all areas of Pharmaceutical and life sciences, including (but not restricted to): medicinal plant research; herbal medicines and cosmetics; development of drugs and pharmaceuticals; quality assurance of drugs; safety and efficacy of drugs; ...

  13. Clinical pharmacy education in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Melody; Shao, Hong; Yang, Li; Nie, Xiao-Yan; Zhai, Suo-Di; Shi, Lu-Wen; Lubawy, William C

    2008-12-15

    Pharmacy education in China focuses on pharmaceutical sciences, with the bachelor of science (BS) of pharmacy as the entry-level degree. Pharmacy practice curricula in these programs are centered on compounding, dispensing, pharmacy administration, and laboratory experiences, which are the traditional responsibilities for pharmacists. Additional graduate-level training is available at the master of science (MS) and the doctor of philosophy (PhD) levels, most of which concentrate on drug discovery and drug development research. Presently, the emphasis in practice is beginning to shift to clinical pharmacy. With this change, additional degree offerings are being developed to meet the growing demand for clinical pharmacists. There is also interest in developing more clinical skills in practicing pharmacists through additional non-degree training. The Ministry of Education is considering a proposal for an entry-level professional degree of master and/or doctor in clinical pharmacy similar to the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree in the United States.

  14. Swedish electricity market 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The organization of the Swedish electricity market has been in a state of continual change since the electricity market reform was started in the early 1990s. The conditions for the development of the electricity market have changed since the new Electricity Act came into force on 1 January 1996. The purpose of the reform is to introduce greater competition on the electricity market and provide the consumers with greater freedom of choice and, by open trade in electricity, to create the conditions for more efficient pricing. Being the central energy authority, the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development, NUTEK, was entrusted by the Government with the task of following developments on the Swedish electricity market. The Network Authority, which has the supervisory function for the new electricity market, were entrusted by the Government with the task of following developments on the Swedish electricity market and regularly compiling and reporting current market information. The new electricity market has now been operative for ten months. The Network Authority has submitted to the Government a detailed report entitled `Developments on the electricity market`, dealing with the experience gained from the electricity market reform. The purpose of the publication is to provide the players on the electricity market - the decision makers, the media and the general public - with comprehensive and easily accessible information on the market conditions. The publication includes summaries of information on electricity production and use in recent years, the structure of the electricity market from the perspective of a player, electricity trade in Sweden and in northern Europe, electricity prices in Sweden and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment

  15. The swedish challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tregouet, R.

    2006-01-01

    Sweden decided to be the first country without petroleum for 2020. The author presents the major energy policy axis implemented by the swedish government to delete the part of the produced energy by the petroleum: development of the renewable energies, research programs of the transportation sector concerning the alternative fuels for the motors, energy efficiency and development of the biomass to replace the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  16. Running Head: Improving Pharmacy Customer Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-29

    Pharmacy Satisfaction Running Head: IMPROVING PHARMACY CUSTOMER SATISFACTION Improving Pharmacy Customer Satisfaction at Reynolds Army Community...Pharmacy Satisfaction 7 Improving Pharmacy Customer Satisfaction The Military Healthcare System is a healthcare system intended to provide state of... customer satisfaction plays on healthcare is a relatively new concept to the Military Healthcare System. With the introduction of TRICARE, prudent

  17. The civic integrationist turn in Danish and Swedish school politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, Christian; Jensen, Kristian Kriegbaum

    2017-01-01

    , yet with different styles and content. Citizenship education in Denmark concentrates on reproducing a historically derived core of cultural values and knowledge to which minorities are expected to assimilate, while the Swedish model subscribes to a pluralist view that stresses mutual adaptation...

  18. Classification of Swedish Learner Essays by CEFR Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodina, Elena; Pilán, Ildikó; Alfter, David

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes initial efforts on creating a system for the automatic assessment of Swedish second language (L2) learner essays from two points of view: holistic evaluation of the reached level according to the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR), and the lexical analysis of texts for receptive and productive vocabulary per CEFR…

  19. Pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia: A vision of the fut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham Aljadhey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pharmacy education in developing countries faces many challenges. An assessment of the challenges and opportunities for the future of pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia has not been conducted. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to ascertain the views and opinions of pharmacy education stakeholders regarding the current issues challenging pharmacy education, and to discuss the future of pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A total of 48 participants attended a one-day meeting in October 2011, designed especially for the purpose of this study. The participants were divided into six round-table discussion sessions with eight persons in each group. Six major themes were explored in these sessions, including the need to improve pharmacy education, program educational outcomes, adoption of an integrated curriculum, the use of advanced teaching methodologies, the need to review assessment methods, and challenges and opportunities to improve pharmacy experiential training. The round-table discussion sessions were videotaped and transcribed verbatim and analyzed by two independent researchers. Results: Participants agreed that pharmacy education in the country needs improvement. Participants agreed on the need for clear, measureable, and national educational outcomes for pharmacy programs in the Kingdom. Participants raised the importance of collaboration between faculty members and departments to design and implement an integrated curriculum. They also emphasized the use of new teaching methodologies focusing on student self-learning and active learning. Assessments were discussed with a focus on the use of new tools, confidentiality of examinations, and providing feedback to students. Several points were raised regarding the opportunities to improve pharmacy experiential training, including the need for more experiential sites and qualified preceptors, addressing variations in training quality between experiential sites, the

  20. Motivating pharmacy employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S J; Generali, J A

    1984-07-01

    Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented.

  1. Importance of social pharmacy education in Libyan pharmacy schools: perspectives from pharmacy practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Saad Saleh Abrika

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to explore the perceptions among pharmacy practitioners in Libya on the importance of social pharmacy education. A qualitative methodology was employed to conduct this study. Using a purposive sampling technique, a total of ten Libyan registered pharmacists were interviewed. Based on the content analysis of the interviews, two major themes emerged, namely the understanding of social pharmacy education and the need for incorporating social pharmacy courses into the pharmacy education curriculum. The majority of the respondents knew about the concept. Of those that had no prior knowledge of this term, half of them expressed interest in knowing more about it. There was a positive perception of introducing social pharmacy into the undergraduate curricula among the respondents, and they believed that it is necessary for future pharmacists to know about social pharmacy components. The findings from the pharmacy practitioners??evaluation suggest the need to incorporate social pharmacy courses into the curricula of all pharmacy schools in Libya.

  2. Balanced Scorecards As a Tool for Developing Patient-Centered Pharmacy Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwere, Emmanuel N.; Keating, Ellen A.; Weber, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Having accurate data is essential for the pharmacy director to manage the department and develop patient-centered pharmacy services. A balanced scorecard (BSC) of essential department data, which is a broad view of a department’s function beyond its financial performance, is an important part of any department’s strategic plan. This column describes how the pharmacy director builds and promotes a department’s BSC. Specifically, this article reviews how the BSC supports the department’s mission and vision, describes the metrics of the BSC and how they are collected, and recommends how the pharmacy director can effectively use the scorecard results in promoting the pharmacy. If designed properly and updated consistently, a BSC can present a broad view of the pharmacy’s performance, serve as a guide for strategic decision making, and improve on the quality of its services. PMID:24958976

  3. Graduating Pharmacy Students’ Perspectives on E-Professionalism and Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Ness, Genevieve Lynn; Sheehan, Amy Heck; Snyder, Margie E.; Jordan, Joseph; Cunningham, Jean E.; Gettig, Jacob P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the use patterns of social media among graduating pharmacy students, characterize students’ views and opinions of professionalism on popular social media sites, and compare responses about social media behavior among students seeking different types of employment.

  4. Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Factors affecting pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in community pharmacy: A structural equation modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitadpakorn, Sujin; Kittisopee, Tanattha

    2017-01-01

    Background: The concept of customer engagement and devotion has been applied in various service businesses to keep the customers with business However, a limited number of studies were performed to examine the context of customer engagement and devotion in pharmacy business which focus on the impact of customer perceptions about pharmacists, perceived quality of pharmacy structure, medication price strategy on pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in a pharmacy providing pharmaceutical care to the customers. Objective: This study aimed to assess a conceptual model depicting the relationships among customer perceptions about pharmacists, pharmacy quality structure, medication price, customer engagement, and customer devotion. And also aimed to assess and measure if there is a direct or indirect relationship between these factors. Methods: A quantitative study was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires. Two hundred and fifty three customers who regularly visited the pharmacy were randomly recruited from a purposively selected 30 community pharmacies in Bangkok. The survey was completed during February to April 2016. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to assess the direct and indirect relationships between constructs. Results: A total of 253/300 questionnaires were returned for analysis, and the response rate was 84%. Only perceptions about pharmacist in customers receiving professional pharmacy services was statically significant regarding relationship with pharmacy engagement (beta=0.45). Concurrently, the model from empirical data fit with the hypothetical model (p-value = 0.06, adjusted chi-square (CMIN/DF)=1.16, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI)=0.93, Comparatively Fit Index (CFI)=0.99, and Root Mean Square Error Approximation (RMSEA)=0.03). Conclusion: The study confirmed the indirect positive influence of customer perceptions about pharmacist on pharmacy customer devotion in providing pharmacy services via pharmacy engagement It was

  6. Factors affecting pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in community pharmacy: A structural equation modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitadpakorn S

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concept of customer engagement and devotion has been applied in various service businesses to keep the customers with business However, a limited number of studies were performed to examine the context of customer engagement and devotion in pharmacy business which focus on the impact of customer perceptions about pharmacists, perceived quality of pharmacy structure, medication price strategy on pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in a pharmacy providing pharmaceutical care to the customers. Objective: This study aimed to assess a conceptual model depicting the relationships among customer perceptions about pharmacists, pharmacy quality structure, medication price, customer engagement, and customer devotion. And also aimed to assess and measure if there is a direct or indirect relationship between these factors. Methods: A quantitative study was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires. Two hundred and fifty three customers who regularly visited the pharmacy were randomly recruited from a purposively selected 30 community pharmacies in Bangkok. The survey was completed during February to April 2016. A structural equation model (SEM was used to assess the direct and indirect relationships between constructs. Results: A total of 253/300 questionnaires were returned for analysis, and the response rate was 84%. Only perceptions about pharmacist in customers receiving professional pharmacy services was statically significant regarding relationship with pharmacy engagement (beta=0.45. Concurrently, the model from empirical data fit with the hypothetical model (p-value = 0.06, adjusted chi-square (CMIN/DF=1.16, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI=0.93, Comparatively Fit Index (CFI=0.99, and Root Mean Square Error Approximation (RMSEA=0.03. Conclusion: The study confirmed the indirect positive influence of customer perceptions about pharmacist on pharmacy customer devotion in providing pharmacy services via pharmacy

  7. Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Johanna; Holmqvist Gattario, Kristina; Frisén, Ann

    2017-06-01

    The relatively high gender equality in the Swedish society is likely to exert an influence on gender role construction. Hence, the present research aimed to investigate Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms. A mixed methods approach with two studies was used. In Study 1, young Swedish women's gender role conformity, as measured by the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory 45 (CFNI-45), was compared to the results from previously published studies in Canada, the United States, and Slovakia. Overall, Swedish women displayed less conformity than their foreign counterparts, with the largest difference on the subscale Sexual fidelity. In Study 2, focus group interviews with young Swedish women added a more complex picture of feminine norms in the Swedish society. For instance the results indicated that Swedish women, while living in a society with a strong gender equality discourse, are torn between the perceived need to invest in their appearances and the risk of being viewed as non-equal when doing so. In sum, despite the fact that traditional gender roles are less pronounced in Sweden, gender role conformity is still a pressing issue. Since attending to the potential roles of feminine norms in women's lives previously has been proposed to be useful in counseling and therapeutic work, the present research also offers valuable information for both researchers and practitioners. [Correction added on 5 May 2017, after first online publication in April 2017: An incorrect Abstract was inadvertently captured in the published article and has been corrected in this current version.]. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. ASHP statement on the pharmacy technician's role in pharmacy informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The American Society of Health- System Pharmacists (ASHP) believes that specially trained pharmacy technicians can assume important supportive roles in pharmacy informatics. These roles include automation and technology systems management, management of projects, training and education, policy and governance, customer service, charge integrity, and reporting. Such roles require pharmacy technicians to gain expertise in information technology (IT) systems, including knowledge of interfaces, computer management techniques, problem resolution, and database maintenance. This knowledge could be acquired through specialized training or experience in a health science or allied scientific field (e.g., health informatics). With appropriate safeguards and supervision, pharmacy technician informaticists (PTIs) will manage IT processes in health-system pharmacy services, ensuring a safe and efficient medication-use process.

  9. Integrating medication samples into the traditional community pharmacy supply chain: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Lisa M; Brown, Thomas E R; Crown, Natalie; Jobanputra, Neil; Lui, Michelle; Laporte, Leigha; Taylor, Valerie H

    2017-08-18

    To assess the feasibility of a medication sampling program involving community pharmacists. A community pharmacy dispensed samples after receiving a voucher given to patients by prescribers. Surveys explored prescribers' and patients' views about sampling and patients' experiences with the program. Half of prescribers reported providing samples, yet 15 patients redeemed 18 vouchers over 1 year. Patients expressed favourable views towards sampling and pharmacist involvement, despite more than half (n = 8/15, 53%) feeling that visiting the pharmacy was less convenient. A voucher-based medication sampling program based in a community pharmacy is a model integrating pharmacist care. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  10. Branding a college of pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Michael T

    2012-11-12

    In a possible future of supply-demand imbalance in pharmacy education, a brand that positively differentiates a college or school of pharmacy from its competitors may be the key to its survival. The nominal group technique, a structured group problem-solving and decision-making process, was used during a faculty retreat to identify and agree on the core qualities that define the brand image of Midwestern University's College of Pharmacy in Glendale, AZ. Results from the retreat were provided to the faculty and students, who then proposed 168 mottos that embodied these qualities. Mottos were voted on by faculty members and pharmacy students. The highest ranked 24 choices were submitted to the faculty, who then selected the top 10 finalists. A final vote by students was used to select the winning motto. The methods described here may be useful to other colleges and schools of pharmacy that want to better define their own brand image and strengthen their organizational culture.

  11. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  12. Strategic analysis of Swedish agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Fogelfors, Håkan; Wivstad, Maria; Eckersten, Henrik; Holstein, Fredrik; Johansson, Susanne; Verwijst, Theo

    2009-01-01

    This strategic analysis of Swedish agriculture – production systems and agricultural landscapes in a time of change – focuses on climate change, future availability of natural resources and economic regulation in a global food market. The background to the project was that the Faculty of Natural Resources and Agriculture of the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences identified an urgent need to explore the implications and opportunities of coming changes for agricultural production syste...

  13. Opportunities and challenges in social pharmacy and pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine M

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacy practice and social pharmacy are two important research areas within pharmaceutical and health sciences. As the disciplines have undergone and are still undergoing changes, it is useful to reflect on the current state of their research as the basis for discussing further development....... The two areas are currently beset by a lack of consensus and charged all too often with evaluating narrowly focused pharmacy services. With the added challenge of diminished funding for research and the pressures to publish results, these fields have to accommodate a much broader research framework than...

  14. Predicting tobacco sales in community pharmacies using population demographics and pharmacy type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Lisa M; Farris, Karen B; Peterson, N Andrew; Aquilino, Mary L

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether the population demographics of the location of pharmacies were associated with tobacco sales in pharmacies, when controlling for pharmacy type. Retrospective analysis. Iowa. All retailers in Iowa that obtained tobacco licenses and all pharmacies registered with the Iowa Board of Pharmacy in 2003. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE AND INTERVENTIONS: Percentage of pharmacies selling tobacco (examined by pharmacy type using chi-square analysis); median income and distribution of race/ethnicity in the county for pharmacies that did or did not sell tobacco (t tests); predictors of whether a pharmacy sold tobacco (logistic regression using the independent variables county-level demographic variables and pharmacy characteristics). County gender composition, race/ethnicity make-up, and income levels were different for tobacco-selling and -nonselling pharmacies. Logistic regression showed that whether a pharmacy sold tobacco was strongly dependent on the type of pharmacy; compared with independent pharmacies (of which only 5% sold tobacco products), chain pharmacies were 34 times more likely to sell tobacco products, mass merchandiser outlets were 47 times more likely to stock these goods, and grocery stores were 378 times more likely to do so. Pharmacies selling tobacco were more likely to be located in counties with significantly higher numbers of multiracial groups. The best predictor of whether an Iowa pharmacy sells tobacco products is type of pharmacy. In multivariable analyses, population demographics of the county in which pharmacies were located were generally not predictive of whether a pharmacy sold tobacco.

  15. Attitude of fourth year Doctor of Pharmacy students towards pharmacy profession and their career preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Saad

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Fourth year students believed that pharmacy education and practice affect the health care system. Their favorite career areas were clinical pharmacy, industrial pharmacy, and hospital pharmacy. Personal interest was the most important factor involved in this selection. Most of them were interested in pharmacy-related research activities.

  16. Physics in the Pre-pharmacy Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Richard P.

    2000-01-01

    Results of a survey of the 81 colleges of pharmacy affiliated with the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy regarding requirements of physics in the pre-pharmacy curriculum are presented. The author concludes that colleges that do not currently require a course in physics in their pre-pharmacy curriculum should consider adding one. (Author)

  17. 21 CFR 1311.200 - Pharmacy responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... chapter). The pharmacy must ensure that logical access controls in the pharmacy application are set so... pharmacy, the pharmacist must check its records to ensure that the electronic version was not received and... prescription had not dispensed the prescription, that pharmacy must mark the electronic version as void or...

  18. Should Pharmacy Technicians Administer Immunizations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan Atkinson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe the potential role for pharmacy technicians in administering immunizations – limited for this discussion to specifically inserting the needle into the patient’s arm and pressing down on the plunger – at the discretion of a supervising pharmacist as a way to enhance patient care and workflow efficiency. Summary. Pharmacy technicians currently play an important role in facilitating pharmacy-based immunization programs. Technicians routinely perform non-clinical tasks related to pharmacy-based immunizations, though nearly all states prohibit technicians from administering vaccines. Several studies demonstrate that untrained laypersons can safely administer intranasal or intradermal vaccines, and laypersons routinely administer medications through intramuscular or subcutaneous routes (e.g., patients with diabetes or rheumatic conditions. It stands to reason that a trained pharmacy technician could perform comparably on these techniques that laypersons have mastered. One state has adopted rules to allow pharmacy technicians to administer immunizations if the technician has completed specific training on administration techniques and on basic life support. This task is performed at the discretion of the supervising pharmacist, and the pharmacist would still be responsible for clinical aspects of immunizing such as prescribing the right vaccine to the right patient. Additional considerations factoring into the decision as to whether or not to involve pharmacy technicians in immunization administration are also summarized. Conclusion. If safety can be reasonably assured through training and supervision, it may be appropriate to delegate vaccine administration to appropriately trained pharmacy technicians. Such delegation may enhance workflow efficiency, which may confer added value for patient care and potentially improve access to community pharmacy-based immunizations.   Type: Commentary

  19. Nuclear pharmacy education: international harmonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, S.M.; Cox, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    Education of nuclear pharmacists exists in many countries around the world. The approach and level of education varies between countries depending upon the expectations of the nuclear pharmacist, the work site and the economic environment. In Australia, training is provided through distance learning. In Europe and Canada, nuclear pharmacists and radiochemists receive postgraduate education in order to engage in the small-scale preparation and quality control of radiopharmaceuticals as well as research and development. In the U.S.A., nuclear pharmacy practitioners obtain basic knowledge primarily through undergraduate programs taken when pursuit the first professional degree in pharmacy. Licensed practitioners in pharmacy enter the practice of nuclear pharmacy through distance learning programs or short courses. While different approaches to education exist, there is a basic core of knowledge and a level of competence required of all nuclear pharmacists and radiochemists providing radiopharmaceutical products and services. It was with this realization that efforts were initiated to develop harmonization concepts and documents pertaining to education in nuclear pharmacy. The benefits of international harmonization in nuclear pharmacy education are numerous. Assurance of the availability of quality professionals to provide optimal products and care to the patient is a principle benefit. Spanning national barriers through the demonstration of self governance and unification in education will enhance the goal of increased freedom of employment between countries. Harmonization endeavors will improve existing education programs through sharing of innovative concepts and knowledge between educators. Documents generated will benefit new educational programs especially in developing nations. A committee on harmonization in nuclear pharmacy education was formed consisting of educators and practitioners from the international community. A working document on education was

  20. Knowledge-Centric Management of Business Rules in a Pharmacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puustjärvi, Juha; Puustjärvi, Leena

    A business rule defines or constraints some aspect of the business. In healthcare sector many of the business rules are dictated by law or medical regulations, which are constantly changing. This is a challenge for the healthcare organizations. Although there is available several commercial business rule management systems the problem from pharmacies point of view is that these systems are overly geared towards the automation and manipulation of business rules, while the main need in pharmacies lies in easy retrieving of business rules within daily routines. Another problem is that business rule management systems are isolated in the sense that they have their own data stores that cannot be accessed by other information systems used in pharmacies. As a result, a pharmacist is burdened by accessing many systems inside a user task. In order to avoid this problem we have modeled business rules as well as their relationships to other relevant information by OWL (Web Ontology Language) such that the ontology is shared among the pharmacy's applications. In this way we can avoid the problems of isolated applications and replicated data. The ontology also encourages pharmacies business agility, i.e., the ability to react more rapidly to the changes required by the new business rules. The deployment of the ontology requires that stored business rules are annotated by appropriate metadata descriptions, which are presented by RDF/XML serialization format. However, neither the designer nor the pharmacists are burdened by RDF/XML format as there are sophisticated graphical editors that can be used.

  1. Swedish Employers and Trade Unions, Labor Migration and the Welfare State—Perspectives on Swedish Labor Migration Policy Debates during the 1960s and the 2000s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Johansson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article uses a political economy approach and explores the nexus between labor migration and the welfare state and how its specificities have been viewed and presented by organized interests of employers and trade unions in Swedish labor migration policy debates during the 1960s and the 2000s. The analysis demonstrates that the Swedish Employers’ Confederation (SAF and its organizational successor the Swedish Confederation of Enterprise (SN have preferred a market-liberal labor migration policy. Over time, a liberal immigration policy has been viewed by employers as an important policy solution to extend levels of economic growth, increase firm competitiveness, and maintain funding for generous welfare state services. However, since the 1960s the Swedish Trade Union Confederation (LO has preferred a state-coordinated and regulated labor migration policy. In LO’s perspective, a regulated immigration policy is a fundamental precondition for guaranteeing workers’ rights, and for minimizing potential negative effects for the functioning of the Swedish labor market model and for a prosperous Swedish welfare state.

  2. An Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Retail Pharmacy Utilization Intervention at General Leonard Wood Army Community Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-23

    utilization between the plans. This supports the findings in a 2001 study by Gaither, Kirking, Ascione , and Welage which indicated consumers would...pharmacy.html Gaither, C. A., Kirking, D. M., Ascione , F. J., & Welage, L. S. Retail Pharmacy Intervention 35 (2001). Consumers’ views on

  3. Swedish vineyards: a utopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mårtensson A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Anna Mårtensson,1 Thord Karlsson,2 Jan-Gunnar Gustafsson31Department of Soil and Environment, 2Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden; 3Bio Evaluation AB, Uppsala, SwedenAbstract: As there is an increasing interest for setting up vineyards and wineries in Sweden, a cost analysis is becoming necessary. In this study, we assessed the potential for wine production in Sweden. The estimated annual costs varied from €15.1/per L for production of 1800 L wine per ha to €41.9 for 525 L per ha. For an annual production of 1800 L per ha potentially achieved in an established vineyard, the capital requirement is €730,000. It would take 6 years for the investment to be paid off if the wine was sold for €37.5 per L. The high production costs mean that the only viable option for success is to orientate production towards the exclusive upper segment.Keywords: cold climate conditions, wine production costs, wine quality

  4. Swedish encapsulation station review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G.

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB's document 'Plan 1996'. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL's Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International's experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation

  5. Swedish encapsulation station review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G. [NAC International, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB`s document `Plan 1996`. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL`s Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International`s experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation 19 refs, 9 figs, 35 tabs

  6. The Swedish Energy Market 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    The Swedish Energy Market, 2005 is an annual publication that presents information and statistics on the network based energy markets in Sweden, i.e. the markets for electricity, natural gas and district heating. It also provides an overview of the issues that have arisen on these markets during the second half of 2004 and the first half of 2005. Considerable work is being carried out in the EU on creating a single market for electricity and natural gas. This publication therefore describes expansion of the Swedish market towards a Nordic and a European market. The publication normally includes a theme chapter, describing some event of particular interest for the Swedish energy market during the year. This year, the theme chapter is devoted to the Storm Gudrun, which struck the south of the country at the beginning of January, and its effects on electricity supply throughout the country. The chapter is based on the report submitted to the Government by the Energy Markets Inspectorate in the spring of 2005, and also includes a summary of the Inspectorate's proposals for measures to improve the security of electricity transmission. Energy in Sweden, which is another of the Swedish Energy Agency's annual publications, provides information and statistics on the development of the entire Swedish energy system

  7. The Swedish Energy Market 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-01

    The Swedish Energy Market, 2005 is an annual publication that presents information and statistics on the network based energy markets in Sweden, i.e. the markets for electricity, natural gas and district heating. It also provides an overview of the issues that have arisen on these markets during the second half of 2004 and the first half of 2005. Considerable work is being carried out in the EU on creating a single market for electricity and natural gas. This publication therefore describes expansion of the Swedish market towards a Nordic and a European market. The publication normally includes a theme chapter, describing some event of particular interest for the Swedish energy market during the year. This year, the theme chapter is devoted to the Storm Gudrun, which struck the south of the country at the beginning of January, and its effects on electricity supply throughout the country. The chapter is based on the report submitted to the Government by the Energy Markets Inspectorate in the spring of 2005, and also includes a summary of the Inspectorate's proposals for measures to improve the security of electricity transmission. Energy in Sweden, which is another of the Swedish Energy Agency's annual publications, provides information and statistics on the development of the entire Swedish energy system.

  8. Rufus A. Lyman: pharmacy's lamplighter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthen, Dennis B

    2009-08-28

    Rufus Ashley Lyman, a physician, was one of the most prominent leaders in US pharmacy education during the first half of the 20th century. He remains the only individual to be the founding dean at colleges of pharmacy at 2 state universities. His role in the creation and sustenance of the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education provided a platform for a national community and a sounding board for faculty members and others interested in professional education. His efforts to increase pharmacy educational standards were instrumental in the abandonment of the 2-year graduate in pharmacy (PhG) degree and the universal acceptance of the 4-year bachelor of science (BS) degree. Lyman's simple approach and fierce championship of his beliefs led to his recognition as a lamplighter for the profession.Curt P. Wimmer, chair of the New York Branch of the American Pharmaceutical Association (now the American Pharmacists Association (APhA), introduced the 1947 Remington Honor Medalist, Rufus Ashley Lyman. Wimmer mentioned that Lyman worked as a lamplighter in Omaha, Nebraska, during medical school. Continuing the lamplighter analogy, Wimmer cited Lyman's work as a pharmacy educator and editor: "in the councils of your colleagues, your lamp became a torch emitting red hot sparks that often burnt and seared and scorched -- but always made for progress."1 This description provides an evocative image of one of the most prominent pharmacy educators and leaders of the first half of the 20th century.

  9. How Do European Pharmacy Students Rank Competences for Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Jeffrey; De Paepe, Kristien; Sánchez Pozo, Antonio; Rekkas, Dimitrios; Volmer, Daisy; Hirvonen, Jouni; Bozic, Borut; Skowron, Agnieska; Mircioiu, Constantin; Marcincal, Annie; Koster, Andries; Wilson, Keith; van Schravendijk, Chris; Hočevar, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    European students (n = 370), academics (n = 241) and community pharmacists (n = 258) ranked 13 clusters of 68 personal and patient care competences for pharmacy practice. The results show that ranking profiles for all three groups as a rule were similar. This was especially true of the comparison between students and community pharmacists concerning patient care competences suggesting that students have a good idea of their future profession. A comparison of first and fifth (final) year students shows more awareness of patient care competences in the final year students. Differences do exist, however, between students and community pharmacists. Students—like academics—ranked competences concerned with industrial pharmacy and the quality aspects of preparing drugs, as well as scientific fundamentals of pharmacy practice, well above the rankings of community pharmacists. There were no substantial differences amongst rankings of students from different countries although some countries have more “medicinal” courses than others. This is to our knowledge the first paper to look at how, within a healthcare sectoral profession such as pharmacy, the views on the relative importance of different competences for practice of those educating the future professionals and their students, are compared to the views of working professionals. PMID:28970381

  10. Is the Swedish FRAX model appropriate for Swedish immigrants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, H; Odén, A; Lorentzon, M; McCloskey, E; Kanis, J A; Harvey, N C; Karlsson, M K; Mellström, D

    2015-11-01

    The incidence of hip fracture in Sweden is substantially lower in immigrants than in the population born in Sweden. Thus, the use of a FRAX® model in immigrants overestimates the risk of fracture, and the use of country of origin-specific models may be more appropriate. Age-specific fracture and mortality rates vary between countries so that FRAX tools are country-specific. In the case of immigrants, it is not known whether the model for the original or the new country is most appropriate. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of hip fractures in foreign-born and Swedish-born individuals residing in Sweden. We studied the incidence of hip fracture in all men and women aged 50 years or more in Sweden between 1987 and 2002. The population comprised 2.8 million Swedish-born and 270,000 foreign-born individuals. Incident hip fractures occurred in 239,842 Swedish-born and 12,563 foreign-born individuals. The hip fracture incidence rose with age for both groups and was higher for women than men amongst both Swedish-born and foreign-born individuals. The hip fracture incidence for the Swedish-born cohort was approximately twice that of immigrants. For example, at the age of 70 years, the annual hip fracture incidence (per 100,000) was 450 (95 % CI 446-454) for a Swedish-born woman and 239 (95 % CI 223-257) for a foreign-born woman at the time of immigration. The hip fracture incidence rose slowly with time from immigration (0.6 % per annum, 95 % CI 0.5-0.8 %) but remained significantly lower than for Swedish-born individuals even after 40 years of residence. The incidence of hip fracture in Sweden is substantially lower in immigrants than in the population native to Sweden. Although there was a small rise in age- and sex-specific incidence after immigration, the incidence remained markedly lower than that observed in Swedish-born individuals. Thus, the use of a FRAX model for Sweden will overestimate the risk of fracture for foreign-born individuals living

  11. National community pharmacy NHS influenza vaccination service in Wales: a primary care mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrew M; Wood, Fiona C; Carter, Ben

    2016-04-01

    Influenza is a significant cause of morbidity and excess mortality, yet vaccine coverage in the UK remains below target. Community pharmacies are increasingly being promoted as an alternative to vaccination by GPs. To explore and verify the factors that influence the relative performance of pharmacies providing NHS influenza vaccinations. A mixed methods study utilising qualitative, semi-structured interviews and quantitative analysis of predictors of vaccination numbers in community pharmacies in Wales. Interviews were conducted with 16 pharmacists who participated in the Welsh national pharmacy influenza service in 2013-2014. A purposive sampling strategy was used. Qualitative findings were analysed using framework analysis. Potential predictors of vaccination numbers were identified from interviews and a literature review, and included in a multivariable regression model. The contribution of community pharmacies towards vaccination in Wales is small. Findings suggest that community pharmacies reach younger at-risk individuals, in whom vaccine uptake is low, in greater proportion than influenza vaccination programmes as a whole. Extended opening hours and urban locations were positively associated with the number of vaccinations given, although pharmacists reported that workload, vaccine costs, unforeseen delays, lack of public awareness, and GPs' views of the service limited their contribution. Pharmacists, aware of the potential for conflict with GPs, moderated their behaviour to mitigate such risk. Before community pharmacies take greater responsibility for delivering healthcare services, obstacles including increasing pharmacist capacity, vaccine procurement, health service delays, managing GP-pharmacy relationships, and improving public awareness must be overcome. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  12. Identifying perceptions of academic reform in pharmacy using a four-frame organizational change model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajis, Dalia; Chaar, Betty; Basheti, Iman A; Moles, Rebekah

    2017-11-10

    In an ever-changing environment, pharmacy education is in the race to catch up and excel to produce competent pharmacists. Examining academic institutions, including schools of pharmacy, their internal systems and framework, it seems appropriate to view these institutions using multiple lenses. Bolman and Deal conceptualized a method to examine organizations using four constructs (structural, human resource, political, and symbolic). The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), with deep-rooted pharmacy education and practice was the setting for this research. To explore factors affecting academic reform in undergraduate pharmacy education in the EMR from stakeholders' and students' perspectives; and to apply Bolman and Deal's four-frame organizational change model to explore how these issues might be viewed. A multiple-method approach was employed and involved collecting, analyzing and integrating qualitative semi-structured interview data with open-ended questions in a survey. Cross-sector stakeholder sample from various EMR countries was recruited and interviewed. Final year pharmacy students from one school of pharmacy in Jordan were surveyed. Emergent themes were indicative that academic reform was addressed by all frames of the Bolman and Deal model. Structural and political frames received substantial weighing pointing to the importance of curricular reform, collaboration and leadership. A need for skillful and role-model teaching academic staff was highlighted, and in harmony with the human resource frame. Issues within the symbolic frame were readily apparent in the data and spanned the other three frames in relation to heritage, customs and cultural barriers. Issues pertinent to academic reform in pharmacy were presented. Viewing change in pharmacy schools from multiple perspectives highlighted the need for structural changes to pharmacy programs, human resource management, political will, leadership, and collaboration. The importance of understanding cultural

  13. Obstetric Thromboprophylaxis: The Swedish Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelle G. Lindqvist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstetric thromboprophylaxis is difficult. Since 10 years Swedish obstetricians have used a combined risk estimation model and recommendations concerning to whom, at what dose, when, and for how long thromboprophylaxis is to be administrated based on a weighted risk score. In this paper we describe the background and validation of the Swedish guidelines for obstetric thromboprophylaxis in women with moderate-high risk of VTE, that is, at similar or higher risk as the antepartum risk among women with history of thrombosis. The risk score is based on major risk factors (i.e., 5-fold increased risk of thromboembolism. We present data on the efficacy of the model, the cost-effectiveness, and the lifestyle advice that is given. We believe that the Swedish guidelines for obstetric thromboprophylaxis aid clinicians in providing women at increased risk of VTE with effective and appropriate thromboprophylaxis, thus avoiding both over- and under-treatment.

  14. Barriers to Business Model Innovation in Swedish Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Sivertsson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Swedish agricultural companies, especially small farms, are struggling to be profitable in difficult economic times. It is a challenge for Swedish farmers to compete with imported products on prices. The agricultural industry, however, supports the view that through business model innovation, farms can increase their competitive advantage. This paper identifies and describes some of the barriers Swedish small farms encounter when they consider business model innovation. A qualitative approach is used in the study. Agriculture business consultants were interviewed. In a focus group led by the researchers, farmers discussed business model innovation, including the exogenous and endogenous barriers to such innovation. The paper concludes many barriers exist when farmers consider innovation of agricultural business models. Some barriers are caused by human factors, such as individuals’ attitudes, histories, and traditions. Other barriers are more contextual in nature and relate to a particular industry or company setting. Still other barriers, such as government regulations, value chain position, and weather, are more abstract. All barriers, however, merit attention when Swedish agricultural companies develop new business models.

  15. A study on the perspectives of pharmacy students and faculties on social networking sites

    OpenAIRE

    Raja Durai; B S Roopa; J Ravindra; T H Indu; G Gokul; Ponnusankar Sivasankaran

    2016-01-01

    Context: People tend to use social networking sites (SNSs) often as a means of communication. Aim: This study was designed to find out the view, trend, and influence of SNSs among students and faculties of a Pharmacy School in India. Subjects and Methods: One hundred and eighty pharmacy students and 45 faculties received the questionnaire, out of which 132 students and 20 faculties provided their response. The questionnaire was framed using SurveyMonkey, an online paid survey tool to gather i...

  16. Discrete choice experiments in pharmacy: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik-Panvelkar, Pradnya; Armour, Carol; Saini, Bandana

    2013-02-01

    Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) have been widely used to elicit patient preferences for various healthcare services and interventions. The aim of our study was to conduct an in-depth scoping review of the literature and provide a current overview of the progressive application of DCEs within the field of pharmacy. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, ECONLIT) were searched (January 1990-August 2011) to identify published English language studies using DCEs within the pharmacy context. Data were abstracted with respect to DCE methodology and application to pharmacy. Our search identified 12 studies. The DCE methodology was utilised to elicit preferences for different aspects of pharmacy products, therapy or services. Preferences were elicited from either patients or pharmacists, with just two studies incorporating the views of both. Most reviewed studies examined preferences for process-related or provider-related aspects with a lesser focus on health outcomes. Monetary attributes were considered to be important by most patients and pharmacists in the studies reviewed. Logit, probit or multinomial logit models were most commonly employed for estimation. Our study showed that the pharmacy profession has adopted the DCE methodology consistent with the general health DCEs although the number of studies is quite limited. Future studies need to examine preferences of both patients and providers for particular products or disease-state management services. Incorporation of health outcome attributes in the design, testing for external validity and the incorporation of DCE results in economic evaluation framework to inform pharmacy policy remain important areas for future research. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  17. Pharmacy Education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Al-Omran, Ola A.

    2006-01-01

    The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs.

  18. Benefits and tensions in delivering public health in community pharmacies - a qualitative study of healthy living pharmacy staff champions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard J; Tsoneva, Jo

    2017-10-01

    Healthy Living Pharmacies (HLP) were introduced in the United Kingdom (UK) in a further attempt to deliver public health benefits in community pharmacy settings. Central to the initiative are staff trained as Healthy Living Champions (HLC) and this study sought to explore HLC perceptions of positive and negative aspect of their work and the wider scheme. A qualitative study was undertaken with a purposive sample of HLCs working in pathfinder HCPs in the Sheffield area in 2014. Participants were recruited by email to either a focus group (n = 7) held at a training event or later semi-structured one-to-one interviews in pharmacies (n = 6). Four stages of interpretative phenomenological analysis were used to code and identify themes. Four main themes emerged relating to the positive workforce development impact HLPs had upon HLCs themselves and on perceived customer and patient engagement and benefits. Tensions were identified with existing commercial business demands and negative views overall of the pharmacy setting with a perceived lack of not only integration with other services but also awareness among the public and health care staff. HLCs felt empowered and more confident in initiating conversation about health issues with patients, but identified barriers relating to workload, a lack of time to perform their role, isolation, tensions with non-HLC staff and logistical barriers such as poor Internet access. Delivering public health activities through the HLC role in UK pharmacies is associated with several perceived benefits for different stakeholders, but may be threatened by well recognised barriers in UK pharmacies related to the commercial setting. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  19. The Swedish Academy Dictionary Project

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    language, heavily influenced by Low German. During the period of Early Modern Swedish (1526–1732), several bilingual or multilingual dictionaries were written to facilitate the learning of other lan- guages, such as Latin, German, English and French. It also brought the first attempt at a descriptive monolingual dictionary of ...

  20. 76 FR 51415 - Ideal Pharmacy Care, Inc., D/B/A Esplanade Pharmacy; Revocation of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Ideal Pharmacy Care, Inc., D/B/A Esplanade Pharmacy; Revocation of Registration On November 12, 2010, I, the then Deputy Administrator of the Drug... Pharmacy Care, Inc., d/b/a Esplanade Pharmacy (Registrant), of New Orleans, Louisiana. The Show Cause Order...

  1. Opening A New Independent Pharmacy 101

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Elabed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Opening an independent pharmacy is a process that involves multiple components. The rationale of this project is to discuss different issues that must be investigated prior to opening a new independency pharmacy. This includes the location, structure of the corporation, start-up cost, picking a wholesaler, fulfilling state board requirements and Philadelphia requirements, having a valid license, making professional relationships, and knowing basic marketing research. Methods used include using the knowledge and expertise from an independent pharmacy owner, visiting pharmacies, and interviewing neighbors for basic marketing research. Many aspects of opening an independent pharmacy differ significantly from a retail pharmacy, as there are various issues within the pharmacy and outside the pharmacy that must be extensively researched prior to opening in order to be successful.   Type: Student Project

  2. Assessing Consumer Preference using Community Pharmacy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing Consumer Preference using Community Pharmacy Preference Evaluation Questionnaire (ComPETe): A Pilot Survey in a Malaysia City. ... a successful CP establishment. Keywords: Consumer Satisfaction, Community Pharmacy Preference, Prescription Filling, Over-the-counter Products, Financial Management ...

  3. Understanding Business Models in Pharmacy Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdford, David A

    2017-06-01

    The objectives of this article are to define business models, contrast the business models in pharmacy schools, and discuss issues that can arise from misunderstandings about whom pharmacy schools serve and how they do so.

  4. “Grow over one’s head” – Translating an idiom-based wordplay from Swedish into Romanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa APELKVIST

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article a selected number of Swedish and Romanian idioms are discussed andanalyzed from different point of views. Starting from one Swedish verbal idiom – växa någon överhuvudet (‘grow over one’s head’ – used in a wordplay in a Swedish authentic text and itstranslation in Romanian, the discussion goes on to examine the strategy chosen by the translatorsand a potential equivalent in Romanian of the Swedish original idiom. The proposed equivalent iscompared with yet another Swedish idiom. The differences and the similarities of the threecompared idioms – according to structures, semantics, to the character of the semantic roles andthe metaphorical meaning of them – are discussed. Thus the article deals both with translation andphraseological studies intertwined with contrastive linguistics.

  5. 38 CFR 51.180 - Pharmacy services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pharmacy services. 51.180... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.180 Pharmacy services. The facility... aspects of the provision of pharmacy services in the facility; (2) Establishes a system of records of...

  6. Qualitative methods in pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine Marie

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research within pharmacy practice is concerned with understanding the behavior of actors such as pharmacy staff, pharmacy owners, patients, other healthcare professionals, and politicians to explore various types of existing practices and beliefs in order to improve them. As qualitative...

  7. 42 CFR 413.241 - Pharmacy arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pharmacy arrangements. 413.241 Section 413.241... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1, 2011, an ESRD facility that enters into an arrangement with a pharmacy to furnish renal dialysis...

  8. 42 CFR 483.60 - Pharmacy services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pharmacy services. 483.60 Section 483.60 Public... Care Facilities § 483.60 Pharmacy services. The facility must provide routine and emergency drugs and... the provision of pharmacy services in the facility; (2) Establishes a system of records of receipt and...

  9. State of Pharmacy Education in Bangladesh

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hospitals are not benefiting from the training of pharmacy graduates just like community pharmacies ... A proper regulatory framework that ensures quality training of ... quality assurance [1]. In order to ensure socio- economic development, many countries that provide Pharmacy Education do so by having different types of ...

  10. Pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine M; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2005-01-01

    in managerialism, and how the division of labour with other health professionals such as physicians and pharmacy assistants is affecting the pharmacy profession's position in the labour market. Next the authors look at ways in which the pharmacy profession has affected policy. Pharmacists have been instrumental...

  11. Application of Kanban System on a hospital pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitka, Eleftheria

    2015-01-01

    This is a brief overview of principles, views and methods, of the Kanban System for the pharmacy of a general hospital. The main goal is the reduction of stores managed by the pharmacy, as well as improvement of the mode of operation. Solutions to problems, such as inadequate storage space, the delay in serving patients or clinics and the expiration of various pharmaceutical formulations, stored for so long time, are provided. The philosophy behind the Kanban procurement System and specifically its applicability to a pharmacy underperforming in terms of efficiency, in Greece, are described. Based on the analysis of stock requirement, item stock prices and demand, it is concluded that a significant percentage of the stocked drugs can be procured using the Kanban System. Significant cost savings and operational advantages following the Kanban System will take place. The challenging endeavor is the analysis, design and application of a system that supports the proposed procurement method. Hospital pharmacies in Greece and in other countries that face an economic crisis may largely benefit after using the Kanban System.

  12. AN ANALYSIS OF PHARMACY SERVICES BY PHARMACIST IN COMMUNITY PHARMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Joseph Herman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Up to now there are more than 60 schools of pharmacy with a variety of accreditation level in lndonesia. Previous study found that the standard of pharmaceutical services at various service facilities (hospitals, primary health care and community pharmacy can not be fully implemented because of the limited competency of pharmacist. This study was conducted to identify the qualification of pharmacist who delivers services in community pharmacy in compliance with the Indonesian Health Law No. 36 of 2009. As mandated in the Health Law No. 36 of 2009, the government is obliged to establish minimum requirements that must be possessed. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 2010 at 2 community pharmacies in each of 3 cities, i.e. Bandung, DI Yogyakarta and Surabaya. Other than ten pharmacists delivering services in community pharmacies, there were pharmacists as informants from 4 institutions in each city selected, i.e. six pharmacists from two Schools of Pharmacy, three pharmacists from three Regional Indonesian Pharmacists Association,six pharmacists from three District Health Offices and three Provincial Health Offices. Primary data collection through in-depth interviews and observation as well as secondary data collection concerning standard operating procedures, monitoring documentation and academic curricula has been used. Descriptive data were analysed qualitatively Results: The findings indicate that pharmacists' qualification to deliver services in a community pharmacy in accordance with the Government Regulation No. 51 of 2009, Standards of Pharmacy Services in Community Pharmacy and Good Pharmaceutical Practices (GPP was varied. Most pharmacists have already understood their roles in pharmacy service, but to practice it in accordance with the standards or guidelines they are still having problems. It is also acknowledged by pharmacists in other institutions, including School of Pharmacy, Regional

  13. Development of Pharmacy's First Specialty Certification Examination: Nuclear Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grussing, Paul G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A seven-phase test development and validation process based on nuclear pharmacy practice standards is described, including: amplication of behaviors in the practice standards, development of examination specifications, item writing and review, a demonstration test, setting the cutting score, and final editing and assembly. (MSE)

  14. the pharmacy screening project - an evaluation of pharmacy-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1999-09-12

    Sep 12, 1999 ... Objectives. The purpose of this tudy was to establish the proportion of pharmacies providing screening tests in the areas of Pretoria, Potche troom and Klerksdorp, the types of tests used and their cost to patients, the criteria employed to select high-prevalence groups, the attitudes of phannacists towards.

