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Sample records for swedish men electronic

  1. AHSG gene variant is associated with leanness among Swedish men.

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    Lavebratt, Catharina; Wahlqvist, Sofia; Nordfors, Louise; Hoffstedt, Johan; Arner, Peter

    2005-06-01

    Alpha(2) Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein (AHSG) is a plasma protein inhibiting the activity of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. Ahsg knock-out mice have increased insulin sensitivity and are resistant to diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that functional variants of the AHSG gene segregating in the human population would reflect variation in body mass index (BMI). We genotyped 356 overweight or obese (BMI: 37.2 [25.0-66.5] kg/m(2)) and 148 lean (BMI: 23.7 [23.4-24.9] kg/m(2)) otherwise healthy Swedish men for three non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within exon 6 (rs4917) and exon 7 (rs4918 and Arg299Cys) and one SNP in intron 1 (rs2593813) of the AHSG gene. The G/G genotype for rs2593813 was more common among lean than among obese and overweight individuals (odds ratio = 2.01, P = 0.009), whereas rs2593813 was in strong linkage disequilibrium (|D'| > or = 0.97) with rs4917 and rs4918. Homozygosity for the rs2593813:G-rs4917:Met-rs4918:Ser haplotype conferred an increased risk for leanness (odds ratio=1.90, P = 0.027). rs4917:Met and rs4918:Ser have previously been associated with lower AHSG protein level. A common variant of AHSG, previously associated with a lower AHSG protein level, is thus more common among lean than obese and overweight men, supporting the results from Ahsg knock-out mice, namely, that AHSG modulates body mass.

  2. Party and Play in the Closet? Exploring Club Drug Use Among Swedish Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Frida J M; Tikkanen, Ronny; Schmidt, Axel J

    2016-07-28

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) is a population that is less frequently the target of drug research in a Scandinavian context. This study aims to explore: (1) the existence of club drug use among a sample of Swedish MSM, and (2) associations between club drug use and sociodemographic, sociosexual, and sexual risk behavior. Data were drawn from a larger European study on MSM and HIV but the analytic sample consisted of the 3,004 MSM who resided in Sweden. SPSS 20.0 statistical software was used to perform the analysis. The primary outcome variable was a dichotomous measure of having used club drugs in the past 12 months vs. not. The independent variables were categorized into three domains, sociodemographic, sociosexual, and sexual risk behavior. The analysis was undertaken as a univariable analysis. Results show that club drug use exists in the Swedish MSM population and is particularly prevalent among gay identified, younger MSM from metropolitan areas, and among men with diagnosed HIV or other STIs. Moreover, club drug use was common among the men that had more sexual partners and took more sexual risks. These men were also more likely to have been diagnosed with an STI. MSM who use club drugs have to be acknowledged in the Swedish drug policy context, as well as within clinical practice. Further research is needed to develop an understanding of the social and contextual dimensions involved in club drug use among Swedish MSM.

  3. Reported sexually transmitted infections in Swedish Internet-using men and women.

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    Ross, M W; Daneback, K; Mansson, S-A; Berglund, T; Tikkanen, R

    2008-06-01

    Although the Internet has become a forum for making sexual contacts, and has been associated with increased sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission, we have little information of history of STIs in Internet-based samples. The Internet behaviours that are associated with STI acquisition are poorly understood. We analysed STI histories reported by 904 Swedish men and 931 Swedish women who responded to an Internet-based survey on sexual behaviour in 2002: 16.6% of men and 22.5% of women reported a lifetime history of STIs, with Chlamydia being the most common for both genders. 3% of men and 5% of women who reported an STI, indicated that they had had more than one. Sources of the STI, where known, were Internet-acquired partners in only 3% of cases. There were no differences between men and women with or without an STI history regarding the kind of online sexual activities they engaged in, how they found sexual material online, and the reasons they engage in sexual activities. These rates are similar to those reported in a national random study of sexuality in Sweden. Contrary to prior research, these results suggest no relationship between STI and specific Internet characteristics usage patterns. These data suggest that the Internet is not yet a major source of STIs in Swedish men and women. Given these STI histories, the Internet may be a useful medium to include in STI prevention efforts.

  4. Chocolate intake and incidence of heart failure: Findings from the Cohort of Swedish Men.

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    Steinhaus, Daniel A; Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Levitan, Emily B; Dorans, Kirsten S; Håkansson, Niclas; Wolk, Alicja; Mittleman, Murray A

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of chocolate consumption and heart failure (HF) in a large population of Swedish men. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 31,917 men 45-79 years old with no history of myocardial infarction, diabetes, or HF at baseline who were participants in the population-based Cohort of Swedish Men study. Chocolate consumption was assessed through a self-administrated food frequency questionnaire. Participants were followed for HF hospitalization or mortality from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2011, using record linkage to the Swedish inpatient and cause-of-death registries. During 14 years of follow-up, 2,157 men were hospitalized (n=1,901) or died from incident HF (n=256). Compared with subjects who reported no chocolate intake, the multivariable-adjusted rate ratio of HF was 0.88 (95% CI 0.78-0.99) for those consuming 1-3 servings per month, 0.83 (95% CI 0.72-0.94) for those consuming 1-2 servings per week, 0.82 (95% CI 0.68-0.99) for those consuming 3-6 servings per week, and 1.10 (95% CI 0.84-1.45) for those consuming ≥1 serving per day (P for quadratic trend=.001). In this large prospective cohort study, there was a J-shaped relationship between chocolate consumption and HF incidence. Moderate chocolate consumption was associated with a lower rate of HF hospitalization or death, but the protective association was not observed among individuals consuming ≥1 serving per day. Journal Subject Codes: Etiology: Epidemiology, Heart failure: Congestive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Folate intake and pancreatic cancer incidence: a prospective study of Swedish women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Håkansson, Niclas; Giovannucci, Edward; Wolk, Alicja

    2006-03-15

    Epidemiologic evidence supports an association between high folate intake and reduced risk of some cancers, in particular colorectal cancer. However, epidemiologic data concerning the relationship between folate and pancreatic cancer risk are sparse. We examined the association between folate intake and risk of pancreatic cancer in a population-based prospective study of Swedish women and men. We prospectively followed 81,922 women and men in the Swedish Mammography Cohort and the Cohort of Swedish Men who were cancer-free and completed a 96-item food-frequency questionnaire in 1997. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate multivariable rate ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All statistical tests were two-sided. A total of 135 incident pancreatic cancer cases were diagnosed during a mean follow-up of 6.8 years. In multivariable analyses controlling for age, smoking, fruit and vegetable consumption, and other potential confounders, dietary and total folate intakes were statistically significantly inversely associated with risk of pancreatic cancer. The multivariable rate ratios of pancreatic cancer for those in the highest category of folate intake (> or = 350 microg/day) compared with the lowest category of intake (folate and 0.33 (95% CI = 0.15 to 0.72; Ptrend = .01) for total folate (combining dietary and supplemental sources). Folic acid from supplements was not associated with pancreatic cancer (for > or = 300 microg/day compared with 0 microg/day of supplemental folic acid, multivariable RR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.56 to 1.88). The sex- and age-standardized incidence rates of pancreatic cancer per 100,000 person-years were 41 for the lowest and 18 for the highest category of dietary folate intake. Our results suggest that increased intake of folate from food sources, but not from supplements, may be associated with a reduced risk of pancreatic cancer.

  6. Body Mass Index and Attempted Suicide: Cohort Study of 1,133,019 Swedish Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, G. David; Whitley, Elise; Kivimäki, Mika; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Associations between body mass index (BMI) and attempted (nonfatal) suicide have recently been reported. However, the few existing studies are relatively small in scale, the majority cross-sectional, and results contradictory. The authors have explored BMI–attempted suicide associations in a large cohort of 1,133,019 Swedish men born between 1950 and 1976, with BMI measured in early adulthood. During a mean follow-up of 23.9 years, a total of 18,277 (1.6%) men had at least 1 hospital admission for attempted suicide. After adjustment for confounding factors, there was a stepwise, linear decrease in attempted suicide with increasing BMI across the full BMI range (per standard deviation increase in BMI, hazard ratio = 0.93, 95% confidence interval: 0.91, 0.94). Analyses excluding men with depression at baseline were essentially identical to those based on the complete cohort. In men free from depression at baseline, controlling for subsequent depression slightly attenuated the raised risk of attempted suicide, particularly in lower weight men. This study suggests that lower weight men have an increased risk of attempted suicide and that associations may extend into the “normal” BMI range. PMID:20829269

  7. Managerial leadership is associated with self-reported sickness absence and sickness presenteeism among Swedish men and women.

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    Nyberg, Anna; Westerlund, Hugo; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Theorell, Töres

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between managerial leadership and self-reported sickness absence/presenteeism among Swedish men and women. Five thousand one hundred and forty-one Swedish employees, 56% of the participants in a nationally representative sample of the Swedish working population, were included in this cross-sectional questionnaire study. The leadership dimensions measured were five subscales of a standardized leadership questionnaire (Global Leadership and Organizational Behaviour Effectiveness Programme): Integrity, Team integration, Inspirational leadership, Autocratic leadership, and Self-centred leadership. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted, adjusting for factors in private life, employment category, labour-market sector, working conditions, self-reported general health, and satisfaction with life in general. Inspirational leadership was associated with a lower rate of short spells of sickness absence (leadership was related to a greater amount of total sick days taken by men. Sometimes showing integrity was associated with higher rate of sickness absence >1 week among men, and seldom showing integrity was associated with more sickness presenteeism among women. Managers performing Team integration were sometimes associated with women taking fewer short (1 week) spells of sickness absence. Adjustment for self-reported general health did not alter these associations for men, but did so to some extent for women. Managerial leadership was found to be relevant for the understanding of sickness absence in the Swedish working population. There were distinctive gender differences.

  8. Reproductive patterns among twins - a Swedish register study of men and women born 1973-1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background During the last decades there has been a steady increase of twin births. A combination of improved medical treatment of preterm and small-for-gestational age children has contributed to a higher number of surviving twins. Prematurity is known to affect reproduction in a negative way. Few studies have focused on the potential effect twinning may have on future reproduction. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of being born a twin compared to being born a singleton have on future reproduction. Methods In a national population-based register study, all individuals born between 1973–1983 who were alive and living in Sweden at 13 years of age (n = 1 016 908) constituted the sample. Data on each study subject’s own birth as well as the birth of their first offspring, and parental socio-demographic factors were collected from Swedish population based registers. Hazard ratios and corresponding 95% CI was calculated using Cox proportional hazards model. Results Twins, both men and women, had a reduced likelihood of reproducing compared to singletons (women: HR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.86-0.93; men: HR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.87-0.97). This difference in birth rates can only partly be explained by diverging birth characteristics. Amongst men and women born very preterm, twins had an increased likelihood of reproducing compared to singletons (women: HR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.02-1.62; men: HR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.01-1.78). Conclusions Twins have lower reproduction rates compared to singletons, which only to a certain degree can be explained by diverging birth characteristics. PMID:23324566

  9. Viewing child pornography: prevalence and correlates in a representative community sample of young Swedish men.

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    Seto, Michael C; Hermann, Chantal A; Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Långström, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Most research on child pornography use has been based on selected clinical or criminal justice samples; risk factors for child pornography use in the general population remain largely unexplored. In this study, we examined prevalence, risk factors, and correlates of viewing depictions of adult-child sex in a population-representative sample of 1,978 young Swedish men (17-20 years, Mdn = 18 years, overall response rate, 77 %). In an anonymous, school-based survey, participants self-reported sexual coercion experiences, attitudes and beliefs about sex, perceived peer attitudes, and sexual interests and behaviors; including pornography use, sexual interest in children, and sexually coercive behavior. A total of 84 (4.2 %) young men reported they had ever viewed child pornography. Most theory-based variables were moderately and significantly associated with child pornography viewing and were consistent with models of sexual offending implicating both antisociality and sexual deviance. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, 7 of 15 tested factors independently predicted child pornography viewing and explained 42 % of the variance: ever had sex with a male, likely to have sex with a child aged 12-14, likely to have sex with a child 12 or less, perception of children as seductive, having friends who have watched child pornography, frequent pornography use, and ever viewed violent pornography. From these, a 6-item Child Pornography Correlates Scale was constructed and then cross-validated in a similar but independent Norwegian sample.

  10. Do Predictors of Career Success Differ between Swedish Women and Men? Data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH)

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    Nyberg, Anna; Johansson, Gunn

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to explore predictors of objective career success among Swedish women and men, focussing on gender differences. Data were drawn from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) with a total of 3670 female and 2773 male participants. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for job promotion and an above-average salary increase between 2008 and 2010 were obtained through binary logistic regression analyses. Individual and organisational factors measured in 2008 were used as predictors in analyses stratified by sex. Mutual adjustment was performed for these variables, as well as for labour market sector and staff category at baseline. In both sexes, younger age predicted both job promotion and an above-average salary increase. Job promotion was also in both sexes predicted by being part of decision-making processes, having conflicts with superiors, and being eager to advance. Furthermore, promotion was predicted by, among men, being educated to post-graduate level and having an open coping strategy and, among women, working >60 hours/week. An above-average salary increase was predicted in both sexes by having a university education. Postgraduate education, having children living at home, and being very motivated to advance predicted an above-average salary increase among women, as did working 51–60 hours/week and being part of decision-making processes in men. Gender differences were seen in several predictors. In conclusion, the results support previous findings of gender differences in predictors of career success. A high level of education, motivation to advance, and procedural justice appear to be more important predictors of career success among women, while open coping was a more important predictor among men. PMID:26501351

  11. Do Predictors of Career Success Differ between Swedish Women and Men? Data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Anna; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Leineweber, Constanze; Johansson, Gunn

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to explore predictors of objective career success among Swedish women and men, focussing on gender differences. Data were drawn from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) with a total of 3670 female and 2773 male participants. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for job promotion and an above-average salary increase between 2008 and 2010 were obtained through binary logistic regression analyses. Individual and organisational factors measured in 2008 were used as predictors in analyses stratified by sex. Mutual adjustment was performed for these variables, as well as for labour market sector and staff category at baseline. In both sexes, younger age predicted both job promotion and an above-average salary increase. Job promotion was also in both sexes predicted by being part of decision-making processes, having conflicts with superiors, and being eager to advance. Furthermore, promotion was predicted by, among men, being educated to post-graduate level and having an open coping strategy and, among women, working >60 hours/week. An above-average salary increase was predicted in both sexes by having a university education. Postgraduate education, having children living at home, and being very motivated to advance predicted an above-average salary increase among women, as did working 51-60 hours/week and being part of decision-making processes in men. Gender differences were seen in several predictors. In conclusion, the results support previous findings of gender differences in predictors of career success. A high level of education, motivation to advance, and procedural justice appear to be more important predictors of career success among women, while open coping was a more important predictor among men.

  12. Do Predictors of Career Success Differ between Swedish Women and Men? Data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nyberg

    Full Text Available The aim of this prospective study was to explore predictors of objective career success among Swedish women and men, focussing on gender differences. Data were drawn from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH with a total of 3670 female and 2773 male participants. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for job promotion and an above-average salary increase between 2008 and 2010 were obtained through binary logistic regression analyses. Individual and organisational factors measured in 2008 were used as predictors in analyses stratified by sex. Mutual adjustment was performed for these variables, as well as for labour market sector and staff category at baseline. In both sexes, younger age predicted both job promotion and an above-average salary increase. Job promotion was also in both sexes predicted by being part of decision-making processes, having conflicts with superiors, and being eager to advance. Furthermore, promotion was predicted by, among men, being educated to post-graduate level and having an open coping strategy and, among women, working >60 hours/week. An above-average salary increase was predicted in both sexes by having a university education. Postgraduate education, having children living at home, and being very motivated to advance predicted an above-average salary increase among women, as did working 51-60 hours/week and being part of decision-making processes in men. Gender differences were seen in several predictors. In conclusion, the results support previous findings of gender differences in predictors of career success. A high level of education, motivation to advance, and procedural justice appear to be more important predictors of career success among women, while open coping was a more important predictor among men.

  13. Love and Family: Discussions Between Swedish Men and Women Concerning the Transition to Parenthood

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    Disa Bergnéhr

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an exploration of how young Swedish adults talk about intimate relationships and the transition to parenthood. It is suggested that people carefully reflect over their relationship with their partner before deciding to embark on parenthood, and it is shown that reproductive decision making is imbued with contradictory ideals that may cause stress and anxiety. To have and to raise a child in a nuclear family arrangement is one prominent ideal that is illuminated by this study, but parallel with this is the notion of intimate relationships breaking down, dwindling. These two discourses are contradictory and create dilemmas in the process of family formation. Some individuals find the risk of relationship dissolution especially stressful, drawing on their own childhood experiences of growing up with separated parents. This is a study based on focus group interviews containing men and women, ranging from 24 to 39 years old, with different educational, occupational and geographical backgrounds; some are parents and some are not. The data are analysed using a discourse analytical approach, and much of the discussion is based on Anthony GIDDENS', Zygmunt BAUMAN's and Ulrich BECK and Elisabeth BECK-GERNSHEIM's reasoning about love and intimacy in the contemporary Western world. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701239

  14. A special kind of married man: notions of marriage and married men in the Swedish gay press, 1954–1986.

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    Rosqvist, Hanna Bertilsdotter

    2012-01-01

    There has long been ambivalence in the LGBT movement and related research as to the meaning of gay identity in relation to marriage. The article explores changing homonormative discourses of marriage and married men within the Swedish gay press from the mid 1950s to the mid 1980s. Expressions of the changes are a shift in language and in views of extramarital relationships, openness, and gay male identity. As a result of the shift, “married men,” including both “married homosexuals” and “bisexuals,” came to be distinguished from “gays.”

  15. LET WOMEN OUT AND MEN IN. THE SWEDISH GENDER EQUALITY POLITICS ON LABOUR MARKET AND IN FAMILIES

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    Katarzyna Szymoniak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the Swedish gender equality politics and its influence on the gender equality on the Swedish labour market and within families in period between 1970s and 2000s. Problems such as wage differentials, occupational sex segregation and unequal distribution of paid and unpaid work between the sexes were faced from the beginning of the 20th century up to 1960s. In order to address those issues gender equality politics was launched in 1970s including enacting of the law on separate taxation and law on gender equality. Moreover, a special family politics was launched encouraging men and women to divide childcare and housework equally. On one hand Swedish gender equality politics contributed to the growth of women’s participation in labour market, to minimize wage differentials and it also made sex distribution between the occupations and at the leading positions in companies and institutions more equal. Moreover, this politics led to more equal distribution of unpaid work between men and women at home. On the other hand it must be pointed out that none of these problems has been completely solved. Women’s wages are still generally lower than men’s and women and men tend to work in different sectors. Women still take greater part of parental leave and tend to do the bigger part of unpaid work. Although a significant change in the level of gender equality has been made since 1960s, which can be considered a success of the Swedish gender equality politics, there is still much that needs to be done in order to achieve gender equality both on labour market and in families.

  16. The association between height and birth order: evidence from 652,518 Swedish men.

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    Myrskylä, Mikko; Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn

    2013-07-01

    Birth order is associated with outcomes such as birth weight and adult socioeconomic position (SEP), but little is known about the association with adult height. This potential birth order-height association is important because height predicts health, and because the association may help explain population-level height trends. We studied the birth order-height association and whether it varies by family characteristics or birth cohort. We used the Swedish Military Conscription Register to analyse adult height among 652,518 men born in 1951-1983 using fixed effects regression models that compare brothers and account for genetic and social factors shared by brothers. We stratified the analysis by family size, parental SEP and birth cohort. We compared models with and without birth weight and birth length controls. Unadjusted analyses showed no differences between the first two birth orders but in the fixed effects regression, birth orders 2, 3 and 4 were associated with 0.4, 0.7 and 0.8 cm (pheight than birth order 1, respectively. The associations were similar in large and small and high-SEP and low-SEP families, but were attenuated in recent cohorts. Birth characteristics did not explain these associations. Birth order is an important determinant of height. The height difference between birth orders 3 and 1 is larger than the population-level height increase achieved over 10 years. The attenuation of the effect over cohorts may reflect improvements in living standards. Decreases in family size may explain some of the secular-height increases in countries with decreasing fertility.

  17. Demand, control and social climate as predictors of emotional exhaustion symptoms in working Swedish men and women.

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    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Theorell, Töres; Oxenstierna, Gabriel; Hyde, Martin; Westerlund, Hugo

    2008-09-01

    Most studies on burnout have been cross-sectional and focused on specific occupations. In the present study we prospectively investigated the association between demands, control, support and conflicts as well as downsizing and emotional exhaustion in men and women derived from a representative sample of the working population in Sweden. The study comprised working men (1,511) and women (1,493), who participated in the Swedish Work Environment Survey (SWES) in 2003 and had no physical exhaustion and prior sick leave at baseline. These participants were followed up in 2006 as part of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). Demands, decision authority, support from fellow workers and superiors, conflicts with fellow workers and superiors, and downsizing were utilized as predictors and the Maslach Burnout Inventory subscale of emotional exhaustion as the outcome in multiple logistic regression analyses. High demands were a highly significant predictor of symptoms of emotional exhaustion (>/=75th percentile). Downsizing and lack of support from superiors were also independent predictors for men as well as lack of support from fellow workers and low decision authority for women. This study indicates that high demands, low decision authority, lack of support at work and downsizing could be important predictors of emotional exhaustion symptoms among working men and women.

  18. Educational level and use of osteoporosis drugs in elderly men and women: a Swedish nationwide register-based study.

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    Wastesson, J W; Ringbäck Weitoft, G; Parker, M G; Johnell, K

    2013-02-01

    We examined educational disparities in use of osteoporosis drugs in a nationwide population of Swedes aged 75-89 years old. Individuals with high education were more likely to receive osteoporosis drug treatment than lower educated individuals, particularly among women. This study aims to investigate whether educational level is associated with use of osteoporosis drugs in the general population of older men and women in Sweden, also after adjustment for fractures. By record linkage of The Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, The Swedish Patient Register, and The Swedish Education Register, we obtained information on filling of prescriptions for osteoporosis drugs (bisphosphonates, calcium/vitamin D combinations, and selective estrogen receptor modulators) from July to October 2005, osteoporotic fractures from 1998 to 2004, and educational level for 645,429 people aged 75-89 years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to investigate whether education was associated with use of osteoporosis drug therapy. Higher education was associated with use of osteoporosis drugs for both men [odds ratio (OR)(high education vs low), 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.19-1.35] and women (OR(high education vs low), 1.57; 95% CI, 1.52-1.61), after adjustment for age, osteoporotic fractures, and comorbidity (i.e., number of other drugs). Among those who had sustained a fracture (n = 57,613), the educational differences in osteoporosis drug treatment were more pronounced in women than men. Further, women were more likely to receive osteoporosis drug treatment after osteoporotic fracture. Uptake of osteoporosis drug therapy seems to be unequally distributed in the elderly population, even in a country with presumably equal access to health care.

  19. Benefits negotiation: three Swedish hospitals pursuit of potential electronic health record benefits.

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    Jeansson, John S

    2013-01-01

    At the very heart of Swedish healthcare digitalisation are large investments in electronic health records (EHRs). These integrated information systems (ISs) carry promises of great benefits and value for organisations. However, realising IS benefits and value has, in general, proven to be a challenging task, and as organisations strive to formalise their realisation efforts a misconception of rationality threatens to emerge. This misconception manifests itself when the formality of analysis threatens to underrate the impact of social processes in deciding which potential benefits to pursue. This paper suggests that these decisions are the result of a social process of negotiation. The purpose of this paper is to observe three benefits analysis projects of three Swedish hospitals to better understand the character and management of proposed benefits negotiations. Findings depict several different categories of benefits negotiations, as well as key factors to consider during the benefits negotiation process.

  20. Methionine and vitamin B6 intake and risk of pancreatic cancer: a prospective study of Swedish women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Giovannucci, Edward; Wolk, Alicja

    2007-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that dietary factors involved in methyl group metabolism, such as methionine, folate, and vitamin B(6), may modify cancer risk. We have previously reported an inverse association between folate intake and pancreatic cancer risk in a prospective population-based cohort of Swedish women and men. In the present study, we used data from this prospective study to examine whether methionine and vitamin B(6) intakes were associated with the incidence of exocrine pancreatic cancer. Our study population comprised 81,922 Swedish women and men, aged 45-83 years, who were free from cancer and completed a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire in 1997. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for age, sex, education, smoking, body mass index, diabetes, and intakes of total energy and dietary folate. During a mean follow-up of 7.2 years, through June 2005, 147 incident cases of pancreatic cancer were diagnosed. Methionine intake was significantly inversely associated with risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas no significant association was observed for dietary or total vitamin B(6) intake. The multivariate rate ratios comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of methionine intake were 0.44 (95% CI, 0.26-0.73; P for trend = .0005) in women and men combined, 0.59 (95% CI, 0.28-1.21; P for trend = .07) in women, and 0.32 (95% CI, 0.15-0.65; P for trend = .002) in men. These findings suggest that higher methionine intake may reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer.

  1. Social and health-related correlates of intergenerational and intragenerational social mobility among Swedish men and women.

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    Novak, M; Ahlgren, C; Hammarstrom, A

    2012-04-01

    To explore the pattern and determinants of inter- and intragenerational occupational mobility among Swedish men and women. A Swedish 14-year prospective longitudinal study (response rate 96.5%). Detailed information on 546 men and 495 women regarding their occupation, health status, health-related behaviour, psychosocial environment at home and school, material recourses and ethnicity prior to mobility were available at 16, 21 and 30 years of age. Odds ratios and 99% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression to determine social mobility. The results indicated that being popular at school predicted upward mobility, and being less popular at school predicted downward mobility. Additionally, material deprivation, economic deprivation, shorter height (women) and poor health behavioural factors predicted downward mobility. Among this cohort, being less popular at school was more common among subjects whose parents had low socio-economic status. Occupational mobility was not influenced by ethnic background. Apart from height (women), health status was not associated with mobility for men or women either inter- or intragenerationally. Unfavourable school environment was a consistent predictor of mobility for both genders. The results indicate that schools should be used as a setting for interventions aimed at reducing socio-economic health inequities. Targeted school interventions that are designed to assist higher educational attainment of socio-economically disadvantaged youth would help to break the social chain of risk experienced during this time, and thereby alter their life course in ways that would reduce subsequent social inequities in health and well-being. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hypersexual Disorder According to the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory in Help-Seeking Swedish Men and Women With Self-Identified Hypersexual Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Görts Öberg, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Öberg KG, Hallberg J, Kaldo V, et al. Hypersexual Disorder According to the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory in Help-Seeking Swedish Men and Women With Self-Identified Hypersexual Behavior. Sex Med 2017;5:e229–e236.

  3. Association of birth order with cardiovascular disease risk factors in young adulthood: a study of one million Swedish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Myrskylä, Mikko; Rasmussen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Birth order has been suggested to be linked to several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, but the evidence is still inconsistent. We aim to determine the associations of birth order with body mass index (BMI), muscle strength and blood pressure. Further we will analyse whether these relationships are affected by family characteristics. BMI, elbow flexion, hand grip and knee extension strength and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured at conscription examination in 1,065,710 Swedish young men born between 1951 and 1975. The data were analysed using linear multivariate and fixed effects regression models; the latter compare siblings and account for genetic and social factors shared by brothers. Fixed effect regression analysis showed that birth order was inversely associated with BMI: second and third born had 0.8% and 1.1% (pbirth order though not always significantly. The association between birth order and blood pressure was not significant. Birth order is negatively associated with BMI and knee extension strength, positively with elbow flexion and hand grip strength, and is not associated with blood pressure among young men. Although the effects are small, the link between birth order and some CVD risk factors is already detectable in young adulthood.

  4. Women and men report different behaviours in, and reasons for medication non-adherence: a nationwide Swedish survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thunander Sundbom L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to analyse gender differences in self-reported non-adherence (NA to prescribed medication in the Swedish general population. We aimed to study unintentional and intentional NA as well as the reasons given for NA. Methods: A questionnaire was mailed to a cross-sectional, random, national sample of people aged 18-84 years in Sweden (n=7985. The response rate was 61.1% (n=4875. The questionnaire covered use of prescription drugs, NA behaviour and reasons for NA. Results: Use of prescription drugs was reported by 59.5% (n=2802 of the participants, and 66.4% (n=1860 of these participants did not adhere to the prescribed regimen. No overall gender differences in reporting NA were found. However, when analysing the various types of NA behaviour and the reasons for NA, different gender patterns emerged. Men were more likely to report forgetting [OR=0.77 (95%CI 0.65:0.92], changing the dosage [OR=0.64 (95%CI 0.52:0.79] and that they had recovered [14.3%, (OR=0.71 (95%CI 0.56:0.90] as a reason. In contrast, more women than men reported filling the prescription but not taking the drug [OR=1.25 (95%CI 1.02:1.54] and reported the development of adverse drug reactions (ADRs [OR=1.89 (95%CI 1.37:2.59] as a reason more commonly. The gender differences remained, in most cases, after controlling for confounders such as age, socioeconomic factors, medical problems and attitudes toward drugs.Conclusions: Women and men have different patterns of NA behaviour and different reasons for NA. Therefore, if adherence is to be improved, a wide knowledge of all the reasons for NA is required, along with an understanding of the impact of gender on the outcomes.

  5. Night work and prostate cancer in men: A Swedish prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akerstedt, T.; Narusyte, J.; Svedberg, P.; Kecklund, L.G.; Alexanderson, K.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men, but the contributing factors are unclear. One such may be night work because of the day/night alternation of work and the resulting disturbance of the circadian system. The purpose

  6. Smoking and schizophrenia in population cohorts of Swedish women and men: a prospective co-relative control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Lönn, Sara Larsson; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the causes of the smoking-schizophrenia association. Using Cox proportional hazard and co-relative control models, the authors predicted future risk for a diagnosis of schizophrenia or nonaffective psychosis from the smoking status of 1,413,849 women and 233,879 men from, respectively, the Swedish birth and conscript registries. Smoking was assessed in women at a mean age of 27 and in men at a mean age of 18. The mean age at end of follow-up was 46 for women and 26 for men. Hazard ratios for first-onset schizophrenia were elevated both for light smoking (2.21 [95% CI=1.90-2.56] for women and 2.15 [95% CI=1.25-3.44] for men) and heavy smoking (3.45 [95% CI=2.95-4.03] for women and 3.80 [95% CI=1.19-6.60] for men). These associations did not decline when schizophrenia onsets 3-5 years after smoking assessment were censored. When age, socioeconomic status, and drug abuse were controlled for, hazard ratios declined only modestly in both samples. Women who smoked into late pregnancy had a much higher risk for schizophrenia than those who quit early. Hazard ratios predicting nonaffective psychosis in the general population, in cousins, in half siblings, and in full siblings discordant for heavy smoking were, respectively, 2.67, 2.71, 2.54, and 2.18. A model utilizing all relative pairs predicted a hazard ratio of 1.69 (95% CI=1.17-2.44) for nonaffective psychosis in the heavy-smoking member of discordant monozygotic twin pairs. Smoking prospectively predicts risk for schizophrenia. This association does not arise from smoking onset during a schizophrenic prodrome and demonstrates a clear dose-response relationship. While little of this association is explained by epidemiological confounders, a portion arises from common familial/genetic risk factors. However, in full siblings and especially monozygotic twins discordant for smoking, risk for nonaffective psychosis is appreciably higher in the smoking member. These results can help

  7. Intelligence and Disability Pension in Swedish Men and Women Followed from Childhood to Late Middle Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lundin

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between intelligence and disability pension due to mental, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and substance-use disorders among men and women, and to assess the role of childhood social factors and adulthood work characteristics.Two random samples of men and women born 1948 and 1953 (n = 10 563 and 9 434, and tested for general intelligence at age 13, were followed in registers for disability pension until 2009. Physical and psychological strains in adulthood were assessed using job exposure matrices. Associations were examined using Cox proportional hazard regression models, with increases in rates reported as hazard ratios (HRs with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI per decrease in stanine intelligence.In both men and women increased risks were found for disability pension due to all causes, musculoskeletal disorder, mental disorder other than substance use, and cardiovascular disease as intelligence decreased. Increased risk was also found for substance use disorder in men. In multivariate models, HRs were attenuated after controlling for pre-school plans in adolescence, and low job control and high physical strain in adulthood. In the fully adjusted model, increased HRs remained for all causes (male HR 1.11, 95%CI 1.07-1.15, female HR 1.06, 95%CI 1.02-1.09 and musculoskeletal disorder (male HR 1.16, 95%CI 1.09-1.24, female HR 1.08, 95%CI 1.03-1.14 during 1986 to 2009.Relatively low childhood intelligence is associated with increased risk of disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorder in both men and women, even after adjustment for risk factors for disability pension measured over the life course.

  8. Intelligence and Disability Pension in Swedish Men and Women Followed from Childhood to Late Middle Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Andreas; Sörberg Wallin, Alma; Falkstedt, Daniel; Allebeck, Peter; Hemmingsson, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between intelligence and disability pension due to mental, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and substance-use disorders among men and women, and to assess the role of childhood social factors and adulthood work characteristics. Two random samples of men and women born 1948 and 1953 (n = 10 563 and 9 434), and tested for general intelligence at age 13, were followed in registers for disability pension until 2009. Physical and psychological strains in adulthood were assessed using job exposure matrices. Associations were examined using Cox proportional hazard regression models, with increases in rates reported as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) per decrease in stanine intelligence. In both men and women increased risks were found for disability pension due to all causes, musculoskeletal disorder, mental disorder other than substance use, and cardiovascular disease as intelligence decreased. Increased risk was also found for substance use disorder in men. In multivariate models, HRs were attenuated after controlling for pre-school plans in adolescence, and low job control and high physical strain in adulthood. In the fully adjusted model, increased HRs remained for all causes (male HR 1.11, 95%CI 1.07-1.15, female HR 1.06, 95%CI 1.02-1.09) and musculoskeletal disorder (male HR 1.16, 95%CI 1.09-1.24, female HR 1.08, 95%CI 1.03-1.14) during 1986 to 2009. Relatively low childhood intelligence is associated with increased risk of disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorder in both men and women, even after adjustment for risk factors for disability pension measured over the life course.

  9. Intelligence and Disability Pension in Swedish Men and Women Followed from Childhood to Late Middle Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Andreas; Sörberg Wallin, Alma; Falkstedt, Daniel; Allebeck, Peter; Hemmingsson, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between intelligence and disability pension due to mental, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and substance-use disorders among men and women, and to assess the role of childhood social factors and adulthood work characteristics. Methods Two random samples of men and women born 1948 and 1953 (n = 10 563 and 9 434), and tested for general intelligence at age 13, were followed in registers for disability pension until 2009. Physical and psychological strains in adulthood were assessed using job exposure matrices. Associations were examined using Cox proportional hazard regression models, with increases in rates reported as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) per decrease in stanine intelligence. Results In both men and women increased risks were found for disability pension due to all causes, musculoskeletal disorder, mental disorder other than substance use, and cardiovascular disease as intelligence decreased. Increased risk was also found for substance use disorder in men. In multivariate models, HRs were attenuated after controlling for pre-school plans in adolescence, and low job control and high physical strain in adulthood. In the fully adjusted model, increased HRs remained for all causes (male HR 1.11, 95%CI 1.07–1.15, female HR 1.06, 95%CI 1.02–1.09) and musculoskeletal disorder (male HR 1.16, 95%CI 1.09–1.24, female HR 1.08, 95%CI 1.03–1.14) during 1986 to 2009. Conclusion Relatively low childhood intelligence is associated with increased risk of disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorder in both men and women, even after adjustment for risk factors for disability pension measured over the life course. PMID:26062026

  10. Swedish Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borgvall, Jonathan; Lif, Patrik

    2005-01-01

    .... The military research work presented here includes the three military administrations, FOI -- Swedish Defence Research Agency, FMV -- Swedish Defence Materiel Administration, and SNDC -- Swedish...

  11. FTO genotype, physical activity, and coronary heart disease risk in Swedish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Jaana; Mehlig, Kirsten; Leander, Karin; Lissner, Lauren; Björck, Lena; Rosengren, Annika; Nyberg, Fredrik

    2014-04-01

    Variants in the fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO) predisposing to obesity and diabetes mellitus have also been associated with cardiovascular disease. Physical activity has been suggested to attenuate the FTO effect on obesity, but it is unknown whether this is also true for cardiovascular disease. Therefore, we explored whether physical activity modifies the FTO association with coronary heart disease (CHD). FTO rs9939609 (T>A) polymorphism was genotyped in 2 Swedish population-based case-control studies with 1743 CHD cases and 4402 population controls (25-74 years of age; 41% women). Leisure time physical activity was assessed by questionnaires, and 3 levels were defined: low, medium, and high. Overall, carriers of the FTO A allele had an increased risk of CHD (odds ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.37) adjusted for age, sex, study, and body mass index. Although A-allele carriers with low physical activity had the highest CHD risk (odds ratio, 3.30; 95% confidence interval, 2.44-4.46) compared with those with TT genotype and high activity, the effects of FTO genotype and physical activity on CHD risk were approximately additive, indicating the absence of additive interaction. The stratum-specific relative risks of CHD from the A allele in subjects with low, medium, and high physical activity were odds ratio 1.11 (95% confidence interval, 0.77-1.60), 1.22 (1.04-1.44), and 1.38 (1.06-1.80), respectively, but the suggested multiplicative interaction was not significant. FTO rs9939609 A-allele carriers have an increased CHD risk, and the association is not counteracted by increased physical activity.

  12. Does high intelligence improve prognosis? The association of intelligence with recurrence and mortality among Swedish men with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörberg Wallin, Alma; Falkstedt, Daniel; Allebeck, Peter; Melin, Bo; Janszky, Imre; Hemmingsson, Tomas

    2015-04-01

    Lower intelligence early in life is associated with increased risks for coronary heart disease (CHD) and mortality. Intelligence level might affect compliance to treatment but its prognostic importance in patients with CHD is unknown. A cohort of 1923 Swedish men with a measure of intelligence from mandatory military conscription in 1969-1970 at age 18-20, who were diagnosed with CHD 1991-2007, were followed to the end of 2008. recurrent CHD event. Secondary outcome: case fatality from the first event, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. National registers provided information on CHD events, comorbidity, mortality and socioeconomic factors. The fully adjusted HRs for recurrent CHD for medium and low intelligence, compared with high intelligence, were 0.98, (95% CIs 0.83 to 1.16) and 1.09 (0.89 to 1.34), respectively. The risks were increased for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality with lower intelligence, but were attenuated in the fully adjusted models (fully adjusted HRs for cardiovascular mortality 1.92 (0.94 to 3.94) and 1.98 (0.89 to 4.37), respectively; for all-cause mortality 1.63 (1.00 to 2.65) and 1.62 (0.94 to 2.78), respectively). There was no increased risk for case-fatality at the first event (fully adjusted ORs 1.06 (0.73 to 1.55) and 0.97 (0.62 to 1.50), respectively). Although we found lower intelligence to be associated with increased mortality in middle-aged men with CHD, there was no evidence for its possible effect on recurrence in CHD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. It's no surprise! Men are not hit more than women by the health consequences of unemployment in the Northern Swedish Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, Anne; Gustafsson, Per E; Strandh, Mattias; Virtanen, Pekka; Janlert, Urban

    2011-03-01

    Research often fails to ascertain whether men and women are equally hit by the health consequences of unemployment. The aim of this study was to analyze whether men's self-reported health and health behaviour were hit more by unemployment than women's in a follow-up of the Northern Swedish Cohort. A follow-up study of a cohort of all school leavers in a middle-sized industrial town in northern Sweden was performed from age 16 to age 42. Of those still alive of the original cohort, 94% (n = 1,006) participated during the whole period. A sample was made of participants in the labour force and living in Sweden (n = 916). Register data were used to assess the length of unemployment from age 40 to 42, while questionnaire data were used for the other variables. In multivariate logistic regression analyses significant relations between unemployment and mental health/smoking were found among both women and men, even after control for unemployment at the time of the investigation and indicators of health-related selection. Significant relations between unemployment and alcohol consumption were found among women, while few visits to a dentist was significant among men. Men are not hit more by the health consequences of unemployment in a Swedish context, with a high participation rate of women in the labour market. The public health relevance is that the study indicates the need to take gendered contexts into account in public health research.

  14. Electronic Commerce and Market Focus: some findings from a study of Swedish small to medium enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Vrazalic

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past, organisations relied on traditional quantitative metrics, such as return on investment (ROI to make decisions when investing in technology. With the advent of electronic commerce (EC, these decisions are becoming less reliant on ROI measures. Instead different driving forces are taking precedence in the decision making process. This paper presents the findings of a study of 118 Swedish small to medium enterprises (SMEs that have adopted EC. The results of the study suggest that improvements to customer service, internal efficiency and organisational competitiveness have become equally important when making EC investment decisions. The study also examined whether major market focus (local, regional, national or international had an influence on the organisation’s decision to adopt EC. Findings indicate no associations between the market focus and the driving forces, however the existence of a fully developed plan for EC adoption and the size of the business were found to be highly associated with the development of new markets as an EC adoption criteria.

  15. Body mass index in young adulthood and suicidal behavior up to age 59 in a cohort of Swedish men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Sörberg

    Full Text Available An association of higher body mass index (BMI with lower risk of attempted and completed suicide has been reported. In contrast, increasing BMI has been found to be associated with depression and other risk factors for suicidal behavior. We aimed to investigate this possible paradox in a cohort comprising 49 000 Swedish men. BMI, mental health, lifestyle and socioeconomic measures were recorded at conscription in 1969-70, at ages 18-20. Information on attempted suicide 1973-2008 and completed suicide 1971-2008 was obtained from national records. Hazard ratios (HR were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models. We found that each standard deviation (SD increase in BMI was associated with a 12% lower risk of later suicide attempt (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.83-0.94. Associations were somewhat weaker for completed suicide and did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.85-1.01. Adjustment for a wide range of possible confounding factors had little effect on the associations. Lower BMI at conscription was also associated with higher prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses, low emotional control and depressed mood. Our results confirm previous findings regarding the association of higher BMI with a reduced risk of suicide, extending them to show similar findings in relation to suicide attempts. The associations were little affected by adjustment for a range of possible confounding factors. However, we found no evidence that high BMI was associated with an increased risk of depression cross-sectionally or longitudinally.

  16. Influence of Cardiovascular Fitness and Muscle Strength in Early Adulthood on Long-Term Risk of Stroke in Swedish Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åberg, N David; Kuhn, H Georg; Nyberg, Jenny; Waern, Margda; Friberg, Peter; Svensson, Johan; Torén, Kjell; Rosengren, Annika; Åberg, Maria A I; Nilsson, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Low cardiovascular fitness (fitness) in mid- and late life is a risk factor for stroke. However, the respective effects on long-term stroke risk of fitness and muscle strength in early adulthood are unknown. Therefore, we analyzed these in a large cohort of young men. We performed a population-based longitudinal cohort study of Swedish male conscripts registered in 1968 to 2005. Data on fitness (by the cycle ergometric test; n=1 166 035) and muscle strength (n=1,563,750) were trichotomized (low, medium, and high). During a 42-year follow-up, risk of stroke (subarachnoidal hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and ischemic stroke) and fatality were calculated with Cox proportional hazards models. To identify cases, we used the International Classification of Diseases-Eighth to Tenth Revision in the Hospital Discharge Register and the Cause of Death Register. First-time stroke events were identified (subarachnoidal hemorrhage, n=895; intracerebral hemorrhage, n=2904; ischemic stroke, n=7767). For all stroke and fatality analysis any type of first-time stroke was recorded (n=10,917). There were inverse relationships in a dose-response fashion between fitness and muscle strength with any stroke (adjusted hazard ratios for the lowest, compared with the highest, tertile of each 1.70 [1.50-1.93] and 1.39 [1.27-1.53], respectively). There were stronger associations for fatal stroke. All 3 stroke types displayed similar associations. Associations between fitness and stroke remained when adjusted for muscle strength, whereas associations between muscle strength and stroke weakened/disappeared when adjusted for fitness. At the age of 18 years, low fitness and to a lesser degree low muscle strength were independently associated with an increased future stroke risk. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Habitual sleep patterns and the distribution of body mass index: cross-sectional findings among Swedish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, Anna; Bottai, Matteo; Adami, Hans-Olov; Bellocco, Rino; Nyrén, Olof; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Lagerros, Ylva Trolle

    2014-10-01

    To compare distributions of body mass index (BMI) between individuals with different habitual sleep patterns. We performed cross-sectional analyses of 40,197 Swedish adults (64% women), who reported sleep duration and quality, weight, height, and possible confounding factors in 1997. Using quantile regression, we estimated associations between sleep patterns and selected percentiles of the distribution of BMI. While the medians were similar, larger adjusted values of BMI were estimated in the upper part of the distribution among men and women with short sleep (≤5 h) compared with medium-length sleep (6-8 h). For example, in men, the 90th percentile of BMI was 0.80 kg/m(2) (95% confidence interval: 0.17-1.43 kg/m(2)) higher among short sleepers. In women, long sleepers (≥9 h) also showed larger values in the upper part of the BMI distribution; the 90th percentile was 1.23 kg/m(2) (0.42-2.04 kg/m(2)) higher than in medium-length sleepers. In male long sleepers, smaller values were estimated in the lower part of the BMI distribution; the 10th percentile was 0.84 kg/m(2) lower (0.35-1.32 kg/m(2)) than in medium-length sleepers. The 90th percentile of BMI in women with poor-quality compared with good-quality sleep was larger by 0.82 kg/m(2) (0.47-1.16 kg/m(2)); the 10th percentile was smaller by 0.17 kg/m(2) (0.02-0.32 kg/m(2)). Short, long or poor-quality sleepers showed larger, or smaller, values at the tails of the BMI distribution, but similar medians. Hence, unfavorable sleep patterns and BMI were associated only in a subset of this study population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sexual interaction or a solitary action: young Swedish men's ideal images of sexual situations in relationships and in one-night stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmerstig, Eva; Wijma, Barbro; Sandell, Kerstin; Berterö, Carina

    2014-10-01

    It seems that traditional gender norms influence young women's and men's sexuality differently. However, little attention has been paid to ideal images of sexual situations. This study identifies young heterosexual men's ideal images of sexual situations and their expectations of themselves in sexual situations. The present study employs a qualitative design. Twelve Swedish men (aged 16-20) participated in individual in-depth qualitative interviews. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the constant comparative method from grounded theory. Our study revealed that the young men's conceptions of normal sexual situations were divided into two parts: sexual situations in relationships, and sexual situations in one-night stands. Their ideal image, "a balanced state of emotional and physical pleasure", was influenced by the presence/absence of intimacy, the partner's response, and their own performance. The greatest opportunities to experience intimacy and the partner's response were found during sexual situations in relationships. In one-night stands, the men wanted to make a good impression by performing well, and behaved according to masculine stereotypes. Stereotyped masculinity norms regulate young heterosexual men's sexuality, particularly in one-night stands. Sexual health promotion should emphasize the presence of these masculinity norms, which probably involve costs in relation to young men's sexual wellbeing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. "My greatest dream is to be normal": the impact of gender on the depression narratives of young Swedish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Ulla E; Bengs, Carita; Samuelsson, Eva; Johansson, Eva E

    2011-05-01

    Depression is common among young people. Gender differences in diagnosing depression appear during adolescence. The study aim was to explore the impact of gender on depression in young Swedish men and women. Grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 23 young people aged 17 to 25 years who had been diagnosed with depression. Their narratives were marked by a striving to be normal and disclosed strong gender stereotypes, constructed in interaction with parents, friends, and the media. Gender norms were upheld by feelings of shame, and restricted the acting space of our informants. However, we also found transgressions of these gender norms. Primary health care workers could encourage young men to open up emotionally and communicate their personal distress, and young women to be daring and assertive of their own strengths, so that both genders might gain access to the positive coping strategies practiced respectively by each.

  20. Growing gaps: The importance of income and family for educational inequalities in mortality among Swedish men and women 1990-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östergren, Olof

    2015-08-01

    Although absolute levels of mortality have decreased among Swedish men and women in recent decades, educational inequalities in mortality have increased, especially among women. The aim of this study is to disentangle the role of income and family type in educational inequalities in mortality in Sweden during 1990-2009, focusing on gender differences. Data on individuals born in Sweden between the ages of 30 and 74 years were collected from total population registries, covering a total of 529,275 deaths and 729 million person-months. Temporary life expectancies (age 30-74 years) by education were calculated using life tables, and rate ratios were estimated with Poisson regression with robust standard errors. Temporary life expectancy improved among all groups except low educated women. Relative educational inequalities in mortality (RRs) increased from 1.79 to 1.98 among men and from 1.78 to 2.10 among women. Variation in family type explained some of the inequalities among men, but not among women, and did not contribute to the trend. Variation in income explained a larger part of the educational inequalities among men compared to women and also explained the increase in educational inequalities in mortality among men and women. Increasing educational inequalities in mortality in Sweden may be attributed to the increase in income inequalities in mortality. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  1. The common FTO variant rs9939609 is not associated with BMI in a longitudinal study on a cohort of Swedish men born 1920-1924.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, Josefin A; Risérus, Ulf; Axelsson, Tomas; Lannfelt, Lars; Schiöth, Helgi B; Fredriksson, Robert

    2009-12-09

    Common FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene variants have recently been strongly associated with body mass index and obesity in several large studies. Here we set out to examine the association of the FTO variant rs9939609 with BMI in a 32 year follow up study of men born 1920-1924. Moreover, we analyzed the effect of physical activity on the different genotypes. The FTO rs9936609 was genotyped using an Illumina golden gate assay. BMI was calculated using standard methods and body fat was estimated by measuring skinfold thickness using a Harpenden caliper. Physical activity was assessed using a four question medical questionnaire. FTO rs9939609 was genotyped in 1153 elderly Swedish men taking part of a population-based cohort study, the ULSAM cohort. The risk of obesity and differences in BMI according to genotype at the ages of 50, 60, 70, 77 and 82 were investigated. We found no increased risk of obesity and no association with BMI at any age with the FTO rs9939609 variant. We found however interaction between physical activity at the age of 50 years and genotype on BMI levels (p = 0.039) and there was a clear trend towards larger BMI differences between the TT and AA carriers as well as between AT and AA carriers in the less physically active subjects. Here we found that the well established obesity risk allele for a common variant in FTO does not associate with increased BMI levels in a Swedish population of adult men which reached adulthood before the appearance of today's obesogenic enviroment. There is an interaction between physical activity and the effect of the FTO genotype on BMI levels suggesting that lack of physical activity is a requirement for an association of FTO gene variants to obesity.

  2. The common FTO variant rs9939609 is not associated with BMI in a longitudinal study on a cohort of Swedish men born 1920-1924

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lannfelt Lars

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common FTO (fat mass and obesity associated gene variants have recently been strongly associated with body mass index and obesity in several large studies. Here we set out to examine the association of the FTO variant rs9939609 with BMI in a 32 year follow up study of men born 1920-1924. Moreover, we analyzed the effect of physical activity on the different genotypes. Methods The FTO rs9936609 was genotyped using an Illumina golden gate assay. BMI was calculated using standard methods and body fat was estimated by measuring skinfold thickness using a Harpenden caliper. Physical activity was assessed using a four question medical questionnaire. Results FTO rs9939609 was genotyped in 1153 elderly Swedish men taking part of a population-based cohort study, the ULSAM cohort. The risk of obesity and differences in BMI according to genotype at the ages of 50, 60, 70, 77 and 82 were investigated. We found no increased risk of obesity and no association with BMI at any age with the FTO rs9939609 variant. We found however interaction between physical activity at the age of 50 years and genotype on BMI levels (p = 0.039 and there was a clear trend towards larger BMI differences between the TT and AA carriers as well as between AT and AA carriers in the less physically active subjects. Conclusion Here we found that the well established obesity risk allele for a common variant in FTO does not associate with increased BMI levels in a Swedish population of adult men which reached adulthood before the appearance of today's obesogenic enviroment. There is an interaction between physical activity and the effect of the FTO genotype on BMI levels suggesting that lack of physical activity is a requirement for an association of FTO gene variants to obesity.

  3. Life events, mood, mental strain and cardiovascular risk factors in Swedish middle-aged men. Data from the Swedish part of the Renault/Volvo Coeur Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, G; Bengtsson, C; Dimberg, L; Kumlin, L; Eriksson, B

    1998-07-01

    The associations between life events, mood, mental strain and cardiovascular risk factors were investigated in the Renault/Volvo Coeur Study. About 1,000 men, blue-collar and white-collar workers, were asked by means of interview-administered questionnaires about life events experienced during the year preceding the screening, about mood and mental strain and about smoking, alcohol consumption and exercise habits. Blood pressure, concentration of serum lipids and blood glucose, and anthropometric measures were determined in a screening procedure. Negative life events, especially work-related, were associated with depressed mood and mental strain but not with elevation of biological risk factors such as elevated blood pressure and serum lipids. Depressed mood and mental strain were related to increased tobacco consumption in blue-collar workers and increased alcohol consumption in white-collar workers.

  4. Change in Work-Time Control and Work-Home Interference Among Swedish Working Men and Women: Findings from the SLOSH Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leineweber, Constanze; Kecklund, Göran; Lindfors, Petra; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L

    2016-12-01

    The aim is to study the influence of change in work-time control (WTC) on work-home interference (WHI) while adjusting for other work-related factors, demographics, changes at work and WHI at baseline among women and men. An additional aim was to explore sex differences in the relation between change in WTC and WHI. The study included working participants of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) study of the third (2010) and fourth (2012) waves (n = 5440). Based on a seven-item index, four groups of WTC were formed: stable high (40 %), stable low (42 %), increasing (9 %), or decreasing (9 %) WTC over the 2 years. WHI was measured by four items and individuals were categorised in whether suffering or not suffering of WHI. Sex-stratified logistic regression analyses with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were used to estimate the odds of experiencing WHI by change in WTC. Controlling for demographics and work-related factors, women with stable low (OR = 1.46; 95 % CI 1.14-1.88) and women and men with decreasing WTC (women OR = 1.99; 95 % CI 1.38-2.85; men OR = 1.80; 95 % CI 1.18-2.73) had higher odds of WHI than those with a stable high WTC. Additionally, adjusting for changes at work and WHI at baseline did not alter the results substantially. Interaction analysis did not reveal any significant sex difference in the relation between WTC and WHI. For both women and men decreased and for women only, low control over working hours resulted in WHI also after adjusting for work-related factors and demographics.

  5. Circulating levels of perfluoroalkyl substances are associated with dietary patterns - A cross sectional study in elderly Swedish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, Per; Montse, Rachel; Lampa, Erik; Salihovic, Samira; van Bavel, Bert; Lind, Lars; Lind, P Monica

    2016-10-01

    In our daily life, we are exposed to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) with possible health implications. The main exposure route for these substances is diet but comparative studies on how dietary habits influence exposure are lacking. To examine the relations between blood levels of PFAS and adherence to three predefined dietary patterns (a WHO recommended diet, a Mediterranean-like diet, and a Low-Carbohydrate High-Protein (LCHP) diet) in an elderly Swedish population. Dietary data from 7-day food records and serum concentrations of PFAS were obtained from a 70-year-old Swedish population (n=844), the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. The Healthy Diet Indicator score (based on WHO recommendations), the Mediterranean Diet Score and LCHP score were used to assess adherence. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the associations between eight major PFAS and adherence to each dietary pattern. The WHO recommended diet was positively associated with perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS). The LCHP diet was positively related to four out of eight PFAS; namely, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA). The Mediterranean-like diet was positively associated with most PFAS; namely perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), PFHxS, PFNA, PFDA, and PFUnDA. All dietary patterns were positively associated with blood levels of PFAS. The highest body burden of PFAS was found in individuals with high adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, whilst individuals who more closely followed the officially recommended diet displayed a lower body burden of these compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Examining Psychiatric Disorder as a Risk Factor for Cancer in a Prospective Cohort Study of 1,165,039 Swedish Men: Different Analytical Strategies Reveal Different Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Elise; Batty, G. David; Mulheran, Paul A.; Gale, Catharine R.; Osborn, David P.; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Background Associations between psychiatric disorders and cancer incidence are inconsistent, with studies reporting cancer rates in psychiatric patients that are higher, similar, or lower than the general population. Exploration of these associations is complicated by difficulties in establishing the timing of onset of psychiatric disorders and cancer, and the associated possibility of reverse causality. Some studies have dealt with this problem by excluding patients with cancers pre-dating their psychiatric illness; others have not considered the issue. Methods We examined associations between psychiatric hospitalization and cancer incidence in a cohort of 1,165,039 Swedish men, and explored the impact of different analytical strategies on these associations using real and simulated data. Results Relative to men without psychiatric hospitalization, we observed consistent increases in smoking-related cancers in those with psychiatric hospitalizations, regardless of analytical approach (for example, hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.73 (1.52, 1.96)). However, associations with nonsmoking-related cancers were highly dependent on analytical strategy. In analyses based on the full cohort, we observed no association or a modest increase in cancer incidence in those with psychiatric hospitalizations (1.14 (1.07, 1.22)). In contrast, analyses excluding men whose cancer predated their psychiatric hospitalizations, resulted in a reduction in future cancer incidence in psychiatric patients (0.72; 0.67, 0.78). Results from simulated data suggest that even modest exclusions of this type can lead to strong artefactual associations. Conclusions Psychiatric disorder-cancer incidence associations are complex and influenced by analytical strategy. A greater understanding of the temporal relationship between psychiatric disorder and cancer incidence is required. PMID:22488410

  7. Cognitive ability, lifestyle risk factors, and two-year survival in first myocardial infarction men: A Swedish National Registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallert, John; Madison, Guy; Held, Claes; Olsson, Erik

    2017-03-15

    General cognitive ability (CA) is positively associated with later physical and mental health, health literacy, and longevity. We investigated whether CA estimated approximately 30years earlier in young adulthood predicted lifestyle-related risk factors and two-year survival in first myocardial infarction (MI) male patients. Young adulthood CA estimated through psychometric testing at age 18-20years was obtained from the mandatory military conscript registry (INSARK) and linked to national quality registry SWEDEHEART/RIKS-HIA data on smoking, diabetes, hypertension, obesity (BMI>30kg/m2) in 60years or younger Swedish males with first MI. Patients were followed up in the Cause of Death registry. The 5659 complete cases (deceased=106, still alive=5553) were descriptively compared. Crude and adjusted associations were modelled with logistic regression. After multivariable adjustment, one SD increase in CA was associated with a decreased odds ratio of being a current smoker (0.63 [0.59, 0.67], Plifestyle risk factors smoking, diabetes, and obesity, and two-year survival in first MI male patients. CA assessment might benefit risk stratification and possibly aid further tailoring of secondary preventive strategy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 21 October 2008 - LHC Inauguration - Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research L. Leijonborg welcomed by CERN Director-General R. Aymar and CERN Chief Scientific Officer J. Engelen and signing the electronic guest book with T. Pettersson.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Photo Service

    2008-01-01

    21 October 2008 - LHC Inauguration - Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research L. Leijonborg welcomed by CERN Director-General R. Aymar and CERN Chief Scientific Officer J. Engelen and signing the electronic guest book with T. Pettersson.

  9. Exercise during growth and young adulthood is independently associated with cortical bone size and strength in old Swedish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Martin; Sundh, Daniel; Ohlsson, Claes; Karlsson, Magnus; Mellström, Dan; Lorentzon, Mattias

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have reported an association between exercise during youth and increased areal bone mineral density at old age. The primary aim of this study was to investigate if exercise during growth was independently associated with greater cortical bone size and whole bone strength in weight-bearing bone in old men. The tibia and radius were measured using both peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) (XCT-2000; Stratec) at the diaphysis and high-resolution pQCT (HR-pQCT) (XtremeCT; Scanco) at the metaphysis to obtain cortical bone geometry and finite element-derived bone strength in distal tibia and radius, in 597 men, 79.9 ± 3.4 (mean ± SD) years old. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information about previous and current physical activity. In order to determine whether level of exercise during growth and young adulthood or level of current physical activity were independently associated with bone parameters in both tibia and radius, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) analyses were used. Adjusting for covariates and current physical activity, we found that men in the group with the highest level of exercise early in life (regular exercise at a competitive level) had higher tibial cortical cross-sectional area (CSA; 6.3%, p bone strength (failure load: 7.5%, p exercise during growth and young adulthood. Subjects in the group with the highest level of current physical activity had smaller tibial endosteal circumference (EC; 3.6%, p = 0.012) at the diaphysis than subjects with a lower current physical activity, when adjusting for covariates and level of exercise during growth and young adulthood. These findings indicate that exercise during growth can increase the cortical bone size via periosteal expansion, whereas exercise at old age may decrease endosteal bone loss in weight-bearing bone in old men. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  10. Cannabis Use as Risk or Protection for Type 2 Diabetes: A Longitudinal Study of 18 000 Swedish Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Danielsson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Whether or not cannabis use may increase or decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes is not clear. We analyzed the association between cannabis and subsequent type 2 diabetes and if a potential positive or reverse association persisted after controlling for potential confounders. Methods. In this population-based cohort study, 17,967 Swedish men and women (aged 18–84 years, who answered an extensive questionnaire in 2002 (including questions on cannabis use, were followed up for new cases of type 2 diabetes (n=608 by questionnaire (in 2010 and in health registers during 2003–2011. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% CIs were estimated in a multiple logistic regression analysis. Potential confounders included age, sex, BMI, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol use, and occupational position. Results. The crude association showed that cannabis users had a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes OR = 0.68 (95% CIs: 0.47–0.99. However, this inverse association attenuated to OR = 0.94 (95% CIs: 0.63–1.39 after adjusting for age. Conclusions. The present study suggests that there is no association between cannabis use and subsequent type 2 diabetes after controlling for age. To make more robust conclusions prospective studies, with longer periods of follow-up and more detailed information about cannabis use, are needed.

  11. Cannabis, Tobacco, Alcohol Use, and the Risk of Early Stroke: A Population-Based Cohort Study of 45 000 Swedish Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkstedt, Daniel; Wolff, Valerie; Allebeck, Peter; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Danielsson, Anna-Karin

    2017-02-01

    Current knowledge on cannabis use in relation to stroke is based almost exclusively on clinical reports. By using a population-based cohort, we aimed to find out whether there was an association between cannabis use and early-onset stroke, when accounting for the use of tobacco and alcohol. The cohort comprises 49 321 Swedish men, born between 1949 and 1951, who were conscripted into compulsory military service between the ages of 18 and 20. All men answered 2 detailed questionnaires at conscription and were subject to examinations of physical aptitude, psychological functioning, and medical status. Information on stroke events up to ≈60 years of age was obtained from national databases; this includes strokes experienced before 45 years of age. No associations between cannabis use in young adulthood and strokes experienced ≤45 years of age or beyond were found in multivariable models: cannabis use >50 times, hazard ratios=0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34-2.57) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.59-1.53). Although an almost doubled risk of ischemic stroke was observed in those with cannabis use >50 times, this risk was attenuated when adjusted for tobacco usage: hazards ratio=1.47 (95% CI, 0.83-2.56). Smoking ≥20 cigarettes per day was clearly associated both with strokes before 45 years of age, hazards ratio=5.04 (95% CI, 2.80-9.06), and with strokes throughout the follow-up, hazards ratio=2.15 (95% CI, 1.61-2.88). We found no evident association between cannabis use in young adulthood and stroke, including strokes before 45 years of age. Tobacco smoking, however, showed a clear, dose-response shaped association with stroke. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Family influence in fertility: A longitudinal analysis of sibling correlations in first birth risk and completed fertility among Swedish men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Dahlberg

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The intergenerational transmission of fertility has received much attention in demography. This has been done by estimating the correlation between parents' and offsprings' fertility. An alternative method that provides a more comprehensive account of the role of family background - sibling correlations - has not been used before. OBJECTIVE I estimate the overall importance of family background on entry into parenthood and completed fertility and whether it changed over time. Furthermore, I compare the intergenerational correlation in completed fertility with corresponding sibling correlations. METHODS Brother and sister correlations in first birth hazard and in final family size were estimated using multi-level event-history and multi-level linear regression on Swedish longitudinal register data. RESULTS The overall variation in fertility that can be explained by family of origin is approximately 15Š-25Š for women and 10Š-15Š for men. The overall importance of the family of origin has not changed over the approximately twenty birth cohorts that were studied (1940-63 for women, 1940-58 for men. Parents' completed fertility accounts for only a small share of the total family background effect on completed fertility. CONCLUSIONS This study contributes to the existing understanding of intergenerational transition of fertility, both methodologically, by introducing a new and powerful method to study the overall importance of family of origin, and substantially, by estimating the overall importance of family of origin and ist development over time. A non-negligible proportion of the variation in fertility can be attributed to family of origin and this effect has remained stable over twenty birth cohorts.

  13. The evolving relationship between premorbid intelligence and serious depression across the lifespan - A longitudinal study of 43,540 Swedish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, Emil; Melin, Bo; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Sörberg Wallin, Alma

    2017-03-15

    An association between higher intelligence and lower probability of serious depression has previously been established. Yet, to our knowledge, no large prospective study has examined the relationship across the lifespan. A cohort of 49,321 Swedish men was followed from conscription in 1969-70 (age 18-20) through to 2008. Odds ratios (OR) for first time hospitalisation for depression (FTHD) were calculated in relation to intelligence for distinct time periods across the lifespan, while controlling for established risk factors for depression. There was a linear association between higher intelligence in youth and lower odds for FTHD during the entire follow-up period, 1973-2008. The association got progressively weaker across the lifespan. During 1973-80, one step down on the stanine scale was associated with an unadjusted increase in OR of 1.34 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-1.42], adjusted OR 1.23 [1.15-1.32]; while, during 2001-2008, the ORs were less than half of the magnitude of the first period, unadjusted 1.14 [1.07-1.21], and adjusted 1.09 [1.01-1.17]. The study includes men only, and the number of available places for in-patient care decreased during the follow-up period. For the first time, we have shown that the association between lower intelligence and depression decreases over time. The attenuation of the association in the adjusted models suggests a slower accumulation of depressogenic stressors among people with a higher IQ-score. Further exploration of intelligence's role in the etiology of depression across the lifespan is required in order to facilitate adequate diagnoses and ameliorating interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Social class, social mobility and alcohol-related disorders in Swedish men and women: A study of four generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorchuk, Anna; Goodman, Anna; Koupil, Ilona

    2018-01-01

    To investigate whether and how social class and social mobility in grandparents and parents predict alcohol-related disorders (ARDs) in males and females aged 12+ years, and whether intergenerational social prediction of ARDs varies across time periods. The study sample included four successive generations (G) of Swedish families from the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study: G0 born 1851-1912; G1 born 1915-1929; G2 born 1940-1964 and G3 born 1965-1989. Two study populations were created, each consisting of grandparents, parents and offspring: population I 'G0-G1-G2' (offspring n = 18 430) and population II 'G1-G2-G3' (offspring n = 26 469). Registers and archives provided data on ancestors' socio-demographic factors and ARD history, together with offspring ARD development between 1964-2008. Cox regression models examined the hazard of offspring ARD development according to grandparental social class and grandparental-to-parental social trajectories, controlling for offspring birth year, grandmother's and mother's marital status and parental ARDs. Disadvantaged grandparental social class predicted increased ARD risk in offspring in population I, although the effect attenuated and became non-significant in males after adjusting for parental characteristics (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.80 (95%CI; 1.07, 3.03) in females, HR = 1.32 (95%CI; 0.93, 1.89) in males). In population II, no increase in ARD risk by grandparental social was evident. In both populations, males were at the highest ARD risk if both parents and grandparents belonged to disadvantaged social class (population I: HR = 1.82 (95%CI; 1.22-2.72); population II: HR = 1.68 (95%CI; 1.02-2.76)). Intergenerational social patterning of ARDs appears to be time-contextual and gender-specific. The role of grandparental social class in developing ARDs in grandchildren seems to decline over time, while persistent grandparental-to-parental social disadvantage remains associated with higher ARD risk in males

  15. Mortality patterns and risk among older men and women with intellectual disability: a Swedish national retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawi Ng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sweden has closed all institutions and imposed legislation to ensure service and support for individuals with intellectual disability (ID. Understanding mortality among older individuals with ID is essential to inform development of health promotion and disease control strategies. We investigated patterns and risk of mortality among older adults with ID in Sweden. Methods This retrospective cohort study compared older adults aged 55 years and older with ID with a control population. Participants were followed during 2002–2015 or death, and censored if they moved out of Sweden. Individuals with ID were identified from two national registers: one covering all specialist health-care visits (out-patient visits and hospitalisation and the other covering people accessing social/support services. Individuals with ID (n = 15,289 were matched with a control population by sex, birth year, and year of first hospitalisation/out-patient visit/access to LSS services. Cause-of-death data were recorded using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision. Cox proportional hazards regression were conducted to assess if overall and cause-specific mortality rate among individuals with ID was higher than in the Swedish population. Results The overall mortality rate among individuals with ID was 2483 per 100,000 people compared with 810 in the control population. Among those who died, more individuals with ID were younger than 75 years and unmarried. Leading causes of death among individuals with ID were circulatory diseases (34%, respiratory diseases (17% and neoplasms (15%. Leading causes of death in a sub-sample with Down syndrome (DS were respiratory diseases (37%, circulatory diseases (26% and mental/behavioural disorders (11%. Epilepsy and pneumonitis were more common among individuals with ID than controls. Alzheimer’s disease was common in the control population and individuals with DS, but not among those with ID when

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of electronic cigarette use among adolescents: Data from four Swedish municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geidne Susanna

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – To assess the prevalence rates and risk factors of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use, with special focus on e-cigarettes containing nicotine, among grade 9 students (aged 15–16 years in four different municipalities in Sweden.

  17. Health and Masculinities Shaped by Agency within Structures among Young Unemployed Men in a Northern Swedish Context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hammarström

    Full Text Available The aim of our paper was to explore expressions of life choices and life chances (aspects of agency within structures related to power and experiences of health among early unemployed adolescent young men during the transition period to adulthood. These expressions of agency within structure were interpreted in the light of Cockerham's Health Lifestyles Theory. Furthermore, social constructions of masculinities were addressed in our analysis.Repeated interviews with ten young men in a cohort of school leavers were analyzed with qualitative content analysis.Cockerham's model was useful for interpreting our findings and we found disposition to act to be a crucial theoretical tool to capture the will and intentions of participants in relation to health. We developed the model in the following ways: structure and socialization were visualized as surrounding the whole model. Analyses of what enhances or restricts power are important. In addition to practices of health lifestyles, we added experiences of health as outcome as well as emotional aspects in disposition to act. We interpret our findings as constructions of masculinities within certain structures, in relation to choices, habitus and practices.Qualitative research could contribute to develop the understanding of the agency within structure relationships. Future studies need to pay attention to experiences of health among young people at the margin of the labor market in various milieus--and to analyze these in relation to gender constructions and within the frame-work of agency within structure.

  18. Mental disorders and stress resilience in adolescence and long-term risk of early heart failure among Swedish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Josefina; Schiöler, Linus; Torén, Kjell; Söderberg, Mia; Löve, Jesper; Waern, Margda; Rosengren, Annika; Åberg, Maria

    2017-09-15

    Recent research suggests that the prevalence of early heart failure may be on the rise. Compromised mental health in adolescence may help to explain this phenomenon. We aimed to investigate whether nonpsychotic mental disorder and low stress resilience in late adolescence were associated with increased risk of early heart failure. A prospective cohort study of 18-year-old men (n=1,784,450) who enlisted 1968-2005. At the conscription examination, 74,522 individuals were diagnosed with nonpsychotic mental disorders. Stress resilience was rated by psychologists; values were trichotomized. The risk of heart failure during the 46-year follow-up was calculated with Cox proportional hazards models. Baseline comorbidities, BMI, blood pressure, fitness, IQ, and parental education were included in the models. Incident cases of heart failure (n=9962) were identified in the National Hospital Register. In fully adjusted models, increased risk of early heart failure was observed in males diagnosed with nonpsychotic mental disorders at conscription (hazard ratio (HR), 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.47). The highest risk was seen among men with the risk factor alcohol/substance use (HR 1.90; 95% CI 1.59-2.28). Conscripts with the risk factor low stress resilience showed increased risk of heart failure compared to those with high scores (HR 1.41; 95% CI 1.30-1.53). Nonpsychotic mental disorder, as well as low stress resilience in late adolescence may be associated with increased risk of early heart failure. Adolescence is potentially an important time for mental health interventions that may reduce both short and long-term consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Gender Integration and the Swedish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Daniel Marcus Sunil

    This paper discusses different gender aspects of the Swedish Armed Forces with specific references to sexual harassment and prostitution. By using the concept of Hegemonic Masculinity, sexual harassment of the women in the Swedish Armed Forces is explained in terms of a need of the men within...... the organisation to reinforce the notion of women as inferior and subordinate to men, whereby the external hegemony is believed to be restored. Likewise, male Swedish peacekeepers’ demand for prostitution during international peacekeeping missions is explained in terms of a need to confirm manhood and as homo...

  20. Occupations with increased risk of pancreatic cancer in the Swedish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, J; Pollán, M; Gustavsson, P

    2003-08-01

    To identify occupations with increased risk of pancreatic cancer in the Swedish population gainfully employed in 1970 over the period 1971-89. The base population was made up of Swedish men (1 779 646) and Swedish women (1 101 669) gainfully employed at the time of the 1970 census and were still alive and over age 24 on 1 January 1971. Information was drawn from two data sets: the Swedish cancer environment register and a background population register. After 19 years of follow up, 4420 men and 2143 women were diagnosed with histologically confirmed incident pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Log linear Poisson models were fitted, allowing for geographical area and town size. Risk estimators were also calculated for workers reporting the same occupation in 1960 and 1970. Among women, a statistically significant risk excess of pancreatic cancer was observed for "educational methods advisors", "librarian, archivist, curator", "motor vehicle driver", "typographer, lithographer", "purser, steward, stewardess", "other housekeeping and related workers", and the groups of occupations of "electrical, electronic, and related" and "glass, pottery, and tile workers". Men showed a higher incidence of pancreatic cancer among "technical assistants", "travelling agents", "other metal processing workers", "baker and pastry cook", "docker and freight handler", and "waiters". This study does not indicate that occupational factors play an important role in the aetiology of pancreatic cancer in Sweden. Few occupations were at increased risk of pancreatic cancer in both men and women, and the associations observed are in accordance with some previous studies from Western countries.

  1. Reduction in antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections in Swedish primary care- a retrospective study of electronic patient records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrstrup, Mia; Beckman, Anders; Mölstad, Sigvard; Engström, Sven; Lannering, Christina; Melander, Eva; Hedin, Katarina

    2016-11-25

    Swedish studies on antibiotic use in primary care have been based on one-week registrations of infections. In order to study adherence to guidelines, analyses based on large databases that provide information on diagnosis linked prescriptions, are needed. This study describes trends in management of infections in Swedish primary care particularly with regards to antibiotic prescribing and adherence to national guidelines. A descriptive study of Sweden's largest database regarding diagnosis linked antibiotic prescription data, the Primary care Record of Infections in Sweden (PRIS), for the years 2008, 2010 and 2013. Although the consultation rate for all infections remained around 30% each year, antibiotic prescribing rates decreased significantly over the years from 53.7% in 2008, to 45.5% in 2010, to 38.6% in 2013 (p = .032). The antibiotic prescribing rate for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) decreased from 40.5% in 2008 to 24.9% in 2013 while those for urinary tract infections and skin and soft tissue infections were unchanged. For most RTI diagnoses there was a decrease in prescription rate from 2008 to 2013, particularly for the age group 0-6 years. Phenoxymethylpenicillin (PcV) was the antibiotic most often prescribed, followed by tetracycline. Tonsillitis and acute otitis media were the two RTI diagnoses with the highest number of prescriptions per 1000 patient years (PY). For these diagnoses an increase in adherence to national guidelines was seen, with regards to treatment frequency, choice of antibiotics and use of rapid antigen detection test. The frequency in antibiotic prescribing varied greatly between different Primary Healthcare Centres (PHCCs). Falling numbers of consultations and decreased antibiotic prescription rates for RTIs have reduced the antibiotic use in Swedish primary care substantially. Overprescribing of antibiotics could still be suspected due to large variability in prescribing frequency, especially for acute bronchitis and

  2. Implementation of an online HIV prevention and treatment cascade in Thai men who have sex with men and transgender women using Adam's Love Electronic Health Record system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anand, Tarandeep; Nitpolprasert, Chattiya; Kerr, Stephen J.; Apornpong, Tanakorn; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Phanuphak, Praphan; Phanuphak, Nittaya

    2017-01-01

    Electronic health record (EHR) systems have been infrequently used to support HIV service delivery models to optimise HIV prevention and treatment cascades. We have studied the implementation, uptake and use of an EHR among Thai men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender (TG) women.

  3. Reduction in antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections in Swedish primary care- a retrospective study of electronic patient records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Tyrstrup

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Swedish studies on antibiotic use in primary care have been based on one-week registrations of infections. In order to study adherence to guidelines, analyses based on large databases that provide information on diagnosis linked prescriptions, are needed. This study describes trends in management of infections in Swedish primary care particularly with regards to antibiotic prescribing and adherence to national guidelines. Methods A descriptive study of Sweden’s largest database regarding diagnosis linked antibiotic prescription data, the Primary care Record of Infections in Sweden (PRIS, for the years 2008, 2010 and 2013. Results Although the consultation rate for all infections remained around 30% each year, antibiotic prescribing rates decreased significantly over the years from 53.7% in 2008, to 45.5% in 2010, to 38.6% in 2013 (p = .032. The antibiotic prescribing rate for respiratory tract infections (RTIs decreased from 40.5% in 2008 to 24.9% in 2013 while those for urinary tract infections and skin and soft tissue infections were unchanged. For most RTI diagnoses there was a decrease in prescription rate from 2008 to 2013, particularly for the age group 0–6 years. Phenoxymethylpenicillin (PcV was the antibiotic most often prescribed, followed by tetracycline. Tonsillitis and acute otitis media were the two RTI diagnoses with the highest number of prescriptions per 1000 patient years (PY. For these diagnoses an increase in adherence to national guidelines was seen, with regards to treatment frequency, choice of antibiotics and use of rapid antigen detection test. The frequency in antibiotic prescribing varied greatly between different Primary Healthcare Centres (PHCCs. Conclusion Falling numbers of consultations and decreased antibiotic prescription rates for RTIs have reduced the antibiotic use in Swedish primary care substantially. Overprescribing of antibiotics could still be suspected due to large variability

  4. Is the Swedish FRAX model appropriate for Swedish immigrants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, H; Odén, A; Lorentzon, M; McCloskey, E; Kanis, J A; Harvey, N C; Karlsson, M K; Mellström, D

    2015-11-01

    The incidence of hip fracture in Sweden is substantially lower in immigrants than in the population born in Sweden. Thus, the use of a FRAX® model in immigrants overestimates the risk of fracture, and the use of country of origin-specific models may be more appropriate. Age-specific fracture and mortality rates vary between countries so that FRAX tools are country-specific. In the case of immigrants, it is not known whether the model for the original or the new country is most appropriate. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of hip fractures in foreign-born and Swedish-born individuals residing in Sweden. We studied the incidence of hip fracture in all men and women aged 50 years or more in Sweden between 1987 and 2002. The population comprised 2.8 million Swedish-born and 270,000 foreign-born individuals. Incident hip fractures occurred in 239,842 Swedish-born and 12,563 foreign-born individuals. The hip fracture incidence rose with age for both groups and was higher for women than men amongst both Swedish-born and foreign-born individuals. The hip fracture incidence for the Swedish-born cohort was approximately twice that of immigrants. For example, at the age of 70 years, the annual hip fracture incidence (per 100,000) was 450 (95 % CI 446-454) for a Swedish-born woman and 239 (95 % CI 223-257) for a foreign-born woman at the time of immigration. The hip fracture incidence rose slowly with time from immigration (0.6 % per annum, 95 % CI 0.5-0.8 %) but remained significantly lower than for Swedish-born individuals even after 40 years of residence. The incidence of hip fracture in Sweden is substantially lower in immigrants than in the population native to Sweden. Although there was a small rise in age- and sex-specific incidence after immigration, the incidence remained markedly lower than that observed in Swedish-born individuals. Thus, the use of a FRAX model for Sweden will overestimate the risk of fracture for foreign-born individuals living

  5. Discrepancies between the electronic medical record, the prescriptions in the Swedish national prescription repository and the current medication reported by patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekedahl, Anders; Brosius, Helen; Jönsson, Julia; Karlsson, Hanna; Yngvesson, Maria

    2011-11-01

    To study discrepancies between (i) the prescribed current treatment stated by patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) compared with patients with other chronic diseases, (ii) the data in the medication list (ML) in the electronic medical record and (iii) the data in the prescription list (PL) on the prescriptions stored in the national prescription repository in Sweden, to determine current, noncurrent, duplicate and missing prescriptions. At one healthcare centre, a random sample of patients 18 years and older with a diagnosis of CHF, diabetes mellitus (DM) or osteoarthritis (OA) provided written informed consent to participate. Participants were interviewed by telephone on the prescribed current treatment. Of 161 invited patients (61 CHF, 50 DM and 50 OA), 66 patients were included. More than 80% of the patients had at least one discrepancy, a noncurrent, a duplicate or a missing prescription, in the ML and PL. The overall congruence for unique prescriptions on current treatment between the ML and the PL was only 55%. Patients with CHF had overall more discrepancies and patients with DM fewer discrepancies in the ML. Prescriptions for noncurrent treatment, duplicates and missing prescriptions are common in both the ML in the electronic medical record and the list on prescriptions stored in the Swedish National Prescription Repository. Patients with CHF had more discrepancies in the ML. The risk for medication errors in primary care due to incorrect information on prescribed treatment may be substantial. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Cyber sexy: electronic game play and perceptions of attractiveness among college-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wack, Elizabeth R; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey

    2008-12-01

    The current study was conducted to determine if electronic gaming among males is related to body image, formation of body ideals, and appraisals of female attractiveness. A sample of 219 college-aged men (age 18-32) completed a variety of measures that assessed their game play habits, their perceptions of their own attractiveness, and perceptions of women's attractiveness. Results indicated that participants' ratings of women's attractiveness varied across the genres of game most frequently played but was not related to age of commencement or frequency of electronic game play. Additionally, frequency of play and age of commencement of game play were not related to self-perceptions of physical attractiveness, the association of positive attributes with muscularity, or the drive to become more muscular. Men's appearance satisfaction and valuation of muscularity was related to the extent to which they compare their own appearance to that of the characters featured in their electronic games. The results indicate that, unlike other forms of media, electronic gaming may have a weaker relationship to decreased appearance satisfaction or the formation of unrealistic standards of attractiveness.

  7. Depressive symptoms as a cause and effect of job loss in men and women: evidence in the context of organisational downsizing from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Elena; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Westerlund, Hugo; Theorell, Töres; Brenner, M Harvey

    2015-10-12

    Few studies have examined depression as both a cause and effect of unemployment, but no prior work investigated these relationships in the context of organisational downsizing. We explored whether the exposure to downsizing is associated with subsequent depression (social causation), and whether pre-existing depression increases the risk of being laid off when organisations downsize (health selection). Two successive waves of the nationally representative Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health represented the baseline (2008) and follow-up (2010) of this study. Analyses included 196 workers who lost their jobs through downsizing, 1462 layoff survivors remaining in downsized organisations and 1845 employees of non-downsized workplaces. The main outcomes were: (1) Depressive symptoms at follow-up, assessed with a brief subscale from the Symptom Checklist 90, categorised by severity levels ("major depression", "less severe symptoms" and "no depression") and analysed in relation to earlier downsizing exposure; (2) Job loss in persons with downsizing in relation to earlier depressive symptoms. The associations were assessed by means of multinomial logistic regression. Job loss consistently predicted subsequent major depression among men and women, with a somewhat greater effect size in men. Surviving a layoff was significantly associated with subsequent major depression in women but not in men. Women with major depression have increased risks of exclusion from employment when organisations downsize, whereas job loss in men was not significantly influenced by their health. The evidence from this study suggests that the relative importance of social causation and health selection varies by gender in the context of organisational downsizing. Strategies for handling depression among employees should be sensitive to gender-specific risks during layoffs. Policies preventing social exclusion can be important for female workers at higher risk of depression.

  8. Psychosocial working conditions and depressive symptoms among Swedish employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Theorell, Töres; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate prospective associations between working conditions and depressive symptoms in Swedish men and women. METHODS: The study was based on SLOSH (N = 5,985), a follow-up of a representative sample of gainfully employed Swedes 16-64 years of age from the Swedish Work Environment...

  9. Do working conditions explain the increased risks of disability pension among men and women with low education? A follow-up of Swedish cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkstedt, Daniel; Backhans, Mona; Lundin, Andreas; Allebeck, Peter; Hemmingsson, Tomas

    2014-09-01

    Rates of disability pension are greatly increased among people with low education. This study examines the extent to which associations between education and disability pensions might be explained by differences in working conditions. Information on individuals at age 13 years was used to assess confounding of associations. Two nationally representative samples of men and women born in 1948 and 1953 in Sweden (22 889 participants in total) were linked to information from social insurance records on cause (musculoskeletal, psychiatric, and other) and date (from 1986-2008) of disability pension. Education data were obtained from administrative records. Occupation data were used for measurement of physical strain at work and job control. Data on paternal education, ambition to study, and intellectual performance were collected in school. Women were found to have higher rates of disability pension than men, regardless of diagnosis, whereas men had a steeper increase in disability pension by declining educational level. Adjustment of associations for paternal education, ambition to study, and intellectual performance at age 13 had a considerable attenuating effect, also when disability pension with a musculoskeletal diagnosis was the outcome. Despite this, high physical strain at work and low job control both contributed to explain the associations between low education and disability pensions in multivariable models. Working conditions seem to partly explain the increased rate of disability pension among men and women with lower education even though this association does reflect considerable selection effects based on factors already present in late childhood.

  10. The impact of parental educational trajectories on their adult offspring's overweight/obesity status: a study of three generations of Swedish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, M P; Koupil, Ilona

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of grandparental and parental education and parental educational trajectory on their adult offspring's overweight/obesity. We used register data from the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study, based on a representative cohort born in Sweden 1915-1929 (G1). Our sample included 5122 women and 11,204 men who were grandchildren of G1 (G3), their parents (G2), and grandparents. G3's overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) was based on pre-pregnancy weight/height for women before their first birth (average age=26 years), and measured weight/height at conscription for men (average age=18 years). G1's, G2's, and G3's highest educational attainment was obtained from routine registers and classified as low, intermediate, or high based on respective sample distributions. Parental (G2) educational trajectory was defined as change in education between their own and their highest educated parent (G1), classified into 5 categories: always advantaged (AA), upward trajectory (UT), stable-intermediate (SI), downward trajectory (DT), and always disadvantaged (AD). We used hierarchical gender-stratified logistic regression models adjusted for G3's age, education, year of BMI collection, lineage and G2's year of birth and income. Grandparental and parental education were negatively associated with men's odds of overweight/obesity and parental education affected women's overweight/obesity risk. Furthermore, men and women whose parents belonged to the UT, SI, DT, and AD groups had greater odds of overweight/obesity compared to men and women whose parents belonged to the AA group (adjusted for G3's age, year of BMI collection, lineage, and G2's year of birth). These associations were attenuated when further adjusting for parental income and G3's own education. Socioeconomic inequalities can have long-term consequences and impact the health of future generations. For overweight/obesity in concurrent young cohorts, this inequality

  11. Evaluation of the use of Swedish integrated electronic health records and register health care data as support clinical trials in severe asthma: the PACEHR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzén, Stefan; Janson, Christer; Larsson, Kjell; Petzold, Max; Olsson, Urban; Magnusson, Gunnar; Telg, Gunilla; Colice, Gene; Johansson, Gunnar; Sundgren, Mats

    2016-11-15

    In the development of new drugs for severe asthma, it is a challenge from an ethical point of view to randomize severe asthma patients to placebo, and to obtain long-term safety data due to discontinuations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using electronic health record (EHR) data to create a real-world reference population of uncontrolled asthmatic patients to supplement the concurrent control/placebo group in long-term studies of asthma. EHR data from 36 primary care centres and a University hospital in Sweden were linked to Swedish mandatory health registers (2005-2013), creating a population covering 33 890 asthma patients, including data on co-morbidities, risk factors and laboratory/respiratory measurements. A severe asthma EHR reference cohort was established. We used logistic regression to estimate the propensity score (probability) of each RCT or EHR patient existing in the EHR cohort given their covariates. We created an EHR-derived reference cohort of 240 patients, matching the placebo group (N = 151) in an RCT of severe asthma. The exacerbation rate during follow-up in the EHR study population was 1.24 (weighted) compared to 0.9 in the RCT placebo group. Patients in the EHR cohort were of similar age as in the RCT placebo group, 50.6 years versus 50.1 years; had slightly higher body mass index 27.0 kg/m2 versus 27.3 kg/m2; and consisted of 40% versus 34% males. The results indicate that EHRs provide an opportunity to supplement the control group in RCTs of severe diseases.

  12. The common FTO variant rs9939609 is not associated with BMI in a longitudinal study on a cohort of Swedish men born 1920-1924

    OpenAIRE

    Lannfelt Lars; Axelsson Tomas; Risérus Ulf; Jacobsson Josefin A; Schiöth Helgi B; Fredriksson Robert

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Common FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene variants have recently been strongly associated with body mass index and obesity in several large studies. Here we set out to examine the association of the FTO variant rs9939609 with BMI in a 32 year follow up study of men born 1920-1924. Moreover, we analyzed the effect of physical activity on the different genotypes. Methods The FTO rs9936609 was genotyped using an Illumina golden gate assay. BMI was calculated using sta...

  13. Relationships between electronic game play, obesity, and psychosocial functioning in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wack, Elizabeth; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey

    2009-04-01

    Most estimates suggest that American youth are spending a large amount of time playing video and computer games, spurring researchers to examine the impact this media has on various aspects of health and psychosocial functioning. The current study investigated relationships between frequency of electronic game play and obesity, the social/emotional context of electronic game play, and academic performance among 219 college-aged males. Current game players reported a weekly average of 9.73 hours of game play, with almost 10% of current players reporting an average of 35 hours of play per week. Results indicated that frequency of play was not significantly related to body mass index or grade point average. However, there was a significant positive correlation between frequency of play and self-reported frequency of playing when bored, lonely, or stressed. As opposed to the general conception of electronic gaming as detrimental to functioning, the results suggest that gaming among college-aged men may provide a healthy source of socialization, relaxation, and coping.

  14. Unemployment and Suicide During and After a Deep Recession: A Longitudinal Study of 3.4 Million Swedish Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vågerö, Denny

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We tested 2 hypotheses found in studies of the relationship between suicide and unemployment: causal (stress and adversity) and selective interpretation (previous poor health). Methods. We estimated Cox models for adults (n = 3 424 550) born between 1931 and 1965. We examined mortality during the recession (1993–1996), postrecession (1997–2002), and a combined follow-up. Models controlled for previous medical problems, and social, family, and employer characteristics. Results. During the recession there was no excess hazard of mortality from suicide or events of undetermined intent. Postrecession, there was an excess hazard of suicide mortality for unemployed men but not unemployed women. However, for unemployed women with no health-problem history there was a modest hazard of suicide. Finally, there was elevated mortality from events of undetermined intent for unemployed men and women postrecession. Conclusions. A small part of the relationship may be related to health selection, more so during the recession. However, postrecessionary period findings suggest that much of the association could be causal. A narrow focus on suicide mortality may understate the mortality effects of unemployment in Sweden. PMID:23597379

  15. The Swedish Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    2012-01-01

    The main characteristics of ‘the Swedish model’ are arguably related to the country's knowledge-intensive industry and its advanced welfare state. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the historical development of these two features of the Swedish economy. The first part looks at industrial...

  16. Swedish Government Minister at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research recently visited CERN. The Swedish Minister was greeted by Swedish scientists working at CERN. Signing of the Swedish Computing Memorandum of Understanding. Pär Omling, Director-General of the Swedish Research Council (left), and Jos Engelen, CERN’s Chief Scientific Officer. Lars Leijonborg, the Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research, was welcomed to CERN by Director-General Robert Aymar on 10 March. After an introduction to the Laboratory’s activities, the Minister was given guided tours of the control room, the ATLAS surface hall and experiment cavern and the adjoining LHC tunnel. Mr Leijonborg was then greeted by Swedish scientists and given an overview of the Swedish research programme at CERN. Five Swedish university groups are taking part in LHC research. Swedish universities are notably involved in the manufacture of parts for the sub-detectors of AT...

  17. The Swedish Academy Dictionary Project

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    (bo.wendt@svenskaakademien.se), Dictionary Staff of the Swedish Academy,. Lund, Sweden. Abstract: The Swedish Academy Dictionary is one of the world's largest dictionary projects. Work on it was started in 1884 and it will be completed by 2017. The dictionary describes the writ- ten standard language of Swedish from ...

  18. Women do not fare worse than men after lumbar fusion surgery: Two-year follow-up results from 4,780 prospectively collected patients in the Swedish National Spine Register with lumbar degenerative disc disease and chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebel, Jan; Snellman, Greta; Sandén, Bengt; Strömqvist, Fredrik; Robinson, Yohan

    2017-05-01

    Proper patient selection is of utmost importance in the surgical treatment of degenerative disc disease (DDD) with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Among other factors, gender was previously found to influence lumbar fusion surgery outcome. This study investigates whether gender affects clinical outcome after lumbar fusion. This is a national registry cohort study. Between 2001 and 2011, 2,251 men and 2,521 women were followed prospectively within the Swedish National Spine Register (SWESPINE) after lumbar fusion surgery for DDD and CLBP. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), visual analog scale (VAS) for leg and back pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), quality of life (QoL) parameter EQ5D, and labor status and pain medication were collected preoperatively, 1 and 2 years after surgery. Gender differences of baseline data and PROM improvement from baseline were analyzed. The effect of gender on clinically important improvement of PROM was determined in a multivariate logistic regression model. Furthermore, gender-related differences in return-to-work were investigated. Preoperatively, women had worse leg pain (pback pain (p=.002), lower QoL (ppain, function, and QoL (all ppain (odds ratio [OR]=1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-1.61, pback pain (OR=1.20,95% CI:1.03-1.40, p=.02) as well as ODI (OR=1.24, 95% CI:1.05-1.47, p=.01), but improved at a slower pace in leg pain (pback pain (p=.009), and disability (p=.008). No gender differences were found in QoL and return to work at 2 years postoperatively. Swedish women do not have worse results than men after spinal fusion surgery. Female patients present with worse pain and function preoperatively, but improve more than men do after surgery. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Salmonella in Swedish cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ågren, Estelle

    2017-01-01

    In Sweden, all herds detected with salmonella are put under restrictions and measures aiming at eradication are required. The purpose of these studies was to provide a basis for decisions on how surveillance and control of salmonella in Swedish cattle can be made more cost-efficient. Results from a bulk milk screening were used to investigate seroprevalence of salmonella and to study associations between salmonella status and geographical location, local animal density, number of test pos...

  20. Swedish electricity market 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The organization of the Swedish electricity market has been in a state of continual change since the electricity market reform was started in the early 1990s. The conditions for the development of the electricity market have changed since the new Electricity Act came into force on 1 January 1996. The purpose of the reform is to introduce greater competition on the electricity market and provide the consumers with greater freedom of choice and, by open trade in electricity, to create the conditions for more efficient pricing. Being the central energy authority, the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development, NUTEK, was entrusted by the Government with the task of following developments on the Swedish electricity market. The Network Authority, which has the supervisory function for the new electricity market, were entrusted by the Government with the task of following developments on the Swedish electricity market and regularly compiling and reporting current market information. The new electricity market has now been operative for ten months. The Network Authority has submitted to the Government a detailed report entitled `Developments on the electricity market`, dealing with the experience gained from the electricity market reform. The purpose of the publication is to provide the players on the electricity market - the decision makers, the media and the general public - with comprehensive and easily accessible information on the market conditions. The publication includes summaries of information on electricity production and use in recent years, the structure of the electricity market from the perspective of a player, electricity trade in Sweden and in northern Europe, electricity prices in Sweden and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment

  1. Swedish Family Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrstrom, Staffan

    1986-01-01

    Family policy remains one of the leading issues of Swedish domestic politics. All parties are agreed that families with children must be given a better deal in the wake of the economic crisis. But how is this to be done and how quickly can it be achieved? Is the expansion of day nursery facilities to be speeded up, or are parents to be given a…

  2. Environmental Management at Swedish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Karin

    2004-01-01

    Since 1996, all Swedish public authorities, which includes most universities, have been made responsible for contributing to the sustainable development of the society. Swedish universities are thus required to submit annual environmental reports about their policies, structures and actions. This study provides a review of the activities that…

  3. The Impact of Business Size and Business Type on Small Business Investment in Electronic Commerce: a study of Swedish small businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert MacGregor

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past, organisations relied on traditional quantitative metrics, such as Return on Investment (ROI to make decisions when investing in technology. With the advent of electronic commerce (EC, organisations have had to rethink their investment and acquisition decisions due to the strategic nature of electronic commerce. Where ROI measures have failed, they have been replaced with a plethora of organisational driving forces. This paper focuses on the driving forces behind EC adoption by small and medium enterprises (SME's and aims to determine the impact of organisational factors such as size and type of business on EC acquisition criteria. The results of a research study carried out in Sweden are presented and suggest that there exist high levels of significance between the size of the business and customer demand, reduced costs, developing new markets and improvement to marketing as driving forces, and the type of business and customer demand, pressure from competition, increased sales and improvement of relationship with business partners as driving forces for EC adoption.

  4. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  5. Strategic analysis of Swedish agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Fogelfors, Håkan; Wivstad, Maria; Eckersten, Henrik; Holstein, Fredrik; Johansson, Susanne; Verwijst, Theo

    2009-01-01

    This strategic analysis of Swedish agriculture – production systems and agricultural landscapes in a time of change – focuses on climate change, future availability of natural resources and economic regulation in a global food market. The background to the project was that the Faculty of Natural Resources and Agriculture of the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences identified an urgent need to explore the implications and opportunities of coming changes for agricultural production syste...

  6. Gendered portraits of depression in Swedish newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengs, Carita; Johansson, Eva; Danielsson, Ulla; Lehti, Arja; Hammarström, Anne

    2008-07-01

    Mass media are influential mediators of information, knowledge, and narratives of health and illness. In this article, we report on an examination of personal accounts of illness as presented in three Swedish newspapers, focusing on the gendered representation of laypersons' experiences of depression. A database search identified all articles mentioning depression during the year 2002. Twenty six articles focusing on personal experiences of depression were then subjected to a qualitative content analysis. We identified four themes: displaying a successful facade, experiencing a cracking facade, losing and regaining control, and explaining the illness. We found both similarities and differences with regard to gendered experiences. The mediated accounts of depression both upheld and challenged traditional gender stereotypes. The women's stories were more detailed, relational, emotionally oriented, and embodied. The portrayal of men was less emotional and expressive, and described a more dramatic onset of depression, reflecting hegemonic patterns of masculinity.

  7. Swedish encapsulation station review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G. [NAC International, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB`s document `Plan 1996`. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL`s Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International`s experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation 19 refs, 9 figs, 35 tabs

  8. Swedish vineyards: a utopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mårtensson A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Anna Mårtensson,1 Thord Karlsson,2 Jan-Gunnar Gustafsson31Department of Soil and Environment, 2Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden; 3Bio Evaluation AB, Uppsala, SwedenAbstract: As there is an increasing interest for setting up vineyards and wineries in Sweden, a cost analysis is becoming necessary. In this study, we assessed the potential for wine production in Sweden. The estimated annual costs varied from €15.1/per L for production of 1800 L wine per ha to €41.9 for 525 L per ha. For an annual production of 1800 L per ha potentially achieved in an established vineyard, the capital requirement is €730,000. It would take 6 years for the investment to be paid off if the wine was sold for €37.5 per L. The high production costs mean that the only viable option for success is to orientate production towards the exclusive upper segment.Keywords: cold climate conditions, wine production costs, wine quality

  9. The Swedish Energy Market 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-01

    The Swedish Energy Market, 2005 is an annual publication that presents information and statistics on the network based energy markets in Sweden, i.e. the markets for electricity, natural gas and district heating. It also provides an overview of the issues that have arisen on these markets during the second half of 2004 and the first half of 2005. Considerable work is being carried out in the EU on creating a single market for electricity and natural gas. This publication therefore describes expansion of the Swedish market towards a Nordic and a European market. The publication normally includes a theme chapter, describing some event of particular interest for the Swedish energy market during the year. This year, the theme chapter is devoted to the Storm Gudrun, which struck the south of the country at the beginning of January, and its effects on electricity supply throughout the country. The chapter is based on the report submitted to the Government by the Energy Markets Inspectorate in the spring of 2005, and also includes a summary of the Inspectorate's proposals for measures to improve the security of electricity transmission. Energy in Sweden, which is another of the Swedish Energy Agency's annual publications, provides information and statistics on the development of the entire Swedish energy system.

  10. Health and safety strategy in Swedish agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Peter; Svennefelt, Catharina Alwall

    2012-01-01

    In Sweden there is a joint focus on injury prevention in agriculture and this is coordinated through the Swedish Committee on Working Environment (LAMK). LAMK is a network working for a good, healthy and safe working environment in Swedish agriculture from the view of the enterprise with the humans in focus. It is a committee consisting of representatives of authorities, institutions, companies, research & education institutions and organisations referring to the green sector. Examples of on-going initiatives & partners are presented which are included in this mission against injuries in agriculture. It involves the Swedish Work Environment Authority,, the Federation of Swedish Farmers (LRF), the Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU, the Federation of Swedish Forestry and Agricultural Employers (SLA) and the Swedish Municipal Worker's Union.

  11. Bonjour tristesse in Swedish suburbia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Jonas E

    2013-01-01

    the country. Global news media paralleled the Swedish situation with previous incidents in Paris in 2007, Athens in 2008 and London in 2011. Foreign offices, among others the American, British, Danish, and Norwegian ones, advised their citizens not to travel to Sweden: the Swedish welfare model...... and a high unemployment rate. The young generation experienced a Bonjour Tristesse! existence going in and out of unemployment. An existing dismay with architecture and physical planning of suburbia surfaced: The plausible responsibility of the body of architects was debated, since many esteemed profiles...... of the Swedish functionalist architecture had been involved in its realisation. One representative of the profession stated the need for upgrading the existing architecture to new user needs, while another one emphasised that the real group of inhabitants in suburbia is often not the group of users envisioned...

  12. Obstetric Thromboprophylaxis: The Swedish Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelle G. Lindqvist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstetric thromboprophylaxis is difficult. Since 10 years Swedish obstetricians have used a combined risk estimation model and recommendations concerning to whom, at what dose, when, and for how long thromboprophylaxis is to be administrated based on a weighted risk score. In this paper we describe the background and validation of the Swedish guidelines for obstetric thromboprophylaxis in women with moderate-high risk of VTE, that is, at similar or higher risk as the antepartum risk among women with history of thrombosis. The risk score is based on major risk factors (i.e., 5-fold increased risk of thromboembolism. We present data on the efficacy of the model, the cost-effectiveness, and the lifestyle advice that is given. We believe that the Swedish guidelines for obstetric thromboprophylaxis aid clinicians in providing women at increased risk of VTE with effective and appropriate thromboprophylaxis, thus avoiding both over- and under-treatment.

  13. Straight Roads and Winding Tracks: Swedish Educational Policy from a Gender Equality Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgqvist-Saltzman, Inga

    1992-01-01

    Discusses Swedish educational reforms, policies, and research. Considers whether Sweden's gender-equality goal supports research that develops more gender-sensitive methodologies and concepts to upgrade women's knowledge, experiences, and values. Sweden's goal of giving men and women the same responsibilities for work, parenthood, and civil duties…

  14. Factor analysis of the Swedish version of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; MacDonald, Shane; Rapp-Ricciardi, Max

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test the proposed three-factor structure of the Swedish version of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen measure. A confirmatory factor analysis showed mixed evidence for model fit. In contrast to expectations, men did not score significantly higher than women in Machiavellianism and narcissism. Nevertheless, men scored higher than women in psychopathy. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Productivity or discrimination? An economic analysis of excess-weight penalty in the Swedish labor market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dackehag, Margareta; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Nordin, Martin

    2015-07-01

    This article investigates the excess-weight penalty in income for men and women in the Swedish labor market, using longitudinal data. It compares two identification strategies, OLS and individual fixed effects, and distinguishes between two main sources of excess-weight penalties, lower productivity because of bad health and discrimination. For men, the analysis finds a significant obesity penalty related to discrimination when applying individual fixed effects. We do not find any significant excess-weight penalty for women.

  16. Work environment and safety climate in the Swedish merchant fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsell, Karl; Eriksson, Helena; Järvholm, Bengt; Lundh, Monica; Andersson, Eva; Nilsson, Ralph

    2017-02-01

    To get knowledge of the work environment for seafarers sailing under the Swedish flag, in terms of safety climate, ergonomical, chemical and psychosocial exposures, and the seafarers self-rated health and work ability. A Web-based questionnaire was sent to all seafarers with a personal e-mail address in the Swedish Maritime Registry (N = 5608). Comparisons were made mainly within the study population, using Student's t test, prevalence odds ratios and logistic regressions with 95% confidence intervals. The response rate was 35% (N = 1972; 10% women, 90% men), with 61% of the respondents working on deck, 31% in the engine room and 7% in the catering/service department (1% not classifiable). Strain on neck, arm or back and heavy lifting were associated with female gender (p = 0.0001) and younger age (below or above 30 years of age, p work problems were noise, risk of an accident and vibrations from the hull of the ship. The safety climate was high in comparison with that in land-based occupations. One-fourth had experienced personal harassment or bullying during last year of service. Noise, risk of accidents, hand/arm and whole-body vibrations and psychosocial factors such as harassment were commonly reported work environment problems among seafarers within the Swedish merchant fleet.

  17. Endoparasites in some Swedish Amphibians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1988-01-01

    A study was made of the endoparasites in specimens of Rana arvalis and R. temporaria collected on two occasions from a locality of southern Sweden. Some frogs were investigated directly after capture while other frogs were kept hibernating and the composition of the parasites as well as the behav...... not previously been reported from Sweden. The late Prof. O. Nybelin's unpublished records of parasites found in Swedish amphibians are also given....

  18. Swedish minister rebuilds scientists' trust

    CERN Multimedia

    Sylwan, P

    1999-01-01

    Thomas Ostros, Sweden's new science minister is aiming to improve links with the science community, severely strained during the tenure of Carl Tham. Significantly, he confirmed that he will not be making any further changes to the managment of the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research. He also announced a 5 per cent increase in government funding for science which will be used to strengthen basic research and education (1 page).

  19. Work and family: associations with long-term sick-listing in Swedish women ? a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Sandmark Hélène

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The number of Swedish women who are long-term sick-listed is high, and twice as high as for men. Also the periods of sickness absence have on average been longer for women than for men. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between factors in work- and family life and long-term sick-listing in Swedish women. Methods This case-control study included 283 women on long-term sick-listing ≥90 days, and 250 female referents, randomly chosen, living in f...

  20. New Swedish environmental and sustainable education research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Öhman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of Education & Democracy presents examples froma new generation of Swedish research on environmental and sustainability education and thereby complement the picture of the current Swedish environmental and sustainability education research outlined in the recent Danish-Swedish special issue of Environmental EducationResearch (Vol 16, No 1 and the anthology Democracy and Values inEducation for Sustainable Development – Contributions from Swedish Research (Öhman 2008. All the contributors to this issue are associatedwith the Graduate School in Education and Sustainable Development (GRESD, either as PhD students or as supervisors.

  1. Cancer incidence of workers in the Swedish petroleum industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvholm, B; Mellblom, B; Norrman, R; Nilsson, R; Nordlinder, R

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the risk of cancer due to occupational exposure to petroleum products in the Swedish transport and refinery industries. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study the cancer incidence in 4128 men and 191 women, who had worked for at least one year in the petroleum industry, was compared with the incidence in the general population. The job titles and employment times for each person were found in personal files in the industries. The men had on average worked in jobs exposed to petroleum for 11.6 years at the end of the observation period. The cases of cancer were identified by record linkage with the Swedish cancer register. RESULTS: In total there were 146 cases of cancer v 157.6 expected (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 0.93 90% confidence interval (90% CI) 0.80 to 1.1). Operators at refineries had an increased risk of leukaemia (6 cases v 1.7 expected, 90% CI of relative risk (RR) 1.5 to 7.0). Five of the six cases had started to work at the refineries in the 1950s or later. No other significantly increased risk of cancer was found. Distribution workers had a decreased incidence of lung cancer (no cases, 90% CI of RR 0 to 0.4). CONCLUSIONS: Operators at Swedish refineries had an increased risk of leukaemia. A possible cause is exposure to benzene. There was no increased risk of leukaemia in distribution workers. Distribution workers had a decreased risk of lung cancer. PMID:9423584

  2. Tapetal dysplasia in a Swedish Vallhund dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Erin M; Teixeira, Leandro B C; Dubielzig, Richard R; Komáromy, András M

    2013-07-01

    To describe the gross, histopathological, and ultrastructural findings in a dog with bilateral tapetal dysplasia. The globes of a 15-year-old neutered male Swedish Vallhund dog with a ventrally displaced tapetum in both eyes were fixed in 10% formalin and submitted to the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin for histological evaluation. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and Melan-A immunohistochemistry (IHC), and tissues were subsequently processed for transmission electron microscopy. Bilateral fundic and gross examination revealed a tapetal fundus inferior to the optic nerve head (ONH) and a nontapetal fundus with mild scattering of tapetal tissue superior to the ONH. Histologically, there was decreased pigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium with only a few melanin granules in the peripheral retina. The affected tapetum was relatively acellular and fibrous with occasional tapetal cells scattered throughout the inner choroid or displaced into the vascular outer choroid. Special stains revealed that the tapetum was mostly composed of collagen (Masson's trichrome) and failed to express Melan-A (IHC) unlike a normal canine control tapetum. Ultrastructurally, the tapetum was markedly dysplastic both superior and inferior to the ONH with no uniformly arranged tapetal cells. The few cells identified within the tapetum contained irregularly arranged and disorganized electron-dense structures within their cytoplasm, which were interpreted as dysplastic tapetal rodlets. Based on microscopic and ultrastructural findings, this is the first report of tapetal dysplasia in a dog. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  3. Men's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... men need to pay more attention to their health. Compared to women, men are more likely to ... regular checkups and medical care There are also health conditions that only affect men, such as prostate ...

  4. Swedish Opinion on Nuclear Power 1986 - 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Soeren

    2012-11-01

    This report contains the Swedish opinion on Nuclear Power and European Attitudes on Nuclear Power. It also includes European Attitudes Towards the Future of Three Energy Sources; Nuclear Energy, Wind Power and Solar Power - with a focus on the Swedish opinion. Results from measurements done by the SOM Inst. are presented.

  5. Is spoken Danish less intelligible than Swedish?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooskens, Charlotte; van Heuven, Vincent J.; van Bezooijen, Renee; Pacilly, Jos J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The most straightforward way to explain why Danes understand spoken Swedish relatively better than Swedes understand spoken Danish would be that spoken Danish is intrinsically a more difficult language to understand than spoken Swedish. We discuss circumstantial evidence suggesting that Danish is

  6. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  7. Differences in Sickness Allowance Receipt between Swedish Speakers and Finnish Speakers in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarina S. Reini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has documented lower disability retirement and mortality rates of Swedish speakers as compared with Finnish speakers in Finland. This paper is the first to compare the two language groups with regard to the receipt of sickness allowance, which is an objective health measure that reflects a less severe poor health condition. Register-based data covering the years 1988-2011 are used. We estimate logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations to account for repeated observations at the individual level. We find that Swedish-speaking men have approximately 30 percent lower odds of receiving sickness allowance than Finnish-speaking men, whereas the difference in women is about 15 percent. In correspondence with previous research on all-cause mortality at working ages, we find no language-group difference in sickness allowance receipt in the socially most successful subgroup of the population.

  8. Productivity or discrimination? An economic analysis of excess-weight penalty in the Swedish labor market.

    OpenAIRE

    Dackehag, Margareta; Gerdtham, Ulf; Nordin, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Using longitudinal data, this paper investigates the penalty for excess weight in the Swedish labor market, distinguishing between the productivity and the discrimination hypotheses. We analyze employment, income, and sickness absence , using the latter as a direct measure of productivity. We find that excess weight women, but not men, experience a significant employment penalty. Both genders experience a significant income penalty for obesity. We conclude that the penalties are associated wi...

  9. Studies in Swedish Energy Opinion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Soeren; Hedberg, Per

    2012-07-01

    the 1970s, energy production was politicized big time in the industrialized world. The birth of the environmental movement, the oil crises in 1973 - 74 and the beginning conflict surrounding civilian nuclear power, put energy issues center stage on the political agenda. Energy policies - especially related to the development of nuclear power - came to dominate election campaigns, like in Sweden in 1976 or be the subject of referendums, like in Austria in 1978 or in Sweden in 1980. Critical voices toward the peaceful use of nuclear power - having started in America before being exported to Europe - gained real strength and public support all over the Western world by the nuclear accident at the Three Mile Island plant in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania in 1979. The energy genie was out of the bottle and out to stay. Fueled by the nuclear meltdowns in Chernobyl in 1986 and in Fukushima in 2011 and supplemented by conflicts over how to reduce the use of oil and coal, how to sensibly exploit the waste gas reserves, and how to develop renewable energy sources based on sun, wind and waves – have made all kinds of energy issues the focal point of political contentions ever since the early 1970s. In Sweden, as in many other countries, energy policies - often with nuclear power in the center - have been one of the most fought-over policy areas during the last thirty-forty years. And the contentious character of energy policies is not limited to the elite level of politics - to politicians, to media pundits or to lobbyists. It is also manifest among ordinary citizens. Energy issues - nuclear power and wind power in particular - are highly polarizing among voters as well. Given this historic background, starting in the 1970s, it was rather natural that energy questions - featuring most prominently questions related to nuclear power - would be important parts of the voter surveys performed by the Swedish National Elections Studies (SNES) at the Univ. of Gothenburg. The first book

  10. Ferride geochemistry of Swedish precambrian iron ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loberg, B. E. H.; Horndahl, A.-K.