  15. Privacy and confidentiality: perspectives of mental health consumers and carers in pharmacy settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattingh, Hendrika Laetitia; Knox, Kathy; Fejzic, Jasmina; McConnell, Denise; Fowler, Jane L; Mey, Amary; Kelly, Fiona; Wheeler, Amanda J

    2015-02-01

    The study aims to explore within the community pharmacy practice context the views of mental health stakeholders on: (1) current and past experiences of privacy, confidentiality and support; and (2) expectations and needs in relation to privacy and confidentiality. In-depth interviews and focus groups were conducted in three states in Australia, namely Queensland, the northern region of New South Wales and Western Australia, between December 2011 and March 2012. There were 98 participants consisting of consumers and carers (n = 74), health professionals (n = 13) and representatives from consumer organisations (n = 11). Participants highlighted a need for improved staff awareness. Consumers indicated a desire to receive information in a way that respects their privacy and confidentiality, in an appropriate space. Areas identified that require improved protection of privacy and confidentiality during pharmacy interactions were the number of staff having access to sensitive information, workflow models causing information exposure and pharmacies' layout not facilitating private discussions. Challenges experienced by carers created feelings of isolation which could impact on care. This study explored mental health stakeholders' experiences and expectations regarding privacy and confidentiality in the Australian community pharmacy context. A need for better pharmacy staff training about the importance of privacy and confidentiality and strategies to enhance compliance with national pharmacy practice requirements was identified. Findings provided insight into privacy and confidentiality needs and will assist in the development of pharmacy staff training material to better support consumers with sensitive conditions. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. The Swedish approach to spent fuel disposal - stepwise implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustaffson, B.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation describes the stepwise implementation of direct disposal of spent fuel in Sweden. The present status regarding the technical development of the Swedish concept will be discussed as well the local site work made in co-operation with the affected and concerned municipalities. In this respect it should be noted that the siting work in some cases has caused heavy opposition and negative opinions. A brief review will also be given regarding the Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory. The objectives of this laboratory as well as the ongoing demo-project will be discussed. In order to give the symposium organizer a more broad view of the Swedish programme a number of recent papers has been compiled. Theses papers will be summarized in the presentation. (author). 4 tabs., 22 figs

  17. Delegated Democracy. The Siting of Swedish Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Hanna Sofia [Stockholm Univ., SCORE, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-12-15

    This paper aims to characterise Swedish democracy in connection with the disposal of Swedish nuclear waste. To this end, an analysis is performed to discern which democratic ideals that can be found within the nuclear waste issue. The study analyses various actors' views on democracy and expertise as well as their definitions of the nuclear waste issue, and discusses this from the perspective of democracy theory. Which definitions that become influential has democratic implications. In addition, various actors' possible attempts to help or hinder other actors from gaining influence over the nuclear waste issue in the four municipalities are studied. In connection with the case studies the aim of the paper can be narrowed to comprise the following questions: Which democratic ideals can be found within SKB's siting process during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process during the site investigations? Which democratic ideals were influential during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process?.

  18. Delegated Democracy. The Siting of Swedish Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Hanna Sofia (Stockholm Univ., SCORE, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-12-15

    This paper aims to characterise Swedish democracy in connection with the disposal of Swedish nuclear waste. To this end, an analysis is performed to discern which democratic ideals that can be found within the nuclear waste issue. The study analyses various actors' views on democracy and expertise as well as their definitions of the nuclear waste issue, and discusses this from the perspective of democracy theory. Which definitions that become influential has democratic implications. In addition, various actors' possible attempts to help or hinder other actors from gaining influence over the nuclear waste issue in the four municipalities are studied. In connection with the case studies the aim of the paper can be narrowed to comprise the following questions: Which democratic ideals can be found within SKB's siting process during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process during the site investigations? Which democratic ideals were influential during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process?

  19. Delegated Democracy. The Siting of Swedish Nuclear Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Hanna Sofia

    2009-12-01

    This paper aims to characterise Swedish democracy in connection with the disposal of Swedish nuclear waste. To this end, an analysis is performed to discern which democratic ideals that can be found within the nuclear waste issue. The study analyses various actors' views on democracy and expertise as well as their definitions of the nuclear waste issue, and discusses this from the perspective of democracy theory. Which definitions that become influential has democratic implications. In addition, various actors' possible attempts to help or hinder other actors from gaining influence over the nuclear waste issue in the four municipalities are studied. In connection with the case studies the aim of the paper can be narrowed to comprise the following questions: Which democratic ideals can be found within SKB's siting process during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process during the site investigations? Which democratic ideals were influential during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process?

  20. The raison d'etre for the community pharmacy and the community pharmacist in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisell, Kristin; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Community pharmacies are balancing between business (selling medicines and other products) and healthcare (using the pharmacists’ knowledge in order to improve drug utilization). This balance could be affected by regulations decided upon by politicians, but also influenced by others. The aim...... of this study was to explore important stakeholders’ views on community pharmacy and community pharmacists in Sweden. The method used was that of semi-structured qualitative interviews. Political, professional, and patient organization representatives were interviewed. The results show that informants who...... are pharmacists or representatives of a professional pharmacist organization generally have a healthcare-centered view on community pharmacy/pharmacists. However, different views on how this orientation should be performed were revealed, ranging from being specialists to dealing with uncomplicated tasks...

  1. Action research in pharmacy practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sørensen, Ellen Westh

    2015-01-01

    -based study. Concepts related to AR are described; in addition, the multifaceted role of the action researcher is described, along with a set of data quality criteria for evaluating the quality of an AR-based study. Then follows a thorough description of a Danish AR-based pharmacy practice study. The chapter...

  2. Social Pharmacy Research in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Kildemoes, Helle Wallach

    2016-01-01

    Social Pharmacy (SP) is a multidisciplinary field to promote the adequate use of medicine. The field of SP is increasingly important due to a numbers of new trends all posing challenges to society. The SP group at the University of Copenhagen has for several years used a broad approach to SP teac...

  3. Community pharmacy practice in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nousheen Aslam

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: This study concludes that the current status of community pharmacy practice is below par. There is a need to involve more pharmacists at community level and develop awareness programs to counter patients′ routine drug issues and reducing the burden of disease from society.

  4. Swedish mines. Underground exploitation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paucard, A.

    1960-01-01

    Between 1949 and 1957, 10 engineers of the Mining research and exploitation department of the CEA visited 17 Swedish mines during 5 field trips. This paper presents a compilation of the information gathered during these field trips concerning the different underground mining techniques used in Swedish iron mines: mining with backfilling (Central Sweden and Boliden mines); mining without backfilling (mines of the polar circle area). The following techniques are described successively: pillar drawing and backfilled slices (Ammeberg, Falun, Garpenberg, Boliden group), sub-level pillar drawing (Grangesberg, Bloettberget, Haeksberg), empty room and sub-level pillar drawing (Bodas, Haksberg, Stripa, Bastkarn), storage chamber pillar drawing (Bodas, Haeksberg, Bastkarn), and pillar drawing by block caving (ldkerberget). Reprint of a paper published in Revue de l'Industrie Minerale, vol. 41, no. 12, 1959 [fr

  5. The effects of a social media policy on pharmacy students' facebook security settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jennifer; Feild, Carinda; James, Kristina

    2011-11-10

    To examine how students entering a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program used Facebook privacy settings before and after the college's social media policy was presented to them. The Facebook profiles of all entering first-year pharmacy students across 4 campuses of a college of pharmacy were evaluated. Ten dichotomous variables of interest were viewed and recorded for each student's Facebook account at 3 time points: before the start of the semester, after presentation of the college's social media policy, and at the end of the semester. Data on whether a profile could be found and what portions of the profile were viewable also were collected. After introduction of the policy, a significant number of students increased their security settings (made information not visible to the public) related to Facebook walls, information pages, and links. Making pharmacy students aware of a college's social media policy had a positive impact on their behaviors regarding online security and privacy.

  6. Issues Facing Pharmacy Leaders in 2015: Suggestions for Pharmacy Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 include practice model growth and the role of pharmacy students, clinical privileging of health-system pharmacists and provider status, medication error prevention, and specialty pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to 4 issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 to help them focus their department’s goals. This article will address (1) advances in the pharmacy practice model initiative and the role of pharmacy students, (2) the current thinking of pharmacists being granted clinical privileges in health systems, (3) updates on preventing harmful medication errors, and (4) the growth of specialty pharmacy services. The sample template of a strategic plan may be used by a pharmacy department in 2015 in an effort to continue developing patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:25717212

  7. Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015: suggestions for pharmacy strategic planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Robert J

    2015-02-01

    Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 include practice model growth and the role of pharmacy students, clinical privileging of health-system pharmacists and provider status, medication error prevention, and specialty pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to 4 issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 to help them focus their department's goals. This article will address (1) advances in the pharmacy practice model initiative and the role of pharmacy students, (2) the current thinking of pharmacists being granted clinical privileges in health systems, (3) updates on preventing harmful medication errors, and (4) the growth of specialty pharmacy services. The sample template of a strategic plan may be used by a pharmacy department in 2015 in an effort to continue developing patient-centered pharmacy services.

  8. Swedish minister rebuilds scientists' trust

    CERN Multimedia

    Sylwan, P

    1999-01-01

    Thomas Ostros, Sweden's new science minister is aiming to improve links with the science community, severely strained during the tenure of Carl Tham. Significantly, he confirmed that he will not be making any further changes to the managment of the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research. He also announced a 5 per cent increase in government funding for science which will be used to strengthen basic research and education (1 page).

  9. Swedish earthquakes and acceleration probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slunga, R.

    1979-03-01

    A method to assign probabilities to ground accelerations for Swedish sites is described. As hardly any nearfield instrumental data is available we are left with the problem of interpreting macroseismic data in terms of acceleration. By theoretical wave propagation computations the relation between seismic strength of the earthquake, focal depth, distance and ground accelerations are calculated. We found that most Swedish earthquake of the area, the 1904 earthquake 100 km south of Oslo, is an exception and probably had a focal depth exceeding 25 km. For the nuclear power plant sites an annual probability of 10 -5 has been proposed as interesting. This probability gives ground accelerations in the range 5-20 % for the sites. This acceleration is for a free bedrock site. For consistency all acceleration results in this study are given for bedrock sites. When applicating our model to the 1904 earthquake and assuming the focal zone to be in the lower crust we get the epicentral acceleration of this earthquake to be 5-15 % g. The results above are based on an analyses of macrosismic data as relevant instrumental data is lacking. However, the macroseismic acceleration model deduced in this study gives epicentral ground acceleration of small Swedish earthquakes in agreement with existent distant instrumental data. (author)

  10. Curriculum in Psychiatry and Neurology for Pharmacy Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopheide, Julie A; Bostwick, Jolene R; Goldstone, Lisa W; Thomas, Kelan; Nemire, Ruth; Gable, Kelly N; Cates, Marshall; Caballero, Joshua; Smith, Tawny; Bainbridge, Jacquelyn

    2017-09-01

    Objective. To describe pharmacy curricula in psychiatry and neurology and to report on neuropsychiatric pharmacy specialists' views on optimal curriculum. Methods. Design and administer one electronic survey to accredited pharmacy programs asking them to report information on curricula in psychiatry and neurology for the 2014-2015 academic year. Design and administer a separate electronic survey to board certified pharmacists with an academic affiliation who are members of the College of Psychiatric and Neurologic Pharmacists (CPNP) asking about their teaching activities and their opinion on optimal curricula. Results. Fifty-six percent of pharmacy programs and 65% of CPNP members responded to the surveys. The program survey revealed greater than 80% of topics were taught by full-time faculty. Didactic lecturing, team-based learning, and case studies were the most common teaching methods. Programs dedicated the most didactics (3 to 5+ hours) to epilepsy, depression, schizophrenia, substance use disorders, and pain. Autism, traumatic brain injury, personality, and eating disorders were either not taught or given ≤ 1 hour of didactics in most programs. Inpatient psychiatry had the most APPE placements with a mean of 19.6, range 0-83. APPE electives in psychiatry outnumbered those in neurology 5 to 1. CPNP member survey results showed 2 out of 3 members agreed that curriculum could be improved with additional APPEs in psychiatry and neurology. Conclusion. Didactic hour distribution in psychiatry and neurology could be improved to better align with board certification in psychiatric pharmacy (BCPP) recommendations and disorder prevalence and complexity. Specialists recommend an experiential component in neurology and psychiatry to combat stigma and improve pharmacist knowledge and skills.

  11. Marketing of rural and remote pharmacy practice via the digital medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, G M; Fitzmaurice, K D; Rasiah, R L; Kruup, H

    2010-08-01

    The shortage of community and hospital pharmacists is particularly acute in rural and remote areas of Australia. Pharmacy students, in particular, as those who may be able to alleviate this shortage, need to be made more aware of the challenges and rewards of rural pharmacy practice. A marketing tool was developed to promote rural and remote pharmacy practice as a career option. A DVD was produced from interviews with health professionals working in rural and remote areas of Australia. This DVD will complement current rural practical placements, which have been incorporated into the curriculum of Australian schools of pharmacy. Interviews were conducted with healthcare professionals from areas in Tasmania, Northern Queensland and the Northern Territory. Interviewees included pharmacists, graduate pharmacists, pharmacy students, aboriginal health workers and a general practitioner. Each of the interviewees was able to provide personal accounts of experiences in rural and remote healthcare, and roles and opportunities for pharmacists. A final draft of the DVD was shown to University of Tasmania students to assess the impact and quality of the production. A number of common themes arose from interviewing and these were subsequently converted into five key chapters of the DVD - Lifestyle, Belonging, Diversity, Indigenous Health and 'Give it a go'. The final DVD, produced from over 15 h of footage, runs for 35 min. Students reported positive feedback on both the technical quality and the information contained within the DVD; 37% of students who viewed the DVD felt that it increased their awareness of what rural pharmacy has to offer. The rural pharmacy, 'Enjoy the Lifestyle' DVD can be used to increase awareness of rural and remote pharmacy practice to students and other pharmacists, and complements other pharmacy workforce strategies for rural and remote areas of Australia. It could also be a useful approach for adaptation in other countries.

  12. The Swedish energy programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setterwall, M.

    1985-01-01

    The article discusses factors affecting the present and future supply of energy in Sweden. Before 1973 Sweden had the highest per capita oil importation in the world; it has no indigenous oil, gas or coal but is well off for water power, about three quarters of which is at present exploited, the remaining quarter being nearly all sterilised for the time being on conservationist grounds. By 1985 twelve nuclear generators should be in action, but further nuclear development has been stopped by political decisions. Official policy is to reduce dependence upon imported oil by the present use of nuclear energy and without increased importation of coal, but by AD2010 completely to replace nuclear energy by energy saving, using indigenous wood and peat, and developing the alternative sources of sun and wind. Heavy subsidy of the last however has produced little result so far. The author views this programme with great scepticism and opines that the present political blocking of increased generation by oil, coal, water power and nuclear energy will have to be broken, and that nuclear energy will play a major role for a long time to come. (C.J.O.G.)

  13. The Faculties of Pharmacy Schools Should Make an Effort to Network with Community Pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    By law, medical faculties are mandated to have a designated partner hospital for the purposes of student practical training. In contrast, pharmacy faculties do not have such a legal requirement for student training in a community pharmacy setting. Nevertheless, there are several public and private universities that do have community pharmacies. However, there is no national university that has established both an educational hospital and a community pharmacy. When Kanazawa University (KU) established a graduate school with a clinical pharmacy course, the faculty of KU deemed it necessary to set up an independent community pharmacy for the purpose of practical training. Thus, in 2003, the Acanthus Pharmacy was set up as the first educational community pharmacy in Japan, managed by a nonprofit organization, with the permission of the Ishikawa Pharmaceutical Association and local community pharmacists. Since that time, Acanthus has managed a clinical pharmacy practice for students from both the undergraduate and graduate schools of KU. From 2006, the undergraduate pharmacy program was changed to a 6-year program, and the Acanthus Pharmacy has continued its roles in educating undergraduate pharmaceutical students, medical students, and as a site of early exposure for KU freshmen. From our experience, it is important to have a real clinical environment available to university pharmacy faculty and students, especially in training for community pharmacy practices.

  14. Comparison of patients' expectations and experiences at traditional pharmacies and pharmacies offering enhanced advanced pharmacy practice experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam, Rosemin; Collins, John B; Berkowitz, Jonathan

    2010-06-15

    To compare patients' expectations and experiences at pharmacies offering traditional APPE learning opportunities with those offering enhanced APPEs that incorporate pharmaceutical care activities. A survey of anchored measures of patient satisfaction was conducted in 2 groups of APPE- affiliated community pharmacies: those participating in an enhanced APPE model versus those participating in the traditional model. The enhanced intervention included preceptor training, a comprehensive student orientation, and an extended experience at a single pharmacy rather than the traditional 2 x 4-week experience at different pharmacies. While patient expectations were similar in both traditional and enhanced APPE pharmacies, patients in enhanced pharmacies reported significantly higher in-store satisfaction and fewer service gaps. Additionally, satisfaction was significantly higher for patients who had received any form of consultation, from either pharmacist or students, than those reporting no consultations. Including provision of pharmaceutical care services as part of APPEs resulted in direct and measurable improvements in patient satisfaction.

  15. Exploring employer job requirements: An analysis of pharmacy job announcements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, James S; Ngo, Tien; Cecil, Jasmine; Borja-Hart, Nancy

    Postgraduate training, dual degrees, and board certifications are credentials viewed by academic pharmacy communities and professional organizations as positive assets for those seeking pharmacist jobs; however, a key question merits further investigation: do these views match employer expectations? The primary objective of this study was to identify the most common qualifications employers require as stated in job advertisements. Pharmacist job postings from the aggregate jobs website Indeed.com were evaluated for the 20 largest metropolitan areas in the United States. Search criteria included: pharmacist, full-time, and within a 50-mile radius of the metropolitan area. Positions were excluded if they were not pharmacist specific, did not require a pharmacy degree, were part-time, or were temporary. Required and preferred qualifications were collected in the following categories: practice type, experience needed, training, certification, and desired skills. Six hundred and eleven of 1356 postings met inclusion criteria. Positions were classified as community (113), health-system (264), industry (149), academia (9), or other (76). Four hundred and six (66.4%) required a minimum of a Bachelor's of Pharmacy degree, while 174 (28.4%) required a Doctor of Pharmacy degree. Experience was required for 467 positions (range of 6 months to 14 years). Postgraduate training was required for 73 positions (66 residency/7 fellowship). One job required a Master's degree, type unspecified. BPS certifications were required for 7 positions (1.1%) and preferred for 22 positions (3.6%). Certifications and skills most required by employers were verbal and written skills (248), Microsoft Office proficiency (93), immunization certifications (51), and Basic Life Support/Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation certifications (37). Postgraduate training, dual degrees, and board certification were not significant factors in the qualification criteria for the positions identified. The qualifications

  16. Pharmacy Students as Health Coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominick P Trombetta, Pharm.D

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases are the main contributor to both health care costs and mortality in the United States, with medication non-adherence and lifestyle modifications being leading causes. To motivate patients with several co-morbidities, the longitudinal care class was used to educate on maintaining adherence to prescribed regimens. Twenty pharmacy students were trained in health coaching and motivational interviewing methods. Specifically, students were to provide patients with education sheets, apply the teach-back method, and motivate the patient to develop and reach SMART goals made with the pharmacy student over a course of one academic school year. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties.   Type: Note

  17. International practice experiences in pharmacy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Robert M; Jawaid, Sarah Parnapy; Kendall, Debra A; McPherson, Charles E; Mu, Keli; Weston, Grady Scott; Roberts, Kenneth B

    2013-11-12

    To identify reasons for inclusion of international practice experiences in pharmacy curricula and to understand the related structure, benefits, and challenges related to the programs. A convenience sample of 20 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States with international pharmacy education programs was used. Telephone interviews were conducted by 2 study investigators. University values and strategic planning were among key driving forces in the development of programs. Global awareness and cultural competency requirements added impetus to program development. Participants' advice for creating an international practice experience program included an emphasis on the value of working with university health professions programs and established travel programs. Despite challenges, colleges and schools of pharmacy value the importance of international pharmacy education for pharmacy students as it increases global awareness of health needs and cultural competencies.

  18. Completeness of retail pharmacy claims data: implications for pharmacoepidemiologic studies and pharmacy practice in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polinski, Jennifer M; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Levin, Raisa; Shrank, William H

    2009-09-01

    In the elderly (those aged >or=65 years), retail pharmacy claims are used to study drug use among the uninsured after drug policy changes, to prevent drug-drug interactions and duplication of therapy, and to guide medication therapy management. Claims include only prescriptions filled at 1 pharmacy location or within 1 pharmacy chain and do not include prescriptions filled at outside pharmacies, potentially limiting research accuracy and pharmacy-based safety interventions. The aims of this study were to assess elderly patients' pharmacy loyalty and to identify predictors of using multiple pharmacies. Patients enrolled in the Pharmaceutical Assistance Contract for the Elderly (PACE) pharmacy benefit program with corresponding Medicare claims in the state of Pennsylvania comprised the study cohort. Among patients with pharmacy claims from all pharmacies used in 2004-2005, a primary pharmacy was defined as the pharmacy where at least 50% of a patient's prescriptions were filled. The number of pharmacies/chains used and prescriptions filled in 2005 was calculated. Predictors of using multiple pharmacies in 2005 were age, female gender, white race, urban residency, comorbidities, number of distinct chemical drugs (unique medications) used, and number of prescriptions filled, which were all assessed in 2004. In total, pharmacy claims data from 182,116 patients (147,718 women [81.1%]; mean [SD] age, 78.8 [7.1] years; 168,175 white [92.3%]; 76,580 [42.1%] residing in an urban zip code area) were included. Of the 182,116 PACE patients in the study, a primary pharmacy was identified for 180,751 patients (99.3%). In 2005, patients filled an average of 59.3 prescriptions, with 57.0 prescriptions (96.1%) having been filled at the primary pharmacy. Compared with patients who used or=15 unique medications had a 2.66 times (95% CI, 2.53-2.80) greater likelihood of using multiple pharmacies in 2005. Patients aged >or=85 years were 1.07 times (95% CI, 1.04-1.11) as likely to use

  19. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  20. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  1. Taking the pulse of Internet pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z; Peterson, R T; Huang, L

    2001-01-01

    Like most businesses, online pharmacy companies will only be successful if they make sure customers are satisfied with the service they receive. But what attributes of service quality lead to satisfaction and dissatisfaction? This study identified 19 Internet pharmacy service quality dimensions in three categories: (1) product cost and availability, (2) customer service, and (3) the online information system. Our analysis uncovered attributes that tend to determine consumer satisfaction and points out ways to improve overall service quality in the Internet pharmacy arena.

  2. Endoparasites in some Swedish Amphibians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1988-01-01

    A study was made of the endoparasites in specimens of Rana arvalis and R. temporaria collected on two occasions from a locality of southern Sweden. Some frogs were investigated directly after capture while other frogs were kept hibernating and the composition of the parasites as well...... as the behaviour of the parasites were studied after the termination of hibernation. Twelve species of parasites were found. Six of them, Polystoma integerrimum, Pleurogenes claviger (Trematoda), Rhabdias bufonis, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, Cosmocerca ornata and Oxysomatium brevicauda- tum (Nematoda), have...... not previously been reported from Sweden. The late Prof. O. Nybelin's unpublished records of parasites found in Swedish amphibians are also given....

  3. Pharmacist and physician perspectives on diabetes service delivery within community pharmacies in Indonesia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Yosi; Sunderland, Bruce; Hughes, Jeffery

    2016-05-01

    To explore perspectives of physicians and pharmacists on diabetes service delivery within community pharmacies in Indonesia. In depth interviews were conducted with 10 physicians and 10 community pharmacists in Surabaya, Indonesia, using a semi-structured interview guide. Nvivo version 9 was used to facilitate thematic content analysis to identify barriers/facilitators for community pharmacists to provide diabetes services. The identified themes indicating barriers/facilitators for diabetes service delivery within Indonesian community pharmacies included: (1) pharmacist factors - i.e. positive views (facilitator) and perceived lack of competence (barrier); (2) pharmacist-physician relationships - i.e. physicians' lack of support and accessibility (barriers); (3) pharmacist-patient relationships - i.e. perceived patients' lack of support and accessibility (barriers); (4) pharmacy environment - i.e. business orientation (barrier), lack of staff and poor pharmacist availability (barriers), and availability of supporting resources, such as counselling areas/rooms, procedures/protocols and IT systems for labelling and patient records (facilitators); and (5) external environment - i.e. a health system to support pharmacist roles, remuneration, marketing and professional assistance (facilitators). Issues related to the pharmacist-physician-patient relationships, pharmacy environment and external environment need to be addressed before Indonesian community pharmacists can provide additional pharmacy services for type 2 diabetes patients. Collaboration between the Government, Ikatan Apoteker Indonesia (Indonesian Pharmacists Association) and Ikatan Dokter Indonesia (Indonesian Medical Association) is required to improve the pharmacy professional environment and facilities. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  4. Pharmacy Practice and Education in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muceniece, Ruta; Riekstina, Una; Maurina, Baiba; Enina, Vija; Atkinson, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    The PHARMINE (“Pharmacy Education in Europe”) project studied the organisation of pharmacy practice and education in the member states of the European Union (EU). The work was carried out using an electronic survey sent to chosen pharmacy representatives. The surveys of the individual member states are now being published as reference documents. This paper presents the results of the PHARMINE survey on pharmacy practice and education in Latvia. In the light of this, we examine the harmonisation of practice and education in Latvia with EU norms. PMID:29361717

  5. Training pharmacy technicians to administer immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeirnan, Kimberly C; Frazier, Kyle R; Nguyen, Maryann; MacLean, Linda Garrelts

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an immunization training program for pharmacy technicians on technicians' self-reported confidence, knowledge, and number of vaccines administered. A one-group pre- and posttest study was conducted with certified pharmacy technicians from Albertsons and Safeway community pharmacies in Idaho. Thirty pharmacy technicians were recruited to participate in an immunization administration training program comprising a 2-hour home study and a 2-hour live training. Pharmacy technician scores on a 10-question knowledge assessment, responses on a pre- and posttraining survey, and number of immunizations administered in the 6-month period following the training were collected. Twenty-five pharmacy technicians completed the home study and live portions of the immunization training program. All 29 pharmacy technicians who took the home study assessment passed with greater than 70% competency on the first attempt. Technicians self-reported increased confidence with immunization skills between the pretraining survey and the posttraining survey. From December 2016 to May 2017, the technicians administered 953 immunizations with 0 adverse events reported. For the first time, pharmacy technicians have legally administered immunizations in the United States. Trained pharmacy technicians demonstrated knowledge of vaccination procedures and self-reported improved confidence in immunization skills and administered immunizations after participating in a 4-hour training program. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Uranium production from low grade Swedish shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, O.

    1977-01-01

    In view of the present nuclear programmes a steep increase in uranium demand is foreseen which will pose serious problems for the uranium industry. The annual additions to uranium ore reserves must almost triple within the next 15 years in order to support the required production rates. Although there are good prospects for the discovery of further conventional deposits of uranium there is a growing interest in low grade uranium deposits. Large quantities of uranium exist in black shales, phosphates, granites, sea water and other unconventional sources. There are however factors which limit the utilization of these low grade materials. These factors include the extraction costs, the environmental constrains on mining and milling of huge amounts of ore, the development of technologies for the beneficiation of uranium and, in the case of very low grade materials, the energy balance. The availability of by-product uranium is limited by the production rate of the main product. The limitations differ very much according to types of ores, mining and milling methods and the surroundings. As an illustration a description is given of the Swedish Ranstad uranium shale project, its potential, constraints and technical solutions

  7. National community pharmacy NHS influenza vaccination service in Wales: a primary care mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrew M; Wood, Fiona C; Carter, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Background Influenza is a significant cause of morbidity and excess mortality, yet vaccine coverage in the UK remains below target. Community pharmacies are increasingly being promoted as an alternative to vaccination by GPs. Aim To explore and verify the factors that influence the relative performance of pharmacies providing NHS influenza vaccinations. Design and setting A mixed methods study utilising qualitative, semi-structured interviews and quantitative analysis of predictors of vaccination numbers in community pharmacies in Wales. Method Interviews were conducted with 16 pharmacists who participated in the Welsh national pharmacy influenza service in 2013–2014. A purposive sampling strategy was used. Qualitative findings were analysed using framework analysis. Potential predictors of vaccination numbers were identified from interviews and a literature review, and included in a multivariable regression model. Results The contribution of community pharmacies towards vaccination in Wales is small. Findings suggest that community pharmacies reach younger at-risk individuals, in whom vaccine uptake is low, in greater proportion than influenza vaccination programmes as a whole. Extended opening hours and urban locations were positively associated with the number of vaccinations given, although pharmacists reported that workload, vaccine costs, unforeseen delays, lack of public awareness, and GPs’ views of the service limited their contribution. Pharmacists, aware of the potential for conflict with GPs, moderated their behaviour to mitigate such risk. Conclusion Before community pharmacies take greater responsibility for delivering healthcare services, obstacles including increasing pharmacist capacity, vaccine procurement, health service delays, managing GP–pharmacy relationships, and improving public awareness must be overcome. PMID:26965025

  8. Multiple pharmacy use and types of pharmacies used to obtain prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Look, Kevin A; Mott, David A

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate trends and patterns in the prevalence of multiple pharmacy use (MPU) and to describe the number and types of pharmacies used by multiple pharmacy users from 2003 to 2009. Retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study. United States from 2003 to 2009. 89,941 responses to the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey over 7 years. Analysis of respondent pharmacy use behaviors. Annual use of more than one pharmacy and number and types of pharmacies used. MPU among patients using medications increased significantly during the study period (from 36.4% [95% CI 35.2-37.6] in 2003 to 43.2% [41.9-44.4] in 2009)-a relative increase of 18.7% ( P = 0.01). Multiple pharmacy users used between 2 and 17 different pharmacies per year to obtain prescription medications. Although approximately 70% of multiple pharmacy users used only two pharmacies, the proportion using three or more pharmacies increased from 24.1% (22.5-25.7) in 2003 to 29.1% (27.4-30.8) in 2009. Mail service pharmacy use had the largest relative increase among multiple pharmacy users during the study period (27.2%), and MPU was nearly twice as high (75%) among mail service users compared with non-mail service users. MPU is common on a national level and has increased greatly in recent years. Patient use of pharmacies that have the potential to share medication information electronically is low among multiple pharmacy users, suggesting increased workload for pharmacists and potential medication safety concerns. This has important implications for pharmacists, as it potentially impedes their ability to maintain accurate medication profiles for patients.

  9. Implementation and quality assessment of a pharmacy services call center for outpatient pharmacies and specialty pharmacy services in an academic health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Matthew H; Thomas, Karen C; Chandramouli, Jane; Barrus, Stephanie A; Nickman, Nancy A

    2018-04-02

    The implementation and quality assessment of a pharmacy services call center (PSCC) for outpatient pharmacies and specialty pharmacy services within an academic health system are described. Prolonged wait times in outpatient pharmacies or hold times on the phone affect the ability of pharmacies to capture and retain prescriptions. To support outpatient pharmacy operations and improve quality, a PSCC was developed to centralize handling of all outpatient and specialty pharmacy calls. The purpose of the PSCC was to improve the quality of pharmacy telephone services by (1) decreasing the call abandonment rate, (2) improving the speed of answer, (3) increasing first-call resolution, (4) centralizing all specialty pharmacy and prior authorization calls, (5) increasing labor efficiency and pharmacy capacities, (6) implementing a quality evaluation program, and (7) improving workplace satisfaction and retention of outpatient pharmacy staff. The PSCC centralized pharmacy calls from 9 pharmacy locations, 2 outpatient clinics, and a specialty pharmacy. Since implementation, the PSCC has achieved and maintained program goals, including improved abandonment rate, speed of answer, and first-call resolution. A centralized 24-7 support line for specialty pharmacy patients was also successfully established. A quality calibration program was implemented to ensure service quality and excellent patient experience. Additional ongoing evaluations measure the impact of the PSCC on improving workplace satisfaction and retention of outpatient pharmacy staff. The design and implementation of the PSCC have significantly improved the health system's patient experiences, efficiency, and quality. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Patient and public perspectives of community pharmacies in the United Kingdom: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindi, Ali M K; Schafheutle, Ellen I; Jacobs, Sally

    2018-04-01

    The United Kingdom has been at the forefront of enhancing pharmacist roles and community pharmacy services, particularly over the past decade. However, patient and public awareness of community pharmacy services has been limited. To identify and synthesize the research literature pertaining to patient and public perspectives on: existing community pharmacy services, extended pharmacist roles and strategies to raise awareness of community pharmacy services. Systematic search of 8 electronic databases; hand searching of relevant journals, reference lists and conference proceedings. UK studies investigating patient or public views on community pharmacy services or pharmacist roles from 2005 to 2016. Data were extracted into a grid and subjected to narrative synthesis following thematic analysis. From the 3260 unique papers identified, 30 studies were included. Manual searching identified 4 additional studies. Designs using questionnaires (n = 14, 41%), semi-structured interviews (n = 8, 24%) and focus groups (n = 6, 18%) made up the greatest proportion of studies. Most of the studies (n = 28, 82%) were published from 2010 onwards and covered perceptions of specific community pharmacy services (n = 31). Using a critical appraisal checklist, the overall quality of studies was deemed acceptable. Findings were grouped into 2 main themes "public cognizance" and "attitudes towards services" each with 4 subthemes. Patients and the public appeared to view services as beneficial. Successful integration of extended pharmacy services requires pharmacists' clinical skills to be recognized by patients and physicians. Future research should explore different approaches to increase awareness. © 2017 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Restructuring supervision and reconfiguration of skill mix in community pharmacy: Classification of perceived safety and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Fay; Willis, Sarah C; Noyce, Peter R; Schafheutle, Ellen I

    2016-01-01

    Broadening the range of services provided through community pharmacy increases workloads for pharmacists that could be alleviated by reconfiguring roles within the pharmacy team. To examine pharmacists' and pharmacy technicians (PTs)' perceptions of how safe it would be for support staff to undertake a range of pharmacy activities during a pharmacist's absence. Views on supervision, support staff roles, competency and responsibility were also sought. Informed by nominal group discussions, a questionnaire was developed and distributed to a random sample of 1500 pharmacists and 1500 PTs registered in England. Whilst focused on community pharmacy practice, hospital pharmacy respondents were included, as more advanced skill mix models may provide valuable insights. Respondents were asked to rank a list of 22 pharmacy activities in terms of perceived risk and safety of these activities being performed by support staff during a pharmacist's absence. Descriptive and comparative statistic analyses were conducted. Six-hundred-and-forty-two pharmacists (43.2%) and 854 PTs (57.3%) responded; the majority worked in community pharmacy. Dependent on agreement levels with perceived safety, from community pharmacists and PTs, and hospital pharmacists and PTs, the 22 activities were grouped into 'safe' (n = 7), 'borderline' (n = 9) and 'unsafe' (n = 6). Activities such as assembly and labeling were considered 'safe,' clinical activities were considered 'unsafe.' There were clear differences between pharmacists and PTs, and sectors (community pharmacy vs. hospital). Community pharmacists were most cautious (particularly mobile and portfolio pharmacists) about which activities they felt support staff could safely perform; PTs in both sectors felt significantly more confident performing particularly technical activities than pharmacists. This paper presents novel empirical evidence informing the categorization of pharmacy activities into 'safe,' 'borderline' or 'unsafe

  12. International biofuel trade - A study of the Swedish import

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, K.; Nilsson, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    Following the development of large-scale use of biomass energy in the EU, international biofuel trade is a plausible scenario and something that is already taking place in Northern Europe. This paper focuses on Swedish biofuel imports, both direct and indirect imports, the latter which derive from the fact that part of the imported pulpwood and timber end up as fuel. The objective is to describe the biomass import flows, the actors involved and analyse the fundamental drivers for the trade flows. The rapid expansion of biomass energy, that has taken place in district heating since the early 1990s in Sweden, has been met partly by imports. The direct biofuel import was estimated to 18 PJ for 2000, which corresponded to 26% of the biofuel supply in district heating. The total indirect biofuel import was estimated to 9 PJ of which 5.5 PJ is consumed in the district heating sector. Sawmill wood chips, decay-damaged stemwood and pellets are imported from Estonia and Latvia, whereas used wood and solid recovered fuels are imported from Germany and the Netherlands. Tall oil and pellets are imported from North America. Key factors related to the Swedish biofuel import are analysed, both from the view of Swedish demand and from the view of supply in the Baltic countries as well as supply from Germany or the Netherlands. National differences in energy policy are perhaps the most important driving force behind the seemingly strange trade flows. Structures in the different national energy systems are also discussed as well as the transformation process that has taken place in the forest sector in the Baltic countries. (author)

  13. The Swedish view : three countries, one market / Ben Nimmo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nimmo, Ben

    2005-01-01

    Rootsi on Põhjamaadest suurim investor Balti riikides ning suuruselt teine investor Lätis ja Leedus. Majanduslikust koostööst Rootsi ja Baltimaade vahel. Tabel: Rootsi ja Baltimaade majandusnäitajad 2004. aastal

  14. Collaborative pharmacy practice: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Law AV

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anandi V Law, Eric K Gupta, Micah Hata, Karl M Hess, Roger S Klotz, Quang A Le, Emmanuelle Schwartzman, Bik-Wai Bilvick Tai Department of Pharmacy Practice and Administration, College of Pharmacy, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, USA Abstract: Collaborative practice among health professionals is slowly coming of age, given the global focus on efficiency and effectiveness of care to achieve positive patient outcomes and to reduce the economic burden of fragmented care. Collaborative pharmacy practice (CPP is accordingly evolving within different models including: disease management, medication therapy management, patient centered medical home, and accountable care organizations. Pharmacist roles in these models relate to drug therapy management and include therapy introduction, adjustment, or discontinuation, patient counseling and education, and identification, resolution, and prevention of problems leading to drug interactions and adverse reactions. Most forms of CPP occur with physicians in various settings. Collaborative practice agreements exist in many states in the US and are mentioned in the International Pharmaceutical Federation policy statement. Impetus for CPP comes from health system and economic concerns, as well as from a regulatory push. There are positive examples in community, ambulatory care, and inpatient settings that have well documented protocols, indicators of care, and measurement and reporting of clinical, economic, and patient reported outcomes; however, implementation of the practice is still not widespread. Conceptual and implementation challenges include health professional training, attitudes, confidence and comfort levels, power and communication issues, logistic barriers of time, workload, proximity, resistance to establish and adopt regulations, and importantly, payment models. Some of the attitudinal and perceptual challenges can be mitigated by incorporation of interprofessional concepts and

  15. Pharmacy Practice and Education in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Petkova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacies in Bulgaria have a monopoly on the dispensing of medicinal products that are authorized in the Republic of Bulgaria, as well as medical devices, food additives, cosmetics, and sanitary/hygienic articles. Aptekari (pharmacists act as responsible pharmacists, pharmacy owners, and managers. They follow a five year Masters of Science in Pharmacy (M.Sc. Pharm. degree course with a six month traineeship. Pomoshnik-farmacevti (assistant pharmacists follow a three year degree with a six month traineeship. They can prepare medicines and dispense OTC medicines under the supervision of a pharmacist. The first and second year of the M.Sc. Pharm. degree are devoted to chemical sciences, mathematics, botany and medical sciences. Years three and four center on pharmaceutical technology, pharmacology, pharmacognosy, pharmaco-economics, and social pharmacy, while year five focuses on pharmaceutical care, patient counselling, pharmacotherapy, and medical sciences. A six month traineeship finishes the fifth year together with redaction of a master thesis, and the four state examinations with which university studies end. Industrial pharmacy and clinical (hospital pharmacy practice are integrated disciplines in some Bulgarian higher education institutions such as the Faculty of Pharmacy of the Medical University of Sofia. Pharmacy practice and education in Bulgaria are organized in a fashion very similar to that in most member states of the European Union.

  16. Managing obesity in pharmacy: the Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Irene S I; Armour, Carol; Krass, Ines; Gill, Timothy; Chaar, Betty B

    2010-12-01

    To explore pharmacists' opinions about the provision of weight management services in community pharmacy and their attitudes towards the establishment of an accredited training course in weight management in pharmacy. Interviews were conducted with practising pharmacists on site in various community pharmacies in metropolitan Sydney, Australia. In-depth, semi-structured interviews with twenty practising pharmacists were conducted. Of the twenty interviewed pharmacists, sixteen were involved in the provision of one or more pharmacy based weight management programs in their pharmacies. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using the grounded theory approach. The data were thematically analysed to identify facilitators and perceived barriers to the provision of high quality services, and pharmacists' willingness to undertake training and accreditation. Participants clearly perceived a role for pharmacy in weight management. Key facilitators to provision of service were accessibility and the perception of pharmacists as trustworthy healthcare professionals. The pharmacists proposed collaboration with other healthcare professionals in order to provide a service incorporating diet, exercise and behavioural therapy. A program that was not-product-centred, and supported by ethical marketing was favoured. Appropriate training and accreditation were considered essential to assuring the quality of such services. Barriers to the provision of high quality services identified were: remuneration, pharmacy infrastructure, client demand and the current marketing of product-centred programs. Australian pharmacists believe there is a role for pharmacy in weight management, provided training in accredited programs is made available. A holistic, evidence-based, multi-disciplinary service model has been identified as ideal.

  17. Developing patient education in community pharmacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, A.T.G.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis deals with the development of patient education in the community pharmacy. The research questions concentrate on the determinants of technicians’ patient education behavior and the effects of a one-year lasting intervention program on the patient education activities in the pharmacy.

  18. The role of emigration and migration in Swedish industrialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlstrom, U

    1982-10-01

    It is possible, within a general equilibrium framework, to reveal some of the important mechansims in the rather complicated interplay among the variables causing demoeconomic development. The model for this study is a computable general equilibrium model within the tradition of multisectoral growth models and is designed to fit Swedish prewar development and to enable counterfactual analysis. The model is reviewed briefly followed by comments on the database, estimation procedure and validation; displays of some comparative static experiments; and an evaluation of the capability of the model in replicating Swedish demoeconomic development between 1871-90 before examining the counterfactual simulations which address the role of external and internal migration in Swedish industrialization. There are at least 2 reasons for carrying out comparative static experiments: by undertaking parameter changes and exploring the equilibrium effect on the model, further insights will be realized concerning the behavior of the model and its validity; and some of the comparative static experiments are interesting from the point of view of policy analysis because they reveal the static, total effect on the economy of changes in some variables discussed by 19th century Swedish politicians. The experiments are organized into 2 groups: rural and population experiments. The base run simulation from 1871-90 indicates that the model captures the essential factors of the demoeconomic development of Sweden. The model's ability to replicate historical trends in some of the crucial variables permits use of the base simulation as a reference point when undertaking counterfactual simulations. The 1st simulation evaluates the effects of emigration on the Swedish economy; the remaining 2 simulations assess the importance of rural to urban migration. The model indicates that without emigration real rural wages would have been 1.8% lower in 1880 and 10.0% lower in 1890. Urban wages would have been

  19. Completeness of Retail Pharmacy Claims Data: Implications for Pharmacoepidemiologic Studies and Pharmacy Practice in Elderly Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polinski, Jennifer M.; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Levin, Raisa; Shrank, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Background In the elderly (those aged ≥65 years), retail pharmacy claims are used to study drug use among the uninsured after drug policy changes, to prevent drug drug interactions and duplication of therapy, and to guide medication therapy management. Claims include only prescriptions filled at one pharmacy location or within one pharmacy chain and do not include prescriptions filled at outside pharmacies, potentially limiting research accuracy and pharmacy-based safety interventions. Objectives The aims of this study were to assess elderly patients’ pharmacy loyalty and to identify predictors of using multiple pharmacies. Methods Patients enrolled in the Pharmaceutical Assistance Contract for the Elderly pharmacy benefit program with corresponding Medicare claims in the state of Pennsylvania comprised the study cohort. Among patients with pharmacy claims from all pharmacies used in 2004–2005, a primary pharmacy was defined as the pharmacy where >50% of a patient’s prescriptions were filled. The number of pharmacies/chains used and prescriptions filled in 2005 was calculated. Predictors of using multiple pharmacies in 2005 were age, gender, race, urban residency, comorbidities, number of unique medications used, and number of prescriptions, which were all assessed in 2004. Results In total, pharmacy claims data from 182,235 patients (147,718 [81.1%] women; mean [SD] age 78.8 [7.1] years; 168,175 white; 76,580 residing in an urban zip code area) were included. In 2005, patients filled an average of 59.3 prescriptions, with 57.0 (96.1%) prescriptions having been filled at the primary pharmacy. Compared with patients who used loyal to their primary pharmacy, offering reassurance to researchers and pharmacists who use retail pharmacy claims to evaluate and/or to improve safe and appropriate medication use among the elderly. Care should be used in analyzing claims from or managing the drug regimens of patients using many medications or patients aged ≥85 years

  20. Exploring how to engage Swedish Millennials with pension planning

    OpenAIRE

    LÖVGREN, ANDREAS; MAGNUSSON, MATTIAS

    2016-01-01

    An aging Swedish population is putting an increased pressure on the Swedish pension system. To address this, the Swedish pension system was reformed in the late 1990s. This reformation resulted in an increased individual responsibility for pension investments among the Swedish population. The individual responsibility has shown to be challenging for many since they feel a great uncertainty in this area. Adding to the notion that the Swedish population is aging; young Swedes are also entering ...

  1. Discounting of medicines in Australian community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Loc P; Vitry, Agnes I; Moss, John R

    2014-11-01

    There are many medicines listed on the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in which point of sale price is less than the level of the general patient co-payment. In these circumstances, the patient covers the total cost of the medicine from their own pocket with no government subsidy. The aim of the present study was to compare the consumer prices of under general co-payment prescription medicines between banner group pharmacies with open discounting policies and community pharmacies without; and to assess the impact of the April 2012 PBS price disclosure policies on the discounts offered. The consumer prices of 31 under co-payment medicines were collected from banner group pharmacy websites and individual pharmacies both before and after April 2012. PBS maximum prices were obtained from the PBS website. Absolute and relative price differences between PBS and pharmacy groups were calculated. Before April 2012, banner group pharmacies provided discounts to patients of around 40% per prescription, whereas other pharmacies provided discounts of around 15%. Total price savings were on average $9 per prescription at banner group pharmacies and $3.50 at other pharmacies. Percentage discounts did not change greatly after April 2012, when price decreases occurred on the PBS. Banner group pharmacies with pricing strategies are able to provide greater discounts to patients compared with other pharmacies. Community pharmacies still have the ability to provide substantial discounts after the April 2012 price reductions. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC?: There is currently little known about the under co-payment medicines market in Australia and the price discounts available to patients. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD?: This research shows that patients who purchase under co-payment medicines are able to save money if they purchase from pharmacies with openly advertised discounting policies. Price reductions related to the implementation of the price disclosure policy had a

  2. Predominant discourses in Swedish nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth; Pilhammar-Anderson, Ewa

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the predominant discourse in the field of Swedish nursing in 2000, 25 years after nursing was introduced as an academic discipline in Sweden. The method used was content analysis and deconstructive analysis of discourses. Laws, statutes, regulations, and examination requirements, including official reports, recruitment campaigns, and media coverage, were analyzed. The findings uncovered competing discourses striving to gain hegemony. In the public sector, official requirements competed against the media fixation on gender stereotypes and the realities of local recruitment campaigns. Media has a major role in disseminating prevailing conceptions and conventions pertaining to the nursing profession. As a result, decision makers, students, patients, and family members could get lower expectations of the professional competence of nursing practitioners than would otherwise have been the case in the absence of media exposure.

  3. Studies in Swedish Energy Opinion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Soeren; Hedberg, Per

    2012-07-01

    the 1970s, energy production was politicized big time in the industrialized world. The birth of the environmental movement, the oil crises in 1973 - 74 and the beginning conflict surrounding civilian nuclear power, put energy issues center stage on the political agenda. Energy policies - especially related to the development of nuclear power - came to dominate election campaigns, like in Sweden in 1976 or be the subject of referendums, like in Austria in 1978 or in Sweden in 1980. Critical voices toward the peaceful use of nuclear power - having started in America before being exported to Europe - gained real strength and public support all over the Western world by the nuclear accident at the Three Mile Island plant in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania in 1979. The energy genie was out of the bottle and out to stay. Fueled by the nuclear meltdowns in Chernobyl in 1986 and in Fukushima in 2011 and supplemented by conflicts over how to reduce the use of oil and coal, how to sensibly exploit the waste gas reserves, and how to develop renewable energy sources based on sun, wind and waves – have made all kinds of energy issues the focal point of political contentions ever since the early 1970s. In Sweden, as in many other countries, energy policies - often with nuclear power in the center - have been one of the most fought-over policy areas during the last thirty-forty years. And the contentious character of energy policies is not limited to the elite level of politics - to politicians, to media pundits or to lobbyists. It is also manifest among ordinary citizens. Energy issues - nuclear power and wind power in particular - are highly polarizing among voters as well. Given this historic background, starting in the 1970s, it was rather natural that energy questions - featuring most prominently questions related to nuclear power - would be important parts of the voter surveys performed by the Swedish National Elections Studies (SNES) at the Univ. of Gothenburg. The first book

  4. The ethics of leadership in pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, B K

    1995-10-01

    The pharmacy profession's responsibility to provide ethical leadership to its members is explained, and areas where pharmacy should take a leadership role are described. Changes taking place in health care offer many opportunities for pharmacy in its transformation into a fully clinical discipline. The profession needs to address the ethical issues that will affect it as part of this revolution. The role pharmacy is taking to eliminate medication misadventuring will be a test case for the profession's ability to exert the leadership it must, as part of its new definition of itself. Pharmacy needs to define the structure, process, and outcomes necessary to improve its own practice to avoid drug misadventuring, with a clear set of practice and ethical standards, and engage medicine and nursing to adopt similar standards. Pharmacy should also take a leadership role in health care reform, working with other clinicians to ensure that the changes provide better outcomes for patients. Health care professionals are bound together by a common moral purpose: to act in the patient's best interest. Thus, each health profession is a moral community, which must determine and promote ethical behavior among its members. Pharmacy must practice ethical leadership: it must define and prove its contribution to patient outcomes, further develop legal and ethical standards, and examine its responsibilities for vulnerable patient groups such as children. It must work to overcome the traditional dominance of medicine; pharmacy, nursing, and medicine must come together in service of the patient and develop a cross-professional conception of ethics. Pharmacy also must participate in the broader debate about health care. Pharmacy has begun to take a leadership role among the health professions through its efforts to eliminate medication misadventuring. Additional leadership challenges for the profession are suggested.

  5. Biomass and Swedish energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Bengt

    2001-01-01

    The use of biomass in Sweden has increased by 44% between 1990 and 1999. In 1999 it was 85 TWh, equivalent to 14% of the total Swedish energy supply. The existence of large forest industry and district heating systems has been an essential condition for this expansion. The tax reform in 1991 seems, however, to have been the most important factor responsible for the rapid bioenergy expansion. Through this reform, the taxation of fossil fuels in district heating systems increased by approximately 30-160%, depending on fuel, whereas bioenergy remained untaxed. Industry is exempted from the energy tax and pays reduced carbon tax. No tax is levied on fossil fuels used for electricity production. Investment grants have existed for biomass-based electricity production but these grants have not been large enough to make biomass-based electricity production economically competitive in a period of falling electricity prices. Despite this, the biomass-based electricity production has increased slightly between 1990 and 1999. A new taxation system aiming at a removal of the tax difference between the industry, district heating and electricity sectors has recently been analysed by the Swedish government. One risk with such a system is that it reduces the competitiveness for biomass in district heating systems as it seems unlikely that the taxes on fossil fuels in the industry and electricity sectors will increase to a level much higher than in other countries. A new system, based on green certificates, for supporting electricity from renewable energy sources has also been proposed by the government.

  6. Hospital pharmacy workforce in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Thiago R; Penm, Jonathan; Baldoni, André O; Ayres, Lorena Rocha; Moles, Rebekah; Sanches, Cristina

    2018-01-04

    This study aims to describe the distribution of the hospital pharmacy workforce in Brazil. Data were acquired, during 2016, through the Brazilian National Database of Healthcare Facilities (CNES). The following variables were extracted: hospital name, registry number, telephone, e-mail, state, type of institution, subtype, management nature, ownership, presence of research/teaching activities, complexity level, number of hospital beds, presence of pharmacists, number of pharmacists, pharmacist specialization. All statistical analyses were performed by IBM SPSS v.19. The number of hospitals with a complete registry in the national database was 4790. The majority were general hospitals (77.9%), managed by municipalities (66.1%), under public administration (44.0%), had no research/teaching activities (90.5%), classified as medium complexity (71.6%), and had no pharmacist in their team (50.6%). Furthermore, almost 60.0% of hospitals did not comply with the minimum recommendations of having a pharmacist per 50 hospital beds. The Southeast region had the highest prevalence of pharmacists, with 64.4% of hospitals having a pharmaceutical professional. This may have occurred as this region had the highest population to hospital ratio. Non-profit hospitals were more likely to have pharmacists compared to those under public administration and private hospitals. This study mapped the hospital pharmacy workforce in Brazil, showing a higher prevalence of hospital pharmacists in the Southeast region, and in non-profit specialized hospitals.

  7. Swedish Catholicism and Authoritarian Ideologies : Attitudes to Communism, National Socialism, Fascism, and Authoritarian Conservatism in a Swedish Catholic Journal, 1922–1945

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the attitude to communism, National Socialism, Fascism, and authoritarian conservatism in the Swedish Catholic Church’s journal Credo from 1922 to 1945. The comparative approach has made it possible to see how the journal distinguished between the various forms of authoritarian ideologies in Europe during this period. The article shows that the Catholic Church in Sweden took a very negative view of communism (the Soviet Union and the Spanish Republic) and strongly co...

  8. Suicide rate among former Swedish peacekeeping personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Per-Olof; Lundin, Tom; Larsson, Gerry

    2007-03-01

    Increased suicide rates for military personnel suffering from post-traumatic stress disorders have been reported in various countries. Although it is known that some peacekeepers are exposed to potentially traumatic events and are thus at risk of suffering from post-traumatic stress reactions, only a few studies have examined suicide rates in this group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the suicide rate among former Swedish peacekeeping personnel. We compared 39,768 former Swedish peacekeepers to the general population in the National General Population Registry and the Cause-of-Death Registry. A lower number of suicides was found among former Swedish peacekeepers than in the general population. In conclusion, Swedish personnel serving in international peace-keeping operations do not show a higher suicide rate than the general population. Unique problems associated with this research area are discussed.

  9. Tobacco and alcohol sales in community pharmacies: policy statements from U.S. professional pharmacy associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corelli, Robin L; Chai, Tiffany; Karic, Alda; Fairman, Melinda; Baez, Karina; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek

    2014-01-01

    To characterize the extent to which state and national professional pharmacy associations have implemented formal policies addressing the sale of tobacco and alcohol products in community pharmacies. To determine existence of tobacco and alcohol policies, national professional pharmacy associations (n = 10) and state-level pharmacy associations (n = 86) affiliated with the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) and/or the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) were contacted via telephone and/or e-mail, and a search of the association websites was conducted. Of 95 responding associations (99%), 14% have a formal policy opposing the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies and 5% have a formal policy opposing the sale of alcohol in pharmacies. Of the associations representing major tobacco-producing states, 40% have a formal policy against tobacco sales in pharmacies, significantly more than the 8% of non-tobacco state associations with such policies. Among national professional pharmacy associations, only APhA and ASHP have formal policy statements opposing the sale of both tobacco and alcohol in pharmacies. Most state-level professional pharmacy associations affiliated with these two national organizations have no formal policy statement or position.

  10. Impact of Previous Pharmacy Work Experience on Pharmacy School Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Ellena; T-L Tang, Terrill; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Kuperberg, James R.; Knapp, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether students' previous pharmacy-related work experience was associated with their pharmacy school performance (academic and clinical). Methods The following measures of student academic performance were examined: pharmacy grade point average (GPA), scores on cumulative high-stakes examinations, and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) grades. The quantity and type of pharmacy-related work experience each student performed prior to matriculation was solicited through a student survey instrument. Survey responses were correlated with academic measures, and demographic-based stratified analyses were conducted. Results No significant difference in academic or clinical performance between those students with prior pharmacy experience and those without was identified. Subanalyses by work setting, position type, and substantial pharmacy work experience did not reveal any association with student performance. A relationship was found, however, between age and work experience, ie, older students tended to have more work experience than younger students. Conclusions Prior pharmacy work experience did not affect students' overall academic or clinical performance in pharmacy school. The lack of significant findings may have been due to the inherent practice limitations of nonpharmacist positions, changes in pharmacy education, and the limitations of survey responses. PMID:20498735

  11. Exploring the intentions of pharmacy students towards pharmacy ownership by using theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram; Fayyaz, Muhammad; Ashraf, Nida; Bhagavathula, Akshaya

    2016-03-22

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of the constructs of theory of planned behaviour (behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs, control beliefs) and demographic variables with the intentions of pharmacy students to become pharmacy owner. A cross sectional study was conducted between October and November, 2014, using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire delivered to a sample of 350 pharmacy students at a private university of Pakistan. Behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs and control beliefs were assessed on four point Likert scale of agreement. The scores were summed and dichotomized based on an arbitrary 50% cut-off score to assess positive and negative beliefs. Binary logistic regression was used to analyse the data. A total of 313 participants (89.4%) responded to the questionnaire. Participants' behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs and control beliefs were negative towards pharmacy ownership with the mean scores of 13.90 ± 0.41 (score range: 6-24), 9.66 ± 0.49 (score range: 4-16) and 16.88 ± 0.40 (score range: 7-28) respectively. Professional year and family business were significantly associated with intentions of pharmacy students to own a pharmacy (p Behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs and control beliefs were negative towards pharmacy ownership. Implementation of entrepreneurship course in pharmacy school may transform the beliefs of pharmacy students towards pharmacy ownership.

  12. The need for redesigned pharmacy practice courses in Pakistan: the perspectives of senior pharmacy students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umair Khan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In Pakistan, courses in pharmacy practice, which are an essential component of the PharmD curriculum, were launched with the aim of strengthening pharmacy practice overall and enabling pharmacy students to cope with the challenges involved in meeting real-world healthcare needs. Since very little research has assessed the efficacy of such courses, we aimed to evaluate students’ perceptions of pharmacy practice courses and their opinions about whether their current knowledge of the topics covered in pharmacy practice courses is adequate for future practice. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted over two months among the senior pharmacy students of two pharmacy colleges. A content- and face-validated questionnaire was used to collect data, which were then analysed using SPSS version 20. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were performed. Results: Research in pharmacy practice (30.2%, applied drug information (34.4%, health policy (38.1%, public health and epidemiology (39.5%, pharmacovigilance (45.6%, and pharmacoeconomics (47.9% were the major courses that were covered to the least extent in the PharmD curriculum. However, hospital pharmacy practice (94.4%, pharmacotherapeutics (88.8%, and community pharmacy practice (82.8% were covered well. Although 94% of students considered these courses important, only 37.2% considered themselves to be competent in the corresponding topics. Of the participants, 87.9% agreed that the pharmacy courses in the present curriculum should be redesigned. Conclusion: Our results showed that the pharmacy practice courses in the current PharmD curriculum do not encompass some important core subjects. A nationwide study is warranted to further establish the necessity for remodelling pharmacy practice courses in Pakistan.

  13. The Raison D’être for the Community Pharmacy and the Community Pharmacist in Sweden: A Qualitative Interview Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Wisell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Community pharmacies are balancing between business (selling medicines and other products and healthcare (using the pharmacists’ knowledge in order to improve drug utilization. This balance could be affected by regulations decided upon by politicians, but also influenced by others. The aim of this study was to explore important stakeholders’ views on community pharmacy and community pharmacists in Sweden. The method used was that of semi-structured qualitative interviews. Political, professional, and patient organization representatives were interviewed. The results show that informants who are pharmacists or representatives of a professional pharmacist organization generally have a healthcare-centered view on community pharmacy/pharmacists. However, different views on how this orientation should be performed were revealed, ranging from being specialists to dealing with uncomplicated tasks. Political organization representatives generally had a more business-oriented view, where competition in the market was believed to be the main driving force for development. A third dimension in which competition was not stressed also emerged; that community pharmacies should primarily distribute medicines. This dimension was most prevalent among the political and patient organization representatives. One conclusion to be drawn is that no stakeholder seemed to have a clear vision or was willing to take the lead for the development of the community pharmacy sector.

  14. The Raison D’être for the Community Pharmacy and the Community Pharmacist in Sweden: A Qualitative Interview Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisell, Kristin; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2015-01-01

    Community pharmacies are balancing between business (selling medicines and other products) and healthcare (using the pharmacists’ knowledge in order to improve drug utilization). This balance could be affected by regulations decided upon by politicians, but also influenced by others. The aim of this study was to explore important stakeholders’ views on community pharmacy and community pharmacists in Sweden. The method used was that of semi-structured qualitative interviews. Political, professional, and patient organization representatives were interviewed. The results show that informants who are pharmacists or representatives of a professional pharmacist organization generally have a healthcare-centered view on community pharmacy/pharmacists. However, different views on how this orientation should be performed were revealed, ranging from being specialists to dealing with uncomplicated tasks. Political organization representatives generally had a more business-oriented view, where competition in the market was believed to be the main driving force for development. A third dimension in which competition was not stressed also emerged; that community pharmacies should primarily distribute medicines. This dimension was most prevalent among the political and patient organization representatives. One conclusion to be drawn is that no stakeholder seemed to have a clear vision or was willing to take the lead for the development of the community pharmacy sector. PMID:28970376

  15. Sowing the seeds for improved Pharmacy education in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sowing the seeds for improved Pharmacy education in Nigeria: development of ICT at university of Benin Faculty of Pharmacy. ... For today\\'s pharmacy graduates to function effectively in an ever increasing technological world, pharmacy students must be trained to use computer facilities as they will always encounter the ...

  16. The Relationship between Student Engagement and Professionalism in Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Anne Guerin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between student engagement (as measured by the National Survey of Student Engagement benchmarks) and pharmacy student professionalism (as measured by the Pharmacy Professionalism Domain instrument) in first and third year pharmacy students at seven different schools of pharmacy. Engagement provides the…

  17. 45 CFR 162.1901 - Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. 162... STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Medicaid Pharmacy Subrogation § 162.1901 Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. The Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction is the...

  18. 21 CFR 1311.205 - Pharmacy application requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pharmacy application requirements. 1311.205... ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS (Eff. 6-1-10) Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.205 Pharmacy application requirements. (a) The pharmacy may only use a pharmacy application that meets the requirements in paragraph (b...

  19. Pharmacy Practice and Education in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Sandulovici

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The PHARMINE (“Pharmacy Education in Europe” project examined the organisation of pharmacy practice and education in the European Union (EU. An electronic survey was sent out to representatives of different sectors (community, hospital, industrial pharmacists, university staff, and students in each individual EU member state. This paper presents the results of the PHARMINE survey on pharmacy practice and education in Romania. In the light of this data we examine to what extent harmonisation of practice and education with EU norms has occurred, whether this has promoted mobility of pharmacy professionals, academics and students, and what impact it has had on healthcare in Romania. The survey reveals the substantial changes in Romanian pharmacy practice and education since the 1989 change in government and Romania joining the EU in 2007. Romania remains, however, a poor country with expenditure on healthcare less than one-third of the EU average. This factor also impacts pharmacy practice. Although practice seems aligned with EU norms, this masks the substantial imbalance between the situation in the richer capital, Bucharest, and that of the poorer countryside. Harmonisation to EU norms in pharmacy education has not promoted student exchange and mobility but, rather, a brain drain in pharmaceutical graduates to other EU countries. Specialisation in industrial practice has been lost since 1989 with pharmacists being replaced by chemists. In hospitals the hospital pharmacist is being replaced by the clinical pharmacist.

  20. The Attitude of Medical and Pharmacy Students towards Research Activities: A Multicenter Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Bandari, Deepak Kumar; Tefera, Yonas Getaye; Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Elnour, Asim Ahmed; Shehab, Abdulla

    2017-10-11

    Aim: To assess the attitude of medical and pharmacy students in Asian and African universities towards scholarly research activities. Methods: An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-reported online survey questionnaire was administered to medical and pharmacy students studying in various Asian and African universities through social media between May and July 2016. A 68-item close-ended questionnaire consisting of Likert-scale options assessed the students' research-specific experiences, and their attitudes towards scholarly research publications. Results: A total of 512 questionnaires were completed, with a response rate of 92% from Asia and 94% from Africa. More pharmacy students (70.8%) participated than medical students (29.2%). Overall 52.2% of the pharmacy students and 40% of medical students believed that research activities provided a means of gaining respect from their faculty members. Lack of encouragement, paucity of time, gaps in research activities and practices, and lack of research funding were some of the most common barriers acknowledged by the students. A nonparametric Mann-Whitney test showed that a statistically significant difference was observed, in that more than 80% of the pharmacy students viewed scientific writing and research activities as valuable experiences ( p = 0.001) and would like to involve their co-students in scholarly research activities ( p = 0.002); whereas the majority of the medical students desired to be involved more in scholarly research publications ( p = 0.033). Conclusion: Pharmacy students had good attitudes towards research activities and a higher number of medical students desired to be involved more in research publications. Faculties may consider taking special research initiatives to address the barriers and improve the involvement of medical and pharmacy students in scholarly research activities.

  1. The lay user perspective on the quality of pharmaceuticals, drug therapy and pharmacy services--results of focus group discussions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Björnsdóttir, Ingunn

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article presents the results of a study on quality of pharmacy services and perceived risk of pharmaceuticals. The results presented here are part of a multi-study evaluation of major changes in drug distribution in Iceland. OBJECTIVES: This sub-study addressed the question: what...... is the lay user perspective on pharmaceuticals and pharmacy services, including their perception of risk? METHODS: To answer this question, seven focus group discussions were conducted with pharmacy customers in different locations in Iceland following new drug distribution legislation in 1996. RESULTS......: The lay perspective emphasizes a definite split between lay and expert views on the value and quality of pharmaceuticals, drug therapy and pharmacy services, as well as in their assessment of risk. Participants voiced spontaneous criticism of the roles of both physicians and pharmacists in drug therapy...

  2. Graduating Pharmacy Students’ Perspectives on E-Professionalism and Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Amy Heck; Snyder, Margie E.; Jordan, Joseph; Cunningham, Jean E.; Gettig, Jacob P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the use patterns of social media among graduating pharmacy students, characterize students’ views and opinions of professionalism on popular social media sites, and compare responses about social media behavior among students seeking different types of employment. Methods. All graduating pharmacy students (n=516) at Purdue University, The University of Findlay, Butler University, and Midwestern University were invited to complete a survey instrument during the fall semester of 2011. Results. Of 212 (41%) students who responded to the survey, 93% (194/209) had a social media profile. Seventy-four percent (120/162) of participants felt they should edit their social media profiles prior to applying for a job. Conclusions. Many graduating pharmacy students use social media; however, there appears to be a growing awareness of the importance of presenting a more professional image online as they near graduation and begin seeking employment as pharmacists. PMID:24052649

  3. Graduating pharmacy students' perspectives on e-professionalism and social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Genevieve Lynn; Sheehan, Amy Heck; Snyder, Margie E; Jordan, Joseph; Cunningham, Jean E; Gettig, Jacob P

    2013-09-12

    To determine the use patterns of social media among graduating pharmacy students, characterize students' views and opinions of professionalism on popular social media sites, and compare responses about social media behavior among students seeking different types of employment. All graduating pharmacy students (n=516) at Purdue University, The University of Findlay, Butler University, and Midwestern University were invited to complete a survey instrument during the fall semester of 2011. Of 212 (41%) students who responded to the survey, 93% (194/209) had a social media profile. Seventy-four percent (120/162) of participants felt they should edit their social media profiles prior to applying for a job. Many graduating pharmacy students use social media; however, there appears to be a growing awareness of the importance of presenting a more professional image online as they near graduation and begin seeking employment as pharmacists.

  4. Geographical access to community pharmacies in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Pauline; Horsburgh, Simon; Sides, Gerald; Ram, Sanya; Fraser, John

    2014-09-01

    Geographic access to community pharmacies is an important aspect of access to appropriate medicines. This study aimed to explore changes in the number and location of pharmacies in New Zealand and determine whether some populations have poor geographical access to pharmacies. Pharmacy numbers in New Zealand have been declining since the mid-1980s, and, adjusted for population growth, there are now only half the number there was in 1965. While the urbanisation of pharmacies has been matched by loss of population in rural areas, the loss of pharmacies from smaller rural towns leaves many people with poor access to pharmacy services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Survey of Pharmacy Education in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanakit, Teeraporn; Low, Bee Yean; Wongpoowarak, Payom; Moolasarn, Summana; Anderson, Claire

    2014-11-15

    To explore the current status of pharmacy education in Thailand. The International Pharmaceutical Federation of the World Health Organization's (FIP-WHO) Global Survey of Pharmacy Schools was used for this study. The survey instrument was distributed to the deans of the 19 faculties (colleges) of pharmacy in Thailand. More than half the colleges have been in existence less than 20 years, and the government owns 80% of them. There were 2 paths of admission to study pharmacy: direct admission and central admission system. The doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs can be divided into 4 types. Approximately 60% of all teaching staff holds a doctoral degree. Regarding the work balance among teaching staff, around 60% focus on teaching activities, 20% focus on research, and less than 20% focus on patient care services concurrent with real practice teaching. The proportion of student time dedicated to theory, practice, and research in PharmD programs is 51.5%, 46.7%, and 1.8%, respectively. Sites owned by the colleges or by others were used for student training. Colleges followed the Office of the National Education Standards' Internal Quality Assurance (IQA) and External Quality Assurance (EQA), and the Pharmacy Council's Quality Assessment (ONESQA). This study provides a picture of the current status of curriculum, teaching staff, and students in pharmacy education in Thailand. The curriculum was adapted from the US PharmD program with the aim of meeting the country's needs and includes industrial pharmacy and public health tracks as well as clinical tracks. However, this transition in pharmacy education in Thailand needs to be monitored and evaluated.

  6. Nuclear pharmacy certificate program: distance learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Nuclear Pharmacy Certificate Program (NPCP) was developed to meet the need for licensed pharmacists wishing to change career paths and enter the practice of nuclear pharmacy. Additionally, the NPCP benefits employers that wish to employ a nuclear pharmacist in lieu of waiting for graduates that are available only at one time yearly from a college of pharmacy. The NPCP is not intended to replace traditional nuclear pharmacy education in academic institutions, but to offer an another option to pharmacists and potential employers. The NPCP is divided into two components. One component involves over 130 hours of instruction through videotapes and accompanying workbooks. This component is completed while working in a nuclear pharmacy and with the assistance of a nuclear pharmacist serving as a supervisor. The nuclear pharmacist is available to answer questions and to administer examinations over the videotape material. Examinations are prepared by Purdue faculty and returned for grading. Scores on exams must reflect learning to the same degree as in an academic environment. In the second component of the NPCP, the trainee attends a two-week session in the School of Pharmacy at Purdue University. the trainee must complete a significant portion of the videotape material before the on-campus session. In the on-campus component, videotape material is reinforced and expanded by laboratory exercises and lectures in dedicated, fully-equipped laboratories employed in the School of Pharmacy undergraduate program in nuclear pharmacy. Nuclear pharmacy faculty and consultants provide individualized instruction to each trainee. Assimilation of lecture and laboratory material is determined through several examinations. A comprehensive examination is administered which includes content from the videotape-workbook component of the NPCP. Certification is awarded to trainees who have completed the program and demonstrated their knowledge and competence by examination. Almost 200

  7. 78 FR 57656 - S & S Pharmacy, Inc., d/b/a Platinum Pharmacy & Compounding; Decision and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration S & S Pharmacy, Inc., d/b/a Platinum Pharmacy & Compounding; Decision and Order On October 27, 2011, I, the Administrator of the Drug... Pharmacy, Inc., d/b/a Platinum Pharmacy & Compounding (hereinafter, Registrant), of Tampa, Florida. GX B...

  8. Failure data collection from a Swedish nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Hilding, S.

    1975-01-01

    The Swedish nuclear utilities have formed a joint working group in the field of reliability data of thermal power plants, nuclear and fossil fuelled. The primary task of the working group is to create a standard procedure of collecting failure data from the Swedish nuclear power plants in operation. The failure data will be stored in a joint data bank. A first test collection of such data has been implemented on Oskarshamn I, and the experience with this work is discussed in this report. Reliability analysis of an engineering system is based on the availability of pertinent information on the system components. Right from the beginning within the Swedish nuclear industry the consensus has been that such data can be suitably obtained by monitoring the operating power stations. This has led to a co-operative arrangement between the vendor, ASEA-ATOM and a utility, Oskarshamnsverkets Kraftgrupp AB (OKG) to utilize information from component malfunctions in the reliability analysis. The utility prepares component failure reports which are sent to the vendor for further treatment. Experience gathered to date indicates that this arrangement is effective although many persons are involved in this process of information transmittal. The present set-up is flexible enough to accommodate necessary changes in view of problems which arise now and then in monitoring a complex system like a nuclear power station. This report briefly describes the structure of the failure data collection system. The way in which the raw data collection is done in the station by the owner and the subsequent data processing by the vendor is discussed. A brief status report of the information collected since 1971 is given. It can be concluded that valuable reliability data can be obtained by monitoring component failure reports from an operating power plant. Two requirements are, however, that all the parties involved in the arrangement follow given instructions carefully and that the assumed

  9. The Catch-22 of Pharmacy Practice in Pakistan’s Pharmacy Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atta Abbas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available New developments in the pharmacy education structure in Pakistan led to the formation of a separate department grouping high specialized services/subjects. However, inadequate planning has exposed a vacuity, as the educational authorities failed to develop a workforce before creating the specialized department. As a result, this vacuum is on the verge of being impinged by pharmacy professionals specialized in entirely different domains which would be detrimental to the future prospects of the development of pharmacy practice in Pakistan.

  10. A global picture of pharmacy technician and other pharmacy support workforce cadres

    OpenAIRE

    Koehler, Tamara; Brown, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Understanding how pharmacy technicians and other pharmacy support workforce cadres assist pharmacists in the healthcare system will facilitate developing health systems with the ability to achieve universal health coverage as it is defined in different country contexts. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the present global variety in the technician and other pharmacy support workforce cadres considering; their scope, roles, supervision, education and legal framewo...

  11. Estimating Swedish biomass energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, J.; Lundqvist, U.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass is suggested to supply an increasing amount of energy in Sweden. There have been several studies estimating the potential supply of biomass energy, including that of the Swedish Energy Commission in 1995. The Energy Commission based its estimates of biomass supply on five other analyses which presented a wide variation in estimated future supply, in large part due to differing assumptions regarding important factors. In this paper, these studies are assessed, and the estimated potential biomass energy supplies are discusses regarding prices, technical progress and energy policy. The supply of logging residues depends on the demand for wood products and is limited by ecological, technological, and economic restrictions. The supply of stemwood from early thinning for energy and of straw from cereal and oil seed production is mainly dependent upon economic considerations. One major factor for the supply of willow and reed canary grass is the size of arable land projected to be not needed for food and fodder production. Future supply of biomass energy depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities. Biomass energy has to compete with other energy sources as well as with alternative uses of biomass such as forest products and food production. Technical progress may decrease the costs of biomass energy and thus increase the competitiveness. Economic instruments, including carbon taxes and subsidies, and allocation of research and development resources, are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of biomass energy

  12. Assessing Emotionally Intelligent Leadership in Pharmacy Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, Robert C; Kolar, Claire; Nelson, Michael H; Fierke, Kerry K; Sucher, Brandon J; Janke, Kristin K

    2017-03-25

    Objective. To determine the frequency distribution of pharmacy students across Emotionally Intelligent Leadership Inventory (EILI) measures. Methods. The EILI was administered to 235 pharmacy students at two schools. The instrument was systematically compared to the 2013 CAPE Outcomes and analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis. Results. The EILI has primary connections with pharmacy competencies related to interprofessional communication and leadership. The three facets of the EILI were verified for internal consistency (Context, α=.78; Self, α=.74; Others, α=.79). Student scores were the highest for the consciousness of self facet, with a mean score of 31.4 out of 40. Conclusion. The EILI shows promise as an instrument for use in assessing pharmacy students' emotional intelligence and leadership skills.

  13. The challenges of pharmacy education in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Worafi, Yaser Mohammed

    2014-10-15

    Pharmacy education in Yemen has faced many challenges since its introduction in the 1980s. Most Yemeni pharmacy schools, especially private ones, are experiencing difficulties in providing the right quality and quantity of clinical educational experiences. Most of these challenges are imbedded in a teaching style and curricula that have failed to respond to the needs of the community and country. The slow shift from traditional drug-dispensing to a patient-centered or focused approach in pharmacy practice requires a fundamental change in the roles and responsibilities of both policymakers and educators. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to discuss the challenges facing the pharmacy education in Yemen; (2) to provided recommendations to overcome challenges.

  14. VACCINATION SERVICE IN THE PORTUGUESE PHARMACIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Pimenta Jacinto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Community Pharmacies’ legal framework (regulated by the decree-law nº 307/2007, 31st August established the possibility of provision of pharmaceutical services to promote health and well-being by pharmacies. Due to its characteristics in terms of access and geographical distribution, pharmacies are health providers which can contribute to increase the immunization coverage with benefits in terms of public health. In this article, it is described the national and international framework of the implementation of vaccination services in pharmacies and the results of its implementation. It is also conducted a reflection on strengthening the role of pharmacies and its contribution to the national targets for immunization coverage and public health.

  15. Prescribing during pregnancy and lactation with reference to the Swedish classification system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Charlotte; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Berg, Lolkje de Jong-van den

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To assess the current prescribing pattern for 15,756 primiparae before, during, and after their pregnancies with reference to fetal and neonatal risk. METHOD: A prescription database study with linkage to The Danish Medical Birth Registry from 1991 to 1996. The drug subsidy system in Danish...... retail pharmacies, made it possible to identify prescriptions by individual use. All 34,334 prescriptions were set against the Swedish classification of risk of drug use in pregnancy and lactation. RESULTS: During pregnancy, safe (group A), potentially harmful (group B3, C, and D), and non......-classifiable drugs accounted for 40.9%, 26.6% and 28.7% respectively. The proportion of women who redeemed drugs was 29.2%, 8.6%, 18.7% and 0.9% from drug groups A, B, C and D respectively. The proportion of prescriptions from high risk groups declined during the course of pregnancy. Postpartum, safe drugs (group I...

  16. Effective strategies for managing pharmacy benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, D

    2001-03-01

    Prescription drug costs are among the fastest-growing healthcare costs. Effective plan design and benefit management strategies can help pharmacy benefit plans manage costs while maintaining quality and customer satisfaction. These strategies include using formulary management, intervention techniques, and cost sharing to encourage the use of generic drugs; employing a mail-service pharmacy benefit for maintenance medications; and implementing concurrent and retrospective review programs to ensure eligibility and plan compliance, identify practice patterns, and encourage appropriate drug selection.

  17. Alcohol use behaviors among pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Wesley; McGuffey, Grant; Westrick, Salisa C; Jungnickel, Paul W; Correia, Christopher J

    2014-03-12

    To identify reasons for drinking, determine the patterns of alcohol abuse, and explore relationships between drinking motives and alcohol abuse patterns in pharmacy students. A cross-sectional anonymous, voluntary, self-administered paper survey instrument was administered to first-year (P1) through third-year (P3) pharmacy students as part of a professional seminar. Survey instruments were completed by 349 pharmacy students (95.9% cooperation rate). Using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test criteria, 23.2% of students reported hazardous or harmful use and 67.2% of students reported consuming alcohol at hazardous levels during the past year. Students who were male (37.0%), single (25.3%), and attended the main campus (26.2%) were more likely than their counterparts to report hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Pharmacy students reported social motives as the most common reason for drinking; however, coping and enhancement motives were more predictive of harmful or hazardous alcohol use. Approximately 1 in 4 pharmacy students (23%) reported hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Education about the dangers of alcohol abuse and intervention programs from colleges and schools of pharmacy are recommended to help address this issue.

  18. Medicinal chemistry and the pharmacy curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M O Faruk; Deimling, Michael J; Philip, Ashok

    2011-10-10

    The origins and advancements of pharmacy, medicinal chemistry, and drug discovery are interwoven in nature. Medicinal chemistry provides pharmacy students with a thorough understanding of drug mechanisms of action, structure-activity relationships (SAR), acid-base and physicochemical properties, and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) profiles. A comprehensive understanding of the chemical basis of drug action equips pharmacy students with the ability to answer rationally the "why" and "how" questions related to drug action and it sets the pharmacist apart as the chemical expert among health care professionals. By imparting an exclusive knowledge base, medicinal chemistry plays a vital role in providing critical thinking and evidence-based problem-solving skills to pharmacy students, enabling them to make optimal patient-specific therapeutic decisions. This review highlights the parallel nature of the history of pharmacy and medicinal chemistry, as well as the key elements of medicinal chemistry and drug discovery that make it an indispensable component of the pharmacy curriculum.

  19. Pharmacy management strategies for improving drug adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, William K

    2008-07-01

    Significant gaps in quality pervade U.S. health care, leading to suboptimal care and rising costs. One key factor driving the apparent quality gaps and rising costs in the current health care system is the issue of nonadherence to prescription medications. To describe quality gaps in managed care that are driven by nonadherence to prescription medications and characterize the components of successful pharmacy management strategies for overcoming nonadherence. Collaborative networks and medication therapy management (MTM) programs are 2 pharmacy management initiatives that are useful in reducing medication nonadherence among plan members. The Pharmacy Quality Alliance has laid the foundation for developing useful pharmacy quality metrics, aggregating data, and reporting to both consumers and pharmacies. At the same time, the National Committee for Quality Assurance has developed MTM measures to monitor pharmacy quality. Both organizations have used Medicare Part D as an impetus for these initiatives in an effort to assess the value of the high-cost investment in prescription drugs resulting from the government mandate. Managed care stakeholders should strive toward a valuebased health care system by investing more on appropriate medication use, including initiatives to reduce nonadherence and avoid the high costs of treating severe disease in the future.

  20. Big Data: Implications for Health System Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Laura B; Rogers, Joseph W; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services.

  1. Big Data: Implications for Health System Pharmacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Laura B.; Rogers, Joseph W.; Hertig, John B.; Weber, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:27559194

  2. Alcohol Use Behaviors Among Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Wesley; McGuffey, Grant; Westrick, Salisa C.; Jungnickel, Paul W.; Correia, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify reasons for drinking, determine the patterns of alcohol abuse, and explore relationships between drinking motives and alcohol abuse patterns in pharmacy students. Methods. A cross-sectional anonymous, voluntary, self-administered paper survey instrument was administered to first-year (P1) through third-year (P3) pharmacy students as part of a professional seminar. Results. Survey instruments were completed by 349 pharmacy students (95.9% cooperation rate). Using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test criteria, 23.2% of students reported hazardous or harmful use and 67.2% of students reported consuming alcohol at hazardous levels during the past year. Students who were male (37.0%), single (25.3%), and attended the main campus (26.2%) were more likely than their counterparts to report hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Pharmacy students reported social motives as the most common reason for drinking; however, coping and enhancement motives were more predictive of harmful or hazardous alcohol use. Conclusion. Approximately 1 in 4 pharmacy students (23%) reported hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Education about the dangers of alcohol abuse and intervention programs from colleges and schools of pharmacy are recommended to help address this issue. PMID:24672063

  3. Development of a pharmacy resident rotation to expand decentralized clinical pharmacy services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, John D; Williams, Jonathan P; Barnes, Julie F; Greenlee, Katie M; Cardiology, Bcps-Aq; Leonard, Mandy C

    2017-07-15

    The development of a pharmacy resident rotation to expand decentralized clinical pharmacy services is described. In an effort to align with the initiatives proposed within the ASHP Practice Advancement Initiative, the department of pharmacy at Cleveland Clinic, a 1,400-bed academic, tertiary acute care medical center in Cleveland, Ohio, established a goal to provide decentralized clinical pharmacy services for 100% of patient care units within the hospital. Patient care units that previously had no decentralized pharmacy services were evaluated to identify opportunities for expansion. Metrics analyzed included number of medication orders verified per hour, number of pharmacy dosing consultations, and number of patient discharge counseling sessions. A pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of this service and potential resident learning opportunities. A learning experience description was drafted, and feedback was solicited regarding the development of educational components utilized throughout the rotation. Pharmacists who were providing services to similar patient populations were identified to serve as preceptors. Staff pharmacists were deployed to previously uncovered patient care units, with pharmacy residents providing decentralized services on previously covered areas. A rotating preceptor schedule was developed based on geographic proximity and clinical expertise. An initial postimplementation assessment of this resident-driven service revealed that pharmacy residents provided a comparable level of pharmacy services to that of staff pharmacists. Feedback collected from nurses, physicians, and pharmacy staff also supported residents' ability to operate sufficiently in this role to optimize patient care. A learning experience developed for pharmacy residents in a large medical center enabled the expansion of decentralized clinical services without requiring additional pharmacist full-time equivalents. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of

  4. Safety Assessment - Swedish Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellstroem, B.

    1996-01-01

    After the reactor accident at Three Mile Island, the Swedish nuclear power plants were equipped with filtered venting of the containment. Several types of accidents can be identified where the filtered venting has no effect on the radioactive release. The probability for such accidents is hopefully very small. It is not possible however to estimate the probability accurately. Experiences gained in the last years, which have been documented in official reports from the Nuclear Power Inspectorate indicate that the probability for core melt accidents in Swedish reactors can be significantly larger than estimated earlier. A probability up to one in a thousand operating years can not be excluded. There are so far no indications that aging of the plants has contributed to an increased accident risk. Maintaining the safety level with aging nuclear power plants can however be expected to be increasingly difficult. It is concluded that the 12 Swedish plants remain a major threat for severe radioactive pollution of the Swedish environment despite measures taken since 1980 to improve their safety. Closing of the nuclear power plants is the only possibility to eliminate this threat. It is recommended that until this is done, quantitative safety goals, same for all Swedish plants, shall be defined and strictly enforced. It is also recommended that utilities distributing misleading information about nuclear power risks shall have their operating license withdrawn. 37 refs

  5. Developing a Business Plan for Critical Care Pharmacy Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erstad, Brian L; Mann, Henry J; Weber, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Critical care medicine has grown from a small group of physicians participating in patient care rounds in surgical and medical intensive care units (ICUs) to a highly technical, interdisciplinary team. Pharmacy's growth in the area of critical care is as exponential. Today's ICU requires a comprehensive pharmaceutical service that includes both operational and clinical services to meet patient medication needs. This article provides the elements for a business plan to justify critical care pharmacy services by describing the pertinent background and benefit of ICU pharmacy services, detailing a current assessment of ICU pharmacy services, listing the essential ICU pharmacy services, describing service metrics, and delineating an appropriate timeline for implementing an ICU pharmacy service. The structure and approach of this business plan can be applied to a variety of pharmacy services. By following the format and information listed in this article, the pharmacy director can move closer to developing patient-centered pharmacy services for ICU patients.

  6. Education...A must in all levels of pharmacy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keresztes, Jan M

    2010-11-01

    Public perception of a profession is extremely important, but even more vital is the actual worth the profession provides to those who partake of its services. As pharmacy recreates itself as a consultative profession, many changes are occurring in the college of pharmacy students' education. The onset of the Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience (IPPE), the continued rotations in the Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE), and the proposal to have mandatory residencies occurring by 2020 show the steps that pharmacy will take to move forward. But pharmacy continues to miss the first rung of the ladder as the profession climbs to its future success by not addressing the mandatory education of the primary workforce in day-to-day activities: that of standardized education and training of pharmacy technicians. While IPPE, APPE, and residencies will strengthen the pharmacy "dwelling," its foundation does not have solid ground. A deadline needs to be established for mandatory education, training, and certification for all technicians entering the profession today and, only after achieving these goals, should the pharmacy technicians be licensed to practice. With even more forethought, pharmacy might require that potential college of pharmacy students, as well as those not fortunate enough to be admitted to a college of pharmacy, become pharmacy technicians first. Only then can the pharmacy profession conquer the top rung of the ladder in a strong, upright fashion.

  7. A global picture of pharmacy technician and other pharmacy support workforce cadres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koehler, Tamara; Brown, A.

    a b s t r a c t Introduction: Understanding how pharmacy technicians and other pharmacy support workforce cadres assist pharmacists in the healthcare system will facilitate developing health systems with the ability to achieve universal health coverage as it is defined in different country contexts.

  8. The Economic, Social and Administrative Pharmacy (ESAP) Discipline in US Schools and Colleges of Pharmacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Fadi M.; Latif, David A.; Adkins, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States have struggled over the past several decades with identifying a consistent title for the broad body of knowledge related to the social, economic, behavioral, and administrative aspects of pharmacy. This paper examines the educational background and professional experience of those teaching…

  9. Pharmacy student driven detection of adverse drug reactions in the community pharmacy setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Troels; Søndergaard, Birthe; Honoré, Per Hartvig

    2011-01-01

    of pharmacists in ADR reporting, although varies significantly among countries. Pharmacists in community pharmacies are in a unique position for detection of experienced ADRs by the drug users. The study reports from a study on community pharmacy internship students' proactive role in ADR detection through...

  10. Patient satisfaction with community pharmacy: comparing urban and suburban chain-pharmacy populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malewski, David F; Ream, Aimrie; Gaither, Caroline A

    2015-01-01

    Patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical care can be a strong predictor of medication and other health-related outcomes. Less understood is the role that location of pharmacies in urban or suburban environments plays in patient satisfaction with pharmacy and pharmacist services. The purpose of this study was to serve as a pilot examining urban and suburban community pharmacy populations for similarities and differences in patient satisfaction. Community pharmacy patients were asked to self-administer a 30-question patient satisfaction survey. Fifteen questions addressed their relationship with the pharmacist, 10 questions addressed satisfaction and accessibility of the pharmacy, and five questions addressed financial concerns. Five urban and five suburban pharmacies agreed to participate. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis. Most patients reported high levels of satisfaction. Satisfaction with pharmacist relationship and service was 70% or higher with no significant differences between locations. There were significant differences between the urban and suburban patients regarding accessibility of pharmacy services, customer service and some patient/pharmacist trust issues. The significant differences between patient satisfaction in the suburban and urban populations warrant a larger study with more community pharmacies in other urban, suburban and rural locations to better understand and validate study findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of hazardous alcohol use among pharmacy students at nine U.S. schools of pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    English C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hazardous use of alcohol continues to be recognized as a problem at the university level. Knowledge regarding alcohol consumption in healthcare professional students is limited, especially in regards to pharmacy students. Much of the information available focuses on pharmacy student drinking patterns in specific geographic regions or is simply outdated.Objectives: This study was designed to assess levels of alcohol consumption and estimate the level of hazardous drinking among pharmacy students in a larger sample size that is representative of US pharmacy schools.Methods: An anonymous survey regarding alcohol usage was offered to students at nine school of pharmacy across the United States. The survey consisted of demographic questions, the World Health Organization Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, and questions that assess particular alcohol-induced behaviorsResults: More than 25% of 1161 respondents had a total AUDIT score = 8, which indicates a risk of alcohol-related problems. Students that were male, in their first or second professional year of school, not married, and without children were statistically more likely to have AUDIT scores in the hazardous drinking range. Grade point average and student housing did not statistically affect student’s AUDIT scores.Conclusion: These results indicate that over one-fourth of pharmacy students surveyed have indicators of harmful alcohol use. Pharmacy schools should continue to address and confront hazardous alcohol use on campuses in order to curtail heavy alcohol consumption and reduce the risk of alcohol-related problems in pharmacy students.

  12. Tensions in Stakeholder Relations for a Swedish Football Club

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghagen, Sven

    2018-01-01

    Swedish football is an industry not yet being as commercial as the big leagues and is regulated in terms of ownership of clubs. This implies a need for management of stakeholder relations for a Swedish football club. This paper identifies important stakeholders in Swedish football and discusses...