    1983-10-01

    Chemical analysis for major and trace elements have been performed on 30 Swedish Precambrian iron ores and on some from Iran and Chile. The Swedish ores consist of apatite iron ores, quartz-banded iron ores, skarn and limestone iron ores from the two main ore districts of Sweden, the Bergslagen and the Norrbotten province. Some Swedish titaniferous iron ores were also included in the investigation. The trace element data show that the Swedish ores can be subdivided into two major groups: 1. orthomagmatic and exhalative, 2. sedimentary. Within group 1 the titaniferous iron ores are distinguished by their high Ti-contents. From the ferride contents of the Kiruna apatite iron ores, the ores are considered to be mobilization products of skarn iron ores from the Norbotten province.

  11. Risk Gambling and Personality: Results from a Representative Swedish Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Kristina; Wennberg, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The association between personality and gambling has been explored previously. However, few studies are based on representative populations. This study aimed at examining the association between risk gambling and personality in a representative Swedish population. A random Swedish sample (N = 19,530) was screened for risk gambling using the Lie/Bet questionnaire. The study sample (N = 257) consisted of those screening positive on Lie/Bet and completing a postal questionnaire about gambling and personality (measured with the NODS-PERC and the HP5i respectively). Risk gambling was positively correlated with Negative Affectivity (a facet of Neuroticism) and Impulsivity (an inversely related facet of Conscientiousness), but all associations were weak. When taking age and gender into account, there were no differences in personality across game preference groups, though preferred game correlated with level of risk gambling. Risk gamblers scored lower than the population norm data with respect to Negative Affectivity, but risk gambling men scored higher on Impulsivity. The association between risk gambling and personality found in previous studies was corroborated in this study using a representative sample. We conclude that risk and problem gamblers should not be treated as a homogeneous group, and prevention and treatment interventions should be adapted according to differences in personality, preferred type of game and the risk potential of the games.

  12. The ability of criminal law to produce gender equality: judicial discourses in the Swedish criminal legal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Monica

    2010-02-01

    The main aim of the Swedish Women's Peace reform in 1998 was to enhance criminal legal protection for women exposed to violence in heterosexual relationships and to promote gender equality. However, these ambitions risk being contravened in a masculinist criminal legal system. One problem concerns how the victim is constructed in criminal legal cases. The author argues that moral balancing and discourses of responsibility and guilt in Swedish cases constrain the agency possible for women and suggest that a more comprehensive policy in Sweden must be developed to include violent men, their agency, and their responsibility for the violence.

  13. Swedish health care in perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, O W

    1992-01-01

    The evolution and current problems of the Swedish health services are placed in an international comparative perspective with other industrially developed democratic states as to cost control, distribution of facilities and personnel, management of waiting lists for services, and differences in use of services. All of these countries are experiencing the same aforementioned problems differing mainly in degree. It is suggested that Sweden as well as other countries needs to reconceptualize the meaning of equality of access relative to the apparent emergence of private insurance as waiting lists grow for quality of life procedures such as lens and hip replacement. A concept of a basic service for everybody and so-called luxury service for those who wish to buy it needs to be faced in political debate. It is clear that government is unable to finance and supply the range of demand of a consumption good represented by a modern medicine. In so far as Sweden has been regarded as a model it appears that no country is a model anymore. The complexities of a modern health service has overwhelmed all countries and can be regarded as a sublime loss of innocence.

  14. Tensions in Stakeholder Relations for a Swedish Football Club

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghagen, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Swedish football is an industry not yet being as commercial as the big leagues and is regulated in terms of ownership of clubs. This implies a need for management of stakeholder relations for a Swedish football club. This paper identifies important stakeholders in Swedish football and discusses...

  15. Working on an historical dictionary: the Swedish academy dictionary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Working on an historical dictionary: the Swedish academy dictionary project. P Stille, B-O Wendt. Abstract. The Swedish Academy Dictionary is one of the world's largest dictionary projects. Work on it was started in 1884 and it will be completed by 2017. The dictionary describes the written standard language of Swedish ...

  16. The Impact of the Swedish Massage on the Kinesthetic Differentiation in Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Kamil; Furmanek, Mariusz Pawel; Knapik, Aleksandra; Bacik, Bogdan; Juras, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Swedish massage is one of the common treatments to provide optimal start and readiness of athletes. The ability of kinesthetic differentiation (KD) is crucial in sport performance. This skill allows to adapt demanded muscle forces to optimize the motor tasks, and it is responsible for the precision. In the literature, there is no evidence how Swedish massage influences the kinesthetic differentiation. Purpose: The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of Swedish massage on the kinesthetic differentiation and muscle strength of hand grip. Methods: Thirty participants took part in this investigation (17 women and 13 men). The assessment consisted of KD tests conducted on the dominant (DH) and nondominant hand (NDH) after 15 minutes of hand and forearm Swedish massage. The procedure consisted of 13 trials for each extremity. The first three were done for 100% of the participants’ capabilities (Fmax), the next five trials were done using 50% of maximum force (50% of Fmax), and in the last five trials, the participants tried to use only 50% of their previous force (1/2 of 50%). Finally, the absolute force production error (FPE) was calculated for 50% (FPE_50%) and 25% (FPE_25%). Results: The two-way repeated measure analysis of variance ANOVA did not reveal any statistically significant changes in maximal strength grip and KD between pre- and postmassage intervention in both DH and NDH hand. Correlations showed strong relationship between pre- and postmassage for maximum force (r = 0.92, p = .01 for DH, and r = 0.94, p = .01 for NDH), and only for the FPE_50% (r = 0.67, p = .01 for DH, and r = 0.71, p = .01 for NDH). Conclusions: The results obtained indicated that the application of the Swedish massage did not affect the kinesthetic differentiation in this particular young adult group. PMID:25780470

  17. Dietary fiber intake is inversely associated with stroke incidence in healthy Swedish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-12-01

    Prospective studies of dietary fiber intake in relation to stroke risk have reported inconsistent results. This study assessed the association between intake of total fiber and fiber sources and stroke incidence in healthy Swedish adults. The analysis was based on 69,677 participants (aged 45-83 y) from the Swedish Mammography Cohort and the Cohort of Swedish Men who were free from cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes at baseline (1 January 1998). Diet was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. Cases of stroke were ascertained through linkage to the Swedish Inpatient Register and the Swedish Cause of Death Register. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to calculate RRs, adjusted for potential confounders. During 10.3 y of follow-up, 3680 incident stroke cases, including 2722 cerebral infarctions, 363 intracerebral hemorrhages, 160 subarachnoid hemorrhages, and 435 unspecified strokes, were ascertained. High intakes of total fiber and fiber from fruits and vegetables but not from cereals were inversely associated with risk of stroke. After adjustment for other risk factors for stroke, the multivariable RRs of total stroke for the highest vs. lowest quintile of intake were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.99) for total fiber, 0.85 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.95) for fruit fiber, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.00) for vegetable fiber, and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.04) for cereal fiber. These findings indicate that intake of dietary fiber, especially fruit and vegetable fibers, is inversely associated with risk of stroke. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. The impact of the Swedish massage on the kinesthetic differentiation in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Kamil; Furmanek, Mariusz Pawel; Knapik, Aleksandra; Bacik, Bogdan; Juras, Grzegorz

    2015-03-01

    Swedish massage is one of the common treatments to provide optimal start and readiness of athletes. The ability of kinesthetic differentiation (KD) is crucial in sport performance. This skill allows to adapt demanded muscle forces to optimize the motor tasks, and it is responsible for the precision. In the literature, there is no evidence how Swedish massage influences the kinesthetic differentiation. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of Swedish massage on the kinesthetic differentiation and muscle strength of hand grip. Thirty participants took part in this investigation (17 women and 13 men). The assessment consisted of KD tests conducted on the dominant (DH) and nondominant hand (NDH) after 15 minutes of hand and forearm Swedish massage. The procedure consisted of 13 trials for each extremity. The first three were done for 100% of the participants' capabilities (Fmax), the next five trials were done using 50% of maximum force (50% of Fmax), and in the last five trials, the participants tried to use only 50% of their previous force (1/2 of 50%). Finally, the absolute force production error (FPE) was calculated for 50% (FPE_50%) and 25% (FPE_25%). The two-way repeated measure analysis of variance ANOVA did not reveal any statistically significant changes in maximal strength grip and KD between pre- and postmassage intervention in both DH and NDH hand. Correlations showed strong relationship between pre- and postmassage for maximum force (r = 0.92, p = .01 for DH, and r = 0.94, p = .01 for NDH), and only for the FPE_50% (r = 0.67, p = .01 for DH, and r = 0.71, p = .01 for NDH). The results obtained indicated that the application of the Swedish massage did not affect the kinesthetic differentiation in this particular young adult group.

  19. Phonology of a southern Swedish idiolect

    OpenAIRE

    Svantesson, Jan-Olof

    2001-01-01

    In this egocentric article I describe briefly the segmental phonology of my own southern Swedish idiolect. I grew up in Getinge in central Halland, about 20 km north of Halmstad, speaking a regional variant of southern Standard Swedish. Although my dialect has certainly changed somewhat after I moved to Lund in 1964 at the age of 20, I believe that I still retain the basic pronunciation of vowels and consonants from my original dialect. There is one older description of the Getinge dialect by...

  20. Market reforms in Swedish health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the main characteristics of reforms in the Swedish health services, as exemplified by the "Stockholm Model" introduced in 1992 in Stockholm county. The author discusses the motives behind these reforms, the already-evident increases in costs that are occurring, and the effect...... of these reforms on public support for the welfare state.......This report presents the main characteristics of reforms in the Swedish health services, as exemplified by the "Stockholm Model" introduced in 1992 in Stockholm county. The author discusses the motives behind these reforms, the already-evident increases in costs that are occurring, and the effect...

  1. Ambassadors of the Swedish Nation: National Images in the Teaching of the Swedish Lecturers in Germany 1918-1945

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerlund, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the teaching of Swedish language lecturers active in Germany during the first half of the twentieth century. It shows the centrality of literature and literary constructions and analyses images of Swedishness and the Swedish nation present in the teaching material of that time in relation to the national image present in…

  2. Cognitive trajectories in relation to hospitalization among older Swedish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Jenny; Fransson, Eleonor I; Reynolds, Chandra A; Finkel, Deborah; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dahl Aslan, Anna K

    2017-09-09

    Research indicate that cognitive impairment might be related to hospitalization, but little is known about these effects over time. To assess cognitive change before and after hospitalization among older adults in a population-based longitudinal study with up to 25 years of follow-up. A longitudinal study on 828 community living men and women aged 50-86 from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Ageing (SATSA) were linked to The Swedish National Inpatient Register. Up to 8 assessments of cognitive performance (general cognitive ability, verbal, spatial/fluid, memory, and processing speed) from 1986 to 2010 were available. Latent growth curve modelling was used to assess the association between cognitive performance and hospitalization including spline models to analyse cognitive trajectories pre- and post-hospitalization. A total of 735 persons (89%) had at least one hospital admission during the follow-up. Mean age at first hospitalization was 70.2 (±9.3)years. Persons who were hospitalized exhibited a lower mean level of cognitive performance in general ability, processing speed and spatial/fluid ability compared with those who were not hospitalized. The two-slope models revealed steeper cognitive decline before hospitalization than after among those with at least one hospitalization event, as compared to non-hospitalized persons who showed steeper cognitive decline after the centering age of 70 years. Persons being hospitalized in late life have lower cognitive performance across all assessed domains. The results indicate that the main decline occurs before the hospitalization, and not after. This might indicate that when you get treatment you also benefit cognitively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Leisure, Government and Governance: A Swedish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    The leisure sector has witnessed a tremendous expansion since 1960. The purpose of this article is to analyse the decisions and goals of Swedish government policy during the period 1962 to 2005. The empirical analysis covers government Propositions and governmental investigations. The fields covered are sports, culture, exercise, tourism and…

  4. Training Entrepreneurship at Universities: A Swedish Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klofsten, Magnus

    2000-01-01

    The Entrepreneurship and New Business Development Program trains Swedish individuals in the startup of technology- or knowledge-based enterprises. Built on the characteristics of entrepreneurial behavior, the program features a holistic outlook, a network of established entrepreneurs, mentoring, a mix of theory and practice, and focus on the…

  5. Exergy use in the Swedish society 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, G.

    1997-07-01

    The exergy concept is reviewed as a tool for resource accounting. Conversions of energy and material resources in the Swedish society in 1994 are described in terms of exergy. Necessary concepts and conventions are introduced. Exergy losses in transformations of material resources and in conversions of various forms of energy into heat are described in some detail

  6. SWEDISH CRIME FICTION AS SOCIALLY INVOLVED LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Samsel-Chojnacka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Swedish crime novel has been transforming for many years to become more socially involved. The ambition of many writers is not only to entertain the readers but also to participating in the social debate, criticizing the political and economical system, focusing on important issues such as violence against women, exploitation of working class by the privileged ruling class, the problems of a modern family and the situation of immigrants. Since the moment when in the mid 60’s two journalists Maj Sjöwall and Per Wahlöö decided to use popular literature to spread social matters many other Swedish writers have decided to follow their way. Some of them are journalists – like Liza Marklund, Börge Hellström and Anders Roslund or Stieg Larsson. Their novels as well as the ones written by Henning Mannkel on Kurt Wallander have become crucial evidence of changes of Swedish society in the past twenty years. Modern Swedish crime fiction illustrates the population in the model fashion that is the reason why it can become one of the interests of the sociology of literature.

  7. Mathematics and Didactic Contract in Swedish Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacour, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study and analyse how a teacher implements an outdoor realistic problem situation for children aged 4-5 in a Swedish preschool. By an "outdoor realistic problem situation", I mean a situation initiated by a teacher in which children come into contact with mathematical concepts and in which the outside…

  8. Comparing gender awareness in Dutch and Swedish first-year medical students - results from a questionaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Jenny

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To ascertain good and appropriate healthcare for both women and men implementation of gender perspectives in medical education is needed. For a successful implementation, knowledge about students' attitudes and beliefs about men, women, and gender is crucial. The aim of this study was to compare attitudes to gender and gender stereotyping among Dutch and Swedish male and female medical students. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we measured the attitudes and assumptions about gender among 1096 first year medical students (616 Dutch and 480 Swedish with the validated Nijmegen Gender Awareness in Medicine Scale (N-GAMS. The response rate was 94% in the Netherlands and 93% in Sweden. Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to compare the scores between Dutch and Swedish male and female students. Linear regressions were used to analyze the importance of the background variables. Results There were significant differences in attitudes to gender between Dutch and Swedish students. The Swedish students expressed less stereotypical thinking about patients and doctors and the Dutch were more sensitive to gender differences. The students' sex mattered for gender stereotyping, with male students in both countries agreeing more with stereotypical statements. Students' age, father's birth country and mother's education level had some impact on the outcome. Conclusions There are differences between cultures as well as between men and women in gender awareness that need to be considered when implementing gender in medical education. This study suggests that to arouse the students' interest in gender issues and make them aware of the significance of gender in medical work, the examples used in discussions need to be relevant and challenging in the context of the specific country. Due to different levels of knowledge and different attitudes within the student population it is important to create a climate for dialogue where

  9. To see or not to see. Perceptions of equality in a Swedish university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oresland, S; Jakobsson, A; Segesten, K

    1999-01-01

    In order to examine the perceptions of sex equality among medical doctors (MDs) and registered nurses (RNs), a survey was conducted in a Swedish University Hospital in May 1995. A questionnaire was sent to 475 MDs and RNs of three different age groups. The results showed that women tend to have similar opinions irrespective of occupation and age, which differed significantly from those of men. Men believed that equality in general exists in the hospital, while women think the values and conditions in the workplace mainly benefit men. No evidence was found to indicate a change in the sex hierarchy within the health care system. Rather, the status quo will be maintained and gender stereotypes reinforced from one generation to the next.

  10. Swedish attitudes towards persons with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högberg, Torbjörn; Magnusson, Annabella; Lützén, Kim; Ewalds-Kvist, Béatrice

    2012-04-01

    Negative and stigmatizing attitudes towards persons with mental illness must be dealt with to facilitate the sufferers' social acceptance. The present study aimed at survey Swedish attitudes towards persons with mental illness related to factors impacting these attitudes. New CAMI-S based on the questionnaire "Community Attitudes to Mental Illness in Sweden" ([CAMI] Taylor & Dear, 1981) was developed with nine behavioral-intention items and thus comprised a total of 29 items. Of 5000 Swedish people, 2391 agreed to complete the questionnaire. Principal component analysis rendered four factors reflecting attitudes towards the mentally ill: Intention to Interact, Fearful and Avoidant, Open-minded and Pro-Integration, as well as Community Mental Health Ideology. The factors were analyzed for trends in attitudes. By MANOVA, the experience of mental illness effects on mind-set towards the sufferers was assessed. By means of logistic regression, demographic factors contributing to positive attitudes towards persons with mental illness residing in the neighborhood were assessed. By New CAMI-S, the Swedish attitudes towards the mentally ill were surveyed and trends in agreement with living next to a person with mental illness were revealed in three out of four factors derived by principal component analysis. Aspects impacting the Swedish attitudes towards persons with mental illness and willingness to have him/her residing in the neighborhood comprised experience of mental illness, female gender, age (31-50 years), born in Scandinavia or outside Europe, only 9 years of compulsory school and accommodation in flat. The New CAMI-S came out as a useful tool to screen Swedish attitudes towards persons with mental illness. Most Swedes were prepared to live next to the mentally ill.

  11. Professional reinventions: Swedish psychologists, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagius, Peter; Münger, Ann-Charlotte

    2016-11-01

    Since the early 20th century, the Swedish psychology profession has undergone several changes in its essential tasks, epistemological foundations, and social roles. These changes occurred through an ongoing "tuning" with Swedish society, in which the profession strove to appear relevant to society's concerns and problems as well as enroll others to share the profession's goals and aims. Studying the history of the profession can thus shed light on the changing definitions and contours of the psychology profession itself as well as on the organization of the society in which it acts. This article examines the history of the Swedish psychology profession from 1990 to 2010, through an analysis of the discussions and debates taking place in the Swedish Psychological Association's journal. The analytical framework used draws on work done within actor-network theory and science studies. We argue that the profession's institutional connections, defining tasks, epistemological underpinnings, and social position have changed in major ways during these 2 decades. Overall, as a result of an increasingly felt insecurity, the profession has turned outward and tried to find new ways to legitimize itself to politicians, the media, patients, and customers through means such as a more economized vocabulary and novel forms of empirical research. These changes have led to a more socialized profession, now more closely tuned to other actors in Swedish society, leading to conflicts within the profession over whether this is an opportunity to better control their own destiny or if it will lead to a loss of autonomy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Prevalence of footrot in Swedish slaughter lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyman Ann-Kristin J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Footrot is a world-wide contagious disease in sheep and goats. It is an infection of the epidermis of the interdigital skin, and the germinal layers of the horn tissue of the feet. The first case of footrot in Swedish sheep was diagnosed in 2004. Due to difficulties in distinguishing benign footrot from early cases of virulent footrot and because there is no possibility for virulence testing of strains of Dichelobacter nodosus in Sweden, the diagnosis is based of the presence or absence of clinical signs of footrot in sheep flocks. Ever since the first diagnosed case the Swedish Animal Health Service has worked intensively to stop the spread of infection and control the disease at flock level. However, to continue this work effectively it is important to have knowledge about the distribution of the disease both nationally and regionally. Therefore, the aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of footrot in Swedish lambs at abattoirs and to assess the geographical distribution of the disease. Methods A prevalence study on footrot in Swedish lambs was performed by visual examination of 2000 feet from 500 lambs submitted from six slaughter houses. Each foot was scored according to a 0 to 5 scoring system, where feet with score ≥2 were defined as having footrot. Moreover, samples from feet with footrot were examined for Dichelobacter nodosus by culture and PCR. Results The prevalence of footrot at the individual sheep level was 5.8%, and Dichelobacter nodosus was found by culture and PCR in 83% and 97% of the samples from feet with footrot, respectively. Some minor differences in geographical distribution of footrot were found in this study. Conclusions In a national context, the findings indicate that footrot is fairly common in Swedish slaughter lambs, and should be regarded seriously.

  13. Mad Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler den amerikanske tv-serie Mad Men. Fokus er på hvordan Koreakrigens indflydelse på ændrede manderoller har haft betydning for hovedpersonen Don Drapers performative maskulinitet.......Artiklen omhandler den amerikanske tv-serie Mad Men. Fokus er på hvordan Koreakrigens indflydelse på ændrede manderoller har haft betydning for hovedpersonen Don Drapers performative maskulinitet....

  14. Folate intake in a Swedish adult population: Food sources and predictive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo, Celia; Scander, Henrik; Nilsen, Bente; Yngve, Agneta

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Folate plays an important role in cell metabolism, but international studies show that intake is currently below recommendations, especially among women. The study objective was to identify folate food sources by food group, gender, and age group, and to identify factors influencing folate intake, based on food consumption data for Swedish adults in the 2010-11 Riksmaten study. Methods: The sample included a representative Swedish population aged 18-80 years (n = 1657; 56.3% female). Food and nutrient intakes were estimated from self-reported food records during 4 consecutive days. Food consumption was categorized into 26 food groups. Stepwise regression was used to analyze food groups as folate sources for participants. Factors predicting the highest folate intake (third tertile) were determined by logistic regression analysis. Results: Vegetables and pulses represented the most important folate source for all age groups and both genders, especially in women aged 45-64 years (49.7% of total folate intake). The next folate source in importance was dairy products for the youngest group (18-30 years), bread for men, and fruit and berries for women. The likelihood of being in the highest tertile of folate intake (odds ratio = 1.69, 95% confidence interval 1.354-2.104) was higher for men. Influencing factors for folate intake in the highest tertile were low body mass index and high educational level in the men, and high educational level, vegetarian diet, organic product consumption, non-smoking, and alcohol consumption within recommendations in the women. Conclusion: This study describes the folate intake per food group of Swedish adults according to the 2010-11 Riksmaten survey, identifying vegetables and pulses as the most important source. Data obtained on factors related to folate consumption may be useful for the development of specific nutrition education programs to increase the intake of this vitamin in high-risk groups.

  15. Distribution of personality, individual characteristics and internet usage in Swedish older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Jessica; Rennemark, Mikael; Jogréus, Claes; Berglund, Johan

    2012-01-01

    This article investigated factors associated with internet usage in the Swedish older adults ranging in age from 60 to 96. Personality traits and individual characteristics have been previously noted to influence internet usage, where older adults have not been the focus population. In this study, the relationships between personality, individual characteristics and internet usage were investigated. A descriptive analysis of the personality tests of a total of 1402 subjects included in the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care was conducted. Three variables were controlled for: sex, age and education. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests, chi-square tests and a logistic regression were used in order to detect the relationships with internet usage. Men differ significantly from women in the personality traits analysis. Those with higher education were more open and neuroticism was lower in the oldest older adults. Internet usage declined significantly with age and those with middle to higher education were using the internet the most. No other associations with internet use were found. Personality traits and individual characteristics do not seem to influence the Swedish older adult and their internet usage. What one needs to account for is the age and education of the person. The more educated and the youngest cohorts were using the internet more frequently.

  16. Ethnic Swedish parents' experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence in Swedish paediatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavallali, Azar G; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Jirwe, Maria

    2014-06-01

    Sweden has a population of a little more than 9.4 million. The rapid growth of immigration in Sweden has resulted in an increased number of minority ethnic patients and minority ethnic nurses in the Swedish healthcare system. This also applies to paediatric care. The purpose of this study was to explore how parents with ethnic Swedish backgrounds experience minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence and the care the nurses provide in a Swedish paediatric care context. This exploratory qualitative study is of 14 parents with an ethnic Swedish background whose child was in a ward at a children's hospital in Stockholm County Council. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews to identify parents' perceptions and experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence. The interviews were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The analyses of the interviews led to four main categories: influence of nurses' ethnicity; significance of cross-cultural communication; cross-cultural skills; and the importance of nursing education. Nurses' ethnicity did not have much impact on parents' satisfaction with their child's care. The parents attached importance to nurses' language skills and to their adaptation and awareness of Swedish culture. They also attached weight to nurses' professional knowledge and personal attributes. The role of nursing education to increase nurses' cultural awareness was highlighted too. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  17. Reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisell, Kristin; Winblad, Ulrika; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, a reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector took place, and a fundamental change in ownership and structure followed. The reregulation provides an opportunity to reveal the politicians' views on pharmacies. The aim of this study was to explore and analyze the political arguments...... for the reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector in 2009. The method used was a qualitative content analysis of written political documents regarding the reregulation. The primary rationales for the reregulation were better availability, efficiency, price pressure, and safe usage of medicines. During...... are better equipped to perform public activities. The results point to that the reform was done almost solely in order to introduce private ownership in the pharmacy sector, and was not initiated in order to solve any general problems, or to enhance patient outcomes of medicine use....

  18. Workplace Incivility in a Swedish Context

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Torkelson; Kristoffer Holm; Martin Bäckström

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated workplace incivility in a Swedish context. The first aim was to assess how common the phenomenon is and the second was to study which groups (gender, age, ethnicity, and power position) are most targeted by workplace incivility and are more prone to act in an uncivil way. Additionally, the relationships between experienced and witnessed incivility and wellbeing as well as instigated incivility were investigated. An online survey was administered by SIFO (the nat...

  19. Diversity work in a Swedish Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Risberg, Annette

    2012-01-01

    This paper builds on a case study of diversity work in a Swedish municipality, Malmö. It focuses on certain actors partaking in the diversity work done in the municipality that of a gender and diversity committee and its members – here called diversity ambassadors. I will describe the work of the diversity ambassadors and discuss what impact they could possibly have on the organization. Organizational efforts to change inequalities at the workplace may take different forms. The literature ...

  20. The swedish challenge; Le pari Suedois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tregouet, R

    2006-07-01

    Sweden decided to be the first country without petroleum for 2020. The author presents the major energy policy axis implemented by the swedish government to delete the part of the produced energy by the petroleum: development of the renewable energies, research programs of the transportation sector concerning the alternative fuels for the motors, energy efficiency and development of the biomass to replace the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  1. Patient safety as perceived by Swedish leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Härenstam, Karin Pukk; Elg, Mattias; Svensson, Carina; Brommels, Mats; Øvretveit, John

    2009-01-01

    Artikkelen beskriver en studie hvor hensikten var å kartlegge svenske helselederes bevissthet knyttet til pasientsikkerhet, deres prioritering av sikkerhetsspørsmål, og deres syn på ledelsesstrategier som er egnet i pasientsikkerhetsarbeid. The purpose of this paper is to survey Swedish healthcare leaders' patient safety awareness, the priority they give to safety issues and their views on suitable safety management strategies. A total 623 leaders of a sample of 1,129 responded to a mail q...

  2. Spirometric reference equations for Swedish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisman, Jonas; Kim, Jeong-Lim; Olin, Anna-Carin; Torén, Kjell; Bake, Björn

    2017-11-01

    New spirometric reference equations for Swedish adults are required. Three different older sets of reference equations clinically used in Sweden have various drawbacks and the recently published 'The Global Lung Function 2012 (GLI) equations' have been shown not to be adequate for Swedish normal, healthy non-smokers. We have recently concluded that a piecewise linear model presented by Lubinski and Gólczewski accurately describes the distribution of spirometric variables in a large Swedish random population sample. This piecewise linear model also offers the important advantage of implementing easily physiologically interpretable coefficients. The present study aimed at presenting piecewise linear reference equations for Swedish adults based on a random population sample of 6685 individuals aged 25-75 years. Predicted normal values by the piecewise linear reference equations and lower limit normal (LLN) were compared with the three reference equations frequently used clinically in Sweden and the GLI equations. We found predicted normal values according to the present piecewise linear reference equations close to 100% predicted normal as expected, whereas the other equations either overestimated or underestimated normal subjects. Concerning LLN, the present equations, i.e. 1·645 × RSD, showed the least deviation from the expected 5% and, e.g., the GLI equations systematically identified too few subjects below LLN. We conclude that the present piecewise linear reference equations, based on a relatively large general population sample, ought to be considered for clinical use in Sweden. Application of 1·645 × RSD below predicted value gave an acceptably accurate LLN. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Patient safety as perceived by Swedish leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härenstam, Karin Pukk; Elg, Mattias; Svensson, Carina; Brommels, Mats; Ovretveit, John

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to survey Swedish healthcare leaders' patient safety awareness, the priority they give to safety issues and their views on suitable safety management strategies. A total 623 leaders of a sample of 1,129 responded to a mail questionnaire (55 percent response rate). Descriptive statistics of the responses are presented as frequency distributions across respondent subgroups. Means were tested for similarity by a repetitive one-way ANOVA procedure. Homogeneous response groups were sought by hierarchical cluster analysis. Swedish healthcare leaders show relatively high safety awareness and how their organizations prioritize safety management. There is a marked polarization between leaders; half feel that the system works reasonably well, and that adequate funds are available to improve or maintain services. The other half thinks the system needs major change and calls for additional funding. A majority sees system errors as the main cause for adverse events; a substantial minority find human errors to be more important. Two-thirds were willing to make safety performance information on organizations and specialties public, one third was restrictive. Survey instruments used to explore leaders' patient safety views have not yet been rigorously tested against psychometric criteria. One hospital type was slightly over-represented and three regions somewhat under-represented in the respondent groups. This is the first systematic attempt to explore the views of Swedish healthcare leaders on patient safety. It provides input to a national strategy to improve patient safety.

  4. Psychosocial work environment among Swedish audiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännström, K Jonas; Båsjö, Sara; Larsson, Josefina; Lood, Sofie; Lundå, Stefan; Notsten, Margareta; Taheri, Satu Turunen

    2013-03-01

    The study examined the self-reported psychosocial work environment for audiologists working in three practice types (public, completely private, and private but publicly funded). A cross-sectional e-mail survey using the demand-control-support questionnaire, a short version of the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) questionnaire, and descriptive data. Five-hundred Swedish licensed audiologists. Overall, the results indicate differences in psychosocial work environment pertaining to the practice types. These differences are small and the type explains few percent of the variability accounted in the measures of psychosocial work environment. Social support seems important for the psychosocial work environment and is considered a reward in itself. Using the demand-control model, 29% of the audiologists reported working in a high-stress psychosocial work environment. Using the ERI-ratio to estimate the imbalance between effort and reward it was shown that that 86% of the participants experienced an unfavorable work situation where the rewards do not correspond to the efforts made. The organizational framework has minor effect on self-reported psychosocial work environment for Swedish licensed audiologists. The percentage of unfavorable ERI-ratios seen in Swedish audiologists seems conspicuously high compared to other working populations in general, but also compared to other health service workers.

  5. Tanning beauty ideals among Swedish adults who exercise regularly

    OpenAIRE

    Cedercreutz, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Tanning beauty ideals among Swedish adults who exercise regularly Introduction: The majority of the Swedish population exercise regularly, and it has been reported that they believe having an attractive body is important. While research has shown that Swedes wish to be tanned, it is unknown whether there are any correlations to their exercise habits. Aims: The primary aim was to determine tanned skin tone ideals and tanning beauty ideals among regularly exercising Swedish adults. Associati...

  6. The Swedish version of the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; Rosenberg, Patricia; Lindskär, Erik; Amato, Clara; Al Nima, Ali

    2017-10-01

    The data include responses to the Swedish version of a questionnaire used to operationalize self-regulation or regulatory mode: assessment and locomotion. The data was collected among 567 Swedish high school and university students (see Garcia and Lindskär, 2016 [1]). In this article, we also include the Swedish version of the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire. The data is available, SPSS file, as supplementary material in this article.

  7. Erosive tooth wear: prevalence and severity in Swedish winetasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktorsson, A M; Zimmerman, M; Angmar-Månsson, B

    1997-12-01

    Full-time Swedish winetasters test on average 20-50 different wines, nearly 5 days a week. As the pH of wines ranges from 3.0 to 3.6, there is a potential risk for tooth erosion. The aims of this study were to document the prevalence and severity of tooth erosion in qualified winetasters in relation to number of years of winetasting, salivary flow rate, and buffer capacity. The subjects comprised all 19 qualified winetasters (7 women and 12 men, aged 29-64 years employed in Stockholm by Vin & Sprit AB, the state-owned company marketing wines and spirits. At intraoral examination, tooth surface loss was registered and documented by photography. Salivary flow rate and buffer capacity of unstimulated and stimulated saliva were measured. Data on occupational background and dental and medical histories were collected. Fourteen subjects had tooth erosion, the severity varying from mild to extreme, mainly on the labio-cervical surfaces of maxillary incisors and canines. The severity of the erosion tended to increase with years of occupational exposure. Caries activity in all subjects was low. 14 subjects had low unstimulated salivary flow rates. It was concluded that full-time winetasting is an occupation associated with increased risk for tooth erosion.

  8. Mobile phones, cordless phones and rates of brain tumors in different age groups in the Swedish National Inpatient Register and the Swedish Cancer Register during 1998-2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Hardell

    Full Text Available We used the Swedish Inpatient Register (IPR to analyze rates of brain tumors of unknown type (D43 during 1998-2015. Average Annual Percentage Change (AAPC per 100,000 increased with +2.06%, 95% confidence interval (CI +1.27, +2.86% in both genders combined. A joinpoint was found in 2007 with Annual Percentage Change (APC 1998-2007 of +0.16%, 95% CI -0.94, +1.28%, and 2007-2015 of +4.24%, 95% CI +2.87, +5.63%. Highest AAPC was found in the age group 20-39 years. In the Swedish Cancer Register the age-standardized incidence rate per 100,000 increased for brain tumors, ICD-code 193.0, during 1998-2015 with AAPC in men +0.49%, 95% CI +0.05, +0.94%, and in women +0.33%, 95% CI -0.29, +0.45%. The cases with brain tumor of unknown type lack morphological examination. Brain tumor diagnosis was based on cytology/histopathology in 83% for men and in 87% for women in 1980. This frequency increased to 90% in men and 88% in women in 2015. During the same time period CT and MRI imaging techniques were introduced and morphology is not always necessary for diagnosis. If all brain tumors based on clinical diagnosis with CT or MRI had been reported to the Cancer Register the frequency of diagnoses based on cytology/histology would have decreased in the register. The results indicate underreporting of brain tumor cases to the Cancer Register. The real incidence would be higher. Thus, incidence trends based on the Cancer Register should be used with caution. Use of wireless phones should be considered in relation to the change of incidence rates.

  9. Mobile phones, cordless phones and rates of brain tumors in different age groups in the Swedish National Inpatient Register and the Swedish Cancer Register during 1998-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We used the Swedish Inpatient Register (IPR) to analyze rates of brain tumors of unknown type (D43) during 1998-2015. Average Annual Percentage Change (AAPC) per 100,000 increased with +2.06%, 95% confidence interval (CI) +1.27, +2.86% in both genders combined. A joinpoint was found in 2007 with Annual Percentage Change (APC) 1998-2007 of +0.16%, 95% CI -0.94, +1.28%, and 2007-2015 of +4.24%, 95% CI +2.87, +5.63%. Highest AAPC was found in the age group 20-39 years. In the Swedish Cancer Register the age-standardized incidence rate per 100,000 increased for brain tumors, ICD-code 193.0, during 1998-2015 with AAPC in men +0.49%, 95% CI +0.05, +0.94%, and in women +0.33%, 95% CI -0.29, +0.45%. The cases with brain tumor of unknown type lack morphological examination. Brain tumor diagnosis was based on cytology/histopathology in 83% for men and in 87% for women in 1980. This frequency increased to 90% in men and 88% in women in 2015. During the same time period CT and MRI imaging techniques were introduced and morphology is not always necessary for diagnosis. If all brain tumors based on clinical diagnosis with CT or MRI had been reported to the Cancer Register the frequency of diagnoses based on cytology/histology would have decreased in the register. The results indicate underreporting of brain tumor cases to the Cancer Register. The real incidence would be higher. Thus, incidence trends based on the Cancer Register should be used with caution. Use of wireless phones should be considered in relation to the change of incidence rates.

  10. Headphone listening habits and hearing thresholds in swedish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E Widen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported hearing and portable music listening habits, measured hearing function and music exposure levels in Swedish adolescents. The study was divided into two parts. Materials and Methods: The first part included 280 adolescents, who were 17 years of age and focused on self-reported data on subjective hearing problems and listening habits regarding portable music players. From this group, 50 adolescents volunteered to participate in Part II of the study, which focused on audiological measurements and measured listening volume. Results: The results indicated that longer lifetime exposure in years and increased listening frequency were associated with poorer hearing thresholds and more self-reported hearing problems. A tendency was found for listening to louder volumes and poorer hearing thresholds. Women reported more subjective hearing problems compared with men but exhibited better hearing thresholds. In contrast, men reported more use of personal music devices, and they listen at higher volumes. Discussion: Additionally, the study shows that adolescents listening for ≥3 h at every occasion more likely had tinnitus. Those listening at ≥85 dB LAeq, FF and listening every day exhibited poorer mean hearing thresholds, reported more subjective hearing problems and listened more frequently in school and while sleeping. Conclusion: Although the vast majority listened at moderate sound levels and for shorter periods of time, the study also indicates that there is a subgroup (10% that listens between 90 and 100 dB for longer periods of time, even during sleep. This group might be at risk for developing future noise-induced hearing impairments.

  11. Headphone listening habits and hearing thresholds in swedish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widen, Stephen E; Båsjö, Sara; Möller, Claes; Kähäri, Kim

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported hearing and portable music listening habits, measured hearing function and music exposure levels in Swedish adolescents. The study was divided into two parts. The first part included 280 adolescents, who were 17 years of age and focused on self-reported data on subjective hearing problems and listening habits regarding portable music players. From this group, 50 adolescents volunteered to participate in Part II of the study, which focused on audiological measurements and measured listening volume. The results indicated that longer lifetime exposure in years and increased listening frequency were associated with poorer hearing thresholds and more self-reported hearing problems. A tendency was found for listening to louder volumes and poorer hearing thresholds. Women reported more subjective hearing problems compared with men but exhibited better hearing thresholds. In contrast, men reported more use of personal music devices, and they listen at higher volumes. Additionally, the study shows that adolescents listening for ≥3 h at every occasion more likely had tinnitus. Those listening at ≥85 dB LAeq, FF and listening every day exhibited poorer mean hearing thresholds, reported more subjective hearing problems and listened more frequently in school and while sleeping. Although the vast majority listened at moderate sound levels and for shorter periods of time, the study also indicates that there is a subgroup (10%) that listens between 90 and 100 dB for longer periods of time, even during sleep. This group might be at risk for developing future noise-induced hearing impairments.

  12. Masturbation Experiences of Swedish Senior High School Students: Gender Differences and Similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driemeyer, Wiebke; Janssen, Erick; Wiltfang, Jens; Elmerstig, Eva

    Research about masturbation tends to be limited to the assessment of masturbation incidence and frequency. Consequently, little is known about what people experience connected to masturbation. This might be one reason why theoretical approaches that specifically address the persistent gender gap in masturbation frequency are lacking. The aim of the current study was to explore several aspects of masturbation in young men and women, and to examine possible associations with their social backgrounds and sexual histories. Data from 1,566 women and 1,452 men (ages 18 to 22) from 52 Swedish senior high schools were analyzed. Comparisons between men and women were made regarding incidence of and age at first masturbation, the use of objects (e.g., sex toys), fantasies, and sexual functioning during masturbation, as well as about their attitudes toward masturbation and sexual fantasies. Cluster analysis was carried out to identify similarities between and differences within the gender groups. While overall more men than women reported experience with several of the investigated aspects, cluster analyses revealed that a large proportion of men and women reported similar experiences and that fewer experiences are not necessarily associated with negative attitudes toward masturbation. Implications of these findings are discussed in consideration of particular social backgrounds.

  13. Problem Solving in Swedish Mathematics Textbooks for Upper Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehmer, Daniel; Ryve, Andreas; Van Steenbrugge, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse how mathematical problem solving is represented in mathematical textbooks for Swedish upper secondary school. The analysis comprises dominating Swedish textbook series, and relates to uncovering (a) the quantity of tasks that are actually mathematical problems, (b) their location in the chapter, (c) their…

  14. Preschool Education and Day Care for Swedish Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jeanne

    A comprehensive study of the types of care provided for Swedish children is presented. The point is made that the three major frameworks which support the Swedish philosophy of early childhood education are those of Arnold Gesell, Jean Piaget, and Erik H. Erikson. From all three sources, preschool teachers learn the concept of epigenesis, the…

  15. Parental Expectations of the Swedish Municipal School of Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilliedahl, Jonathan; Georgii-Hemming, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This article draws on a study designed to analyse parental expectations of the Swedish municipal school of arts (hereafter MSA) (in Swedish: kommunal musik- och kulturskola). The study is based on in-depth interviews conducted and informed by grounded theory. Although parental expectations are scarcely uniform, the study reveals a hope that the…

  16. The Position of the Deaf in the Swedish Labor Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydberg, Emelie; Gellerstedt, Lotta Coniavitis; Danermark, Berth

    2010-01-01

    The position of deaf people in the Swedish labor market is described and analyzed. A population of 2,144 people born from 1941 to 1980 who attended special education programs for the deaf was compared to 100,000 randomly chosen individuals from the total Swedish population born during the same period. Data on these individuals consisted of…

  17. Global health education in Swedish medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, S; Agardh, A; Holmer, H; Krantz, G; Hagander, L

    2015-11-01

    Global health education is increasingly acknowledged as an opportunity for medical schools to prepare future practitioners for the broad health challenges of our time. The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of global health education in Swedish medical schools and to assess students' perceived needs for such education. Data on global health education were collected from all medical faculties in Sweden for the years 2000-2013. In addition, 76% (439/577) of all Swedish medical students in their final semester answered a structured questionnaire. Global health education is offered at four of Sweden's seven medical schools, and most medical students have had no global health education. Medical students in their final semester consider themselves to lack knowledge and skills in areas such as the global burden of disease (51%), social determinants of health (52%), culture and health (60%), climate and health (62%), health promotion and disease prevention (66%), strategies for equal access to health care (69%) and global health care systems (72%). A significant association was found between self-assessed competence and the amount of global health education received (pmedical students (83%) wished to have more global health education added to the curriculum. Most Swedish medical students have had no global health education as part of their medical school curriculum. Expanded education in global health is sought after by medical students and could strengthen the professional development of future medical doctors in a wide range of topics important for practitioners in the global world of the twenty-first century. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  18. Validation of a Swedish version of the short UPPS-P impulsive behavior scale among young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Claréus

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The UPPS-P model of impulsivity proposes that impulsivity comprises five distinct facets—negative urgency, positive urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking. The UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale has been used to measure these facets. The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the 20-item UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale (SUPPS-P. The sample comprised 343 Swedish young adults (Mage=24.21, SD=2.01; 27% men, 2% other or undisclosed gender identity who answered a questionnaire including the SUPPS-P; Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21; and questions regarding their alcohol consumption and substance use. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a 5-factor, inter-correlated model, where each subscale of the SUPPS-P constitutes one latent variable. The convergent validity was established by replicating previously found correlations between the different impulsivity facets and depression, anxiety, frequency of alcohol consumption, and substance use. The internal consistency was acceptable for all the SUPPS-P subscales (Cronbach's α=0.65–0.78, McDonald's ω=0.65–0.79, except lack of perseverance (Cronbach's α=0.60, McDonald's ω=0.61. Thus, while the Swedish version of the SUPPS-P is suitable for assessing impulsivity in Swedish young adult samples, further research is needed to improve the psychometric properties of the lack of perseverance subscale. Keywords: Impulsivity, UPPS, UPPS-P, Swedish, Impulsive behavior scale

  19. Communication problems in Swedish Mental Health reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Jonas

    2005-01-01

    In a study on the implementation of the Swedish Mental Health reform in the county of Gavleborg in Sweden, attention was called, at an early stage, to the need for relevant theories on the nature of the obstacles that slowed down the reform process. Data had initially been gathered from interviews with persons from all levels of the implementation work. A Grounded Theory (GT) study was carried out using these data in order to generate a theory on the nature of the obstacles. Two separate analyses were made, one based on data from experts and decision makers and the other based on data from consumers and staff. Each of these analyses generated a theory with great explanatory and predictive value. In a further analysis, it became possible to merge the theories into an expanded theory with a greater general validity within the entire field of the Swedish Mental Health reform process. The expanded theory states that the psychiatric reform in Sweden is slowed down by obstacles preventing the transfer of information: 1) between staff in the mental health services and staff in the social services; 2) between social services' care givers and consumers. One reason for not removing these obstacles is that they serve an important purpose for those involved, in terms of preserving group identity, which gives them the opportunity to exert influence on their situation and provides room for manoeuvring.

  20. Mortality in Swedish patients with Hirschsprung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löf Granström, Anna; Wester, Tomas

    2017-11-01

    Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) has previously been associated with increased mortality. The aim of this study was to assess mortality in patients with Hirschsprung disease in a population-based cohort. This was a nationwide, population-based cohort study. The study exposure was HSCR and the study outcome was death. The cohort included all individuals with HSCR registered in the Swedish National Patient Register between 1964 and 2013 and ten age- and sex-matched controls per patient, randomly selected from the Population Register. Mortality and cause of death were assessed using the Swedish National Causes of Death Register. The cohort comprised 739 individuals with HSCR (565 male) and 7390 controls (5650 male). Median age of the cohort was 19 years (range 2-49). Twenty-two (3.0%) individuals with HSCR had died at median age 2.5 years (range 0-35) compared to 49 (0.7%) controls at median age 20 years (0-44), p < 0.001. Hazard ratio for death in HSCR patients compared to healthy controls was 4.77 (confidence interval (CI) 95% 2.87-7.91), and when adjusted for Down syndrome, the hazard ratio was 3.6 (CI 95% 2.04-6.37). The mortality rate in the HSCR cohort was 3%, which was higher than in controls also when data were adjusted for Down syndrome.

  1. Development of older men's caregiving roles for wives with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Ingrid; Håkanson, Cecilia; Eriksson, Henrik; Sandberg, Jonas

    2017-12-01

    This secondary analysis of qualitative interviews describes how older Swedish men approach the caregiver role for a wife with dementia, over time. An increasing number of male caregivers will become primary caregivers for partners living with dementia at home, and they will likely be caregivers for an extended period of time. It has been stated that caregiving experiences influence how older men think of themselves. The theoretical starting point is a constructivist position, offering an understanding of older caregiving men's constructions and reconstructions of themselves and their caregiver roles. Seven men, who were cohabiting with their wives, were interviewed on up to five occasions at home during a 5- to 6-year period. The findings comprise three themes; me and it, me despite it, it is me, depict how these men gradually take on and normalise the caregiving tasks, and how they develop and internalise a language based on their caring activities. The results provide understanding about the relationship between men as caregivers and how this influences them as individuals. By careful attention to each caregiving man's individual needs rather than making gendered assumptions about men and caring, the aim of the caregiver support for men might best target men's own meaning to the caring in their the everyday practices. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  2. Youth unemployment and functional somatic symptoms in adulthood: results from the Northern Swedish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brydsten, Anna; Hammarström, Anne; Strandh, Mattias; Johansson, Klara

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the possible long-term health consequences of youth unemployment. Research indicates that unemployment may lead to socioeconomic downward mobility and mental health problems, but we still lack knowledge of the long-term health consequences of youth unemployment. This article examines the potential long-term association between youth unemployment and functional somatic symptoms in adulthood. The 'Northern Swedish cohort' was used with data from five data collections, from 1981 (age 16) until 2007 (age 42). Youth unemployment was measured as months in unemployment between age 16 and 21, and health outcome as functional somatic symptoms (an index of 10 items of self-reported symptoms). Linear regression was used to analyse the relationship between months in youth unemployment and functional somatic symptoms at age 21 and age 42, stratified for women and men and adjusted for potential confounders, such as time spent in education at age 21 and later unemployment between age 21 and 42. Youth unemployment was significantly related to functional somatic symptoms at age 21 for men after controlling for confounders, but not for women. Among men, the association remained for functional somatic symptoms at age 42, after controlling for confounders. Adolescence seems to be a sensitive period during which unemployment could have remaining health effects in adulthood, at least for men, though assumptions of causality are tentative and more research is needed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  3. Stakeholder involvement in Swedish nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Section for Science and Technology Studies

    2006-09-15

    This report concerning Swedish nuclear waste management has been produced as part of a cross national research project: CARL - A Social Science Research Project into the Effects of Stakeholder involvement on Decision-Making in Radioactive Waste Management. Besides Sweden, the participating countries are Belgium, Canada, Finland, Slovenia and United Kingdom. A social science research team, working for three years, is in the first phase conducting research in their own countries in order to produce 6 country reports. During the next years the focus will shift to comparisons of stakeholder involvement practices in the participating countries. The report addresses current practices of Swedish nuclear waste management and their historical development. The main focus is on past, current and emerging patterns of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a deep repository for the final disposal of Sweden's spent nuclear fuel. The general questions attended to in the report are: Who are the main stakeholders, and how have they emerged and gained recognition as such? What are the issues currently subject to stakeholder involvement and how have these been decided upon? How is stakeholder involvement organized locally and nationally and how has this changed over time? How has stakeholder involvement gained acceptance as an activity of value in the siting of major waste facilities? The report have attempted to show the development of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a final repository for Sweden's spent nuclear fuel as resembling something other than a straightforward linear process of improvement and refinement. Stakeholder involvement has developed, over the past 15 years or so, into something more like a patchwork of different shapes and forms. Some of the forces that may well contribute to the further elaboration of the patchwork of stakeholder involvement have been pointed out, contingently modifying once more its overall colour and orientation. Questions

  4. The role of social capital in explaining mental health inequalities between immigrants and Swedish-born: a population-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charisse M. Johnson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social capital may theoretically explain health inequalities between social groups, but empirical evidence is lacking. Some studies indicate that social capital may be particularly important for immigrant health. Nearly 16% of Sweden’s population are foreign-born immigrants and research has shown them to be susceptible to psychological distress, though significant variation has been found between groups. In this study, we investigate the following hypotheses: 1 if non-refugees have better mental health than Swedish-born, and refugees experience worse mental health than Swedish-born; 2 if mental health status converges with that of Swedish-born with longer duration of residence; and 3 if social capital mediates the effect of immigrant status on psychological distress for different immigrant groups as compared to Swedish-born. Methods This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort and includes 50,498 randomly-selected individuals from Stockholm County in 2002, 2006, and 2010. Mental health was measured as psychological distress, using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Social capital was measured using indicators of bonding, bridging, and linking social capital. Both cognitive and structural aspects were measured for the latter two indicators. Mediation was tested using logistic regression and the Sobel test. Results The results show that refugees generally had greater odds of psychological distress than non-refugees compared to their respective Swedish-born counterparts. Among immigrant men, both refugees and non-refugees had significantly greater odds of psychological distress than Swedish-born men. Only refugee women in Sweden 10 years or more had significantly greater odds of psychological distress compared to Swedish-born women. The mediation analysis demonstrated that indicators of social capital mediated the association for all immigrant men (except non-refugees in Sweden

  5. The role of social capital in explaining mental health inequalities between immigrants and Swedish-born: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charisse M; Rostila, Mikael; Svensson, Anna C; Engström, Karin

    2017-01-25

    Social capital may theoretically explain health inequalities between social groups, but empirical evidence is lacking. Some studies indicate that social capital may be particularly important for immigrant health. Nearly 16% of Sweden's population are foreign-born immigrants and research has shown them to be susceptible to psychological distress, though significant variation has been found between groups. In this study, we investigate the following hypotheses: 1) if non-refugees have better mental health than Swedish-born, and refugees experience worse mental health than Swedish-born; 2) if mental health status converges with that of Swedish-born with longer duration of residence; and 3) if social capital mediates the effect of immigrant status on psychological distress for different immigrant groups as compared to Swedish-born. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort and includes 50,498 randomly-selected individuals from Stockholm County in 2002, 2006, and 2010. Mental health was measured as psychological distress, using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Social capital was measured using indicators of bonding, bridging, and linking social capital. Both cognitive and structural aspects were measured for the latter two indicators. Mediation was tested using logistic regression and the Sobel test. The results show that refugees generally had greater odds of psychological distress than non-refugees compared to their respective Swedish-born counterparts. Among immigrant men, both refugees and non-refugees had significantly greater odds of psychological distress than Swedish-born men. Only refugee women in Sweden 10 years or more had significantly greater odds of psychological distress compared to Swedish-born women. The mediation analysis demonstrated that indicators of social capital mediated the association for all immigrant men (except non-refugees in Sweden 3-9 years) and for refugee women in Sweden 10 years or

  6. Ecological aspects of historical and contemporary Swedish and Danish mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Oluf

    2014-01-01

    preventive and curative measures introduced in the second half of the twentieth century? Hansen (2013) proposed a multivariate hazard model aiming at separating ecological factors in terms of endogenous biological from exogenous effects in human mortality. He explored some of its analytic potentials...... the early 1960s to now. This has been a blow to the national pride. Is the better contemporary Swedish life expectancy associated with selection spurred by different timing of the modern Swedish and Danish long term decline of mortality? Or could it be rooted in more expedient Swedish behavior and better...

  7. Comparing Danish and Swedish versions of PISA scientific literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serder, Malmø University, Margareta; Sørensen, Helene

    This paper presents a comparison between the Swedish, Danish, English, and French versions of three scientific literacy test-units from the released PISA items 2006. More specifically it compares how different words and concepts have been translated in the Swedish and Danish tests, compared...... to the English and French original versions. Differences that occur as a result of the translation process concerning words’ meaning are demonstrated. The possible consequences of such differences are exemplified by an excerpt from a situation in which Swedish 15-year-old students collaboratively worked...

  8. Impact of the Swedish National Stroke Campaign on stroke awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordanstig, A; Asplund, K; Norrving, B; Wahlgren, N; Wester, P; Rosengren, L

    2017-10-01

    Time delay from stroke onset to arrival in hospital is an important obstacle to widespread reperfusion therapy. To increase knowledge about stroke, and potentially decrease this delay, a 27-month national public information campaign was carried out in Sweden. To assess the effects of a national stroke campaign in Sweden. The variables used to measure campaign effects were knowledge of the AKUT test [a Swedish equivalent of the FAST (Face-Arm-Speech-Time)] test and intent to call 112 (emergency telephone number) . Telephone interviews were carried out with 1500 randomly selected people in Sweden at eight points in time: before, three times during, immediately after, and nine, 13 and 21 months after the campaign. Before the campaign, 4% could recall the meaning of some or all keywords in the AKUT test, compared with 23% during and directly after the campaign, and 14% 21 months later. Corresponding figures were 15%, 51%, and 50% for those remembering the term AKUT and 65%, 76%, and 73% for intent to call 112 when observing or experiencing stroke symptoms. During the course of the campaign, improvement of stroke knowledge was similar among men and women, but the absolute level of knowledge for both items was higher for women at all time points. The nationwide campaign substantially increased knowledge about the AKUT test and intention to call 112 when experiencing or observing stroke symptoms, but knowledge declined post-intervention. Repeated public information therefore appears essential to sustain knowledge gains. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Mind maps of employment development in Swedish sparse regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Wiberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Employment options are forming an essential part of living conditions for individuals and households. In this paper we present how people in Sweden perceive current and future job options. The empirical case is the northern half of the Swedish territory, which is divided into four counties. The analysis is based on data from a questionnaire which was distributed to 4 000 inhabitants aged 15-85 years during October 2008 - January 2009. The ANOTA method is used as analytical instrument. Two categories of determinants behind attitudes to job options in general at the local labor market have been chosen. The first category includes a set of personal attributes, while the second category includes a set of locational characteristics. Further is analyzed how the respondents perceived the specific role of manufacturing industry, service industry and R&D for the development in their county. Also in this part the two categories of determinants are used. The analysis reveals a rather widely spread anxiety about both current and future provision of job options. The most satisfied and optimistic respondents were young, male and high income earners living in coastal municipal with a low unemployment level. There were also some striking differences in views among sub groups on the role of manufacturing industry, service industry and R&D. The biggest contrasts were between manufacturing industry and R&D. The highest share of respondents who regarded manufacturing industry as very important was found among men, over 30 years, with a low education and living in municipalities with a high unemployment level. The highest share of respondents who regarded R&D as very important was found among women, younger than 30 years, highly educated and living in coastal municipalities with a low unemployment level.

  10. Psychosocial working conditions and cognitive complaints among Swedish employees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia U D Stenfors

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive complaints involving problems with concentration, memory, decision-making and thinking are relatively common in the work force. The sensitivity of both subjective and objective cognitive functioning to common psychiatric conditions, stress levels and to cognitive load makes it plausible that psychosocial working conditions play a role in cognitive complaints. Thus, this study aimed to test the associations between psychosocial work factors and cognitive complaints in nationally representative samples of the Swedish work force. Cross-sectional (n = 9751 and prospective (n = 3644; two time points two years apart sequential multiple regression analyses were run, adjusting for general confounders, depressive- and sleeping problems. Additional prospective analyses were run adjusting for baseline cognitive complaints. CROSS/SECTIONAL RESULTS: High quantitative demands, information and communication technology (ICT demands, under qualification and conflicts were positively associated with cognitive complaints, while social support, good resources at work and over qualification were negatively associated with cognitive complaints in all models. Skill discretion and decision authority were weakly associated with cognitive complaints. Conflicts were more strongly associated with cognitive complaints in women than in men, after adjustment for general confounders. PROSPECTIVE RESULTS: Quantitative job demands, ICT demands and under qualification were positively associated with future cognitive complaints in all models, including when adjusted for baseline cognitive complaints. Decision authority was weakly positively associated with future cognitive complaints, only after adjustment for depressive- and sleeping problems respectively. Social support was negatively associated with future cognitive complaints after adjustment for general confounders and baseline cognitive complaints. Skill discretion and resources were negatively

  11. Are boys discriminated in Swedish high schools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinnerich, Bjørn Tyrefors; Höglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading.Werigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind...... and non-blind grading. The non-blind test score is on average 15% lower for boys than for girls. Blind grading lowers the average grades with 13%, indicating that personal ties and/or grade inflation are important in non-blind grading. But we find no evidence of discrimination against boys in grading....... The point estimate of the discrimination effect is close to zero with a 95% confidence interval of±4.5% of the average non-blind grade....