  13. ETHICS AND DEONTOLOGY IN PHARMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Krbavčič

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Moral and ethical principles in production and distribution of medicaments in R Slovenia are based on medieval heritage reflected in Dispensatorium Norinbergense by Valerius Cordus (1545 as proven by the solemn pledge given by Joanes Leykauff, apothecary at Novo mesto (1598 and the Apothecaries ordinance for the Duchy of Creina (given in Ljubljana, 1710. The subsequent evolution of pharmacy demonstrates the continuos care for quality production and distribution of medicament according to ethical and deontological normatives of its time.Codex of pharmaceutical ethics of the Slovenian pharmaceutical society (2000, Codex of apothecaries deontology by the Apothecaries chamber of Slovenia (1994, The deontological codex of medicinal biochemists of Slovenia (1992 are three basic documents for pharmacist’s activities in Slovenia. Detailed instructions on production, distribution, prescribing and expediting to patients are given by the Medicinal products act and Medical devices act already harmonized with the European aquis communautaire.Some ethical dilemmas concerning prescription free medicinals and selfmedication in EC and R Slovenia are presented. Insufficient or nonexistent communication between patients, medical doctors and pharmacists lead to noncompliant or risky medicamentation.

  14. PHARMACY INTERNSHIP IN THE NORDIC COUNTRIES – STATUS AND FUTURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Wallman, Andy; Bjornsdottir, Ingunn

    2017-01-01

    Pharmacy internship in the Nordic countries – Status and future Conference Paper in Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy 13(3):e14 · May 2017 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2017.02.099 Conference: Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy......Pharmacy internship in the Nordic countries – Status and future Conference Paper in Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy 13(3):e14 · May 2017 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2017.02.099 Conference: Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy...

  15. The civic integrationist turn in Danish and Swedish school politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Christian; Jensen, Kristian Kriegbaum

    2017-01-01

    The civic integrationist turn usually refers to the stricter requirements for residence and citizenship that many states have implemented since the late 1990's. But what of other policy spheres that are essential for the formation of citizens? Is there a civic turn in school policy? And does it follow the pattern of residence and citizenship? This article addresses these questions through a comparative study of the EU's allegedly strictest and most liberal immigration regimes, Denmark and Sweden, respectively. The analysis shows a growing concern with citizenship education in both countries, yet with different styles and content. Citizenship education in Denmark concentrates on reproducing a historically derived core of cultural values and knowledge to which minorities are expected to assimilate, while the Swedish model subscribes to a pluralist view that stresses mutual adaptation and intercultural tolerance. Despite claims to the contrary, the analysis shows that Sweden too has experienced a civic turn.

  16. 75 FR 10272 - Notice Regarding 340B Drug Pricing Program-Contract Pharmacy Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Regarding 340B Drug Pricing Program--Contract Pharmacy Services AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... guidelines regarding the utilization of multiple contract pharmacies and suggested contract pharmacy... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Jimmy Mitchell, Director, Office of Pharmacy Affairs (OPA), Healthcare...

  17. Influences on Malaysian pharmacy students' career preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Syed Shahzad; Kwai Chong, David Weng; Ahmadi, Keivan; Se, Wong Pei; Hassali, Mohammed Azmi; Hata, Ernieda Mohammed; Hadi, Muhammed Abdul; Sridhar, Sathvik Belagodu; Ahmed, Syed Imran; Yean, Low Bee; Efendie, Benny

    2010-11-10

    To identify and evaluate factors affecting the career preferences of fourth-year bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) students in Malaysia in the presence of a 4-year period of mandatory government service. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used in this cross-sectional study to collect data from final-year BPharm students enrolled at 3 government-funded universities and 1 private university in Malaysia. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Three hundred fourteen students responded (213 from public universities and 101 from the private university). Approximately 32% of public university students and 37% of private university students ranked their own interest in pharmacy as the reason for undertaking pharmacy degree studies; 40.4% of public and 19.8% of private university respondents stated that they would enter a nonpharmacy-related career upon graduation if given the choice. Public university students ranked hospital pharmacy as their choice of first career setting (4.39, p = 0.001), while private students ranked community pharmacy first (4.1, p = 0.002). On a scale of 1 to 5, salary received the highest mean score (3.9 and 4.0, p = 0.854) as the extrinsic factor most influencing their career choice. Final-year students at Malaysian public universities were most interested in hospital pharmacy practice as their first career step upon graduation, while private university students were most interested in community pharmacy. The top 3 extrinsic factors rated as significant in selecting a career destination were salary, benefits, and geographical location.

  18. Ambassadors of the Swedish Nation: National Images in the Teaching of the Swedish Lecturers in Germany 1918-1945

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerlund, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the teaching of Swedish language lecturers active in Germany during the first half of the twentieth century. It shows the centrality of literature and literary constructions and analyses images of Swedishness and the Swedish nation present in the teaching material of that time in relation to the national image present in…

  19. Pharmacy Student Perceptions of Pharmacist Prescribing: A Comparison Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa L. Charrois

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Several jurisdictions throughout the world, such as the UK and Canada, now have independent prescribing by pharmacists. In some areas of Canada, initial access prescribing can be done by pharmacists. In contrast, Australian pharmacists have no ability to prescribe either in a supplementary or independent model. Considerable research has been completed regarding attitudes towards pharmacist prescribing from the perspective of health care professionals, however currently no literature exists regarding pharmacy student views on prescribing. The primary objective of this study is to examine pharmacy student’s opinions and attitudes towards pharmacist prescribing in two different settings. Focus groups were conducted with selected students from two universities (one in Canada and one in Australia. Content analysis was conducted. Four main themes were identified: benefits, fears, needs and pharmacist roles. Students from the Australian University were more accepting of the role of supplementary prescribing. In contrast, the Canadian students felt that independent prescribing was moving the profession in the right direction. There were a number of similarities with the two groups with regards to benefits and fears. Although the two cohorts differed in terms of their beliefs on many aspects of prescribing, there were similarities in terms of fears of physician backlash and blurring of professional roles.

  20. Patient perceptions of a pharmacy star rating model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warholak, Terri L; Patel, Mira; Rosenthal, Meagen; West-Strum, Donna; Ettienne, Earl B; Nunlee-Bland, Gail; Nau, David; Hincapie, Ana L

    To identify patients' understanding of what constitutes a "quality pharmacy" and to obtain their feedback regarding the development and use of the pharmacy star rating model, a pharmacy-specific aggregate performance score based on the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' Medicare Star Rating. Prospective cross-sectional study. Focus groups were conducted in Arizona, California, Mississippi, Maryland, and the District of Columbia, and one-on-one interviews were conducted in Indiana. Eligible patients were required to routinely use a community pharmacy. Consumer insights on their experiences with their pharmacies and their input on the pharmacy star rating model were attained. Key themes from the focus groups and interviews were obtained through the use of qualitative data analyses. Forty-nine subjects from 5 states and DC participated in 6 focus groups and 4 one-on-one interviews. Eighty-eight percent of participants reported currently taking at least 1 medication, and 87% reported having at least 1 health condition. The 7 themes identified during qualitative analysis included patient care, relational factors for choosing a pharmacy, physical factors for choosing a pharmacy, factors related to use of the pharmacy star rating model, reliability of the pharmacy star rating model, trust in pharmacists, and measures of pharmacy quality. Most participants agreed that the ratings would be useful and could aid in selecting a pharmacy, especially if they were moving to a new place or if they were dissatisfied with their current pharmacy. Pharmacy quality measures are new to patients. Therefore, training and education will need to be provided to patients, as pharmacies begin to offer additional clinical services, such as medication therapy management and diabetes education. The use of the pharmacy star rating model was dependent on the participants' situation when choosing a pharmacy. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc

  1. Surface contamination of hazardous drug pharmacy storage bins and pharmacy distributor shipping containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redic, Kimberly A; Fang, Kayleen; Christen, Catherine; Chaffee, Bruce W

    2018-03-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to determine whether there is contamination on exterior drug packaging using shipping totes from the distributor and carousel storage bins as surrogate markers of external packaging contamination. Methods A two-part study was conducted to measure the presence of 5-fluorouracil, ifosfamide, cyclophosphamide, docetaxel and paclitaxel using surrogate markers for external drug packaging. In Part I, 10 drug distributor shipping totes designated for transport of hazardous drugs provided a snapshot view of contamination from regular use and transit in and out of the pharmacy. An additional two totes designated for transport of non-hazardous drugs served as controls. In Part II, old carousel storage bins (i.e. those in use pre-study) were wiped for snapshot view of hazardous drug contamination on storage bins. New carousel storage bins were then put into use for storage of the five tested drugs and used for routine storage and inventory maintenance activities. Carousel bins were wiped at time intervals 0, 8, 16 and 52 weeks to measure surface contamination. Results Two of the 10 hazardous shipping totes were contaminated. Three of the five-old carousel bins were contaminated with cyclophosphamide. One of the old carousel bins was also contaminated with ifosfamide. There were no detectable levels of hazardous drugs on any of the new storage bins at time 0, 8 or 16 weeks. However, at the Week 52, there was a detectable level of 5-FU present in the 5-FU carousel bin. Conclusions Contamination of the surrogate markers suggests that external packaging for hazardous drugs is contaminated, either during the manufacturing process or during routine chain of custody activities. These results demonstrate that occupational exposure may occur due to contamination from shipping totes and storage bins, and that handling practices including use of personal protective equipment is warranted.

  2. Pharmacy practice and injection use in community pharmacies in Pokhara city, Western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Sudesh; Rathore, Devendra Singh; Adhikari, Kishor; Shankar, Pathiyil Ravi; K C, Vikash Kumar; Basnet, Suyog

    2014-04-28

    Community pharmacies in Nepal serve as the first point of contact for the public with the health care system and provide many services, including administering injections. However, there is a general lack of documented information on pharmacy practice and injection use in these pharmacies. This study aims to provide information about pharmacy practice in terms of service and drug information sources, and injection use, including the disposal of used injection equipment. A mixed method, cross-sectional study was conducted in 54 community pharmacies in Pokhara city. Data was collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire, and also by the direct observation of pharmacy premises. Interviews with pharmacy supervisors (proprietors) were also conducted to obtain additional information about certain points. Interviews were carried out with 54 pharmacy supervisors/proprietors (47 males and 7 females) with a mean age and experience of 35.54 and 11.73 years, respectively. Approximately a half of the studied premises were operated by legally recognized pharmaceutical personnel, while the remainder was run by people who did not have the legal authority to operate pharmacies independently. About a quarter of pharmacies were providing services such as the administration of injections, wound dressing, and laboratory and consultation services in addition to medicine dispensing and counseling services. The 'Current Index of Medical Specialties' was the most commonly used source for drug information. Almost two-thirds of patients visiting the pharmacies were dispensed medicines without a prescription. Tetanus Toxoid, Depot-Medroxy Progesterone Acetate, and Diclofenac were the most commonly-used/administered injections. Most of the generated waste (including sharps) was disposed of in a municipal dump without adhering to the proper procedures for the disposal of hazardous waste. Community pharmacies in Pokhara offer a wide range of services including, but not limited to

  3. Experience with a Drug Screening Program at a School of Pharmacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Marshall E.; Hogue, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Substance use and abuse among pharmacy students is a concern of pharmacy schools, boards of pharmacy, and training sites alike. Pharmacy students must complete approximately 30% of their academic coursework in experiential settings such as community pharmacies, hospitals, and other health systems as part of any accredited pharmacy school's…

  4. Patient Awareness of Local Drug Price Variation and the Factors That Influence Pharmacy Choice: A Cross-sectional Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Spencer D; Awosika, Olabola D; Eleryan, Misty G; Rengifo-Pardo, Monica; Kuang, Xiangyu; Amdur, Richard L; Ehrlich, Alison

    2017-12-01

    BACKGROUND: High out-of-pocket drug expenditures are increasingly common in dermatology. Patients may not be aware that prices vary among pharmacies and consequently may not shop for the lowest cost. OBJECTIVE: To determine what factors influence pharmacy choice and the effect of providing local prescription prices on pharmacy selection. We hypothesized that patients do not "shop around" due to lack of knowledge of price variation and would choose a pharmacy based on costs if educated on price disparity. METHODS: Between July and August 2016, we administered a cross-sectional anonymous survey to adults visiting four outpatient clinics at an academic tertiary care center in Washington, D.C. Participants answered questions before and after viewing a list of prescription drug prices from local pharmacies. RESULTS: 287 surveys were administered to a convenience sample of adults (age ≥ 18 and literate in English). Of the 287 participants, 218 fully completed the survey; 55.1% were women and 40.5% were over age 40. When considering a cost savings of $10-25, 65% would switch pharmacies if the distance were the same, and 21.3% would switch if the distance were 45-minutes further. After price education, fewer participants felt that drug price knowledge would ultimately influence pharmacy choice (P less than 0.0001). However, respondents' intended frequency of researching price online, calling a pharmacy to ask about price, and comparing price between pharmacies before filling a prescription all increased, compared to prior self-reported frequencies (P less than 0.001). Specifically, participants with $75,000-$99,999 income were more likely to compare prices than those with income below $45,000 (odds ratio [OR], 4.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-17.28). CONCLUSION: In this study, pharmacy choice was more influenced by convenience than cost prior to drug price education. However, price education ultimately impacted intent to research prescription drug prices before

  5. Swedish Fashion 1930–1960 : Rethinking the Swedish Textile and Clothing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kyaga, Ulrika

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the development of Swedish fashion between 1930 and 1960 by examining the textile and clothing industry from the wider perspective of fashion production. It was during this period that Sweden was transformed into a leading industrial nation, which laid the foundation for increased prosperity in the post-war period. This historical and empirical study is predominantly based on systematic analysis of Swedish official statistics and close reading of the fashi...

  6. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herborg, Hanne; Sørensen, Ellen Westh; Frøkjaer, Bente

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the current status of Danish community pharmacy in both practice and research and discuss future trends. FINDINGS: Denmark has a social welfare system that provides health care, social services, and pensions to its population. Medical care and surgery are free. Prescription...... medicines are reimbursed by an average of 56%. Community pharmacies are privately owned, but the health authorities regulate drug prices and the number of pharmacies. At present, Denmark has 322 pharmacies, corresponding to 1 pharmacy per 16,700 inhabitants. All pharmacies provide prescription and over......-the-counter products, advice about medicine use, dose dispensing, generic substitutions, and administration of individual reimbursement registers. Except for very simple processes, compounding is centralized at 3 pharmacies. Many pharmacies offer measurement of blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol, and 60...

  7. Nuclear pharmacy: An introduction to the clinical application of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilton, H.M.; Witcofski, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    This introductory text reviews fundamental concepts of nuclear pharmacy in a logical, stepwise manner. It presents those aspects of radioactivity basic to nuclear pharmacy including production of radioactivity and the types of instrumentation used to detect and measure radiation

  8. Arguments for theory-based pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Traulsen, Janine Marie; Bissell, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Nørgaard LS, Morgall JM, Bissell P. . International Journal of Pharmacy Practice 2000; 8 (2): 77-81.......Nørgaard LS, Morgall JM, Bissell P. . International Journal of Pharmacy Practice 2000; 8 (2): 77-81....

  9. Revue de Médecine et de Pharmacie: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revue de Médecine et de Pharmacie: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Revue de Médecine et de Pharmacie: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Training Entrepreneurship at Universities: A Swedish Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klofsten, Magnus

    2000-01-01

    The Entrepreneurship and New Business Development Program trains Swedish individuals in the startup of technology- or knowledge-based enterprises. Built on the characteristics of entrepreneurial behavior, the program features a holistic outlook, a network of established entrepreneurs, mentoring, a mix of theory and practice, and focus on the…

  11. Strontium 90 in Swedish dairy milk 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillberg-Wickman, M.; Oestergren, I.

    1980-01-01

    The contamination of strontium-90 in Swedish milk during 1978 is practically the same as in 1977. The country-wide mean ratio of strontium-90 to calcium in milk is 0.12 Bq 90 Sr(gCa) -1 , based on monthly determinations of samples obtained from 8 dairy plants situated throughout the country. (author)

  12. Mathematics and Didactic Contract in Swedish Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacour, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study and analyse how a teacher implements an outdoor realistic problem situation for children aged 4-5 in a Swedish preschool. By an "outdoor realistic problem situation", I mean a situation initiated by a teacher in which children come into contact with mathematical concepts and in which the outside…

  13. Leisure, Government and Governance: A Swedish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    The leisure sector has witnessed a tremendous expansion since 1960. The purpose of this article is to analyse the decisions and goals of Swedish government policy during the period 1962 to 2005. The empirical analysis covers government Propositions and governmental investigations. The fields covered are sports, culture, exercise, tourism and…

  14. SWEDISH CRIME FICTION AS SOCIALLY INVOLVED LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Samsel-Chojnacka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Swedish crime novel has been transforming for many years to become more socially involved. The ambition of many writers is not only to entertain the readers but also to participating in the social debate, criticizing the political and economical system, focusing on important issues such as violence against women, exploitation of working class by the privileged ruling class, the problems of a modern family and the situation of immigrants. Since the moment when in the mid 60’s two journalists Maj Sjöwall and Per Wahlöö decided to use popular literature to spread social matters many other Swedish writers have decided to follow their way. Some of them are journalists – like Liza Marklund, Börge Hellström and Anders Roslund or Stieg Larsson. Their novels as well as the ones written by Henning Mannkel on Kurt Wallander have become crucial evidence of changes of Swedish society in the past twenty years. Modern Swedish crime fiction illustrates the population in the model fashion that is the reason why it can become one of the interests of the sociology of literature.

  15. Gender Integration and the Swedish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Daniel Marcus Sunil

    the organisation to reinforce the notion of women as inferior and subordinate to men, whereby the external hegemony is believed to be restored. Likewise, male Swedish peacekeepers’ demand for prostitution during international peacekeeping missions is explained in terms of a need to confirm manhood and as homo...

  16. Market reforms in Swedish health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the main characteristics of reforms in the Swedish health services, as exemplified by the "Stockholm Model" introduced in 1992 in Stockholm county. The author discusses the motives behind these reforms, the already-evident increases in costs that are occurring, and the effect...... of these reforms on public support for the welfare state....

  17. The Widening Gap--A Swedish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandell, Gerd; Hemmi, Kristi; Thunberg, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Transition problems from secondary to tertiary level in mathematics have been a recurrent issue in Sweden. This paper summarises the development during the last decades. Results from two recent research studies that illuminate the transition problem are presented. The first one, based on empirical data from a major Swedish technical university,…

  18. Third-year pharmacy students' work experience and attitudes and perceptions of the pharmacy profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siracuse, Mark V; Schondelmeyer, Stephen W; Hadsall, Ronald S; Schommer, Jon C

    2008-06-15

    To describe PharmD students' work experiences and activities; examine their attitudes towards their work; examine perceptions of preceptor pharmacists they worked with; and determine important issues associated with career preference. A written survey was administered to third-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students at 8 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the Midwest. Five hundred thirty-three students (response rate = 70.4%) completed the survey instrument. Nearly 100% of PharmD students reported working in a pharmacy by the time their advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) began. Seventy-eight percent reported working in a community pharmacy, and 67% had worked in a chain community pharmacy. For all practice settings, students reported spending 69% of their time on activities such as compounding, dispensing, and distribution of drug products. Most students are working in community pharmacy (mainly chain) positions where their primary function is traditional drug product dispensing and distribution. Having a controllable work schedule was the variable most strongly associated with career choice for all students.

  19. Specifics of marketing tools application in pharmacies: Case study Pharmacies Subotica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojkov Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of pharmacies in the social and health systems has gone through significant changes in the last decades of the twentieth century. From the place for the production of medicines, through procurement and distribution, pharmacy eventually became the modern health care facilities that participates in the health system and the retail pharmaceutical market. The dualistic role of pharmacy requires adjustment to the demands of contemporary health policy and market principles. Implementation of modern tools of business, such as marketing, was not present to a greater extent until recently in pharmacies, so this study is focused on the example of Pharmacy Subotica, which emphasizes the practical importance and specifics of marketing in pharmaceutical practice. Activities in the implementation of the marketing mix in the period 2009-2012 will be shown in this paper, as well as indicators of business success of Pharmacies Subotica in the same period. Following a four-year period in which strategy related to elements of the marketing mix strategy (4P, was implemented the growth of financial performance indicators (number of issued fiscal receipt and financially volume of business. At the same time, due to the more rigid regulations, the number of prescriptions in 2012 declined in amount. Pharmacy Subotica is one of the first pharmacies in Serbia, which has structured and implemented marketing planning tools for the purpose of positioning in the retail pharmaceutical market. By modeling business policy in line with modern market principles, developments of information technology and the ethics of health care workers, this institution has made pioneering steps in pharmaceutical marketing in the Serbian pharmacy.

  20. Self-medication with antibiotics in the Republic of Srpska community pharmacies: pharmacy staff behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković-Peković, Vanda; Grubiša, Nataša

    2012-10-01

    Self-medication with antibiotics adds to the global risk of increased spread of bacterial resistance. Attitudes and behavior of health professionals also may reinforce self-medication with antibiotics. The aim of this study was to determine whether self-medication with antibiotics is possible in our community pharmacies and to what extent, and to evaluate the behavior and service of pharmacy health professionals regarding non-prescription antibiotic dispensation. An observational, cross-section study was conducted, and pseudo-patient methodology was used to establish the kind of professional service provided in case of patient's explicit demand to buy an antibiotic for treatment of self-diagnosed upper respiratory tract infection. Of the total 318 community pharmacies, 131 (41%) were visited and included in the study. Non-prescription antibiotics were dispensed in 76 (58%) pharmacies. Counseling and symptomatic therapy was offered in 88 (67%) pharmacies. In 25% of pharmacies, no symptomatic therapy was offered; instead, only an antibiotic was sold. Amoxicillin was sold in 85% of cases and, mostly, the one of 1.30 Euro per pack. Both oral and written use instructions were given in 78% cases, whereas none was given in 3% of cases. Self-medication with antibiotics occurs in our community pharmacies, despite being illegal. Pharmacy staff behavior can be a factor that puts patients at risk for self-medication with antibiotics. Community pharmacies are failing their tasks in enhancing rational use of antibiotics. Such a practice may be a consequence of weak enforcement and control over the legislation and professional standards. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Effect of pharmacy students as primary pharmacy members on inpatient interdisciplinary mental health teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathys, Monica; Neyland-Turner, Elizabeth; Hamouie, Keenan; Kim, Emily

    2015-04-15

    The effect of pharmacy students as primary pharmacy members on inpatient interdisciplinary mental health teams was investigated. This retrospective study used Veterans Affairs data from veterans who were admitted to an inpatient mental health unit from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2012. Eligible veterans had to have been hospitalized for at least five days and treated with at least five scheduled medications during the hospitalization. Information collected by the investigators included patient age, psychiatric diagnoses, accuracy of medication reconciliation on admission and at discharge, and readmission rates within six months and one year. Additional information collected included monitoring parameters for lithium, divalproex, first-generation antipsychotics, and second-generation antipsychotics. The primary outcome was the percentage of accurate medication reconciliations for treatment teams with a fourth-year pharmacy student and without a pharmacy student. Clinical monitoring and readmission rates were also compared. A total of 526 patients were eligible for study inclusion. Medication reconciliation was performed on admission for all patients followed by a team involving a pharmacy student (experimental group), but only 51% of patients in the control group had documented medication reconciliations in the medical chart. Of the medication reconciliations completed, 82% were performed correctly in the experimental group, compared with 61% when a pharmacy student was not involved (p = 0.006). There were no significant differences between groups in psychotropic monitoring and readmission rates. The presence of fourth-year pharmacy students on inpatient mental health interdisciplinary teams was associated with more frequent interventions, patient counseling, and medication reconciliation, compared with rates for teams without a pharmacy student. Medication reconciliation was performed more consistently and accurately when the teams had a pharmacy student

  2. Migraine management in community pharmacies: practice patterns and knowledge of pharmacy personnel in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengcharoen, Woranuch; Lerkiatbundit, Sanguan

    2013-10-01

    To describe practice behavior and understanding among pharmacy personnel, both pharmacists and non-pharmacist staff, in the management of mild and moderate migraines. Migraine is recognized as a prevalent and chronic neurological disorder. In developing countries, such as Thailand, community pharmacies are a widely used source of health care for various illnesses including migraine. However, the quality of migraine management and knowledge among pharmacy personnel is unclear. Cross-sectional study. The sample comprised 142 randomly selected community pharmacies in a city in the south of Thailand. Simulated clients visited the pharmacies twice, at least 1 month apart, to ask for the treatment of mild and moderate migraines. After the encounters, question asking, drug dispensing, and advice giving by pharmacy staff were recorded. Subsequently, the providers in 135 pharmacies participated in the interview to evaluate their knowledge in migraine management. The majority of pharmacy personnel were less likely to ask questions in cases of mild migraine when compared with moderate attack (mean score [full score = 12] 1.8 ± 1.6 vs 2.6 ± 1.5, respectively, P knowledge on migraine management. Pharmacists had better knowledge on question asking (mild migraine 5.1 ± 2.1 vs 3.1 ± 1.3, respectively, P knowledge on advice giving but poorer drug dispensing in moderate migraine according to the guidelines, relative to non-pharmacists (20.5% vs 40.3%, P = .014). A large number of community pharmacists and non-pharmacist staff had inappropriate practice behavior and understanding. Continuing education and interventions are important to improve the practice and knowledge of pharmacy personnel, particularly the pharmacists. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  3. Future methods in pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdottir, A B; Babar, Z U D

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the current and future practice of pharmacy scenario underpinning and guiding this research and then suggests future directions and strategies for such research. First, it sets the scene by discussing the key drivers which could influence the change in pharmacy practice...... research. These are demographics, technology and professional standards. Second, deriving from this, it seeks to predict and forecast the future shifts in use of methodologies. Third, new research areas and availability of data impacting on future methods are discussed. These include the impact of aging...... information technology users on healthcare, understanding and responding to cultural and social disparities, implementing multidisciplinary initiatives to improve health care, medicines optimization and predictive risk analysis, and pharmacy as business and health care institution. Finally, implications...

  4. Motivational theory applied to hospital pharmacy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, M

    1980-12-01

    In recent years a great deal of attention has been paid to motivation and job satisfaction among hospital pharmacy practitioners. Institutional pharmacy managers should become more aware of ways in which they can motivate members of their staff. Specifically, Frederick Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory is discussed in reference to its origination, major tenets, and practical applications in institutional pharmacy practice settings. Principally, Herzberg's theory explains needs of workers in terms of extrinsic factors called "hygienes" and intrinsic factors called "motivators." The theory suggests that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposites but two separate dimensions. According to this theory, an employee will be motivated if the task allows for the following: 1)actual achievement, 2) recognition for achievement, 3) increased responsibility, 4) opportunity for growth (professionally), and 5) chance for advancement. It is concluded that some of these suggested applications can be useful to managers who are faced with low morale among the members of their staff.

  5. Entrepreneurs: leading the way to pharmacy's future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Caren McHenry

    2011-12-01

    Entrepreneurship has always been central to the practice of pharmacy. Whether opening a new retail store, setting up a unique clinic practice, or researching a novel therapy, pharmacists are continually looking forward and following their visions of how pharmacy can be part of a new direction in health care. In 2011, the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists (ASCP) Foundation--itself the product of entrepreneurship--awarded grants to three entrepreneurs who are seeking to establish a fee-for-service component of their senior care pharmacy practices in the community. The grant recipients, while differing in their approaches, share the common goal of providing safe, effective, and cost-justified medication therapy and education to ambulatory older adults.

  6. APOM-project: an investigation of pharmacy organization and management

    OpenAIRE

    Mobach, Mark P.; Werf, Jos J. van der; Tromp, T.F.J.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, in a joint cooperation of Stichting VNA, SAL Apotheken, the Faculty of Management and Organization, and the University Centre for Pharmacy, University of Groningen in the Netherlands, a Ph.D-study started regarding Apot(he)ek, Organization and Management (APOM). The APOM-project deals with the structuring and steering of pharmacy organization. The manageability of the internal pharmacy organization, and the manageability of the direct environment of pharmacy organization is the subj...

  7. Pharmacy practice-based research networks: do pharmacists need them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Samuel

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this article is to highlight the need for the development of pharmacy practice-based research networks (PBRNs). Large multicenter research projects that provide evidence for the provision of patient care services by pharmacists are required, which can be facilitated by pharmacy PBRNs. There is a growing need for pharmacy PBRNs, and the time is appropriate for pharmacists around the world to engage in the development of pharmacy PBRNs. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. Pharmacovigilance teaching in UK undergraduate pharmacy programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melvyn P; Webley, Sherael D

    2013-03-01

    Pharmacists in the UK are able to report spontaneous adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Authority. The level of reporting by UK pharmacists remains low. This could be explained by poor knowledge of ADR reporting. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the level of pharmacovigilance education provided to pharmacy students on undergraduate pharmacy programmes in the UK. A cross-sectional survey was used to obtain data relating to the teaching of pharmacovigilance within schools of pharmacy. The survey was designed to reveal whether core elements pertinent to pharmacovigilance and specifically to spontaneous reporting were taught and to what extent. All of the respondents taught pharmacovigilance within an assessed compulsory module. A small number (23%) did not include pharmacovigilance law within their syllabus. In 54%, the amount of time devoted to teaching pharmacy students about their role in pharmacovigilance was less than 4 h in the 4-year course; only one respondent spent approximately 20 h, the remaining respondents (38%) spent between 4 and 8 h. The amount of time dedicated to the teaching of pharmacovigilance on pharmacy undergraduate degree programmes is low. Considering the importance of spontaneous reporting in drug safety and the shift in the role of the pharmacists, more time may need to be devoted to pharmacovigilance on pharmacy undergraduate courses. By doing so, new pharmacists would be more informed of the important role they play in drug safety and thereby potentially help enhance the level of ADR reporting. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Program for developing leadership in pharmacy residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Patrick D

    2012-07-15

    An innovative, structured approach to incorporating leadership development activities into pharmacy residency training is described. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) has called for increased efforts to make leadership development an integral component of the training of pharmacy students and new practitioners. In 2007, The Nebraska Medical Center (TNMC) took action to systematize leadership training in its pharmacy residency programs by launching a new Leadership Development Series. Throughout the residency year, trainees at TNMC participate in a variety of activities: (1) focused group discussions of selected articles on leadership concepts written by noted leaders of the past and present, (2) a two-day offsite retreat featuring trust-building exercises and physical challenges, (3) a self-assessment designed to help residents identify and use their untapped personal strengths, (4) training on the effective application of different styles of communication and conflict resolution, and (5) education on the history and evolution of health-system pharmacy, including a review and discussion of lectures by recipients of ASHP's Harvey A. K. Whitney Award. Feedback from residents who have completed the series has been positive, with many residents indicating that it has stimulated their professional growth and helped prepared them for leadership roles. A structured Leadership Development Series exposes pharmacy residents to various leadership philosophies and principles and, through the study of Harvey A. K. Whitney Award lectures, to the thoughts of past and present pharmacy leaders. Residents develop an increased self-awareness through a resident fall retreat, a StrengthsFinder assessment, and communication and conflict-mode assessment tools.

  10. Prevalence of footrot in Swedish slaughter lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyman Ann-Kristin J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Footrot is a world-wide contagious disease in sheep and goats. It is an infection of the epidermis of the interdigital skin, and the germinal layers of the horn tissue of the feet. The first case of footrot in Swedish sheep was diagnosed in 2004. Due to difficulties in distinguishing benign footrot from early cases of virulent footrot and because there is no possibility for virulence testing of strains of Dichelobacter nodosus in Sweden, the diagnosis is based of the presence or absence of clinical signs of footrot in sheep flocks. Ever since the first diagnosed case the Swedish Animal Health Service has worked intensively to stop the spread of infection and control the disease at flock level. However, to continue this work effectively it is important to have knowledge about the distribution of the disease both nationally and regionally. Therefore, the aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of footrot in Swedish lambs at abattoirs and to assess the geographical distribution of the disease. Methods A prevalence study on footrot in Swedish lambs was performed by visual examination of 2000 feet from 500 lambs submitted from six slaughter houses. Each foot was scored according to a 0 to 5 scoring system, where feet with score ≥2 were defined as having footrot. Moreover, samples from feet with footrot were examined for Dichelobacter nodosus by culture and PCR. Results The prevalence of footrot at the individual sheep level was 5.8%, and Dichelobacter nodosus was found by culture and PCR in 83% and 97% of the samples from feet with footrot, respectively. Some minor differences in geographical distribution of footrot were found in this study. Conclusions In a national context, the findings indicate that footrot is fairly common in Swedish slaughter lambs, and should be regarded seriously.

  11. Swedish national plan for the management of all radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority has been assigned by the government to develop a national plan for the management of all radioactive waste. This report was presented to the government 30 June 2009. The report has been developed in coordination with representatives from other authorities, trade and industry organizations, operators and other parties interested, forming a joint action group. The action proposals in this report are focused on bringing waste management outside the nuclear field, where requirements are essentially regulated by the Act on Radiation Protection, to a level comparable with the management of nuclear waste (including the management of spent nuclear fuel). The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority believes that the objective of the national waste plan is that Sweden, by 2020, will have a comprehensive waste management system whereby all types of radioactive waste will be disposed of in a safe manner. The plan will make it easier to ensure that waste sub-systems for nuclear and non-nuclear waste - which could otherwise easily be regarded as being separated from each other - do not need to be distinguished to any great extent. To ensure continuity in the work in the future, with regard to the follow-up of plans for all radioactive waste, the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority propose that the national waste plan is updated every three years. The plan can then function as the strategy document or the action plan it is intended to be, ensuring that the focus remains on the various problems associated with waste management at different times, so that the set objective can be reached by 2020. A survey was carried out to identify the problems and shortcomings that were found in the waste-management system and what measures are required to resolve them within the near future. The joint action group has contributed by describing various problems as well as by offering points of view on the action proposals which the Swedish Radiation Safety

  12. 75 FR 65667 - Lincoln Pharmacy; Revocation of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Lincoln Pharmacy; Revocation of Registration... Order to Show Cause and Immediate Suspension of Registration (Order) to Lincoln Pharmacy (Respondent... pharmacy located at 52 Lincoln Highway, Edison, New Jersey, which is owned and operated by Mr. Vincent Hsia...

  13. The general pharmacy work explored in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mark, M. P.

    Objective To determine the frequency and nature of general pharmacy work at three Dutch community pharmacies. Methods In a purposive and convenience sample of three Dutch community pharmacies the general work was investigated. Multi-dimensional work sampling (MDWS) was used. The study took six

  14. 76 FR 66965 - Treasure Coast Specialty Pharmacy Decision and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Pharmacy Decision and Order On September 14, 2011, Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) Gail A. Randall issued..., issued to Treasure Coast Specialty Pharmacy, be, and it hereby is, revoked. I further order that any pending application of Treasure Coast Specialty Pharmacy, to renew or modify his registration, be, and it...

  15. 78 FR 69441 - Wheatland Pharmacy; Decision and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Wheatland Pharmacy; Decision and Order On... Administration, issued an Order to Show Cause to Wheatland Pharmacy (Applicant), of Dallas, Texas. The Show Cause... retail pharmacy on the ground that its registration ``would be inconsistent with the public interest...

  16. 32 CFR 199.21 - Pharmacy benefits program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pharmacy benefits program. 199.21 Section 199.21...) MISCELLANEOUS CIVILIAN HEALTH AND MEDICAL PROGRAM OF THE UNIFORMED SERVICES (CHAMPUS) § 199.21 Pharmacy benefits... Department of Defense establish an effective, efficient, integrated pharmacy benefits program for the...

  17. The Pre-Pharmacy Major: A Survey of Physics Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Richard P.

    2001-01-01

    Presents the results of a survey of (n=81) colleges of pharmacy affiliated with the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) regarding physics requirements for the pre-pharmacy major. Describes strengths and weaknesses as reported by the college representatives. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/YDS)

  18. Selecting a pharmacy layout design using a weighted scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Alissa L; Huang, Yu-Li

    2012-05-01

    A weighted scoring system was used to select a pharmacy layout redesign. Facilities layout design techniques were applied at a local hospital pharmacy using a step-by-step design process. The process involved observing and analyzing the current situation, observing the current available space, completing activity flow charts of the pharmacy processes, completing communication and material relationship charts to detail which areas in the pharmacy were related to one another and how they were related, researching applications in other pharmacies or in scholarly works that could be beneficial, numerically defining space requirements for areas within the pharmacy, measuring the available space within the pharmacy, developing a set of preliminary designs, and modifying preliminary designs so they were all acceptable to the pharmacy staff. To select a final layout that could be implemented in the pharmacy, those layouts were compared via a weighted scoring system. The weighted aspect further allowed additional emphasis on categories based on their effect on pharmacy performance. The results produced a beneficial layout design as determined through simulated models of the pharmacy operation that more effectively allocated and strategically located space to improve transportation distances and materials handling, employee utilization, and ergonomics. Facilities layout designs for a hospital pharmacy were evaluated using a weighted scoring system to identify a design that was superior to both the current layout and alternative layouts in terms of feasibility, cost, patient safety, employee safety, flexibility, robustness, transportation distance, employee utilization, objective adherence, maintainability, usability, and environmental impact.

  19. Impact of Hurricane Ivan on pharmacies in Baldwin County, Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Wolkin, Amy; Sanchez, Carlos; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye; Young, Stacy; Kieszak, Stephanie; Oberst, Kathleen; Batts, Dahna; Thomas, Charles C; Rubin, Carol

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of Hurricane Ivan, which made landfall east of Mobile, Alabama, on September 16, 2004, on pharmacies in the affected areas. Retrospective cross-sectional analysis. Baldwin County, Alabama. Pharmacy community rapid-needs-assessment survey. 41 hospital and community (chain and independent) pharmacies. Posthurricane pharmacy hours of operations, prescription volumes, infrastructure damage, and prehurricane disaster planning. During the week of the hurricane, both chain and independent community pharmacies within the evacuation zone worked significantly fewer hours (46% and 49%, respectively) and dispensed significantly fewer prescriptions (37% and 52%) compared with the same week of the prior year. Overall, 40% of pharmacies depleted their supplies of certain medications (e.g., anxiolytics, antihypertensives). A total of 60% of the chain and independent pharmacies outside the evacuation zone closed because of loss of electricity, but pharmacies with a generator were significantly less likely to report having turned away patients. The proportion of pharmacies that had a disaster plan but turned away patients or rationed or ran out of medications was similar to that of pharmacies without a disaster plan. Although Hurricane Ivan primarily affected the operation of pharmacies within the evacuation zone, pharmacies in the surrounding area were also affected because of loss of power. Emergency management officials should evaluate the efficacy of specific guidelines outlined in disaster plans and identify ways to deliver essential medications to people in disaster-affected areas.

  20. Pharmacy Students Perception of the Application of Learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate pharmacy students' perception of the application of learning management system (LMS) in their education in a Doctor of Pharmacy program in Benin City. Method: In a special ICT class, 165 pharmacy students were introduced to LMS using an open source program, DoceboÓ after which a ...

  1. Community Pharmacy Users' Characteristics, Reasons for Visit to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nx 6110

    community pharmacies and pharmacists in Harare, Zimbabwe. Forty three percent of the customers visited the pharmacy less than once a month. The majority of respondents (91 %) visited the pharmacy to purchase medicines recommended by their doctor. Most of the respondents (61.2 %) were not loyal to any particular ...

  2. The Redesign of a Community Pharmacy Internship Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattin, Anthony J; Kelling, Sarah E; Szyskowski, Jim; Izor, Michelle L; Findley, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Pharmacy internships provide students with practical experiences that lead to enhancement of clinical skills and personal growth. To describe the design and implementation of a structured 10-week summer pharmacy internship program in a supermarket chain pharmacy. The pharmacy leadership team developed and piloted a new format of the pharmacy internship during the summer of 2013. Pharmacy students in professional year 1 (P1), 2 (P2), and 4 (P4) were invited to apply for a paid internship. Pharmacy students were recruited from all colleges of pharmacy in the state of Michigan. The goal of the new program was to create a focused learning opportunity that encouraged students to develop knowledge, skills, and abilities about patient care, pharmacy management, and working within a team. A total of 19 interns were recruited (P1 = 7, P2 = 7, and P4 = 5). Students practiced 40 hours per week and participated in the medication dispensing process and employee biometrics screening program. Interns provided approximately 500 assessments on pharmacy employees and all P1 and P2 interns completed a patient care project. The restructured internship program provided pharmacy students with a 10-week program that exposed them to many aspects of community pharmacy practice. The program needs future refinement and assessment measures to verify interns improve skills throughout the program. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Pharmacy education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Al-Omran, Ola A

    2006-02-15

    The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs. In this report we describe pharmacy education in 3 Middle East countries: Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia. All 3 countries offer bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) degrees. In addition, 2 universities in Jordan and 1 in Saudi Arabia offer PharmD degree programs. The teaching methods in all 3 countries combine traditional didactic lecturing and problem-based learning. Faculties of pharmacy in all 3 countries are well staffed and offer competitive remuneration. All 3 countries have a policy of providing scholarships to local students for postgraduate training abroad. The majority of students in Jordan and Kuwait are female, while the ratio of male to female students in Saudi Arabia is even. Students' attitudes towards learning are generally positive in all 3 countries. In Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, most pharmacy graduates work in the public sector, while in Jordan, the majority work in the private sector.

  4. Mixed messages: The Blueprint for Pharmacy and a communication gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Meagen; Chen, Christopher B; Hall, Kevin; Tsuyuki, Ross T

    2014-03-01

    More than 5 years ago, the Blueprint for Pharmacy developed a plan for transitioning pharmacy practice toward more patient-centred care. Much of the strategy for change involves communicating the new vision. To evaluate the communication of the Vision for Pharmacy by the organizations and corporations that signed the Blueprint for Pharmacy's Commitment to Act. The list of 88 signatories of the Commitment to Act was obtained from the Blueprint for Pharmacy document. The website of each of these signatories was searched for all references to the Blueprint for Pharmacy or Vision for Pharmacy. Each of the identified references was then analyzed using summative content analysis. A total of 934 references were identified from the webpages of the 88 signatories. Of these references, 549 were merely links to the Blueprint for Pharmacy's website, 350 of the references provided some detailed information about the Blueprint for Pharmacy and only 35 references provided any specific plans to transition pharmacy practice. Widespread proliferation of the Vision for Pharmacy has not been achieved. One possible explanation for this is that communication of the vision by the signatories has been incomplete. To ensure the success of future communications, change leaders must develop strategies that consider how individual pharmacists and pharmacies understand the message.

  5. Smoking cessation medications and cigarettes in Guatemala pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viteri, Ernesto; Barnoya, Joaquin; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Solorzano, Pedro J

    2012-09-01

    Guatemala, a party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), is obliged to promote the wider availability of smoking cessation treatment and to restrict tobacco advertising. Pharmacies are fundamental in providing smoking cessation medications but also might increase the availability of cigarettes. To assess availability of cessation medications and cigarettes and their corresponding advertising in Guatemala pharmacies. In Guatemala City a representative sample was selected from a list of registered pharmacies classified by type (non-profit, chain, independent). In addition, all pharmacies in the neighbouring town of Antigua were included for comparison. Trained surveyors used a checklist to characterise each pharmacy with respect to availability and advertising of cessation medications and cigarettes. A total of 505 pharmacies were evaluated. Cessation medications were available in 115 (22.8%), while cigarettes were available in 29 (5.7%) pharmacies. When available, medications were advertised in 1.7% (2) and cigarettes in 72.4% (21) of pharmacies. Chain pharmacies were significantly more likely to sell cessation medications and cigarettes, and to advertise cigarettes than were non-profit and independent pharmacies. Most pharmacies in Guatemala do not stock cessation medications or cigarettes. Cigarette advertising was more prevalent than advertising for cessation medications. FCTC provisions have not been implemented in Guatemala pharmacies.

  6. Review of nuclear pharmacy practice in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawada, T.K.; Tubis, M.; Ebenkamp, T.; Wolf, W.

    1982-01-01

    An operational profile for nuclear pharmacy practice is presented, and the technical and professional role of nuclear pharmacists is reviewed. Key aspects of nuclear pharmacy practice in hospitals discussed are the basic facilities and equipment for the preparation, quality control, and distribution of radioactive drug products. Standards for receiving, storing, and processing radioactive material are described. The elements of a radiopharmaceutical quality assurance program, including the working procedures, documentation systems, data analysis, and specific control tests, are presented. Details of dose preparation and administration and systems of inventory control for radioactive products are outlined

  7. The new consumer - Implications for pharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgall, Janine M.; Almarsdóttir, Anna B.

    1999-01-01

    In this article, we argue that the extended role of the pharmacy profession appears to be driven more by professional interests than by the interests of the consumer. We believe that a better understanding of market trends in general, as well as research into consumer needs, will ultimately give ...... an appreciation of the pharmacist's professional skills. We propose that pharmacy practice research should analyse the current situation from the consumer perspective within the context of changes in society, specifically within the health care system....

  8. Regulation of online pharmacy: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernath, Paul

    2003-02-01

    This article argues that existing Australian regulations do not adequately cover online pharmacies or Internet advertising of medicines and that existing penalties and sanctions are often ineffective, potentially placing public health and safety at risk. Suggestions are made for future regulatory approaches. It is concluded that as well as an effective program of public education, cautious domestic legislative reform is necessary to ensure specific regulation of Australian online pharmacy practice and Internet advertising of medicines. In addition, the global nature of the Internet demands international co-operation and increased regulator and consumer vigilance.

  9. Community Pharmacy Marketing: Strategies for Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Rodis, Pharm.D., B.C.P.S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As community pharmacies are implementing increasingly more clinical services they are faced with a new challenge of marketing these services. This article discusses The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy Clinical Partners Program’s (Clinical Partners experiences in marketing clinical services to patients, barriers encountered through these experiences, and presents suggestions for future marketing of services.Experience: Clinical Partners developed two targeted marketing projects and evaluated impact on patient enrollment in services. In January 2008, the pharmacy ran a series of radio advertisements, newspaper print advertisements, and face to face marketing in the community with the focus of each being patient care services. During this project five individuals expressed interest in Clinical Partners’ services. Four indicated that they heard about Clinical Partners through the radio ad and one through the pharmacy website, though none chose to enroll in services. In 2009 Clinical Partners focused on marketing MTM in the form of a comprehensive medication review to current patients already enrolled in its anticoagulation management service. Following a three month period, 6 patients (8% of the 71 patients receiving the marketing intervention chose to enroll in MTM. Four additional patients have enrolled in MTM since conclusion of the project.Discussion: These projects and a review of available literature revealed barriers that pharmacies encounter when marketing clinical services to patients in an outpatient setting including patients’ unawareness of the role a pharmacist can play outside dispensing medications, patients’ belief they do not need clinical services, and patients’ unwillingness to pay a pharmacist out of pocket for services.Future Implications: To overcome these identified challenges, community pharmacies should consider integration of marketing techniques such as tailoring marketing to a target

  10. Community Pharmacy Marketing: Strategies for Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina D. Wood

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As community pharmacies are implementing increasingly more clinical services they are faced with a new challenge of marketing these services. This article discusses The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy Clinical Partners Program's (Clinical Partners experiences in marketing clinical services to patients, barriers encountered through these experiences, and presents suggestions for future marketing of services. Experience: Clinical Partners developed two targeted marketing projects and evaluated impact on patient enrollment in services. In January 2008, the pharmacy ran a series of radio advertisements, newspaper print advertisements, and face to face marketing in the community with the focus of each being patient care services. During this project five individuals expressed interest in Clinical Partners' services. Four indicated that they heard about Clinical Partners through the radio ad and one through the pharmacy website, though none chose to enroll in services. In 2009 Clinical Partners focused on marketing MTM in the form of a comprehensive medication review to current patients already enrolled in its anticoagulation management service. Following a three month period, 6 patients (8% of the 71 patients receiving the marketing intervention chose to enroll in MTM. Four additional patients have enrolled in MTM since conclusion of the project. Discussion: These projects and a review of available literature revealed barriers that pharmacies encounter when marketing clinical services to patients in an outpatient setting including patients' unawareness of the role a pharmacist can play outside dispensing medications, patients' belief they do not need clinical services, and patients' unwillingness to pay a pharmacist out of pocket for services. Future Implications: To overcome these identified challenges, community pharmacies should consider integration of marketing techniques such as tailoring marketing to a target population

  11. Need for contents on halal medicines in pharmacy and medicine curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Mehmood Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to an estimate by 2020 Muslim population, will be almost a quarter of the world population. Pharmaceuticals business sector estimates "Halal Pharmaceuticals" to be multimillion dollars industry. Keeping in view the religious preference of Muslim consumers, many developing and developed countries have taken initiative to establish "halal certification centers" and "halal certification guidelines." However, till to date it is hard to find any contents in medicine or pharmacy curriculums that aims to develop understanding among pharmacy and medical graduates about the halal and non-halal (haram animal sources, processing and manufacturing techniques and halal excipients. The current article will aim, to summarize, the concept of halal and non-halal sources of medicines or drugs in the light of recommendation from "Quran and Hadith." By adding basic contents in pharmacy and medicine curriculum, future graduates will be in a position to distinguish between the non-halal and halal sources of medicine and alternates. Thus, empowering medical and pharmacy graduates will assist them understanding the needs of Muslim patients′ needs in the line with the Islamic regulations outlined in Quran.

  12. The professional subcultures of students entering medicine, nursing and pharmacy programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsburgh, Margaret; Perkins, Rod; Coyle, Barbara; Degeling, Pieter

    2006-08-01

    This study sought to determine the attitudes, beliefs and values towards clinical work organization of students entering undergraduate medicine, nursing and pharmacy programmes in order to frame questions for a wider study. In the Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland students entering medicine, nursing and pharmacy programmes completed a questionnaire based on that used by Degeling et al. in studies of the professional subcultures working in the health system in Australia, New Zealand, England and elsewhere. Findings indicate that before students commence their education and training medical, nursing and pharmacy students as groups or sub-cultures differ in how they believe clinical work should be organized. Medical students believe that clinical work should be the responsibility of individuals in contrast to nursing students who have a collective view and believe that work should be systemized. Pharmacy students are at a mid-point in this continuum. There are many challenges for undergraduate programmes preparing graduates for modern healthcare practice where the emphasis is on systemized work and team based approaches. These include issues of professional socialization which begins before students enter programmes, selection of students, attitudinal shifts and interprofessional education.

  13. The Effects of a Social Media Policy on Pharmacy Students’ Facebook Security Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feild, Carinda; James, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To examine how students entering a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program used Facebook privacy settings before and after the college's social media policy was presented to them. Methods. The Facebook profiles of all entering first-year pharmacy students across 4 campuses of a college of pharmacy were evaluated. Ten dichotomous variables of interest were viewed and recorded for each student's Facebook account at 3 time points: before the start of the semester, after presentation of the college's social media policy, and at the end of the semester. Data on whether a profile could be found and what portions of the profile were viewable also were collected. Results. After introduction of the policy, a significant number of students increased their security settings (made information not visible to the public) related to Facebook walls, information pages, and links. Conclusions. Making pharmacy students aware of a college's social media policy had a positive impact on their behaviors regarding online security and privacy. PMID:22171105

  14. Involvement that makes an impact on healthcare: Perceptions of the Swedish public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Mio; Eriksson, Max; Tritter, Jonathan Q

    2017-10-01

    'Participation and influence in society' is the first of 11 objective domains in Swedish public health policy. The aim of this article is to investigate the views of the Swedish general population on the impact of a range of health participation activities, and whether these views were associated with sociodemographic characteristics. The study utilizes a national representative survey of the Swedish population, aged 15 years and over ( n = 1500). Apart from voting in regional elections - which most of the respondents believed to be an influential way to make improvements in healthcare (74%) - respondents believed more in individual patient activities than activities associated with adopting a citizen role and acting collectively. A majority of respondents believed in the impact of replying to patient surveys (67%), making a complaint (61%), talking directly to staff (58%) or changing their healthcare provider (54%). Fewer believed in the impact of joining a patient organization (46%), taking part in a citizen council (35%) or joining a political party (34%). Beliefs in impact increased with educational attainment and decreased with age. The results suggest people have more confidence in the impact of participating as individual patients rather than collectively and as citizens. To ensure that activities enable 'participation and influence in society', complementary opportunities for collective involvement that also take into account under-represented voices such as those with a low level of education need to be developed.

  15. Availability of prescription drugs for bipolar disorder at online pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Bauer, Rita; Conell, Jörn; Bauer, Michael

    2016-03-15

    There is increasing use of online pharmacies to purchase prescription drugs. While some online pharmacies are legitimate and safe, there are many unsafe and illegal so-called "rogue" online pharmacies. This study investigated the availability of psychotropic drugs online to consumers in the US, using 5 commonly prescribed drugs for bipolar disorder. Using the search term "buy [drug name]" in the Google, Yahoo and Bing search engines, the characteristics of the online pharmacies found on the first two pages of search results were investigated. The availability of the requested dosage and formulations of two brand (Seroquel XR, Abilify) and three generic drugs (lamotrigine, lithium carbonate and bupropion SR) were determined. Of 30 online pharmacies found, 17 (57%) were rated as rogue by LegitScript. Of the 30 pharmacies, 15 (50%) require a prescription, 21 (70%) claim to be from Canada, with 20 of these having a Canadian International Pharmacy association (CIPA) seal on the website. Only 13 of the 20 sites with a CIPA seal were active CIPA members. There were about the same number of trust verification seals on the rogue and legitimate pharmacy sites. Some rogue pharmacies are professional in appearance, and may be difficult for consumers to recognize as rogue. All five brand and generic drugs were offered for sale online, with or without a prescription. However, many substitutions were presented such as different strengths and formulations including products not approved by the FDA. No evaluation of product quality, packaging or purchasing. Psychotropic medications are available online with or without a prescription. The majority of online pharmacy websites were rogue. Physicians should ask about the use of online pharmacies. For those who choose to use online pharmacies, two measures to detect rogue pharmacies are recommended: (1) only purchase drugs from pharmacies that require a prescription, and (2) check all pharmacy verification seals directly on the website

  16. Merchandising of cigarettes in San Francisco pharmacies: 27 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eule, B; Sullivan, M K; Schroeder, S A; Hudmon, K S

    2004-12-01

    To estimate changes since 1976 in the proportion of San Francisco pharmacies that sell cigarettes and to characterise the advertising of cigarettes and the merchandising of non-prescription nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products in these retail establishments. 100 randomly selected San Francisco pharmacies were visited in 2003. Pharmacies were characterised based on the sale of cigarettes, advertising for cigarettes, and the merchandising of non-prescription NRT products. In 2003, 61% of pharmacies sold cigarettes, a significant decrease compared to 89% of pharmacies selling cigarettes in 1976 (p merchandise the primary known risk factor for death in the USA.

  17. Adopting an Advanced Community Pharmacy Practice Experiential Educational Model Across Colleges of Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Rodis, Pharm.D., BCPS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the experience of sharing an experiential model of education and practice development between two colleges of pharmacy and to provide a framework to guide faculty in this type of collaboration.Case Study: The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy (OSU COP Partner for Promotion (PFP program was developed in response to the need for advancing practice in the community pharmacy setting. After successful implementation of this program, the PFP program design and materials were shared, adapted, and implemented at the University of Utah College of Pharmacy (Utah COP. Collaborating faculty developed a framework based on lessons learned through this experience which proposes key guiding strategies as considerations to address prior to embarking on sharing any aspect of an educational program or model between institutions. Each step of the framework is described and applied to the process followed by The OSU COP and Utah COP in sharing the PFP program. Additional considerations related to transfer of educational models are discussed.Results/Conclusion: Sharing the education model and materials associated with the PFP program between institutions has enhanced experiential opportunities for students and helped develop residency training sites in the community setting. In addition, the relationship between the two colleges has contributed to faculty development, as well as an increase in community pharmacy service development with community pharmacy partners at each institution. It is hoped this experience will help guide collaborations between other colleges of pharmacy to enhance education of future pharmacists while positively impacting pharmacy practice, teaching, and research by faculty.

  18. Factors associated with pharmacy students' attitudes towards learning communication skills - A study among Nordic pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensberg, Karin; Brandlistuen, Ragnhild Eek; Björnsdottir, Ingunn; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2018-03-01

    Good communication skills are essential for pharmacy students to help patients with their medicines. Students' attitudes towards communication skills learning will influence their willingness to engage in communication training, and their skills when dealing with patients later on in their professional life. The aim of this study was to explore Nordic pharmacy students' attitudes to communication skills learning, and the associations between those attitudes and various student characteristics. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted in 11 Nordic pharmacy schools between April 2015 and January 2016. The overall response rate for the final study population was 77% (367 out of 479 students). Pharmacy students who had fulfilled all mandatory communication training and most of their pharmacy practical experience periods were included. The communication skills attitudes scale was the main outcome. Linear regression models were fitted with the outcome variable and various student characteristics as the predictors, using generalized estimating equations to account for clustering within pharmacy schools. Nordic pharmacy students in general have moderately positive attitudes towards learning communication skills. Positive attitudes towards learning communication skills among pharmacy students were associated with being female (β adjusted 0.42, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.63, p communication skills improvement (β adjusted 0.50, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.71, pcommunication skills are not the result of personality (β adjusted  -0.24, 95% CI -0.44 to -0.04, p=0.017). The study provides important information for faculty members responsible for curriculum improvements and teachers to refine their teaching of communication skills. From this, the teaching can be better tailored to suit different students. The students' chances of being able to effectively help patients in the future will be increased by that. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Asynchronous versus Synchronous Learning in Pharmacy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motycka, Carol A.; St. Onge, Erin L.; Williams, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To better understand the technology being used today in pharmacy education through a review of the current methodologies being employed at various institutions. Also, to discuss the benefits and difficulties of asynchronous and synchronous methodologies, which are being utilized at both traditional and distance education campuses.…

  20. Assessing Consumer Preference using Community Pharmacy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the consumer preference for community pharmacy (CP) for filling prescription, and ... For OTC products, preference among consumers was almost the same among. CPs and local stores. With regard to health supplements and screening test kits, most ..... MARA, Malaysia for financial support for this.

  1. Community Pharmacies As Possible Centres For Routine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: Sixty (60) pre-tested questionnaires were randomly administered to community pharmacists. Forty-three (43) questionnaires were retrieved for analysis. Results: The study revealed that the use of community pharmacies as places where routine immunization services can be provided is feasible as shown by 95.3% ...

  2. Billing for outpatient transplant pharmacy services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Angela Q; Seiger, Todd C; Urann, Christina L; McCleary, Jo Ann; Goroski, Angela L; Ojogho, Okechukwu N

    2012-01-15

    The economic impact of out-patient pharmacy services in a transplant program was evaluated. Full-time kidney transplant pharmacy services were implemented at Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center (PSHMC) in the fall of 2008, with two pharmacists combining hours to provide one full-time-equivalent position. At PSHMC, posttransplantation patients are seen three times per week. The number of patient visits with pharmacists for 2010 was compared with the total number of patient visits. The face-to-face time spent with the patient was translated to a level of billing that was associated with a set reimbursement schedule. For each patient encounter in which a pharmacist was involved, the incremental difference between the nursing and pharmacy levels of billing was examined, as were the levels most often billed by pharmacists. The difference in billing levels between pharmacists and nurses for the same patient encounter was also evaluated. Overall, pharmacist visits accounted for 208 (22%) of the 994 out-patient kidney transplant visits in 2010, with pharmacists billing at a higher level of acuity compared with nursing for the same patient encounter 48% of the time. This translated to an approximate increase of $100 per patient visit. For the one-year study period, pharmacists utilizing facility- fee billing increased out-patient reimbursement by approximately $10,000. By utilizing outpatient facility-fee billing for pharmacy services, the transplant program at PSHMC increased reimbursement in the outpatient setting.

  3. Ethics and the Computerization of Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Robert L.; Perrolle, Judith A.

    1991-01-01

    The current and potential impact of computerization on pharmacy practice is discussed, focusing on ethical dilemmas in the pharmacist-patient relationship, confidentiality of records, and the role of artificial intelligence in decision making about drug therapy. Case studies for use by teachers of pharmaceutical ethics are provided. (Author/MSE)

  4. Discriminatory Attitudes of Pharmacy Students and Pharmacists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey of pharmacy students and pharmacists (n = 523) to assess discriminatory attitudes towards PLWHA was conducted using a self completed questionnaire. Correlation and ... negative perception items, namely, (a) people who got HIV through sex deserve it (p = 0.003), (b). PLWHA would ...

  5. Perceptions, use and attitudes of pharmacy customers on complementary medicines and pharmacy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Lesley A; Tiralongo, Evelin; Wilkinson, Jenny M; Spitzer, Ondine; Bailey, Michael; Poole, Susan; Dooley, Michael

    2010-07-20

    Complementary medicines (CMs) are popular amongst Australians and community pharmacy is a major supplier of these products. This study explores pharmacy customer use, attitudes and perceptions of complementary medicines, and their expectations of pharmacists as they relate to these products. Pharmacy customers randomly selected from sixty large and small, metropolitan and rural pharmacies in three Australian states completed an anonymous, self administered questionnaire that had been pre-tested and validated. 1,121 customers participated (response rate 62%). 72% had used CMs within the previous 12 months, 61% used prescription medicines daily and 43% had used both concomitantly. Multivitamins, fish oils, vitamin C, glucosamine and probiotics were the five most popular CMs. 72% of people using CMs rated their products as 'very effective' or 'effective enough'. CMs were as frequently used by customers aged 60 years or older as younger customers (69% vs. 72%) although the pattern of use shifted with older age. Most customers (92%) thought pharmacists should provide safety information about CMs, 90% thought they should routinely check for interactions, 87% thought they should recommend effective CMs, 78% thought CMs should be recorded in customer's medication profile and 58% thought pharmacies stocking CMs should also employ a complementary medicine practitioner. Of those using CMs, 93% thought it important for pharmacists to be knowledgeable about CMs and 48% felt their pharmacist provides useful information about CMs. CMs are widely used by pharmacy customers of all ages who want pharmacists to be more involved in providing advice about these products.

  6. Considering pharmacy workflow in the context of Australian community pharmacy: A pilot time and motion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaye, Diana; Lehnbom, Elin C; Laba, Tracey-Lea; El-Boustani, Elise; Joshi, Rohina; Webster, Ruth

    2018-01-04

    Given time pressures on primary care physicians, utilising pharmacists for chronic disease management is of great interest. However, limited data are available on the current workflow in community pharmacies to guide these discussions. This study aimed to test the feasibility of collecting workflow data from Australian community pharmacies using the Work Observation Method By Activity Timing (WOMBAT) software and provide preliminary data on Australian pharmacy workflow. Data were collected from three pharmacies and four variables were recorded: what the pharmacist did, with whom, where and how. All tasks were timed and data were analysed to identify total number of tasks, median time per task, proportion of time per task, and common task combinations. Pharmacists' main tasks consisted of counselling, dispensing and management activities (27%, 21% and 17% respectively of the overall number of tasks) and these tasks also took the majority of their time. Tasks were frequent but short, with the average time per task ranging from 0.55 to 8.46 min and most time was spent in areas without the capacity for patient interaction (51% in the dispensing/compounding area and 6% in the back office). Pharmacies are dynamic environments with the average task taking 1-2 min. Longer interventions may not be easily integrated into current pharmacy workflow. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Providing nuclear pharmacy education via the internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, N.L.; Pickett, M.; Thaxton, P.; Norenberg, J.P.; Wittstrom, K.; Rhodes, B.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: (1) Increase the nuclear pharmacy education opportunities across the United States and the around the world. (2) Establish collaborative educational agreements between colleges of pharmacy and local nuclear pharmacy preceptors. (3) Decrease the shortage of radio pharmacists. 4) Provide nuclear education courses to supplement existing educational programs. Materials and Methods: Nuclear Education Online (www.nuclearonline.org) is an educational consortium between the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and the University of New Mexico. The faculty members from each institution have collaborated to design an online didactic curriculum and experiential training materials. The didactic portion is delivered via WebCT (www.webct.com) and involves interactive studies with faculty from UNM and UAMS. The student-centered curriculum is based on the APhA Syllabus for Nuclear Pharmacy Training and includes interactive web-based course materials, discussion groups, preceptor-led activities and problem-based learning (PBL) case studies based upon actual clinical studies and real-life pharmacy situations. Individual units of study include Nuclear Physics, Radiation Biology, Radiation Safety, Instrumentation, and Radiochemistry/Radiopharmacology. Students can begin the program at anytime. Once a cohort of students is established, the students proceed through the PBL cases, working interactively as a group. Results: Since June 2001, over 26 students have completed the 10-week certificate program. These students have been located across the U.S. and in Saudi Arabia. Fifteen students have completed individual courses in nuclear physics and instrumentation through colleges of pharmacy course offerings using the NEO faculty as instructors. Student evaluations revealed that 78% of the students thought that the NEO program was a 'great way to learn' (highest rating). When comparing PBL to a traditional classroom setting, two thirds of students preferred problem

  8. [The Swedish ambulance services 1935-1936 of Gunnar Agge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Pär; Nilsson, Peter M

    2006-01-01

    The fact that Sweden has been spared from war on its soil for almost 200 years, has not stopped Swedish citizens from participating in conflicts worldwide during this period. This has been described, especially from the soldiers perspective. The contribution of Swedish physicians has not been written about to the same extent. When Mussolini's Italy in October 1935 invaded the poor and underdeveloped country of Ethiopia (former Abyssinia) an ambulance was immediately organized by the Swedish Red Cross. To lead such an expedition, a great knowledge of Ethiopian culture och maybe most importantly, of the weather and geographical conditions, was undoubtedly demanded. Therefore, the Swedish Red Cross turned to two Ethiopian veterans. Doctor Fride Hylander, a missionary-son who had been working on a hospital project in the Ethiopian province of Harrar and his friend since school years, doctor Gunnar Agge, were assigned the leadership of the ambulance. Dr Agge had also participated in improving the Ethiopian health care both in Harrar and later as civilian and military doctor in the province of Ogaden, where he was medically responsible for the more than 9 000 men strong army that the Ethiopian emperor had stationed there after Italian provocations. Most of the other members of the ambulance were handpicked by these two leaders and many of them had, just like themselves, a stong religious belief. A money-raise was immediately initiated and in less than six weeks 700 000 Swedish crowns had been collected, more then twice the sum the ambulance was calculated to cost. In early november 1935 the ambulance was clear to go. Their primary objective was to travel through British Somaliland and establish a field-hospital in the province of Harrar. However, the Ethiopian emperor had other things in mind. He wanted to reorganize the ambulance and divide it in two and place it closer to the front line. The ambulance decided to go along with his wish. Both groups started eventually

  9. Motivations and Predictors of Cheating in Pharmacy School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kathy; Shah, Bijal M.; Doroudgar, Shadi; Bidwal, Monica K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the prevalence, methods, and motivations for didactic cheating among pharmacy students and to determine predictive factors for cheating in pharmacy colleges and schools. Methods. A 45-item cross-sectional survey was conducted at all four doctor of pharmacy programs in Northern California. For data analysis, t test, Fisher exact test, and logistic regression were used. Results. Overall, 11.8% of students admitted to cheating in pharmacy school. Primary motivations for cheating included fear of failure, procrastination, and stress. In multivariate analysis, the only predictor for cheating in pharmacy school was a history of cheating in undergraduate studies. Conclusion. Cheating occurs in pharmacy schools and is motivated by fear of failure, procrastination, and stress. A history of past cheating predicts pharmacy school cheating. The information presented may help programs better understand their student population and lead to a reassessment of ethical culture, testing procedures, and prevention programs. PMID:27899829

  10. Motivations and Predictors of Cheating in Pharmacy School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Eric J; Nguyen, Kathy; Shah, Bijal M; Doroudgar, Shadi; Bidwal, Monica K

    2016-10-25

    Objective. To assess the prevalence, methods, and motivations for didactic cheating among pharmacy students and to determine predictive factors for cheating in pharmacy colleges and schools. Methods. A 45-item cross-sectional survey was conducted at all four doctor of pharmacy programs in Northern California. For data analysis, t test, Fisher exact test, and logistic regression were used. Results. Overall, 11.8% of students admitted to cheating in pharmacy school. Primary motivations for cheating included fear of failure, procrastination, and stress. In multivariate analysis, the only predictor for cheating in pharmacy school was a history of cheating in undergraduate studies. Conclusion. Cheating occurs in pharmacy schools and is motivated by fear of failure, procrastination, and stress. A history of past cheating predicts pharmacy school cheating. The information presented may help programs better understand their student population and lead to a reassessment of ethical culture, testing procedures, and prevention programs.

  11. The Swedish nuclear referendum 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zetterberg, H.L.

    1981-01-01

    A referendum is a multi-faceted phenomenon. It concerns people's attitudes, and as such can only be understood in terms of the general process of value development in a national culture. It is also a political event which can only be understood as part of the political process within a nation. Finally, these processes interact during a referendum campaign, so that the resulting vote of the electorate must be seen as part of the ongoing process of the formation of public opinion. This paper examines these three processes, not only with a view to explaining the outcome of the referendum, but also in the hope of obtaining a better understanding of the nature of the processes themselves. (author)

  12. The WHO UNESCO FIP Pharmacy Education Taskforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Claire; Bates, Ian; Beck, Diane; Brock, Tina Penick; Futter, Billy; Mercer, Hugo; Rouse, Mike; Whitmarsh, Sarah; Wuliji, Tana; Yonemura, Akemi

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacists' roles are evolving from that of compounders and dispensers of medicines to that of experts on medicines within multidisciplinary health care teams. In the developing country context, the pharmacy is often the most accessible or even the sole point of access to health care advice and services. Because of their knowledge of medicines and clinical therapeutics, pharmacists are suitably placed for task shifting in health care and could be further trained to undertake functions such as clinical management and laboratory diagnostics. Indeed, pharmacists have been shown to be willing, competent, and cost-effective providers of what the professional literature calls "pharmaceutical care interventions"; however, internationally, there is an underuse of pharmacists for patient care and public health efforts. A coordinated and multifaceted effort to advance workforce planning, training and education is needed in order to prepare an adequate number of well-trained pharmacists for such roles. Acknowledging that health care needs can vary across geography and culture, an international group of key stakeholders in pharmacy education and global health has reached unanimous agreement that pharmacy education must be quality-driven and directed towards societal health care needs, the services required to meet those needs, the competences necessary to provide these services and the education needed to ensure those competences. Using that framework, this commentary describes the Pharmacy Education Taskforce of the World Health Organization, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the International Pharmaceutical Federation Global Pharmacy and the Education Action Plan 2008–2010, including the foundation, domains, objectives and outcome measures, and includes several examples of current activities within this scope. PMID:19500351

  13. The WHO UNESCO FIP Pharmacy Education Taskforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouse Mike

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pharmacists' roles are evolving from that of compounders and dispensers of medicines to that of experts on medicines within multidisciplinary health care teams. In the developing country context, the pharmacy is often the most accessible or even the sole point of access to health care advice and services. Because of their knowledge of medicines and clinical therapeutics, pharmacists are suitably placed for task shifting in health care and could be further trained to undertake functions such as clinical management and laboratory diagnostics. Indeed, pharmacists have been shown to be willing, competent, and cost-effective providers of what the professional literature calls "pharmaceutical care interventions"; however, internationally, there is an underuse of pharmacists for patient care and public health efforts. A coordinated and multifaceted effort to advance workforce planning, training and education is needed in order to prepare an adequate number of well-trained pharmacists for such roles. Acknowledging that health care needs can vary across geography and culture, an international group of key stakeholders in pharmacy education and global health has reached unanimous agreement that pharmacy education must be quality-driven and directed towards societal health care needs, the services required to meet those needs, the competences necessary to provide these services and the education needed to ensure those competences. Using that framework, this commentary describes the Pharmacy Education Taskforce of the World Health Organization, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the International Pharmaceutical Federation Global Pharmacy and the Education Action Plan 2008–2010, including the foundation, domains, objectives and outcome measures, and includes several examples of current activities within this scope.

  14. Heat cost in a Swedish agrothermal plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, J.

    1978-01-01

    Low-grade heat is of rapidly increasing importance in Sweden and, therefore, so is the economic evaluation of such heat. The present heat cost is based on a detailed feasibility study of large-scale heated horticulture combined with electricity production from a Swedish boiling water reactor power plant. To estimate judiciously the cost of heat from a dual-purpose plant--such as a large-scale horticultural installation combined with and using low-grade waste heat from an electric power plant--is an almost classical problem: a measure of arbitrarity is unavoidable. The opportunity cost approach shown has presumably some new features. It results in an estimated cost of heat delivered from the turbine condenser heater in the power plant of 1.4 $/GJ (or 6.1 Swedish Crwn/GJ) in 1980, which is less than one-third of the cost of fuel only with conventional oil-fired heaters

  15. Effects of Swedish massage on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aourell, Moa; Skoog, Martina; Carleson, J

    2005-11-01

    Swedish massage technique includes mechanically activated muscular tissue and also skin, tendons, fascias, and connected tissue, which indirectly regulates the tonus of the autonomous nervous system. This study set out to examine the effects of Swedish massage on blood pressure. Healthy males were given massage treatment at the Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Treatment was over a 12-week period divided into three parts, each consisting of 4 weeks. Two treatment periods contained massage treatment either on back, neck and chest (BNC), or leg, arm and face (LAF), with an in between washout period. The first treatment period with massage decreased systolic blood pressure directly after treatment (BNC: Pmassage decreased systolic (Pmassage (Pmassage on the BNC resulted in a minor decrease in blood pressure possibly due to sympathetic inhibition. It may be suggested that massage may be tried as a complementary therapy in patients suffering from increased blood pressure due to stress.

  16. Randomized, community-based pharmacy intervention to expand services beyond sale of sterile syringes to injection drug users in pharmacies in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Natalie D; Amesty, Silvia; Rivera, Alexis V; Harripersaud, Katherine; Turner, Alezandria; Fuller, Crystal M

    2013-09-01

    Structural interventions may help reduce racial/ethnic disparities in HIV. In 2009 to 2011, we randomized pharmacies participating in a nonprescription syringe access program in minority communities to intervention (pharmacy enrolled and delivered HIV risk reduction information to injection drug users [IDUs]), primary control (pharmacy only enrolled IDUs), and secondary control (pharmacy did not engage IDUs). Intervention pharmacy staff reported more support for syringe sales than did control staff. An expanded pharmacy role in HIV risk reduction may be helpful.

  17. Swedish subseabed store - phase 1 nears completion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daglish, James

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the storage of radioactive waste in the subseabed in Sweden. The wastes are low- and intermediate-level reactor wastes arising from the Swedish nuclear power programme. The repository is a cavern which has been excavated under the seabed in the Baltic Sea, about a kilometre out from shore. The specifications of the repository are given, along with the volume of the radioactive wastes to be stored in it. (UK)

  18. Swedish-Estonian energy forest research cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, J.; Kirt, E.; Koppel, A.; Kull, K.; Noormets, A.; Roostalu, H.; Ross, V.; Ross, M.

    1996-01-01

    The Organization of Estonian energetic economy is aimed at cutting the usage of oil, gas and coal and increasing the local resources firewood, oil-shale and peat for fuel. The resources of low-valued firewood-brushwood, fallen deadwood etc. are available during the following 10-15 years, but in the future the cultivation of energy forest (willow) plantations will be actual. During the last 20 years the Swedish scientists have been extensively studying the willow forest selection, cultivation and use in energetics and waste water purification systems. A Swedish-Estonian energy forest research project was started in 1993 between the Swedish Agricultural University on one hand and Toravere Observatory, Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonian Academy of Sciences and Estonian Potato Processing Association on the other hand. In spring 5 willow plantations were established with the help of Swedish colleagues and obtained from Sweden 36000 willow cuttings. The aim of the project: a) To study experimentally and by means of mathematical modelling the biogeophysical aspects of growth and productivity of willow plantations in Sweden and Estonian climatological conditions. b) To study the possibility of using the willow plantations in waste waters purification. c) To study the economical efficiency of energy forest as an energy resource under the economic and environmental conditions of Estonia. d) To study the economic efficiency of willow plantations as a raw material for the basket industry in Estonia. e) To select the most productive and least vulnerable willow clones for practical application in energy plantations. During 1993 in all five plantations detailed analysis of soil properties has been carried out. In the plantation at Toravere Observatory phytometrical measurements were carried out - the growth of plant biomass leaf and stem area, vertical distribution of dry matter content, biomass and phyto area separately for leaves and stems has been performed. Some

  19. Diversity Work in a Swedish Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Risberg, Annette

    2013-01-01

    This paper builds on a case study of diversity work in a Swedish municipality, Malmö. It focuses on certain actors partaking in the diversity work done in the municipality that of a gender and diversity committee and its members – here called diversity ambassadors. I will describe the work of the diversity ambassadors and discuss what impact they could possibly have on the organization. Organizational efforts to change inequalities at the workplace may take different forms. The literature ...

  20. The swedish challenge; Le pari Suedois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tregouet, R

    2006-07-01

    Sweden decided to be the first country without petroleum for 2020. The author presents the major energy policy axis implemented by the swedish government to delete the part of the produced energy by the petroleum: development of the renewable energies, research programs of the transportation sector concerning the alternative fuels for the motors, energy efficiency and development of the biomass to replace the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  1. Spirometric reference equations for Swedish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisman, Jonas; Kim, Jeong-Lim; Olin, Anna-Carin; Torén, Kjell; Bake, Björn

    2017-11-01

    New spirometric reference equations for Swedish adults are required. Three different older sets of reference equations clinically used in Sweden have various drawbacks and the recently published 'The Global Lung Function 2012 (GLI) equations' have been shown not to be adequate for Swedish normal, healthy non-smokers. We have recently concluded that a piecewise linear model presented by Lubinski and Gólczewski accurately describes the distribution of spirometric variables in a large Swedish random population sample. This piecewise linear model also offers the important advantage of implementing easily physiologically interpretable coefficients. The present study aimed at presenting piecewise linear reference equations for Swedish adults based on a random population sample of 6685 individuals aged 25-75 years. Predicted normal values by the piecewise linear reference equations and lower limit normal (LLN) were compared with the three reference equations frequently used clinically in Sweden and the GLI equations. We found predicted normal values according to the present piecewise linear reference equations close to 100% predicted normal as expected, whereas the other equations either overestimated or underestimated normal subjects. Concerning LLN, the present equations, i.e. 1·645 × RSD, showed the least deviation from the expected 5% and, e.g., the GLI equations systematically identified too few subjects below LLN. We conclude that the present piecewise linear reference equations, based on a relatively large general population sample, ought to be considered for clinical use in Sweden. Application of 1·645 × RSD below predicted value gave an acceptably accurate LLN. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Development of an instrument to measure organisational culture in community pharmacies in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Iuri; Willis, Sarah Caroline; Schafheutle, Ellen Ingrid; Hassell, Karen

    2018-04-09

    Purpose Organisational culture (OC) shapes individuals' perceptions and experiences of work. However, no instrument capable of measuring specific aspects of OC in community pharmacy exists. The purpose of this paper is to report the development and validation of an instrument to measure OC in community pharmacy in Great Britain (GB), and conduct a preliminary analysis of data collected using it. Design/methodology/approach Instrument development comprised three stages: Stage I: 12 qualitative interviews and relevant literature informed instrument design; Stage II: 30 cognitive interviews assessed content validity; and Stage III: a cross-sectional survey mailed to 1,000 community pharmacists in GB, with factor analysis for instrument validation. Statistical analysis investigated how community pharmacists perceived OC in their place of work. Findings Factor analysis produced an instrument containing 60 items across five OC dimensions - business and work configuration, social relationships, personal and professional development, skills utilisation, and environment and structures. Internal reliability for the dimensions was high (0.84 to 0.95); item-total correlations were adequate ( r=0.46 to r=0.76). Based on 209 responses, analysis suggests different OCs in community pharmacy, with some community pharmacists viewing the environment in which they worked as having a higher frequency of aspects related to patient contact and safety than others. Since these aspects are important for providing high healthcare standards, it is likely that differences in OC may be linked to different healthcare outcomes. Originality/value This newly developed and validated instrument to measure OC in community pharmacy can be used to benchmark existing OC across different pharmacies and design interventions for triggering change to improve outcomes for community pharmacists and patients.

  3. Surveillance and uncertainty: community pharmacy responses to over the counter medicine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard

    2013-05-01

    The sale of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines from community pharmacies offers important opportunities for members of the public to access medicines and self-treat conditions. They are increasingly recognised, however, as having the potential for abuse and harm despite their perceived relative safety. This study reports on a qualitative study that explored the experiences and views of community pharmacy staff in relation to current practices and concerns, management and support relating to OTC medicine abuse. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of ten pharmacists and seven medicines counter assistants in the United Kingdom. Analysis of interviews indicated that a range of medicines was implicated, including opiates, sedative antihistamines, laxatives and decongestants. A surveillance role was apparent for assistants, who placed emphasis on regulations, procedure and monitoring frequency of purchases to manage abuse, with referral on to pharmacists. Frequency of purchase was central to assistants' definition of those suspected of OTC medicine abuse, which pharmacists also utilised as well as a distinction between intentional abuse and unintentional medicine misuse. A lack of information about customers, easy access to, and poor communication between community pharmacies were emergent barriers to pharmacists providing more support. Many appeared uncertain of referral options or how pharmacists could effectively stop the problem of abuse. The commercial environment was a particular concern, in relation to customer expectations, medicine advertising and easy access to different community pharmacies. A key tension emerged between providing medicine supplies that permitted consumer freedom, with the needs of healthcare professionals to understand more about those consumers qua patients. Policy implications include the need for improved knowledge for community pharmacy staff about signposting to relevant services, increased awareness of who

  4. Swedish reactor safety. Barsebaeck risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    probabilistic safety analysis of the Barsebaeck reactor, a Swedish-designed Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), was done using design and reliability information from Barsebaeck and similar Swedish reactors. The methodology of the Reactor Safety (WASH-1400) was employed to the extent possible to determine the probability of major accidents at Barsebaeck. It is concluded that an accident at the Barsebaeck nuclear plant could potentially affect a large segment of the population of Sweden and of neighbouring countries. The risk consists not only of potential harm to the current population, but of possible harm to future population due to the very long lives of the radioactive materials involved. However the complexity of nuclear systems, the relatively scant data base on which to make long-term predictions of equipment reliability, and little experience in accident consequences make the uncertainty bounds of this typype of studies very broad. Thus, in the end, the decision on the question of continuation of the Swedish nuclear power program must be made outside of, but with the assistance of, the technical community. The acceptance of nuclear power as an energy source in a country becomes a decision of social acceptability and, of necessity, must be made by the social structure's appointed representatives. (E.R.)

  5. Global health education in Swedish medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, S; Agardh, A; Holmer, H; Krantz, G; Hagander, L

    2015-11-01

    Global health education is increasingly acknowledged as an opportunity for medical schools to prepare future practitioners for the broad health challenges of our time. The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of global health education in Swedish medical schools and to assess students' perceived needs for such education. Data on global health education were collected from all medical faculties in Sweden for the years 2000-2013. In addition, 76% (439/577) of all Swedish medical students in their final semester answered a structured questionnaire. Global health education is offered at four of Sweden's seven medical schools, and most medical students have had no global health education. Medical students in their final semester consider themselves to lack knowledge and skills in areas such as the global burden of disease (51%), social determinants of health (52%), culture and health (60%), climate and health (62%), health promotion and disease prevention (66%), strategies for equal access to health care (69%) and global health care systems (72%). A significant association was found between self-assessed competence and the amount of global health education received (pcurriculum. Most Swedish medical students have had no global health education as part of their medical school curriculum. Expanded education in global health is sought after by medical students and could strengthen the professional development of future medical doctors in a wide range of topics important for practitioners in the global world of the twenty-first century. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  6. Towards improving service delivery in screening and intervention services in community pharmacies: a case study of an alcohol IBA service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackridge, A J; Krska, J; Stokes, E C; Heim, D

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated positive outcomes from a range of pharmacy public health services, but barriers to delivery remain. This paper explores the processes of delivering an alcohol screening and intervention service, with a view to improving service delivery. A mixed-methods, multi-perspective approach was used, comprising in-pharmacy observations and recording of service provision, follow-up interviews with service users and interactive feedback sessions with service providers. Observations and recordings indicate that staff missed opportunities to offer the service and that both availability and delivery of the service were inconsistent, partly owing to unavailability of trained staff and service restrictions. Most service users gave positive accounts of the service and considered pharmacies to be appropriate places for this service. Respondents also described positive impacts, ranging from thinking more about alcohol consumption generally to substantial reductions in consumption. Key facilitators to service provision included building staff confidence and service champions. Barriers included commissioning issues and staff perception of alcohol as a sensitive topic. Findings support expansion of pharmacies' role in delivering public health services and highlight benefits of providing feedback to pharmacy staff on their service provision as a possible avenue for service improvement. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Estimating problem drinking among community pharmacy customers: what did pharmacists think of the method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Janie; Smart, Ros; McCormick, Ross

    2010-10-01

    Community pharmacists have successfully been involved in brief interventions in many areas of health, and also provide services to substance misusers. There has been recent interest in community pharmacists providing screening and brief interventions (SBI) to problem drinkers. The aim of this study was to develop a method for measuring prevalence of risky drinking among community pharmacy customers and to explore acceptability of this method to participating pharmacists. Forty-three pharmacies (from 80 randomly selected) in New Zealand agreed to participate in data collection. On a set, single, randomly allocated day during one week, pharmacies handed out questionnaires about alcohol consumption, and views on pharmacists providing SBI, to their customers. At the end of the data collection period semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out with participating pharmacists. Pharmacists were generally positive about the way the study was carried out, the support and materials they were provided with, and the ease of the data collection process. They reported few problems with customers and the majority of pharmacists would participate again. The method developed successfully collected data from customers and was acceptable to participating pharmacists. This method can be adapted to collecting data on prevalence of other behaviours or medical conditions and assessing customer views on services. © 2010 The Authors. IJPP © 2010 Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.

  8. Chemistry inside an epistemological community box! Discursive exclusions and inclusions in Swedish National tests in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhl, Marie; Hussénius, Anita

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the Swedish national tests in chemistry for implicit and explicit values. The chemistry subject is understudied compared to biology and physics and students view chemistry as their least interesting science subject. The Swedish national science assessments aim to support equitable and fair evaluation of students, to concretize the goals in the chemistry syllabus and to increase student achievement. Discourse and multimodal analyses, based on feminist and critical didactic theories, were used to examine the test's norms and values. The results revealed that the chemistry discourse presented in the tests showed a traditional view of science from the topics discussed (for example, oil and metal), in the way women, men and youth are portrayed, and how their science interests are highlighted or neglected. An elitist view of science emerges from the test, with distinct gender and age biases. Students could interpret these biases as a message that only "the right type" of person may come into the chemistry epistemological community, that is, into this special sociocultural group that harbours a common view about this knowledge. This perspective may have an impact on students' achievement and thereby prevent support for an equitable and fair evaluation. Understanding the underlying evaluative meanings that come with science teaching is a question of democracy since it may affect students' feelings of inclusion or exclusion. The norms and values harboured in the tests will also affect teaching since the teachers are given examples of how the goals in the syllabus can be concretized.

  9. Expectations and responsibilities regarding the sale of complementary medicines in pharmacies: perspectives of consumers and pharmacy support staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Priya; McFarland, Reanna; La Caze, Adam

    2017-08-01

    Most sales of complementary medicines within pharmacies are conducted by pharmacy support staff. The absence of rigorous evidence for the effectiveness of many complementary medicines raises a number of ethical questions regarding the sale of complementary medicines in pharmacies. Explore (1) what consumers expect from pharmacists/pharmacies with regard to the sale of complementary medicines, and (2) how pharmacy support staff perceive their responsibilities when selling complementary medicines. One-on-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of pharmacy support staff and consumers in pharmacies in Brisbane. Consumers were asked to describe their expectations when purchasing complementary medicines. Pharmacy support staff were asked to describe their responsibilities when selling complementary medicines. Interviews were conducted and analysed using the techniques developed within Grounded Theory. Thirty-three consumers were recruited from three pharmacies. Consumers described complementary medicine use as a personal health choice. Consumer expectations on the pharmacist included: select the right product for the right person, expert product knowledge and maintaining a wide range of good quality stock. Twenty pharmacy support staff were recruited from four pharmacies. Pharmacy support staff employed processes to ensure consumers receive the right product for the right person. Pharmacy support staff expressed a commitment to aiding consumers, but few evaluated the reliability of effectiveness claims regarding complementary medicines. Pharmacists need to respect the personal health choices of consumers while also putting procedures in place to ensure safe and appropriate use of complementary medicines. This includes providing appropriate support to pharmacy support staff. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  10. Phosphorus flows to and from Swedish agriculture and food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderholm, Kersti; Mattsson, Jan Erik; Tillman, Anne-Marie

    2012-12-01

    Phosphorus flows in Swedish agriculture and food chain were studied by material flow analysis. The system studied included agriculture, food consumption, related waste and wastewater from private households and municipal wastewater treatment plants. Swedish farmland had net annual phosphorus inputs of ~12, 600 metric tons (4.1 kg P ha(-1)) in 2008-2010. The total import of phosphorus in food and feed to Sweden exceed imports of phosphorus in fertilizers. Despite strict animal density regulations relating to manure phosphorus content, phosphorus is accumulating on Swedish animal farms. The total quantity of manure produced greatly exceeds imported mineral phosphorus fertilizer and almost equals total phosphorus inputs to Swedish farmland.

  11. Comparison and significance of auroral studies during the Swedish and Russian bilateral expedition to Spitsbergen in 1899–1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chernouss

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Results of measurements and visual observations of aurora at Spitsbergen, carried out by the joint Swedish-Russian expedition during 1899–1900, are described. Auroral observations took place during the great bilateral Arc-of-Meridian expedition, which was patronized by the Swedish Royal Family and the Russian Imperial Family. The Russian-Swedish Arc-of-Meridian measurements were closely coordinated but auroral measurements from the two sites in the Spitsbergen Archipelago were almost independent of each other. The basic auroral data for our presentation are reports of the Russian astronomer Josef Sykora and the Swedish geophysicist Jonas Westman. Both scientists used similar types of photo cameras and spectrographs, which were the best at that time and were made in Potsdam by Toepfer. Detailed descriptions of the optical devices and the system of spectral calibration are presented. A Toepfer spectrograph, possibly the one used by Westman, is still kept at IRF in Kiruna. We present a comparative analysis of auroral data from the Russian and Swedish stations on three themes: visual observations of aurora, describing features of auroral forms and giving us statistical data on aurora occurrence and the heights of aurora, photos of aurora, and auroral spectra. It is shown that the observations contain enough data to construct an auroral oval and to determine the heights of aurora. The expedition obtained the first photographic observations of the aurora in the Arctic. The auroral spectra demonstrate a high spectral resolution and show not only the main auroral emissions in the blue-green spectral range but also some weak emissions in the violet and ultraviolet region. All data are interpreted from a modern point of view. The Russian-Swedish 1899–1900 expedition carried out the first complex auroral investigations in the Arctic using optical instruments and presented well documented data and new results.

  12. Characterization of pharmacy services in Portuguese prisons: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandra Monteiro Guerra, Liliana; Façanha da Cruz Fresco, Paula

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to collect reliable information to characterize the pharmacy services in Portuguese prisons. The secondary purpose is to develop a set of suggestions for improving these services and, therefore, improve the health services provided to the inmate population. A three pages survey was developed that included questions covering the characterization of prison health teams, pharmacy services and pharmacy activities. This survey was sent to all Portuguese prisons, with capacity higher than 50 prisoners. The response rate was of 87.5 per cent. It was found that only 6.1 per cent of prisons had pharmacists and that in 63 per cent the guards still participated in pharmacy activities. There were not Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committees in 94 per cent of prisons and 94.4 per cent did not present adequate storage conditions for drugs. Only 51.7 per cent of prisons had computers in the pharmacy and only 3.4 per cent had access to the internet. This study found that there is a gap between public and prison pharmacy services, since most prison pharmacies in Portugal are solely locals of storage and distribution of drugs, with no effective management nor promotion of drug rational use. This paper is the first study about pharmacy services in Portuguese prisons. The information collected could be very useful to improve the Portuguese prison pharmacy services provided to prisoners.

  13. Attitude of Pharmacy Students Towards a Nutrition Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Abdul, Majid Mufaqam

    Today's pharmacists are likely to encounter questions about nutritional products sold in the pharmacy. This is due, in part, to the increased number of pharmacies attached to grocery stores and the availability of pharmacists. Many pharmacists report they lack nutritional knowledge and believe the best time to educate pharmacists about nutrition is during pharmacy school. This study was conducted to determine if today's pharmacy students receive education in nutrition and if they realize the importance of nutrition education. Two hundred and twenty five students from India and ninety five students from the United States currently attending pharmacy school were surveyed. Results showed only 3.5% of students from India and 13.6% of students from the United States received nutrition education during their pharmacy degree curriculum. In addition, 81.8% of students from India and 82.9% of students from the United States who had taken a course in nutrition believed a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum. When pharmacy-related experience was taken into account, 92.9% of students from India and 73.3% of students from the United States also believed a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum. Overall, 88% of students from India and 70.5% of students from the United States believed nutrition education was important and should be included in the pharmacy degree curriculum. Results of this study suggest the majority of today's pharmacy students believe a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum regardless of past nutrition education or pharmacy-related experience.