  12. Wood flow problems in the Swedish forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Dick [Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Roennqvist, M. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematics

    1998-12-31

    In this paper we give an overview of the wood-flow in Sweden including a description of organization and planning. Based on that, we will describe a number of applications or problem areas in the wood-flow chain that are currently considered by the Swedish forest companies to be important and potential in order to improve overall operations. We have focused on applications which are short term planning or operative planning. We do not give any final results as much of the development is currently ongoing or is still in a planning phase. Instead we describe what kind of models and decision support systems that could be applied in order to improve co-operation within and integration of the wood-flow chain 13 refs, 20 figs, 1 tab

  13. Swedish Taxation in a 150-year Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenkula Mikael

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the development of taxation in Sweden from 1862 to 2010. The examination includes six key aspects of the Swedish tax system, namely the taxation of labor income, capital income, wealth, inheritances and gifts, consumption and real estate. The importance of these taxes varied greatly over time and Sweden increasingly relied on broad-based taxes (such as income taxes and general consumption taxes and taxes that were less visible to the public (such as payroll taxes and social security contributions. The tax-to-GDP ratio was initially low and relatively stable, but from the 1930s, the ratio increased sharply for nearly 50 years. Towards the end of the period, the tax-to-GDP ratio declined significantly.

  14. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    During 1997 the PWRs in Ringhals performed extremely well (capability factors 85-90%), the unit Ringhals 2 reached the best capability factor since commercial operation started in 1976. The BWRs made an average 76% capability, which is somewhat less than in 1996. The slightly reduced capability derives from ongoing modernization projects at several units. At the youngest plants, Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3, capability and utilization were very high. Events and data for 1997 are given for each reactor, together with operational statistics for the years 1990-1997. A number of safety-related events are reported, which occurred st the Swedish plants during 1997. These events are classified as level 1 or higher on the international nuclear event scale (INES).

  15. Perceived employability trajectories: A Swedish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnroos Née Kirves, Kaisa; Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia; Leineweber, Constanze

    2017-07-27

    This study identified perceived employability trajectories and their associations with sleeping difficulties and depressive symptoms over time. The sample was part of the Swedish Longitudinal Survey on Health from 2008 to 2014 (n=4,583). Two stable trajectories (high and low perceived employability over time) and three trajectories with changes (increasing, decreasing, and V-shaped perceived employability over time) were identified. Workers with stable low perceived employability reported more sleeping difficulties and depressive symptoms than those who perceived high or increasing employability. Perceived employability is a rather stable personal resource, which is associated with well-being over time. However, changes in perceived employability do not seem to be echoed in well-being, at least not as immediately as theoretically expected.

  16. The Origins of Intergenerational Associations: Lessons from Swedish Adoption Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjorklund, A.; Lindahl, M.; Plug, E.J.S.

    2006-01-01

    We use unique Swedish data with information on adopted children's biological and adoptive parents to estimate intergenerational mobility associations in earnings and education. We argue that the impact from biological parents captures broad prebirth factors, including genes and prenatal environment,

  17. Swedish students' interpretations of food symbols and their perceptions of healthy eating. An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Nicklas; Persson Osowski, Christine; Mattsson Sydner, Ylva; Fjellström, Christina

    2014-11-01

    This study used focus group discussions to investigate how a group of Swedish University students (24 women and five men) interpret symbols with claims about health and/or symbols with information about nutrition. The participants mostly talked about farming methods and food processes when asked about health and nutrition symbols. The Swedish Keyhole was the most familiar symbol to the participants but they had scant knowledge of its meaning. Symbols that were judged to be the most useful in guiding food choices were, according to the participants, symbols showing information about number of calories and/or nutrients. However, the most striking finding is still that the food experts' medical discourse, i.e. the focus on physical health and nutritional effects on the individual body, seems to be inconsistent with the participants' perceptions of healthy eating and risk. The participants rather used what we call an "inauthenticity discourse" where health and risks are judged in relation to farming methods, industrial food production, additives and other aspects of the food that are unknown to the individual. Despite limitations considering the number of participations and their relative homogeneity, these findings contribute to a further understanding of the gap between experts and the public when it comes to perceptions of healthy eating and risks. If this is a broader phenomenon, then we argue that this must be acknowledged if information about health and risk is to be communicated successfully. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High prevalence of undiagnosed coeliac disease in adults: a Swedish population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, A; Persson, L A; Juto, P; Peltonen, M; Suhr, O; Hernell, O

    1999-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of coeliac disease in a population-based sample of Swedish adults. Population-based cross-sectional study. Northern Sweden. A total of 1894 adults (76%) out of 2500 invited, randomly selected from the population register after stratification for age and sex. Prevalence of biopsy verified coeliac disease, symptoms of undiagnosed cases, and results of antiendomysium and antigliadin serum antibody tests. Coeliac disease was confirmed by intestinal biopsy showing enteropathy in 10 individuals (seven women and three men), corresponding to a prevalence of 5.3 per 1000 (95% CI = 2.5-9.7). The majority of cases (eight out of 10) had not been diagnosed prior to the screening, although many had symptoms compatible with coeliac disease. All individuals with antiendomysium antibody positivity who were subjected to a small intestinal biopsy had enteropathy. Furthermore, all of them also had elevated levels of antigliadin antibodies type IgA and/or IgG. Coeliac disease is common, albeit mostly undiagnosed, in Swedish adults. It is likely that the situation is no better in other countries. This highlights the importance of keeping coeliac disease in mind, and of promptly investigating individuals with unexplained, even mild, symptoms compatible with the disease. Serological markers, e.g. antigliadin and antiendomysium antibodies, are useful tools within this active case-finding strategy, although the final diagnosis should be based on an intestinal biopsy demonstrating enteropathy.

  19. Chemistry inside an epistemological community box! Discursive exclusions and inclusions in Swedish National tests in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhl, Marie; Hussénius, Anita

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the Swedish national tests in chemistry for implicit and explicit values. The chemistry subject is understudied compared to biology and physics and students view chemistry as their least interesting science subject. The Swedish national science assessments aim to support equitable and fair evaluation of students, to concretize the goals in the chemistry syllabus and to increase student achievement. Discourse and multimodal analyses, based on feminist and critical didactic theories, were used to examine the test's norms and values. The results revealed that the chemistry discourse presented in the tests showed a traditional view of science from the topics discussed (for example, oil and metal), in the way women, men and youth are portrayed, and how their science interests are highlighted or neglected. An elitist view of science emerges from the test, with distinct gender and age biases. Students could interpret these biases as a message that only "the right type" of person may come into the chemistry epistemological community, that is, into this special sociocultural group that harbours a common view about this knowledge. This perspective may have an impact on students' achievement and thereby prevent support for an equitable and fair evaluation. Understanding the underlying evaluative meanings that come with science teaching is a question of democracy since it may affect students' feelings of inclusion or exclusion. The norms and values harboured in the tests will also affect teaching since the teachers are given examples of how the goals in the syllabus can be concretized.

  20. Psychometric properties and factor structure of the Swedish version of the Perceived Stress Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Mona; Bäckström, Martin; Tuvesson, Hanna

    2014-10-01

    The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) measures general stress and the Swedish version, although used in several studies, has not been extensively evaluated for psychometric properties. This study aimed to investigate psychometric properties and the factor solution of the Swedish 14-item version when used with two samples, namely a mixed Internet sample of women and men (n = 171) and another of women with stress-related disorders (n = 84). Classical test theory, including confirmatory factor analysis, was employed. The factor structure supported a two-factor model for the PSS and confirmed other language versions of the PSS, although one items showed a low item-total correlation. The PSS showed to be feasible with the investigated samples and the results indicated no ceiling or floor effects and good internal consistency of the PSS. Several aspects of construct validity were shown. An association of - 0.66 between the PSS and a measure of coping indicated good concurrent validity. Criterion validity was demonstrated through a statistically significant difference (P stress-related disorders and the Internet sample. Predictive validity of the PSS could be demonstrated in a short-term perspective. Based on the sample with stress-related disorders, sensitivity to change was shown through a statistically significant stress reduction (P stress-related disorders.

  1. Doctrinal Imbalance: A Study of Swedish Army Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    patience with endless grammar and spelling corrections. Furthermore, Dr. Sterrett also involved his wife, military historian Dr. Corinne Mahaffey, and his...provocative statement of the Swedish supreme commander. The Swedish Army teaches that doctrine derives from a balance between resources, national...it comes to writing a new doctrine, but none of them evaluates doctrine against a specific scenario using the actual forces the doctrine is supposed

  2. About the Alleged Racism among Swedish Police Officers

    OpenAIRE

    Sjögren, Erika

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of the present research was to investigate whether Swedish police officers who often are accused of being racist are more prejudiced toward people with non Swedish-origin than other occupational groups. Three groups (n = 108) – police officers, fire fighters and teachers participated in the study that was carried out using questionnaires and IAT-tests. The study showed that the police officers were not the most prejudiced occupational group in the explicit measurements and were t...

  3. Components of success in academic reading tasks for Swedish students

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Shaw; Alan McMillion

    2011-01-01

    In a parallel-language environment students are often required to read in a language different from the one they use in lectures, seminars, and among themselves. Relatively little research has been done on the overall reading success of such groups or on the componential make up of their L2 reading skills. This paper compares the English-language reading skills of Swedish students of biology with that of equivalent British biology students. Many Swedish readers perform within or above the nor...

  4. Key success factors : The internationalisation of Swedish fashion companies

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, Stefan; Knudsen, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    Background: The Swedish fashion market today quickly becomes too small, even for the new companies, and they are quick to take the step abroad and launch their internationalisation process. With a focus on the four Swed-ish fashion companies Filippa K, Acne Jeans, Nudie Jeans and Whyred, we have analysed how these representatives of the industry have interna-tionalised themselves. The companies have chosen different ways to promote their brand and how to control the perceived image of the bra...

  5. A study of Swedish tourists going on vacation in thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Rong; PANTO, SITTHIPHON

    2010-01-01

    Date: 2010-05-25 Program: International Marketing Course Master Thesis International Marketing (EFO705) Authors Ms. RongPan Mr. Sitthiphon Panto Teacher Tobias Eltebrandt Title A study of Swedish tourist going on vacation in Thailand Research question Which factors affect Swedish travelers’ decision making in choosing Thailand as a traveling destination? Target audience This report could be beneficial for Tourism Authority of Thailand. The target audiences including Government sector who resp...

  6. Subcontractors and Component Suppliers in the Swedish Wind Power Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Linn

    2003-05-01

    This paper studies the Swedish component suppliers in the wind power industry. This group has not received much attention so far, and today very little is known. This study addresses the fact that the Swedish component suppliers have not been able to penetrate the wind power market despite the Swedish industry's strength in mechanical and electrical engineering. The aims of this paper were to gather information regarding the existing production and to identify factors that affect the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. To date, although Sweden has spent considerable amounts of money on projects involving wind turbines, there is no series production of large wind turbines in Sweden. The historical development of the wind turbine industry suggests this alone would have inhibited the development of component production in Sweden. Yet, the country's proximity and good access to large wind turbine producing countries should be an advantage. Various factors and issues are identified and discussed in this paper that are relevant for the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. These include market and product development, buyer-supplier relationships, export and sourcing behaviors, and time of market entry. This is a first step towards increasing the knowledge of Swedish component production and it is recognized that more studies are required. Various areas where relevant knowledge is largely missing or scarce are identified and discussed as well, and should serve as relevant starting points for continued research.

  7. Problem Gambling Features and Gendered Gambling Domains Amongst Regular Gamblers in a Swedish Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Jessika; Romild, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate, from a gender perspective, how different features of problem gambling present in men and women who gamble regularly in Sweden were distributed in four domains based on gambling type (chance or strategy) and setting (public or domestic). Problem gambling features were based on the nine items in the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). It was hypothesized that men and women gamble in different domains. Further, it was hypothesized that male gamblers overall experienced more problems with gambling than female gamblers, although in the same domains they would report the same level of problems. A further hypothesis predicted that regular female gamblers would experience more health and social problems and men would experience more financial difficulties. Interviews with a subsample of gamblers (n = 3191) from a Swedish nationally representative sample (n = 8179) was used to examine how features of problem gambling correspond with gender and the domains. Only the first hypothesis was fully supported. Men were more likely to participate in forms of gambling requiring strategy in a public setting, and women were more likely to participate in chance-based gambling in a domestic setting. Male and female gamblers had similar levels of problem gambling in the bi-variate analysis, but if controlling for age and gambling in multiple domains, women were more at risk than men. Additionally, men and women presented similar health and economic situations. The differences between male and female gamblers in Sweden have implications for research and prevention.

  8. Genetic anticipation in Swedish Lynch syndrome families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny von Salomé

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Among hereditary colorectal cancer predisposing syndromes, Lynch syndrome (LS caused by mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 is the most common. Patients with LS have an increased risk of early onset colon and endometrial cancer, but also other tumors that generally have an earlier onset compared to the general population. However, age at first primary cancer varies within families and genetic anticipation, i.e. decreasing age at onset in successive generations, has been suggested in LS. Anticipation is a well-known phenomenon in e.g neurodegenerative diseases and several reports have studied anticipation in heritable cancer. The purpose of this study is to determine whether anticipation can be shown in a nationwide cohort of Swedish LS families referred to the regional departments of clinical genetics in Lund, Stockholm, Linköping, Uppsala and Umeå between the years 1990-2013. We analyzed a homogenous group of mutation carriers, utilizing information from both affected and non-affected family members. In total, 239 families with a mismatch repair gene mutation (96 MLH1 families, 90 MSH2 families including one family with an EPCAM-MSH2 deletion, 39 MSH6 families, 12 PMS2 families, and 2 MLH1+PMS2 families comprising 1028 at-risk carriers were identified among the Swedish LS families, of which 1003 mutation carriers had available follow-up information and could be included in the study. Using a normal random effects model (NREM we estimate a 2.1 year decrease in age of diagnosis per generation. An alternative analysis using a mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards model (COX-R estimates a hazard ratio of exp(0.171, or about 1.19, for age of diagnosis between consecutive generations. LS-associated gene-specific anticipation effects are evident for MSH2 (2.6 years/generation for NREM and hazard ratio of 1.33 for COX-R and PMS2 (7.3 years/generation and hazard ratio of 1.86. The estimated anticipation effects for MLH1

  9. Parasite control practices on Swedish horse farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison David A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virtually all horses are infected with helminth parasites. For some decades, the control of parasites of Swedish horses has been based on routine treatments with anthelmintics, often several times per year. Since anthelmintic resistance is becoming an increasing problem it is essential to develop more sustainable control strategies, which are adapted to different types of horse management. The aim of this study was to obtain information on practices used by Swedish horse owners for the control of endoparasites. Methods A questionnaire with 26 questions about management practices and parasite control routines was posted to 627 randomly selected horse establishments covering most types of horse management in Sweden. Results The response rate was good in all categories of respondents (66–78%. A total of 444 questionnaires were used in the analyses. It was found that virtually all horses had access to grazing areas, usually permanent. Generally, pasture hygiene was infrequently practiced. Thirty-six percent of the respondents clipped or chain harrowed their pastures, whereas weekly removal of faeces from the grazing areas was performed by 6% of the respondents, and mixed or rotational grazing with other livestock by 10%. The number of anthelmintic treatments per year varied from 1–8 with an average of 3.2. Thirty-eight percent considered late autumn (Oct-Dec to be the most important time for deworming. This finding, and an increased use of macrocyclic lactones in the autumn, suggests a concern about bot flies, Gasterophilus intestinalis. Only 1% of the respondents stated that faecal egg counts (FEC were performed on a regular basis. The relatively high cost of FEC analyses compared to purchase of anthelmintics was thought to contribute to the preference of deworming without a previous FEC. From the study it was evident that all categories of horse owners took advice mainly from veterinarians. Conclusion The results show that

  10. Parasite control practices on Swedish horse farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Eva Osterman; Rautalinko, Erik; Uggla, Arvid; Waller, Peter J; Morrison, David A; Höglund, Johan

    2007-09-26

    Virtually all horses are infected with helminth parasites. For some decades, the control of parasites of Swedish horses has been based on routine treatments with anthelmintics, often several times per year. Since anthelmintic resistance is becoming an increasing problem it is essential to develop more sustainable control strategies, which are adapted to different types of horse management. The aim of this study was to obtain information on practices used by Swedish horse owners for the control of endoparasites. A questionnaire with 26 questions about management practices and parasite control routines was posted to 627 randomly selected horse establishments covering most types of horse management in Sweden. The response rate was good in all categories of respondents (66-78%). A total of 444 questionnaires were used in the analyses. It was found that virtually all horses had access to grazing areas, usually permanent. Generally, pasture hygiene was infrequently practiced. Thirty-six percent of the respondents clipped or chain harrowed their pastures, whereas weekly removal of faeces from the grazing areas was performed by 6% of the respondents, and mixed or rotational grazing with other livestock by 10%. The number of anthelmintic treatments per year varied from 1-8 with an average of 3.2. Thirty-eight percent considered late autumn (Oct-Dec) to be the most important time for deworming. This finding, and an increased use of macrocyclic lactones in the autumn, suggests a concern about bot flies, Gasterophilus intestinalis. Only 1% of the respondents stated that faecal egg counts (FEC) were performed on a regular basis. The relatively high cost of FEC analyses compared to purchase of anthelmintics was thought to contribute to the preference of deworming without a previous FEC. From the study it was evident that all categories of horse owners took advice mainly from veterinarians. The results show that routines for endoparasite control can be improved in many horse

  11. Experiences from new Swedish passive house projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janson, U. [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden). Energy and Building Design

    2009-07-01

    Passive houses are common in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, and their use is being considered in Sweden as a means to decrease carbon dioxide emissions and address climate change issues. It is anticipated that the use of passive houses in Sweden may contribute to the country's plan to decrease energy use in buildings by 20 per cent per heated unit area before 2020 compared to 1995 energy use. The first Swedish passive house project was built in Lindas in 2001. The Lindas project includes 20 terrace houses and was built according to the German Passive house standard with a maximum use of space heating of 15 kWh per m{sup 2} per year. Although tenants expressed satisfaction in terms of indoor comfort and reduced energy consumption, not many passive houses have been built in Sweden since the project was launched. Therefore, in 2005, the the Department of Energy and Building Design at Lund University launched 4 new Passive house research projects involving 2 apartment buildings, 1 family house and 1 renovation project. The main purpose was to gain information on the entire building process and determine what knowledge, components and systems are required for widespread construction of passive houses in a cold climate. Only residential buildings were studied for this project. The passive houses were closely followed from the clients decision to build a passive house, through the planning process, the building process, measurements of actual energy use after the tenants moved in and the tenants' opinions on living in a passive house. The study showed that passive houses offer high indoor comfort with low energy requirement for heating. One of the passive houses consumed 44 kWh per m{sup 2} per year of district heating for heating and domestic hot water, which constitutes a 72 per cent reduction compared to the Swedish average of 160 kWh per m{sup 2} per year. There is no special architecture or building material needed to build a passive house, but moderate

  12. The association between at-risk gambling and binge drinking in the general Swedish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Sundqvist

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While the association between problem gambling and alcohol use disorders has been studied previously, little is known about the association between risk gambling and risk drinking. This study aimed at examining the association between at-risk gambling and binge drinking in the general Swedish population and to test whether this association remained after controlling for demographic factors. The data was part of a larger ongoing survey in the general Swedish population. Respondents (N = 19 530 were recruited through random digit dialing and interviewed about their alcohol habits (binge drinking, at-risk gambling (the Lie/Bet questionnaire and demographics (gender, age, education, residence size, marital status, labor market status, country of origin and smoking. There was an association between lifetime at-risk gambling and current (12 months weekly binge drinking for both men (OR = 1.73; CI 95%: 1.27–2.35 and women (OR = 2.27; CI 95%: 1.05–4.90. After controlling for demographics this association no longer remained significant (OR = 1.38; CI 95%; .99–1.90 for men and OR=1.99; CI 95%: .94–4.66 for women. Age and smoking had the largest impact on this association. At-risk gambling and binge drinking are associated behaviors. However, it seems as if this association may be confounded by demographic variables. We hypothesize that similarities in personality profiles and health aspects could account for an additional part of the association.

  13. Quality in sickness certificates in a Swedish social security system perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturesson, Marine; Bylund, Sonya Hörnqvist; Edlund, Curt; Falkdal, Annie Hansen; Bernspång, Birgitta

    2015-12-01

    In Sweden, the information in the sickness certificate is crucially important for the sick-listed person as well as for the Swedish Social Insurance Agency and the sick-listed person's employer. The certificate is used as the basis for deciding whether a person is entitled to sickness benefits. Further, it communicates information significant for the return-to-work process. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of sickness certificates issued in primary health care and examine if the patients' or physicians' gender influences the information in the sickness certificate. An insurance specialist at the Swedish Social Insurance Agency assessed the quality of the stated information in a sample of 323 certificates issued by 146 different general practitioners at 29 different primary health care centres in northern Sweden. Thirty-four percent of the certificates did not contain sufficient information requested. The areas of the certificates in need of supplementary information were mainly the descriptions of impairment of body function and activity limitation. More certificates issued for women than certificates issued for men lacked the required information. Full-time sick leave was more often prescribed for male patients than for female. Significant differences between certificates issued for women and certificates issued for men appeared in the group of musculoskeletal diseases. No differences in quality aspects connected to physicians' gender were found. Our study indicates a need for increased knowledge about the descriptions of functioning for sick-listed persons; more cooperation between health professionals in primary health care and a better gender awareness in health care encounters. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  14. Coeliac disease and body mass index: a study of two Swedish general population-based registers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olén, Ola; Montgomery, Scott M; Marcus, Claude; Ekbom, Anders; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2009-01-01

    To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and an inpatient diagnosis of coeliac disease (CD) in two independent Swedish national registers. Study 1: Cohort study of women. The relationship between (pre-pregnancy) BMI and CD in pregnant women was evaluated (174 undiagnosed CD (at time of pregnancy), 550 diagnosed CD, 787,986 without a diagnosis of CD). The association between BMI and undiagnosed CD was estimated by Cox regression. Study 2: Case-control study of men. The relationship between BMI and CD in male conscripts was evaluated (70 undiagnosed CD, 1,047 diagnosed CD and 6,887 without a diagnosis of CD). The association between BMI and undiagnosed CD was estimated by logistic regression. Prevalence of underweight, normal weight and overweight was compared between diagnosed CD, undiagnosed CD and no diagnosis of CD. The prevalence of underweight (BMI women was: reference individual: 5.2%; undiagnosed CD: 16.7% and prior diagnosis of CD: 6.4%. In men, the corresponding figures were 6.5%; 14.3% and 9.8%, respectively. Underweight was associated with undiagnosed CD (future diagnosis of CD) in both women (hazard ration (HR) = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.6-3.7) and men (odds ratio (OR) = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.2-4.9). In women, overweight was negatively associated with undiagnosed CD (HR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4-0.9), but not in men (OR = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.6-2.2). 9.2% of women with undiagnosed CD and 14.3% of men with undiagnosed CD were overweight. Underweight individuals are at increased risk of having undiagnosed CD. However, overweight does not rule out CD.

  15. Time Trends in Murray's Psychogenic Needs over Three Decades in Swedish 75-Year-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billstedt, Eva; Waern, Margda; Falk, Hanna; Duberstein, Paul; Östling, Svante; Hällström, Tore; Skoog, Ingmar

    2017-01-01

    While time trends in personality traits have been suggested in younger cohorts, little is known regarding this issue in older adults. To test for birth cohort changes in psychogenic needs according to Murray's theory of personality in two birth cohorts of 75-year-olds born 1901-1902 and 1930. Two population-based birth cohorts were examined at the age of 75 years in 1976-1977 and in 2005-2006. Psychogenic needs according to Murray were measured with the Cesarec-Marke Personality Schedule (CMPS), a Swedish version of the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule. Scores on the CMPS subscales (achievement, affiliation, aggression, defence of status, guilt feelings, dominance, exhibition, autonomy, nurturance, order, succorance, and acquiescence) were compared between cohorts. Achievement, exhibition, dominance, aggression, affiliation, and succorance scores were higher, and order and acquiescence scores lower, in the more recent birth cohort of 75-year-olds. Women scored lower than men on exhibition and dominance, and higher on defence of status, guilt feelings, affiliation, nurturance, and succorance. Interaction effects between cohort and sex were found for achievement (women scored lower than men in 1976-1977 but not in 2005-2006), order (the lower scores in 2005-2006 were more accentuated among men), and acquiescence (increased in men and decreased in women). The later-born birth cohort scored higher on self-centred traits, such as more dominant, competitive, and exhibitive traits as well as the need to be taken care of and have friends around, but it scored lower on the need for order. The gap between men and women regarding achievement decreased, possibly reflecting women's more prominent role in society. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Attack rates of dengue fever in Swedish travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocklöv, Joacim; Lohr, Wolfgang; Hjertqvist, Marika; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2014-06-01

    Dengue is endemic in many countries visited by Swedish travellers. We aimed to determine the attack rate of dengue in Swedish travellers and analyse the trends over time and the geographical variation. We obtained the following data from the Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control for the y 1995-2010: number of Swedish residents with confirmed dengue, the country and year of infection. We also obtained registers on the Swedish annual air traveller arrivals to dengue endemic areas from the United Nations World Tourist Organization for the time period. We estimated attack rates with 95% confidence intervals (CI). In total, 925 Swedish travellers with confirmed dengue were reported. We found an increasing trend over time for most destinations. The majority of the dengue cases were acquired in Thailand (492 out of 925 travellers; 53%), with an attack rate of 13.6 (95% CI 12.7, 14.4) per 100,000 travellers. However, the 2 highest attack rates per 100,000 travellers were found for Sri Lanka (45.3, 95% CI 34.3, 56.4) and Bangladesh (42.6, 95% CI 23.8, 61.5). Information on attack rates in travellers is more helpful in guiding travel medicine practitioners than reports of absolute numbers, as the latter reflect travel preferences rather than the true risk. Although the majority of dengue infections in Swedish travellers were acquired in Thailand, the attack rates for dengue in travellers to Sri Lanka and Bangladesh were much higher. These data aid in refining information on the risk of dengue in travellers.

  17. Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Johanna; Holmqvist Gattario, Kristina; Frisén, Ann

    2017-06-01

    The relatively high gender equality in the Swedish society is likely to exert an influence on gender role construction. Hence, the present research aimed to investigate Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms. A mixed methods approach with two studies was used. In Study 1, young Swedish women's gender role conformity, as measured by the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory 45 (CFNI-45), was compared to the results from previously published studies in Canada, the United States, and Slovakia. Overall, Swedish women displayed less conformity than their foreign counterparts, with the largest difference on the subscale Sexual fidelity. In Study 2, focus group interviews with young Swedish women added a more complex picture of feminine norms in the Swedish society. For instance the results indicated that Swedish women, while living in a society with a strong gender equality discourse, are torn between the perceived need to invest in their appearances and the risk of being viewed as non-equal when doing so. In sum, despite the fact that traditional gender roles are less pronounced in Sweden, gender role conformity is still a pressing issue. Since attending to the potential roles of feminine norms in women's lives previously has been proposed to be useful in counseling and therapeutic work, the present research also offers valuable information for both researchers and practitioners. [Correction added on 5 May 2017, after first online publication in April 2017: An incorrect Abstract was inadvertently captured in the published article and has been corrected in this current version.]. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Workplace Incivility in a Swedish Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Torkelson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated workplace incivility in a Swedish context. The first aim was to assess how common the phenomenon is and the second was to study which groups (gender, age, ethnicity, and power position are most targeted by workplace incivility and are more prone to act in an uncivil way. Additionally, the relationships between experienced and witnessed incivility and wellbeing as well as instigated incivility were investigated. An online survey was administered by SIFO (the national public opinion poll agency. The collected data consist of a stratified sample whose composition is identical to the working population in Sweden (N = 3001. The results show that almost three quarters of the respondents had been the target of coworker incivility and 52% of supervisor incivility at least one to two times in the past year. Of the respondents, 75% had witnessed coworkers and 58% witnessed a supervisor treating others in an uncivil way. Furthermore, 66% had instigated uncivil acts toward others. The results also show that female and younger employees are slightly more targeted by incivility from coworkers and younger employees and supervisors are slightly more prone to instigate incivility. Moreover, it was found that that experienced incivility was the strongest predictor of low well-being and that witnessed incivility was the strongest predictor of instigated incivility.

  19. Swedish entrepreneurs' use of occupational health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Kristina; Andersson, Ing-Marie; Josephson, Malin

    2011-10-01

    Small-scale enterprises are less often covered by occupational health services and have insufficient awareness about health and risks in the work environment. This study investigated how Swedish entrepreneurs in small-scale enterprises use occupational health services. The study used a questionnaire sent in two waves, 5 years apart. At baseline, 496 entrepreneurs responded, and 251 participated 5 years later. The questionnaire included items about affiliation with and use of occupational health services, physical and psychosocial work environments, work environment management, sources of work environment information, and membership in professional networks. Only 3% of entrepreneurs without employees and 19% of entrepreneurs with employees were affiliated with an occupational health service. Entrepreneurs affiliated with occupational health services were more active in work environment management and gathering information about the work environment. The occupational health services most used were health examinations, health care, and ergonomic risk assessments. Affiliation with occupational health services was 6% at both measurements, 4% at baseline, and 10% 5 years later. 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Politics and Aesthetics in Electronic Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    This book is the first to explore the history of the Swedish electronic music studio EMS. EMS was established in 1964 with the intent to create an international center for research in sound and sound perception, and to build one of the world’s most advanced hybrid studios. The principal creators...

  1. Deregulation and internationalisation - impact on the Swedish nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haukeland, Sverre R. [Swedish Nuclear Society, Vattenfall Research and Development, 162 89 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    The deregulation of the Swedish electricity market in 1996 was well known in advance, and the nuclear power plants in Sweden, as well as their main suppliers, made early preparations for a this new situation. In a study - performed by the author at Malardalen University in Sweden - it is concluded that the electricity industry, including the nuclear power plants, was fundamentally transformed in conjunction with market liberalisation. Two large foreign companies, E-on and Fortum, entered the Swedish market and became part-owners of the nuclear plants. After deregulation, the electricity market in Sweden is dominated by these two companies and the large national company Vattenfall. Similarly, Vattenfall has recently grown into an international energy company, acquiring generation capacity in Northern Europe outside of Sweden, including nuclear power plants in Germany. Restructuring of the nuclear industry on the supplier side started in the 1980's, when the Swedish company ASEA and BBC of Switzerland merged to become ABB. Several years later the Swedish nuclear plant supplier ABB-Atom became part of Westinghouse Electric Company, today owned by Toshiba. The Swedish experience thus confirms an international trend of mergers and consolidation in the nuclear industry. (authors)

  2. Maternal use of Swedish snuff (snus) and risk of stillbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Anna-Karin; Cnattingius, Sven; Stephansson, Olof

    2010-11-01

    Swedish snuff has been discussed internationally as a safer alternative to tobacco smoking. International cigarette manufacturers are promoting new snuff products, and the use of Swedish snuff is increasing, especially among women of childbearing age. The effect of Swedish snuff on pregnancy complications is unknown. In this population-based cohort study, we estimated the risk of stillbirth in snuff users (n = 7629), light smokers (1-9 cigarettes/day; n = 41,488), and heavy smokers (≥10 cigarettes/day; n = 17,014), using nontobacco users (n = 504,531) as reference. Compared with nontobacco users, snuff users had an increased risk of stillbirth (adjusted odds ratio = 1.6 [95% confidence interval = 1.1-2.3]); the risk was higher for preterm (stillbirth (2.1 [1.3-3.4]). For light smokers, the adjusted odds ratio of stillbirth was 1.4 (1.2-1.7) and the corresponding risk for heavy smokers was 2.4 (2.0-3.0). When we excluded women with preeclampsia or antenatal bleeding and infants who were small for gestational age, the smoking-related risks of stillbirth was markedly attenuated; the elevated risk for snuff users remained the same level. Use of Swedish snuff during pregnancy was associated with a higher risk of stillbirth. The mechanism behind this increased risk seems to differ from the underlying mechanism in smokers. Swedish snuff does not appear to be a safe alternative to cigarette smoking during pregnancy.

  3. Aggregate analysis of vowel pronunciation in Swedish dialects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Leinonen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an aggregate analysis of vowel pronunciation in Swedish dialects is proposed by means of multidimensional scaling (MDS. The Gap statistic showed that no statistically significant partitioning of Swedish dialects can be made based on vowel pronunciation, which means that the dialects form a true linguistic continuum. Vowels recorded by 1,170 speakers at 98 sites were analyzed acoustically with principal components of Bark-filtered spectra, and the linguistic distances between varieties were computed as the Euclidean distance of the acoustic variables. The MDS analyses showed that the dialect areas that can be detected based on vowel pronunciation in modern rural varieties of Swedish largely correspond to the traditional Swedish dialect division and divisions of regional varieties of Standard Swedish. The results also show a large-scale ongoing dialect leveling. The change is largest in many central parts of the language area close to the biggest cities, while the dialects in more peripheral areas are relatively stable.

  4. Incidence of pyometra in Swedish insured cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Dip into the World of Particles for Swedish Teachers

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    For three full days, forty-one Swedish secondary school physics teachers were introduced to the rudiments of the particle physics. This series of courses is celebrating its tenth anniversary. The Swedish teachers followed lectures, visited CERN experiments... ... and analysed the latest DELPHI data. 'I am sure that, as in previous years, many of these teachers will return to CERN with their students. It is an excellent way of encouraging young people to orient themselves towards physics.' Staffan Hörnberg, Vice President of the International Centre for Education and Development, is enthusiastic about the repercussions of the teaching programme for Swedish teachers that he organises with CERN physicist, Richard Jacobsson. For the tenth consecutive year, this series of introductory courses to particle physics was a success. Forty-one teachers came from schools all over Sweden to take part in lectures and visits on the theme of particle physics, its methods of investigation, and its applications. San...

  6. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The total production of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 65.6 TWh during 2002, which is a decrease compared to 2001. The energy capability factor for the 11 Swedish reactors averaged 80.8%. The PWRs at Ringhals averaged 87.6%, while the BWRs, not counting Oskarshamn 1, reached 89.2%. No events, which in accordance to conventions should be reported to IAEA, have occurred during 2002. Operational statistics are presented for each Swedish reactor. The hydroelectric power was 66 TWh, 16% lower than 2000. Wind power contributed 0.5 TWh, and remaining production sources, mainly from solid fuel plants combined with district heating, contributed 10.9 TWh. The electricity generation totalled 143 TWh, considerably less than the record high 2001 figure of 158.7 TWh. The preliminary figures for export were 14.8 TWh and and for import 20.1 TWh.

  7. 4-Nonylphenol and bisphenol A in Swedish food and exposure in Swedish nursing women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllenhammar, Irina; Glynn, Anders; Darnerud, Per Ola; Lignell, Sanna; van Delft, Rob; Aune, Marie

    2012-08-01

    4-Nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) are phenolic substances used in high volumes by the industry. Studies on cells and in experimental animals have shown that both these compounds can be classified as estrogenic hormone disrupters. Information about the exposure of humans to NP and BPA is still scarce, especially regarding levels in human blood. The first aim of this study was to investigate possible sources of NP and BPA exposure from food, by analyzing the levels of NP and BPA from a Swedish food market basket, based on the Swedish per capita food consumption. A second aim was to investigate blood serum levels of NP and BPA, as well as NP-ethoxylates, among young women in Sweden (n=100). Moreover, associations between food consumption and blood NP and BPA levels were studied. In food, NP was to some extent found at levels above limit of quantification (LOQ 20 ng/g fresh weight) in fruits, cereal products, vegetables, and potatoes. BPA levels above LOQ (2 ng/g fresh weight) were found in fish, meats, potatoes, and dairy products. The estimated mean intakes per capita were (medium bound) 27 μg NP/day and 3.9 μg BPA/day, showing that food is a source of BPA and NP in the general Swedish population. In blood serum, free NP above limit of detection (LOD 0.5 ng/g) was detected in 46% of the study participants while detectable levels of total NP (LOD 0.8 ng/g) were observed in 43%. The corresponding percentages for BPA were 25% and 22%, respectively. The results indicate that there is a continuous source of exposure to NP and BPA that is high enough for free NP and BPA to be detected in some consumers. Among the participants with quantifiable levels of free and total NP (n=38), 85% (median, range: 38-112%) of the NP was present as free NP. For BPA 76% (49-109%) was detected as free BPA (n=15). All women had levels of ethoxylates of NP below LOD (0.1-0.7 ng/g). A significantly higher total consumption of fruits and vegetables was reported in questionnaires by

  8. Childbirth fear in expectant fathers: findings from a regional Swedish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Johansson, Margareta; Fenwick, Jennifer; Haines, Helen; Rubertsson, Christine

    2014-02-01

    to investigate the prevalence of childbirth related fear in Swedish fathers and associated factors. a regional cohort study. Data was collected by a questionnaire. three hospitals in the middle-north part of Sweden 1047 expectant fathers recruited in mid-pregnancy during one year (2007) who completed the Fear of Birth Scale (FOBS). prevalence of childbirth fear and associated factors. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were calculated between men who scored 50 and above (childbirth fear) and those that did not (no fear). Logistic regression analysis was used to assess which factors contributed most to childbirth fear in fathers. the prevalence of childbirth fear in men was 13.6%. Factors associated with childbirth related fear were as follows: Less positive feelings about the approaching birth (OR 3.4; 2.2-5.2), country of birth other than Sweden (OR 2.8; 1.3-6.1), a preference for a caesarean birth (OR 2.1; 1.7-4.1), childbirth thoughts in mid-pregnancy (OR 1.9; 1.1-2.0) and expecting the first baby (OR 1.8; 1.2-2.6). high levels of fear were associated with first time fathers and being a non-native to Sweden. Men with fear were more likely to experience pregnancy and the coming birth as a negative event. These men were also more likely to identify caesarean section as their preferred mode of birth. engaging expectant fathers in antenatal conversations about their experiences of pregnancy and feelings about birth provides health-care professionals with an opportunity to address childbirth fear, share relevant information and promote birth as a normal but significant life event. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Insomnia symptoms, sleep duration, and disability pensions: a prospective study of Swedish workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivet, Catarina; Staland-Nyman, Carin; Lindeberg, Sara I; Karasek, Robert; Moghaddassi, Mahnaz; Östergren, Per-Olof

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have found insomnia and long sleep duration to be independently associated with subsequent disability pension (DP). However, the issue of a possible gender-based pattern in this context has received little attention. This study aims to assess the impact of insomnia symptoms and sleep duration on the DP rates among Swedish women and men during a 12-year follow-up period. The participants, from the general population of Malmö, Sweden, were enrolled from 1992 to 1994 (n = 4,319; participation rate 41 %), aged 45-64, healthy, and employed ≥30 h per week. Baseline inquiry data concerning psychosocial circumstances and self-reported sleep habits were compared with official register-based DP rates. Five hundred and nine persons were granted a DP. Insomnia symptoms, affirmed by 33 % of the men and 41 % of the women, were associated with receiving a DP; the hazard ratios in the fully adjusted model were 1.4 for both men [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.1, 1.9] and women (95 % CI 1.1, 1.7). The fully adjusted hazard ratio for women sleeping ≥9 h was 7.8 (95 % CI 3.7, 16.6) for DP due to a mental disorder. In the age-adjusted analyses, the sub-domain "difficulties falling asleep" was related to DP due to mental disorders in men and DP due to cardiovascular diseases in women. The findings suggest that preventing and treating insomnia symptoms could reduce DP and that disease mechanisms linking sleep disturbances to DP may differ by gender.

  10. Antibiotic prescribing in primary care by international medical graduates and graduates from Swedish medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, Thomas; Brudin, Lars; Mölstad, Sigvard

    2015-06-01

    Studies of antibiotic prescribing related to diagnosis comparing prescribers trained abroad with those trained in Sweden are lacking. To determine whether general practices (GPs) and GP residents trained abroad had different prescribing patterns for antibiotics for common infections than those trained in Sweden using retrospective data from electronic patient records from primary health care in Kalmar County, Sweden. Consultations with an infection diagnosis, both with and without the prescription of antibiotics to 67 GPs and residents trained in Western Europe outside Sweden and other countries, were compared with a matched control group trained in Sweden. For 1 year, 44101 consultations of patients with an infection diagnosis and 16276 prescriptions of antibiotics were registered. Foreign-trained physicians had 20% more visits compared with physicians trained in Sweden. The prescription of antibiotics per visit and physician in the respective groups, and independent of diagnosis, did not significantly differ between groups, when scaled down from number of consultations to number of prescribing physicians. There were minor and non-significant differences in antibiotic prescribing comparing GPs and residents trained abroad and in Sweden, most likely the result of an adaptation to Swedish conditions. Nevertheless, no group prescribed antibiotics in accordance to national guidelines. The results suggest that interventions are needed to reduce irrational antibiotic prescribing patterns, targeting all physicians working in Swedish primary health care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Women and men's satisfaction with care related to induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makenzius, Marlene; Tydén, Tanja; Darj, Elisabeth; Larsson, Margareta

    2012-08-01

    To investigate satisfaction with abortion care among women and their male partners, and to identify factors associated with high overall contentment with the care received. A multi-centre cross-sectional questionnaire survey conducted in 2009 among 798 Swedish abortion-seeking women and 590 male partners was analysed with logistic regression. Overall care satisfaction was rated high by two-thirds (74%) of the women and half (52%) of the men. For women, factors associated with high overall satisfaction with care were: to be well treated by the health care staff (Odds Ratio [OR] = 11.78), sufficient pain relief (OR = 3.87), adequate information about the gynaecological examination (OR = 2.25), suitable contraceptive counselling (OR = 2.23), and ease of access to the clinic by phone (OR = 1.91). For men, the factors were to be well treated by the health care staff (OR = 5.32), and adequate information about the abortion procedure (OR = 2.64). Most women and half of the men were pleased with the attention they had received, but one in four women and half the men were not, or not completely, suggesting improvement is needed, especially with regard to men. For both women and men the human aspect of the care, namely, the consideration showed by the attending staff, appears to be the most important factor associated with satisfaction regarding abortion care.

  12. Pharmacist-patient communication in Swedish community pharmacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Erika; Ingman, Pontus; Ahmed, Ban

    2014-01-01

    of prescribed medicines at Swedish community pharmacies. METHOD: Non-participant observations and audio recordings were used as data-collecting methods. The content of the dialog was categorized into 2 deductively decided main categories-medicinal and non-medicinal issues-and 12 inductively decided...... in Swedish community pharmacies. Forty percent of the dialog concerns non-medical issues and almost half of the encounter was silent. CONCLUSION: Medicines are an essential treatment method in healthcare, and pharmaceutical expertise is available to patients who enter a community pharmacy. The results...

  13. NDE of copper canisters for long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel from the Swedish nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, Tadeusz

    2003-07-01

    Sweden has been intensively developing methods for long term storage of spent fuel from the nuclear power plants for twenty-five years. A dedicated research program has been initiated and conducted by the Swedish company SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuels and Waste Management Co.). After the interim storage SKB plans to encapsulate spent nuclear fuel in copper canisters that will be placed at a deep repository located in bedrock. The canisters filled with fuel rods will be sealed by an electron beam weld. This paper presents three complementary NDE techniques used for assessing the sealing weld in copper canisters, radiography, ultrasound, and eddy current. A powerful X-ray source and a digital detector are used for the radiography. An ultrasonic array system consisting of a phased ultrasonic array and a multi-channel electronics is used for the ultrasonic examination. The array system enables electronic focusing and rapid electronic scanning eliminating the use of a complicated mechanical scanner. A specially designed eddy current probe capable of detecting small voids at the depth up to 4 mm in copper is used for the eddy current inspection. Presently, all the NDE techniques are verified in SKB's Canister Laboratory where full scale canisters are welded and examined.

  14. Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in the Nordic countries with main focus on Swedish data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, Michael; Hedendahl, Lena; Ahonen, Mikko; Koppel, Tarmo; Hardell, Lennart

    2016-07-07

    Radiofrequency radiation in the frequency range 30 kHz-300 GHz was evaluated to be Group 2B, i.e. 'possibly' carcinogenic to humans, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at WHO in May 2011. Among the evaluated devices were mobile and cordless phones, since they emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). In addition to the brain, another organ, the thyroid gland, also receives high exposure. The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing in many countries, especially the papillary type that is the most radiosensitive type. We used the Swedish Cancer Register to study the incidence of thyroid cancer during 1970-2013 using joinpoint regression analysis. In women, the incidence increased statistically significantly during the whole study period; average annual percentage change (AAPC) +1.19 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) +0.56, +1.83 %). Two joinpoints were detected, 1979 and 2001, with a high increase of the incidence during the last period 2001-2013 with an annual percentage change (APC) of +5.34 % (95 % CI +3.93, +6.77 %). AAPC for all men during 1970-2013 was +0.77 % (95 % CI -0.03, +1.58 %). One joinpoint was detected in 2005 with a statistically significant increase in incidence during 2005-2013; APC +7.56 % (95 % CI +3.34, +11.96 %). Based on NORDCAN data, there was a statistically significant increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in the Nordic countries during the same time period. In both women and men a joinpoint was detected in 2006. The incidence increased during 2006-2013 in women; APC +6.16 % (95 % CI +3.94, +8.42 %) and in men; APC +6.84 % (95 % CI +3.69, +10.08 %), thus showing similar results as the Swedish Cancer Register. Analyses based on data from the Cancer Register showed that the increasing trend in Sweden was mainly caused by thyroid cancer of the papillary type. We postulate that the whole increase cannot be attributed to better diagnostic procedures. Increasing exposure to ionizing

  15. Insufficient Sleep and Risk of Prostate Cancer in a Large Swedish Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markt, Sarah C; Grotta, Alessandra; Nyren, Olof; Adami, Hans-Olov; Mucci, Lorelei A; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A; Stattin, Pär; Bellocco, Rino; Lagerros, Ylva Trolle

    2015-09-01

    There are some data to suggest that insufficient sleep, including short sleep duration and sleep disruption, may be associated with an increased risk of cancer. We investigated the association between sleep duration and sleep disruption and risk of prostate cancer. Prospective cohort study. Sweden. A total of 14,041 men in the Swedish National March Cohort. None. Habitual sleep duration and sleep disruption were self-reported in 1997. Prostate cancer diagnoses, including lethal (metastases at diagnosis or death from prostate cancer) and advanced (stage T4, N1, or M1 at diagnosis or death from prostate cancer), were determined from linkage to nationwide cancer registries through 2010. We conducted Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for potential confounding variables. During 13 years of follow-up, we identified 785 cases of incident prostate cancer, including 118 lethal and 127 advanced cases. Four percent of men reported sleeping 5 h or less a night, and 2% reported sleeping 9 h or more per night. We found no association between sleep duration and risk of prostate cancer overall or for advanced/lethal disease. We also did not find an association between prostate cancer and sleep disruption, as defined by difficulty falling asleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, sleep quality, and restorative power of sleep. In this large prospective study from Sweden, we found no association between habitual sleep duration or sleep disruption and risk of prostate cancer. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  16. The effect of a biological explanation on attitudes towards homosexual persons. A Swedish national sample study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landén, Mikael; Innala, Sune

    2002-01-01

    Studies assessing attitudes towards homosexuals have revealed widespread homophobia. The first aim of this study was to assess potential changes in public attitudes after important legislative changes related to homosexuals in Sweden. The second aim was to test whether the attitudes differ: 1) between people who believe in biological vs. people who believe in psychological theories in explanation of homosexuality, 2) between men and women, and 3) between the older and younger age groups. To this end, a questionnaire survey of a representative, randomly selected, national sample of 992 adult Swedish residents was carried out. The response rate was 67%, which is considered high in this context. In conclusion, this study demonstrates a clear-cut change towards more tolerant attitudes towards homosexual men and women compared to earlier studies. The reasons for this change is discussed; among factors of importance are anti-discrimination legislation, increased visibility of homosexual people, and that more people currently regard homosexuality as a biologically determined, natural variant of human sexuality than was the case 10 years ago. In accordance, this study gave further support to the notion that those who believe that homosexuality is caused by biological factors have a less restrictive view on homosexuality than do people who hold a psychological view.

  17. Prevalence and characteristics of hearing problems in a working and non-working Swedish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, D; Theorell, T; Westerlund, H; Canlon, B

    2010-05-01

    Hearing problems are among the top 10 most common burdens of disease and are projected to be become even more common by the year 2030. The aim of the present study was to give a current assessment of the prevalence of communication difficulties because of hearing loss and tinnitus, in the general Swedish working and non-working populations in relation to sex, age, socioeconomic status (SES) and noise exposure. How prevalence is affected by SES has not been previously established. A total of 18 734 individuals were invited to participate in the study, of which 11 441 (61%) enrolled. Of the participants, 9756 answered the questionnaire for those who work and 1685 answered the version for non-workers. The most important findings are that 31% in the working population and 36% in the non-working population report either hearing loss or tinnitus or both. The prevalence of hearing problems increases with age, is higher among men and persons with low self-rated SES, and covaries with exposure to noise at work. Severe hearing problems are already present in men and women under 40 years of age who are exposed to work-related noise. Prevalence of hearing problems is far more common than previously estimated and is associated with SES and noise exposure history. Hearing problems have a gradual onset that can take years to become recognised. In order to proactively intervene and prevent this deleterious, yet avoidable handicap, statistics need to be regularly updated.

  18. When Men Meet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Henning

    men, mænd, masculinity, maskulinitet, gender, køn, homosexuality, homoseksualitet, modernity, modernitet, postmodernity, postmodernitet......men, mænd, masculinity, maskulinitet, gender, køn, homosexuality, homoseksualitet, modernity, modernitet, postmodernity, postmodernitet...

  19. Healthy Eating for Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workout Nutrition Timing Your Pre- and Post-Workout Nutrition weights and fruits Building Muscle on a Vegetarian Diet For Kids For Parents For Men For Women For Seniors Healthy Eating for Men Published June 23, 2014 ...

  20. Men's Reproductive Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Cancel Close Email Share Dialog × Print Men's Reproductive Health Reproductive health is an important component of men's overall health ... often, males have been overlooked in discussions of reproductive health, especially when reproductive issues such as contraception and ...

  1. Osteoporosis in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from you Breadcrumb Home Osteoporosis Osteoporosis in Men Osteoporosis in Men Osteoporosis is a disease that causes ... as life expectancy continues to rise. What Causes Osteoporosis? Bone is constantly changing—that is, old bone ...

  2. Men and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Salt Cholesterol Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Men and Heart Disease Fact Sheet Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Source: Interactive Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke Heart Disease Facts in Men Heart disease is the leading ...

  3. Transfer of radiocaesium to the Swedish population and subgroups of special interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagren, G. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Radioecology

    1998-12-01

    As a result of the fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, whole body measurements of radiocesium in the population of Sweden were started in the late 1950`s. In the 1960`s the Saami population was recognised as a subgroup of the Swedish population with a greater risk than the general population of receiving high doses caused by their larger intake of reindeer meat. In 1986, a new deposition of radiocesium from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident occurred. The deposition from Chernobyl was, unlike the deposition from the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, inhomogeneous with a higher deposition in areas where population groups depending on food products from semi-natural ecosystems can be found. Since 1986, whole body measurements have been used to monitor the effects from the Chernobyl accident on several different subgroups of the Swedish population. The group with the highest whole body contents of radiocesium has been the Saamis. Studies of {sup 137}Cs in different ecosystems have shown that population groups living on food products from the forest ecosystem could receive significant committed doses since the effective ecological half times here have been found to be close to the physical half life of {sup 137}Cs (30 years). However, whole body measurements of hunters, which is one such group, have still not confirmed these long half times. In all studied populations the transfer of radiocesium to man was found to decrease with increasing ground deposition and men were found to have about twice as high whole body content of radiocaesium as women. For adults, the whole body content increases slightly with age with a maximum around the age 50-70 years. The committed collective 50-year internal dose to the total Swedish population after Chernobyl will be 1100 personSv of which about half (500 personSv) will be to hunter families and originate in the forest ecosystem. The committed 50-year collective dose to the Saami population will be less (25 person

  4. Nutrition for Older Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids For Parents For Men For Women For Seniors Nutrition for Older Men Published February 01, 2014 Print ... Tags Health Wellness Healthy Aging For Men For Seniors Latest Content 1 2 3 4 5 Eat Right While Traveling Nutrition Info about Beverages 5 Tips to Curb Your ...

  5. Men and IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... study of the IC urine marker antiproliferative factor (APF) in men showed differences. Men with definite IC had APF and men with CP/CPPS did not, but ... who had voiding symptoms typical of IC had APF and should have been classified as having IC. ...

  6. Resilience and Risk for Alcohol Use Disorders: A Swedish Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Elizabeth C; Lönn, Sara L; Ji, Jianguang; Lichtenstein, Paul; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2017-01-01

    Resilience has been shown to be protective against alcohol use disorders (AUDs), but the magnitude and nature of the relationship between these 2 phenotypes are not clear. The aim of this study was to examine the strength of this relationship and the degree to which it results from common genetic or common environmental influences. Resilience was assessed on a 9-point scale during a personal interview in 1,653,721 Swedish men aged 17 to 25 years. AUD was identified based on Swedish medical, legal, and pharmacy registries. The magnitude of the relationship between resilience and AUD was examined using logistic regression. The extent to which the relationship arises from common genetic or common environmental factors was examined using a bivariate Cholesky decomposition model. The 5 single items that comprised the resilience assessment (social maturity, interest, psychological energy, home environment, and emotional control) all reduced risk for subsequent AUD, with social maturity showing the strongest effect. The linear effect by logistic regression showed that a 1-point increase on the resilience scale was associated with a 29% decrease in odds of AUD. The Cholesky decomposition model demonstrated that the resilience-AUD relationship was largely attributable to overlapping genetic and shared environmental factors (57 and 36%, respectively). Resilience is strongly associated with a reduction in risk for AUD. This relationship appears to be the result of overlapping genetic and shared environmental influences that impact resilience and risk of AUD, rather than a directly causal relationship. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. Epidemiology of valvular heart disease in a Swedish nationwide hospital-based register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andell, Pontus; Li, Xinjun; Martinsson, Andreas; Andersson, Charlotte; Stagmo, Martin; Zöller, Bengt; Sundquist, Kristina; Smith, J Gustav

    2017-11-01

    Transitions in the spectrum of valvular heart diseases (VHDs) in developed countries over the 20th century have been reported from clinical case series, but large, contemporary population-based studies are lacking. We used nationwide registers to identify all patients with a first diagnosis of VHD at Swedish hospitals between 2003 and 2010. Age-stratified and sex-stratified incidence of each VHD and adjusted comorbidity profiles were assessed. In the Swedish population (n=10 164 211), the incidence of VHD was 63.9 per 100 000 person-years, with aortic stenosis (AS; 47.2%), mitral regurgitation (MR; 24.2%) and aortic regurgitation (AR; 18.0%) contributing most of the VHD diagnoses. The majority of VHDs were diagnosed in the elderly (68.9% in subjects aged ≥65 years), but pulmonary valve disease incidence peaked in newborns. Incidences of AR, AS and MR were higher in men who were also more frequently diagnosed at an earlier age. Mitral stenosis (MS) incidence was higher in women. Rheumatic fever was rare. Half of AS cases had concomitant atherosclerotic vascular disease (48.4%), whereas concomitant heart failure and atrial fibrillation were common in mitral valve disease and tricuspid regurgitation. Other common comorbidities were thoracic aortic aneurysms in AR (10.3%), autoimmune disorders in MS (24.5%) and abdominal hernias or prolapse in MR (10.7%) and TR (10.3%). Clinically diagnosed VHD was primarily a disease of the elderly. Rheumatic fever was rare in Sweden, but specific VHDs showed a range of different comorbidity profiles . Pronounced sex-specific patterns were observed for AR and MS, for which the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Barriers to Business Model Innovation in Swedish Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Sivertsson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Swedish agricultural companies, especially small farms, are struggling to be profitable in difficult economic times. It is a challenge for Swedish farmers to compete with imported products on prices. The agricultural industry, however, supports the view that through business model innovation, farms can increase their competitive advantage. This paper identifies and describes some of the barriers Swedish small farms encounter when they consider business model innovation. A qualitative approach is used in the study. Agriculture business consultants were interviewed. In a focus group led by the researchers, farmers discussed business model innovation, including the exogenous and endogenous barriers to such innovation. The paper concludes many barriers exist when farmers consider innovation of agricultural business models. Some barriers are caused by human factors, such as individuals’ attitudes, histories, and traditions. Other barriers are more contextual in nature and relate to a particular industry or company setting. Still other barriers, such as government regulations, value chain position, and weather, are more abstract. All barriers, however, merit attention when Swedish agricultural companies develop new business models.