  14. Medication therapy management services in community pharmacy: a pilot programme in HIV specialty pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenquist, Ashley; Best, Brookie M; Miller, Teresa A; Gilmer, Todd P; Hirsch, Jan D

    2010-12-01

    Pharmacist-provided medication therapy management services (MTMS) have been shown to increase patient's adherence to medications, improve health outcomes and reduce overall medical costs. The purpose of this study was to describe a pilot programme that provided pharmacy-based MTMS for patients with HIV/AIDS in the state of California, USA. Pharmacists from the 10 pilot pharmacies were surveyed using an online data collection tool. Information was collected to describe the types of MTMS offered, proportion of patients actively using specific MTMS, pharmacist beliefs regarding effect on patient outcomes and barriers to providing MTMS, ability to offer MTMS without pilot programme funding and specialized pharmacist or staff training. Each responding pharmacy (7 of 10) varied in the number of HIV/AIDS patients served and prescription volume. All pharmacists had completed HIV/AIDS-related continuing education programmes, and some had other advanced training. The type of MTMS being offered varied at each pharmacy with 'individualized counselling by a pharmacist when overuse or underuse was detected' and 'refill reminders by telephone' being actively used by the largest proportion of patients. Most, but not all, pharmacists cited reimbursement as a barrier to MTMS provision. Pharmacists believed the MTMS they provide resulted in improved satisfaction (patient and provider), medication usage, therapeutics response and patient quality of life. The type of MTMS offered, and proportion of patients actively using, varied among participating pilot pharmacies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. StrengthsFinder®signature themes of talent in pharmacy residents at four midwestern pharmacy schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Gary C; Janke, Kristin K; Fuller, Patrick D; Kelley, Katherine A; Scott, Steven A; Sorensen, Todd D

    StrengthsFinder ® is a widely-used assessment that can be used to help student pharmacists discover their talents (i.e., signature themes [STs]) and develop their leadership skills. The assessment has also been used in pharmacy residents, but the prevalence of various STs in that group has not been compared to those in student pharmacists. Residents from four midwestern pharmacy institutions completed StrengthsFinder ® 2.0 and received their top five STs. STs were organized and examined by domains (executing, influencing, relationship building, and strategic thinking). StrengthsFinder ® data on student pharmacists were obtained from a previously published study. The distribution of the themes and domains was compared between residents and student pharmacists. Responses from 31 residency program cohorts, including 290 pharmacy residents from a pool of 304 (95.4%) possible respondents, were included in the study. The learner ST was more frequently reported in the top five in pharmacy residents versus student pharmacists (42.8% versus 35.5%, p = 0.022). The woo and communication STs were also more frequently reported in the top five, while the consistency ST was reported less frequently in the top five in pharmacy residents versus student pharmacists (p marketing and design of programs and ranking of candidates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Using critical realism as a framework in pharmacy education and social pharmacy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmann, Carmen; Boughey, Chrissie

    2012-01-01

    This article challenges the idea that positivism is capable of representing the complexity of social pharmacy and pharmacy education. It is argued that critical realism provides a framework that allows researchers to look at the nature of reality and at mechanisms that produce, or have the tendency to produce, events and experiences of those events. Critical realism is a framework, not a method. It allows researchers to make observations about phenomena and explain the relationships and connections involved. The researcher has to look for mechanisms and structures that could explain why the phenomena, the connections, and the relationships exist (or do not) and then try to show that these mechanisms do exist. This article first contextualizes critical realism, then briefly describes it, and lastly exemplifies the use of critical realism in a discussion of a research project conducted in pharmacy education. Critical realism may be particularly useful in interdisciplinary research, for example, where practitioners and researchers are working together in a social pharmacy or pharmacy education setting. Critical realism requires the practitioners and the researchers to question and make known their assumptions about their own realities and to think of a complex problem or phenomenon in terms of a stratified reality, generative mechanisms, and tendencies. Critical realism may make research more rigorous and also allow researchers to conceive of a greater breadth of research designs for their work. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Global energy issues and Swedish security policy; Globala energifraagor och svensk saekerhetspolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    An important part of the Swedish Energy Agency's world surveillance is to identify trends that may affect Sweden's security of energy supply. Sweden can not be considered in isolation with its own energy supply, but is affected much by what happens if the global energy flows are disturbed by conflicts or weather-related events. Several different policy areas influence the energy markets, in addition to the energy and environmental policy. Geopolitical events of the last few years have more and more focused on power over energy resources. To get a comprehensive picture of the global energy situation, the Agency has engaged the Royal Military Sciences to produce a report that describes the 'Global Energy Issues and Swedish Security Policy'. The report's starting point is to describe how global events affect European and Swedish energy supply and security policy. Descriptions and analysis in the report are the authors own conclusions and need not always be the Agency's official views. The political environment that the report deals with is constantly changing, why some facts and circumstances may have changed since the report was completed. During the final preparation of the report, the scene changed in Moscow. On May 8, Vladimir Putin once again was appointed a position as Russia's president. The former president Medvedev, at the same time, takes over as Prime Minister.

  18. [Medical equipment product lines in basic pharmacies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macesková, B; Lipská, J

    2003-07-01

    Medical appliances dispensed in basic type pharmacies for cash or vouchers for medical or orthopedic appliances require expertise of pharmacists and laboratory assistants concerning the assortment, payment, construction of prices, conditions for prescription, ordering, properties, and functions of individual appliances. Using the method of frequency analysis, the analysis of data from five pharmacies within a period of three months (more than 17,000 records) revealed how individual subgroups of medical appliances and their concrete items are represented in both types of dispensation. The method of the semistructured questionnaire (10 respondents) was used to find what problems are encountered in dispensation, and which medical appliances and their subgroups are the sources of the problems. The respondents regard the contemporary level of knowledge concerning medical appliances gained in pregradual studies as insufficient.

  19. Team-based learning in pharmacy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofstad, William; Brunner, Lane J

    2013-05-13

    Instructors wanting to engage students in the classroom seek methods to augment the delivery of factual information and help students move from being passive recipients to active participants in their own learning. One such method that has gained interest is team-based learning. This method encourages students to be prepared before class and has students work in teams while in the classroom. Key benefits to this pedagogy are student engagement, improved communication skills, and enhanced critical-thinking abilities. In most cases, student satisfaction and academic performance are also noted. This paper reviews the fundamentals of team-based learning in pharmacy education and its implementation in the classroom. Literature reports from medical, nursing, and pharmacy programs are also discussed.

  20. Mobile computing initiatives within pharmacy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Jeff; Bird, Eleanora R; Jones, Mikael

    2008-08-15

    To identify mobile computing initiatives within pharmacy education, including how devices are obtained, supported, and utilized within the curriculum. An 18-item questionnaire was developed and delivered to academic affairs deans (or closest equivalent) of 98 colleges and schools of pharmacy. Fifty-four colleges and schools completed the questionnaire for a 55% completion rate. Thirteen of those schools have implemented mobile computing requirements for students. Twenty schools reported they were likely to formally consider implementing a mobile computing initiative within 5 years. Numerous models of mobile computing initiatives exist in terms of device obtainment, technical support, infrastructure, and utilization within the curriculum. Responders identified flexibility in teaching and learning as the most positive aspect of the initiatives and computer-aided distraction as the most negative, Numerous factors should be taken into consideration when deciding if and how a mobile computing requirement should be implemented.

  1. Widespread waterborne pollution in central Swedish lakes and the Baltic Sea from pre-industrial mining and metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindler, Richard; Renberg, Ingemar; Rydberg, Johan; Andrén, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Metal pollution is viewed as a modern problem that began in the 19th century and accelerated through the 20th century; however, in many parts of the globe this view is wrong. Here, we studied past waterborne metal pollution in lake sediments from the Bergslagen region in central Sweden, one of many historically important mining regions in Europe. With a focus on lead (including isotopes), we trace mining impacts from a local scale, through a 120-km-long river system draining into Mälaren--Sweden's third largest lake, and finally also the Baltic Sea. Comparison of sediment and peat records shows that pollution from Swedish mining was largely waterborne and that atmospheric deposition was dominated by long-range transport from other regions. Swedish ore lead is detectable from the 10th century, but the greatest impact occurred during the 16th-18th centuries with improvements occurring over recent centuries, i.e., historical pollution > modern industrial pollution.

  2. Evaluation of stress experienced by pharmacy residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hung M; Young, Shardae D

    2017-04-15

    Results of a study of stress and negative affect levels in postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) and postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) pharmacy residents are presented. A cross-sectional approach was used. Pharmacy residency program directors received e-mailed invitation letters requesting that they ask their residents to participate in an online survey in 2011. The main study outcomes included evaluation of resident scores on the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS10) and the Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist-Revised (MAACL-R) anxiety, depression, hostility, and dysphoria subscales. Of the 524 pharmacy residents included in the study, 75.4% were female, 41.2% were under 26 years of age, and 41% reported working more than 60 hours per week. There were no significant differences between PGY1 and PGY2 residents in stress levels, as assessed with the PSS10 (mean ± S.D. score, 19.05 ± 5.96 versus 19.09 ± 5.77). MAACL-R scores for hostility were, on average, higher among PGY2 residents (mean ± S.D., 50.83 ± 10.02) than among PGY1 residents (48.62 ± 8.96), while there were no significant differences in anxiety, depression, and dysphoria levels. Relative to residents who worked 60 or fewer hours per week, those who worked more than 60 hours had higher perceived stress levels as well as higher depression, hostility, and dysphoria scores. Pharmacy residents exhibited high levels of perceived stress, especially those who worked more than 60 hours per week. Perceived stress was highly correlated to negative affect levels. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cross training of hospital pharmacy technicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, E T; Schafermeyer, K W

    1996-04-01

    Cross training is a job design method that can increase the efficiency and effectiveness of a hospital pharmacy department. Although employee satisfaction is often improved, some employees may fear that cross training makes them expendable. Good communication and employee participation are keys to successful implementation of a cross-training program. Methods of implementing cross-training programs and avoiding potential pitfalls are also described.

  4. Exploring Information Chaos in Community Pharmacy Handoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Michelle A; Stone, Jamie A

    2013-01-01

    Background A handoff is the process of conveying necessary information in order to transfer primary responsibility for providing safe and effective drug therapy to a patient from one community pharmacist to another, typically during a shift change. The handoff information conveyed in pharmacies has been shown to be unstructured and variable, leading to pharmacist stress and frustration, prescription delays, and medication errors. Objective The purpose of this study was to describe and categorize the information hazards present in handoffs in community pharmacies. Methods A qualitative research approach was used to elicit the subjective experiences of community pharmacists. Community pharmacists who float or work in busy community pharmacies were recruited and participated in a face to face semi-structured interview. Using a systematic content data analysis, the study identified five categories of information hazards that can lead to information chaos, a framework grounded in human factors and ergonomics. Results Information hazards including erroneous information and information overload, underload, scatter, and conflict, are experienced routinely by community pharmacists during handoff communication and can result in information chaos. The consequences of information chaos include increased mental workload, which can precipitate problematic prescriptions “falling between the cracks”. This can ultimately impact patient care and pharmacist quality of working life. Conclusions The results suggest that handoffs in community pharmacies result in information hazards. These information hazards can distract pharmacists from their primary work of assessing prescriptions and educating their patients. Further research on how handoffs are conducted can produce information on how hazards in the system can be eliminated. PMID:23665076

  5. Marketing and pricing strategies of online pharmacies

    OpenAIRE

    Levaggi, Rosella; Orizio, Grazia; Domenighini, Serena; Bressanelli, Maura; Schulz, Peter J.; Zani, Claudia; Caimi, Luigi; Gelatti, Umberto

    2011-01-01

    Internet and e-commerce have profoundly changed society, the economy, and the world of health care. The web offers opportunities to improve health, but it may also represent a big health hazard since it is a basically unregulated market with very low consumer protection. In this paper we analyze marketing and pricing strategies of online pharmacies (OPs). Our analysis shows that OPs use strategies that would be more suitable for a commodity market than for drugs. These strategies differenti...

  6. Marketing perspectives of hospital pharmacy directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, D W; Pathak, D S

    1983-06-01

    The familiarity of hospital pharmacy directors (HPDs) with various marketing concepts for the development of pharmaceutical services was assessed. A questionnaire was designed to assess whether (1) HPDs seek input from relevant publics when evaluating or designing pharmaceutical services; (2) HPDs use marketing concepts in the development and implementation of pharmaceutical programs; and (3) marketing perspectives of HPDs differ depending on their institutional affiliations and personal characteristics. The questionnaire was sent to 320 HPDs in seven states. A total of 158 unable questionnaires were received. In response to the questions concerning input from relevant publics, HPDs agreed that they should seek input from all relevant publics with the exception of third-party agencies and patients. HPDs put more emphasis on obtaining information for evaluating existing programs and designing long-term plans from physicians, nurses, patients, and hospital administrators and less emphasis on understanding the needs of third-party agencies. HPDs seem to use marketing concepts in the development and implementation of pharmaceutical programs. HPDs indicated a clear perception of pharmacy goals, target segments among relevant publics, and a dynamic orientation toward changes in the health-care marketplace. Hospital size, level of pharmaceutical education, and years of administrative experience were found to influence the marketing perspectives of HPDs. HPDs were familiar with marketing concepts, and a favorable climate seems to exist for transferring marketing approaches to the hospital pharmacy setting.

  7. A motivational interviewing course for pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggin, Kathy; Hawes, Starlyn M; Duval, Elizabeth R; Spresser, Carrie D; Martínez, David A; Lynam, Ian; Barnes, Amy; Hinton-Dampf, Amber M; Murphy, Meghan E; Marken, Patricia A; Catley, Delwyn

    2010-05-12

    To create, implement, and evaluate a pharmacy course on motivational interviewing. A 3-hour elective course was created to train doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students in brief patient-centered motivational interviewing counseling strategies that have proven effective with the types of health issues most commonly addressed in pharmacy settings. Students were assisted in developing their skills through required readings, interactive lectures, in-class demonstrations and practice sessions, out of class skills practice, one-on-one supervision provided by doctoral level clinical health psychology students, and written reflections on each class session. Students demonstrated significant improvement in motivational interviewing skills and a high level of motivation for and confidence in using these skills in their future practice. Students overall assessment of the course and supervision process was highly positive. This patient-centered counseling skills course was feasible and produced improvements in PharmD students' counseling skills and increased their motivation and confidence to use motivational interviewing skills in their future communications with patients.

  8. Implementing an operating room pharmacy satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, P J; Maland, L; Bair, J N; McCall, J D; Wong, K C

    1983-07-01

    Implementation of an operating room (OR) pharmacy satellite is described, and its impact on cost-effectiveness and efficiency of drug distribution is analyzed. The OR satellite provided pharmacy coverage for 30-35 patients per day in 10 centralized surgical suites, 2 obstetric suites, and 1 burn-unit suite in a 401-bed teaching hospital. Objectives of the satellite were to consolidate accountability for drug distribution and control, reduce controlled substance loss and waste, reduce inventory costs, and improve recording of patient charges. Stock on the OR supply cart was reduced, controlled substances were dispensed to anesthesiologists from the satellite, and a system of standardized anesthesiology exchange trays was developed. A new billing form served as both the charging document and replacement list. Reduction in the medication cart stock resulted in smaller discrepancies in patient charges. For the five most commonly used controlled substances, accounting discrepancies were reduced. Inventory turnover increased and inventory dollar value and cost per patient were reduced. The percent of nurses who believed that a pharmacist should work in the area increased from 31% before implementation of the satellite to 95% after. The pilot OR pharmacy satellite was a financial success. Efficiency and effectiveness in drug distribution and control were improved, and communication between pharmacists and other medical personnel working in the OR areas was enhanced.

  9. Pharmacy student absenteeism and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Levita; Vansal, Sandeep; Kim, Esther; Sullivan, Maureen; Salbu, Rebecca

    2012-02-10

    To assess the association of pharmacy students' personal characteristics with absenteeism and academic performance. A survey instrument was distributed to first- (P1) and second-year (P2) pharmacy students to gather characteristics including employment status, travel time to school, and primary source of educational funding. In addition, absences from specific courses and reasons for not attending classes were assessed. Participants were divided into "high" and "low" performers based on grade point average. One hundred sixty survey instruments were completed and 135 (84.3%) were included in the study analysis. Low performers were significantly more likely than high performers to have missed more than 8 hours in therapeutics courses. Low performers were significantly more likely than high performers to miss class when the class was held before or after an examination and low performers were significantly more likely to believe that participating in class did not benefit them. There was a negative association between the number of hours students' missed and their performance in specific courses. These findings provide further insight into the reasons for students' absenteeism in a college or school of pharmacy setting.

  10. Internet pharmacy: issues of access, quality, costs, and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Stephanie Y

    2003-02-01

    Internet pharmacy has been the focus of heightened interest over the past 3 years since the first major Web site was introduced in the United States. This paper addresses issues pertaining to Internet pharmacies that sell prescriptions and other products to consumers at the retail level. The Internet pharmacy industry has shifted rapidly in the short time span. This paper begins with a summary of historical considerations and the shifting organization of Internet pharmacy. The advantages and disadvantages of online pharmacy practice are listed. Issues of access, quality, and cost are described. The challenges in regulation at the state and federal levels are presented. Advice to consumers is offered regarding the use of Internet pharmacy sites for purchasing prescription drug products.

  11. Knowledge and attitudes about smoking cessation among pharmacy technicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillich, Alan J; Aquilino, Mary L; Farris, Karen B

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of pharmacy technicians before and after attending a continuing education program about smoking cessation. A pre/post survey of a single group. Two statewide meetings of the Iowa Pharmacy Association. Pharmacy technicians. One 2-hour continuing education (CE) course about smoking cessation for pharmacy technicians. Changes in scores before and after the CE sessions among three domains (knowledge, efficacy, and outcome) of a validated survey instrument. Fifty-one technicians completed both the presession and postsession questionnaire. For the three survey domains, technicians' knowledge (P = .034), efficacy (P < .001), and outcome (P < .001) showed significant improvement between the presession and postsession surveys (Wilcoxon signed rank test). Pharmacy technicians who attended a CE program on smoking cessation improved their knowledge, attitudes, and self-confidence in helping smokers quit. Additional research should be conducted to test the role of pharmacy technicians in smoking cessation promotion.

  12. Creating organizational value by leveraging the multihospital pharmacy enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkat, Dan; Rough, Steve; Hansen, Amanda; Chen, David; Knoer, Scott

    2018-04-01

    The results of a survey of multihospital pharmacy leaders are summarized, and a road map for creating organizational value with the pharmacy enterprise is presented. A survey was designed to evaluate the level of integration of pharmacy services across each system's multiple hospitals, determine the most commonly integrated services, determine whether value was quantified when services were integrated, collect common barriers for finding value through integration, and identify strategies for successfully overcoming these barriers. The comprehensive, 59-question survey was distributed electronically in September 2016 to the top pharmacy executive at approximately 160 multihospital systems located throughout the United States. Survey respondents indicated that health systems are taking a wide range of approaches to integrating services systemwide. Several themes emerged from the survey responses: (1) having a system-level pharmacy leader with solid-line reporting across the enterprise increased the likelihood of integrating pharmacy services effectively, (2) integration of pharmacy services across a multihospital system was unlikely to decrease the number of pharmacy full-time equivalents within the enterprise, and (3) significant opportunities exist for creating value for the multihospital health system with the pharmacy enterprise, particularly within 4 core areas: system-level drug formulary and clinical standardization initiatives, supply chain initiatives, electronic health record integration, and specialty and retail pharmacy services. Consistently demonstrating strong organizational leadership, entrepreneurialism, and the ability to create value for the organization will lead to the system-level pharmacy leader and the pharmacy enterprise being well-positioned to achieve positive outcomes for patients, payers, and the broader health system. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The use of antibiotics based on prescriptions dispenced in pharmacies

    OpenAIRE

    Vadapalaitė-Mašalienė, Vilma

    2017-01-01

    The Use of Antibiotics Based on Prescriptions Dispenced in Pharmacies SUMMARY Baronienė J., Vadapalaitė-Mašalienė V. The use of antibiotics based on prescriptions dispenced in pharmacies: pharmacy master's thesis. Vilnius University, faculty of medicine – Vilnius, 2017. – 43 p. Antibiotics are not a cure-all. There are many diseases that are insurmountable without antibiotics: these diseases are caused by bacteria. Antibacterial therapy prevents from complications and sometimes saves lives. H...

  14. Competition in the German pharmacy market: an empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinsohn, Jörg G; Flessa, Steffen

    2013-10-10

    Pharmaceutical products are an important component of expenditure on public health insurance in the Federal Republic of Germany. For years, German policy makers have regulated public pharmacies in order to limit the increase in costs. One reform has followed another, main objective being to increase competition in the pharmacy market. It is generally assumed that an increase in competition would reduce healthcare costs. However, there is a lack of empirical proof of a stronger orientation of German public pharmacies towards competition thus far. This paper analyses the self-perceptions of owners of German public pharmacies and their orientation towards competition in the pharmacy markets. It is based on a cross-sectional survey (N = 289) and distinguishes between successful and less successful pharmacies, the location of the pharmacies (e.g. West German States and East German States) and the gender of the pharmacy owner. The data are analysed descriptively by survey items and employing bivariate and structural equation modelling. The analysis reveals that the majority of owners of public pharmacies in Germany do not currently perceive very strong competitive pressure in the market. However, the innovativeness of the pharmacist is confirmed as most relevant for net revenue development and the profit margin. Some differences occur between regions, e.g. public pharmacies in West Germany have a significantly higher profit margin. This study provides evidence that the German healthcare reforms aimed at increasing the competition between public pharmacies in Germany have not been completely successful. Many owners of public pharmacies disregard instruments of active customer-orientated management (such as customer loyalty or an offensive position and economies of scale), which could give them a competitive advantage. However, it is clear that those pharmacists who strive for systematic and innovative management and adopt an offensive and competitive stance are quite

  15. The Central Endocrine Glands: Intertwining Physiology and Pharmacy

    OpenAIRE

    Emerson, Mitchell R.

    2007-01-01

    The initial courses in didactic pharmacy curriculum are designed to provide core scientific knowledge and develop learning skills that are the basis for highly competent application and practice of pharmacy. Commonly, students interpret this scientific base as ancillary to the practice of pharmacy. Physiology courses present a natural opportunity for the instructor to introduce basic pharmaceutical principles that form the foundation of pharmacological application early in the professional cu...

  16. Competition in the German pharmacy market: an empirical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical products are an important component of expenditure on public health insurance in the Federal Republic of Germany. For years, German policy makers have regulated public pharmacies in order to limit the increase in costs. One reform has followed another, main objective being to increase competition in the pharmacy market. It is generally assumed that an increase in competition would reduce healthcare costs. However, there is a lack of empirical proof of a stronger orientation of German public pharmacies towards competition thus far. Methods This paper analyses the self-perceptions of owners of German public pharmacies and their orientation towards competition in the pharmacy markets. It is based on a cross-sectional survey (N = 289) and distinguishes between successful and less successful pharmacies, the location of the pharmacies (e.g. West German States and East German States) and the gender of the pharmacy owner. The data are analysed descriptively by survey items and employing bivariate and structural equation modelling. Results The analysis reveals that the majority of owners of public pharmacies in Germany do not currently perceive very strong competitive pressure in the market. However, the innovativeness of the pharmacist is confirmed as most relevant for net revenue development and the profit margin. Some differences occur between regions, e.g. public pharmacies in West Germany have a significantly higher profit margin. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the German healthcare reforms aimed at increasing the competition between public pharmacies in Germany have not been completely successful. Many owners of public pharmacies disregard instruments of active customer-orientated management (such as customer loyalty or an offensive position and economies of scale), which could give them a competitive advantage. However, it is clear that those pharmacists who strive for systematic and innovative management and adopt an

  17. Using the Consumer Experience with Pharmacy Services Survey as a quality metric for ambulatory care pharmacies: older adults' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O; Mott, David A; Croes, Kenneth D

    2016-05-26

    To describe older adults' perceptions of evaluating and comparing pharmacies based on the Consumer Experience with Pharmacy Services Survey (CEPSS), describe older adults' perceived importance of the CEPSS and its specific domains, and explore older adults' perceptions of the influence of specific CEPSS domains in choosing/switching pharmacies. Focus group methodology was combined with the administration of a questionnaire. The focus groups explored participants' perceived importance of the CEPSS and their perception of using the CEPSS to choose and/or switch pharmacies. Then, using the questionnaire, participants rated their perceived importance of each CEPSS domain in evaluating a pharmacy, and the likelihood of using CEPSS to switch pharmacies if their current pharmacy had low ratings. Descriptive and thematic analyses were done. 6 semistructured focus groups were conducted in a private meeting room in a Mid-Western state in the USA. 60 English-speaking adults who were at least 65 years, and had filled a prescription at a retail pharmacy within 90 days. During the focus groups, the older adults perceived the CEPSS to have advantages and disadvantages in evaluating and comparing pharmacies. Older adults thought the CEPSS was important in choosing the best pharmacies and avoiding the worst pharmacies. The perceived influence of the CEPSS in switching pharmacies varied depending on the older adult's personal experience or trust of other consumers' experience. Questionnaire results showed that participants perceived health/medication-focused communication as very important or extremely important (n=47, 82.5%) in evaluating pharmacies and would be extremely likely (n=21, 36.8%) to switch pharmacies if their pharmacy had low ratings in this domain. The older adults in this study are interested in using patient experiences as a quality metric for avoiding the worst pharmacies. Pharmacists' communication about health and medicines is perceived important and likely

  18. Swedish Chemists and Discovery of the Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Volker

    1996-10-01

    All of the elements not already known from antiquity were discovered in Europe and North America. So which country ranks number one on the discovery list? The question occurred to me while leafing through reference 1 in search of thermodynamic data on silicon. Never having seen such a tabulation, I wondered if it might prove useful in teaching. The question has a sports-related flavor that will appeal to many students. Personally, I picked England or Germany for #1. The actual result is surprising. The ranking considering only up to atomic number 103 is as follows: Note: Where two or more independent discoveries have been made, each country is credited. In the "others" category Austria and Denmark each has two discoveries. The remaining countries, with one each, are Finland, Italy, Mexico, Poland, Romania, Russia, and Spain. The high place for the USA is primarily due to the work done at Berkeley and Los Alamos on the transuranics. Without these discoveries, the US would have tied with Switzerland at three elements. Perhaps the most interesting aspect of this tabulation is that Swedish chemists have discovered the most elements. Four chemists alone account for twelve of the 20 discoveries: Baron Jöns Jakob Berzelius (1779-1848) is credited with four elements. His pupil, friend, and assistant, Carl Gustav Mosander (1797-1858) discovered three. P. T. Cleve also found three elements and Karl Wilhelm Scheele (1742-1786) discovered two. Biographical research on the Swedish chemists is a suitable assignment at the introductory level. Reasons for the predominance of Swedish chemists presents a challenging student research topic in the history of chemistry. Another interesting question at the introductory level is, transuranics aside, who discovered the most elements? At the more advanced level the question becomes, why? Literature Cited: 1. Emsley, J. The Elements; Clarendon: Oxford, 1989.

  19. Preschool Education and Day Care for Swedish Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jeanne

    A comprehensive study of the types of care provided for Swedish children is presented. The point is made that the three major frameworks which support the Swedish philosophy of early childhood education are those of Arnold Gesell, Jean Piaget, and Erik H. Erikson. From all three sources, preschool teachers learn the concept of epigenesis, the…

  20. The nuclear waste issue in Swedish mass media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedberg, P.

    1991-04-01

    This is an investigation of the representation given in the Swedish mass media of questions concerning the nuclear waste. The investigation covers the period from 1979 to 1989 of 8 newspapers of different political colours and the Swedish radio and television. (KAE)

  1. Parental Expectations of the Swedish Municipal School of Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilliedahl, Jonathan; Georgii-Hemming, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This article draws on a study designed to analyse parental expectations of the Swedish municipal school of arts (hereafter MSA) (in Swedish: kommunal musik- och kulturskola). The study is based on in-depth interviews conducted and informed by grounded theory. Although parental expectations are scarcely uniform, the study reveals a hope that the…

  2. Perceptions, use and attitudes of pharmacy customers on complementary medicines and pharmacy practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Michael

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary medicines (CMs are popular amongst Australians and community pharmacy is a major supplier of these products. This study explores pharmacy customer use, attitudes and perceptions of complementary medicines, and their expectations of pharmacists as they relate to these products. Methods Pharmacy customers randomly selected from sixty large and small, metropolitan and rural pharmacies in three Australian states completed an anonymous, self administered questionnaire that had been pre-tested and validated. Results 1,121 customers participated (response rate 62%. 72% had used CMs within the previous 12 months, 61% used prescription medicines daily and 43% had used both concomitantly. Multivitamins, fish oils, vitamin C, glucosamine and probiotics were the five most popular CMs. 72% of people using CMs rated their products as 'very effective' or 'effective enough'. CMs were as frequently used by customers aged 60 years or older as younger customers (69% vs. 72% although the pattern of use shifted with older age. Most customers (92% thought pharmacists should provide safety information about CMs, 90% thought they should routinely check for interactions, 87% thought they should recommend effective CMs, 78% thought CMs should be recorded in customer's medication profile and 58% thought pharmacies stocking CMs should also employ a complementary medicine practitioner. Of those using CMs, 93% thought it important for pharmacists to be knowledgeable about CMs and 48% felt their pharmacist provides useful information about CMs. Conclusions CMs are widely used by pharmacy customers of all ages who want pharmacists to be more involved in providing advice about these products.

  3. The control of nuclear proliferation: future challenges. Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Stockholm, 23 April 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the conference given by the Director General of the IAEA at the Swedish Institute of International Affairs in Stockholm on 23 April 1998. After a short presentation of the Agency's current verification activities, particularly in Iraq and Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the Director General focuses on the present and future role of the IAEA in the control of nuclear proliferation through its strengthened safeguards system, in the prevention of nuclear terrorism, and future challenges of controlling nuclear proliferation from both political and technical point of view

  4. Unfair Contract Terms in European Contract Law : Legal consequences for and beyond Swedish Contract Law

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido Huidobro, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    Recent case law from the ECJ on one of the most important EU contract law legislation has left questions open about the compatibility of Swedish con­tract law with the Unfair Contracts Term Directive. The case law on Article 6 (1) in the directive seem to have changed the view on how to deal with the legal consequence of an unfair term in consumer contracts; namely that unfair terms cannot be adjusted but need to be declared invalid. This essay examines how the effects from the ECJ case law p...

  5. GENIUS & the Swedish Fast Reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallenius, Janne

    2012-01-01

    Concluding remarks: Sweden’s growing fast reactor programme focuses on LFR technology, but we also participate in ASTRID. • An innovative facility for UN fabrication, an LBE thermal hydraulics loop and a lead corrosion facility are operational. • A plutonium fuel fabrication lab is is under installation (this week!) • The government is assessing the construction of ELECTRA-FCC, a centre for Gen IV-system R&D, at a tentative cost of ~ 140±20 M€. • Location: Oskarshamn (adjacent to intermediate repository) • Date of criticality: 2023 (best case) • Swedish participation in IAEA TWG-FR should intensify

  6. Barriers between international students and Swedish companies

    OpenAIRE

    Qytyku, Silvana Agolli and Sokol

    2008-01-01

    Title: Barriers between international student’s and Swedish companies Course: Master thesis in business administration, 15 ECTS Date: June 2008 Authors: Silvana Agolli and Sokol Qytyku Supervisor: Dr. Per Eisele In this thesis report we have conduct a primary research on Blekinge area, while it is a shortage of IT workers and at the same time there were a lot of internationals students that graduated every year and didn’t get those available jobs. In this investigation we wanted to find out t...

  7. A History of the Swedish Pension System

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    This report provides an extensive overview of the history of the Swedish pension system. Starting with the implementation of the world's first universal public pension system in 1913, the report discusses the political as well as the economic background to each major public pension reform up until today. It presents the rules and the institutional details of these reforms and discuss their implications for retirement behavior, the general state of the economy and the political environment. Pa...

  8. Alpine ski sport injuries in Swedish Lapland

    OpenAIRE

    Made, Curt

    2009-01-01

    Downhill skiing is associated with recreation, youth, speed, aerials and crowded courses which carry increased risk of injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate downhill sport injuries in a Swedish ski resort. Material and methodsIn a case-control study ongoing 1989/90–2006/07, 3,696 injured skiers were registered. After informed consent the injured were assessed by a physician and asked to answer a questionnaire concerning skier, skiing and injury. ResultsAfter three years 481 injured ...

  9. Drug-related problems and pharmacy interventions in community practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, Tommy; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Melander, Arne

    1999-01-01

    the interventions made by pharmacy personnel with patients and prescribers. Method. Random samples of pharmacists, prescriptionists and pharmacy technicians were drawn nationwide in Sweden; 144 (63 per cent) of the employees fulfilling the inclusion criteria agreed to take part. The participants documented drug...... of the patients. The median number of problems identified per 100 patients was greater for pharmacists (6.1) than for prescriptionists (2.6) and pharmacy technicians (1.1). About one in three problems was presented to the participants by their patients, while two thirds were detected by the pharmacy staff. One...

  10. Are all pharmacy staff interested in potential future roles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braund, Rhiannon; Chesney, Kate Marie; Keast, Emilia Paulina; Ng, Lye Jinn; Qi, Sarah; Samaranayaka, Sashika; Wang, Eddie

    2012-12-01

    To determine the current perceived roles and responsibilities of pharmacy staff in community pharmacies in New Zealand, and attitudes to proposed new advanced roles for pharmacy staff. Structured interviews were conducted within five community pharmacies, including at least two pharmacists, two dispensary staff and two pharmacy assistants. The interviews were structured to determine previous experience, current roles and responsibilities and the perceived future roles of pharmacy staff within a community pharmacy setting. Thematic analysis from 27 interviews identified key findings. Current roles appeared to be fairly well defined. Pharmacy assistants listed key roles as customer interactions and sales focus, noting that the dispensary was outside their area of responsibility. Technicians identified their role as being dispensary focused while pharmacists saw their role as the 'final check' to ensure accuracy as well as providing dispensing, counselling and managerial roles. With potential future roles, the assistants were less interested than the other groups, citing contentment with current situation and training as a barrier. Some technicians indicated an interest in furthering their roles, but many were reluctant and saw that additional training was too time consuming. Whilst pharmacists appeared to be interested in further scopes of practice, they appeared more reluctant to do this at the expense of handing dispensing responsibility to a non-pharmacist. Whilst there is a push for pharmacists to provide advanced clinical services, it is important to acknowledge that many staff working within community pharmacies are satisfied with their current role. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Instrument to measure psychological contract violation in pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Alan R; Wilkin, Noel E; Bentley, John P; Bouldin, Alicia S; Wilson, Marvin C; Holmes, Erin R

    2010-08-10

    To adapt and evaluate an instrument that measures perceived psychological contract violations in pharmacy students by schools and colleges of pharmacy. A psychological contract violations measure was developed from existing literature and the 1997 ACPE Guidelines and pilot-tested with second-year pharmacy students at 2 schools of pharmacy. A revised measure then was administered to second-year pharmacy students at 6 schools of pharmacy. Using a 5-point Likert-type scale, participants were asked to indicate the level of obligations they received compared to what was promised by the school of pharmacy. Exploratory factor analysis on the psychological contract violations measure was conducted using principal components analysis resulting in 7 factors, which led to a revised measure with 26 items. Using a sample of 339 students, the proposed 7-factor measurement model was tested using confirmatory factor analysis. In general, the results supported the hypothesized model. The final 23-item scale demonstrated both reliability and validity. Some students perceived certain aspects of the psychological contract that exists with their school of pharmacy were being violated. The psychological contract violations measure may serve as a valuable tool in helping to identify areas where their students believe that schools/colleges of pharmacy have not fulfilled promised obligations.

  12. Social Pharmacy and Clinical Pharmacy—Joining Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Birna Almarsdottir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This commentary seeks to define the areas of social pharmacy and clinical pharmacy to uncover what they have in common and what still sets them apart. Common threats and challenges of the two areas are reviewed in order to understand the forces in play. Forces that still keep clinical and social pharmacy apart are university structures, research traditions, and the management of pharmacy services. There are key (but shrinking differences between clinical and social pharmacy which entail the levels of study within pharmaceutical sciences, the location in which the research is carried out, the choice of research designs and methods, and the theoretical foundations. Common strengths and opportunities are important to know in order to join forces. Finding common ground can be developed in two areas: participating together in multi-disciplinary research, and uniting in a dialogue with internal and external key players in putting forth what is needed for the profession of pharmacy. At the end the question is posed, “What’s in a name?” and we argue that it is important to emphasize what unifies the families of clinical pharmacy and social pharmacy for the benefit of both fields, pharmacy in general, and society at large.

  13. The Utrecht Pharmacy Practice network for Education and Research: a network of community and hospital pharmacies in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Ellen S; Blom, Lyda; Philbert, Daphne; Rump, Willem; Bouvy, Marcel L

    2014-08-01

    Practice-based networks can serve as effective mechanisms for the development of the profession of pharmacists, on the one hand by supporting student internships and on the other hand by collection of research data and implementation of research outcomes among public health practice settings. This paper presents the characteristics and benefits of the Utrecht Pharmacy Practice network for Education and Research, a practice based research network affiliated with the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Utrecht University. Yearly, this network is used to realize approximately 600 student internships (in hospital and community pharmacies) and 20 research projects. To date, most research has been performed in community pharmacy and research questions frequently concerned prescribing behavior or adherence and subjects related to uptake of regulations in the pharmacy setting. Researchers gain access to different types of data from daily practice, pharmacists receive feedback on the functioning of their own pharmacy and students get in depth insight into pharmacy practice.

  14. Patient-provider interaction during medication encounters : A study in outpatient pharmacies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Ellen S.; van Meeteren, Marijke M.; Van Dijk, M; van de Bemt, Bart J F; Ensing, Hendrikus T.; Bouvy, Marcel L.; Blom, Lyda; van Dijk, Liset

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe communication between pharmacy staff and patients at the counter in outpatient pharmacies. Both content and communication style were investigated. Methods: Pharmaceutical encounters in three outpatient pharmacies in the Netherlands were video-recorded. Videos were analyzed

  15. Patient-provider interaction during medication encounters: A study in outpatient pharmacies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, E.S.; Meeteren, M.M. van; Dijk, M.; Bemt, B.J.F van den; Ensing, H.T.; Bouvy, M.L.; Blom, L.; Dijk, L. van

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe communication between pharmacy staff and patients at the counter in outpatient pharmacies. Both content and communication style were investigated. METHODS: Pharmaceutical encounters in three outpatient pharmacies in the Netherlands were video-recorded. Videos were analyzed

  16. Patient–provider interaction during medication encounters: a study in outpatient pharmacies in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, E.S.; Meeteren, M.M. van; Dijk, M. van; Bemt, B.J.F. van de; Ensing, H.T.; Bouvy, M.; Blom, L.; Dijk, L. van

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe communication between pharmacy staff and patients at the counter in outpatient pharmacies. Both content and communication style were investigated. Methods: Pharmaceutical encounters in three outpatient pharmacies in the Netherlands were video-recorded. Videos were analyzed

  17. Community pharmacy customer segmentation based on factors influencing their selection of pharmacy and over-the-counter medicines

    OpenAIRE

    Kevrekidis, Dimitrios Phaedon; Minarikova, Daniela; Markos, Angelos; Malovecka, Ivona; Minarik, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background: Within the competitive pharmacy market environment, community pharmacies are required to develop efficient marketing strategies based on contemporary information about consumer behavior in order to attract clients and develop customer loyalty. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the consumers’ preferences concerning the selection of pharmacy and over-the-counter (OTC) medicines, and to identify customer segments in relation to these preferences. Methods: A cross-sect...

  18. Extreme value modelling of storm damage in Swedish forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bengtsson

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Forests cover about 56% of the land area in Sweden and forest damage due to strong winds has been a recurring problem. In this paper we analyse recorded storm damage in Swedish forests for the years 1965–2007. During the period 48 individual storm events with a total damage of 164 Mm³ have been reported with the severe storm on 8 to 9 January 2005, as the worst with 70 Mm³ damaged forest. For the analysis, storm damage data has been normalised to account for the increase in total forest volume over the period.

    We show that, within the framework of statistical extreme value theory, a Poisson point process model can be used to describe these storm damage events. Damage data supports a heavy-tailed distribution with great variability in damage for the worst storm events. According to the model, and in view of available data, the return period for a storm with damage in size of the severe storm of January 2005 is approximately 80 years, i.e. a storm with damage of this magnitude will happen, on average, once every eighty years.

    To investigate a possible temporal trend, models with time-dependent parameters have been analysed but give no conclusive evidence of an increasing trend in the normalised storm damage data for the period. Using a non-parametric approach with a kernel based local-likelihood method gives the same result.

  19. Improvements of postnatal care are required by Swedish fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Margareta; Rubertsson, Christine; Rådestad, Ingela; Hildingsson, Ingegerd

    2013-01-01

    This paper has two main aims: to explore fathers' postnatal care experiences with a specific focus on deficiencies and to investigate which service deficiencies remained important for fathers one year after childbirth. This is a prospective longitudinal study. Two months and one year after birth, the overall satisfaction with care were sought. A care quality index was created, based on perceived reality and subjective importance of the care given. The study excluded fathers not mastering Swedish. Total eligible fathers was consequently not known therefore pregnancies served as an estimate. In total, 827 fathers answered the questionnaire two months after birth and 655 returned the follow-up questionnaire after one year; 21 per cent were dissatisfied with overall postnatal-care. The most important dissatisfying factors were the way fathers were treated by staff and the women's check-up/medical care. Two months after the birth, information given about the baby's care and needs were most deficient when parents had been cared for in a hotel ward. Furthermore, information about the baby's needs and woman's check-up/medical care was most deficient when fathers had participated in emergency Caesarean section. Most fathers were satisfied with the overall postnatal care, but how fathers are treated by caregivers; the woman's check-up/medical care and information given about the baby's care and needs can be improved. Professionals should view early parenthood as a joint project and support both parents' needs. The paper provides knowledge about postnatal service quality including fathers' needs.

  20. [Introduction of team-based learning to the pharmacy experiential practice course for first-year pharmacy students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norose, Takahiko; Ito, Mika; Endo, Kikutaro; Fujimoto, Tetsuya; Moriya, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Miho

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the number of high school graduates has decreased, whereas the number of new pharmacy schools has increased substantially. Therefore, pharmacy schools these days accommodate students from diverse backgrounds in terms of basic knowledge, study skills, and/or their motivation to be pharmacists. To address this issue, we developed a mandatory 10-day course named "Pharmacy experiential practice" for the first-year students. The program trains students in basic pharmacy calculation skills and communication skills, and provides an insight into how these skills can be applied in actual pharmacy practice. The program includes 5 themes, namely, "Compounds", "Solutions", "Infusions", "Nutrition" and "Communication". Each theme, except "Communication", was conducted for 2 days 3 hour calculation practice in class and 3 hour pharmacy experiential practice each day. In the calculation class, we introduced team-based learning, which enhanced the students for interactive learning in the classes. In the pharmacy experiential practices, the students were trained not only to apply their calculation skills to pharmacy practice in each theme, but also to understand the importance of basic science knowledge in strengthening the foundations for their calculation skills. Course evaluation showed that students experienced the effectiveness of interactive study and that they realized the importance of pharmacy practice and the basic sciences that they had learnt. Some students commented that their motivation to become pharmacists increased after this course.

  1. A Swedish perspective on research ethics review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Thulesius, M.D., G.P., Ph.D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available I have participated in writing ethical approval applications for research projects in Sweden a dozen times. I am also since some years a member of the local ethics advisory board in a mostly rural area serving 180.000 people. From that position I advise on what types of local project applications will have to be sent further to the regional ethics committee, REPN in Sweden. With that background I will try to give a brief Swedish perspective on research ethics reviews in general and regarding CGT (classic grounded theory studies using qualitative data in particular.The most famous Swedish example of unethical research is the 1947-1951 Vipeholm sugar trial (Krasse, 2001. Several hundred intellectually and mentally challenged persons at the Vipeholm institution were for years given an excess amount of sugar, mostly in the shape of candy. This resulted in caries that totally ruined the teeth of 50 persons. Of course participants did not give informed consent. Yet, at the time the research was not considered unethical. At least there was no debate about it.

  2. Environmental Orientation in Swedish Local Governments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Alpenberg

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the environmental orientation in Swedish local governments. Environmental concerns over potential risk factors have become more important and popular among public organizations and environmental improvement efforts are made to create a sustainable ecosystem for the actors doing business, living and working in the area. Prior research indicates that public organizations have started to become more environmentally oriented in order to take on more responsibilities for reducing their own environmental impact as well as influencing the citizens and local businesses in the direction of a more sustainable way of living and working. Through a survey of Swedish local governments we conclude that they are taking on a key role in developing a sustainable ecosystem through becoming more environmentally oriented. This includes developing a framework for setting environmental goals, identifying suitable environmental indicators and reporting to a wide range of stakeholders. A factor that explains the increasing environmental orientation in the public sector is the implementation of digitalized performance measurement systems. We find that the environmental performance measurements are used to motivate different internal and external stakeholders in the efforts to create a multi-actor ecosystem.

  3. Are boys discriminated in Swedish high schools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinnerich, Bjørn Tyrefors; Höglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading.Werigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind ....... The point estimate of the discrimination effect is close to zero with a 95% confidence interval of±4.5% of the average non-blind grade....... and non-blind grading. The non-blind test score is on average 15% lower for boys than for girls. Blind grading lowers the average grades with 13%, indicating that personal ties and/or grade inflation are important in non-blind grading. But we find no evidence of discrimination against boys in grading......Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading.Werigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind...

  4. The Swedish programme for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjurstroem, S.; Forsstroem, H.

    1986-10-01

    The following systems and facilities are currently in operation and under implementation: a sea transportation system for all kinds of nuclear waste, a central facility for interim storage of spent fuel (CLAB) and a central underground repository for final disposal of low and medium level reactor waste (SFR). For the remaining steps - final disposal of highly active and longlived radioactive residues - a concept, based on encapsulation of the fuel elements in copper canisters and final storage of the canisters in a repository situated 500 m down in crystalline rock (KBS-3), has been developed and approved by the government in accordance with the Swedish nuclear legislation. Although a feasible method for final disposal of the highly active residues has been shown, the Swedish legislation requires that research be carried out to reach the best possible base for the final decision around the year 2000. In parallel with this a geological investigation programme is carried out to find a suitable site for a final repository. The final site selection is foreseen at the end of the 1990's. All costs for the management of radioactive waste from the nuclear power plants are carried by a fee determined annually. The fee is 0.019 SEK/kWh for 1986

  5. Comparing Dental and Pharmacy Students’ Perceptions on Public Health and Preventive Health Care Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandiracioglu, Aliye; Dogan, Fethi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: A Public health course has an important role in the undergraduate education of pharmacy and dentistry in terms of emphasizing preventive care. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the views of pharmacy and dentistry students on a public health course and preventive health care. Methods: 173 students enrolled at Ege University, Faculties of Pharmacy and Dentistry completed a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis and replied to 18 Likert type question to determine their perceptions on a public health course and preventive health care. The comments of the students were reviewed and categorized into key themes. Results: SWOT analysis and the results of quantitative Likert type questions supported each other. According to the quantitative results, there was no significant difference between the scores of students from both schools in terms of their statements about the public health course and preventive care. Both groups of students mentioned the contribution of the public health course to their professions in the future. They also appreciated the importance of preventive care in the health services. PMID:22347604

  6. Self-medication in Hungary, from the perspective of pharmacy workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Csilla; Vincze, Zoltán

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the pharmacist's views on self-medication, their perceptions of advertisements for OTC medicines, and their knowledge and awareness of people that purchase OTC medicines. The data were gathered in Hungarian pharmacies with questionnaires distributed as inserts in two trade journals--Gyógyszertár and Pirulatrend. The questionnaires dealt with five main issues: advertisements for OTC medicines, questions related to self-medication, patient-pharmacist communication, questions related to the usefulness of patient information sheets, and demographic data. The gathered data were coded and analyzed with the SPSS 13 software. Some respondents (34.9%) believed that the effects of OTC medicines are exaggerated in advertisements. According to 58.2% of professionals, members of the public are aware of the medicine that is currently being advertised, but not of other medicines with similar effects. Providing assistance in self-medication is perhaps one of the most important means of promoting the correct use of medicines. Our results highlighted the need to strengthen communication between patients and pharmacists. Pharmacy workers are in a position to assist the public. However, little is known regarding the patient experience of the distribution and services provided by pharmacies related to OTC medicines. These experiences should be researched and combined with our findings in order to draft a set of guidelines for purchasing OTC medicines. We recommend that pharmacists keep individual records detailing patient experience and use of OTC medicines.

  7. Making ambulatory blood pressure monitoring accessible in pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Kirstyn; Dolan, Eamon; O'Brien, Eoin

    2014-06-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM), although recommended for the diagnosis and management of hypertension, has limited availability. The objective of this study was to show that if the characteristics of patients attending pharmacies for ABPM are similar to those attending primary care, the technique can be made more widely available to patients through pharmacies. A comparative study using a software program that allowed central collection, analysis and comparison of ABPM data from patients attending primary care and pharmacies for assessment of hypertension in Ireland. ABPM data from 46 978 patients attending primary care were compared with 1698 attending pharmacies between 2007 and 2013. The age, sex and blood pressure characteristics of patients attending primary care and pharmacies were similar. The mean pressures in all categories, except for systolic blood pressure recorded in primary care, were higher in men. The first ABPM measurements recorded in pharmacies were slightly higher than those in primary care (150.8 ± 19.5/88.7 ± 13.7 vs. 149.6 ± 20.7/88.0 ± 14.4 mmHg). More patients attending primary care were normotensive than those attending pharmacies (19.5 vs. 16.4%), whereas more patients attending pharmacies were hypertensive than those attending primary care (62.8 vs. 60.7%), particularly female patients (61.0 vs. 56.4%). White-coat hypertension was similar in patients attending primary care and pharmacies (19.8 vs. 20.8%), but it was more prevalent in men attending pharmacies (22.0 vs. 17.4%) and in women attending primary care (21.9 vs. 19.7%). There were more dippers in pharmacy then primary care ABPMs (84.7 vs. 79.4%). A preference for having ABPM on Fridays and Saturdays was evident in patients attending pharmacies (19.6 vs. 6.6%), whereas there was a preference for early morning recording in primary care (4.1 vs. 1.1%). This study, which is the first to report on ABPM data from the pharmacy setting, shows that the blood pressure

  8. 77 FR 75193 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Pharmacy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Pharmacy Billing Requirements ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department... information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Pharmacy Billing Requirements,'' to [[Page 75194

  9. Pharmacy executive leadership issues and associated skills, knowledge, and abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Andrew B; Maine, Lucinda L; Keyes, Elizabeth K; Pearson, Kathy; Finstuen, Kenn

    2005-01-01

    To identify challenges that current and future pharmacy executives are facing or will face in the future and to define what skills, knowledge, and abilities (SKAs) are required to successfully negotiate these challenges. Delphi method for executive decision making. Civilian pharmacy profession. 110 pharmacists who graduated from the GlaxoSmithKline Executive Management Program for Pharmacy Leaders. Two iterations of the Delphi method for executive decision making separated by an expert panel content analysis. Round 1--participants were asked to identify five major issues they believed to be of greatest importance to pharmacy leaders in the next 5-10 years and name specific SKAs that might be needed by future leaders to successfully deal with those issues. An expert panel reviewed the issues, classified issues into specific domains, and titled each domain. Round 2-participants rated the SKAs on a 7-point scale according to their individual assessment of importance in each domain. For Delphi rounds 1 and 2, response rates were 21.8% and 18.2%, respectively. More than 100 total issue statements were identified. The expert panel sorted the issues into five domains: management and development of the pharmacy workforce, pharmacy finance, total quality management of work-flow systems, influences on the practice of pharmacy, and professional pharmacy leadership. Five of the top 15 SKAs-and all four highest ranked items--came from the professional pharmacy leadership domain, including ability to see the big picture, ability to demonstrate the value of pharmacy services, ability to lead and manage in an ethical manner, and skills for influencing an organization's senior leadership. Through successful integration of communication skills, critical thinking, and problem solving techniques, future public-sector pharmacy executives will be better equipped to effectively position their organizations and the profession for the challenges that lie ahead.

  10. Knowledge and Perceptions of Pharmacy Students in Qatar on Anti-Doping in Sports and on Sports Pharmacy in Undergraduate Curricula

    OpenAIRE

    Awaisu, Ahmed; Mottram, David; Rahhal, Alaa; Alemrayat, Bayan; Ahmed, Afif; Stuart, Mark; Khalifa, Sherief

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess pharmacy students’ knowledge and perceptions of doping and anti-doping in sports and to explore the curricular needs for undergraduate pharmacy in the field of sports pharmacy. Methods. A cross-sectional, descriptive, web-based survey of pharmacy students was conducted at Qatar University College of Pharmacy from March to May 2014. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results. Eighty respondents completed the online survey (80% response...

  11. Pharmacy Characteristics Associated with the Provision of Drug Therapy Services in Nonmetropolitan Community Pharmacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkari, Abhijit S.; Mott, David A.; Kreling, David H.; Bonnarens, Joseph K.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Higher prevalence of chronic diseases and reduced access to other health professionals in rural areas suggest that rural Medicare enrollees will benefit from pharmacist-provided drug therapy services (DTS). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe non-metropolitan community pharmacy sites in Wisconsin, the provision of DTS at…

  12. Drug shortage management in Alabama hospital pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver W. Holmes, III

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify effective strategies used by Alabama hospitals to manage drug shortages. Moreover, this study aims to determine if there are any relationships among hospital size, utilization of a standard policy for drug shortage management and perceived usefulness of standard procedures for drug shortages. Methods: A paper survey was mailed to 129 hospital pharmacies in Alabama (per the Alabama Hospital Association directory. The survey consisted of 5 demographic questions, questions involving perception of current medication shortages, sources of information about shorted drugs, and frequency of discussion at P&T committee meetings. Most importantly, the survey contained questions about the use of a standard policy for handling drug shortages, the effectiveness of the policy if one is used, and an open-ended question asking the recipient to describe the policy being used. Results: A response rate of 55% was achieved as 71 surveys were completed and returned. Approximately 70% of the survey respondents described the current drug shortage issue as a top priority in their pharmacy department. The pharmacy distributor served as the primary source of information regarding drug shortages for 45% of the facilities. There is a direct relationship between size of hospital and likelihood of utilization of a standard policy or procedure for drug shortage management among the sample. The smaller facilities of the sample perceived their management strategies as effective more frequently than the larger hospitals. Conclusion: Common components of effective management strategies included extensive communication of shortage details and the ability to locate alternative products. The use of portable technology (e.g., Smart phones and tablets along with mobile applications may emerge as popular means for communicating drug product shortage news and updates within a facility or healthcare system.   Type: Original Research

  13. Drug shortage management in Alabama hospital pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver W. Holmes III, Pharm.D. Candidate 2013

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify effective strategies used by Alabama hospitals to manage drug shortages. Moreover, this study aims to determine if there are any relationships among hospital size, utilization of a standard policy for drug shortage management and perceived usefulness of standard procedures for drug shortages.Methods: A paper survey was mailed to 129 hospital pharmacies in Alabama (per the Alabama Hospital Association directory. The survey consisted of 5 demographic questions, questions involving perception of current medication shortages, sources of information about shorted drugs, and frequency of discussion at P&T committee meetings. Most importantly, the survey contained questions about the use of a standard policy for handling drug shortages, the effectiveness of the policy if one is used, and an open-ended question asking the recipient to describe the policy being used.Results: A response rate of 55% was achieved as 71 surveys were completed and returned. Approximately 70% of the survey respondents described the current drug shortage issue as a top priority in their pharmacy department. The pharmacy distributor served as the primary source of information regarding drug shortages for 45% of the facilities. There is a direct relationship between size of hospital and likelihood of utilization of a standard policy or procedure for drug shortage management among the sample. The smaller facilities of the sample perceived their management strategies as effective more frequently than the larger hospitals.Conclusion: Common components of effective management strategies included extensive communication of shortage details and the ability to locate alternative products. The use of portable technology (e.g., Smart phones and tablets along with mobile applications may emerge as popular means for communicating drug product shortage news and updates within a facility or healthcare system.

  14. Using personal strengths with intention in pharmacy: implications for pharmacists, managers, and leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Andrew P; Janke, Kristin K; Sorensen, Todd D

    2010-02-01

    The importance of allowing individuals to use their strengths in a work environment has been articulated through research focused on general audiences as well as by thought leaders within pharmacy. In particular, the work of Gallup has described how organizations that foster an environment in which employees frequently use their strengths achieve increased productivity, customer and employee satisfaction, and improved success at meeting goals. Despite acknowledging the importance of such an environment, little has been articulated in the pharmacy literature regarding how pharmacists can identify and apply their unique strengths within their profession. To provide an overview of the concept of individual strengths, the value of utilizing strengths in the profession, and the authors' experiences facilitating an awareness of this concept with student pharmacists, pharmacy residents, and pharmacists. Discovery and application of strengths has become a foundational theme in leadership development activities at the University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy. The learning process begins with building awareness and identifying individual talents using the Clifton StrengthsFinder Profile and reflecting on previous use of these talents. Throughout the activities, participants are encouraged to examine how professional experiences that correlate with their talents intersect and affect their knowledge and skills. Finally, participants are encouraged to utilize and maximize their talents in a team environment. Experience has been gained delivering this educational process to 225 student pharmacists, 39 ambulatory care residents, and 22 practicing pharmacists. Participants have viewed this program favorably and articulated that utilization and growth of strengths is valuable to their career. In order to achieve our potential as a profession, it is critical to identify and apply the strengths that individual pharmacists bring to their practice settings. The identification

  15. Pharmacy students' use and perceptions of Apple mobile devices incorporated into a basic health science laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jennifer E; Richard, Craig A H

    To describe pharmacy students' use of mobile devices in a basic health science laboratory and to report the students' perceptions on how solving cases with their mobile devices influenced their attitudes, abilities, and view on the use of mobile devices as tools for pharmacists. First-year pharmacy students utilized mobile devices to solve clinical case studies in a basic health sciences laboratory. A pre-survey and two post-surveys were administered to assess the students' comfort, awareness, use, and perceptions on the use of their mobile devices and apps. The pre-survey and first post-survey each had a response rate of 99%, and the second post-survey had a response rate of 100%. In comparing the pre-survey and first post-survey data, there was a statistically significant increase in the number of students that agreed or strongly agreed that they were more comfortable utilizing their mobile device (p = 0.025), they were more aware of apps for pharmacists (p mobile devices, to be more aware of apps that can be useful for pharmacists, and to be more agreeable with mobile device utilization by pharmacists in improving patient care. In addition, the second post-survey also demonstrated that 84% of students responded that using their mobile devices to solve the cases influenced them to either use their mobile device in a clinical setting for a clinical and/or pharmacy-related purpose for the first time or to use it more frequently for this purpose. The use of mobile devices to solve clinical cases in a first-year basic health science laboratory course was perceived as beneficial by students and influenced them to utilize their mobile device even more in a pharmacy practice setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Early recognition of coeliac disease through community pharmacies: a proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urwin, Heidi; Wright, David; Twigg, Michael; McGough, Norma

    2016-10-01

    Setting Fifteen community pharmacies in the UK. Objective Proof of concept study to test the use of community pharmacies for active case finding of patients with coeliac disease. Methods Customers accessing over-the counter and prescription medicines indicated in the treatment of possible symptoms of coeliac disease over a 6 month period were offered a free point of care test. All patients were given advice regarding the test results and those who tested positive were advised to make an appointment with their general practitioner. Patients and pharmacists involved in service provision were asked to complete a satisfaction survey. Pharmacists were additionally invited to undertake interviews to better understand their views on the service. Main outcome measures Feasibility of service, acceptability to stakeholders and proportion testing positive for coeliac disease. Results Of the 551 individuals tested, 52 (9.4 %) tested positive. 277 (50.3 %) were tested for accessing irritable bowel syndrome treatment, 142 (25.8 %) due to presenting for diarrhoea. The proportion of patients testing positive with different symptoms or for different treatments were similar. Of 43 customers who returned the satisfaction survey, all would recommend the service to others, believing the community pharmacy to be a suitable location. Community pharmacists believed that it enabled them to improve relationships with their customers and that medical practices were receptive to the service. Conclusion This proof of concept study has shown that community pharmacies using a point of care test can effectively recognise and refer patients for confirmatory coeliac disease testing with high levels of customer and service provider satisfaction.

  17. Pharmacists’ Attitudes and Perceived Barriers about Community Pharmacy-Based Cardiovascular Risk Screening Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jahangard-Rafsanjani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Background: Community pharmacies are considered as ideal settings to provide cardiovascular risk screening (CRS. However, little is known about pharmacists’ views on providing such services in developing countries including Iran. In the present study, we evaluated the pharmacists’ attitudes and perceived barriers to providing CRS services. Methods:In a cross-sectional study, a questionnaire in three sections was developed by the investigators (attitudes, perceived barriers, and demographics. Five likert items (5 points bipolar scale were designed to evaluate pharmacists’ attitudes about their professional role in providing CRS services in community pharmacies. Seven likert items were designed to assess the pharmacists’ perceived importance of possible barriers to providing the services. The study tool was distributed among a convenient sample of 500 pharmacists, who had participated in a national continuing education event. Results:The response rate was 44% and descriptive statistics and Chi squared test were used to analyze data. Results showed that 70.4% participants had an overall positive attitude to providing CRS services. Pharmacists who were pharmacy owner and pharmacist-in-charge simultaneously were more positive about providing CRS services. Lack of regulatory policy and compensation mechanism, limited physical space in pharmacy and time limitation were reported to be the most important barriers to providing CRS services (> 50% rated as highly important. Low human resource and time limitation were significantly associated with negative attitudes (P: 0.02 and 0.001, respectively.Conclusion:The Iranian pharmacists’ attitudes seem to be positive about providing CRS services; however, their perceived barriers should be addressed prior to CRS service implementation.

  18. The influence of learning environment on trainee pharmacy technicians' education and training experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafheutle, Ellen I; Jee, Samuel D; Willis, Sarah C

    2017-12-16

    In Great Britain (GB), pharmacy technicians (PTs) are registered professionals, with their education and training regulated; little is known about this or the learning environment in which it takes place. This study aimed to profile recently registered pre-registration trainee pharmacy technicians (PTPTs) in GB and capture views on PTPTs' training experiences, focussing on differences in community and hospital settings. A mixed methods study was conducted in 2013-14, following university ethics approval. One-to-one, semi-structured telephone interviews with face-to-face and distance education providers, and hospital and community pharmacy employers of PTPTs explored views on education delivery, work-based learning, and assessment. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, analysed thematically and findings informed design of a census survey of all 1457 recently registered PTs, investigating satisfaction with various aspects of their training. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS v20, employing comparative statistics (Mann-Whitney U, Chi-Square). Six-hundred and forty-six questionnaires were returned (response rate 44.3%), 632 were usable. Three-quarters (75.9%) of respondents had trained in community; the majority (88.0%) were female, the average age was 35.26 ± 10.22. Those based in hospitals were more satisfied with their training: hospital trainees worked in larger teams and tended to be better supported, they had more study time, and were more likely to complete their training in the intended two-year period. Interviews with staff in 17 Further Education colleges, 6 distance providers, 16 community pharmacies and 15 NHS organisations confirmed survey findings and offered explanations into why differences in training experiences may exist. This study has identified differences between PTPTs' work-based experiences in hospital and community pharmacy. Perceiving PTPTs as 'apprentices' vs. 'employees' may define how their training is managed by employers

  19. Development of software for handling ship's pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittari, Giulio; Peretti, Alessandro; Sibilio, Fabio; Ioannidis, Nicholas; Amenta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Ships are required to carry a given amount of medicinal products and medications depending on the flag and the type of vessel. These medicines are stored in the so called ship's "medicine chest" or more properly - a ship pharmacy. Owing to the progress of medical sciences and to the increase in the mean age of seafarers employed on board ships, the number of pharmaceutical products and medical devices required by regulations to be carried on board ships is increasing. This may make handling of the ship's medicine chest a problem primarily on large ships sailing on intercontinental routes due to the difficulty in identifying the correspondence between medicines obtained abroad with those available at the national market. To minimise these problems a tool named Pharmacy Ship (acronym: PARSI) has been developed. The application PARSI is based on a database containing the information about medicines and medical devices required by different countries regulations. In the first application the system was standardised to comply with the Italian regulations issued on the 1st October, 2015 which entered into force on the 18 January 2016. Thanks to PARSI it was possible to standardize the inventory procedures, facilitate the work of maritime health authorities and make it easier for the crew, not professional in the field, to handle the 'medicine chest' correctly by automating the procedures for medicines management. As far as we know there are no other similar tools available at the moment. The application of the software, as well as the automation of different activities, currently carried out manually, will help manage (qualitatively and quantitatively) the ship's pharmacy. The system developed in this study has proved to be an effective tool which serves to guarantee the compliance of the ship pharmacy with regulations of the flag state in terms of medicinal products and medications. Sharing the system with the Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service may result in

  20. [Gods, women and pharmacy in Greek Mythology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vons, J

    2001-01-01

    The study of Greek Mythology fully justifies Herophilus's phrase: "Medicines are the hands of Gods" (third cent. B.C.). A number of Gods are said to be the inventors of the drugs which are useful to men. Their names are still alive in the scholarly or popular appellations of a great many medicinal herbs. However, insofar as the action of a drug (of a Pharmakon) remains mysterious, one finds it in essentially female practices as well as in medicine. The study of these ancient beliefs, which have survived in spite of the progress of twentieth century science, can develop the history of epistemology of pharmacy by stimulating interdisciplinary research.

  1. Transitioning from pharmacy practice into administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Kurt A

    2017-05-01

    Transitioning from a pharmacy practice faculty member into an administrator will offer new challenges you have never faced in your career. Whether you are currently considering a transition in your career or have recently made such a transition, many questions will come up along the way. Through this commentary, I offer some advice from my own personal trials and errors as I continue on my administrative journey, and I hope this will help you in yours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. WEB 2.0 Pharmacy Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Lopez-de-Ipina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new generation of pharmacy robots based on micro-servers and web 2.0 technologies. Micro-servers make accessibility and remote configuration of the robot easier, because it does it by native way. This new technology offers a faster, more robust and ecologic service than the classic solutions. A robotic prototype has been built, installed and checked successfully. This fact presents a new paradigm between classic architecture and this new one in the robots control area.

  3. Essential math and calculations for pharmacy technicians

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, Indra K

    2003-01-01

    Working with Roman and Arabic NumeralsUsing Fractions and Decimals in Pharmacy MathUsing Ratios, Proportions and Percentages in Dosage CalculationsApplying Systems of MeasurementsInterpreting Medication OrdersIdentifying Prescription Errors and OmissionsWorking with Liquid Dosage FormsWorking with Solid Dosage FormsAdjusting IsotonicityWorking with Buffer and Ionization ValuesDealing with ReconstitutionsDetermining Milliequivalent StrengthsCalculating Caloric Values Determining IV Flow RatesWorking with Insulin and Heparin ProductsAppendices: A: Working with Temperature ConversionsB: Working with Capsule Dosage FormsC: Dealing with Pediatric Dosages D: Understanding Essential Business Math.

  4. Preceptors' Need For Support In Tutoring Pharmacy Students in Finnish Community Pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Löfhjelm

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A pharmacy degree in Finland includes a six-month obligatory internship. The internship is integrated with theoretical studies and adds up to 30 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS credits of the BSc (Pharm degree. Learning is supported by reflective assignments from the university. The preceptors have an important role in organizing the internship and tutoring students successfully in community pharmacy settings. Objective: to assess whether the preceptors of University of Helsinki’s teaching pharmacies need pedagogic support in tutoring and if so, in which core pharmaceutical tasks or tutoring skills. Methods: The survey was sent to all preceptors of University of Helsinki´s teaching pharmacies (n=326 in 2011 (response rate 58%, n=190. The data was analyzed statistically using Excel (version 12.3.6. The open-ended questions were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. Results: The majority of preceptors found their skills in tutoring the students mainly good. However, assessment of learning (27% of the respondents, giving feedback (23% and organizing the learning situations supportive for learning (23% were the areas in which the preceptors mostly indicated a need for support. Teaching current care guidelines and pharmaceutical care (36% and multi-professional collaboration (28% were the areas in which the preceptors expressed that they needed to update their skills. Conclusions: The faculty should focus the support on the pedagogic skills of preceptors, particularly in improving their skills in assessment of learning and in reflective dialogue. In addition, their skills in teaching clinical and patient care aspects of pharmacy practice should be enhanced. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings

  5. Contested space in the pharmacy: public attitudes to pharmacy harm reduction services in the West of Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidman, Wendy; Coomber, Ross

    2014-01-01

    Internationally, community pharmacies have become increasingly involved in providing harm reduction services and health advice to people who use illicit drugs. This paper considers public opinion of community pharmacy services. It discusses attitudes to harm reduction services in the context of stigmatization of addiction and people who use drugs. This exploratory study involved twenty-six purposively sampled members of the public, from the West of Scotland, participating in one of 5 focus groups. The groups were composed to represent known groups of users and non-users of community pharmacy, none of whom were problem drug users. Three thematic categories were identified: methadone service users in community pharmacies; attitudes to harm reduction policies; contested space. Harm reduction service expansion has resulted in a high volume of drug users in and around some Scottish pharmacies. Even if harm reduction services are provided discretely users' behavior can differentiate them from other pharmacy users. Drug users' behavior in this setting is commonly perceived to be unacceptable and can deter other consumers from using pharmacy services. The results of this study infer that negative public opinion is highly suggestive of stereotyping and stigmatization of people who use drugs. Participants considered that (1) community pharmacies were unsuitable environments for harm reduction service provision, as they are used by older people and those with children; (2) current drug policy is perceived as ineffective, as abstinence is seldom achieved and methadone was reported to be re-sold; (3) people who use drugs were avoided where possible in community pharmacies. Community pharmacy harm reduction services increasingly bring together the public and drug users. Study participants were reluctant to share pharmacy facilities with drug users. This paper concludes by suggesting mechanisms to minimize stigmatization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Community pharmacy customer segmentation based on factors influencing their selection of pharmacy and over-the-counter medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevrekidis, Dimitrios Phaedon; Minarikova, Daniela; Markos, Angelos; Malovecka, Ivona; Minarik, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Within the competitive pharmacy market environment, community pharmacies are required to develop efficient marketing strategies based on contemporary information about consumer behavior in order to attract clients and develop customer loyalty. This study aimed to investigate the consumers' preferences concerning the selection of pharmacy and over-the-counter (OTC) medicines, and to identify customer segments in relation to these preferences. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and March 2016 on a convenient quota sample of 300 participants recruited in the metropolitan area of Thessaloniki, Greece. The main instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire with close-ended, multiple choice questions. To identify customer segments, Two-Step cluster analysis was conducted. Three distinct pharmacy customer clusters emerged. Customers of the largest cluster (49%; 'convenience customers') were mostly younger consumers. They gave moderate to positive ratings to factors affecting the selection of pharmacy and OTCs; convenience, and previous experience and the pharmacist's opinion, received the highest ratings. Customers of the second cluster (35%; 'loyal customers') were mainly retired; most of them reported visiting a single pharmacy. They gave high ratings to all factors that influence pharmacy selection, especially the pharmacy's staff, and factors influencing the purchase of OTCs, particularly previous experience and the pharmacist's opinion. Customers of the smallest cluster (16%; 'convenience and price-sensitive customers') were mainly retired or unemployed with low to moderate education, and low personal income. They gave the lowest ratings to most of the examined factors; convenience among factors influencing pharmacy selection, whereas previous experience, the pharmacist's opinion and product price among those affecting the purchase of OTCs, received the highest ratings. The community pharmacy market comprised of distinct

  7. Pharmacy Students' Attitude and Future Career Choices: A survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacy as a health profession has major responsibilities and contributions in maintaining health of the society. Thus, pharmacists have to maintain professional behaviour and attitude that is worthy of the respect the public has for the profession. Studies on pharmacy students' attitude and career choice are important to ...

  8. Substance Use Attitudes and Behaviors at Three Pharmacy Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Jeffrey N.; Scott, David M.; DeSimone, Edward M., II; Forrester, Joy H.; Fankhauser, Martha P.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to profile and compare alcohol and other drug (AOD) use attitudes and behaviors in three pharmacy colleges. Student surveys of AOD use attitudes and behaviors were conducted at one southwestern and two midwestern pharmacy colleges. Response was 86.5% (566/654). Reported past-year use included alcohol 82.8%, tobacco…

  9. A Prescription for Reframing Continuing Pharmacy Education in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Anita M.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive research indicates that adults learn best when they are motivated, self-directed and choose what and how they learn. This project focuses on continuing pharmacy education and seeks to answer the question: "How can pharmacists be motivated to participate in continuing pharmacy education programs because they want to, not because they…

  10. THE UTILITY OF PHARMACY DISPENSING DATA FOR ART ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-06-19

    Jun 19, 2008 ... as a non-proprietary programme. iDART is a pharmacy application developed on open-source software that al- lows dispensing of ART both on site and from a remote pharmacy. The system has been developed in response to a need to manage large numbers of patients on ART sim- ply and effectively.

  11. Impact of Robotic Dispensing Machines in German Pharmacies on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the impact of robotic dispensing machines in community pharmacies on staff efficiency and sales of over-the-counter drugs. Setting: The study was done on 253 community pharmacies in Germany that use a robotic dispensing machine manufactured by ROWA during 2008. Method: Data concerning the financial ...

  12. The Approach of Pharmacy Students Towards Communication of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess pharmacy students' knowledge of communicating medication errors in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: The study design was cross-sectional and conducted from February to May 2014. A previously validated questionnaire was adopted, modified and distributed to final year pharmacy students in four ...

  13. Capacity to deliver pharmaceutical care by community pharmacies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacy practice has transcended from largely a dispensary practice to pharmaceutical care practice. The capacity of community pharmacies to deliver pharmaceutical care was studied using pretested self survey methods. Ninety five percent (95%) of the respondents always educated customers on drug related needs, ...

  14. Perceived Stress by Students in a Pharmacy Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales-Gonzales, Patricia L.; Kranz, Peter L.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated stress levels experienced by students in a pharmacy curriculum. A survey was used to evaluate perceived levels of stress, factors that contribute to stress, and mechanisms used to cope with stress. Participants were first, second, and third year students enrolled in pharmacy school. Data were collected using an individual…

  15. Cigarette sales in pharmacies in the USA (2005-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Andrew B; Behm, Ilan; Rees, Vaughan W; Connolly, Gregory N

    2012-09-01

    Several US jurisdictions have adopted policies prohibiting pharmacies from selling tobacco products. Little is known about how pharmacies contribute to total cigarette sales. Pharmacy and total cigarette sales in the USA were tabulated from AC Nielsen and Euromonitor, respectively, for the years 2005-2009. Linear regression was used to characterise trends over time, with observed trends extrapolated to 2020. Between 2005 and 2009, pharmacy cigarette sales increased 22.72% (p=0.004), while total cigarette sales decreased 17.43% (p=0.015). In 2005, pharmacy cigarette sales represented 3.05% of total cigarette sales, increasing to 4.54% by 2009. Extrapolation of these findings resulted in estimated pharmacy cigarette sales of 14.59% of total US cigarette sales by 2020. Cigarette sales in American pharmacies have risen in recent years, while cigarette sales nationally have declined. If current trends continue, pharmacy cigarette market share will, by 2020, increase to more than four times the 2005 share.

  16. Community health integration through pharmacy process and ergonomics redesign (CHIPPER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Michelle A; Caldwell, Barrett S

    2018-01-01

    As the expansion and utilisation of community pharmacy systems increases, so does the risk for an adverse drug event to occur. In attempts to mitigate this risk, many community pharmacies implement health information technology (IT); however, there are challenges in integrating the wider systems components necessary for a successful implementation with minimal unintended consequences. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a Community Health Integration through Pharmacy Process and Ergonomics Redesign (CHIPPER) framework, which explores the multiple angles of health IT integration to support medication delivery processes in community pharmacy systems. Specifically, CHIPPER identifies the information flows that occur between different parts of the system (initiation, upstream, midstream and downstream) with varying end-users and tasks related to medication delivery processes. In addition to the justification and presentation of the CHIPPER model, this paper reviews several broad applications for CHIPPER and presents two example studies that demonstrate the CHIPPER framework. Practitioner Summary: Most medication delivery in the US occurs through outpatient-based community pharmacy practice. Community pharmacies are challenged by inconsistent and incomplete information flow and technology integration between providers, pharmacy practitioners and patients. This paper presents a framework for improved healthcare systems engineering analysis of pharmacy practice, with case study examples.

  17. The Quality of Pharmacy Practice Among Dispensers in Private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of pharmacy practice provided by dispensers in private pharmacies was studied. Parameters used include levels of education of the dispensers, access to health information, knowledge and practice regarding dispensing of drugs to patients, and disposal of expired drugs. A total of 150 dispensers selected from ...

  18. Original Research Article Pharmacy Students Perception of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2008-06-02

    Jun 2, 2008 ... semester for internet access. Over 92% of them felt that LMS will make teaching and learning more exciting and effective when combined with the traditional teaching approach. Conclusion: The use of LMS will improve the teaching and learning of pharmacy students. Keywords: LMS, e-Learning, pharmacy ...

  19. Game on: The gamification of the pharmacy classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sera, Leah; Wheeler, Erin

    Gamification is the use of game mechanics to promote engagement and enjoyment of problem-solving in non-game situations. Gamification has been used widely in recent years in industry and academia as a tool for training and education. The aims of this paper are to provide an overview of gamification and digital game-based learning (DGBL), review the use of digital games in health professional education, and provide suggestions for future use in pharmacy curricula. Many examples of game-based learning in pharmacy and other health professional curricula have been published, however the body of literature on DGBL is less developed. Overall, evaluations of these techniques show that students find them engaging and enjoyable. A recent meta-analysis of studies comparing DGBL to non-game based learning in primary, secondary, post-secondary education found that DGBL significantly enhances learning. Challenges to implementing game-based learning are financial, cultural, and technological. Many areas of the pharmacy curriculum could be appropriate for digital gamification. With more students entering pharmacy school familiar with video games and game-based living the time has come for pharmacy educators to explore how these instructional technologies could benefit a new generation of pharmacy students. As serious games are developed and researched in pharmacy curricula, test scores, student confidence in knowledge and skills, and retention of knowledge and skills are all outcomes that, if published, will help advance the adoption of DGBL into the pharmacy school classroom. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pharmaceutical care education in Kuwait: pharmacy students’ perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Katoue, Maram G.; Awad, Abdelmoneim I.; Schwinghammer, Terry L.; Kombian, Samuel B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pharmaceutical care is defined as the responsible provision of medication therapy to achieve definite outcomes that improve patients’ quality of life. Pharmacy education should equip students with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes they need to practise pharmaceutical care competently. Objective: To investigate pharmacy students’ attitudes towards pharmaceutical care, perceptions of their preparedness to perform pharmaceutical care competencies, opinions about the importance...

  1. Information Technology Use in Community Pharmacies in Harare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information technology (IT) has transformed the practice of pharmacy worldwide. This study was undertaken to determine the pharmacists\\' IT use, utilization patterns and their opinions regarding IT use. The majority of pharmacies had networked computers (71.7%) and internet connections (60.9%). Pharmacists had poor ...

  2. Health Risk Screening Practices of Pharmacy and Chemist Shops in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology: Fifty two pharmacy and chemist shops were selected using simple random number sampling technique from 120 registered pharmacy and chemist shops in Jos Metropolis. A semi-structured questionnaire, examining the screening practice of the sales persons was interviewer administered to all the sales ...

  3. aculty of Pharmacy, Muhirnbili University College of Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of pharmacy practice provided by dispensers in private pharmacies was studied. Parameters used include levels of education of the dispensers, access to health information, knowledge and practice regarding dispensing of drugs to patients, and disposal of expired drugs. A total of 150 dispensers selected from ...

  4. Service quality in community pharmacy: an exploration of determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lesley; Klinner, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Although various instruments have been developed to measure customer satisfaction with community pharmacy services, there is limited research regarding pharmacy staffs' understanding of service quality and its determinants. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of pharmacy staff regarding the factors that constitute a high level of service quality using the service quality determinants proposed by the Conceptual Model of Service Quality. Structured interviews were conducted with 27 pharmacy assistants and 6 pharmacists in 3 community pharmacies in Sydney. The interview questions focused on the participants' perceptions of consumer expectations, the translation of these perceptions into service quality specifications, the actual service delivery, and the communication to customers. From the pharmacy staff perspective, service quality is significantly limited by insufficient internal communication and control processes that impede role clarity and the resolution of conflicting role expectations among customer service personnel. Participants indicated that these problems could be alleviated through the implementation of more transparent, realistic, measurable, and accepted quality specifications by pharmacy management. The study indicates that the extent to which pharmacy management sets, maintains, and communicates service quality specifications to staff directly affects role clarity, role conflict, and organizational commitment among customer service staff, which in turn directly influence the level of service quality provided to the customers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Pharmacy Students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To identify the prevalence as well as determine gender differences in overweight and obesity among undergraduate pharmacy students of the University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. Methods: Undergraduate pharmacy students (n = 172) of University of Benin, aged 18 years and above, were recruited for the study ...

  6. The Swedish National Defence Research Establishment and the plans for Swedish nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonter, Thomas

    2001-03-01

    This study analyses the Swedish nuclear weapons research since 1945 carried out by the Swedish National Defence Research Establishment (FOA). The most important aspect of this research was dealing with protection in broad terms against nuclear weapons attacks. However, another aspect was also important from early on - to conduct research aiming at a possible production of nuclear weapons. FOA performed an extended research up to 1968, when the Swedish Government signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which meant the end of these production plans. Up to this date, five main investigations about the technical conditions were made, 1948, 1953, 1955, 1957 and 1965, which all together expanded the Swedish know-how to produce a bomb. The Swedish plans to procure nuclear weapons were not an issue in the debate until the mid 50's. The reason for this was simple, prior to 1954 the plans were secretly held within a small group of involved politicians, military and researchers. The change of this procedure did take place when the Swedish Supreme Commander in a public defence report in 1954 favoured a Swedish Nuclear weapons option. In 1958 FOA had reached a technical level that allowed the Parliament to make a decision. Two programs were proposed - the L-programme (the Loading Programme), to be used if the parliament would say yes to a production of nuclear weapons, and the S-programme (the Protection Programme), if the Parliament would say no. The debate on the issue had now created problems for the Social Democratic Government. The Prime Minister, Tage Erlander, who had earlier defended a procurement of nuclear weapons, was now forced to reach a compromise. The compromise was presented to the parliament in a creative manner that meant that only the S-programme would be allowed. The Government argued that the technical level did allow a 'freedom of action' up to at least the beginning of the 60's when Sweden was mature to make a decision on the issue. During this period

  7. Assessment of ePrescription quality: an observational study at three mail-order pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petersson Göran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The introduction of electronic transfer of prescriptions (ETP or ePrescriptions in ambulatory health care has been suggested to have a positive impact on the prescribing and dispensing processes. Thereby, implying that ePrescribing can improve safety, quality, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness. In December 2007, 68% of all new prescriptions were transferred electronically in Sweden. The aim of the present study was to assess the quality of ePrescriptions by comparing the proportions of ePrescriptions and non-electronic prescriptions necessitating a clarification contact (correction, completion or change with the prescriber at the time of dispensing. Methods A direct observational study was performed at three Swedish mail-order pharmacies which were known to dispense a large proportion of ePrescriptions (38–75%. Data were gathered on all ePrescriptions dispensed at these pharmacies over a three week period in February 2006. All clarification contacts with prescribers were included in the study and were classified and assessed in comparison with all drug prescriptions dispensed at the same pharmacies over the specified period. Results Of the 31225 prescriptions dispensed during the study period, clarification contacts were made for 2.0% (147/7532 of new ePrescriptions and 1.2% (79/6833 of new non-electronic prescriptions. This represented a relative risk (RR of 1.7 (95% CI 1.3–2.2 for new ePrescriptions compared to new non-electronic prescriptions. The increased RR was mainly due to 'Dosage and directions for use', which had an RR of 7.6 (95% CI 2.8–20.4 when compared to other clarification contacts. In all, 89.5% of the suggested pharmacist interventions were accepted by the prescriber, 77.7% (192/247 as suggested and an additional 11.7% (29/247 after a modification during contact with the prescriber. Conclusion The increased proportion of prescriptions necessitating a clarification contact for new e

  8. Stakeholder involvement in Swedish nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Section for Science and Technology Studies

    2006-09-15

    This report concerning Swedish nuclear waste management has been produced as part of a cross national research project: CARL - A Social Science Research Project into the Effects of Stakeholder involvement on Decision-Making in Radioactive Waste Management. Besides Sweden, the participating countries are Belgium, Canada, Finland, Slovenia and United Kingdom. A social science research team, working for three years, is in the first phase conducting research in their own countries in order to produce 6 country reports. During the next years the focus will shift to comparisons of stakeholder involvement practices in the participating countries. The report addresses current practices of Swedish nuclear waste management and their historical development. The main focus is on past, current and emerging patterns of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a deep repository for the final disposal of Sweden's spent nuclear fuel. The general questions attended to in the report are: Who are the main stakeholders, and how have they emerged and gained recognition as such? What are the issues currently subject to stakeholder involvement and how have these been decided upon? How is stakeholder involvement organized locally and nationally and how has this changed over time? How has stakeholder involvement gained acceptance as an activity of value in the siting of major waste facilities? The report have attempted to show the development of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a final repository for Sweden's spent nuclear fuel as resembling something other than a straightforward linear process of improvement and refinement. Stakeholder involvement has developed, over the past 15 years or so, into something more like a patchwork of different shapes and forms. Some of the forces that may well contribute to the further elaboration of the patchwork of stakeholder involvement have been pointed out, contingently modifying once more its overall colour and orientation. Questions

  9. Stakeholder involvement in Swedish nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran

    2006-09-01

    This report concerning Swedish nuclear waste management has been produced as part of a cross national research project: CARL - A Social Science Research Project into the Effects of Stakeholder involvement on Decision-Making in Radioactive Waste Management. Besides Sweden, the participating countries are Belgium, Canada, Finland, Slovenia and United Kingdom. A social science research team, working for three years, is in the first phase conducting research in their own countries in order to produce 6 country reports. During the next years the focus will shift to comparisons of stakeholder involvement practices in the participating countries. The report addresses current practices of Swedish nuclear waste management and their historical development. The main focus is on past, current and emerging patterns of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a deep repository for the final disposal of Sweden's spent nuclear fuel. The general questions attended to in the report are: Who are the main stakeholders, and how have they emerged and gained recognition as such? What are the issues currently subject to stakeholder involvement and how have these been decided upon? How is stakeholder involvement organized locally and nationally and how has this changed over time? How has stakeholder involvement gained acceptance as an activity of value in the siting of major waste facilities? The report have attempted to show the development of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a final repository for Sweden's spent nuclear fuel as resembling something other than a straightforward linear process of improvement and refinement. Stakeholder involvement has developed, over the past 15 years or so, into something more like a patchwork of different shapes and forms. Some of the forces that may well contribute to the further elaboration of the patchwork of stakeholder involvement have been pointed out, contingently modifying once more its overall colour and orientation. Questions have been

  10. An Approach for All in Pharmacy Informatics Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Brent I; Flynn, Allen; Clauson, Kevin A; Seaton, Terry L; Breeden, Elizabeth

    2017-03-25

    Computerization is transforming health care. All clinicians are users of health information technology (HIT). Understanding fundamental principles of informatics, the field focused on information needs and uses, is essential if HIT is going to support improved patient outcomes. Informatics education for clinicians is a national priority. Additionally, some informatics experts are needed to bring about innovations in HIT. A common approach to pharmacy informatics education has been slow to develop. Meanwhile, accreditation standards for informatics in pharmacy education continue to evolve. A gap remains in the implementation of informatics education for all pharmacy students and it is unclear what expert informatics training should cover. In this article, we propose the first of two complementary approaches to informatics education in pharmacy: to incorporate fundamental informatics education into pharmacy curricula for all students. The second approach, to train those students interested in becoming informatics experts to design, develop, implement, and evaluate HIT, will be presented in a subsequent issue of the Journal .

  11. Factors associated with pharmacy student interest in international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Chelsea; Breheny, Patrick; Ingram, Richard; Pfeifle, William; Cain, Jeff; Ryan, Melody

    2013-04-12

    OBJECTIVES. To examine the interest of pharmacy students in international study, the demographic factors and involvement characteristics associated with that interest, and the perceived advantages and barriers of engaging in international opportunities during pharmacy school. METHODS. A self-administered electronic survey instrument was distributed to first-, second-, and third-year pharmacy students at the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy. RESULTS. There were 192 total respondents, for a response rate of 50.9%. Seventy-two percent reported interest in international study. Previous international study experience (p=0.001), previous international travel experience (p=0.002), year in pharmacy school (p=0.03), level of academic involvement (pearly in the curriculum when interest in study-abroad opportunities is highest and seek to alleviate concerns about expenses as a primary influence on study-abroad decisions through provision of financial assistance.

  12. Psychosocial working conditions and depressive symptoms among Swedish employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Theorell, Töres; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate prospective associations between working conditions and depressive symptoms in Swedish men and women. METHODS: The study was based on SLOSH (N = 5,985), a follow-up of a representative sample of gainfully employed Swedes 16-64 years of age from the Swedish Work Environment...... authority, support and conflicts at work are predictive of depressive symptoms in the general Swedish working population....... Survey 2003. Work demands, decision authority, support and conflicts at work were measured in 2003. Depressive symptoms were recorded in 2006 by a short version of the depression subscale of the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90). Linear regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: After adjusting...

  13. View relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the potential of using visual representations to support people in managing, organizing, and understanding relations between multiple visualization views. Multiple views can help people understand different facets of data and data processing, and are a crucial part of data...... analysis particularly when it is done collaboratively. Both the growing use of multiple views and the increasing display sizes have amplified the need to explore how to better help people to understand the relations between many views. To improve our understanding of how to visualize view relations, we...... invited visualization and interaction designers to critique and sketch representations of view relations. The participants provided design critiques, and sketched their own relation representations. Our findings expand the range and palette of ways of visually linking visualization views and suggest new...