  9. galenicals in modern medicine: focus on swedish bitters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Galenicals were very popular in clinical medicine till late 1960s at which time the pharmaceutical industry revolutionized drug research and production. Almost four decades later, old but useful galenicals such as SWEDISH BITTERS® have been rediscovered and registered in conformity with Food and Drug Administration ...

  10. The communicative and critical health literacy scale--Swedish version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wångdahl, Josefin M; Mårtensson, Lena I

    2014-02-01

    Health literacy (HL) is an important determinant for health and a valuable health indicator within public health. As such, it is a significant outcome variable of health promotion efforts. Valid and reliable instruments are needed to evaluate health promotion interventions and to assess levels of HL in a population. One of the few measurements of communicative and critical HL is the Japanese Communicative and Critical Health Literacy scale (C & C HL scale). To make it possible to use this instrument in Sweden, the C & C HL scale was translated into Swedish and different aspects of validity, including test-retest reliability, of the translated version were tested. After translation and back-translation, The Swedish C & C HL scale was tested for content validity and test-retest reliability. Data were collected from a committee consisting of public health experts and bilingual people, and from a test group of 35 persons. The Swedish C & C HL scale was understandable and showed evidence of content validity. The test-retest confirmed that it was stable over time, percentage agreements for the items ranging from 66% to 89% (M = 74%). The Swedish C & C HL scale is equivalent to the Japanese C & C HL scale in terms of language and content. The items cover the major aspects of communicative and critical HL and are understandable and stable over time, i.e., reliable.

  11. Politics, pleasure, violence: Swedish defence propaganda in social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferrada Stoehrel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Swedish Armed Forces have produced and distributed highly edited video clips on YouTube that show moving images of military activity. Alongside this development, mobile phone apps have emerged as an important channel through which the user can experience and take an interactive part in the staging of contemporary armed conflict. This article examines the way in which the aesthetic and affective experience of Swedish defence and security policy is socially and (media-culturally (co-constructed and how the official representation of Swedish military intervention (reproduces political and economic effects when these activities are distributed through traditional and social media such as YouTube and digital apps. Based on Isabela and Norman Fairclough’s thoughts on political discourse, Michel Foucault’s dialectic idea of power/knowledge, and Sara Ahmed’s concept of the affective, I discuss how the Swedish digital military aesthetic is part of a broader political and economic practice which has consequences beyond the digital, the semiotic and what might at first glance appear to be pure entertainment. 

  12. Politics, pleasure, violence: Swedish defence propaganda in social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferrada Stoehrel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Swedish Armed Forces have produced and distributed highly edited video clips on YouTube that show moving images of military activity. Along- side this development, mobile phone apps have emerged as an important channel through which the user can experience and take an interactive part in the staging of contemporary armed conflict. This article examines the way in which the aes- thetic and affective experience of Swedish defence and security policy is socially and (media-culturally (co-constructed and how the official representation of Swedish military intervention (reproduces political and economic effects when these activi- ties are distributed through traditional and social media such as YouTube and digital apps. Based on Isabela and Norman Fairclough’s thoughts on political discourse, Michel Foucault’s dialectic idea of power/knowledge, and Sara Ahmed’s concept of the affective, I discuss how the Swedish digital military aesthetic is part of a broader political and economic practice that has consequences beyond the digital, the semi- otic, and what might at first glance appear to be pure entertainment.

  13. LANDSAT language at our reach. First Swedish satellite. Civilization detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, D. L.; Bravo, V.

    1981-01-01

    Information on the use of LANDSAT data by Argentina is presented. Details on a Swedish satellite to be completed in 1984 and to be called VIKING are reported. Attempts to contact other civilizations in space by the use of radiotelescopes are discussed.

  14. Breaking bad habits by education - smoking dynamics among Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellsson, Gustav; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus

    2011-07-01

    In a dynamic Two-Part Model (2 PM), we find the effect of previous smoking on the participation decision to be decreasing with education among Swedish women, i.e. more educated are less state dependent. However, we do not find an analogous effect of education on the conditional intensity of consumption. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Swedish Lower Secondary School Teachers' Perceptions and Experiences Regarding Homework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Limin; Kristoffersson, Margaretha

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates homework in Swedish lower secondary schools: teachers' perceptions and experiences about it and their understanding of its potentials and challenges for students' learning and development. Data collected through an online survey (N = 201) mixed standardized questions and open questions. Descriptive statistics and…

  16. Syllable reduction and articulation rates in Danish, Norwegian and Swedish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilton, N.H.; Schüppert, Anja; Gooskens, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation compares articulation rates of phonological and phonetic syllables in Norwegian, Swedish and Danish to investigate differences in degrees of syllable deletion (reduction) among these three languages. For the investigation two sets of data are used: one consisting of recorded

  17. A Swedish Mutual Support Society of Problem Gamblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binde, Per

    2012-01-01

    Mutual support societies for problem gamblers have existed in Sweden for 20 years. They have helped more people with gambling problems than any other institution inside or outside the Swedish health care system. This paper outlines the background of these societies and describes the meetings of one of them. Data come from interviews with members…

  18. Effective Mathematics Teaching in Finnish and Swedish Teacher Education Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmi, Kirsti; Ryve, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article explores effective mathematics teaching as constructed in Finnish and Swedish teacher educators' discourses. Based on interview data from teacher educators as well as data from feedback discussions between teacher educators and prospective teachers in Sweden and Finland, the analysis shows that several aspects of the recent…

  19. The perception of aquaculture on the Swedish West Coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste E.; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Risén, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Efforts are on the way on the Swedish West Coast to develop the capacity for cultivation of marine resources, notably of kelps. Given that this is a region of great natural and national heritage, public opposition to marine developments has been identified as a possible risk factor. This survey...

  20. Self-medication with antibiotics in a Swedish general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, E; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM; Lundborg, CS

    To assess the extent of antibiotic self-medication in a Swedish population, a postal questionnaire was distributed to 1000 randomly selected subjects. The antibiotics used were in all but 3 cases reported to have been obtained with a prescription. Thus, prescribers are the primary target for

  1. A Perspective on Diversity, Equality and Equity in Swedish Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Olof; Davis, Anna; Geijer, Luule

    2007-01-01

    This study presents policy and theory as they apply to diversity, equality and equity in Swedish social and educational policy. All education in Sweden should, according to the curriculum (Lpo 94, 1994, p. 5) be of equivalent value, irrespective of where in the country it is provided and education should be adapted to each pupil's circumstances…

  2. Focal F0 peak shape and sentence mode in Swedish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert; Buanzur, Tuarik C.; Niebuhr, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Shape characteristics of rising-falling accentual F0 peaks of Stockholm Swedish Accent I words in narrow focus are studied in a corpus of 287 read sentences. The corpus includes statements and three types of polar questions. Results reveal a clear effect of sentence mode on the shape of the accen...

  3. Understandings of Climate Change Articulated by Swedish Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmqvist Olander, Mona; Olander, Clas

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated beliefs about climate change among Swedish secondary school students at the end of their K-12 education. An embedded mixed method approach was used to analyse 51 secondary school students' written responses to two questions: (1) What implies climate change? (2) What affects climate? A quantitative analysis of the responses…

  4. Swedish Schools and Gender Equality in the 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, as in many countries before Sweden, boys' academic achievements are getting considerable attention as the big gender issue. The Swedish gender equality policy that was put on the agenda in the 1970s is now associated with extreme discussions. This study aims to explore how gender equality was discussed in the 1970s, in connection with…

  5. The civic integrationist turn in Danish and Swedish school politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, Christian; Jensen, Kristian Kriegbaum

    2017-01-01

    , yet with different styles and content. Citizenship education in Denmark concentrates on reproducing a historically derived core of cultural values and knowledge to which minorities are expected to assimilate, while the Swedish model subscribes to a pluralist view that stresses mutual adaptation...

  6. Implementing Test Enhanced Learning: Swedish Teacher Students' Perception of Quizzing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyroos, Mikaela; Schéle, Ingrid; Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola

    2016-01-01

    Given previous findings on test enhanced learning, the present study examined the implementation of this practice in terms of quizzing, during the progress of a course. After completing the university course, 88 Swedish teacher students were asked to answer an adapted Retrieval Practice and Test Anxiety Survey. The results showed that students…

  7. Swedish Preschool Leadership--Supportive of Music or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This study uses observations and interviews to investigate how the leadership at three Swedish preschools in Sweden has impacted the didactic choices made. Two of these preschools use music as a tool for stimulating language and social development, while the third preschool serves as a comparison. The inspiration that the leadership has brought to…

  8. Patterns of Authority in Swedish Higher Education and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andren, Carl-Gustaf

    1983-01-01

    The current structure of governance and decision making in Swedish higher education and the effects of recent national reform on perceived and actual autonomy at the central, regional, and local levels are discussed. An initial desire for more decentralized decision making has turned to increasing demand for more guidance by central organizations.…

  9. Swedish market entry strategy utilizing Internet marketing: the utilization of Internet marketing in a cost effective and efficient way to market a virtual world

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, Per

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to review published literature both printed and electronic on the subject of Internet marketing. This will aid to provide guidance on how a newly started virtual world company would be able to conduct as cost effective and efficient Internet marketing as possible with focus on entering the Swedish market. The theory part of the thesis will review the most relevant technologies and marketing concepts for the commissioner of this work. The empirical part of the the...

  10. Stakeholder Involvement in Swedish Nuclear Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden)

    2006-09-15

    character of site investigations may change. A different understanding of what should be subject to stakeholder involvement is now on the table, but how exactly this will influence the process is still too early to say. The group most visible so far, the Swedish NGO Office for Nuclear Waste Review (MKG), has published, however, a thorough review of SKB's RandD programme from 2004. In this it is obvious that the Group wants to focus on a more strict assessment of a proposed final repository in relation to the requirements stated in the Environmental Code, that the suitability of a site should be determined by its ability to protect human health and the environment, which places substantial demands upon the site chosen. Moreover, according the Code the best available technology should be used and alternative technology presented. According to MKG, SKB are not fulfilling these requirements in respect of the Environmental Code. The KBS method as well as the two sites in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar are not chosen in relation to these requirements (MKG 2005). MKG, therefore, seems unwilling to proceed on the assumption that a final repository should be sited in either Oesthammar or Oskarshamn, without detailed comparisons with other sites being carried out. In this paper we have tried to show the changing patterns of stakeholder involvement, and also that the current pattern, often mentioned as stable, is not naturally given. Many uncertainties could be listed, but what we know for sure is that the nature of stakeholder involvement at any moment in time always remains contingent and fluid. Who the major and minor stakeholders are; which opportunities they have to act, and on what issues are continually shifting matters. While things can appear to be proceeding in a relatively orderly step-by-step fashion, the reality of stakeholder involvement is that things are continually on the verge of turning out otherwise.

  11. A traditional Sami diet score as a determinant of mortality in a general northern Swedish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Maria Nilsson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine the relationship between “traditional Sami” dietary pattern and mortality in a general northern Swedish population. Study design . Population-based cohort study. Methods. We examined 77,319 subjects from the Västerbotten Intervention Program (VIP cohort. A traditional Sami diet score was constructed by adding 1 point for intake above the median level of red meat, fatty fish, total fat, berries and boiled coffee, and 1 point for intake below the median of vegetables, bread and fibre. Hazard ratios (HR for mortality were calculated by Cox regression. Results. Increasing traditional Sami diet scores were associated with slightly elevated all-cause mortality in men [Multivariate HR per 1-point increase in score 1.04 (95% CI 1.01–1.07, p=0.018], but not for women [Multivariate HR 1.03 (95% CI 0.99–1.07, p=0.130]. This increased risk was approximately equally attributable to cardiovascular disease and cancer, though somewhat more apparent for cardiovascular disease mortality in men free from diabetes, hypertension and obesity at baseline [Multivariate HR 1.10 (95% CI 1.01–1.20, p=0.023]. Conclusions. A weak increased all-cause mortality was observed in men with higher traditional Sami diet scores. However, due to the complexity in defining a “traditional Sami” diet, and the limitations of our questionnaire for this purpose, the study should be considered exploratory, a first attempt to relate a “traditional Sami” dietary pattern to health endpoints. Further investigation of cohorts with more detailed information on dietary and lifestyle items relevant for traditional Sami culture is warranted.

  12. Does job promotion affect men's and women's health differently? Dynamic panel models with fixed effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Anna; Peristera, Paraskevi; Westerlund, Hugo; Johansson, Gunn; Hanson, Linda L Magnusson

    2017-08-01

    Higher occupational status has consistently been shown to be associated with better health, but few studies have to date examined if an upward change in occupational status is associated with a positive change in health. Furthermore, very little is known about whether this association differs by sex. Data were derived from four waves (2008-14) of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH), a follow-up study of a nationally representative sample of the Swedish working population. The present study comprises 1410 men and 1926 women. A dynamic panel model with fixed effects was used to analyse the lagged association between job promotion on the one hand and self-rated health (SRH) and symptoms of depression on the other. This method allowed controlling for unobserved time-invariant confounders and determining the direction of causality between the variables. Multigroup comparisons were performed to investigate differences between the sexes. The results showed that job promotion was associated with decreased subsequent SRH and increased symptoms of depression among both men and women. Women reported a larger relative worsening of self-rated health following a job promotion than men and men reported a larger relative worsening of depression symptoms. There was limited evidence that SRH and symptoms of depression were associated with subsequent job promotion. The present study indicates that a job promotion could lead to decreased SRH and increased symptoms of depression in a 2-4-year perspective. Associations appear to differ for women and men.

  13. Radiocaesium in Swedish reindeer after the Chernobyl accident. Progress report to the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aahman, B. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Animal Breeding and Genetics

    1997-09-01

    The level of {sup 137}CS in freely grazing reindeer, and thus in reindeer pasture, continue to decrease, with an average T{sub ef} at 3.9 years from 1986/87 (the first year after the Chernobyl fallout) to 1996/97. The decline was more rapid during the first five years after the fallout than during the following five years. This, together with a tendency to a relatively slow decline in areas with mainly old fallout (from the nuclear weapon tests) indicate that radiocesium become more fixed in reindeer pasture with time. As a combined effect of the general decline and of different countermeasures, the transfer of radiocaesium via reindeer meat and the corresponding radiation dose to humans has been reduced with time. By different countermeasures, the total collective dose to the Swedish population, over a 10-year period following the Chernobyl accident, has been reduced with 676 manSv at a cost of 489 million SEK 7 refs, tabs

  14. Higher education and more physical activity limit the development of obesity in a Swedish rural population. The Skaraborg Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyholm, M; Gullberg, B; Haglund, B; Råstam, L; Lindblad, U

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence and the secular trends of obesity in a rural Swedish community with emphasis on the association with socioeconomic status and lifestyle. The Skaraborg Project cross-sectional population surveys were conducted in Vara, a rural community in the southwest of Sweden, every fifth year between 1977 and 2002. A total of 3365 residents (1634 men and 1731 women) aged 30-60 years. Obesity was defined as body mass index> or =30 kg m(-2). Information on ethnicity, marital status, socioeconomic status and lifestyle was collected by a questionnaire. In 1977-1982, the average prevalence of obesity was 14% in both men and women, and in 2002, the prevalence of obesity was 19% in men and 21% in women. The age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of obesity in 2002 was 1.48 (1.00, 2.20) in men and 1.41 (0.97, 2.05) in women. Without the simultaneous increase in the level of education and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), the risk of developing obesity could have been considerably higher; in men OR=3.08 (1.88, 5.03) and in women OR=2.72 (1.66, 4.44). In multivariate models, higher levels of education and LTPA were associated with protective effects on obesity in both men (OR=0.60 (0.43, 0.83) and OR=0.50 (0.45, 0.79)) and women (OR=0.73 (0.54, 0.98) and OR=0.57 (0.42, 0.78)), respectively. This study revealed an upward secular trend in the prevalence of obesity in a rural community in Sweden. Increasing levels of education and LTPA limit this ongoing development of obesity. Public health strategies for the prevention of obesity should consider the special condition in rural environments.

  15. Socioeconomic position and incidence of colorectal cancer in the Swedish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Hannah L; Talbäck, Mats; Martling, Anna; Feychting, Maria; Ljung, Rickard

    2016-02-01

    The association between socioeconomic position and incidence of colorectal cancer is inconsistent and differs by global region. We aimed to clarify this association in the Swedish population. We conducted a population-based open cohort study using data from Swedish national registers. We included all individuals, aged ≥30 years, residing in Sweden between 1993 and 2010. Socioeconomic position was indicated by (1) highest educational level (five groups), and (2) disposable income (quintiles). We used Poisson regression to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of colon and rectal cancer, and colon and rectal dysplasia. In total, 97,827,817 person-years were accumulated and 82,686 cases of colorectal cancer were diagnosed. Compared to men with 'higher secondary' education, the adjusted IRRs (95% CI) of rectal cancer in men with 'primary or less', 'lower secondary', 'lower university' or 'higher university' education were: 1.06 (1.00, 1.11), 1.05 (0.99, 1.10), 0.96 (0.89, 1.03), and 0.92 (0.86, 0.98), respectively. In women, the corresponding figures were: 1.04 (0.95, 1.14), 1.03 (0.94, 1.13), 0.92 (0.82, 1.02) and 0.92 (0.82, 1.02). Disposable income was not associated with rectal cancer incidence. Adjusted IRRs of colon cancer did not differ between levels of education or disposable income overall or for specific colon sub-sites. Neither education nor disposable income was consistently associated with incidence of colon or rectal dysplasia. Prevention strategies for colon cancer should be applicable to individuals regardless of their socioeconomic position. However, factors conferred by education, e.g., health awareness, may be important for approaches aiming to reduce inequalities in incidence of rectal cancer. Further evaluation of cancer prevention and health promotion strategies among less educated groups is warranted. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. A Psychometric Evaluation of a Swedish Version of the Positive–Negative Sex-Role Inventory (PN-SRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Rydberg Sterner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Positive–Negative Sex-Role Inventory (PN-SRI assesses gender identity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of a Swedish version of the PN-SRI in a population of 70-year-olds within the Gothenburg H70-study in Sweden. The overarching objective of testing the PN-SRI within the H70-study was to evaluate its usability to further study gender identity in large population-based samples of older adults. A total of 1124 individuals participated in the psychometric testing. A sub-sample of these (n = 406 provided a comprehensive survey regarding societal norms on femininity and masculinity. Reliability and validity tests were performed using Cronbach’s Alpha and factor analyses. The Cronbach’s α coefficients (0.734–0.787 indicated a satisfactory level of internal consistency, and the four-factor model (Model 2 fitted the data at an acceptable level (root-mean-square error of approximation, RMSEA = 0.068, standardized root-mean-square residual, SRMR = 0.07. This cross-cultural adaptation of the PN-SRI indicates that it may be applicable in a Swedish research setting comprising older adults. Future research is needed to further test the psychometric properties of this scale. Adding the PN-SRI to population-based studies will contribute to providing a nuanced way of analyzing differences and similarities among men and women.

  17. Validation of a Swedish version of the Facial Disability Index (FDI) and the Facial Clinimetric Evaluation (FaCE) scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsk, Elin; Hammarstedt-Nordenvall, Lalle; Engström, Mats; Jonsson, Lars; Hultcrantz, Malou

    2013-06-01

    Swedish versions of the Facial Disability Index (FDI) and Facial Clinimetric Evaluation (FaCE) scale are psychometrically valid. Both questionnaires can be used for clinical studies on peripheral facial palsy patients, and provide important information on quality of life. To translate and validate Swedish versions of the FDI and FaCE scale in patients with peripheral facial palsy. Translation of the original questionnaires followed international guidelines. Internal consistency and test-retest stability were assessed in adult patients with stable peripheral facial palsy. Facial function was examined with the Sunnybrook and House-Brackmann scales. Subjects answered the questionnaires twice with a 2-week interval. Validity was assessed by comparing FDI and FaCE scale scores to SF-36 and Sunnybrook/House-Brackmann scores. Ninety-three patients were included, 53% women and 47% men, mean age 56.9 years and mean duration of palsy 51.9 months. The questionnaires showed good/excellent psychometric properties with Cronbach's α scores between 0.76 and 0.92. In the test-retest analysis, intra-class correlation coefficients were very good for both questionnaires with scores of 0.83-0.97. Both questionnaires showed good sensitivity to discriminate between patients with varying degrees of facial dysfunction. Moderate to strong correlation was found between the social domains in the questionnaires when compared with the equivalent domains in SF-36.

  18. The updated Swedish family-cancer database used to assess familial risks of prostate cancer during rapidly increasing incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemminki Kari

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Swedish Family-Cancer Database has been used for some 10 years in the study of familial risks at all common sites. In the present paper we describe some of the main features of version VII of this Database, assembled in year 2006. This update included all residents in Sweden born or immigrated in 1932 and later (offspring with their biological parents, a total of 11.5 million individuals. Cancer cases were retrieved from the Swedish Cancer Registry from years 1958 to 2004, including over 1.2 million first and multiple primary cancers and in situ tumours. We show one application of the Database in the study of familial risks in prostate cancer, with special reference to the modification of familial risk at the time of about 50% increase in incidence due to prostate specific antigen (PSA screening. The familial risks for prostate cancer were 1.92 for sons of affected fathers, 3.03 for brothers and 5.44 for men with an affected father and an affected brother. Familial risk for prostate cancer according to the time since the first family member was diagnosed showed significant increases for two family members being diagnosed in the same year compared to 5+ years apart. Increased surveillance and the availability of PSA screening are the likely reasons for the overestimated familial relative risk shortly after the first diagnosis. This lead time bias should be considered in clinical counselling.

  19. Men becoming fathers by intracytoplasmic sperm injection were more often born small for gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Liffner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Being born with nonoptimal birth characteristics decreases the chance of becoming a father. Urogenital malformations as well as metabolic syndrome are more common in men born small for gestational age (SGA and could be contributing factors to the reduced fertility rate seen in these men. It could imply that men becoming fathers by assisted reproductive technology (ART more often are born with low birth weight (LBW, preterm, and/or SGA than men conceiving without treatment and also that men where intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI had to be performed more often are born with nonoptimal birth characteristics than men where conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF successfully could be used. In this retrospective, case-control study using Swedish national registers, we compared the birth characteristics of 1206 men who have become fathers by ART with a control group consisting of age-matched men who became fathers without treatment. The differences in birth characteristics between men becoming fathers by IVF and ICSI were also assessed. For men becoming fathers by ART, OR of being born with LBW was 1.66 (95% CI = 1.17-2.36 compared with fathers who conceived without treatment. OR of being born prematurely was 1.32 (95% CI = 1.00-1.77. Men becoming fathers via ICSI had a doubled increased likelihood of being born SGA compared with men who became fathers via IVF (OR = 2.12; 95% CI = 1.17-3.83. In conclusion, we have found that men becoming fathers by ICSI treatments had more often been born SGA than men becoming fathers by conventional IVF.

  20. On genocide and the Holocaust in Swedish History teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Ammert

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Teaching about the Holocaust and other genocides is emphasized in Swedish History teaching. In Sweden there is a public authority commisioned to work with issues related to tolerance, democracy and human rights. It is this context and under these conditions, that Swedish History teachers select a variety of topics for their students to learn, as part of the History curriculum. In addition to the Holocaust, they teach about crimes against humanity committed under communist regimes, the genocide of Tutsies in Rwanda, and mass murder and ethnic cleansing in former Yugoslavia. Teachers use a multiplicity of uses of history and teaching methods. They conduct a scientific use of history when focusing on the historical contexts and explaining the background, motives and consequences of genocide. Teachers also stress the students’ personal reflections and standpoints in a moral use of history. The teaching aims at developing understanding and empathy among students.

  1. The perception of aquaculture on the Swedish West Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste E; Nordström, Jonas; Risén, Emma; Malmström, Maria E; Gröndahl, Fredrik

    2017-09-22

    Efforts are on the way on the Swedish West Coast to develop the capacity for cultivation of marine resources, notably of kelps. Given that this is a region of great natural and national heritage, public opposition to marine developments has been identified as a possible risk factor. This survey thus sought to shed light on awareness levels, perceptions of different types of aquaculture and on reactions to a scenario depicting future aquaculture developments on the West Coast. When asked about their general opinions of aquaculture, respondents tended to be favourable though a majority chose neutral responses. On the whole, respondents were favourable to the depicted scenario. Finally, it was found that the high-awareness group tended to be more supportive than the low or medium-awareness groups, hinting at the benefits of increasing awareness to reduce public aversion and to support a sustainable development of aquaculture on the Swedish West Coast.

  2. Delegated Democracy. The Siting of Swedish Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Hanna Sofia (Stockholm Univ., SCORE, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-12-15

    This paper aims to characterise Swedish democracy in connection with the disposal of Swedish nuclear waste. To this end, an analysis is performed to discern which democratic ideals that can be found within the nuclear waste issue. The study analyses various actors' views on democracy and expertise as well as their definitions of the nuclear waste issue, and discusses this from the perspective of democracy theory. Which definitions that become influential has democratic implications. In addition, various actors' possible attempts to help or hinder other actors from gaining influence over the nuclear waste issue in the four municipalities are studied. In connection with the case studies the aim of the paper can be narrowed to comprise the following questions: Which democratic ideals can be found within SKB's siting process during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process during the site investigations? Which democratic ideals were influential during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process?

  3. Nurses Contribution to Swedish eHealth Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnvall, Eva

    2012-01-01

    In 2005 the Swedish government identified the need of common development of information and communication technology in health and social care. The purpose of this paper is to describe nurses' contribution to the establishment of a national cooperation concerning eHealth development in health and social care. The Swedish strategy of eHealth have six actions areas eServices for accessibility and empowerment, Usable and accessible information (for staff), Knowledge management, innovation and learning, Creating a common technical infrastructure, Creating a common information structure and Bringing laws and regulations into line with extended use of ICT. Nurses are involved in all action areas and emphasize the empowerment and safety of the patient and account of ethical values. Patients' possibility to take part of the information and adding information in their own patient health record, nurses' education and safe IT support in medication are areas that need further development.

  4. Design and implementation issues in Swedish individual pension accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, R Kent

    Sweden's new multipillar pension system includes a system of mandatory fully funded individual accounts. The Swedish system offers contributors more than 600 fund options from a variety of private-sector fund managers. However, in the most recent rounds of fund choice, more than 90 percent of new labor market entrants have not made an active choice of funds and thus have ended up in a government-sponsored default fund. The Swedish system offers a number of lessons about implementing a mandatory individual account tier. Centralized administration keeps administrative costs down but requires considerable lead time. A very large number of fund options are likely to be offered unless strong entry barriers are in place. Engaging new labor market entrants in fund choice is likely to be difficult. A significant percentage of those making an active fund choice may choose funds that are very specialized and risky. Finally, special care must be devoted to designing a default fund and continual consumer communication.

  5. The impact of children on divorce risks of Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, G

    1997-06-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of children on divorce risks in 1971-1994 for first-married Swedish women. This impact is examined using two measures of family composition, namely the number of children and the age of the youngest child, and we find an independent effect from each of these factors on the propensity to divorce. There is an additional impact of births prior to marriage on the subsequent divorce risk.... The general picture of Swedish divorce-risk trends shows a strong increase in 1974, mostly among childless women, in response to a reform of the divorce legislation. Since the beginning of the 1980s, the risks have increased steadily, mostly among mothers." (EXCERPT)

  6. Electricity consumption and electricity saving in the Swedish households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstroem, B.M.; Eklund, Y.; Sjoeberg, L.

    1997-03-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine which factors influence electricity consumption behavior of Swedish households, the level of knowledge about electricity use and the willingness to pay for the use of electricity. In Sweden, as in many other developed countries, the need for electric power is constantly increasing. The major reason for this increase in electricity consumption is the lifestyle of a modern society. A feature in the nuclear power discussion is that the government in Sweden is having a hard time to establish how to phase-out all nuclear power plants by 2010. An additional major change in Swedish energy policy is the deregulation of the electricity market, which started in the beginning of 1996. There is an increased demand for strategies to save electricity among households. The results of this study stress the difficulties in reducing electricity consumption and to develop new electricity saving strategies in Sweden 125 refs, 6 figs, 21 tabs

  7. An introduction to the South Swedish Apparent Cleft (SSAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Rosenkvist

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the South Swedish Apparent Cleft (SSAC is introduced, described and briefly discussed. The SSAC was first observed in the 1940s, and it has not yet been subject to any detailed linguistic analysis. The usage of the SSAC has been examined in a corpus study and via a questionnaire, and the results indicate, but do not confirm, that it truly is a specifically south Swedish syntactic construction. It appears in two main variants (with and without an adverbial expressing speaker attitude and it displays a number of interesting syntactic properties (the subject must be pronominal, direct objects are disallowed, etc. From a typological perspective, there seem to be equivalent constructions in at least Japanese (no da and English (it is that.

  8. Cancer risks in Swedish Lapps who breed reindeer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiklund, K.; Holm, L.E.; Eklund, G. (Karolinska Inst. and Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1990-12-01

    Cancer risks during the period 1961-1984 were studied in a cohort of 2,034 Swedish reindeer-breeding Lapps, a unique group whose culture and life-style differ considerably from those in the rest of the Swedish population. A total of 100 cases of cancer were observed versus 163 expected. Statistically significantly decreased risks were found for cancers of the colon, respiratory organs, female breast, male genital organs, and kidneys, and for malignant lymphomas. The stomach was the only site with a significantly increased risk. Reindeer-breeding Lapps have ingested fallout products via the lichen-reindeer-man food chain since the 1950s. However, no increased risk was found for the cancer sites considered to be most sensitive to radiation.

  9. Implementing test enhanced learning : Swedish teacher students’ perception of quizzing

    OpenAIRE

    Nyroos, Mikaela; Schéle, Ingrid; Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola

    2016-01-01

    Given previous findings on test enhanced learning, the present study examined the implementation of this practice in terms of quizzing, during the progress of a course. After completing the university course, 88 Swedish teacher students were asked to answer an adapted Retrieval Practice and Test Anxiety Survey. The results showed that students perceived quizzing to improve learning, and reduce test anxiety. Nonetheless, based on students’ misconceptions regarding why quizzing actually enhance...

  10. Summary of operational experience in Swedish nuclear power plants 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    A summary of two pages for each Swedish reactor is given with availability, number of scrams, collective radiation doses and events for 1995. Special reports are presented on some specific issues: Bowed fuel assemblies at Ringhals, Incorrect opening pressure of the main safety valves at Ringhals, Measures to restore and upgrade safety at Oskarshamn 1, and the Decontamination of the reactor vessel at Oskarshamn 1. Figs.

  11. Attitudes towards organ donor advocacy among Swedish intensive care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Anna; Lennerling, Annette; Fridh, Isabell; Rizell, Magnus; Lovén, Charlotte; Flodén, Anne

    2015-05-01

    To explore the attitudes of Swedish intensive care nurses towards organ donor advocacy. The concept of organ donor advocacy is critical to nurses who care for potential donors in order to facilitate organ donation (OD). A retrospective cross-sectional study was employed. Inclusion criteria in this survey were to be a registered nurse and to work in a Swedish intensive care unit (ICU). Participants were identified by the Swedish association of health professionals. A number of 502 Swedish ICU nurses answered the 32-item questionnaire Attitudes Towards Organ Donor Advocacy Scale (ATODAS), covering the five dimensions of organ donor advocacy: attitudes towards championing organ donation at a structural hospital level, or at a political and research level, attitudes towards actively and personally safeguarding the will and wishes of the potential organ donor, or by using a more professional approach and finally to safeguard the will and wishes of the relatives. Data were analysed with the SPSS version 18·0 and the results were assessed by using Student's t-test and post hoc test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), χ(2) , Pearson's correlation and regression analysis. The most favoured advocacy action was safeguarding the POD's will and wishes by a professional approach, closely followed by actively and personally safeguarding the POD's will and wishes. Nurses at local hospitals reported a more positive attitude towards organ donor advocacy overall compared with nurses at larger regional or university hospitals. Important factors leading to positive attitudes were seniority, working experience, participating in conversations with relatives, caring for brain-dead persons and private experiences from OD or organ transplantation. Intensive and critical care nurses with short working experience in university hospitals showed the least positive attitude towards organ donor advocacy. This is problematic because many ODs and all transplantations are performed in university

  12. Coping With Moral Stress in the Swedish Public Services

    OpenAIRE

    Elin Thunman

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how today's public workers cope with moral stress in organizations where new public management reforms have been implemented. More specifically, the interest is focused on examining which practices are developed in order to fulfill professional standards within the limits of inadequate resources in order to manage moral stress. Case studies at Swedish public work places are analyzed with the help of Lipsky's theory about street-level bureaucrats' coping behavior and theori...

  13. Young Swedish students' knowledge of English grammatical morphemes

    OpenAIRE

    Bergvall, Victoria

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown that children who have English as a first language acquire grammatical morphemes in a predictable order. Many researchers claim that second language learners also follow a predictable pattern when learning English grammatical morphemes regardless of their linguistic background, and that the same mechanisms are responsible for both first and second language acquisition. The aim of this paper was to study Swedish students’ knowledge of English grammatical morphemes, and to co...

  14. School inspections and principals' leadership: a swedish case study:

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgren, Mats; Schantz Lundgren, Ina von

    2014-01-01

    This article is about how criticism from the Swedish Schools Inspectorate affects principals' leadership. The result builds on experiences from an on-going case study that started in the beginning of 2011 and that will be finished in 2015. We present two examples where the local school management and principals try to improve the activities on the basis of the Schools Inspectorate's report. The first example consists of a so called research circle where we as researchers together with a princ...

  15. The Swedish Armed Forces Operational Challenges for Command and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Contracted Expeditionary Force Challenge - transforming the Manning system Swe Lead nation for EU NBG 11 + NBG 14 HEADQUARTERS SWEDISH ARMED...Sweden – Advanced parts of the SwAF, for example data-links within the Air Force since 1970-ies – Defence-, IT- and Telecomm industry...Information Management Portal (SHAREPOINT) Exercise Management System (EXONAUT) National simulation systems (TYR, JCATS, GESI, TCT) Air & Combat

  16. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    2004 was somewhat of a record year for the Swedish nuclear power stations. No serious faults occurred, and production exceeded previous record outputs. Total output from the eleven nuclear power units during the year amounted to 75 TWh, which is the largest amount of power ever produced by nuclear power in Sweden. Corresponding figures for earlier years are 59 TWh (2003), 65 TWh (2002) and 69 TWh (2001). An important reason for this excellent result was the very high energy availability. Forsmark 1, for example, exceeded 97 % availability, while Forsmark 2 just reached 97 %. For all the Swedish nuclear power stations as a whole, availability in 2004 amounted to 91 %. In addition to the connection between production and energy availability, there is also a connection with safety. During the year, safety in the Swedish power stations has been high, not only in absolute terms but also in an international perspective. One measure of safety is to be found in the number of accidents, incidents, anomalies or deviations reported to the IAEA on a scale known as the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). Sweden has undertaken to report all events in accordance with this international system. Three reports were submitted by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, which is responsible for national reporting, during the year. None of them had any significance for reactor safety: all were categorised as incidents or minor deviations from the regulations. Summarising, 2004 has been an excellent year for nuclear power safety, which is also reflected by the record electricity production during the year.

  17. Pregnancy rate and outcome in Swedish women with Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryman, Inger; Sylvén, Lisskulla; Berntorp, Kerstin; Innala, Eva; Bergström, Ingrid; Hanson, Charles; Oxholm, Marianne; Landin-Wilhelmsen, Kerstin

    2011-06-30

    Pregnancies occurred in 57 (12%) of 482 Swedish women with Turner syndrome with a liveborn rate of 54% in 124 pregnancies. Spontaneous pregnancies occurred in 40%, mainly in women with 45,X/46,XX mosaicism, and oocyte donation in 53% where miscarriages were less frequent, odds ratio = 0.43 (95% confidence interval 0.17-1.04). Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Testing Game Theory in the Field: Swedish LUPI Lottery Games

    OpenAIRE

    Östling, Robert; Wang, Joseph Tao-yi; Chou, Eileen; Camerer, Colin F.

    2007-01-01

    Game theory is usually difficult to test precisely in the field because predictions typically depend sensitively on features that are not controlled or observed. We conduct one such test using field data from the Swedish lowest unique positive integer (LUPI) game. In the LUPI game, players pick positive integers and whoever chose the lowest unique number wins a fixed prize. Theoretical equilibrium predictions are derived assuming Poisson- distributed uncertainty about the numbe...

  19. The Swedish Spine Register: development, design and utility.

    OpenAIRE

    Strömqvist, Björn; Fritzell, Peter; Hägg, Olle; Jönsson, Bo

    2009-01-01

    The Swedish Spine Register enables monitoring of surgical activities focusing on changes in trends over time, techniques utilized and outcome, when implemented in general clinical practice. Basic requirements for a prosperous register are unity within the profession, mainly patient-based documentation and a well functioning support system. This presentation focuses on the development and design of the register protocol, problems encountered and solutions found underway. Various examples on ho...

  20. Impacts of foreign direct investment on efficiency in Swedish manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedin, Dick; Stage, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have found that foreign direct investment (FDI) can have positive impacts on productivity. However, while FDI has clearly positive impacts on technology transfers, its effects on resource use within firms is less clear and, in principle, efficiency losses might offset some of the productivity gains associated with improved technologies. In this paper, we study the impacts of FDI on efficiency in Swedish manufacturing. We find that foreign ownership has positive impacts on efficiency, supporting the earlier findings on productivity.

  1. Corporate Bonds : Analyzing the availability of the Swedish bond market

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Rickard; Höglund, Linn; Jarnegren, Carl

    2006-01-01

    In the past, the Swedish bond market has been distinguished for its illiquidity and difficulties with retrieving information. This is the starting point of our thesis and the purpose is to analyze and describe the availability of the present corporate bond market for manufacturing firms in Sweden. In order to fulfill the purpose, a qualitative method was used and interviews with different operators of the market were conducted. Our respondents were sampled from large issuing companies, the ma...

  2. Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstrand, S.; Landner, L. [Swedish Environmental Research Group (MFG)

    1998-03-01

    The aim of this report is to review available information on the fluxes of cadmium (Cd) to agricultural soils and crops in Sweden from phosphorus fertilizers (P-fertilizer) and other sources, and to discuss how the content of Cd in soil, crops and human food may be influenced by the specific environmental conditions in Sweden, as well as by the agricultural practices used in the country 62 refs, 15 figs, 18 tabs. With 5 page summary in Swedish

  3. Physical domestic violence exposure is highly associated with suicidal attempts in both women and men. Results from the national public health survey in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufort, Mariana; Stenbacka, Marlene; Gumpert, Clara Hellner

    2015-06-01

    Studies on a national level concerning domestic violence (DV) among both men and women are few. DV and its relation to other social and health outcomes within the framework of the Swedish Public Health Survey have remained unexplored. To compare women and men regarding their social situation and health status in relation to self-reported exposure to physical DV as measured in the Swedish National Public Health Survey. This study used cross-sectional data from the Swedish Public Health Survey, years 2004-09 with a total sample of 50 350 respondents, of which 205 women and 93 men reported DV exposure. Logistic regression analyses stratified by sex with physical DV exposure as the outcome measure were conducted, and the multivariate models were fitted using the likelihood ratio test. Being foreign-born [women odds ratio (OR) = 1.52, men OR = 1.92] and lack of social support (women OR = 2.81, men OR = 1.92) were associated with DV exposure among both sexes. Higher psychological distress (women OR = 2.81, men OR = 1.92) and hazardous drinking (women OR = 1.61, men OR = 2.33) were also associated with DV exposure. Among women, financial problems were associated with DV exposure (OR = 1.83), whereas among men, sum of medicines used and higher odds of DV were associated (OR = 1.17). Further, suicidal attempts were associated with DV exposure among both women (OR = 5.59) and men (OR = 8.34). In this national survey, prevalence rates of violence exposure were lower than in other studies, but despite this, both women and men exposed to physical DV reported increased odds of having attempted suicide. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  4. The prosody of Swedish underived nouns: No lexical tones required

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Morén-Duolljá

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a detailed representational analysis of the morpho-prosodic system of underived nouns in a dialect of Swedish.  It shows that the morphology, stress and tonal patterns are not as complex as they first appear once the data are looked at in sufficient detail.  Further, it shows that the renowned Swedish "lexical pitch accent" is not the result of lexical tones/tonemes.  Rather, Swedish is like all other languages and uses tones to mark the edges of prosodic constituents on the surface. "Accent 2" occurs when tones mark the edge of a structural uneven trochee (i.e. recursive foot and "accent 1" occurs elsewhere. This analysis is counter all other treatments of North Germanic tones and denies the almost unquestioned assumption that there is an underlying tone specification on roots and/or affixes in many North Germanic varieties. At the same time, it unifies the intuitions behind the three previous approaches found in the literature.

  5. Swedish hunters' safety behaviour and experience of firearm incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junuzovic, Mensura; Midlöv, Patrik; Lönn, Sara Larsson; Eriksson, Anders

    2013-11-01

    Since any firearm injury is potentially lethal, it is of great interest to prevent firearm incidents. This study investigated such incidents during hunting and Swedish hunters' safety behaviour. A 48-item questionnaire was posted to a random sample of 1000 members of the Swedish Association for Hunting and Wildlife Management. The questions considered demographics, hunting experience/hunting habits/safety behaviour/attitudes and experience of careless weapon handling, hunters' weapons and safety behaviour relating to weapons, health status, firearm incidents and their preventability, and personal comments on the questionnaire. The response rate was almost 50%. The mean age of the responders was 54 years; 5% were females. Almost none (1%) reported hunting under the influence of alcohol. Young age and male sex were positively associated with risk behaviour, although the presence of multiple risk behaviours in the same responder was not common. A very high degree of compliance with Swedish laws regarding weapon storage was reported. One-quarter of the responders had witnessed a firearm incident caused by another hunter, which in most situations did not result in human injury or death. An unsafetied weapon was the most common reported "cause" of these incidents. Experience of a firearm incident was not uncommon and the majority of the responders considered the incident in question to be preventable. This study provides a picture of the possible risk behaviour among hunters and the results suggest that future prevention work should target safer weapon handling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Knowledge and attitudes of Swedish politicians concerning induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydsjö, Adam; Josefsson, Ann; Bladh, Marie; Muhrbeck, Måns; Sydsjö, Gunilla

    2012-12-01

    Induced abortion is more frequent in Sweden than in many other Western countries. We wanted to investigate attitudes and knowledge about induced abortion among politicians responsible for healthcare in three Swedish counties. A study-specific questionnaire was sent to all 375 elected politicians in three counties; 192 (51%) responded. The politicians stated that they were knowledgeable about the Swedish abortion law. More than half did not consider themselves, in their capacity as politicians, sufficiently informed about abortion-related matters. Most politicians (72%) considered induced abortion to be primarily a 'women's rights issue' rather than an ethical one, and 54% considered 12 weeks' gestational age an adequate upper limit for induced abortion. Only about a third of the respondents were correctly informed about the number of induced abortions annually carried out in Sweden. Information and knowledge on induced abortion among Swedish county politicians seem not to be optimal. Changes aimed at reducing the current high abortion rates will probably not be easy to achieve as politicians seem to be reluctant to commit themselves on ethical issues and consider induced abortion mainly a women's rights issue.

  7. Hearing status among commercial pilots in a Swedish airline company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Torsten; Wieslander, Gunilla; Dammstrom, Bo-Goran; Norback, Dan

    2008-08-01

    The aim was to study hearing impairment in commercial pilots. A total of 634 male and 30 female pilots (N=664) in a Swedish airline company underwent repeated audiological tests during the period 1974-2005. The last test was used to study hearing impairment. The mean values for the hearing test at 3, 4, and 6 kHz were used for the ear with worse hearing impairment. Data was compared with a general adult Swedish population (n=603) not occupationally exposed to noise. Equivalent noise levels gate to gate (Leq) were measured in the cockpit of different aircraft. Leq was 75-81 dB (A), peak exposures were 105 dB (A) from the cabin call signal. Median values were similar as in the reference group at all ages. There was no association between years of employment, tobacco smoking, and hearing impairment, when adjusted for age and gender by multiple logistic regressions analysis. In conclusion, pilots are exposed to equivalent noise levels below the current Swedish occupational standard of 85 dB (A), with short peak exposures above the standard, and have normal age-matched hearing thresholds.

  8. The Swedish Small Satellite Program for Space Plasma Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Göran; André, Mats; Lundin, Rickard; Grahn, Sven

    2004-04-01

    The success of the Swedish small satellite program, in combination with an active participation by Swedish research groups in major international missions, has placed Sweden in the frontline of experimental space research. The program started with the development of the research satellite Viking which was launched in 1986, for detailed investigations of the aurora. To date, Sweden has developed and launched a total of six research satellites; five for space plasma investigations; and the most recent satellite Odin, for research in astronomy and aeronomy. These fall into three main categories according to their physical dimension, financial cost and level of ambition: nano-satellites, micro-satellites, and mid-size satellites with ambitious scientific goals. In this brief review we focus on five space plasma missions, for which operations have ended and a comprehensive scientific data analysis has been conducted, which allows for a judgement of their role and impact on the progress in auroral research. Viking and Freja, the two most well-known missions of this program, were pioneers in the exploration of the aurora. The more recent satellites, Munin, Astrid, and Astrid-2 (category 1 and 2), proved to be powerful tools, both for testing new technologies and for carrying out advanced science missions. The Swedish small satellite program has been internationally recognized as cost efficient and scientifically very successful.

  9. Attempting Institutional Change: Swedish Apprenticeship, 1890–1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Hellstrand

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sweden never got an apprentice law after apprenticeship was de-regulated in 1864. This has been attributed to unified opposition to legislation from industry employers and trade unions, with the craft employers as the only advocates. Analysing the pattern of agreement and disagreement in the political struggle over apprenticeship in the Swedish case in 1890–1917, it is clear that opposition was not that uniform, nor was the support from the craft employers that undivided. This article makes use of Kathleen Thelen’s model of institutional change in order to shed new light on the developments in Sweden. The model states that any apprentice law requires a coalition of two or more out of the state, the crafts and the metalworking industries – divided into employers and workers. Legislation, in turn, is a near requirement for the survival of strong apprenticeship. In this article the Swedish case will be discussed in relation to two of Thelen’s cases, Germany and Great Britain. In Germany an apprentice law was passed in 1897, while in Great Britain no modern apprentice law was ever passed. Similarities can be found between both of these cases and the Swedish case.

  10. Components of success in academic reading tasks for Swedish students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Shaw

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In a parallel-language environment students are often required to read in a language different from the one they use in lectures, seminars, and among themselves. Relatively little research has been done on the overall reading success of such groups or on the componential make up of their L2 reading skills. This paper compares the English-language reading skills of Swedish students of biology with that of equivalent British biology students. Many Swedish readers perform within or above the normal British range on the study-reading test, but the overall average score of this sample of Swedish readers was considerably lower than that of the British sample. For the Swedes study-reading success correlates significantly with vocabulary knowledge, inferencing and newspaper reading, and at a lower level for word recognition speed. For the British informants the pattern is similar, but with no significant correlation for word-recognition speed. Multiple regression analyses show that academic vocabulary knowledge test scores can account for nearly half the variance in study-reading scores and newspaper reading test scores for about ten percent more. For the British informants the same pattern emerged, but the contributions of vocabulary knowledge was considerably greater and that of newspaper skimming rather less.

  11. Emergy Evaluation of a Swedish Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindberg, Anna

    2007-03-15

    Today it is common to evaluate and compare energy systems in terms of emission of greenhouse gases. However, energy systems should not only reduce their pollution but also give a large energy return. One method used to measure energy efficiency is emergy (embodied energy, energy memory) evaluation, which was developed by the system ecologist Howard T. Odum. Odum defines emergy as the available energy of one kind previously used up directly and indirectly to make a service or product. Both work of nature and work of human economy in generating products and services are calculated in terms of emergy. Work of nature takes the form of natural resources and work of human economy includes labour, services and products used to transform natural resources into something of value to the economy. The quotient between work of nature and work of human economy gives the emergy return on investment of the investigated product. With this in mind the present work is an attempt to make an emergy evaluation of a Swedish nuclear power plant to estimate its emergy return on investment. The emergy return on investment ratio of a Swedish nuclear power plant is calculated to approximately 11 in this diploma thesis. This means that for all emergy the Swedish economy has invested in the nuclear power plant it gets 11 times more emergy in return in the form of electricity generated by nuclear power. The method used in this work may facilitate future emergy evaluations of other energy systems.

  12. ICT support for industrial production of houses:the Swedish case

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsson, Helena; Malmgren, Linus; Persson, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    The Swedish construction sector is currently undergoing great changes. The large costs for labour have forced the construction companies to rationalise and minimise labour intense work operations. Therefore, the current trend in construction to adopt the principles of lean production and transform it into lean construction, suits the Swed-ish way of working and the entire Swedish construction sector has caught on. A growing market is the prefabrication of building elements that are transporte...

  13. The Impact of the Swedish Massage on the Kinesthetic Differentiation in Healthy Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, Kamil; Furmanek, Mariusz Pawel; Knapik, Aleksandra; Bacik, Bogdan; Juras, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Swedish massage is one of the common treatments to provide optimal start and readiness of athletes. The ability of kinesthetic differentiation (KD) is crucial in sport performance. This skill allows to adapt demanded muscle forces to optimize the motor tasks, and it is responsible for the precision. In the literature, there is no evidence how Swedish massage influences the kinesthetic differentiation. Purpose: The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of Swedish massag...

  14. Geographical and socioeconomic distribution of high blood pressure and borderline high blood pressure in a Swedish rural county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, B J

    1985-01-01

    This report on "high" blood pressure (HBP) and "borderline high" blood pressure (BHBP) is based on a cross-sectional study in a rural Swedish county. The study was initiated in the Spring of 1977, selecting 7986 individuals aged 25-75 years, in 5-year intervals, in the 16 municipalities of Skaraborg County. A combination of health examination and a survey using polling of the population by interview was used. The blood pressure values that are presented are based on a casual measurement taken after a 5-minute rest period. The limits of HBP and BHBP correspond to the Swedish standard limits. Only a few researchers in Sweden have focused on the correlation between socioeconomic factors and hypertension. Moreover, few examinations have been made internationally concerning the correlation between socioeconomic factors and borderline hypertension. There was a significant variation in mean values of high blood pressure when comparing socioeconomic groups and comparing occupations. These differences associated with educational level were more pronounced for women than for men. Workers, especially men and persons with less formal education, had the highest mean blood pressure. Significant differences between socioeconomic groups existed even after adjustment for age, sex, weight index, smoking and treatment of hypertension. The socioeconomic differences constitute the most plausible explanation of differences seen between municipalities. "Borderline high" blood pressure was more prevalent than "high" blood pressure. Socioeconomic differences were greater within the borderline high blood pressure group than in the high blood pressure group. i.e., the differences between workers and civil servants were somewhat greater in the borderline high blood pressure group. Since there are socioeconomic differences, it might be possible to concentrate preventive activities in local communities on risk groups.

  15. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  16. Men in Feminised Workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Kenn

    masculine than other men? Or do they rather represent a new, more tolerant and less stereotypical male gender role? If less restricted by stereotypes, are men then eager to challenge traditional dichotomised perceptions of man/masculinity and woman/femininity? By means of analyses of interviews with more...

  17. HPV and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... did not get vaccinated when they were younger Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men through age 26 years, if they ... outside of your relationship. It is important that sex partners discuss their sexual health and risk for all STIs, ... and Bisexual Men’s Health STD information and referrals ...

  18. A Few Good Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Male elementary school teachers are in the minority in their schools and in their profession. Men who want to teach young children face sexism. The shortage of male public school teachers troubles child advocates. Two Florida programs recruit African-American men to teach in special education classes. (MLF)

  19. Multiple Socioeconomic Factors and Dental Caries in Swedish Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André Kramer, Ann-Catrin; Petzold, Max; Hakeberg, Magnus; Östberg, Anna-Lena

    2017-12-14

    The study aimed to explore associations between multiple socioeconomic factors and dental caries experience in Swedish children and adolescents (3-19 years old). Electronic dental records from 300,988, in a Swedish region (97.3% coverage) were collected using the DMFT indices (decayed, missing, filled teeth: dependent variables). Socioeconomic status (SES) data (ethnicity, wealth, parental education, and employment) for individuals, parents, and families were obtained from official registers. Principal component analysis was used to explore SES data. Scores based on the first factor were used as an independent aggregated socioeconomic variable in logistic regression analyses. Dental caries experience was low in the participants: 16% in 3- to 6-year-olds (deft index: decayed, extracted, filled teeth) and 47% in 7- to 19-year-olds (DFT index). Both separate and aggregated socioeconomic variables were consistently associated with the dental caries experience irrespective of the caries index used: the crude odds ratio (OR) for having at least 1 caries lesion in 3- to 6-year-olds (deft index) in the lowest SES quintile was 3.26 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.09-3.43) and in ≥7-year-olds (DFT index) OR 1.80 (95% CI 1.75-1.84) compared with children in the 4 higher SES quintiles. Overall, associations were stronger in the primary dentition than in the permanent dentition. Large SES models contributed more to explaining the caries experience than slim models including fewer SES indicators. In conclusion, socioeconomic factors were consistently associated with dental caries experience in the children and adolescents both as single factors and as multiple factors combined in an index. Socioeconomic inequalities had stronger associations to caries experience in young children than in older children and adolescents. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Supervision of Waste Management and Environmental Protection at the Swedish Nuclear Facilities 2001

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, M

    2003-01-01

    The report summarizes the supervision of waste management and environmental protection at the nuclear facilities that was carried out by the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority in 2001. A summary of the inspections and a description of important issues connected with the supervision of the nuclear facilities are given.The inspections during 2001 have focused on theme inspections of waste management, environmental inspections considering the environmental monitoring at the Swedish nuclear facilities and review safety analysis and research programs from the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority finds that the operations are mainly performed according to current regulations

  1. Successful images of successful ageing? Representations of vigorous elderly people in a Swedish educational television programme

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wallander, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    ..., conceptualized as successful ageing. The present article demonstrates how representations of vigorous elderly people are construed in the programme VeteranTV, produced by UR, Swedish educational television...

  2. Mens mobile health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Vinie Diana Hvidbak; Castaño, Francisco Mansilla; Jensen, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2016-01-01

    Preferences Keywords: Men with little or no education, physical health, mobile health application. Types of presentations: First presentation preference: E-Poster presentations Second presentation preference: Pitch presentation Abstract Background: Men mobile health contributes knowledge of how mobile health...... applications affect the physical activity levels by men with little or no education and the frequency of how often they think and do something to promote their health. Men with little or no education have both the lowest life expectancy and longest patient delay, and there are not conducted researches...... and control group. N = 71, 20-62 years old men, little or no education, employed at industrial company. Intervention group N= 35, control group N = 36. There is performed a baseline, an 6 months intervention period, outcome measurement. The intervention: Intervention group use mobile application, registration...

  3. Swedish hedge funds : An analysis of the Swedish hedge funds’ investment strategies and risks associated with hedge funds

    OpenAIRE

    Werner-Zankl, Simon; Samuelsson, Linda; Jonsson, Emma

    2007-01-01

    Background Out of the different fund categories hedge funds have had the highest development in Sweden since 1994. Swedish investors’ interest in hedge funds doubled from 2005 to 2006. Hedge funds are said to be an investment with a low risk and not being dependent upon business cycle movements. Historically there have been high initial investments, most often over 100 000 SEK, required to invest in hedge funds. This has started to shift towards lower initial investments. This is a reason why...

  4. Experiences of Kurdish war-wounded refugees in communication with Swedish authorities through interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatahi, Nabi; Nordholm, Lena; Mattsson, Bengt; Hellström, Mikael

    2010-02-01

    To study experiences of war-wounded Kurdish refugees with respect to cross-cultural communication through interpreters. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten men, aged 31-42. Content analysis was used for analysis and interpretation of data. War-wounded Kurdish refugees experienced a number of difficulties regarding communication through interpreters, mainly related to the insufficient language link to the Swedish authorities, particularly health care personnel. In many instances, interpreters were selected based on the immigrant's citizenship rather than mother tongue, leading to a more complex, tri-lingual interpretation situation. Differences in cultural background, fear, suspicion and lack of confidence in interpreters were addressed as other problems by the participants. Interpreter competence and patient confidence in the interpreter are essential for an adequate cross-cultural health communication. Assignment of interpreters should be based on knowledge of the patient's/client's mother tongue, rather than citizenship, and the outcome is improved by a common ethnic and cultural background of interpreter and patient/client. Our study should be considered as a pilot study, and the results should be validated in larger cohorts as well as in other ethnic and language groups. In order to minimize communication misunderstandings, complicated tri-lingual interpretation situations should be avoided. Interpreters should ideally be assigned according to patient's/client's mother tongue rather than citizenship. Interpreters' competence and patient's/client's confidence in interpreter may have significant impact on communication outcome. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tight budgetary control: a study of clinical department managers' perceptions in Swedish hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylinder, Pia

    2009-04-01

    The composition of clinical department managers in Swedish hospitals is changing; more non-doctors and women are entering managerial positions. In parallel, most hospitals face increased pressure to contain costs. This article presents a study of managers' perceptions of tightness of budgetary control and how their views vary systematically with personal characteristics and organizational conditions. Data were collected through a postal survey in 2005 to 173 clinical department managers (response rate of 70%). Statistical analysis was performed by factor analysis and logistic regression. The data suggest that clinical department managers' perceptions of tight budgetary control were related to how long they had been in their current position, their profession (whether they were doctors or non-doctors) and their sex. Further, their perceptions could be explained by how close the managers' departments were to their budget targets. Perception of tight budgetary control by managers depends on both their personal characteristics and the financial situation of their departments. Differences between men and women, and doctors and non-doctors call for additional research about the possible impact of changes in the composition of clinical department managers on how budgetary responsibility is exercised.