  14. Screening for atrial fibrillation in Canadian pharmacies: an economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarride, Jean-Eric; Dolovich, Lisa; Blackhouse, Gordon; Guertin, Jason Robert; Burke, Natasha; Manja, Veena; Grinvalds, Alex; Lim, Ting; Healey, Jeff S; Sandhu, Roopinder K

    2017-08-22

    Screening for undiagnosed atrial fibrillation may lead to treatment with oral anticoagulation therapy, which can decrease the risk of ischemic stroke. The objective of this study was to conduct an economic evaluation of the Program for the Identification of 'Actionable' Atrial Fibrillation in the Pharmacy Setting (PIAAF-Pharmacy), which screened 1145 participants aged 65 years or more at 30 community pharmacies in Ontario and Alberta between October 2014 and April 2015. We used a 2-part decision model to evaluate the short- and long-term costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of a pharmacy screening program for atrial fibrillation compared to no screening. Data from the PIAAF-Pharmacy study were used for the short-term model, and the relevant literature was used to extrapolate the benefits of the PIAAF-Pharmacy study in the long-term model. Costs and QALYs were calculated from a payer perspective over a lifetime horizon and were discounted at 1.5%/year. Screening for atrial fibrillation in pharmacies was associated with higher costs ($26) and more QALYs (0.0035) compared to no screening, yielding an incremental cost per QALY gained of $7480. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses confirmed that screening for atrial fibrillation in a pharmacy setting was a cost-effective strategy. Our results support screening for atrial fibrillation in Canadian pharmacies. Given this finding, efforts should be made by provincial governments and pharmacies to implement such programs in Canada. The addition of atrial fibrillation screening alongside screening and management of other cardiovascular conditions may help to reduce the burden of stroke. Copyright 2017, Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  15. Measurement of patient satisfaction with community pharmacy services: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik Panvelkar, Pradnya; Saini, Bandana; Armour, Carol

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this review is to conduct an in-depth analysis of the available literature in order to identify and evaluate studies measuring patient satisfaction with pharmacy services delivered by pharmacists in a community setting. An extensive literature search was conducted in five databases (Medline, Scopus, Embase, Psychinfo, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts) using the search terms "patient/client/consumer satisfaction" AND "community pharmacy/pharmacies" AND "pharmacy service/pharmaceutical services/pharmacy program/intervention/intervention studies". Only those articles where the main focus was measuring patient satisfaction with services delivered in community pharmacies were included in the review. Patient satisfaction was explored with three different levels of pharmacy services -- general services, intervention services and cognitive services. Twenty-four articles measuring patient satisfaction with community pharmacy services were retrieved. Of these, eleven measured patient satisfaction with general services, six measured satisfaction with intervention services and seven measured satisfaction with cognitive services. The majority of studies reviewed had adopted and measured satisfaction as a multidimensional construct. None of the studies reviewed tested any theoretical models of satisfaction. Further a lack of consistent instruments measuring patient satisfaction was observed, with most of the reviewed studies using self developed, non-validated or ad hoc instruments with items from various previously published papers. The review also observed high levels of patient satisfaction with pharmacy services be they general, intervention or cognitive services. This review found that patient satisfaction has been measured within the community pharmacy context to a certain degree. Further research is needed to develop and test instruments based on theoretical frameworks, to test satisfaction pre and post hoc and in well designed randomized controlled

  16. Marketing and pricing strategies of online pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levaggi, Rosella; Orizio, Grazia; Domenighini, Serena; Bressanelli, Maura; Schulz, Peter J; Zani, Claudia; Caimi, Luigi; Gelatti, Umberto

    2009-10-01

    Internet and e-commerce have profoundly changed society, the economy, and the world of health care. The web offers opportunities to improve health, but it may also represent a big health hazard since it is a basically unregulated market with very low consumer protection. In this paper we analyze marketing and pricing strategies of online pharmacies (OPs). Our analysis shows that OPs use strategies that would be more suitable for a commodity market than for drugs. These strategies differentiate according to variety (brand or generic), quality, quantity, and target group. OPs are well aware that the vacuum in the legislation allows them to reach a target of consumers that pharmacies cannot normally reach, such as those who would like to use the drug without consulting a physician (or, even worse, against the physician's advice). In this case, they usually charge a higher price, reassure the users by minimizing on the side effects, and induce them to bulk purchase through sensible price discounts. This analysis suggests that the selling of drugs via the Internet can turn into a "public health risk", as has been pointed out by the US Food and Drug Administration.

  17. Carbon Nanotubes: Applications in Pharmacy and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hua; Pham-Huy, Lien Ai; Dramou, Pierre; Xiao, Deli; Zuo, Pengli

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon, made of graphite and constructed in cylindrical tubes with nanometer in diameter and several millimeters in length. Their impressive structural, mechanical, and electronic properties are due to their small size and mass, their strong mechanical potency, and their high electrical and thermal conductivity. CNTs have been successfully applied in pharmacy and medicine due to their high surface area that is capable of adsorbing or conjugating with a wide variety of therapeutic and diagnostic agents (drugs, genes, vaccines, antibodies, biosensors, etc.). They have been first proven to be an excellent vehicle for drug delivery directly into cells without metabolism by the body. Then other applications of CNTs have been extensively performed not only for drug and gene therapies but also for tissue regeneration, biosensor diagnosis, enantiomer separation of chiral drugs, extraction and analysis of drugs and pollutants. Moreover, CNTs have been recently revealed as a promising antioxidant. This minireview focuses the applications of CNTs in all fields of pharmacy and medicine from therapeutics to analysis and diagnosis as cited above. It also examines the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and toxicity of different forms of CNTs and discusses the perspectives, the advantages and the obstacles of this promising bionanotechnology in the future. PMID:24195076

  18. Hospital diversification: how to involve the pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J E; Black, B L

    1987-05-01

    Participation by hospital pharmacy departments in planning and development of diversified services is described. Diversification requires market planning. Seven basic marketing steps are identification of mission, goals, and objectives; identification of growth strategies (market penetration, market development, product development, and diversification); market analysis of external factors (size, growth, and logistics; reimbursement and financial considerations; competition; regulatory issues; and legal issues); market analysis of internal factors (departmental organization and reporting lines, demographics of the institution, and costs and productivity associated with the new service); program development and design; implementation; and evaluation. Hospitals can diversify by expanding acute-care services through management contracts and mergers; developing new services to include long-term-care, ambulatory-care, occupational-health, and wellness programs; starting other health-care ventures, such as consulting, continuing medical education, and continuing education for nurses; and expanding into non-health-care businesses. Vertical diversification is finding new markets for existing services; horizontal diversification is development of new services for new markets. To diversify, an institution may need to change its corporate structure; it may form a family of corporations that includes a university, nonprofit hospitals, holding companies, for-profit corporations, joint ventures, and service organizations. Through diversification, institutions and pharmacy departments can create alternative sources of funding and offer more comprehensive services to patients.

  19. Swedish Taxation in a 150-year Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenkula Mikael

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the development of taxation in Sweden from 1862 to 2010. The examination includes six key aspects of the Swedish tax system, namely the taxation of labor income, capital income, wealth, inheritances and gifts, consumption and real estate. The importance of these taxes varied greatly over time and Sweden increasingly relied on broad-based taxes (such as income taxes and general consumption taxes and taxes that were less visible to the public (such as payroll taxes and social security contributions. The tax-to-GDP ratio was initially low and relatively stable, but from the 1930s, the ratio increased sharply for nearly 50 years. Towards the end of the period, the tax-to-GDP ratio declined significantly.

  20. Gendered portraits of depression in Swedish newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengs, Carita; Johansson, Eva; Danielsson, Ulla; Lehti, Arja; Hammarström, Anne

    2008-07-01

    Mass media are influential mediators of information, knowledge, and narratives of health and illness. In this article, we report on an examination of personal accounts of illness as presented in three Swedish newspapers, focusing on the gendered representation of laypersons' experiences of depression. A database search identified all articles mentioning depression during the year 2002. Twenty six articles focusing on personal experiences of depression were then subjected to a qualitative content analysis. We identified four themes: displaying a successful facade, experiencing a cracking facade, losing and regaining control, and explaining the illness. We found both similarities and differences with regard to gendered experiences. The mediated accounts of depression both upheld and challenged traditional gender stereotypes. The women's stories were more detailed, relational, emotionally oriented, and embodied. The portrayal of men was less emotional and expressive, and described a more dramatic onset of depression, reflecting hegemonic patterns of masculinity.

  1. Offshoring practices of Danish and Swedish SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Johansen, John

    2015-01-01

    networks. Although still in their infancy, these networks are, as expected, creating new demands for their home bases in terms of demands for formalisation of work processes, systems development and managerial capability related to orchestrating operations across national borders, but more fundamentally......This paper examines how small and medium enterprises (SMEs) configure their operations on the global scale and how this affects their home bases in terms of operations requirements and priorities. In order to relate SMEs’ offshoring initiatives with their operations configuration attributes, we...... draw on the operations networks literature and survey responses from 675 Danish and 410 Swedish companies. On the basis of the survey results, we find that although the SMEs are less experienced and less advanced in their offshoring ventures than large companies, they are building dispersed operations...

  2. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    During 1997 the PWRs in Ringhals performed extremely well (capability factors 85-90%), the unit Ringhals 2 reached the best capability factor since commercial operation started in 1976. The BWRs made an average 76% capability, which is somewhat less than in 1996. The slightly reduced capability derives from ongoing modernization projects at several units. At the youngest plants, Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3, capability and utilization were very high. Events and data for 1997 are given for each reactor, together with operational statistics for the years 1990-1997. A number of safety-related events are reported, which occurred st the Swedish plants during 1997. These events are classified as level 1 or higher on the international nuclear event scale (INES).

  3. Perceived employability trajectories: A Swedish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnroos Née Kirves, Kaisa; Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia; Leineweber, Constanze

    2017-07-27

    This study identified perceived employability trajectories and their associations with sleeping difficulties and depressive symptoms over time. The sample was part of the Swedish Longitudinal Survey on Health from 2008 to 2014 (n=4,583). Two stable trajectories (high and low perceived employability over time) and three trajectories with changes (increasing, decreasing, and V-shaped perceived employability over time) were identified. Workers with stable low perceived employability reported more sleeping difficulties and depressive symptoms than those who perceived high or increasing employability. Perceived employability is a rather stable personal resource, which is associated with well-being over time. However, changes in perceived employability do not seem to be echoed in well-being, at least not as immediately as theoretically expected.

  4. Fostering Perspectives on Swedish and Indian Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harveen Kaur

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection of cultural differences recorded by the author during her research visit to Sweden in the year 2017 (February-March month. The objectives of the research visit included understanding official dialects of both countries, existing education system and work environments, variant food habits, family structure and associations, available transport systems, sustainable living options and cultural exchange within India and Sweden. The information was first collected through existing literature and was supported by information collected through observation method, informal discussions and interactions with the Swedish people. It can be concluded that both countries are culturally very different and different parts of each country further exhibit alteration in cultural practices, languages and food preferences. Some variations are also due to population size in both countries. For instance, transportation is very well developed in developed countries due to the availability of advanced technology and less population.

  5. Quality of pharmacy-specific Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) assignment in pharmacy journals indexed in MEDLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguet, Fernando; Salgado, Teresa M; van den Boogerd, Lucienne; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is the National Library of Medicine (NLM) controlled vocabulary for indexing articles. Inaccuracies in the MeSH thesaurus have been reported for several areas including pharmacy. To assess the quality of pharmacy-specific MeSH assignment to articles indexed in pharmacy journals. The 10 journals containing the highest number of articles published in 2012 indexed under the MeSH 'Pharmacists' were identified. All articles published over a 5-year period (2008-2012) in the 10 previously selected journals were retrieved from PubMed. MeSH terms used to index these articles were extracted and pharmacy-specific MeSH terms were identified. The frequency of use of pharmacy-specific MeSH terms was calculated across journals. A total of 6989 articles were retrieved from the 10 pharmacy journals, of which 328 (4.7%) were articles not fully indexed and therefore did not contain any MeSH terms assigned. Among the 6661 articles fully indexed, the mean number of MeSH terms was 10.1 (SD = 4.0), being 1.0 (SD = 1.3) considered as Major MeSH. Both values significantly varied across journals. The mean number of pharmacy-specific MeSH terms per article was 0.9 (SD = 1.2). A total of 3490 (52.4%) of the 6661 articles were indexed in pharmacy journals without a single pharmacy-specific MeSH. Of the total 67193 MeSH terms assigned to articles, on average 10.5% (SD = 13.9) were pharmacy-specific MeSH. A statistically significant different pattern of pharmacy-specific MeSH assignment was identified across journals (Kruskal-Wallis P journals can be improved to further enhance evidence gathering in pharmacy. Over half of the articles published in the top-10 journals publishing pharmacy literature were indexed without a single pharmacy-specific MeSH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Swedish national adoption study of criminality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K. S.; Lönn, S. Larsson; Morris, N. A.; Sundquist, J.; Långström, N.; Sundquist, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background To clarify the role of genetic and environmental factors in criminal behavior (CB), we examined all CB and violent and non-violent subtypes (VCB and NVCB, respectively) in a Swedish national sample of adoptees and their relatives. Method CB was defined by a conviction in the Swedish Crime Register with standard definitions for VCB and NVCB subtypes. We examined adoptees born 1950–1991 (n=18070) and their biological (n=79206) and adoptive (n=47311) relatives. Results The risk for all CB was significantly elevated in the adopted-away offspring of biological parents of which at least one had CB [odds ratio (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4–1.6] and in the biological full and half-siblings of CB adoptees (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2–1.6 and OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2–1.3, respectively). A genetic risk index (including biological parental/sibling history of CB and alcohol abuse) and an environmental risk index (including adoptive parental and sibling CB and a history of adoptive parental divorce, death, and medical illness) both strongly predicted probability of CB. These genetic and environmental risk indices acted additively on adoptee risk for CB. Moderate specificity was seen in the transmission of genetic risk for VCB and NVCB between biological parents and siblings and adoptees. Conclusions CB is etiologically complex and influenced by a range of genetic risk factors including a specific liability to CB and a vulnerability to broader externalizing behaviors, and by features of the adoptive environment including parental CB, divorce and death. Genetic risk factors for VCB and NVCB may be at least partially distinct. PMID:24180693

  7. Digital Components in Swedish NPP Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Mattias; Eriksson, Tage

    2015-01-01

    Swedish nuclear power plants have over the last 20 years of operation modernised or exchanged several systems and components of the electrical power system. Within these works, new components based on digital technology have been employed in order to realize functionality that was previously achieved by using electro-mechanical or analogue technology. Components and systems such as relay protection, rectifiers, inverters, variable speed drives and diesel-generator sets are today equipped with digital components. Several of the systems and components fulfil functions with a safety-role in the NPP. Recently, however, a number of incidents have occurred which highlight deficiencies in the design or HMI of the equipment, which warrants questions whether there are generic problems with some applications of digital components that needs to be addressed. The use of digital components has presented cost effective solutions, or even the only available solution on the market enabling a modernisation. The vast majority of systems using digital components have been operating without problems and often contribute to improved safety but the challenge of non-detectable, or non-identifiable, failure modes remain. In this paper, the extent to which digital components are used in Swedish NPP power systems will be presented including a description of typical applications. Based on data from maintenance records and fault reports, as well as interviews with designers and maintenance personnel, the main areas where problems have been encountered and where possible risks have been identified will be described. The paper intends to investigate any 'tell-tales' that could give signals of unwanted behaviour. Furthermore, particular benefits experienced by using digital components will be highlighted. The paper will also discuss the safety relevance of these findings and suggest measures to improve safety in the application of digital components in power systems. (authors)

  8. Pharmacy cases in Second Life: an elective course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronin MA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Michael A Veronin,1,2 Lacy Daniels,1,2 Elaine Demps21Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Kingsville, TX, 2Irma Lerma Rangel College of Pharmacy, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Kingsville, TX, USAAbstract: Interactive pharmacy case studies are an essential component of the pharmacy curriculum. We recently developed an elective course at the Rangel College of Pharmacy in pharmacy case studies for second- and third-year Doctor of Pharmacy students using Second Life® (SL, an interactive three-dimensional virtual environment that simulates the real world. This course explored the use of SL for education and training in pharmacy, emphasizing a case-based approach. Virtual worlds such as SL promote inquiry-based learning and conceptual understanding, and can potentially develop problem-solving skills in pharmacy students. Students were presented ten case scenarios that primarily focused on drug safety and effective communication with patients. Avatars, representing instructors and students, reviewed case scenarios during sessions in a virtual classroom. Individually and in teams, students participated in active-learning activities modeling both the pharmacist’s and patient’s roles. Student performance and learning were assessed based on SL class participation, activities, assignments, and two formal, essay-type online exams in Blackboard 9. Student course-evaluation results indicated favorable perceptions of content and delivery. Student comments included an enhanced appreciation of practical issues in pharmacy practice, flexibility of attendance, and an increased ability to focus on course content. Excellent student participation and performance in weekly active-learning activities translated into positive performance on subsequent formal assessments. Students were actively engaged and exposed to topics pertinent to pharmacy practice that were not covered in the required pharmacy curriculum. The multiple

  9. Possibilities of implementing nitrogen removal at Swedish wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultman, Bengt; Plaza, Elzbieta; Tendaj-Xavier, Marta

    1987-01-01

    Problems related to eutrophication and oxygen consumption have been considered as the major factors in deterioration of the water quality in Swedish lakes, rivers and coastal areas. Technical solutions to reduce oxygen-consuming materials and eutrophication have up to now been directed towards the removal of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and phosphorus. Thus, biological and chemical treatment of municipal wastewater is usually prescribed, and at present about 90% of the municipal wastewater from Swedish urban areas is treated both biologically and chemically. Most plants are designed for post-precipitation, although the treatment plants may now be operated in a modified way, for example, with the use of preprecipitation, two-point precipitation or recirculation of chemical sludges. Hultman and Moore (1982) have presented an overview of Swedish practice in municipal wastewater treatment. Although Swedish treatment of municipal wastewater concentrates on the removal of biochemical oxygen demand and phosphorus, the environmental and operational effects of nitrogen have been discussed for many years

  10. Design and Development of an Objective, Structured Management Examinations (OSMEs) on Management Skills among Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Jill

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design, develop, and administer an Objective, Structured Management Exam (OSME) on management skills for pharmacy students. Pharmacy preceptors for the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy participated in focus groups that identified business, management, and human resource skills needed by pharmacy graduates.…

  11. Early Experience with a Health Promotion Course for Pharmacy Students in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristina, Susi Ari; Yulianto, Yulianto; Prabandari, Yayi Suryo

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To implement a new health promotion course as part of pharmacy public health practices and to identify pharmacy students' knowledge, perceived role and self-efficacy with respect to what was learned through this. Method: A total of 119 fifth-year pharmacy students undertook a new health promotion course in a pharmacy school in…

  12. Availability of snacks, candy and beverages in hospital, community clinic and commercial pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Anne; Simon, Anna; French, Simone A; Wolfson, Julian

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to measure the availability of energy-dense foods and sugar-sweetened beverages in pharmacies and to examine differences by pharmacy type and presence of a food policy. Trained research staff visited pharmacies (n 37) to measure shelf space and variety of snacks, candy and sugar-sweetened beverages available within 10 ft (3·05 m) of the pharmacy register. Community clinic, hospital and commercial pharmacies in Minneapolis, MN, USA. Employees were interviewed regarding pharmacy food policies. Approximately 60 % of pharmacies had foods and/or sugar-sweetened beverages available for purchase within 10 ft (3·05 m) of the pharmacy register. Total shelf space (P = 0·02) and variety (P = 0·0003) differed significantly by pharmacy type and were greatest among community clinic pharmacies. Over half of pharmacies had no food policy (58·3 %). Pharmacies with food policies were less likely to have foods/beverages available within 10 ft (3·05 m) of the pharmacy register than pharmacies with no food policies (P = 0·03). Candy, snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages are highly available in the pharmacy environment. Presence of a policy is associated with less food availability within 10 ft (3·05 m) of the pharmacy register and represents an important potential intervention strategy.

  13. Customer interest in and experience with various types of pharmacy counselling - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine M; Nørgaard, Lotte S

    2014-12-01

    Despite pharmacists' extensive knowledge in the optimization of patients' medical treatments, community pharmacies are still fighting to earn patients' trust with respect to medicinal counselling at the counter. The aim was to investigate how patients perceive pharmacy counselling at the present time, in order to develop the patient-pharmacy relationship for the benefit of both patients and pharmacies. Short semi-structured interviews were carried out with pharmacy customers by pharmacy internship students. One hundred and eight customers in 35 independent pharmacies across Denmark were interviewed during the spring of 2011. Customers were interviewed about their expectations of pharmacies in general and their experiences with medical counselling in particular. Customers perceive community pharmacies very differently in terms of both expectations of and positive experiences with counselling. They appear to be in favour of pharmacy counselling with respect to over-the-counter medicine and first-time prescription medicine in contrast to refills. Customers find it difficult to express the health-care role of pharmacies even when experiencing and appreciating it. Lack of appreciation of pharmacy counselling for refill prescription medicine and the difficulty in defining the role of pharmacies might stem from the difficulties that customers have in understanding medicine and thus the role of counselling services with respect to medicine. The pharmacy staff does not seem to realize these barriers. For pharmacies to encourage customer interest in pharmacy counselling, the staff should start taking the identified barriers into account when planning communication strategies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Mifepristone (RU486) in Australian pharmacies: the ethical and practical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebekah Yeaun; Moles, Rebekah; Chaar, Betty

    2015-01-01

    The recent legalization of mifepristone has given women in Australia a new option for termination of pregnancy. Pharmacists are well positioned to provide information and supply mifepristone for patients. However, there are ethical and legal concerns in Australia regarding the supply of mifepristone, as pharmacists may choose to conscientiously object to supplying mifepristone and are subject to differing abortion laws between states and territories in Australia. The objective of this study was to explore attitudes and knowledge of Australian pharmacists about mifepristone. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 41 registered pharmacists working in a pharmacy or hospital in Sydney, Australia. When data saturation was achieved, audiotaped transcripts were deidentified and transcribed verbatim. Data were thematically analyzed using a framework approach for applied policy research and categorized into the following themes: contextual, diagnostic, evaluative and strategic. Analysis of the transcripts yielded four themes: (a) pharmacists' contextual view on pregnancy termination, the role of the pharmacist and impact on the pharmacy workplace; (b) diagnostic reasons for differing views; (c) evaluation of actual and perceived pharmacy practice in relation to the supply of mifepristone and (d) strategies to improve pharmacists' services, awareness and education. Australian pharmacists in this study perceived themselves to have a potentially important role as medicine experts in patient health care and safety in medical termination of pregnancy. However, there was a general lack of clinical, ethical and legal knowledge about medical termination of pregnancy and its legislation. To ensure patient safety, well-being and autonomy, there is an imperative need for pharmacist-specific training and guidelines to be made available and open discussion to be initiated within the profession to raise awareness, in particular regarding professional accountability for full

  15. Sleep disturbances among Swedish soldiers after military service abroad

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson, Karolina; Saers, Johannes; Lindberg, Eva; Janson, Christer

    2016-01-01

    Aims Since 1956, more than 100,000 Swedish soldiers have served abroad on various international missions. The aim of this paper was to determine whether there was a connection between military service abroad and sleep disorders among Swedish soldiers. Methods The prevalence of sleep disturbances among 1,080 veterans from Kosovo and Afghanistan was compared with almost 27,000 Swedes from a general population sample, using propensity score matching and logistic regression. The sleep disturbance...

  16. Doctrinal Imbalance: A Study of Swedish Army Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    patience with endless grammar and spelling corrections. Furthermore, Dr. Sterrett also involved his wife, military historian Dr. Corinne Mahaffey, and his...provocative statement of the Swedish supreme commander. The Swedish Army teaches that doctrine derives from a balance between resources, national...it comes to writing a new doctrine, but none of them evaluates doctrine against a specific scenario using the actual forces the doctrine is supposed

  17. Gendered Resource Access and Utilisation in Swedish Family Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Elias; Lidestav, Gun

    2014-01-01

    Gendered relations in resource access and farming are two important intersecting themes of gender studies in a northern rural context. However, conventional analysis and perceptions of the economy conceal the contribution of women within families, in businesses and in the labor market. This article demonstrate the significance of capital to farming women’s engagement with agriculture using a Swedish case study, based on descriptive analyses of data from the Federation of Swedish Farmers. To d...

  18. Analysis of Swedish consumers’ attitude to Chinese food

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research is to find out what’s attitude Swedish consumers have to Chinese food. The questionnaires based on the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) are handed out to 100 Swedish respondents in order to investigate their motivation on Chinese food choice. 78 questionnaires which were filled completely were selected for this study. Eleven factors involved in the questionnaire are labeled health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, price, weight control, familiarity, ...

  19. Assessing health literacy practices in a community pharmacy environment: experiences using the AHRQ Pharmacy Health Literacy Assessment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Katherine S; Crosby, Kimberly M; Miller, Michael J; Murray, Kelly A; Condren, Michelle E

    2013-01-01

    The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) developed the tool, "Is Our Pharmacy Meeting Patients' Needs? Pharmacy Health Literacy Assessment Tool" to evaluate health literacy preparedness of pharmacy environments from patient, staff, and environmental perspectives. The tool was designed at a clinic-based, outpatient pharmacy of a large, urban, public hospital. Despite the ready availability of this tool and the encouragement of AHRQ to adapt it to other environments, there is no published literature on the dissemination and translation of this tool in the community pharmacy environment. The five objectives of this study were to: (1) pilot the AHRQ tool "Is Our Pharmacy Meeting Patients' Needs? Pharmacy Health Literacy Assessment Tool" in a community pharmacy environment; (2) evaluate and adapt the tool; (3) describe the use of health literacy practices from patient, staff, and independent auditor perspectives using the revised tool; (4) evaluate the effect of a low-intensity educational health literacy awareness program; and (5) identify opportunities to improve health literacy-sensitive practices in the community pharmacy environment. The study employed a mixed method, posttest-only control group design using community pharmacies in the Tulsa, OK area. Participants included community pharmacists, staff, patients, and independent auditors. Select pharmacy staff members were invited to receive a health literacy training program delivered by a nationally-recognized health literacy expert to raise awareness of health literacy issues. Approximately eight months after the program, pharmacy staffs were surveyed using a written instrument, patients were interviewed by telephone, and the study investigators performed independent environmental audits in each of the selected pharmacies. Results from auditor evaluations, staff survey responses, and patient interviews were compared for similarities and differences to provide a multidimensional perspective about

  20. Assuming a Pharmacy Organization Leadership Position: A Guide for Pharmacy Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Blake; Weber, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Important and influential pharmacy organization leadership positions, such as president, board member, or committee chair, are volunteer positions and require a commitment of personal and professional time. These positions provide excellent opportunities for leadership development, personal promotion, and advancement of the profession. In deciding to assume a leadership position, interested individuals must consider the impact on their personal and professional commitments and relationships, career planning, employer support, current and future department projects, employee support, and personal readiness. This article reviews these factors and also provides an assessment tool that leaders can use to determine their readiness to assume leadership positions. By using an assessment tool, pharmacy leaders can better understand their ability to assume an important and influential leadership position while achieving job and personal goals.

  1. Frequency and consequences of violence in community pharmacies in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, D

    2012-09-11

    BackgroundViolence in community pharmacies in Ireland is thought to be common but underreported. The frequency and consequences of violence has not been studied previously.AimsTo establish the frequency and nature of violence in community pharmacies over 12 months, and to investigate the impact of violence on employees and possible consequence for the industry.MethodsA two-part survey was distributed to community pharmacies in Ireland in 2011 (n = 200). The first part related to pharmacy demographics, the frequency of various violent events (verbal abuse, threats etc.), the respondents\\' worry regarding violence and its impact on their co-workers. The second part concerned individual employees\\' subjective response to a violent event, using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R).ResultsFifty-seven per cent of the pharmacies responded, with 77% reporting some violent event (verbal or physical), over the past year. Eighteen per cent reported physical assault, and 63% were worried about workplace violence. There was no association between late night opening hours or pharmacy size and violence frequency. Positive statistically significant correlations were present between all types of violence and absenteeism and employee fear levels. An IES-R score could be calculated for 75 respondents; the median IES-R score was 8 with 19% reporting clinically significant scores.ConclusionsViolence is common in Irish community pharmacies and impacts on employees and the industry.

  2. Future-proofing the pharmacy profession in a hypercompetitive market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Judith A; Nissen, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the hypercompetitive nature of the current pharmacy landscape in Australia and to suggest either a superior level of differentiation strategy or a focused differentiation strategy targeting a niche market as two viable, alternative business models to cost leadership for small, independent community pharmacies. A description of the Australian health care system is provided as well as background information on the current community pharmacy environment in Australia. The authors propose a differentiation or focused differentiation strategy based on cognitive professional services (CPS) which must be executed well and of a superior quality to competitors' services. Market research to determine the services valued by target customers and that they are willing to pay for is vital. To achieve the superior level of quality that will engender high patient satisfaction levels and loyalty, pharmacy owners and managers need to develop, maintain and clearly communicate service quality specifications to the staff delivering these services. Otherwise, there will be a proliferation of pharmacies offering the same professional services with no evident service differential. However, to sustain competitive advantage over the long-term, these smaller, independent community pharmacies will need to exploit a broad core competency base in order to be able to continuously introduce new sources of competitive advantage. With the right expertise, the authors argue that smaller, independent community pharmacies can successfully deliver CPS and sustain profitability in a hypercompetitive market. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Injudicious Provision of Subtherapeutic Doses of Antibiotics in Community Pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E Amin

    2017-02-01

    Results: The simulated client visited 104 pharmacies and was sold an antibiotic at 68 pharmacies in total. A cold group with one or more antibiotic pills was provided in 31 pharmacies. Upon request for two antibiotic pills, 2-8 antibiotic pills were provided in 30 pharmacies whereas an antibiotic carton was provided in three pharmacies. In four pharmacies, the simulated client was sold a cold group containing an antibiotic as well as another antibiotic upon request. Beta-lactam antibiotics comprised 76% of antibiotics provided. In five encounters, the simulated client was told that the cold group contained an antibiotic when, in fact, it did not. Conclusions: Subtherapeutic doses of antibiotics are provided at dangerous rates in Alexandria’s community pharmacies. Interventions are urgently needed to tackle different factors contributing to this dangerous practice. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties   Type: Original Research

  4. Racial and ethnic disparities in influenza vaccinations among community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junling; Munshi, Kiraat D.; Hong, Song Hee

    2013-01-01

    Background Since 2009, pharmacists in all 50 states in the U.S. have been authorized to administer vaccinations. Objectives This study examined racial and ethnic disparities in the reported receipt of influenza vaccinations within the past year among noninstitutionalized community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents. Methods The 2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey was analyzed. The sample consisted of respondents aged 50 years or older, as per the 2009 recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the influenza vaccination rates and disparities in receiving influenza vaccinations within past year between non-Hispanic Whites (Whites), non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks) and Hispanics. The influenza vaccination rates between community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents were also examined. Results Bivariate analyses found that among the community pharmacy patients, a greater proportion of Whites reported receiving influenza vaccinations compared to Blacks (60.9% vs. 49.1%; P < 0.0001) and Hispanics (60.9% vs. 51.7%; P < 0.0001). Among non-community pharmacy respondents, differences also were observed in reported influenza vaccination rates among Whites compared to Blacks (41.0% vs. 24.3%; P < 0.0001) and Hispanics (41.0% vs. 26.0%; P < 0.0001). Adjusted logistic regression analyses found significant racial disparities between Blacks and Whites in receiving influenza vaccinations within the past year among both community pharmacy patients (odds ratio [OR]: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.69–0.95) and non-community pharmacy respondents (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46–0.94). Sociodemographic characteristics and health status accounted for the disparities between Hispanics and Whites. Overall, community pharmacy patients reported higher influenza vaccination rates compared to non-community pharmacy respondents (59.0% vs. 37.2%; P < 0.0001). Conclusion

  5. Subcontractors and Component Suppliers in the Swedish Wind Power Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Linn

    2003-05-01

    This paper studies the Swedish component suppliers in the wind power industry. This group has not received much attention so far, and today very little is known. This study addresses the fact that the Swedish component suppliers have not been able to penetrate the wind power market despite the Swedish industry's strength in mechanical and electrical engineering. The aims of this paper were to gather information regarding the existing production and to identify factors that affect the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. To date, although Sweden has spent considerable amounts of money on projects involving wind turbines, there is no series production of large wind turbines in Sweden. The historical development of the wind turbine industry suggests this alone would have inhibited the development of component production in Sweden. Yet, the country's proximity and good access to large wind turbine producing countries should be an advantage. Various factors and issues are identified and discussed in this paper that are relevant for the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. These include market and product development, buyer-supplier relationships, export and sourcing behaviors, and time of market entry. This is a first step towards increasing the knowledge of Swedish component production and it is recognized that more studies are required. Various areas where relevant knowledge is largely missing or scarce are identified and discussed as well, and should serve as relevant starting points for continued research.

  6. Subcontractors and Component Suppliers in the Swedish Wind Power Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Linn

    2003-05-01

    This paper studies the Swedish component suppliers in the wind power industry. This group has not received much attention so far, and today very little is known. This study addresses the fact that the Swedish component suppliers have not been able to penetrate the wind power market despite the Swedish industry's strength in mechanical and electrical engineering. The aims of this paper were to gather information regarding the existing production and to identify factors that affect the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. To date, although Sweden has spent considerable amounts of money on projects involving wind turbines, there is no series production of large wind turbines in Sweden. The historical development of the wind turbine industry suggests this alone would have inhibited the development of component production in Sweden. Yet, the country's proximity and good access to large wind turbine producing countries should be an advantage. Various factors and issues are identified and discussed in this paper that are relevant for the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. These include market and product development, buyer-supplier relationships, export and sourcing behaviors, and time of market entry. This is a first step towards increasing the knowledge of Swedish component production and it is recognized that more studies are required. Various areas where relevant knowledge is largely missing or scarce are identified and discussed as well, and should serve as relevant starting points for continued research

  7. Mobile applications in clinical practice: What is needed in the pharmacy scenario?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hassan Elnaem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacy informatics is demonstrated to have a positive effect on pharmacy practice. The incorporation of pharmacy informatics in academic programs is a common feature in the pharmacy curriculum. This work aims to provide an overview of the current and potential role of mobile applications (apps in pharmacy education and practice. Mobile apps are the most common informatics tools used by medical and pharmacy practitioners as well as students. Both students and practitioners have overall positive perceptions toward using mobile apps in their daily clinical training and practice although the fact that the number of pharmacy apps is still small relatively in comparison with other medical-related apps. There are many potential roles for mobile apps in pharmacy practice and education. The future efforts of educational uses of mobile apps in pharmacy should target playing a role in the provision of customized tools for clinical pharmacy education.

  8. Customer interest in and experience with various types of pharmacy counselling - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine M; Nørgaard, Lotte S

    2014-01-01

    of counselling services with respect to medicine. The pharmacy staff does not seem to realize these barriers. CONCLUSIONS: For pharmacies to encourage customer interest in pharmacy counselling, the staff should start taking the identified barriers into account when planning communication strategies....... counselling at the present time, in order to develop the patient-pharmacy relationship for the benefit of both patients and pharmacies. DESIGN: Short semi-structured interviews were carried out with pharmacy customers by pharmacy internship students. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and eight customers...... in 35 independent pharmacies across Denmark were interviewed during the spring of 2011. MAIN VARIABLES STUDIED: Customers were interviewed about their expectations of pharmacies in general and their experiences with medical counselling in particular. RESULTS: Customers perceive community pharmacies very...

  9. Pharmacy 2.0: a scoping review of social media use in pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindrod, Kelly; Forgione, Andrea; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Gavura, Scott; Giustini, Dean

    2014-01-01

    New "social" information and communication technologies such as social media and smartphones are allowing non-experts to access, interpret and generate medical information for their own care and the care of others. Pharmacists may also benefit from increased connectivity, but first there needs to be an understanding of how pharmacists engage with social media. A scoping review methodology was used to describe pharmacist and pharmacy student participation in social media networks and to describe the gaps in research. Three themes that emerged from reviewing social media use in pharmacy education were student engagement, boundaries and e-professionalism. For pharmacists, the themes of liability and professional use were prominent. Few pharmacy leadership organizations are providing guidance on social media but that appears to be changing. As the control of medical knowledge shifts from health professionals to the larger social community, pharmacists need to be present. Social media use and training in undergraduate programs is promising but experienced pharmacists also need to join the conversation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A comprehensive systematic review of pharmacy perspectives on interprofessional education and collaborative practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Awaisi, Alla; Joseph, Sundari; El Hajj, Maguy Saffouh; Diack, Lesley

    2017-11-02

    Pharmacists are key professionals in the collaborative working process and are integral members of the healthcare team. However, there is paucity of information regarding their perspectives towards interprofessional education (IPE) and collaborative practice. The aim of this systematic review is to synthesise, summarise and evaluate the quality of the quantitative and qualitative literature related to the perspectives of pharmacy students, pharmacy faculty and practising pharmacists toward IPE and collaborative practice. The perspectives included their views, experiences and attitudes with a special focus on their perceived benefits and challenges in relation to IPE and collaborative practice. An integrated mixed method systematic review was conducted. Four electronic databases were searched for articles published in English between 2000 and 2015. The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) was used to assess the quality of the studies. Twenty-nine articles were identified meeting the selection criteria from the first initial search of 8512 articles. Seventeen articles (59%) targeted pharmacy students, 11 articles (38%) focused on practising pharmacists and 1 study (3%) was related to pharmacy faculty. The majority of studies were conducted in the United States (n = 13), were published in the last five years (83%, n = 24) and employed quantitative methods (52%, n = 15). The two commonly used survey instruments to measure the perspectives were: different versions of the RIPLS (35%, n = 6) and the IEPS scale (35%, n = 6). Fourteen of the 29 studies were rated as low quality (MMAT = 25%), eight studies were rated as average quality (MMAT = 50%), four were rated as high quality (MMAT 75%) and three were rated as very poor quality (MMAT 0%). No studies were rated with 100% MMAT quality. Overall, the findings suggest that pharmacy students, practicing pharmacists and faculty valued interprofessional education and collaborative practice and had positive

  11. The global pharmacy workforce: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Claire

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The importance of health workforce provision has gained significance and is now considered one of the most pressing issues worldwide, across all health professions. Against this background, the objectives of the work presented here were to systematically explore and identify contemporary issues surrounding expansion of the global pharmacy workforce in order to assist the International Pharmaceutical Federation working group on the workforce. International peer and non-peer-reviewed literature published between January 1998 and February 2008 was analysed. Articles were collated by performing searches of appropriate databases and reference lists of relevant articles; in addition, key informants were contacted. Information that met specific quality standards and pertained to the pharmacy workforce was extracted to matrices and assigned an evidence grade. Sixty-nine papers were identified for inclusion (48 peer reviewed and 21 non-peer-reviewed. Evaluation of evidence revealed the global pharmacy workforce to be composed of increasing numbers of females who were working fewer hours; this decreased their overall full-time equivalent contribution to the workforce, compared to male pharmacists. Distribution of pharmacists was uneven with respect to location (urban/rural, less-developed/more-developed countries and work sector (private/public. Graduates showed a preference for completing pre-registration training near where they studied as an undergraduate; this was of considerable importance to rural areas. Increases in the number of pharmacy student enrolments and pharmacy schools occurred alongside an expansion in the number and roles of pharmacy technicians. Increased international awareness and support existed for the certification, registration and regulation of pharmacy technicians and accreditation of training courses. The most common factors adding to the demand for pharmacists were increased feminization, clinical governance measures

  12. Integrating Internships with Professional Study in Pharmacy Education in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfhjelm, Ulla; Passi, Sanna; Airaksinen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacy internships are an important part of undergraduate pharmacy education worldwide. Internships in Finland are integrated into professional study during the second and third year, which has several pedagogic advantages, such as better understanding of the association between academic studies and pharmaceutical work-life during the studies, and enhanced self-reflection through the feedback from preceptors and peers during the internships. The objective of this paper is to describe the Finnish integrated internship using the pharmacy curriculum at the University of Helsinki as an example. PMID:26056411

  13. First drive-through pharmacy services in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Feng Lin

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The drive-through pharmacy provides patients with convenient access to pick up refilling prescriptions in a shorter time than ordinary pharmacy service. During a short-term follow-up, an overall increase in the prescription refilling rate was noted after the drive-through service was put into place. Our survey revealed that an upward of 90% of the patients were satisfied with the drive-through service. Future promotion of the service may help patients effectively utilize drive-through pharmacy prescription refilling and enhance disease control.

  14. Discrete choice experiments of pharmacy services: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vass, Caroline; Gray, Ewan; Payne, Katherine

    2016-06-01

    Background Two previous systematic reviews have summarised the application of discrete choice experiments to value preferences for pharmacy services. These reviews identified a total of twelve studies and described how discrete choice experiments have been used to value pharmacy services but did not describe or discuss the application of methods used in the design or analysis. Aims (1) To update the most recent systematic review and critically appraise current discrete choice experiments of pharmacy services in line with published reporting criteria and; (2) To provide an overview of key methodological developments in the design and analysis of discrete choice experiments. Methods The review used a comprehensive strategy to identify eligible studies (published between 1990 and 2015) by searching electronic databases for key terms related to discrete choice and best-worst scaling (BWS) experiments. All healthcare choice experiments were then hand-searched for key terms relating to pharmacy. Data were extracted using a published checklist. Results A total of 17 discrete choice experiments eliciting preferences for pharmacy services were identified for inclusion in the review. No BWS studies were identified. The studies elicited preferences from a variety of populations (pharmacists, patients, students) for a range of pharmacy services. Most studies were from a United Kingdom setting, although examples from Europe, Australia and North America were also identified. Discrete choice experiments for pharmacy services tended to include more attributes than non-pharmacy choice experiments. Few studies reported the use of qualitative research methods in the design and interpretation of the experiments (n = 9) or use of new methods of analysis to identify and quantify preference and scale heterogeneity (n = 4). No studies reported the use of Bayesian methods in their experimental design. Conclusion Incorporating more sophisticated methods in the design of pharmacy

  15. Global education implications of the foreign pharmacy graduate equivalency examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Fadi M; Clauson, Kevin A; Latif, David A; Al-Rousan, Rabaa M

    2010-06-15

    Although the Foreign Pharmacy Graduate Equivalency Examination (FPGEE) is not intended to measure educational outcomes or institutional effectiveness, it may be a reliable and valid criterion to assess the quality or success of international pharmacy programs. This comprehensive review describes the evolution and historical milestones of the FPGEE, along with trends in structure, administration, and passing rates, and the impact of country of origin on participant performance. Similarities between the FPGEE and the Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment (PCOA) are also explored. This paper aims to provide a global prospective and insight for foreign academic institutions into parameters for evaluating their students' educational capabilities.

  16. Preschool teachers’ reasoning about interactive whiteboard embedded in Swedish preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bourbour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the ways in which teachers enact the interactive whiteboard (IWB in Swedish preschools in relation to preschool children’s mathematical learning. Data collected from interviews with four preschool teachers have provided the opportunity to consider the potential of IWB to facilitate a creative approach to young children’s mathematic education. The findings suggest that IWB use in preschool is mostly viewed as “Space for children to involve in problem-solving situations”, “Supporting collaborative learning and mutual negotiation”, “Goal-oriented mathematics learning facilitated by IWB” and “Retaining children’s interest in learning activities”. This study also highlights the importance of teachers’ technological knowledge and skills in mediating the interaction and facilitating the use of IWB in preschool pedagogical practices. Normal 0 21 false false false SV JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Cambria","serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  17. Clinical pharmacy services in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sofie Rahman; Acquisto, Nicole M; Coralic, Zlatan; Basalyga, Vicki; Campbell, Matthew; Kelly, John J; Langkiet, Kevin; Pearson, Claire; Sokn, Erick; Phelan, Michael

    2018-01-31

    The emergency department (ED) is a fast-paced, high-risk, and often overburdened work environment. Formal policy statements from several notable organizations, including the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) and the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP), have recognized the importance of clinical pharmacists in the emergency medicine (EM) setting. EM clinical pharmacists work alongside emergency physicians and nurses at the bedside to optimize pharmacotherapy, improve patient safety, increase efficiency and cost-effectiveness of care, facilitate antibiotic stewardship, educate patients and clinicians, and contribute to scholarly efforts. This paper examines the history of EM clinical pharmacists and associated training programs, the diverse responsibilities and roles of EM clinical pharmacists, their impact on clinical and financial outcomes, and proposes a conceptual model for EM clinical pharmacist integration into ED patient care. Finally, barriers to implementing EM clinical pharmacy programs and limitations are considered. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Developing Entrepreneurial Skills in Pharmacy Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, Garry; Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Haughey, Sharon; Hughes, Carmel

    2015-09-25

    Objective. To create, implement, and evaluate a workshop that teaches undergraduate pharmacy students about entrepreneurship. Design. Workshops with 3 hours of contact time and 2 hours of self-study time were developed for final-year students. Faculty members and students evaluated peer assessment, peer development, communication, critical evaluation, creative thinking, problem solving, and numeracy skills, as well as topic understanding. Student evaluation of the workshops was done primarily via a self-administered, 9-item questionnaire. Assessment. One hundred thirty-four students completed the workshops. The mean score was 50.9 out of 65. Scores ranged from 45.9 to 54.1. The questionnaire had a 100% response rate. Many students agreed that workshops about entrepreneurship were a useful teaching method and that key skills were fostered. Conclusion. Workshops effectively delivered course content about entrepreneurship and helped develop relevant skills. This work suggests students value instruction on entrepreneurship.

  19. Developing Entrepreneurial Skills in Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Haughey, Sharon; Hughes, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To create, implement, and evaluate a workshop that teaches undergraduate pharmacy students about entrepreneurship. Design. Workshops with 3 hours of contact time and 2 hours of self-study time were developed for final-year students. Faculty members and students evaluated peer assessment, peer development, communication, critical evaluation, creative thinking, problem solving, and numeracy skills, as well as topic understanding. Student evaluation of the workshops was done primarily via a self-administered, 9-item questionnaire. Assessment. One hundred thirty-four students completed the workshops. The mean score was 50.9 out of 65. Scores ranged from 45.9 to 54.1. The questionnaire had a 100% response rate. Many students agreed that workshops about entrepreneurship were a useful teaching method and that key skills were fostered. Conclusion. Workshops effectively delivered course content about entrepreneurship and helped develop relevant skills. This work suggests students value instruction on entrepreneurship. PMID:27168619

  20. Does deregulation in community pharmacy impact accessibility of medicines, quality of pharmacy services and costs? Evidence from nine European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Habimana, Katharina; Arts, Danielle

    2014-09-01

    To analyse the impact of deregulation in community pharmacy on accessibility of medicines, quality of pharmacy services and costs. We analysed and compared community pharmacy systems in five rather deregulated countries (England, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden) and four rather regulated countries (Austria, Denmark, Finland, Spain). Data were collected by literature review, a questionnaire survey and interviews. Following a deregulation, several new pharmacies and dispensaries of Over-the-Counter (OTC) medicines tended to be established, predominantly in urban areas. Unless prevented by regulation, specific stakeholders, e.g. wholesalers, were seen to gain market dominance which limited envisaged competition. There were indications for an increased workload for pharmacists in some deregulated countries. Economic pressure to increase the pharmacy turnover through the sale of OTC medicines and non-pharmaceuticals was observed in deregulated and regulated countries. Prices of OTC medicines were not found to decrease after a deregulation in pharmacy. Access to pharmacies usually increases after a deregulation but this is likely to favour urban populations with already good accessibility. Policy-makers are recommended to take action to ensure equitable accessibility and sustainable competition in a more deregulated environment. No association between pharmaceutical expenditure and the extent of regulation/deregulation appears to exist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.