  6. Increased mortality rate and suicide in Swedish former elite male athletes in power sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, A-S; Moberg, T; Ehrnborg, C; Eriksson, B O; Fahlke, C; Rosén, T

    2014-12-01

    Physical training has been shown to reduce mortality in normal subjects, and athletes have a healthier lifestyle after their active career as compared with normal subjects. Since the 1950s, the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been frequent, especially in power sports. The aim of the present study was to investigate mortality, including causes of death, in former Swedish male elite athletes, active 1960-1979, in wrestling, powerlifting, Olympic lifting, and the throwing events in track and field when the suspicion of former AAS use was high. Results indicate that, during the age period of 20-50 years, there was an excess mortality of around 45%. However, when analyzing the total study period, the mortality was not increased. Mortality from suicide was increased 2-4 times among the former athletes during the period of 30-50 years of age compared with the general population of men. Mortality rate from malignancy was lower among the athletes. As the use of AAS was marked between 1960 and 1979 and was not doping-listed until 1975, it seems probable that the effect of AAS use might play a part in the observed increased mortality and suicide rate. The otherwise healthy lifestyle among the athletes might explain the low malignancy rates. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The rise and the recent decline of childhood obesity in Swedish boys: the BEST cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygdell, M; Ohlsson, C; Célind, J; Saternus, J; Sondén, A; Kindblom, J M

    2017-05-01

    Childhood obesity increases the risk for adult obesity and diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate secular changes of childhood body mass index (BMI), overweight and obesity in boys born during 1946-2006, using the population-based BMI Epidemiology STudy (BEST) cohort in Gothenburg, Sweden. We collected height and weight from archived school health records for boys born every 5 years 1946-2006 (birth cohort 1946 n=1584, each birth cohort 1951-2006 n=425). Childhood BMI at 8 years of age was obtained for all the participants. Childhood BMI increased 0.18 kg m -2 (95% confidence interval: 0.16-0.20) per decade increase in birth year, during 1946-2006. The increase was significant from birth year 1971, peaked 1991 and was then followed by a stabilization or tendency to a reduction. Next, we aimed to thoroughly explore the trend after birth year 1991 and therefore expanded birth cohorts 1991 (n=1566), 2001 (n=6478) and 2006 (n=6515). Importantly, decreases in mean BMI (Pobesity (Pobesity (-44.3%, Pchildhood obesity. As childhood obesity is strongly associated with subsequent adult obesity, we anticipate a similar reduction in adult obesity during the coming decades in Swedish men.

  8. Smokeless tobacco use and increased cardiovascular mortality among Swedish construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolinder, G; Alfredsson, L; Englund, A; de Faire, U

    1994-03-01

    Little is known about the risks of cardiovascular disease associated with the use of smokeless tobacco, which produces blood nicotine levels similar to those caused by cigarette smoking. Male Swedish construction industry employees (n = 135,036) who attended a health examination were followed by studying cause-specific mortality during a 12-year period. The study population comprised 6297 smokeless tobacco users, 14,983 smokers of fewer than 15 cigarettes per day, 13,518 smokers of 15 or more cigarettes per day, 17,437 ex-smokers, 50,255 "other" tobacco users, and 32,546 nonusers. The age-adjusted relative risk of dying from cardiovascular disease was 1.4 for smokeless tobacco users and 1.9 for smokers of 15 or more cigarettes per day, compared with nonusers. Among men aged 35 through 54 years at the start of follow-up, the relative risk was 2.1 for smokeless tobacco users and 3.2 for smokers. When data were adjusted for body mass index, blood pressure, and history of heart symptoms, the results were essentially unchanged. Cancer mortality was not raised in smokeless tobacco users. Both smokeless tobacco users and smokers face a higher risk of dying from cardiovascular disease than nonusers. Although the risk is lower for smokeless tobacco users than for smokers, the excess risk gives cause for preventive actions.

  9. Predictors of completed suicide in a cohort of 50,465 young men: role of personality and deviant behaviour.

    OpenAIRE

    Allebeck, P; Allgulander, C.; Fisher, L. D.

    1988-01-01

    Suicide seems to be increasing in young people in various countries and causes the greatest loss of years of life under the age of 65 in the Swedish population. Data from a national survey of 50,465 conscripts in Sweden were used in a prospective follow up study to assess personality and behavioural predictors of suicide in young men. Altogether 247 completed suicides occurred in the cohort during 13 years' follow up. Baseline data on social conditions, psychological assessments, and psychiat...

  10. Politics and Aesthetics in Electronic Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    This book is the first to explore the history of the Swedish electronic music studio EMS. EMS was established in 1964 with the intent to create an international center for research in sound and sound perception, and to build one of the world’s most advanced hybrid studios. The principal creators...... the composers’ whishes because they preferred to continue the original stake at digitally controlled analog apparatus and the planned research project. On these grounds many disagreements and conflicts occurred....

  11. Economic hardships in adulthood and mental health in Sweden. the Swedish National Public Health Survey 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahnquist Johanna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Possible accumulative effects of a combined economic hardship's measure, including both income and non-income related economic hardships measures, on mental health has not been well investigated. The aim of this paper was to investigate; (i independent associations between multiple measures of economic hardships and mental health problems, and (ii associations between a combined economic hardships measure and mental health problems. Methods We analysed data from the 2009 Swedish National Survey of Public Health comprising a randomly selected representative national sample combined with a randomly selected supplementary sample from four county councils and three municipalities consisting of 23,153 men and 28,261 women aged 16-84 years. Mental health problems included; psychological distress (GHQ-12, severe anxiety and use of antidepressant medication. Economic hardship was measured by a combined economic hardships measure including low household income, inability to meet expenses and lacking cash reserves. Results The results from multivariate adjusted (age, country of birth, educational level, occupational status, employment status, family status and long term illness logistic regression analysis indicate that self-reported current economic difficulties (inability to pay for ordinary bills and lack of cash reserves, were significantly associated with both women's and men's mental health problems (all indicators, while low income was not. In addition, we found a statistically significant graded association between mental health problems and levels of economic hardships. Conclusions The findings indicate that indicators of self-reported current economic difficulties seem to be more strongly associated with poor mental health outcomes than the more conventional measure low income. Furthermore, the likelihood of mental health problems differed significantly in a graded fashion in relation to levels of economic hardships.

  12. Marital status and cardiovascular risk in French and Swedish automotive industry workers--cross sectional results from the Renault-Volvo Coeur study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumlin, L; Latscha, G; Orth-Gomér, K; Dimberg, L; Lanoiselée, C; Simon, A; Eriksson, B

    2001-04-01

    To compare the coronary risk profiles in a sample of the French and Swedish automotive industry employees who were married/cohabitant, divorced or single (never married). A cross-sectional study comparison from biological and questionnaire data between the French and Swedish samples. Occupational health departments at Renault (employees from the north-west of France) and Volvo (employees from the south-west of Sweden). Two random samples of males aged between 45 and 50 years were examined in 1993, from Renault 1000, and from Volvo 1000. Biological data including cholesterol, blood pressure as well as the Framingham risk index. Self reported information regarding marital status, smoking, exercise, alcohol habits, and work stress assessed by the Karasek method, private social support indices, and type A behaviour according to the Bortner scale. More employees were married/cohabitant and fewer divorced or single at Renault. Apart from waist/hip ratio being marginally lower in Swedish single men, compared with married and divorced, no significant difference in biological cardiac risk factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure or Framingham risk index) was seen between the subgroups from any of the two countries. Compared with married/cohabitant men, it was shown that in men living alone smoking was more prevalent at Renault and Volvo. These men also showed less type A behaviour, a lower work control and a lower work support and fewer close friends. Alcohol consumption was reported in smaller amounts for Volvo employees living alone compared with married or divorced employees. Married/cohabitant and divorced staff showed similar values regarding all measured variables when compared within each country. Employees living alone in both France (Renault) and Sweden (Volvo) automotive companies seem to have increased nontraditional cardiac risk factors pertaining to life style and social network compared with married or divorced men. These results, in combination with the

  13. Swedish Match valutab pead rohkem aktsiisi kui erisoodustusmaksu pärast / Raigo Roosve ; interv. Imbi E. Kaljuste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roosve, Raigo

    1999-01-01

    Intervjuus vastab tubakafirma AS-i Swedish Match peadirektor Raigo Roosve küsimustele, miks ja mille alusel maksab AS Swedish Match erisoodustusmaksu ja kas firmal on olnud arusaamatusi maksuameti või maksudega

  14. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermer syndrome; MEN I ... MEN I is caused by a defect in a gene that carries the code for a protein called menin. ... your provider if you notice symptoms of MEN I or have a family history of this condition.

  15. Swedish Climate Strategy. A basis for the evaluation of Swedish climate work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    The assignment of producing a basis for the evaluation of Sweden's climate policy is mainly focused on the national interim target for the 2008-2012 period. An assessment is to be made of the possibility of achieving the national interim target using current policy instruments and measures. Proposals for new or extended policy instruments, the consequences of which have been assessed, are to be submitted where necessary. The assignment also includes a study of the consequences of integrating the flexible mechanisms into the interim target. Our proposals for how the Swedish climate strategy could be reinforced have their roots in the above assignment, but we also wish to stress the following important points. Solving the climate problem requires a high degree of international collaboration. It is, for example, of great importance that the EU countries find joint ways of reducing emissions, thus enabling them to drive global developments forward. In the Swedish national strategy, there should be a stronger link to international and joint EU policy instruments. The proposals must also have a long-term perspective and not simply be based on the short-term achievement of targets in Sweden. We propose the following changes to policy instruments for sectors outside the trading sector (assuming an allocation of emissions allowances somewhat below the current forecast): introduction of CO{sub 2}-differentiated vehicle taxes for light vehicles; that the free-fuel benefit for company cars be valued at a factor of x1.8 market price, instead of the present 1.2; introduction of kilometre tax for trucks from 2008; continued and increased national funding support to local climate investment programmes during the period 2006-2008. The programmes should primarily give grants to long-term strategic measures; continued climate information campaign for 2006-2008; The EC Directive on the energy performance of buildings is implemented in a way that utilises the potential for greater

  16. Attendance at cultural events, reading books or periodicals, and making music or singing in a choir as determinants for survival: Swedish interview survey of living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygren, L. O.; Konlaan, B. B.; Johansson, S. E.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the possible influence of attendance at cultural events, reading books or periodicals, making music or singing in a choir as determinants for survival. DESIGN: A simple random sample was drawn of 15,198 individuals aged 16-74 years. Of these, 85% (12,982) were interviewed by trained non-medical interviewers between 1982 and 1983 about cultural activities. They were followed up with respect to survival until 31 December 1991. SETTING: Swedish interview survey of living conditions comprising a random sample of the adult Swedish population. SUBJECTS: 12,675 people interviewed between 1982 and 1983. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Survival of subjects after controlling for eight confounding variables: age, sex, education level, income, long term disease, social network, smoking, and physical exercise. RESULTS: 6,301 men and 6,374 women were followed up; 533 men and 314 women died during this period. The control variables influenced survival in the expected directions except for social network for men; a significant negative effective was found when the analysis was made separately for men and women. We found an influence on mortality when the eight control variables were controlled for in people who rarely attended events compared with those attending most often, the relative risk being 1.57 (95% confidence interval 1.18 to 2.09). CONCLUSION: Attendance at cultural events may have a positive influence on survival. Long term follow up of large samples with confounders that are well controlled for and with the cultural stimulation more highly specified should be used to try to falsify the hypothesis before experiments start. PMID:8990990

  17. Healthy Eating for Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Men Women Home Health Wellness Healthy Aging Healthy Aging 4 Types of Foods to Help Boost Your ... clean plate, there are many negative long-term consequences. Try these rewards instead. View More Articles Freshly ...

  18. Men and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in crisis? For more information Share Men and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... If so, you may have depression. What is depression? Everyone feels sad or irritable sometimes, or has ...

  19. Mens mobile health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Vinie Diana Hvidbak; Castaño, Francisco Mansilla; Jensen, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2016-01-01

    health applications in relation to fitness, heart rate, blood pressure, BMI, fat and muscle mass, BodyAge? Main messages: A CCT, that contributes with knowledge of how mobile health applications are impacting the physical activity levels among men with little or no education and frequency of how often......Abstract til: 9th European Public Health Conference – All for health – Health for All 9 – 12 November 2016. Danish title: Mænds mobile sundhed English title: Men mobile health Authors: Vinie Diana Hvidbak Levisen, Associated professor, RN, MLP Knowledge Center for Health Promotion University...... Preferences Keywords: Men with little or no education, physical health, mobile health application. Types of presentations: First presentation preference: E-Poster presentations Second presentation preference: Pitch presentation Abstract Background: Men mobile health contributes knowledge of how mobile health...

  20. Aggressive antisocial behaviors are related to character maturity in young Swedish violent offenders independent of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Nilsson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antisocial personality and psychopathic traits have constantly been found to accompany criminal and aggressive behaviors, but little attention has been given to aspects of character maturity and its relation to such behaviors. The present study investigated 1 whether level of character maturity (low, medium, and high is associated with amount of aggressive antisocial behaviors and psychopathic traits in young men imprisoned for violent criminality, and 2 whether such an association is independent of coexisting attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.Methods: Swedish males (N=270, aged 18-25 sentenced to prison for violent and/or sexual criminality in the western region of the Swedish Prison and Probation Service underwent a thorough clinical examination during their incarceration. Data on character maturity as measured by the character dimensions Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness of the Temperament and Character Inventory were available for n=148 subjects, and used to divide these offenders into three groups with low, medium, and high character maturity. These groups were then compared for variables reflecting criminal history, a DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD, Conduct disorder (CD and substance use disorders (SUD, aggressive behaviors, and psychopathic traits.Results: Character maturity was consistently associated with less aggressive antisocial behaviors and psychopathic personality traits; the group with the highest character maturity showed; i a later age at onset of criminality, ii a smaller number of prior violent criminal acts, iii lower prevalences of ADHD, CD, and SUD, iv less self-rated and expert-rated aggressive behaviors, and v less psychopathic traits. The association between character maturity and aggressive behaviors/psychopathic personality traits remained even when ADHD was controlled for. The only exception was sexual criminality, where the group with the highest character maturity contained the largest amount

  1. The Swedish national public health policy report 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linell, Anita; Richardson, Matt X; Wamala, Sarah

    2013-02-01

    In 2003, the Swedish Parliament adopted a cross-sectorial national public health policy based on the social determinants of health, with an overarching aim--to create societal conditions that will ensure good health, on equal terms, for the entire population--and eleven objective domains. At that time the policy was globally unique, and serves as guidance for public health practice at the national, regional and local levels. The development of the public health policy and the determinants of health are presented regularly in various reports by the Swedish National Institute of Public Health. This supplement is a condensed version of the 174-page Public Health Policy Report 2010, the second produced since the national policy was adopted in 2003. In order to provide a holistic approach to analysing implemented measures and providing new recommendations within the eleven objective domains of the Swedish national public health policy, we have divided these in three strategic areas. These are: Good Living Conditions, Health-Promoting Living Environments and Living Habits, and Alcohol, Illicit Drugs, Doping, Tobacco and Gambling, each described in the respective introductions for Chapters 3-5. The production of the report was supported by a common analytical model that clarified the societal prerequisites for health in the eleven objective domains. These are factors that can be influenced by political actions in order to create a change. Economic analyses have also been developed to provide a priority basis for political decisions. Analyses of the development of public health determinants were based on data from the National Public Health Survey and data delivered from about 15 various national agencies. Measures that have been implemented between 2004 and 2009 are analysed in details, as the basis for new recommendations for future measures. The introduction describes Swedish public health policy in the new millennium and how it has developed, the role of the Swedish

  2. Suicide in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Alexandra; Krysinska, Karolina; Osborn, David; King, Michael

    2012-06-23

    Suicide is second to only accidental death as the leading cause of mortality in young men across the world. Although suicide rates for young men have fallen in some high-income and middle-income countries since the 1990s, wider mortality measures indicate that rates remain high in specific regions, ethnic groups, and socioeconomic groups within those nations where rates have fallen, and that young men account for a substantial proportion of the economic cost of suicide. High-lethality methods of suicide are preferred by young men: hanging and firearms in high-income countries, pesticide poisoning in the Indian subcontinent, and charcoal-burning in east Asia. Risk factors for young men include psychiatric illness, substance misuse, lower socioeconomic status, rural residence, and single marital status. Population-level factors include unemployment, social deprivation, and media reporting of suicide. Few interventions to reduce suicides in young men have been assessed. Efforts to change help-seeking behaviour and to restrict access to frequently used methods hold the most promise. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. HPV Infection in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M. Palefsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available While much is known about the natural history of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV infection and its consequences, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer, relatively little is known about the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and diseases in men. In part this reflects difficulties in penile sampling and visual assessment of penile lesions. Anal HPV infection and disease also remain poorly understood. Although HPV is transmitted sexually and infects the genitals of both sexes, the cervix remains biologically more vulnerable to malignant transformation than does the penis or anus in men. An understanding of male HPV infection is therefore important in terms of reducing transmission of HPV to women and improving women's health. However, it is also important due to the burden of disease in men, who may develop both penile and anal cancer, particularly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Improved sampling techniques of the male genitalia and cohort studies in progress should provide important information on the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and disease in men, including risk factors for HPV acquisition and transmission. The impact of HPV vaccination in women on male anogenital HPV infection will also need to be assessed.

  4. Attracting men to vasectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R

    1998-01-01

    There is far less information available for men about vasectomy than there is available for women about comparable contraceptive services. Also, men do not have medical check-ups on a regular basis, and therefore have less contact with medical practitioners during which vasectomy could otherwise be discussed. Vasectomy needs to be promoted in order for men to learn about and accept it as their contraceptive method of choice. To that end, Marie Stopes International (MSI) launches a vasectomy promotion campaign annually which includes advertising in local newspapers and upon billboards at football stadiums. The campaigns use light-hearted and bold ideas, with some shock value. This approach helps to relax men who otherwise tend to be wary of both the surgical procedure and subsequent consequences of vasectomy. Prevailing social norms should, however, guide the content of promotional campaigns. The UK is one of only a few countries in the world where about the same proportions of men and women use sterilization; 16% of men and 15% of women have been sterilized. A MSI campaign in the UK which began during fall 1997 prompted an increase in the number of inquiries about vasectomy at the Marie Stopes Vasectomy Clinic. Promotional campaigns in developing countries have also been successful. It is also important that campaigns be put in the larger context of promoting all contraceptive methods.

  5. Entrepreneurial Learning in Swedish Preschools: Possibilities for and Constraints on Children's Active Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insulander, Eva; Ehrlin, Anna; Sandberg, Anette

    2015-01-01

    The website of the Swedish National Agency for Education states that preschools are to promote entrepreneurial learning. Many Swedish preschools, therefore, have started to work consciously with entrepreneurial learning as a way of fostering pupils' creativity and ability to make their own decisions. This article investigates whether and how…

  6. "Why Do We Celebrate …?" Filling Traditions with Meaning in an Ethnically Diverse Swedish Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskás, Tünde; Andersson, Anita

    2017-01-01

    The Swedish preschool is an important socializing agent because the great majority of children aged, from 1 to 5 years, are enrolled in an early childhood education program. This paper explores how preschool teachers and children, in an ethnically diverse preschool, negotiate the meaning of cultural traditions celebrated in Swedish preschools.…

  7. Prosody Intervention: A Single Subject Study of a Swedish Boy with Prosodic Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Swedish has a complicated prosodic system, compared, for example, with English. A large proportion of Swedish children with language impairment (LI) have prosodic problems to some extent. There are few descriptions in the literature of prosody intervention, which means that clinicians must rely on their overall linguistic and therapeutic knowledge…

  8. The Swedish Version of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO-10). Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Gudrun; Hagberg, Bibbi; Billstedt, Eva; Skoglund, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Johansson, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders schedule (DISCO) have only been studied in the UK. The authorised Swedish translation of the tenth version of the DISCO (DISCO-10) was used in interviews with close relatives of 91 Swedish patients referred for neuropsychiatrical assessment. Validity…

  9. Phenotypic variation in a large Swedish pedigree due to SNCA duplication and triplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, J; Nilsson, C; Kachergus, J

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The "Lister family complex," an extensive Swedish family with autosomal dominant Parkinson disease, was first described by Henry Mjönes in 1949. On the basis of clinical, molecular, and genealogic findings on a Swedish and an American family branch, we provide genetic evidence...

  10. Gender and Prestige in Swedish Academia: Exploring Senior Management in Universities and University Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Helen

    2017-01-01

    This article highlights the multifaceted character of the Swedish higher education sector and investigates senior academic management positions from a gender perspective using theories about an academic prestige economy and academic capitalism. The focus is on an aspect often overseen in research on Swedish academia: the distinction between…

  11. The Changing Nature of Autonomy: Transformations of the Late Swedish Teaching Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermke, Wieland; Forsberg, Eva

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses teacher autonomy in the case of the Swedish teaching profession since the 1980s. It is argued that deregulation, decentralization, and marketization reforms of the 1990s have indeed increased teacher autonomy, but in some respects also led to a increase of complexity in the Swedish school system. In order to handle this…

  12. Chemistry inside an Epistemological Community Box! Discursive Exclusions and Inclusions in Swedish National Tests in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhl, Marie; Hussénius, Anita

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the Swedish national tests in chemistry for implicit and explicit values. The chemistry subject is understudied compared to biology and physics and students view chemistry as their least interesting science subject. The Swedish national science assessments aim to support equitable and fair evaluation of students, to concretize…

  13. International Education and Reflection: Transition of Swedish and American Nursing Students to Authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepp, Margret; Zorn, CeCelia R.; Duffy, Patricia R.; Dickson, Rana J.

    2003-01-01

    A nursing course connected U.S. and Swedish sites via interactive videoconferencing and used reflective methods (journaling, drama, photo language) and off-air group discussion. Evaluation by five Swedish and seven U.S. students suggested how reflection moved students toward greater authenticity and professionalism in nursing practice. (Contains…

  14. Swedish or English? Migrants' Experiences of the Exchangeability of Language Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Alastair

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of transmigration emerging as a consequence of globalization are creating new and complex markets for communicative resources in which languages and language varieties are differently valued. In a Swedish context, where lingua franca English can facilitate communication but where monolingual norms prevail and Swedish is positioned as the…

  15. Survival of Root-filled Teeth in the Swedish Adult Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Helena; Dawson, Victoria S; Frisk, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim was to assess survival in the Swedish population of teeth treated by nonsurgical root canal treatment during 2009. METHODS: Data from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier analysis to assess cumulative tooth survival during a period of 5-6 years o...

  16. Class-Size Effects on Adolescents' Mental Health and Well-Being in Swedish Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Niklas; Persson, Mattias; Svensson, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether class size has an effect on the prevalence of mental health problems and well-being among adolescents in Swedish schools. We use cross-sectional data collected in year 2008 covering 2755 Swedish adolescents in ninth grade from 40 schools and 159 classes. We utilize different econometric approaches to address potential…

  17. Integration of Refugee Children and Their Families in the Swedish Preschool: Strategies, Objectives and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunneblad, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    This article is from a study about the integration of refugee children (aged one to five) and their families in Sweden. Refugee children and parents who have received a residence permit are entitled to be introduced into the Swedish society. One of the first encounters refugee children and families have with Swedish society is with the preschool.…

  18. Towards a model for integrative medicine in Swedish primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falkenberg Torkel

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collaboration between providers of conventional care and complementary therapies (CTs has gained in popularity but there is a lack of conceptualised models for delivering such care, i.e. integrative medicine (IM. The aim of this paper is to describe some key findings relevant to the development and implementation of a proposed model for IM adapted to Swedish primary care. Methods Investigative procedures involved research group and key informant meetings with multiple stakeholders including general practitioners, CT providers, medical specialists, primary care administrators and county council representatives. Data collection included meeting notes which were fed back within the research group and used as ongoing working documents. Data analysis was made by immersion/crystallisation and research group consensus. Results were categorised within a public health systems framework of structures, processes and outcomes. Results The outcome was an IM model that aimed for a patient-centered, interdisciplinary, non-hierarchical mix of conventional and complementary medical solutions to individual case management of patients with pain in the lower back and/or neck. The IM model case management adhered to standard clinical practice including active partnership between a gate-keeping general practitioner, collaborating with a team of CT providers in a consensus case conference model of care. CTs with an emerging evidence base included Swedish massage therapy, manual therapy/naprapathy, shiatsu, acupuncture and qigong. Conclusion Despite identified barriers such as no formal recognition of CT professions in Sweden, it was possible to develop a model for IM adapted to Swedish primary care. The IM model calls for testing and refinement in a pragmatic randomised controlled trial to explore its clinical effectiveness.

  19. Image is everything? On Norwegian and Swedish representations of bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjoelsvold, Tomas Moe

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Gaining social acceptance for new renewable energy technologies is a crucial step on the path towards low-carbon societies. In Norway this is perhaps most clearly observed in numerous controversies surrounding on-shore wind-power. A recent survey (Karlstroem 2010) shows that on-shore wind-power along with bioenergy are the two least popular renewable energy technologies in the Norwegian public. This paper deals with the 'image' of bioenergy, comparing the situation in Norway and Sweden. Bioenergy currently represents around 6 % of Norway's energy consumption (most of this being traditional firewood), while the Swedish figure is around 30 %. Many actors in the Norwegian bioenergy industry despair over what they perceive as a knowledge deficit regarding their products. This knowledge deficit, they claim, is one of the main non-technical barriers keeping the industry from gaining larger shares of relevant markets. In practical terms the result is that potential customers see their products as 'dirty', 'low quality', 'high maintenance', 'smelly', 'spacious', or as a hazard to the environment. The Swedish experience represents an interesting counter example. Here, the bioenergy industry has market shares the Norwegians can only dream about, but the industry is still upset about a public knowledge deficit. The problem is, however, of a different kind than in Norway. A recently published survey (Svebio 2010) shows that the Swedish public is largely unaware of the success achieved by bioenergy in Sweden. In other words; in Sweden where its use is widespread bioenergy is 'invisible', but in Norway where it is hardly used it is perceived as something which might bring negative consequences. This paper explores this apparent paradox based on qualitative data from the two countries. (Author)

  20. Finnish and Swedish business cycles in a global context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates the decisions made by the Finnish government to join EMU and the Swedish government not to join EMU in the early 1990s. Focusing on the characteristics of business cycles during the postwar period, we find that output fluctuations in Sweden and Finland are correlated to two...... measures of the international business cycle, a European and a non-European cycle. The Finnish cycle has become more synchronized to the European cycle but less synchronized to the non-EU cycle after 1999. For Sweden we find the opposite result. The decision by the Finnish government to join EMU...

  1. Estimated Dietary Intake of Nitrite and Nitrate in Swedish Children

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the intake of nitrate and nitrite in Swedish children. Daily intake estimates were based on a nationwide food consumption survey (4-day food diary) and nitrite/nitrate content in vegetables, fruit, cured meat and water. The mean intake of nitrite from cured meat among 2259 children studied was 0.013, 0.010 and 0.007 mg kg-1 body weight day-1 in age groups 4, 8-9 and 11-12, respectively. Among these age groups, three individuals (0.1% of the studied chil...

  2. Validation of online versions of tinnitus questionnaires translated into Swedish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Müller

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDue to the lack of objective measures for assessing tinnitus, its clinical evaluation largely relies on the use of questionnaires and psychoacoustic tests. A global assessment of tinnitus burden would largely benefit from holistic approaches that not only incorporate measures of tinnitus but also take into account associated fears, emotional aspects (stress, anxiety, and depression, and quality of life. In Sweden, only a few instruments are available for assessing tinnitus, and the existing tools lack validation. Therefore, we translated a set of questionnaires into Swedish and evaluated their reliability and validity in a group of tinnitus subjects. MethodsWe translated the English versions of the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI, the Fear of Tinnitus Questionnaire (FTQ, the Tinnitus Catastrophizing Scale (TCS, the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-30, and the Tinnitus Sample Case History Questionnaire (TSCHQ into Swedish. These translations were delivered via the internet with the already existing Swedish versions of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, the Hyperacusis Questionnaire (HQ, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQoL-BREF. Psychometric properties were evaluated by means of internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha α and test-retest reliability across a 9-week interval (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient ICC, Cohen’s kappa in order to establish construct as well as clinical validity using a sample of 260 subjects from a population-based cohort.ResultsInternal consistency was acceptable for all questionnaires (α >0.7 with the exception of the ‘social relationships’ subscale of the WHOQoL-BREF. Test-retest reliability was generally acceptable (ICC >.70, Cohens Kappa >.60 for the tinnitus-related questionnaires, except for the TFI ‘sense of control’ subscale and 15 items of the TSCHQ. Spearmen rank correlations showed that almost all

  3. Foreign Exchange-Rate Exposure of Swedish Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Stoyanov, Zahari; Ahmad, Saleem

    2007-01-01

    The main focus of the paper is the problem of exchange-rate exposure of Swedish firms between Jan, 1st 2002 and Sep, 27th 2006. Defined as “a measure of the potential for a firm’s profitability, net cash flow, market value to change because of a change in exchange rates”, the problem of exchange rate exposure is investigated, making use of the “Market Value Approach” (also known as “Stock Market Ap-proach”), with certain additional extensions. With Sweden being a very open economy with strong...

  4. Validation of Online Versions of Tinnitus Questionnaires Translated into Swedish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Karolina; Edvall, Niklas K.; Idrizbegovic, Esma; Huhn, Robert; Cima, Rilana; Persson, Viktor; Leineweber, Constanze; Westerlund, Hugo; Langguth, Berthold; Schlee, Winfried; Canlon, Barbara; Cederroth, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to the lack of objective measures for assessing tinnitus, its clinical evaluation largely relies on the use of questionnaires and psychoacoustic tests. A global assessment of tinnitus burden would largely benefit from holistic approaches that not only incorporate measures of tinnitus but also take into account associated fears, emotional aspects (stress, anxiety, and depression), and quality of life. In Sweden, only a few instruments are available for assessing tinnitus, and the existing tools lack validation. Therefore, we translated a set of questionnaires into Swedish and evaluated their reliability and validity in a group of tinnitus subjects. Methods: We translated the English versions of the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI), the Fear of Tinnitus Questionnaire (FTQ), the Tinnitus Catastrophizing Scale (TCS), the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-30), and the Tinnitus Sample Case History Questionnaire (TSCHQ) into Swedish. These translations were delivered via the internet with the already existing Swedish versions of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Hyperacusis Questionnaire (HQ), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQoL-BREF). Psychometric properties were evaluated by means of internal consistency [Cronbach's alpha (α)] and test–retest reliability across a 9-week interval [Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC), Cohen's kappa] in order to establish construct as well as clinical validity using a sample of 260 subjects from a population-based cohort. Results: Internal consistency was acceptable for all questionnaires (α > 0.7) with the exception of the “social relationships” subscale of the WHOQoL-BREF. Test–retest reliability was generally acceptable (ICC > 0.70, Cohens kappa > 0.60) for the tinnitus-related questionnaires, except for the TFI “sense of control” subscale and 15 items of the TSCHQ. Spearmen rank correlations showed that

  5. From National Policy-Making to Global Edu-Business: Swedish Edu-Preneurs on the Move

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnberg, Linda

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the movements of some Swedish former education policy-makers that are currently active as commercial edu-business actors with the ambition to expand in the Global Education Industry (GEI). The aim is to map and analyze how a selection of Swedish edu-preneurs affiliated with a particular Swedish school chain enter the GEI and…

  6. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  7. Factors contributing to the differences in work related injury rates between Danish and Swedish construction workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangenberg, S.; Baarts, C.; Dyreborg, J.

    2002-01-01

    of injury risk factors at group and individual level for Danish and Swedish workers. LTI-rates and injury risk factors were compared for Danish and Swedish workers during the construction of the combined rail and road link across the 16-km wide sound, Oresund, between Denmark and Sweden. The comparison......Comparison of Danish and Swedish national occupational injury statistics shows that the reported LTI-rate, or number of reported lost-time injuries per million working hours, for Danish construction workers is significantly higher than the reported LTI-rate for Swedish construction workers...... showed that the LTI-rate of the Danish construction workers was approximately fourfold the LTI-rate of the Swedish construction workers. Factors at the micro-level (group and individual level) e.g. differences in education and experience, training and learning, and attitude were important...

  8. BMI and psychological distress in 68, 000 Swedish adults: a weak association when controlling for an age-gender combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Study results concerning associations between body mass index (BMI) and psychological distress are conflicting. The purpose of this study was to describe the shape of the association between BMI and psychological distress in a large sample of Swedish adults. Methods Data was measured with the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), in 68,311 adults aged 18–74. Self-reported data was derived from a merger of the 2000, 2004 and 2008 Life and Health (Liv och Hälsa) questionnaires focusing general perceived distress as well as living conditions. Logistic regression analysis was used to describe the association between BMI and psychological distress when controlled for age and gender in combination. Results Women reported an overall higher psychological distress than men. A significant pattern of decreasing psychological distress with increasing age emerged among women in all BMI categories. Trends of this same pattern showed for men. Small or no differences were seen in psychological distress between those in normal weight, overweight, and obesity I categories (among women: 20.4%, 18.4%, 20.5%; among men: 12.8%, 11.2%, 12.9%). For both genders, any notable increase in psychological distress appeared first in the obesity II category (among women: 27.2%. Among men: 17.8%). Conclusions Psychological distress decreases with increasing age regardless of BMI; a pattern more obvious for women. Being categorized with obesity II leads to a markedly higher psychological distress than being categorized with normal weight, overweight or obesity I. From this, we suggest that future obesity research focusing on psychological distress could investigate the role of stigma and norm susceptibility in relationships where people are evaluated through the eyes of the other. PMID:23347701

  9. Gender awareness among physicians – the effect of specialty and gender. A study of teachers at a Swedish medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamberg Katarina

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important goal for medical education today is professional development including gender equality and awareness of gender issues. Are medical teachers prepared for this task? We investigated gender awareness among physician teachers, expressed as their attitudes towards the role of gender in professional relationships, and how it varied with physician gender and specialty. We discuss how this might be related to the gender climate and sex segregation in different specialties. Method Questionnaires were sent to all 468 specialists in the clinical departments and in family medicine, who were engaged in educating medical students at a Swedish university. They were asked to rate, on visual analogue scales, the importance of physician and patient gender in consultation, of preceptor and student gender in clinical tutoring and of physician gender in other professional encounters. Differences between family physicians, surgical, and non-surgical hospital doctors, and between women and men were estimated by chi-2 tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results The response rate was 65 %. There were differences between specialty groups in all investigated areas mainly due to disparities among men. The odds for a male family physician to assess gender important were three times higher, and for a male non-surgical doctor two times higher when compared to a male surgical doctor. Female teachers assessed gender important to a higher degree than men. Among women there were no significant differences between specialty groups. Conclusions There was an interaction between physician teachers' gender and specialty as to whether they identified gender as important in professional relationships. Male physicians, especially from the surgical group, assessed gender important to a significantly lower degree than female physicians. Physicians' degree of gender awareness may, as one of many factors, affect working climate and the

  10. Divorce and the Onset of Alcohol Use Disorder: A Swedish Population-Based Longitudinal Cohort and Co-Relative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Lönn, Sara Larsson; Salvatore, Jessica; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the magnitude and nature of the relationship between divorce and risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD). In a population-based Swedish sample of married individuals (N=942,366), the authors examined the association between divorce or widowhood and risk for first registration for AUD. AUD was assessed using medical, criminal, and pharmacy registries. Divorce was strongly associated with risk for first AUD onset in both men (hazard ratio=5.98, 95% CI=5.65-6.33) and women (hazard ratio=7.29, 95% CI=6.72-7.91). The hazard ratio was estimated for AUD onset given divorce among discordant monozygotic twins to equal 3.45 and 3.62 in men and women, respectively. Divorce was also associated with an AUD recurrence in those with AUD registrations before marriage. Furthermore, widowhood increased risk for AUD in men (hazard ratio=3.85, 95% CI=2.81-5.28) and women (hazard ratio=4.10, 95% CI=2.98-5.64). Among divorced individuals, remarriage was associated with a large decline in AUD in both sexes (men: hazard ratio=0.56, 95% CI=0.52-0.64; women: hazard ratio=0.61, 95% CI=0.55-0.69). Divorce produced a greater increase in first AUD onset in those with a family history of AUD or with prior externalizing behaviors. Spousal loss through divorce or bereavement is associated with a large enduring increased AUD risk. This association likely reflects both causal and noncausal processes. That the AUD status of the spouse alters this association highlights the importance of spouse characteristics for the behavioral health consequences of spousal loss. The pronounced elevation in AUD risk following divorce or widowhood, and the protective effect of remarriage against subsequent AUD, speaks to the profound impact of marriage on problematic alcohol use.

  11. Swedish Employers and Trade Unions, Labor Migration and the Welfare State—Perspectives on Swedish Labor Migration Policy Debates during the 1960s and the 2000s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Johansson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article uses a political economy approach and explores the nexus between labor migration and the welfare state and how its specificities have been viewed and presented by organized interests of employers and trade unions in Swedish labor migration policy debates during the 1960s and the 2000s. The analysis demonstrates that the Swedish Employers’ Confederation (SAF and its organizational successor the Swedish Confederation of Enterprise (SN have preferred a market-liberal labor migration policy. Over time, a liberal immigration policy has been viewed by employers as an important policy solution to extend levels of economic growth, increase firm competitiveness, and maintain funding for generous welfare state services. However, since the 1960s the Swedish Trade Union Confederation (LO has preferred a state-coordinated and regulated labor migration policy. In LO’s perspective, a regulated immigration policy is a fundamental precondition for guaranteeing workers’ rights, and for minimizing potential negative effects for the functioning of the Swedish labor market model and for a prosperous Swedish welfare state.

  12. Acne in late adolescence is not associated with a raised risk of subsequent malignant melanoma among men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota Garcia, Teresa; Hiyoshi, Ayako; Udumyan, Ruzan; Sjöqvist, Hugo; Fall, Katja; Montgomery, Scott

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the association of acne in late adolescence with the risk for subsequent malignant melanoma (MM) in men. Swedish register-based cohort study of 242,096 males born between 1952 and 1956, who took part in compulsory assessments for Swedish military conscription in late adolescence between 1969 and 1975, with subsequent diagnoses of MM (n=1,058) up to December 31, 2009. Covariates included measures of childhood circumstances and information from adolescence on presence of acne, physical fitness, cognitive function, body mass index (BMI), and a summary of diagnoses. Cox regression was used for the analysis. In total 1,058 men were diagnosed with MM. Acne was not associated with subsequent MM, with an adjusted hazard ratio (and 95% confidence interval) of 0.95 (0.61 to 1.49). Men with parents who were agricultural workers, and men who lived in northern Sweden, had lower physical fitness, or lower cognitive function had a lower risk of MM. Overweight and obesity was associated with a raised risk, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.39 (1.14, 1.71). Acne in late adolescence is unlikely to represent a raised risk for subsequent MM in men. Overweight or obesity was identified as a raised risk for MM, possibly due to the associated increased skin surface area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Physicians' attitudes towards ePrescribing – evaluation of a Swedish full-scale implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montelius Emelie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The penetration rate of Electronic Health Record (EHR systems in health care is increasing. However, many different EHR-systems are used with varying ePrescription designs and functionalities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate experienced ePrescribers' attitudes towards ePrescribing for suggesting improvements. Methods Physicians (n = 431 from seven out of the 21 Swedish health care regions, using one of the six most widely implemented EHR-systems with integrated electronic prescribing modules, were recruited from primary care centers and hospital clinics of internal medicine, orthopaedics and surgery. The physicians received a web survey that comprised eight questions on background data and 19 items covering attitudes towards ePrescribing. Forty-two percent (n = 199 of the physicians answered the questionnaire; 90% (n = 180 of the respondents met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Results A majority of the respondents regarded their EHR-system easy to use in general (81%, and for the prescribing of drugs (88%. Most respondents believed they were able to provide the patients better service by ePrescribing (92%, and regarded ePrescriptions to be time saving (91% and to be safer (83%, compared to handwritten prescriptions. Some of the most frequently reported weaknesses were: not clearly displayed price of drugs (43%, complicated drug choice (21%, and the perception that it was possible to handle more than one patient at a time when ePrescribing (13%. Moreover, 62% reported a lack of receipt from the pharmacy after successful transmission of an ePrescription. Although a majority (73% of the physicians reported that they were always or often checking the ePrescription a last time before transmitting, 25% declared that they were seldom or never doing a last check. The respondents suggested a number of improvements, among others, to simplify the drug choice and the cancellation of e

  14. 10 March 2008 - Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research L. Leijonborg signing the guest book with CERN Chef Scientific Officer J. Engelen, followed by the signature of the Swedish Computing Memorandum of Understanding by the Director General of the Swedish Research Council P. Ömling.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2008-01-01

    10 March 2008 - Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research L. Leijonborg signing the guest book with CERN Chef Scientific Officer J. Engelen, followed by the signature of the Swedish Computing Memorandum of Understanding by the Director General of the Swedish Research Council P. Ömling.

  15. Energy Performance Indicators in the Swedish Building Procurement Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Allard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, all new buildings need to comply with the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning’s requirement on specific purchased energy (kWh/m2. Accordingly, this indicator is often used to set design criteria in the building procurement process. However, when energy use is measured in finished buildings, the measurements often deviate significantly from the design calculations. The measured specific purchased energy does not necessarily reflect the responsibility of the building contractor, as it is influenced by the building operation, user behavior and climate. Therefore, Swedish building practitioners may prefer other indicators for setting design criteria in the building procurement process. The aim of this study was twofold: (i to understand the Swedish building practitioners’ perspectives and opinions on seven building energy performance indicators (envelope air leakage, U-values for different building parts, average U-value, specific heat loss, heat loss coefficient, specific net energy, and specific purchased energy; and (ii to understand the consequences for the energy performance of multi-family buildings of using the studied indicators to set criteria in the procurement process. The study involved a Delphi approach and simulations of a multi-family case study building. The studied indicators were discussed in terms of how they may meet the needs of the building practitioners when used to set building energy performance criteria in the procurement process.

  16. Word accents and morphology--ERPs of Swedish word processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Mikael; Horne, Merle; Lindgren, Magnus

    2010-05-12

    Results indicating that high stem tones realizing word accents activate a certain class of suffixes in online processing of Central Swedish are presented. This supports the view that high Swedish word accent tones are induced onto word stems by particular suffixes rather than being associated with words in the mental lexicon. Using event-related potentials, effects of mismatch between word accents and inflectional suffixes were compared with mismatches between stem and suffix in terms of declension class. Declensionally incorrect suffixes yielded an increase in the N400, indicating problems in lexical retrieval, as well as a P600 effect, showing reanalysis. Both declensionally correct and incorrect high tone-inducing (Accent 2) suffixes combined with a mismatching low tone (Accent 1) on the stems produced P600 effects, but did not increase the N400. Suffixes usually co-occurring with Accent 1 did not yield any effects in words realized with the nonmatching Accent 2, suggesting that Accent 1 is a default accent, lacking association with any particular suffix. High tones on Accent 2 words also produced an early anterior positivity, interpreted as a P200 effect reflecting preattentive processing of the tone. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Experiences of Injuries and Injury Reporting among Swedish Skydivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Jong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to illuminate the experience of injuries and the process of injury reporting within the Swedish skydiving culture. Data contained narrative interviews that were subsequently analyzed with content analysis. Seventeen respondents (22–44 years were recruited at three skydiving drop zones in Sweden. In the results injury events related to the full phase of a skydive were described. Risk of injury is individually viewed as an integrated element of the recreational activity counterbalanced by its recreational value. The human factor of inadequate judgment such as miscalculation and distraction dominates the descriptions as causes of injuries. Organization and leadership act as facilitators or constrainers for reporting incidents and injuries. On the basis of this study it is interpreted that safety work and incident reporting in Swedish skydiving may be influenced more by local drop zone culture than the national association regulations. Formal and informal hierarchical structures among skydivers seem to decide how skydiving is practiced, rules are enforced, and injuries are reported. We suggest that initial training and continuing education need to be changed from the current top-down to a bottom-up perspective, where the individual skydiver learns to see the positive implications of safety work and injury reporting.

  18. Experiences of Injuries and Injury Reporting among Swedish Skydivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Mats; Westman, Anton; Saveman, Britt-Inger

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to illuminate the experience of injuries and the process of injury reporting within the Swedish skydiving culture. Data contained narrative interviews that were subsequently analyzed with content analysis. Seventeen respondents (22-44 years) were recruited at three skydiving drop zones in Sweden. In the results injury events related to the full phase of a skydive were described. Risk of injury is individually viewed as an integrated element of the recreational activity counterbalanced by its recreational value. The human factor of inadequate judgment such as miscalculation and distraction dominates the descriptions as causes of injuries. Organization and leadership act as facilitators or constrainers for reporting incidents and injuries. On the basis of this study it is interpreted that safety work and incident reporting in Swedish skydiving may be influenced more by local drop zone culture than the national association regulations. Formal and informal hierarchical structures among skydivers seem to decide how skydiving is practiced, rules are enforced, and injuries are reported. We suggest that initial training and continuing education need to be changed from the current top-down to a bottom-up perspective, where the individual skydiver learns to see the positive implications of safety work and injury reporting.

  19. Swedish consumers' cognitive approaches to nutrition claims and health claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svederberg, Eva; Wendin, Karin

    2011-03-23

    Studies show frequent use of nutrition claims and health claims in consumers' choice of food products. The aim of the present study was to investigate how consumers' thoughts about these claims and food products are affected by various types of food-related experiences. The data collection comprised 30 individual interviews among Swedish consumers aged 25 to 64 years. The results indicated that participants who expressed special concern for their own and their families' health were eager to find out the meaning of concepts and statements made. A lack of understanding and lack of credibility of concepts and expressions often caused suspicion of the product. However, in some cases this was counterbalanced by confidence in manufacturers, retailers, and/or the Swedish food legislation. To achieve effective written communication of food products' health-conducive properties on food labels, there is a need to consider the importance many consumers attach to understanding the meaning of concepts and expressions used and the importance of credibility in certain expressions. Consumers' varying cognitive approaches are suggested as a basis for pre-tests of nutrition claims and health claims.

  20. Norms and economic motivation in the Swedish green electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ek, Kristina; Soederholm, Patrik [Luleaa University of Technology, Economics Unit, 971 87 Luleaa (Sweden)

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an econometric analysis of the most important determinants of Swedish households' choice to pay a price premium for 'green' electricity. We draw on recent developments in the literature on integrating norm-motivated behavior into neoclassical consumer theory, and assume that individuals have a preference for keeping a self-image as a morally responsible person. Consumer behavior in the 'green market place' will then be heavily determined by how purchases of different goods affect this self-image. The analysis is based on postal survey responses from 655 Swedish households, which are analyzed within a binary choice econometric framework. The results indicate that the impact of choosing 'green' on the household budget largely influences the choice between 'green' and 'brown' electricity, as does the degree of perceived personal responsibility for the issue and the felt ability to affect the outcome in a positive way. We find limited support for the notion that perceptions about others' behavior in general affect individual moral norms and ultimately expressed behavior, but this is also complemented by the influence of explicit social influence. The difficulty in observing others' purchases makes it however difficult to distinguish between social and moral norms in the case of 'green' electricity. (author)

  1. The Swedish dilemma - Nuclear energy v. the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordhaus, W.D. [Yale Univ. (United States)

    1995-11-01

    A phaseout of nuclear power in Sweden is supposed to be accomplished by year 2010. This study is an economic analysis of the questions that are parts of the nuclear dilemma. Even though the economic questions are in focus, the important environmental, health and safety questions are also treated. The basic argument is that Sweden should choose an energy system that allows its citizens to maximize their consumption in a long-term perspective. Consumption is here given a meaning that includes elements outside the market, such as environmental, health and safety aspects valued in a reasonable way. Considerations must also be given to international aspects like global environment, a free and open system of trade and the value of a stable set of rules and proprietary rights. The study compares the economic pros and cons of different energy systems within this general frame. A detailed model of the Swedish energy and power sectors was developed for the study, called the Swedish Energy and Environment Policy (SEEP) model. the SEEP model is built on modern economic theory and includes energy and environmental factors in a uniform way. 8 figs 16 tabs.

  2. Swedish Seafarers' Commitment to Work in Times of Flagging out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hult

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study takes its departure in the difficulties to recruit and retain qualified senior seafarers in the Swedish shipping sector. The study focus is on seafarers' motivation at work for the specific shipping company (organizational commitment, and seafarers' motivation towards their occupation (occupational commitment, in times of flagging out. It was hypothesized that the youngest seafarers and the oldest may be most sensitive to foreign registration of ships. Statistical analyses were employed, using a survey material of 1,309 Swedish seafarers randomly collected in 2010 from a national register of seafarers. The results of the analyses show that flagging-out imposes a significant decline in organizational commitment for all seafarers. This decline is related to the perception of the social composition of crew. In addition, the oldest seafarers (age 55+ demonstrate diminished occupational commitment under a foreign flag. This decline is related to the degree of satisfaction with the social security structure. Occupational commitment among the youngest seafarers (age 19-30 is not affected by the nationality of flag. However, this type of commitment is decreasing by the time served on the same ship. This effect is partly related to a decline in satisfaction with the work content. In the concluding discussion, the findings are discussed in more details and recommendations are put forward.

  3. Occurrence of self reported hand eczema in Swedish bakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisman, J; Meding, B; Järvholm, B

    1998-11-01

    To estimate the risk of bakers developing hand eczema. The importance of atopy was studied as well as change of job due to hand eczema. A retrospective cohort study was performed among bakers trained in Swedish trade schools in 1961-89 (n = 2923). School referents followed other programmes (n = 1258); population controls were randomly selected from the general population (n = 1258). A questionnaire on self reported hand eczema, year of onset of hand eczema, change of work due to hand eczema, childhood eczema, family atopy, and work history was posted to all participants. The incidence of hand eczema among male controls was 4.4-5.4 cases/1,000 person-years compared with 16.7 for bakery work. The corresponding figures for women were 11.3-14.1 compared with 34.4. The relative risk for male bakers was 3.5 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.8 to 4.5) and for female bakers 2.8 (2.2 to 3.6). Skin atopy increased the incidence about threefold and a synergistic effect of atopy and exposure was indicated. Also, bakers had changed job significantly more often than controls. Swedish bakers, mainly working during the 1970s and 1980s, have about a threefold increased risk of hand eczema. There seems to be a synergistic effect of atopy and occupational exposure.

  4. Influencing Swedish homeowners to adopt district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, Akademigatan 1, 831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2009-02-15

    Improved energy efficiency and greenhouse gas mitigation could be achieved by replacing resistance heaters with district heating system. In 2005, only about 8% of the Swedish detached houses had district heating system. The expansion of such systems largely depends on homeowners' adoption decisions. And, to motivate homeowners to adopt district heating, it is essential to understand their decision-making process. In this context, in June 2005 we carried out a questionnaire survey of about 700 homeowners who lived in the city of Oestersund in houses with resistance heaters (baseline survey). About 84% of the respondents did not intend to install a new heating system. Since then these homeowners were influenced by (a) an investment subsidy by the Swedish government to replace resistance heaters with district heating, a brine/water-based heat pump, or a biomass-based heating system and (b) a marketing campaign by the municipality-owned district heating company. This paper analyses how these two measures influenced about 78% of the homeowners to adopt the district heating system. For this purpose we carried out a follow-up survey of the same homeowners in December 2006 (resurvey). Results showed that the investment subsidy and the marketing campaign created a need among the homeowners to adopt a new heating system. The marketing campaign was successful in motivating them to adopt the district heating system. The marketing strategy by the district heating company corresponds to the results obtained in the baseline survey. (author)

  5. Compensation in Swedish infrastructure projects and suggestions on policy improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Persson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental compensation includes a range of activities intended to counterbalance such negative impacts of development projects that remain in the environment after all preventive and corrective measures have been fully implemented. Sweden, being a member state of the European Union (EU, must implement environmental compensation under EU directives such as the Habitat Directive. However, like in other countries, implementation is not yet widespread in Sweden, and new practices and guidelines remain to be developed both nationally and at European level. This need is all the more urgent considering that the European Commission estimates that, within the EU, about 100,000 hectares of land is converted from its natural state each year. The aim of this paper is to describe current environmental-compensation practices in Swedish road and railway projects and to discuss issues of vital importance to the development of compensation policy, such as what to compensate for, how much, and how. A national inventory was performed, for the first time in Sweden, to identify compensation measures in road and railway projects. Data were collected from a national mailing list including 141 officials at county administrative boards (CABs, internal e-mail correspondence within the Swedish Transport Administration and databases of court decisions. The inventory focused on compensation measures ordered by virtue of the Swedish Environmental Code. In addition, two case studies were carried out to investigate the planning of compensation measures. The results showed that CABs and courts rarely order compensation in infrastructure projects, even though this is possible under Swedish law. Between 1999 and 2012, 37 cases (i.e. permits issued were found for which compensation was ordered. Of these cases, 76% concerned compensation for encroachments on minor habitats such as small ponds and cairns. No CAB ordered compensation for non-protected areas. Compensation ratios

  6. Politics and Aesthetics in Electronic Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    This book is the first to explore the history of the Swedish electronic music studio EMS. EMS was established in 1964 with the intent to create an international center for research in sound and sound perception, and to build one of the world’s most advanced hybrid studios. The principal creators...... of the studio were rooted in Swedish modernism, and had the EMS-project shaped in accordance to the social democratic cultural policy of the time. This enabled the project to achieve continuous financial support, e. g. to purchase a computer in 1969. The construction of the large studio was a complicated...... the composers’ whishes because they preferred to continue the original stake at digitally controlled analog apparatus and the planned research project. On these grounds many disagreements and conflicts occurred....

  7. The effect of childhood socioeconomic position on alcohol-related disorders later in life: a Swedish national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauffin, Karl; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Hjern, Anders

    2013-11-01

    Alcohol use is the third most important global-health risk factor and a main contributor to health inequalities. Previous research on social determinants of alcohol-related disorders has delivered inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate whether socioeconomic position (SEP) in childhood predicts alcohol-related disorders in young adulthood in a Swedish national cohort. We studied a register-based national cohort of Swedish citizens born during 1973-1984 (N=948 518) and followed them up to 2009 from age 15. Childhood SEP was defined by a six-category socioeconomic index from the Censuses of 1985 and 1990. HRs of alcohol-related disorders, as indicated by register entries on alcohol-related death and alcohol-related medical care, were analysed in Cox regression models with adjustment for sociodemographic variables and indicators of parental morbidity and criminality. Low childhood SEP was associated with alcohol-related disorders later in life among both men and women in a stepwise manner. Growing up in a household with the lowest SEP was associated with risk for alcohol-related disorders of HR: 2.24 (95% CI 2.08 to 2.42) after adjustment for sociodemographic variables, compared with the highest SEP group. Adjusting the analysis for parental psychosocial problems attenuated the association to HR 1.87 (95% CI 1.73 to 2.01). The study demonstrates that low SEP in childhood predicts alcohol-related disorders in young adulthood. Alcohol abuse needs to be addressed in policies to bridge the gap of health inequalities.

  8. The Swedish National Defence Research Establishment and the plans for Swedish nuclear weapons; Foersvarets forskningsanstalt och planerna paa svenska kaernvapen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonter, Thomas [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of History

    2001-03-01

    This study analyses the Swedish nuclear weapons research since 1945 carried out by the Swedish National Defence Research Establishment (FOA). The most important aspect of this research was dealing with protection in broad terms against nuclear weapons attacks. However, another aspect was also important from early on - to conduct research aiming at a possible production of nuclear weapons. FOA performed an extended research up to 1968, when the Swedish Government signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which meant the end of these production plans. Up to this date, five main investigations about the technical conditions were made, 1948, 1953, 1955, 1957 and 1965, which all together expanded the Swedish know-how to produce a bomb. The Swedish plans to procure nuclear weapons were not an issue in the debate until the mid 50's. The reason for this was simple, prior to 1954 the plans were secretly held within a small group of involved politicians, military and researchers. The change of this procedure did take place when the Swedish Supreme Commander in a public defence report in 1954 favoured a Swedish Nuclear weapons option. In 1958 FOA had reached a technical level that allowed the Parliament to make a decision. Two programs were proposed - the L-programme (the Loading Programme), to be used if the parliament would say yes to a production of nuclear weapons, and the S-programme (the Protection Programme), if the Parliament would say no. The debate on the issue had now created problems for the Social Democratic Government. The Prime Minister, Tage Erlander, who had earlier defended a procurement of nuclear weapons, was now forced to reach a compromise. The compromise was presented to the parliament in a creative manner that meant that only the S-programme would be allowed. The Government argued that the technical level did allow a 'freedom of action' up to at least the beginning of the 60's when Sweden was mature to make a decision on the issue

  9. Intelligence quotient (IQ) in adolescence and later risk of alcohol-related hospital admissions and deaths--37-year follow-up of Swedish conscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjölund, Sara; Allebeck, Peter; Hemmingsson, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between intelligence measured at ages 18-19 and later alcohol-related hospital admission and mortality among men, while controlling for possible confounders. Cohort study. A total of 49,321 Swedish men who were conscripted for military training in 1969-70 and followed until 2007. Intelligence quotient (IQ) measured at conscription is the exposure, while alcohol-related hospital admission and death are the two outcomes. Adjustments for following variables were made: early life circumstances [childhood socio-economic position (SEP), father's drinking], mental health, social adjustment and behavioural factors measured at age 18 (psychiatric diagnosis, contact with police and child care, low emotional control, daily smoking, risky use of alcohol) and adult social position (attained education, SEP and income at age 40). IQ had an inverse and graded association with later alcohol-related problems. For alcohol-related hospital admissions the crude hazard ratio (HR) was 1.29 (95% CI = 1.26-1.31) and for alcohol-related mortality it was 1.21 (95% CI = 1.17-1.24) for every one point decrease on the nine-point IQ scale. Adjustment for risk factors measured at age 18 attenuated the association somewhat for both outcomes. After adjustment for social position as adult, the HR was considerably lower resulting in a HR of 1.06 (95% CI = 1.02-1.10) for alcohol-related hospital admissions and 1.01 (95% CI = 0.95-1.08) for alcohol-related mortality. In Swedish men there is an association between IQ in early adulthood and later alcohol-related hospital admission and death. Social position as adult could be an important contributory factor. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. in African men?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Black African-American men (AAM) living in the United States of America. These rates are ... Table 1: Age-adjusted cancer incidence and mortality rates per 100,000 of the population in the USA for the period 1999-2003. ' "Mortality. Incidence. Males . ... the New World, and the later migration to parts of Europe, have led to ...

  11. Cancer and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Young Women Cancer and Men Cancer and Women Cancer Prevention in the Workplace Cancer Prevention Starts in Childhood Cancer, the Flu, and You Cervical Cancer Awareness Colorectal Cancer Awareness Gynecologic Cancer Awareness Health Disparities in Cancer Improving Health and Quality of ...

  12. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The total generation of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 70.1 TWh during 1999, which is slightly more than the mean value for the last five years. The total electricity consumption decreased by one percent, compared with 1998, to a total of 142.3 TWh, due to an unusually warm summer and autumn. The abundant supply of hydroelectric power resulted in comparatively extensive load-following operation by the nuclear plants during the year. Production losses due to low demand totalled 3.0 TWh. The closure of Barsebaeck 1 will result in a capacity reduction exceeding 4 TWh per year. The hydroelectric power production was 70 TWh, which was 6 TWh more than during a normal year, i.e. a year with average rainfall. The remaining production sources, mainly from solid fuel plants combined with district heating contributed 9 TWh. Electricity generation by means of wind power is still increasing. There are now about 470 wind power stations, which produced 0.3 TWh during the year. The total electricity generation totalled 149.8 TWh, a three percent decrease compared with 1998. The preliminary figures for export were 15.9 TWh and for import 8.4 TWh. The figures above are calculated from the preliminary production result. A comprehensive report on electric power supply and consumption in Sweden is provided in the 1999 Annual Report from the Swedish Power Association. The unit capability factor for the PWRs at Ringhals averaged 91%, while the BWRs averaged 82% mainly due to the extended outages. The BWR reactors at Forsmark averaged as much as 93%. Forsmark 1 experienced the shortest refuelling outage ever in Sweden, only 9 days and 20 hours. In May, Oskarshamn 2 passed a historical milestone - the unit produced 100 TWh since connection to the grid in 1974. The final production day for Barsebaeck 1, which had been in commercial operation since 1975, was on November 30 when a decision by the Swedish Government revoked the operating licence. Three safety-related events

  13. The Swedish Perception of European Security in the Light of the Crisis in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobierecka Anna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The events in Ukraine, the annexation of Crimea, and the Russian attitude towards Ukraine show an evident change in European relations. The escalation of conflict between Russia and Ukraine however does not affect only those two countries, but also those in the nearest vicinity. Especially in Scandinavian and Nordic countries change in social ambience can be observed. The aim of this article is essentially to analyze Swedish reaction to the Ukrainian Crisis, the change in Swedish attitude towards international security systems, especially NATO, and Swedish perception of its national safety.

  14. The Parametrisation of Legal Terminology Concerning Child Maintenance Support in the Swedish and Polish Legal Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadryan Milena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with translating legal terminology concerning child maintenance from Polish to Swedish. The analysis covers selected terms regulated in the Polish civil law and their possible Swedish equivalents. The method used is based on the parameterisation of legal terms, which allows the specification of terms by selected parameters, which are understood as mutually exclusive properties. The parameterised equivalents are analysed in the context of various types of recipients. This provides the basis for the choice of appropriate translation strategies. The author also discusses pragmatic equivalents featured in Rikstermbanken, the Swedish national terminological database, and those used in practice.

  15. Measuring malevolent character: Data using the Swedish version of Jonason's Dark Triad Dirty Dozen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; Rosenberg, Patricia; MacDonald, Shane; Räisänen, Christine; Ricciardi, Max Rapp

    2017-10-01

    The data include responses to the Swedish version of a brief questionnaire used to operationalize the Dark Triad of malevolent character: Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. The data was collected among 342 Swedish university students and white-collar workers (see Garcia et al. (2017) [1]). In this article, we include the Swedish version of Jonason's Dark Triad Dirty Dozen questionnaire. The data is available, SPSS and cvs file, as supplementary material in this article. Additionally, we also provide the scoring key as SPSS syntax file.

  16. Measuring malevolent character: Data using the Swedish version of Jonason's Dark Triad Dirty Dozen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The data include responses to the Swedish version of a brief questionnaire used to operationalize the Dark Triad of malevolent character: Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. The data was collected among 342 Swedish university students and white-collar workers (see Garcia et al. (2017 [1]. In this article, we include the Swedish version of Jonason's Dark Triad Dirty Dozen questionnaire. The data is available, SPSS and cvs file, as supplementary material in this article. Additionally, we also provide the scoring key as SPSS syntax file.

  17. The Guide to Comfort : The Diasporic Practices of Swedish Clubs in Southern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Erik

    2017-01-01

    This article demonstrates how large social clubs are operating at the locus of an ethnic community-making of Swedish migrants in Southern Spain. The clubs are selectively targeting the relatively wealthy (ethnic) Swedish individuals of older age, offering them a home-like social arena ‘in Swedish’ in which the mediation of information and services is just one of the ‘guidelines’ the clubs offer to ensure the members a comfortable lifestyle in Spain. In this social space, the Swedish migrants ...

  18. Serum calcium and risk of gastrointestinal cancer in the Swedish AMORIS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulaningsih, Wahyu; Michaelsson, Karl; Garmo, Hans; Hammar, Niklas; Jungner, Ingmar; Walldius, Göran; Lambe, Mats; Holmberg, Lars; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke

    2013-07-17

    Observational studies have indicated that high calcium intake may prevent colorectal cancer, but as for randomized trials the results are inconclusive. Meanwhile, limited data on the link between serum calcium and cancer risk is available. We investigated the relation between serum calcium and risk of different gastrointestinal cancers in a prospective study. A cohort based on 492,044 subjects with baseline information on calcium (mmol/L) and albumin (g/L) was selected from the Swedish Apolipoprotein MOrtality RISk (AMORIS) study. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyse associations between standardised levels, quartiles and age/sex-specific categories of serum calcium and risk of oesophageal, stomach, colon, rectal cancer and also colorectal cancer combined, while taking into account serum albumin and other comorbidities. During 12 years of follow-up, we identified 323 incident oesophageal cancers, 782 stomach cancers, 2519 colon cancers, and 1495 rectal cancers. A positive association was found between albumin-adjusted serum calcium and risk of oesophageal [HR: 4.82 (95% CI: 2.07 - 11.19) for high compared to normal age-specific calcium levels] and colon cancer [e.g. HR: 1.07 (95% CI: 1.00 - 1.14) for every SD increase of calcium] as well as colorectal cancer [e.g. HR: 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02-1.11) for every SD increase of calcium] in women. In men there were similar but weaker non-statistically significant trends. The positive relation between serum calcium, oesophageal cancer and colorectal cancer calls for further studies including calcium regulators to evaluate whether there is a true link between calcium metabolism and development of gastrointestinal cancer.

  19. Kinesiophobia in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain: differences between men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bränström, Harriet; Fahlström, Martin

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the degree of kinesiophobia in patients with chronic pain, to examine differences in kinesiophobia and other pain-related characteristics between men and women, and to examine differences in pain-related characteristics between patients with high and low levels of kinesiophobia. Postal survey. Eighty-eight men and 173 women with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Patients completed questionnaires covering background data, pain variables, disability and psychological characteristics. The Swedish version of Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK-SV) was used to measure kinesiophobia. Kinesiophobia (TSK-SV score >37) was found in 56% of patients, with men having a higher frequency (72%) than women (48%). Pain intensity was correlated with TSK-SV score in both men and women. No correlations were found between kinesiophobia and age, pain duration or probable depression/anxiety. Women with high kinesiophobia tended to be younger, had more pain and showed more tiredness, disability, stress, interference and life dissatisfaction compared with women with low kinesiophobia. These differences were not seen in men. The results indicate differences between men and women with chronic pain. The use of the TSK-SV questionnaire might assist therapists to identify patients whose fear of movement may negatively impact their rehabilitation. There is some evidence to suggest that optimal cut-off scores may differ between male and female patients.

  20. Comparison of milk protein composition and rennet coagulation properties in native Swedish dairy cow breeds and high-yielding Swedish Red cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Nina A; Glantz, Maria; Rosengaard, Anette K; Paulsson, Marie; Larsen, Lotte B

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies have reported a very high frequency of noncoagulating milk in Swedish Red cows. The underlying factors are not fully understood. In this study, we explored rennet-induced coagulation properties and relative protein profiles in milk from native Swedish Mountain and Swedish Red Polled cows and compared them with a subset of noncoagulating (NC) and well-coagulating (WC) milk samples from modern Swedish Red cows. The native breeds displayed a very low prevalence of NC milk and superior milk coagulation properties compared with Swedish Red cows. The predominant variants in both native breeds were αS1-casein (αS1-CN) B, β-CN A2 and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) B. For κ-CN, the B variant was predominant in the Swedish Mountain cows, whereas the A variant was the most frequent in the Swedish Red Polled. The native breeds displayed similar protein composition, but varied in content of αS1-CN with 9 phosphorylated serines (9P) form. Within the Swedish Mountain cows, we observed a strong inverse correlation between the relative concentration of κ-CN and micelle size and a positive correlation between ionic calcium and gel firmness. For comparison, we investigated a subset of 29 NC and 28 WC milk samples, representing the extremes with regard to coagulation properties based on an initial screening of 395 Swedish Red cows. In Swedish Red, NC milk properties were found to be related to higher frequencies of β-CN A2, κ-CN E and A variants, as well as β-LG B, and the predominant composite genotype of β- and κ-CN in the NC group was A2A2/AA. Generally, the A2A2/AA composite genotype was related to lower relative concentrations of κ-CN isoforms and higher relative concentrations of αS1-, αS2-, and β-CN. Compared with the group of WC milk samples, NC milk contained a higher fraction of αS2-CN and α-lactalbumin (α-LA) but a lower fraction of αS1-CN 9P. In conclusion, milk from native Swedish breeds has good characteristics for cheese milk, which could be

  1. Does unemployment cause long-term mortality? Selection and causation after the 1992–96 deep Swedish recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcy, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mass unemployment in Europe is endemic, especially among the young. Does it cause mortality? Methods: We analyzed long-term effects of unemployment occurring during the deep Swedish recession 1992–96. Mortality from all and selected causes was examined in the 6-year period after the recession among those employed in 1990 (3.4 million). Direct health selection was analyzed as risk of unemployment by prior medical history based on all hospitalizations 1981–91. Unemployment effects on mortality were estimated with and without adjustment for prior social characteristics and for prior medical history. Results: A prior circulatory disease history did not predict unemployment; a history of alcohol-related disease or suicide attempts did, in men and women. Unemployment predicted excess male, but not female, mortality from circulatory disease, both ischemic heart disease and stroke, and from all causes combined, after full adjustment. Adjustment for prior social characteristics reduced estimates considerably; additional adjustment for prior medical history did not. Mortality from external and alcohol-related causes was raised in men and women experiencing unemployment, after adjustment for social characteristics and medical history. For the youngest birth cohorts fully adjusted alcohol mortality HRs were substantial (male HR = 4.44; female HR = 5.73). The effect of unemployment on mortality was not uniform across the population; men, those with a low education, low income, unmarried or in urban employment were more vulnerable. Conclusions: Direct selection by medical history explains a modest fraction of any increased mortality risk following unemployment. Mass unemployment imposes long-term mortality risk on a sizeable segment of the population. PMID:27085193

  2. Self-perceived psychosomatic health in Swedish children, adolescents and young adults: an internet-based survey over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Peter; Hagquist, Curt; Osika, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated self-perceived psychosomatic health in young people (10-24 years of age) in Sweden and analysed different samples during the years 2005 and 2007-2010 via a community website. Repeated cross-sectional surveys: (1) single question on a single day in 2005. (2) One specific question delivered on each of eight separate days in 2005. (3) The same eight questions delivered to smaller groups on the same day in 2007 and then again to randomly selected subjects in 2010. Validated questionnaires launched on the internet by a recognised Swedish community site. Study participants were invited to answer questions about their health with full anonymity as they logged into their personal area. 10-24-year-old children, adolescents and young adults. Self-reported psychosomatic health in terms of sex and age over time. A large number of responses were obtained (up to 140 000). The response rate for the single item on stress was 41%. A high percentage of young subjects responded that they felt stressed very often/often; the numbers were higher for women (47%) than for men (29%). Older teenaged women had more psychosomatic complaints than did men of similar ages; in contrast, among 10-12-year-old children, the percentage of psychosomatic complaints was similar for men and women. When comparing results obtained in 2010 with those obtained in 2007, young people of both sexes had a slightly better self-perceived health status in 2007. During the period 2005-2010 a high percentage of young people, particularly females, 16-18 years of age, had psychosomatic complaints and considered themselves as being often or very often stressed. These complaints were more pronounced in the older age groups. When directing questions to a large community, internet-based surveys appear to be valuable tools.

  3. Gender differences in Reasons for Sickness Presenteeism - a study among GPs in a Swedish health care organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie; Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin; Fridner, Ann

    2016-01-01

    It is common that physicians go to work while sick and therefore it is important to understand the reasons behind. Previous research has shown that women and men differ in health and health related behavior. In this study, we examine gender differences among general practitioners who work while sick. General practitioners (GP's) working in outpatient care in a Swedish city participated in the study (n = 283; women = 63 %; response rate = 41 %). Data were obtained from a large web-based questionnaire about health and organization within primary care. Two questions about sickness presenteeism (going to work while sick) were included; life-long and during the past 12 months, and five questions about reasons. We controlled for general health, work-family conflict and demographic variables. Female physicians reported sickness presenteeism more often than male physicians. Work-family conflict mediated the association between gender and sickness presenteeism. Women reported reasons related with "concern for others" and "workload" more strongly than men. Men reported reasons related with "capacity" and "money" more strongly than women. These differences are likely effects of gender stereotyping and different family-responsibilities. Gender socialization and gender stereotypes may influence work and health-related behavior. Because sickness presenteeism is related with negative effects both on individuals and at organizational levels, it is important that managers of health organizations understand the reasons for this, and how gender roles may influence the prevalence of sickness presenteeism and the reasons that female and male GPs give for their behavior.

  4. Thiazide diuretics and the risk of osteoporotic fractures in hypertensive patients. Results from the Swedish Primary Care Cardiovascular Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokrantz, Tove; Ljungman, Charlotta; Kahan, Thomas; Boström, Kristina B; Hasselström, Jan; Hjerpe, Per; Mellström, Dan; Schiöler, Linus; Manhem, Karin

    2017-01-01

    The objective is to investigate if treatment with thiazides reduces the risk of osteoporotic fractures in hypertensive patients in primary healthcare. Further we aimed to examine the impact of duration of thiazide use, the consequences of discontinuation of treatment, and the possible difference in effect between men and women. This retrospective cohort study includes 57 822 individuals, 45 years and older, diagnosed with hypertension during 2001-2008 in the Swedish Primary Care Cardiovascular Database. Patients were followed from 1 January 2006 (or the date of their first diagnosis of hypertension if that date came later), until they had an incident osteoporotic fracture, died, or reached the end of the study at 31 December 2012. Patients exposed to thiazides were compared with patients never exposed to thiazides. Current use of thiazides was associated with significantly reduced risk of osteoporotic fractures [hazards ratio 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81-0.98], and increased with longer treatment periods (hazards ratio 0.87; 95% CI 0.78-0.97 after 2 years). However, discontinuation of thiazides increased the risk of osteoporotic fractures (hazards ratio 1.18; 95% CI 1.04-1.33), but attenuated with longer duration past treatment period. When analyzing men and women separately, similar results were seen, although only significant in men. This large observational study confirms that thiazide therapy in hypertensive patients is associated with a reduced risk of osteoporotic fractures. The protective effect increased with longer treatment periods. However, discontinuation of treatment increased the risk of fractures, which emphasizes the importance of continuous treatment.

  5. Divorce and the Onset of Alcohol Use Disorders: A Swedish Population-Based Longitudinal Cohort and Co-Relative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S.; Larsson Lönn, Sara; Salvatore, Jessica; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Objective To clarify the magnitude and nature of the relationship between divorce and risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Method In a population-based Swedish sample of married individuals (n=942,366), we examined the association between divorce or widowhood and risk for first registration for AUD. AUD was assessed using medical, criminal and pharmacy registries. Results Divorce was strongly associated with risk for first AUD onset in both men (HR=5.98, 95% CI, 5.65–6.33) and women (HR=7.29, 6.72–7.91). We estimated the HR for AUD onset given divorce in discordant monozygotic twins to equal 3.45 and 3.62 in men and women, respectively. Divorce was also associated with an AUD recurrence in those with AUD registrations before marriage. Furthermore, widowhood increased risk for AUD in men (HR=3.85, 2.81–5.28) and women (HR=4.10, 2.98–5.64). Among divorced individuals, remarriage was associated with a large decline in AUD in both sexes: males 0.56, 0.62–0.64 and females 0.61, 0.55–0.69. Divorce produced a greater increase in first AUD onset in those with a family history of AUD or with prior externalizing behaviors. Conclusions Spousal loss through divorce or bereavement is associated with a large enduring increased AUD risk. This association likely reflects both causal and non-causal processes. That the AUD status of the spouse alters this association highlights the importance of spouse characteristics for the behavioral health consequences of spousal loss. The pronounced elevation in AUD risk following divorce or widowhood, and the protective effect of remarriage against subsequent AUD, speaks to the profound impact of marriage on problematic alcohol use. PMID:28103713

  6. Informing the Swedish public about radiation. A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waahlberg, A. af

    1997-09-01

    The two Swedish state agencies handling radiation protection and nuclear safety are studied as to their information policies and documents, with special attention to Chernobyl. The principal aim is an assessment of policies and documents. A quantitative coding is made of the printed document`s key features. The study is a part of a larger CEC-project, and similar studies are made in three other countries, according to common guidelines. The general radiation situation in Sweden and its historical background is described, generating a picture of a rather safe, tightly controlled and thoroughly researched issue. The agencies are very active in their information work, using just about every conceivable channel to disseminate radiation information. The intellectual range of the printed documents is great, as very different groups are targeted, from the general public to researchers and other state agency employees

  7. Ethnic differences in asthma treatment among Swedish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantarero-Arévalo, Lourdes; Perez Vicente, Raquel; Juarez, Sol Pia

    2016-01-01

    of individual heterogeneity around the averages. Taking into account individual socioeconomic factors and medical needs, we performed multilevel analysis in order to evaluate if maternal country of birth (MCOB) accurately identifies adolescents with inappropriate AAM use. METHODS: Using the Swedish Medical......AIMS: Adolescents with immigrant or ethnic minority background suffering from asthma receive on average less appropriate anti-asthmatic medication (AAM) than the majority population. However, those findings are based on analyses of differences between group averages which prevents our understanding...... at the first level. Adjusting for socioeconomic and medical factors using a risk score, and including the socioeconomic characteristics of the MCOBs, we obtained both measures of association (odds ratio (OR)) and measures of variance (Intra-class correlation (ICC)). RESULTS: Comparing with adolescents born...

  8. Coping With Moral Stress in the Swedish Public Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Thunman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how today’s public workers cope with moral stress in organizations where new public management reforms have been implemented. More specifically, the interest is focused on examining which practices are developed in order to fulfill professional standards within the limits of inadequate resources in order to manage moral stress. Case studies at Swedish public work places are analyzed with the help of Lipsky’s theory about street-level bureaucrats’ coping behavior and theories about the elements of resistance in coping. The main result is the discernment of three dominant modificational strategies to manage stressful moral dilemmas in encounters with clients. The paper contributes to the understanding of coping with moral stress by highlighting that the detected coping forms among a varied group of public professionals imply an active adaption, reification, and opposition to the managerial reforms.

  9. Different forms of assessment and documentation in Swedish preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Christine Vallberg-Roth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim is to describe and discuss documentation and assessment practices in Swedish preschools from a didaktik perspective. What different forms of documentation and assessment are found in the preschools? Preschools in both urban and rural municipalities are included in the selection.  Document and textual analysis are used. A varied multi-documentation emerge. The multi-documentation at each preschool expose that preschool teachers seem to switch between different forms of documentation and assessment, including summative, formative and other assessments. The concept of transformative assessment may capture the different assessments interwoven in the multi-documentation. Transformative assessment is a concept focusing on reshaping and interplaying assessments that are intertwined in the registration and complex documentation at different levels and directions.

  10. The Swedish RES national action plan from a forest perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerheden, R. (Uppsala Science Park (Sweden), The Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden), e-mail: rolf.bjorheden@skogforsk.se

    2010-07-01

    The goal set up for Sweden by the EU RES Directive stipulates that Sweden should reach a 49 per cent proportion of renewable energy by 2020. Although this is the highest proportion of energy from RES for any member state in the EU, Sweden has unilaterally decided on a national goal of 50 per cent. Thus, Sweden feels confident that it will be able to comply with the goals. In the current RES mix, forest biomass already plays an important role and there is potential for a substantial increase of forest fuel recovery. But there are a number of outstanding question marks considering follow-up procedures, what fuels that are considered as renewable etc. It is important that the interpretation of current EU regulations is clarified and that they coincide with the current Swedish standpoint. If Nordic forestry is not judged to yield renewable fuel, the EU goals will be much harder to meet. (orig.)

  11. Genetic susceptibility to bilateral tinnitus in a Swedish twin cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maas, Iris Lianne; Brüggemann, Petra; Requena, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Genetic contributions to tinnitus have been difficult to determine due to the heterogeneity of the condition and its broad etiology. Here, we evaluated the genetic and nongenetic influences on self-reported tinnitus from the Swedish Twin Registry (STR). METHODS: Cross-sectional data from...... the STR was obtained. Casewise concordance rates (the risk of one twin being affected given that his/her twin partner has tinnitus) were compared for monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs (N = 10,464 concordant and discordant twin pairs) and heritability coefficients (the proportion of the total...... variance attributable to genetic factors) were calculated using biometrical model fitting procedures. RESULTS: Stratification of tinnitus cases into subtypes according to laterality (unilateral versus bilateral) revealed that heritability of bilateral tinnitus was 0.56; however, it was 0.27 for unilateral...

  12. Institutions improving fiscal performance: Evidence from Swedish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrichson, Jens; Ellegård, Lina Maria

    2014-01-01

    degrees of conflicts of interests, calling for further research to understand the incentives given by the result carry-over rules. We further find that the fiscal surplus is higher in municipalities where local managers face a relatively high risk of dismissal as a consequence of budget deficits.......Conflicts of interest within hierarchic government organizations regarding the importance of fiscal discipline create the need for institutions that curb the bargaining power of units in charge of implementing policy and align their incentives to the interests of the whole organization. We examine...... this general public sector problem by collecting unique data on budget institutions and conflicts of interest within the Swedish municipalities. Our estimations suggest that institutions pertaining to both the planning stage and the implementation stage of the budget process are important for fiscal...

  13. The lived experience of genital warts: the Swedish example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarlund, Kina; Nystrom, Maria

    2004-05-01

    Our aim in this study was to analyze and describe young Swedish women's experiences of living with genital warts. Interviews with 10 young women, aged 16-21 years, were interpreted within a lifeworld hermeneutic tradition. The women experience themselves as victims of a disgusting disease. Furthermore, they appear to disregard the fact that their own lifestyles could be a risk factor for contracting venereal infections. On the other hand they get to know their bodies better after the gynecological examinations where the treatment begins. Their loss of innocence is considerable; thus it seems fair to compare this experience with earlier epochs' ideas about loss of virginity due to the first intercourse. Consequently the young women also start looking at themselves as adults, and they take responsibility for the consequences of their sexuality.

  14. Approaching safety in the Swedish and Danish construction industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grill, Martin; Grytnes, Regine; Törner, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Background: Persistent high accident rates in the construction industry motivate research to improve the understanding of underlying factors affecting safety behaviour and safety outcomes. The Scandinavian countries of Sweden and Denmark are culturally similar but with a considerable difference...... industry. The transcripts were analysed using semantic thematic analysis. Results: Seven safety related themes were distinguished, conveying safety culture differences between Swedish and Danish construction industry concerning: participatory or directive management; challenge or obey; compliance or non......-compliance; cooperation or conflict; caution or cockiness; planning management; and employment security. Interconnections between the thematic areas revealed patterns of interaction between managers and employees, interpreted as process models of participatory and directive safety cultures. Conclusion: This study...

  15. Syphilis and MSM (Men Who Have Sex with Men)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Syphilis & MSM (Men Who Have Sex With Men) - CDC ... Share Compartir Once nearly eliminated in the U.S., syphilis is increasing, especially among gay, bisexual, and other ...

  16. Flowering time adaption in Swedish landrace pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhala, Tytti; Normann, Kjersti R; Lundström, Maria; Weller, James L; Leino, Matti W; Hagenblad, Jenny

    2016-08-12

    Cultivated crops have repeatedly faced new climatic conditions while spreading from their site of origin. In Sweden, at the northernmost fringe of Europe, extreme conditions with temperature-limited growth seasons and long days require specific adaptation. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) has been cultivated in Sweden for millennia, allowing for adaptation to the local environmental conditions to develop. To study such adaptation, 15 Swedish pea landraces were chosen alongside nine European landraces, seven cultivars and three wild accessions. Number of days to flowering (DTF) and other traits were measured and the diversity of the flowering time genes HIGH RESPONSE TO PHOTOPERIOD (HR), LATE FLOWERING (LF) and STERILE NODES (SN) was assessed. Furthermore, the expression profiles of LF and SN were obtained. DTF was positively correlated with the length of growing season at the site of origin (GSO) of the Swedish landraces. Alleles at the HR locus were significantly associated with DTF with an average difference of 15.43 days between the two detected haplotypes. LF expression was found to have a significant effect on DTF when analysed on its own, but not when HR haplotype was added to the model. HR haplotype and GSO together explained the most of the detected variation in DTF (49.6 %). We show local adaptation of DTF, primarily in the northernmost accessions, and links between genetic diversity and diversity in DTF. The links between GSO and genetic diversity of the genes are less clear-cut and flowering time adaptation seems to have a complex genetic background.

  17. Phonaesthemes and sound symbolism in Swedish brand names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Abelin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the prevalence of sound symbolism in Swedish brand names. A general principle of brand name design is that effective names should be distinctive, recognizable, easy to pronounce and meaningful. Much money is invested in designing powerful brand names, where the emotional impact of the names on consumers is also relevant and it is important to avoid negative connotations. Customers prefer brand names, which say something about the product, as this reduces product uncertainty (Klink, 2001. Therefore, consumers might prefer sound symbolic names. It has been shown that people associate the sounds of the nonsense words maluma and takete with round and angular shapes, respectively. By extension, more complex shapes and textures might activate words containing certain sounds. This study focuses on semantic dimensions expected to be relevant to product names, such as mobility, consistency, texture and shape. These dimensions are related to the senses of sight, hearing and touch and are also interesting from a cognitive linguistic perspective. Cross-modal assessment and priming experiments with pictures and written words were performed and the results analysed in relation to brand name databases and to sound symbolic sound combinations in Swedish (Abelin, 1999. The results show that brand names virtually never contain pejorative, i.e. depreciatory, consonant clusters, and that certain sounds and sound combinations are overrepresented in certain content categories. Assessment tests show correlations between pictured objects and phoneme combinations in newly created words (non-words. The priming experiment shows that object images prime newly created words as expected, based on the presence of compatible consonant clusters.

  18. Protein efficiency in intensive dairy production: a Swedish example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swensson, Christian; Lindmark-Månsson, Helena; Smedman, Annika; Henriksson, Maria; Modin Edman, Anna-Karin

    2017-11-01

    Animal agriculture has been criticised in terms of its sustainability from several perspectives. Ruminants such as dairy cows can transform inedible, low-quality protein in roughage and by-products from the food industry into the high-quality protein found in milk and meat. Evaluation of the protein conversion efficiency of dairy production from a sustainability and resource perspective must be based on the proportion of the animal feed edible to humans. A relevant metric is thus edible feed protein conversion ratio (eFPCR), i.e. human-edible protein output in cow's milk per unit human-edible protein input in feed. In this study, eFPCR was calculated for five regionally adapted and realistic feed rations fed to Swedish dairy cows producing different annual milk yields typical for high-yielding, intensive dairy production. All scenarios except one showed a protein efficiency ratio of >1 for human-edible protein. Thus, depending on the composition of their diet, most Swedish dairy cows can convert human-inedible protein into edible, high-value protein. However, higher milk yield led to a decrease in eFPCR, regardless of diet. Dairy cows in high-yielding, intensive production systems such as those used in Sweden have the capacity to convert low-value inedible protein into high-value edible protein. However, a minor part of the dairy cow diet is edible for humans and this fraction must be minimised to justify dairy production. These results are in line with previous findings on protein conversion efficiency and add scientific input to the debate on sustainable food systems and sustainable diets. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Knut Lundmark, meteors and an early Swedish crowdsourcing experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärnfelt, Johan

    2014-10-01

    Mid twentieth century meteor astronomy demanded the long-term compilation of observations made by numerous individuals over an extensive geographical area. Such a massive undertaking obviously required the participation of more than just professional astronomers, who often sought to expand their ranks through the use of amateurs that had a basic grasp of astronomy as well as the night sky, and were thus capable of generating first-rate astronomical reports. When, in the 1920s, renowned Swedish astronomer Knut Lundmark turned his attention to meteor astronomy, he was unable to rely even upon this solution. In contrast to many other countries at the time, Sweden lacked an organized amateur astronomy and thus contained only a handful of competent amateurs. Given this situation, Lundmark had to develop ways of engaging the general public in assisting his efforts. To his advantage, he was already a well-established public figure who had published numerous popular science articles and held talks from time to time on the radio. During the 1930s, this prominence greatly facilitated his launching of a crowdsourcing initiative for the gathering of meteor observations. This paper consists of a detailed discussion concerning the means by which Lundmark's initiative disseminated astronomical knowledge to the general public and encouraged a response that might directly contribute to the advancement of science. More precisely, the article explores the manner in which he approached the Swedish public, the degree to which that public responded and the extent to which his efforts were successful. The primary aim of this exercise is to show that the apparently recent Internet phenomenon of 'crowdsourcing', especially as it relates to scientific research, actually has a pre-Internet history that is worth studying. Apart from the fact that this history is interesting in its own right, knowing it can provide us with a fresh vantage point from which to better comprehend and appreciate

  20. Food intake and gestational weight gain in Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärebring, Linnea; Brembeck, Petra; Löf, Marie; Brekke, Hilde K; Winkvist, Anna; Augustin, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if food intake (dairy, snacks, caloric beverages, bread, cheese, margarine/butter, potato/rice/pasta/grains, red meat, fish and fruit/berries/vegetables) is associated with gestational weight gain (GWG) in Swedish women. Four day food records from 95 pregnant Swedish women were collected in the last trimester. GWG was calculated as weighed body weight in the last trimester (median gestational week 36) minus self-reported pre-pregnancy body weight. Excessive GWG was defined according to the guidelines by the Institute of Medicine. Food groups tested for association with GWG were dairy (milk, yoghurt and sour milk), snacks (sweets, crisps, popcorn, ice cream and cookies, but not nuts and seeds), caloric beverages (soft drinks, juice, lemonade and non-alcoholic beer), bread, cheese, margarine/butter, potato/rice/pasta/grains, red meat, fish and fruit/berries/vegetables. Median (lower-upper quartiles) GWG was 12.1 kg (10.0-15.3). In total, 28 % had an excessive GWG. Excessive GWG was most common among pre-pregnancy overweight and obese women, where 69 % had an excessive GWG. Median daily intake of fruits and vegetables was 352 g (212-453), caloric beverages was 238 g (100-420) and snacks was 111 g (69-115). Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that intake of caloric beverages, snacks, fish, bread and dairy in the last trimester of pregnancy were positively related to GWG (R(2) = 0.32). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that intake of caloric beverages, snacks, fish, and bread was associated with higher odds ratios for excessive GWG. Intake of caloric beverages, snacks, fish and bread were positively related to excessive GWG. Thus, these results indicate that maternal dietary intake should be given higher attention in the antenatal care.

  1. Safety and Radiation Protection at Swedish Nuclear Power Plants 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    In 2005, no severe events occurred which challenged the safety at the Swedish nuclear power plants. However, some events have been given a special focus. The 'Gudrun' storm, which occurred in January 2005, affected the operation of the reactors at Ringhals and Barsebaeck 2. At Ringhals, the switchyards were affected by salt deposits and, at Barsebaeck, the 400kV grid was subjected to interruptions. The long-term trend is that the total number of fuel defects in Swedish reactors is decreasing. The damage that occurs nowadays has mainly been caused by small objects entering the fuel via the coolant and fretting holes in the cladding. To reduce the number of defects of this type, fuel with filters is successively being introduced to prevent debris from entering the fuel assemblies and cyclone filters in the facility which cleans the coolant. Since the mid-nineties, the pressurised water reactors, Ringhals 2, 3 and 4, have had problems with fuel rod bowing in excess of the safety analysis calculations. Ringhals AB (RAB) has adopted measures to rectify the bowing. Follow-up work shows that the fuel rod bowing is decreasing. The followup in 2005 of damaged tubes in the Ringhals 4 steam generators indicates a continued slow damage propagation. Tubes with defects of such a limited extent that there are adequate margins to rupture and loosening have been kept in operation. Damaged tubes with insufficient margins have plugged. During the year, previously observed minor leakage from the reactor containment in Ringhals 2 was investigated in greater detail and repaired. The investigations showed extensive corrosion attack caused by deficiencies in connection with containment construction. The ageing of electrical cables and other equipment in the I-C systems has been examined by SKI. Regulatory supervision has so far shown that these issues are largely handled in a satisfactory manner by the licensees but that certain supplementary investigations and other measures

  2. Occupation and mesothelioma in Sweden: updated incidence in men and women in the 27 years after the asbestos ban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Plato

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES We updated the Swedish component of the Nordic Occupational Cancer (NOCCA Study through 2009 in order to investigate the incidence of mesothelioma of the peritoneum and pleura in both genders, and explored occupational exposures that may be associated with mesothelioma. METHODS The Swedish component of the NOCCA Study includes 6.78 million individuals. Data from this cohort were linked to the population-based Swedish Cancer Registry and Swedish Total Population Registry for three periods between 1961 and 2009, and then further linked to the Swedish NOCCA job-exposure matrix, which includes 25 carcinogenic substances and the corresponding exposure levels for 280 occupations. Multivariate analysis was used to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIRs for mesothelioma of the peritoneum and pleura by gender, occupational category, carcinogenic substance, and for multiple occupational exposures simultaneously. RESULTS A total of 3,716 incident mesotheliomas were recorded (21.1% in women. We found a significantly increased risk of mesothelioma in 24 occupations, as well as clear differences between the genders. Among men, increased risks of mesothelioma of the pleura were observed in male-dominated occupations, with the greatest elevation of risk among plumbers (SIR, 4.99; 95% confidence interval, 4.20 to 5.90. Among women, increased risks were observed in sewing workers, canning workers, packers, cleaners, and postal workers. In multivariate analysis controlling for multiple occupational exposures, significant associations were only observed between asbestos exposure and mesothelioma. CONCLUSIONS Asbestos exposure was associated with mesothelioma incidence in our study. The asbestos ban of 1982 has yet to show any clear effect on the occurrence of mesothelioma in this cohort. Among women, the occupations of canning workers and cleaners showed increased risks of mesothelioma of the pleura without evidence of asbestos exposure.

  3. Older Men as Learners: Irish Men's Sheds as an Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragher, Lucia; Golding, Barry

    2015-01-01

    To date, little attention has been placed on older men (aged 50+ years) as learners, with much of the literature on adult learning concerned with younger age-groups and issues around gender equity directed mainly at women. This article examines the impact of community-based men's sheds on informal and nonformal learning by older men in Ireland. It…

  4. Nurses' attitudes towards lesbians and gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röndahl, Gerd; Innala, Sune; Carlsson, Marianne

    2004-08-01

    During the last decade, official policy and Swedish legislation have strengthened the legal rights of homosexuals and demanded tolerance for this group. There is evidence in the literature that homosexual patients have experienced negative attitudes and poor quality care from nurses, and may be unwilling to disclose their sexuality because of fears of discriminatory treatment. The aim of this paper is to report a study that investigated the attitudes of nurses towards lesbians and gay men and nurses beliefs about the causes of homosexuality. The study had a descriptive, comparative design. The Attitudes Toward Homosexuality Scale was used, along with Causes of Homosexuality Questionnaire. The participants were Registered Nurses and Assistant Nurses from one infectious disease clinic in central Sweden (response rate 67%, n = 57), and students enrolled in a university nursing programme and in upper secondary assistant nurses' training (response rate 62%, n = 165). In general, participants expressed positive attitudes (62%). Nurses expressed the most positive attitudes, whereas the assistant nursing students expressed the least positive attitudes. A minority of the sample (30%) expressed neither positive nor negative attitudes. The most common belief about the cause of homosexuality was that it was congenital. Those who held this belief expressed more positive attitudes towards homosexuality than those who believed that homosexuality was acquired. Limitations of the study were that the sample was relatively small and not randomly selected. This study demonstrated that attitudes have improved towards homosexuals compared with earlier international studies, although more needs to be done to increase the positive attitudes among the nursing staff and students with neutral attitudes (neither positive nor negative attitudes) to enhance the wellbeing of homosexual persons. General education about homosexuality is a necessary beginning to make homosexual patients visible

  5. Old men living alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristian Frausing; Munk, Karen Pallesgaard

    Background: Even in the Danish welfare state inequality in health proves hard to overcome. According to the literature elderly men living alone seem to be a vulnerable group in several respects: they lead shorter lives; are at increased risk of committing suicide; and some are found to have...... dysfunctional coping patterns in relation to stress, which could indicate difficulties adapting to the challenges of old age. Moreover, as to treatment and prevention men in general do not seem to profit from the offers from the health care system as much as women do. Improving singular elderly men’s health...... and quality of life requires complex action, especially for those in socially marginalized positions whose ways of and attitudes towards life have been thoroughly established, and it raises the interesting question of whether a scarcity of resources leads to a certain notions of health and the good life...

  6. Old men living alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frausing, Kristian Park

    2014-01-01

    dysfunctional coping patterns in relation to stress, which could indicate difficulties adapting to the challenges of old age. Moreover, as to treatment and prevention men in general do not seem to profit from the offers from the health care system as much as women do. Improving singular elderly men’s health...... that is far from the middle class view of the health care professionals. Methods: The purpose of the study, carried out throughout 2014 and 2015, is to produce knowledge about singular elderly men’s needs, everyday lives and ideas about health, masculinity, and a good aging process. The study is in two phases...... and views on the matters. Results: It is expected that the study will contribute to a nuanced basis of knowledge for the public health care services for elderly men living alone. Also importantly, we wish to focus health care professionals’ attention to the question of realistic and meaningful goals...

  7. Evaluating a Swedish Airborne Combat Capability using Computer Supported Morphological Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ritchey, Tom; Kaunitz, Carin

    2005-01-01

    .... This article outlines the fundamentals of the morphological approach and describes its use in a study carried out by the Swedish Army Command concerning the development of an airborne combat capability...

  8. Acceptable noise level with Danish, Swedish, and non-semantic speech materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännström, K Jonas; Lantz, Johannes; Nielsen, Lars Holme

    2012-01-01

    -semantic international speech test signal (ISTS) as speech signal together with the speech-weighted amplitude-modulated noise. The latter condition was identical in both populations. Study sample: Forty Danish and 40 Swedish normal-hearing subjects. Results: In both populations ANL results were similar to previously......Abstract Objective: Acceptable noise level (ANL) has been established as a method to quantify the acceptance of background noise while listening to speech presented at the most comfortable level. The aim of the present study was to generate Danish, Swedish, and a non-semantic version of the ANL...... test and investigate normal-hearing Danish and Swedish subjects' performance on these tests. Design: ANL was measured using Danish and Swedish running speech with two different noises: Speech-weighted amplitude-modulated noise, and multitalker speech babble. ANL was also measured using the non...

  9. Changing arenas of underage adolescent binge drinking in Swedish small towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ander Birgitta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM – The study explores arenas of adolescent binge drinking in small Swedish towns and the meanings these have for young persons. The focus is thus on space and place, and on the geography of underage drinking.

  10. Formation of Apprenticeships in the Swedish Education System: Different Stakeholder Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingela Andersson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the major features of the Swedish Government’s new initiative - a school based Upper Secondary Apprenticeship model. The analyses are guided by activity theory. The analysed texts are part of the parliamentary reformmaking process of the 2011 Upper Secondary School reform. The analyses unfold how the Government, the Swedish Trade Union Confederation (LO, and the Confederation of Swedish Enterprise (SN construct Upper Secondary Apprenticeship as an activity in the 21st century. The conclusion highlights how three traditional aspects of Swedish initial vocational education and training (IVET collide in the formation of Upper Secondary Apprenticeship – a curriculum of labour market based apprenticeships, a curriculum of school based IVET, and ill-defined curriculums of school based apprenticeships. The emerging Upper Secondary Apprenticeship curriculum foreshadows multifaceted educational trajectories where the learning targets, and not the responsibility for the student’s learning are displaced from the school to the workplace setting.

  11. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000399.htm Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type II (MEN II) is a disorder passed ...

  12. Men: Eat Right, Stay Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... less than 18.5, it falls within the underweight range.If your BMI is 18.5 to ... org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Food and Nutrition, Men, Prevention and WellnessTags: adult, Dietary Supplements, Men, ...

  13. Psychology, men and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Branney, P; Witty, K; Eardley, I

    2014-01-01

    A disease of the anatomical or social body, cancer raises fears about the uncontrollable division and multiplication of some abnormality that will lead ultimately to the destruction of those very conditions that make possible our lives. Cancer incidence and mortality rates are higher in men than women, raising questions about the roles for psychologists in relation to gender and cancer. Psychologists are wont to question the division of population level statistics by sex rather than other, su...

  14. Work and family: associations with long-term sick-listing in Swedish women – a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandmark Hélène

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of Swedish women who are long-term sick-listed is high, and twice as high as for men. Also the periods of sickness absence have on average been longer for women than for men. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between factors in work- and family life and long-term sick-listing in Swedish women. Methods This case-control study included 283 women on long-term sick-listing ≥90 days, and 250 female referents, randomly chosen, living in five counties in Sweden. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses with odds ratios were calculated to estimate the associations between long-term sick-listing and factors related to occupational work and family life. Results Long-term sick-listing in women is associated with self-reported lack of competence for work tasks (OR 2.42 1.23–11.21 log reg, workplace dissatisfaction (OR 1.89 1.14–6.62 log reg, physical workload above capacity (1.78 1.50–5.94, too high mental strain in work tasks (1.61 1.08–5.01 log reg, number of employers during work life (OR 1.39 1.35–4.03 log reg, earlier part-time work (OR 1.39 1.18–4.03 log reg, and lack of influence on working hours (OR 1.35 1.47–3.86 log reg. A younger age at first child, number of children, and main responsibility for own children was also found to be associated with long-term sick-listing. Almost all of the sick-listed women (93% wanted to return to working life, and 54% reported they could work immediately if adjustments at work or part-time work were possible. Conclusion Factors in work and in family life could be important to consider to prevent women from being long-term sick-listed and promote their opportunities to remain in working life. Measures ought to be taken to improve their mobility in work life and control over decisions and actions regarding theirs lives.

  15. Work and family: associations with long-term sick-listing in Swedish women - a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmark, Hélène

    2007-10-11

    The number of Swedish women who are long-term sick-listed is high, and twice as high as for men. Also the periods of sickness absence have on average been longer for women than for men. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between factors in work- and family life and long-term sick-listing in Swedish women. This case-control study included 283 women on long-term sick-listing > or =90 days, and 250 female referents, randomly chosen, living in five counties in Sweden. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses with odds ratios were calculated to estimate the associations between long-term sick-listing and factors related to occupational work and family life. Long-term sick-listing in women is associated with self-reported lack of competence for work tasks (OR 2.42 1.23-11.21 log reg), workplace dissatisfaction (OR 1.89 1.14-6.62 log reg), physical workload above capacity (1.78 1.50-5.94), too high mental strain in work tasks (1.61 1.08-5.01 log reg), number of employers during work life (OR 1.39 1.35-4.03 log reg), earlier part-time work (OR 1.39 1.18-4.03 log reg), and lack of influence on working hours (OR 1.35 1.47-3.86 log reg). A younger age at first child, number of children, and main responsibility for own children was also found to be associated with long-term sick-listing. Almost all of the sick-listed women (93%) wanted to return to working life, and 54% reported they could work immediately if adjustments at work or part-time work were possible. Factors in work and in family life could be important to consider to prevent women from being long-term sick-listed and promote their opportunities to remain in working life. Measures ought to be taken to improve their mobility in work life and control over decisions and actions regarding theirs lives.

  16. Subjective well-being in Swedish active seniors and its relationship with physical activity and commonly available biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsson LA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lovisa A Olsson,1,2 Anita Hurtig-Wennlöf,2 Torbjörn K Nilsson3 1Department of Laboratory Medicine/Clinical Chemistry, Örebro University Hospital, 2School of Health and Medical Science, Örebro University, Örebro; 3Department of Medical Biosciences/Clinical Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Background: Physical activity is claimed to be related to well-being and to a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the possible associations of well-being with physical activity and biomarkers of somatic health were studied in a sample of Swedish active seniors to determine the strength of these associations. Methods: Three hundred and eighty-nine community-dwelling senior citizens (127 men and 262 women of mean age 74±5 years were recruited for this cross-sectional population study. Serum samples were analyzed for lipoproteins and markers of inflammation. The Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB index was used to measure subjective well-being. Physical activity was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire modified for the elderly. Results: More than 50% of men and women rated their physical activity as high; in the women, there was a significant difference between the age groups (younger and older than the median age [median =74.1 years], respectively. The mean PGWB index indicates a high degree of subjective well-being in this group of Swedish seniors. Of the PGWB subdimensions, general health had the strongest positive relationship with physical activity (r2=5.4%. for the subdimensions of depressed mood, positive well-being, vitality, and PGWB index, physical activity had an r2 ≤4%, while the contributions of sex, age, and biomarkers were minor. Conclusion: We have estimated the contribution of physical activity to the variance of subjective well-being in active seniors. Physical activity appears to play a greater role as a determinant of subjective well-being than do biomarkers of somatic health

  17. Cross-cultural adaptation to Swedish and validation of the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS) for pain, symptoms and physical function in patients with hip and groin disability due to femoro-acetabular impingement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomeé, Roland; Jónasson, Pall; Thorborg, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    in Swedish patients and evaluate the adaptation according to the Consensus-Based Standards for the Selection of Health Status Measurement Instruments checklist. METHODS: Cross-cultural adaptation was performed in several steps, including translation, back-translation, expert review and pretesting. The final...... version was evaluated for reliability, validity and responsiveness. Five hundred and two patients (337 men and 167 women, mean age 37, range 15-75) were included in the study. RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha for the six HAGOS-S subscales ranged from 0.77 to 0.89. Significant correlations were obtained...

  18. Possibilities and hindrances for prevention of intimate partner violence: perceptions among professionals and decision makers in a Swedish medium-sized town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, A; von Borgstede, C; Krantz, G; Spak, F; Hensing, G

    2013-09-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem, but few evidence-based prevention programs have yet been implemented. This study explored the perceptions and beliefs of local-level decision makers, social and health-care professionals, and representatives from the police force regarding the possibilities and hindrances for prevention of IPV. An explorative qualitative approach was used, and participants were strategically selected for focus group discussions. The participants, 19 men and 23 women, were professionals or decision makers within health-care services, social welfare, municipal administration, the police force, local industry, and local politicians in a Swedish town of 54,000 inhabitants. The focus group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analyzed. A manifest content analysis was performed on the text. Preschools, schools, sports associations, workplaces, and the mass media were suggested as possible arenas for prevention measures. The proposed activities included norm building and improved social support structures. Hindrances were conceptualized as societal beliefs and attitudes, shame, silence, gender inequality, the counteracting influence of the media, and lack of resources. The participants demonstrated closeness and distance to IPV, expressed as acceptance or referral of responsibility to others regarding where and by whom prevention measures should be executed. This study gave new insights in the prevailing perceptions of professionals and decision makers of a medium-sized Swedish town, which can be a useful knowledge in future preventive work and contribute to bridge the gap between research and practice.

  19. Endocrine Measurements and Calving Performance of Swedish Red and White and Swedish Holstein Dairy Cattle with Special Respect to Stillbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson H

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available During 3 consecutive calving seasons, calving performance, placental characteristics and endocrine profiles of total 98 pregnancies of late pregnant Swedish Red and White (SRB and Swedish Holstein (SLB dairy heifers and cows, were investigated. Ninety-four singleton pregnancies and 4 sets of twins were recorded. In animals with singleton pregnancy, 8 stillbirths, 7 weak calves, 3 premature parturitions and 1 abortion were registered. In the SLB heifers, 19% of stillbirth (5/26 were observed, while 5% (2/42 were noted for the SRB heifers. One stillborn calf derived from the SRB cows and none was found from the SLB cows. In the heifers and cows delivering a normal living calf with unassisted parturition, the placentome thickness monitored by ultrasonography was constant towards the end of pregnancy. The numbers of foetal cotyledons varied individually between animals but in total, fewer cotyledons were found in the foetal membranes of the SRB animals than in the SLB animals (69 ± 19 vs. (88 ± 29 (p 2α metabolite (PG-metabolite, cortisol, oestrone sulphate (E1SO4 and pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAGs were not different by breeds and parities. In animals carrying stillbirth, higher levels of E1SO4 were found in 3 SRB animals and 1 SLB heifer, whereas lower levels of E1SO4 were recorded in 3 SLB heifers during the last week of pregnancy, compared to the profiles found in animals with unassisted parturition. Additionally, the levels of PAGs remained low and constant in 1 SRB cow (delivering a stillborn calf, 1 SRB heifer (giving birth prematurely, 4 animals (carrying twins and 1 aborting SRB cow. Our results show a very high rate of stillbirth in especially SLB heifers and deviating profiles of E1SO4 and PAGs in animals with impaired parturition were recorded.

  20. Cause-Related Marketing : How Swedish fashion retailers increase purchase intentions by doing good

    OpenAIRE

    Bador, Aida; Low Pei San, Sarah; Manouchi, Meriem

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate what factors are important when implementing cause-related marketing within the Swedish fashion retail market, in order to change the purchase intention of customers. Cause-related marketing (CRM) is a widely used marketing tool within the Swedish fashion industry. There has been an increasing trend of using cause-related marketing as part of corporate social responsibility strategy. Companies increasingly believe that associating their corporate identi...

  1. Swedish SMEs Established in China : - How to finance business and financial obstacles encountered

    OpenAIRE

    Ax, Åsa; Jebrail, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Small- and medium size enterprises are well known for being the backbone of the economy. They are the key factors of the economic growth as well as for innovating and developing products and services. Financial obstacles often occur for Swedish SMEs when they are searching for ways of financing the business. The lack of necessary financing to help SMEs’ businesses grow has been brought up in many institutions supportive of Swedish SMEs. This study is conducted to examine and give an ...

  2. Factors driving and restraining adoption of Automation technologies in Swedish wood product industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Mapulanga, Mwanza; Saladi, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Swedish wood product industry contributes significantly to the economy of the country. This industry adds more value to the sawn timber produced in order to manufacture different wooden products. Companies in Swedish wood product industry are presently seen as underdeveloped in terms of investments and developments in automation technologies. Automation technologies are seen by companies as a solution for improving productivity, product quality, manufacturing cost reduction and ultimately imp...

  3. Clustering and inertia: structural integration of home care in Swedish elderly care

    OpenAIRE

    Nils Olof Hedman; Roine Johansson; Urban Rosenqvist

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To study the design and distribution of different organizational solutions regarding the responsibility for and provision of home care for elderly in Swedish municipalities. Method: Directors of the social welfare services in all Swedish municipalities received a questionnaire about old-age care organization, especially home care services and related activities. Rate of response was 73% (211/289). Results: Three different organizational models of home care were identified. The mode...

  4. The Motivation of Long-Stay Tourism and International Retirement Migration: Swedish retirees in Thailand.

    OpenAIRE

    Kummaraka, Krit; Jutaporn, Rapee

    2011-01-01

    Date: May 25, 2011 Program: MIMA-International Marketing Course name: Master Thesis (EFO705) Title: The Motivation of Long-Stay Tourism and InternationalRetirement Migration: Swedish retirees in Thailand. Authors: Mr. Krit Kummaraka ()Mr. Rapee Jutaporn () Supervisor: Mr. Peter Selegård Research Question: Which factors affect to the attitude for decision making ofretirement Swedish people to do as a long-stay tourism or Swedishretirement migration...

  5. Diversities in perceived knowledge and practice of preoperative skin preparation in Swedish orthopaedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markström, I; Bjerså, K

    2015-05-01

    Preoperative skin preparations may reduce the risk of hospital-acquired infections. This cross sectional questionnaire study aimed to identify the practice and knowledge of preoperative skin preparation in Swedish orthopaedic surgery departments. One hundred and six respondents (response rate 68%) from 13 Swedish orthopaedic departments reported a diversity of current recommendations and evidence, and good knowledge of skin preparations. This study found variations in practice and deviations from recommendations, despite high levels of knowledge.

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of bronchiolitis in Finnish and Swedish children's hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecklin, Minna; Hesselmar, Bill; Qvist, Erik; Wennergren, Göran; Korppi, Matti

    2014-09-01

    There is no widely accepted consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of bronchiolitis. This study describes current practices in Finnish and Swedish hospitals. A questionnaire on the diagnosis and treatment of bronchiolitis in children below 2 years of age was sent to all Finnish and Swedish hospitals providing inpatient care for children. All 22 Finnish hospitals answered, covering 100% of the bronchiolitis was 12.7 months in Finnish hospitals and 12.5 months in Swedish hospitals. In both, laboured breathing, chest retractions and fine crackles were highlighted as the main clinical findings, followed by prolonged expiration. The mean value for the lowest acceptable saturation in room air was 94% in Finnish hospitals and 93% in Swedish hospitals. The most important factors influencing hospitalisation were young age, desaturation and inability to take oral fluids. Finnish doctors preferred intravenous routes, and Swedish doctors preferred nasogastric tubes for supplementary feeding. The first-line drug therapy was inhaled racemic adrenaline in Finland and inhaled levo-adrenaline in Sweden. The diagnosis and treatment of bronchiolitis is fairly similar in Finnish and Swedish hospitals. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Alcohol-related expected effects and the desirability of these effects for Swedish college students measured with the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, R

    1993-07-01

    The Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ) was administered to 400 Swedish college students to explore their alcohol-related expectancies in relation to different background variables and their rated desirability of these expected effects. For each item in the AEQ, subjects further rated to what degree the specified effect was desirable. Results indicated that men and high consumers had stronger expectancies and rated these effects as more desirable than did women and low consumers. Regardless of background variables significant positive correlations between expected effects of alcohol and the desirability of these effects were found. The strength of expectancies and the corresponding desirability ratings were both separately positively correlated with drinking habits. The discussion was focused on expectancies as causes of drinking.

  8. Prospective longitudinal study of testosterone and incident depression in older men: The Health In Men Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Andrew H; Yeap, Bu B; Flicker, Leon; Hankey, Graeme J; Chubb, S A Paul; Handelsman, David J; Golledge, Jonathan; Almeida, Osvaldo P

    2016-02-01

    Depression in older men has been associated with low circulating testosterone concentration but data from prospective studies are limited. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study in a community representative cohort of 3179 older men free of clinically significant depressive symptoms at baseline. The main objective of this study was to determine if low serum testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and estradiol concentrations are associated with the development of depressive symptoms. Incident depression was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire and via an electronic health record database (The West Australian Data Linkage System). The main exposures of interest were serum testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and estradiol measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and calculated free testosterone in baseline blood samples (collected between 2001 and 2004). One hundred and thirty five men (4.2%) developed depression over a median follow up time of 9.4 years (range 8.4-10.9). Men with incident depression were older (median age 77.7 vs 76.1 years, z=-3.82, p=0testosterone (free testosterone were not associated with risk of depression. Low serum total testosterone, but not calculated free testosterone, was associated with incident depression in this sample of older men. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. How is the Swedish manager perceived in an international perspective? A dissertation from a cultural point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Isaksson, Emelie; Wikhall, Martin

    2007-01-01

    There is a lack of literature in management and cross cultural theories from a Swedish perspective. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine how the Swedish manager is perceived by employees in other cultures. The dissertation describes existing cultural theories such as Hofstede’s’ and Trompenaars’. It also describes leadership theories which can be connected to the Swedish manager’s characteristics. The research data is collected by use of a web based questionnaire which were an...

  10. Finding One’s Place : An Ethnological Study of Belonging among Swedish Migrants on the Costa del Sol in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Woube, Annie

    2014-01-01

    This study explores how Swedish migrants on the Costa del Sol in Spain create belonging and how this is expressed in migration stories and practiced in the daily life. The migrants are part of a migration phenomenon that is conceptualized as lifestyle migration, often to destinations in association with tourism and leisure. Based on ethnographical fieldwork carried out among Swedish migrants within the Swedish infrastructure of institutions, organizations and private enterprises on the Costa ...

  11. [Hormonal contraception in men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ronde, W; Meuleman, E J H

    2007-11-17

    Over the past few decades, female hormonal contraception has been seen to be very successful. However, this has still not resulted in a hormonal contraceptive for men. Certain injectable combinations ofandrogens and progestagens have been found to suppress spermatogenesis. All combinations that have been tested so far suffer from a relative lack of efficacy, a long lag time to achieve azoospermia, requiring the user to undergo one or more semen analyses, a moderate user friendliness, and concerns about the long-term safety and reversibility. It is not to be expected that male hormonal contraception will become a serious alternative to the already existing female equivalent during the coming 5 years.

  12. AHP 3: DEITY MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    སྙིང་བོ་རྒྱལ། Snying bo rgyal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a comprehensive and extremely informed study of the changing social context and religious lives of lha pa, 'deity or god men,' in Qinghai Province, China. Snying bo rgyal and Rino's account of these Tibetan trance mediums who become possessed by mountain deities succeeds in both honoring the past through a detailed description of their practice while acknowledging the increasing challenges to these traditions. This book is an important contribution to the documentation and understanding of Asian ritual and society. Dr. Mark Turin, Director, Digital Himalaya Project, University of Cambridge, UK

  13. Men of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Seeger, Raymond J

    2013-01-01

    Men of Physics: Galileo Galilei, His Life and His Works deals with Galileo Galilei's radical discoveries and trail during the Inquisition. The book describes the life of Galileo and his many interests in art and music, in addition to science. Galileo is born in Pisa in 1564, and at age 25, he is appointed to the Chair of Mathematics at the University of Pisa. He writes several papers, for example, mathematical continuum as contrasted with physical atomism, and investigates the behavior of magnetic poles. He believes in William Gilbert's experiment that the earth itself is a large magnet. He c

  14. Predictors of Independent Aging and Survival: A 16-Year Follow-Up Report in Octogenarian Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzon, Kristin; Byberg, Liisa; Sjögren, Per; Zethelius, Björn; Cederholm, Tommy; Kilander, Lena

    2017-09-01

    To examine the longitudinal associations between aging with preserved functionality, i.e. independent aging and survival, and lifestyle variables, dietary pattern and cardiovascular risk factors. Cohort study. Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men, Sweden. Swedish men (n = 1,104) at a mean age of 71 (range 69.4-74.1) were investigated, 369 of whom were evaluated for independent aging 16 years later, at a mean age of 87 (range 84.8-88.9). A questionnaire was used to obtain information on lifestyle, including education, living conditions, and physical activity. Adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet was assessed according to a modified Mediterranean Diet Score derived from 7-day food records. Cardiovascular risk factors were measured. Independent aging at a mean age of 87 was defined as lack of diagnosed dementia, a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 25 or greater, not institutionalized, independence in personal activities of daily living, and ability to walk outdoors alone. Complete survival data at age 85 were obtained from the Swedish Cause of Death Register. Fifty-seven percent of the men survived to age 85, and 75% of the participants at a mean age of 87 displayed independent aging. Independent aging was associated with never smoking (vs current) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-4.60) and high (vs low) adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet (OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.14-6.80). Normal weight or overweight and waist circumference of 102 cm or less were also associated with independent aging. Similar associations were observed with survival. Lifestyle factors such as never smoking, maintaining a healthy diet, and not being obese at age 71 were associated with survival and independent aging at age 85 and older in men. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  15. The Swedish Bohus granite - a stone with a fascinating history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouenborg, Björn; Eliasson, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    One of the most well-known and well spread Swedish stone types used as building stones is the Bonus granite. It outcrops in an area north of Gothenburgh (SW Sweden), along the coastline, approximately 35 km wide and 85 km long. The granite continues into Norway as the Iddefjord granite. The Bohus granite is one of Sweden's youngest granites. Isotopic dating shows that the magma cooled at about 920 M years ago and thus marking the end of the Sveconorwegian orogoney. It is a composite granite massif area with several granitic intrusions but with rather homogeneous mineralogy. However, colour and texture varies quite a lot and the colour ranges from red to reddish grey although some pure grey varieties occur sparsely. The grain size ranges from medium grained to coarse grained and even with some porphyric parts. Quarrying in an industrial scale started 1842. The merchant A C Kullgren opened the first quarry and produced stones for the construction of the 86 km long Trollhättan channel connecting lake Vänern and the Atlantic ocean in the SW Sweden The stone was used for constructing harbors and wharves along the channel. Several quarries opened in the late 1800 around 1870 - 1890 and the export increased steadily with deliveries to Germany, Denmark, Holland, England and even to South America. The stone industries in Bohuslän (Bohus county), at its peak in 1929, engaged around 7 000 employees. During the depression in 1930 almost all of them became unemployed. However, as a curiosity, production and export continued to Germany for construction of Germania, the future World capital city ("Welthauptstadt Germania"), planned by Adolf Hitler and Albert Speer. About 500 stone workers were kept employed for this project during the late thirties. Today several varieties are still produced: Evja/Ävja, Tossene, Brastad, Näsinge, Broberg, Nolby, Allemarken and Skarstad. However, the number of stone workers is far from that of the early 1900. The Swedish production is mainly

  16. Cancer morbidity and quartz exposure in Swedish iron foundries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberg, Håkan; Andersson, Lena; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss; Ngo, Yen; Ohlson, Carl-Göran

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine cancer morbidity amongst Swedish iron foundry workers with special reference to quartz exposure. In addition to respirable dust and quartz, phenol, formaldehyde, furfuryl alcohols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), carbon black, isocyanates and asbestos are used or generated by foundry production techniques and exposure to any of these substances could have potentially carcinogenic effects. Cancer morbidity between 1958 and 2004 was evaluated in a cohort of 3,045 male foundry workers employed for >1 year between 1913 and 2005. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) were determined by comparing observed numbers of incident cancers with frequencies in the Swedish cancer register. Exposure measures were assessed using information from the personal files of employees and modelling quartz measurement based on a database of 1,667 quartz measurements. Dose responses for lung cancer were determined for duration of employment and cumulative quartz exposure for latency periods >20 years. Overall cancer morbidity was not increased amongst the foundry workers (SIR 1.00; 95 % CI, 0.90-1.11), but the incidence of lung cancer was significantly elevated (SIR 1.61; 95 % CI, 1.20-2.12). A non-significant negative dose response was determined using external comparison with a latency period of >20 years (SIR 2.05, 1.72 1.26 for the low, medium and high exposure groups), supported by internal comparison data (hazard ratios 1, 1.01, 0.78) for the corresponding groups. For cancers at sites with at least five observed cases and a SIR > 1.25, non-significant risks with SIRs > 1.5 were determined for cancers of the liver, larynx, testis, connective muscle tissue, multiple myeloma plasmacytoma and lymphatic leukaemia. A significant overall risk of lung cancer was determined, but using external and internal comparison groups could not confirm any dose response at our cumulative quartz dose levels.

  17. The combination of work organizational climate and individual work commitment predicts return to work in women but not in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Ekbladh, Elin; Hensing, Gunnel; Dellve, Lotta

    2013-02-01

    To analyze if the combination of organizational climate and work commitment can predict return to work (RTW). This prospective Swedish study was based on 2285 participants, 19 to 64 years old, consecutively selected from the employed population, newly sick-listed for more than 14 days. Data were collected in 2008 through postal questionnaire and from register data. Among women, the combination of good organizational climate and fair work commitment predicted an early RTW with an adjusted relative risk of 2.05 (1.32 to 3.18). Among men, none of the adjusted variables or combinations of variables was found significantly to predict RTW. This study demonstrated the importance of integrative effects of organizational climate and individual work commitment on RTW among women. These factors did not predict RTW in men. More research is needed to understand the RTW process among men.

  18. Processed and unprocessed red meat consumption and risk of heart failure: prospective study of men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluza, Joanna; Akesson, Agneta; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-07-01

    Epidemiological studies of red meat consumption in relation to risk of heart failure (HF) are scarce. We examined the associations of unprocessed and processed red meat consumption with HF incidence and mortality in men. The population-based prospective Cohort of Swedish Men included 37 035 men, aged 45 to 79 years, with no history of HF, ischemic heart disease, or cancer at baseline. Meat consumption was assessed with a self-administered questionnaire in 1997. During a mean follow-up of 11.8 years, 2891 incidences and 266 deaths from HF were ascertained. Consumption of processed meat was statistically significant positively associated with risk of HF in both age- and multivariable-adjusted models. Men who consumed ≥75 g/d processed meat compared with those who consumed meat was not associated with increased risk of incidence of HF or mortality from HF. Findings from this prospective study of men with low to moderate red meat consumption indicate that processed red meat consumption, but not unprocessed red meat, is associated with an increased risk of HF. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Severe male infertility after failed ICSI treatment-a phenomenological study of men's experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellström Anna-Lena

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male-factor infertility underlies approximately 30% of infertility in couples seeking treatment; of which 10% is due to azoospermia. The development of assisted reproductive technology (ART, enabling the use of epididymal or testicular sperm for fertilization of the partner's oocytes, has made biological fatherhood possible for men with obstructive azoospermia. There is limited knowledge of men's experience of their own infertility. The aim of this study was to describe men's experiences of obstructive azoospermia infertility. Methods Eight men with obstructive azoospermia, who had terminated Swedish public health system ART treatment two years previously without subsequent childbirth, were interviewed using a descriptive phenomenological method. Results The essence of the phenomenon is expressed with a metaphor: climbing a mountain step by step with the aim of reaching the top, i.e. having a child and thus a family with a child. Four constituents are included (1 inadequacy followed by a feeling of redress (2 marginalisation, (3 chivalry (4 extension of life and starting a family as driving forces. Conclusions Knowledge of men's experiences of their own infertility is important as a supporting measure to increase the quality of care of infertile couples. By adopting this facet of gender perspective in fertility treatment guidelines, care can hopefully be optimized.

  20. Neighbourhood disadvantage and individual adversities in adolescence and total alcohol consumption up to mid-life-Results from the Northern Swedish Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Klara; San Sebastian, Miguel; Hammarström, Anne; Gustafsson, Per E

    2015-05-01

    This study tests if neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage and family social and material adversities during adolescence are independently related to total alcohol consumption from adolescence through to mid-life. Self-reports from the Northern Swedish Cohort (effective sample=950) at ages 16, 18, 21, 30 and 42 was combined with register data on the socioeconomic composition of neighbourhoods at age 16. Total volume of alcohol consumed between age 16-42 was estimated based on the five survey waves, and self-reported social and material adversities were computed as composite variables. Neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage at age 16 was associated with alcohol consumption age 16-42 for men but not for women. Social adversities at age 16 were associated with alcohol consumption age 16-42 for both women and men, but material adversity or parental class was not. In conclusion, neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage in adolescence has a significant relationship with later alcohol consumption among men, even independently from individual factors. On family level, social factors but not socioeconomic factors in adolescence independently predict later alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Self-perceived oral health among 19-year-olds in a Swedish County--A comparative study between 2004 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlvin, Anna; Gerdin, Elisabeth Wärnberg; Bågesund, Mats; Ordell, Sven

    2016-01-01

    For decades, Swedish dental professionals have collected clinical epidemiological data from the dental records. To supplement the epidemiology, Ostergötland County Council decided to examine patient perceptions of oral health: self-rated knowledge, self-perceived oral health, and opinions about oral health. The aim was to compare self-perceived oral health among 19-year-olds to determine differences between genders, various municipalities and between 2004 and 2011. This study analysed the responses from two cross-sectional surveys of the entire population of 19-year-olds in Ostergötland County, Sweden, performed in 2004 and 2011. Of the 2,413 (53%) (50% men, 50% women) 19-year-olds who responded to the questionnaire in 2004 and the 3,803 (67%) (50% men, 50% women) in 2011, most 19-year-olds (88.1% [2004] and 87.5 % [2011]) reported satisfaction with their oral health. Around half of the respondents rated their knowledge on periodontitis as low. Boys rated their knowledge about avoiding periodontitis higher than girls (p pain. In 2011 that figure was 83.7%.The respondents expressed some uncertainty about the benefits of fluoride toothpaste (7.5% in 2004 and 9.3% in 2011), especially the boys (10.3% in 2004 and 10.5% in 2011). Girls reported both a higher social impact and greater concern about aesthetics related to their oral health. They also reported headache (27.5%) nearly twice as often as boys (14.2%) (p > 0.001). Responses between the municipalities did not differ, with the exception of items regarding periodontitis. Thus, this study found indications that perceptions of oral health and knowledge in Ostergötland County complied with Swedish Dental Act. The study also found patient perceptions of oral health among 19-year-olds to be good.

  2. Cognitive ability, lifestyle risk factors, and two-year survival in first myocardial infarction men: A Swedish National Registry study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wallert, John; Madison, Guy; Held, Claes; Olsson, Erik

    2017-01-01

    .... We investigated whether CA estimated approximately 30 years earlier in young adulthood predicted lifestyle-related risk factors and two-year survival in first myocardial infarction (MI) male patients.Methods...

  3. The foot as a barrier in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis - an interview study among Swedish women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Mathilda; Thyberg, Ingrid; Valtersson, Eva; Östlund, Gunnel; Stenström, Birgitta; Sverker, Annette

    2017-12-01

    Foot impairments are related to reduced mobility and participation restrictions in daily activities in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The new biological medications are effective and reduce disease activity, but not disability to the same extent. Foot impairments are assumed to be related to participation restrictions also in patients with early RA, diagnosed after the introduction of biological medications. The knowledge of foot impairments needs to be more explored after the introduction of biological disease-modifying drugs (bDMARDs). The aim of this study was to explore the patients' perspective of foot impairments related to early RA. The sample included 59 patients (20-63 years) who were interviewed about participation dilemmas in daily life using the Critical Incident Technique. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data related to foot impairments were extracted and analyzed thematically. A research partner validated the analysis. The study was approved by the Regional Ethics Committee. Patients with early RA described a variety of participation restrictions related to foot impairments: 1) foot hindrances in domestic life, 2) foot impairments influencing work, 3) leisure activities restricted by one's feet 4) struggling to be mobile 5) foot impairments as an early sign of rheumatic disease. There is a need to focus on foot impairments related to early RA, and for health care professionals to understand these signs. A suggestion for future research is to conduct a longitudinal follow-up of foot impairment related to medication, disease activity and disability in patients diagnosed after the introduction of bDMARDs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Does the Theory of Planned Behaviour Explain Condom Use Behaviour Among Men Who have Sex with Men? : A Meta-analytic Review of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrew, Benjamin J; Mullan, Barbara A; de Wit, John B F; Monds, Lauren A; Todd, Jemma; Kothe, Emily J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore whether the constructs in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB; i.e., attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, intention) explain condom use behaviour among men who have sex with men (MSM). Electronic databases were searched for studies

  5. Prevalence of lipid abnormalities before and after introduction of lipid modifying therapy among Swedish patients with dyslipidemia (PRIMULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinell Mats

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on the prevalence of dyslipidemia and attainment of goal/normal lipid levels in a Swedish population are scarce. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of dyslipidemia and attainment of goal/normal lipid levels in patients treated with lipid modifying therapy (LMT. Methods This longitudinal retrospective observational study covers time periods before and after treatment. Data were collected from 1994-2007 electronic patient records in public primary healthcare centers in Uppsala County, Sweden. Patients were included if they had been treated with LMT and had at least one lipid abnormality indicating dyslipidemia and if complete lipid profile data were available. Thresholds levels for lipids were defined as per Swedish guidelines. Results Among 5,424 patients included, at baseline, the prevalence of dyslipidemia (≥1 lipid abnormality was by definition 100%, while this figure was 82% at follow-up. At baseline, 60% had elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C combined with low high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C and/or elevated triglycerides (TG s, corresponding figure at follow-up was 36%. Low HDL-C and/or elevated TGs at follow-up remained at 69% for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, 50% among patients with coronary heart disease (CHD and 66% among patients with 10 year CHD risk >20%. Of the total sample, 40% attained goal levels of LDL-C and 18% attained goal/normal levels on all three lipid parameters. Conclusions Focusing therapy on LDL-C reduction allows 40% of patients to achieve LDL-C goal and helps reducing triglyceride levels. Almost 60% of patients experience persistent HDL-C and/or triglyceride abnormality independently of LDL-C levels and could be candidates for additional treatments.

  6. Does Grammatical Aspect Affect Motion Event Cognition? A Cross‐Linguistic Comparison of English and Swedish Speakers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Athanasopoulos, Panos; Bylund, Emanuel

    2013-01-01

    .... We compared native speakers of two languages that encode aspect differently (English and Swedish) in four tasks that examined verbal descriptions of stimuli, online triads matching, and memory...

  7. FOA Information from the Research Institute of Swedish National Defence on Electronic Warfare (FOA Orientar om Electronic Warfare),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    lie Itoii a1 dic’i’rt iii’ 111 e, Iiv iit 1- c k ttcifh i mlti’cd to fill- it, ’lrlcr li’rta lele Midc tiIcl I Ittre It 1 1k i Ict tin Itim rIitut... lele - -and so the attenuation. veloc- the design and size of the trans- communications. ity and direction of propagation (Coft. on p. 20) 18 - . on 1...To get to grips with this sit- pons that can be carried, but the iiA Curve P] =probabtlity of destroying a target with- out air defrence. Curve P

  8. Governance of Swedish school mathematics — where and how did it happen? A study of different modes of governance in Swedish school mathematics, 1910-1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Prytz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to revise a standard narrative about governance of the Swedish school system in the period of 1910-1908. According to this narrative, the Swedish school system was centralized during this period. However, this narrative does not fit the history of Swedish mathematics education (years 1-9. The research questions are: where in the school system was change initiated and how was change enforced? On the basis of studies of syllabi, textbooks, teaching literature, teacher journals and reports from investigations and development projects, different modes of governance of school mathematics are identified. The main results are that textbook producers rather than national syllabi and exams were drivers of change in the period 1910-1960. Moreover, the centralized attempts to change school mathematics, prepared in the 1960s, were soon abandoned in the early 1970s. Thus, centralized governance of Swedish school mathematics, with the ambition to achieve change, was something that took effect relatively late and during a very short period of time.

  9. Translation and psychometric evaluation of the Swedish version of the Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett; Lynch, Marty; Olaussen, Alex; Lachmann, Hanna; Kalén, Susanne; Ponzer, Sari

    2017-10-23

    Interprofessional education (IPE) is widely accepted worldwide, as a key part of training for health professionals and critical to an effective, patient-centred healthcare system. Several tools have been developed to evaluate IPE programmes and interventions globally. Many of the widely-used tools have been successfully adapted to suit specific cohorts and different languages; the Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS), however, has not yet been translated and validated for use in Sweden. The aim of this study was to translate the IEPS into Swedish and validate the psychometric properties of this new version. The 12-item IEPS underwent translation into Swedish and back-translation into English by suitable independent translators to ensure items retained their meaning. The new Swedish version was completed by 164 medical and nursing, occupational therapy and physiotherapy students on clinical placements in Stockholm. Principal Axis Factoring (PAF) and Oblique Oblimin Rotation confirmed a three-factor structure, that explained 77.4% of variance. The new 10-item Swedish version IEPS displayed good internal consistency with an overall Cronbach's alpha of a = .88 and subscale values of .89, .88 and .66. The exclusion of two-items limits the transferability of this scale; however, the factor makeup was very similar to the original 12-item English version. It is suspected that minor differences were due to unavoidable deviations in meaning following translation (i.e. certain English words have no equivalent in Swedish). Nevertheless, the results imply that the Swedish version of the IEPS is a valid and reliable tool for assessing students' perceptions and attitudes towards IPE within the Swedish health education system.

  10. Normal weight adiposity in a Swedish population: how well is cardiovascular risk associated with excess body fat captured by BMI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Christina; Strandhagen, Elisabeth; Mehlig, Kirsten; Subramoney, Sreevidya; Lissner, Lauren; Björck, Lena

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how well body mass index (BMI) reflects cardiovascular risk associated with excess adiposity in a Swedish population by examining the association between body fat, BMI and cardiovascular risk factors. A total of 3,010 adults participated. Normal weight adiposity was defined as the combination of BMI adiposity, while a wide range of body fat was observed among the normal weight subjects. In total, 9% of the participants were categorised as normal weight with adiposity. Compared with the normal weight leanness group, participants with normal weight adiposity had higher levels of serum triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, apolipoptotein B and the apolipoprotein B/A-I ratio. In normal weight men, adiposity was also associated with higher blood pressure and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Higher percentage of body fat was associated with less favourable risk factor profile even in subjects who were normal weight. Thus, it might be relevant to screen for metabolic risk factors in the upper end of the normal weight category.

  11. Physical Inactivity From Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Relevance of Various Dimensions of Inequality in a Swedish Longitudinal Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Laura; Nermo, Magnus; Östberg, Viveca

    2017-06-01

    As physical inactivity may track from adolescence to adulthood, it is important to identify social determinants of physical inactivity in early life. However, most studies have measured socioeconomic position as one dimension. We examine whether multiple dimensions of socioeconomic position, in addition to other dimensions of inequality (i.e., gender, immigrant background), associate with physical inactivity at two time points in youth. Longitudinal data were drawn from the Swedish Level of Living Survey ( N = 765) and analysed by gender-stratified logistic regression. Among girls, low parental social class (odds ratio [OR] = 2.63, 95% confidence interval [CI; 1.28, 5.42]) and income (OR = 2.28, 95% [CI 1.12, 4.65]) were associated with physical inactivity, while immigrant background (OR = 2.33, 95% CI [1.03, 5.23]) and a low level of parental education (OR = 3.38, 95% CI [1.15, 9.95]) predicted physical inactivity among women. Among boys, low parental income (OR = 3.27, 95% CI [1.39, 7.69]) was associated with physical inactivity, whereas immigrant background (OR = 2.29, 95% CI [1.04, 5.03]) predicted physical inactivity among men. Our results suggest that physical inactivity is socially patterned, but different dimensions of social stratification should not be considered interchangeable as they may operate independently, through intersection with gender, and at different time points in youth in increasing the risk of physical inactivity.

  12. The Swedish Research Council's definition of 'scientific misconduct': a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salwén, Håkan

    2015-02-01

    There is no consensus over the proper definition of 'scientific misconduct.' There are differences in opinion not only between countries but also between research institutions in the same country. This is unfortunate. Without a widely accepted definition it is difficult for scientists to adjust to new research milieux. This might hamper scientific innovation and make cooperation difficult. Furthermore, due to the potentially damaging consequences it is important to combat misconduct. But how frequent is it and what measures are efficient? Without an appropriate definition there are no interesting answers to these questions. In order to achieve a high degree of consensus and to foster research integrity, the international dialogue over the proper definition of 'scientific misconduct' must be on going. Yet, the scientific community should not end up with the definition suggested by the Swedish Research Council. The definition the council advocates does not satisfy the ordinary language condition. That is, the definition is not consistent with how 'scientific misconduct' is used by scientists. I will show that this is due to the fact that it refers to false results. I generalise this and argue that no adequate definition of 'scientific misconduct' makes such a reference.

  13. Tooth resorption in the Swedish Eurasion lynx (Lynx lynx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Ann

    2010-01-01

    The etiology of tooth resorption in the domestic cat remains unknown. The high prevalence and progressive nature of the disease complicates defining healthy control groups. In order to evaluate the possible influence of various life style changes on the prevalence of tooth resorption, healthy control groups are a prerequisite. This paper presents a prevalence study for tooth resorption in a free-ranging wild felidae population. Skulls from 46 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) were examined. The age of the animals had previously been estimated based on cementum annuli in the maxillary right canine tooth. The dental examination included both dental probing and radiographic imaging. Complicated fractures of the canine teeth were found in 9/46 (19.5%) skulls. In one fractured canine, apical root resorption and periapical lucency was detected. The root resorption was attributed to inflammatory resorption as a consequence of the initial dental trauma and necrotic pulp. No signs of tooth resorption were found in the remaining teeth. Supernumerary roots were detected in 18/46 skulls (39.1 %). Supernumerary "peg" teeth caudal to the mandibular first molar tooth were detected in 6/46 (13.0%) skulls. Although further studies on dental ultra-structure are needed, the Swedish Eurasian lynx may, in the future, be useful as a healthy comparative model for studies on the etiopathogenesis of tooth resorption in the domestic cat.

  14. Development of detection techniques for the Swedish noble gas sampler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringbom, A

    1998-11-01

    A short review on the radioactive properties of noble gas isotopes relevant for monitoring of nuclear activities is given, together with a brief discussion of the existing systems for detection of radioactive noble gases. A 4{pi} detection system to be used in the automatic version of the Swedish noble gas sampling device is described. Monte Carlo calculations of the total gamma and beta efficiency for different detector designs have been performed, together with estimates of the resulting minimum detectable concentration (MDC). The estimated MDC values for detection of the {sup 133g}Xe 81 keV and the {sup 135g}Xe 250 keV gamma lines are around 0.3 mBq/m{sup 3} in both cases. This is a factor of three lower than the detection limit required for a sampling station in the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty monitoring network. The possibility to modify the system to detect {sup 85}Kr is also discussed 27 refs, 13 figs, 3 tabs

  15. An investigation on the presence of Chlamydiaceae in Swedish dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanås Sofia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria belonging to the family Chlamydiaceae cause a broad spectrum of diseases in a wide range of hosts, including man, other mammals, and birds. Upper respiratory and genital diseases are common clinical problems caused by Chlamydiaceae. Very little is known about chlamydial infections in dogs. Few clinical reports on natural disease in dogs describe mainly conjunctival and upper respiratory signs, and the role of Chlamydiaceae in genital disease is unclear. The present study aimed at studying the prevalence of Chlamydiaceae in healthy dogs and in dogs with genital or upper respiratory disease, including conjunctivitis. Methods A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR for Chlamydiaceae was used to detect any chlamydial species within this family. Swab samples from the conjunctiva and the mucosal membranes of the oropharynx, rectum and genital tract were taken from 79 dogs: 27 clinically healthy dogs, 25 dogs with clinical signs from the genital tract and 28 dogs with conjunctivitis. There were 52 female and 27 male dogs. From 7 of the male dogs, additional semen samples were analysed. Results No Chlamydiaceae were detected from any dog. Conclusions Although the number of dogs that was included is limited, the results suggest that cases of Chlamydiaceae in dogs probably are related to infection from other species, and that dogs in general do not harbour Chlamydiaceae. Bacteria belonging to the family Chlamydiaceae do not seem to be of major importance for genital or ocular disease in Swedish dogs.

  16. Natural organic matter properties in Swedish agricultural streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieroza, Magdalena; Kyllmar, Katarina; Bergström, Lars; Köhler, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    The following paper shows natural organic matter (NOM) properties of stream water samples collected from 8 agricultural streams and 12 agricultural observational fields in Sweden. The catchments and observational fields cover a broad range of environmental (climate, soil type), land use and water quality (nutrient and concentrations, pH, alkalinity) characteristics. Stream water samples collected every two weeks within an ongoing Swedish Monitoring Programme for Agriculture have been analysed for total/dissolved organic carbon, absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy. A number of quantitative and qualitative spectroscopic parameters was calculated to help to distinguish between terrestrially-derived, refractory organic material and autochthonous, labile material indicative of biogeochemical transformations of terrestrial NOM and recent biological production. The study provides insights into organic matter properties and carbon budgets in agricultural streams and improves understanding of how agricultural catchments transform natural and anthropogenic fluxes of organic matter and nutrients. The insights from the grab sampling are supported by high-frequency turbidity, fulvic-like and tryptophan-like fluorescence measurements with in situ optical sensor.

  17. Lightning location system supervising Swedish power transmission network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Stefan A.

    1991-01-01

    For electric utilities, the ability to prevent or minimize lightning damage on personnel and power systems is of great importance. Therefore, the Swedish State Power Board, has been using data since 1983 from a nationwide lightning location system (LLS) for accurately locating lightning ground strikes. Lightning data is distributed and presented on color graphic displays at regional power network control centers as well as at the national power system control center for optimal data use. The main objectives for use of LLS data are: supervising the power system for optimal and safe use of the transmission and generating capacity during periods of thunderstorms; warning service to maintenance and service crews at power line and substations to end operations hazardous when lightning; rapid positioning of emergency crews to locate network damage at areas of detected lightning; and post analysis of power outages and transmission faults in relation to lightning, using archived lightning data for determination of appropriate design and insulation levels of equipment. Staff have found LLS data useful and economically justified since the availability of power system has increased as well as level of personnel safety.

  18. Sperm production and sperm morphology of Swedish Warmblood stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsson, S; Dalin, A-M; Lundeheim, N

    2009-02-01

    The present study investigated daily sperm output and sperm morphology of fresh semen in eight Swedish Warmblood stallions aged 5-8 years. They were used for artificial insemination, and their fertility during the breeding season of semen collection exceeded 60% per cycle. One ejaculate of semen was collected daily for 10 consecutive days from each stallion. The gel-free volume was measured, and the sperm concentration was assessed with a Bürker chamber. The volume of gel-free fraction was multiplied by the sperm concentration to give the total number of spermatozoa (TSN). Sperm morphology was examined in ejaculates collected on days 2, 5 and 10. An aliquot from each ejaculate was fixed in 1 ml formol-saline immediately after collection and examined under a phase-contrast microscope (magnification 1000x) to assess morphological abnormalities. Furthermore smears were prepared and stained according to Williams (carbolfuchsin-eosin) for a more detailed examination of the sperm heads under a light microscope (magnification 1000x). Analysis of variance was applied to data. Total spermatozoa number decreased progressively during the first 8 days of collection, and daily sperm output (DSO) was calculated as mean TSN of collections on days 8-10, being 6.4 x 10(9) spermatozoa. The overall percentages of morphologically normal spermatozoa in ejaculates collected on days 2, 5 and 10 were above 70%, being significantly lower in ejaculate 2 (68.6%) compared with ejaculates 5 and 10 (72.9% respectively 75.3%).

  19. The implementation of process orientation at a Swedish hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fältholm, Ylva; Jansson, Anna

    2008-01-01

    During the last decade, as a response to the need for inter- as well as intra-organizational integration, management models initially developed for industry have been spread to health care organizations. Based on 62 in-depth interviews, this qualitative study aims at describing and analyzing the limited success of implementation of process orientation at a Swedish hospital and in doing so, the traditional and the critical approaches are combined. Applying a traditional approach, the limited success of the implementation of process orientation is explained in terms of difficulties to challenge deeply institutionalized organizational routines and the inter-disciplinary boundaries. This might be condensed to the dilemma of how to maintain and develop the specialization of the medical profession while focusing process rather than function and how to enhance inter-organizational integration without hampering intra-organizational collaboration. Applying a critical approach, the limited success is explained in terms of a differentiated translation process and in terms of separation of talk and practice. This means that process orientation, notwithstanding that it might be an efficient tool for the type of integration needed, might be regarded as part of a change discourse, aiming at conveying a picture of an efficient and modern organization.

  20. Gambling Motives in a Representative Swedish Sample of Risk Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Kristina; Jonsson, Jakob; Wennberg, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Motives for gambling have been shown to be associated with gambling involvement, and hence important in the understanding of the etiology of problem gambling. The aim of this study was to describe differences in gambling motives in different subgroups of lifetime risk gamblers, categorized by: age, gender, alcohol- and drug habits and type of game preferred, when considering the level of risk gambling. A random Swedish sample (n = 19,530) was screened for risk gambling, using the Lie/Bet questionnaire. The study sample (n = 257) consisted of the respondents screening positive on Lie/Bet and completing a postal questionnaire about gambling and motives for gambling (measured with the NODS-PERC and the RGQ respectively). When considering the level of risk gambling, motives for gambling were not associated with gender, whereas younger persons gambled for the challenge more often than did older participants. Card/Casino and Sport gamblers played to a greater extent for social and challenge reasons then did Lotto/Bingo-gamblers. EGM-gamblers played more for coping reasons than did Lotto/Bingo gamblers. However, this association turned non-significant when considering the level of risk gambling. Moderate risk gamblers played for the challenge and coping reasons to a greater extent than low risk gamblers motives for gambling differ across subgroups of preferred game and between gamblers with low and moderate risk. The level of risk gambling is intertwined with motives for gambling and should be considered when examining gambling reasons.

  1. Linguatula serrata in Swedish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Rehbinder

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available A high prevalence (24,2% of the tongue-worm Lingutula serrata was found in reindeer yearlings. Apparently the high incidence found in this material indicates that the parasite is well adapted to reindeer; the reaction of the nasal mucosa is very mild. The abscence of clinical manifestations and the hidden localization in sinuses which are rarely inspected at slaughter or autopsy is most probably the reason why L. serrata is seldom observed.Tungmask (Linguatula serrata hos svensk skogsren.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: En hög frekvens(24,2% av tungmask (Linguatula serrata påvisades hos årskalv av skogsren. Den ringa våvnadsreaktion som forelag antyder att L serrata troligen ar val anpassad till ren. Att endast ett fåtal rapporter om forekomst av L serrata hos ren foreligger torde bero på att parasiten inte ger några kliniska symptom samt dess i huvudsak gomda lokalisation i overkåkshåligheterna vilka sållan inspekteras vid slakt eller obduktion. L serrata år dårfor sannolikt vanligare hos svenska renar ån man tidigare antagit.

  2. Swedish traveller with Plasmodium knowlesi malaria after visiting Malaysian Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Färnert Anna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plasmodium knowlesi is typically found in nature in macaques and has recently been recognized as the fifth species of Plasmodium causing malaria in human populations in south-east Asia. A case of knowlesi malaria is described in a Swedish man, who became ill after returning from a short visit to Malaysian Borneo in October 2006. His P. knowlesi infection was not detected using a rapid diagnostic test for malaria, but was confirmed by PCR and molecular characterization. He responded rapidly to treatment with mefloquine. Evaluation of rapid diagnostic kits with further samples from knowlesi malaria patients are necessary, since early identification and appropriate anti-malarial treatment of suspected cases are essential due to the rapid growth and potentially life-threatening nature of P. knowlesi. Physicians should be aware that knowlesi infection is an important differential diagnosis in febrile travellers, with a recent travel history to forested areas in south-east Asia, including short-term travellers who tested negative with rapid diagnostic tests.

  3. Decisions not to resuscitate in a Swedish university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, H; Adolfsson, A; Lundberg, D

    1997-11-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has the potential to save many lives. Used indiscriminately though, it may be harmful and not in the best interest of the patient. An advance directive to refrain from resuscitation in selected patients is probably not uncommon in Sweden, but guidelines ruling this are still generally lacking. This study was performed to evaluate the use and documentation of do-not-resuscitate orders in a Swedish university hospital. Adult inpatients at 7 medical, 3 surgical and 2 neurological wards, a total of 220, were investigated on one specific day by interviewing the physicians and nurses responsible for their care. We found a discrepancy in doctors' and nurses' perception concerning the appropriateness of CPR in selected patients. CPR was judged by doctors to be inappropriate for 45 patients (20%). Out of these 45 patients, only 24 had a written do-not-resuscitate order in their medical record, in most cases noted as a code word or sign only. Rarely were the patient or his/her relatives involved in the decision-making process. We conclude that a decision to refrain from resuscitation is often not made, even when considered medically and ethically justifiable. Also, the use of coded information as a sole indicator for a patient not to be resuscitated is still common practice. The patient or his/her relatives are rarely involved in this decision.

  4. Integrating health promotion with quality improvement in a Swedish hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astnell, Sandra; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Hasson, Henna; Augustsson, Hanna; Stenfors-Hayes, Terese

    2016-09-01

    Integration of workplace employee health promotion (HP) and occupational health and safety (OHS) work into organizational quality improvement systems is suggested as a way to strengthen HP and OHS activities in an organization. The aim of this article was to study what consequences integration of HP, OHS and a quality improvement system called kaizen has on the frequency and type of HP and OHS activities. A quasi-experimental study design was used where an integration of the three systems for HP, OHS respectively kaizen, was performed at six intervention units at a Swedish hospital. The remaining six units served as controls. Document analysis of all employees' written improvement suggestions (kaizen notes) during 2013 was conducted. The findings show that the intervention group had more suggestions concerning HP and OHS (n = 114) when compared with the control group (n = 78) and a greater variety of HP and OHS suggestions. In addition, only the intervention group had included HP aspects. In both groups, most kaizen notes with health consideration had a preventive focus rather than rehabilitative. The intervention, i.e. the integration of HP, OHS and kaizen work, had a favourable effect on HP and OHS work when compared with the controls. The results of the study support that this system can work in practice at hospitals. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The assassination of the Swedish Minister for Foreign Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsgaard, Edvard; Meloy, J Reid

    2011-03-01

    On September 10, 2003, Anna Lindh, the Swedish Minister for Foreign Affairs, was assassinated. The offender, a 24-year-old man, was a socially isolated, culturally and familially dislocated, yet academically quite competent young man who became enthralled with the habitual criminality of some of his relatives and their associates, and then psychiatrically decompensated in his early twenties. He had a history of serious violence before the crime, including the gross assault with a knife of his alcoholic and abusive father when he was 17, stalking, and extortion. At least a year prior to the assassination, he confided to a friend his desire to attack someone famous in front of many people. A definitive motive for the crime was not possible to establish. This was an act of intended, yet opportunistic violence toward a national political figure. The dynamics of the case are placed in the context of other attacks on Western European and U.S. politicians. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Politics and Aesthetics in Electronic Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    and prolonged process. While the building was underway, many composers worked in EMS’s principle provisional studio, where they among other pieces created the so-called text sound compositions. Over time this studio was worn, and the composers asked for new analog equipment. The board of directors opposed......This book is the first to explore the history of the Swedish electronic music studio EMS. EMS was established in 1964 with the intent to create an international center for research in sound and sound perception, and to build one of the world’s most advanced hybrid studios. The principal creators...

  7. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  8. Health Issues for Gay Men: Prevention First

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as condom use every time you have sex. Gay men and men who have sex with men might be at higher risk of ... long-term health. Makadon HJ. Primary care of gay men and men who have sex with men. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. ...

  9. A reversal of the socioeconomic gradient of nuptiality during the Swedish mid-20th-century baby boom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Sandström

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research into the causes of the mid-20th-century baby boom has concluded that the main proximate cause of the fertility increase during the 1940s was earlier and more universal marriage in the cohorts born after 1910, and that this association between nuptiality trends and fertility was particularly strong in Sweden. Objective: However, we do not know whether this was a general trend or if certain socioeconomic groups spearheaded the change toward earlier marriage. Methods: The present study uses event history analysis to investigate the marital histories of approximately 100,000 men and women in Sweden, born 1880-1934, to determine how socioeconomic differentials in nuptiality developed during the period 1900-1960. Conclusions: The analysis shows that the sharp increase in nuptiality was not driven uniformly across different social strata, but rather took the form of earlier and more universal marriage among men in the mid and upper social strata and among economically active women, while male unskilled workers and women outside the labor market did not participate in the nuptiality boom during the peak baby boom years and even showed some signs of decreased marriage probabilities compared to earlier cohorts. Contribution: The results indicate that sector-specific economic growth after the depression and the breakthrough of the Swedish welfare state benefitted couples who could aspire to a middle-class identity, and that pronatalist policies made female economic activity more compatible with marriage. The results show that the shift toward a positive female socioeconomic gradient of marriage and family formation that can be observed in contemporary Sweden had its beginnings already with the cohorts that participated in the mid-20th-century baby boom.

  10. The importance of comorbidity in analysing patient costs in Swedish primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Östgren Carl-Johan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to explore the usefulness of the morbidity risk adjustment system Adjusted Clinical Groups® (ACG, in comparison with age and gender, in explaining and estimating patient costs on an individual level in Swedish primary health care. Data were retrieved from two primary health care centres in southeastern Sweden. Methods A cross-sectional observational study. Data from electronic patient registers from the two centres were retrieved for 2001 and 2002, and patients were grouped into ACGs, expressing the individual combination of diagnoses and thus the comorbidity. Costs per patient were calculated for both years in both centres. Cost data from one centre were used to create ACG weights. These weights were then applied to patients at the other centre. Correlations between individual patient costs, age, gender and ACG weights were studied. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed in order to explain and estimate patient costs. Results The variation in individual patient costs was substantial within age groups as well as within ACG weight groups. About 37.7% of the individual patient costs could be explained by ACG weights, and age and gender added about 0.8%. The individual patient costs in 2001 estimated 22.0% of patient costs in 2002, whereas ACG weights estimated 14.3%. Conclusion ACGs was an important factor in explaining and estimating individual patient costs in primary health care. Costs were explained to only a minor extent by age and gender. However, the usefulness of the ACG system appears to be sensitive to the accuracy of classification and coding of diagnoses by physicians.

  11. Combined impact of healthy lifestyle factors on risk of atrial fibrillation: Prospective study in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Drca, Nikola; Jensen-Urstad, Mats; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-01-15

    The combined impact of multiple lifestyle factors on risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) remains unclear. We investigated the joint association of four modifiable lifestyle factors on incidence of AF in a prospective study of men and women. The study cohort comprised 39 300 men in the Cohort of Swedish Men and 33 090 women in the Swedish Mammography Cohort who were 45-83 years of age and free from atrial fibrillation at baseline. Healthy lifestyle was defined as body mass index healthy lifestyle factors, the multivariable relative risks (95% confidence interval) of AF were 0.83 (0.65-1.07) for one, 0.74 (0.58-0.94) for two, 0.62 (0.49-0.79) for three, and 0.50 (0.39-0.64) for four healthy lifestyle factors (P for trend healthy lifestyle factors combined were associated with a halving of the risk of AF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Long term mental health outcomes of Finnish children evacuated to Swedish families during the second world war and their non-evacuated siblings: cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santavirta, Torsten; Santavirta, Nina; Betancourt, Theresa S; Gilman, Stephen E

    2015-01-05

    To compare the risks of admission to hospital for any type of psychiatric disorder and for four specific psychiatric disorders among adults who as children were evacuated to Swedish foster families during the second world war and their non-evacuated siblings, and to evaluate whether these risks differ between the sexes. Cohort study. National child evacuation scheme in Finland during the second world war. Children born in Finland between 1933 and 1944 who were later included in a 10% sample of the 1950 Finnish census ascertained in 1997 (n = 45,463; women: n = 22,021; men: n = 23,442). Evacuees in the sample were identified from war time government records. Adults admitted to hospital for psychiatric disorders recorded between 1971 and 2011 in the Finnish hospital discharge register. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the association between evacuation to temporary foster care in Sweden during the second world war and admission to hospital for a psychiatric disorder between ages 38 and 78 years. Fixed effects methods were employed to control for all unobserved social and genetic characteristics shared among siblings. Among men and women combined, the risk of admission to hospital for a psychiatric disorder did not differ between Finnish adults evacuated to Swedish foster families and their non-evacuated siblings (hazard ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 1.26). Evidence suggested a lower risk of admission for any mental disorder (0.67, 0.44 to 1.03) among evacuated men, whereas for women there was no association between evacuation and the overall risk of admission for a psychiatric disorder (1.21, 0.80 to 1.83). When admissions for individual psychiatric disorders were analyzed, evacuated girls were significantly more likely than their non-evacuated sisters to be admitted to hospital for a mood disorder as an adult (2.19, 1.10 to 4.33). The Finnish evacuation policy was not associated with an increased overall risk of admission to hospital

  13. Few gender differences in specialty preferences and motivational factors: a cross-sectional Swedish study on last-year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diderichsen, Saima; Johansson, Eva E; Verdonk, Petra; Lagro-Janssen, Toine; Hamberg, Katarina

    2013-03-08

    Today, women constitute about half of medical students in several Western societies, yet women physicians are still underrepresented in surgical specialties and clustered in other branches of medicine. Gender segregation in specialty preference has been found already in medical school. It is important to study the career preferences of our future physicians, as they will influence the maintenance of an adequate supply of physicians in all specialties and the future provision of health care. American and British studies dominate the area of gender and medical careers whereas Swedish studies on medical students' reasons for specialty preference are scarce. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare Swedish male and female medical students' specialty preferences and the motives behind them. Between 2006 and 2009, all last-year medical students at Umea University, Sweden (N = 421), were invited to answer a questionnaire about their future career and family plans. They were asked about their specialty preference and how they rated the impact that the motivational factors had for their choice. The response rate was 89% (N = 372); 58% were women (N = 215) and 42% were men (N = 157). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the independent impact of each motivational factor for specialty preference. On the whole, male and female last-year students opted for similar specialties. Men and women had an almost identical ranking order of the motivational factors. When analyzed separately, male and female students showed both similarities and differences in the motivational factors that were associated with their specialty preference. A majority of the women and a good third of the men intended to work part-time. The motivational factor combining work with family correlated with number of working hours for women, but not for men. The gender similarities in the medical students' specialty preferences are striking and contrast with research from other

  14. "I have surly passed a limit, it is simply too much": women's and men's experiences of stress and wellbeing when living within a process of housework resignation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harryson, Lisa; Aléx, Lena; Hammarström, Anne

    2016-03-04

    Gender inequality within paid and unpaid work exposes women and men to different environments and responsibilities. These gender patterns shape living conditions for women and men, either negatively or positively, by affecting the prospect of good health. Most public health studies of gender and housework are quantitative, and knowledge about the relationship between housework experiences and health for women and men is limited. The aim of this study was to explore the housework experiences and practices of women and men and their experiences of stress and perceived wellbeing from a gender perspective. We conducted thematic interviews with four women and four men living in Sweden, and performed an analysis using the Grounded Theory method. We found that stereotypical gender practices in housework influenced experiences of stress and perceived wellbeing among women and men. Despite proposing gender equality in housework as a means of improving wellbeing, inequality was amplified by the way women and men handle the gendered division of housework. We call this recurring theme "The process of housework resignation", which also constitute the core category in our analysis. "The process of housework resignation" was theorised from the categories "Gender practices in housework", "Experiencing stress and wellbeing" and "Managing daily life". Stereotypical gender practices in housework can increase experiences of stress among women and men. Challenging stereotypical masculinities can be a key for breaking the process of resignation in housework and for facilitating improved health among both women and men in heterosexual couple relationships within a Swedish context.

  15. Homozygous SMN2 deletion is a protective factor in the Swedish ALS population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcia, Philippe; Ingre, Caroline; Blasco, Helene; Press, Rayomand; Praline, Julien; Antar, Catherine; Veyrat-Durebex, Charlotte; Guettard, Yves-Olivier; Camu, William; Andersen, Peter M; Vourc'h, Patrick; Andres, Christian R

    2012-05-01

    Abnormal survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1)-copy number has been associated with an increased risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in French and Dutch population studies. The aim of this study was to determine whether SMN gene copy number increases the risk of ALS or modulates its phenotype in a cohort of Swedish sporadic ALS (SALS) patients. In all, 502 Swedes with SALS and 502 Swedish controls matched for gender and age were enrolled. SMN1 and SMN2 gene copy numbers were studied by a semi-quantitative PCR method. A genotype-phenotype comparison was performed in order to determine whether SMN genes modulate the phenotype of ALS. The results were also compared with our previously reported French cohort of ALS patients. There was no difference between Swedish patients and controls in the frequency of SMN1 and SMN2 copy numbers. The frequency of SMN1 gene copies differed significantly between the French and Swedish ALS populations. The duration of the disease was significantly longer in the Swedish cohort with homozygous deletions of SMN2 when compared with the French cohort. Abnormal SMN1 gene copy number cannot be considered as a universal genetic susceptibility factor for SALS and this result underlines the importance of reproducing association gene studies in groups from different origins. We also suggest that SMN2 gene copy number might have different effects on ALS progression in disparate human populations.

  16. Developmental perspectives on bilingual Swedish-Arabic children with and without language impairment: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Eva-Kristina; Håkansson, Gisela; Nettelbladt, Ulrika

    2004-01-01

    There is a need for studies on bilingual language acquisition in combination with language impairment (LI). The speech and language clinician must have tools to differentiate between problems depending on inadequate exposure to a language and problems depending on a LI. Another important issue is the pace of bilingual language acquisition relative to the severity of LI. To investigate grammatical development over 12 months in both languages in 10 Swedish-Arabic pre-school children with severe LI and 10 Swedish-Arabic pre-school children without LI. The children were matched for age, gender, exposure to Swedish dialect, and exposure to Arabic dialect. The developmental hierarchy predicted by Processability Theory was used in tests in both Swedish and Arabic. Processability Theory was used as a yardstick to measure grammatical development in both languages. Bilingual children, both with and without LI, developed grammatical structures in Swedish and Arabic in the same implicational way. Children with severe LI could develop two languages, although the pace of development was much slower in both languages. Bilingual children with severe LI were also more vulnerable to limited exposure of both their languages. A developmental perspective is important to understand the nature of LI in bilingual children. The results also have implications for the assessment of language development in bilingual children with severe LI, since a hardly perceptible development over time is observed.

  17. MUTUAL INTELLIGIBILITY OF MALAY- AND SWEDISH-ACCENTED ENGLISH: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeseung Jeong Jeong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In using English as an international language (EIL, one important issue is mutual intelligibility among EIL speakers from different language backgrounds. The present study investigates the cross-linguistic intelligibility of Malay-accented English and Swedish-accented English, regarding the three phonetic features – word stress pattern, consonant clusters, and long vowel in particular. We prepared 15 English statements that are evidently true or false if understood, and examined to what extent the three phonetic features are related to 30 Swedish and 38 Malaysian listeners’ understandings of the statements read by a speaker from the other language group. We compared the Malaysian and Swedish listeners’ answers given with understanding as well as processing time to respond. The listeners’ own accounts of their struggles in understanding the speakers’ pronunciations were also analyzed. Results show that Malaysian listeners easily understood Swedish-accented English, while Swedish listeners struggled to understand Malay-accented English. The difference between the two groups of listeners seems to be closely related to the degree of the realization of the three phonetic features by the speakers as well as to the degree of the use of these features as perceptual cues by the listeners. Based on the findings, we discuss potential phonetic core features of EIL for intelligibility and some pedagogical implications for teaching English pronunciation to the learners of the language.

  18. The psychometric properties of the AUDIT: a survey from a random sample of elderly Swedish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källmén, Håkan; Wennberg, Peter; Ramstedt, Mats; Hallgren, Mats

    2014-07-01

    Increasing alcohol consumption and related harms have been reported among the elderly population of Europe. Consequently, it is important to monitor patterns of alcohol use, and to use a valid and reliable tool when screening for risky consumption in this age group. The aim was to evaluate the internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in elderly Swedish adults, and to compare the results with the general Swedish population. Another aim was to calculate the level of alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C) to be used for comparison in future studies. The questionnaire was sent to 1459 Swedish adults aged 79-80 years with a response rate of 73.3%. Internal consistency reliability, were assessed using Cronbach alpha, and confirmatory factor analysis assessed construct validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in elderly population as compared to a Swedish general population sample. The results showed that AUDIT was more reliable and valid among the Swedish general population sample than among the elderly and that Item 1 and 4 in AUDIT was less reliable and valid among the elderly. While the AUDIT showed acceptable psychometric properties in the general population sample, it's performance was of less quality among the elderly respondents. Further psychometric assessments of the AUDIT in elderly populations are required before it is implemented more widely.

  19. Electron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  20. Transgender men's experiences of fertility preservation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armuand, G; Dhejne, C; Olofsson, J I; Rodriguez-Wallberg, K A

    2017-02-01

    met. The participants used several coping strategies in order to manage the procedure, such as focusing on their reasons for undergoing FP, reaching out to friends and family for support and the cognitive approaches of not hating their body or using non-gendered names for their body parts. The results demonstrate the importance of contextual sensitivity during FP procedures. The authors have strived to be reflective about their pre-understanding of the phenomenon. The majority of the participants resided in large urban areas; it is possible that transgender men living in rural areas have different experiences. As the results are based on qualitative data from 15 transgender men, the results cannot readily be generalized to larger populations. However, the results are suggested to be applicable to other transgender men who want to undergo FP by cryopreservation of oocytes. The results show that transgender men's experience of FP places may elicit gender incongruence and gender dysphoria. However, health care personnel can alleviate distress by using a gender-neutral language and the preferred pronoun. Also, reassuringly, the men also have coping strategies of how to handle the situation. This knowledge is important to ensure adequate professional support for patients with gender dysphoria during FP. Swedish Society of Medicine, Stockholm County Council and Karolinska Institutet (to K.A.R.-W.). N/A. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Jag är inte porrmoralist, men... : En diskursanalys av pornografidebatten i svensk press år 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Angvarson, Elin; Nilsson, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to investigate the opinions of pornography in the Swedish press 2016. To perform this, a quantitative method and discourse analysis on 139 published texts have been used. This study shows that the year of 2016 primarily is focused on a strong sence of concern about the effects of pornography rather than the industry itself, and the concerns are primarily rooted in anxiety of the effects on pornography-consumers, that is primarily young boys and men. The debate tha...

  2. Sexually transmitted infections in men who have sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Homosexuality is a global human phenomenon. Although the American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from its list of disorders more than 35years ago, homophobia among physicians is still widely prevalent. Men who have sex with men (MSM) form a relatively new epidemiological risk group

  3. Coupled electron transfers in artificial photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, Leif; Styring, Stenbjörn

    2008-03-27

    Light-induced charge separation in molecular assemblies has been widely investigated in the context of artificial photosynthesis. Important progress has been made in the fundamental understanding of electron and energy transfer and in stabilizing charge separation by multi-step electron transfer. In the Swedish Consortium for Artificial Photosynthesis, we build on principles from the natural enzyme photosystem II and Fe-hydrogenases. An important theme in this biomimetic effort is that of coupled electron-transfer reactions, which have so far received only little attention. (i) Each absorbed photon leads to charge separation on a single-electron level only, while catalytic water splitting and hydrogen production are multi-electron processes; thus there is the need for controlling accumulative electron transfer on molecular components. (ii) Water splitting and proton reduction at the potential catalysts necessarily require the management of proton release and/or uptake. Far from being just a stoichiometric requirement, this controls the electron transfer processes by proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET). (iii) Redox-active links between the photosensitizers and the catalysts are required to rectify the accumulative electron-transfer reactions, and will often be the starting points of PCET.

  4. Characteristics of convective snow bands along the Swedish east coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeworrek, Julia; Wu, Lichuan; Dieterich, Christian; Rutgersson, Anna

    2017-03-01

    Convective snow bands develop in response to a cold air outbreak from the continent or the frozen sea over the open water surface of lakes or seas. The comparatively warm water body triggers shallow convection due to increased heat and moisture fluxes. Strong winds can align with this convection into wind-parallel cloud bands, which appear stationary as the wind direction remains consistent for the time period of the snow band event, delivering enduring snow precipitation at the approaching coast. The statistical analysis of a dataset from an 11-year high-resolution atmospheric regional climate model (RCA4) indicated 4 to 7 days a year of moderate to highly favourable conditions for the development of convective snow bands in the Baltic Sea region. The heaviest and most frequent lake effect snow was affecting the regions of Gävle and Västervik (along the Swedish east coast) as well as Gdansk (along the Polish coast). However, the hourly precipitation rate is often higher in Gävle than in the Västervik region. Two case studies comparing five different RCA4 model setups have shown that the Rossby Centre atmospheric regional climate model RCA4 provides a superior representation of the sea surface with more accurate sea surface temperature (SST) values when coupled to the ice-ocean model NEMO as opposed to the forcing by the ERA-40 reanalysis data. The refinement of the resolution of the atmospheric model component leads, especially in the horizontal direction, to significant improvement in the representation of the mesoscale circulation process as well as the local precipitation rate and area by the model.

  5. The Rise and Fall of Swedish Wealth Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrekson Magnus

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the evolution of modern Swedish wealth taxation from its introduction in**1911 until it was abolished in 2007. The rules concerning valuation of assets, deductions/exemptions and tax schedules to characterize effective wealth tax schedules are described. These rules and schedules are used to calculate marginal and average wealth tax rates for three differently endowed owners of family firms and individual fortunes corresponding to a large, medium-sized and small firm. The overall trend in the direct wealth tax was rising until 1971 for owners of large and medium-sized firms and for individuals of equally-sized wealth consisting of non-corporate assets. Average direct wealth tax rates were low until 1934, except for 1913 when a progressive defense tax was levied. There were three major tax hikes: in 1934, when the wealth tax was more than doubled, in 1948 when tax rates were doubled again and in 1971 for owners of large firms and similarly sized non-corporate fortunes. Effective tax rates peaked in 1973 for owners of large firms and in 1983 for individuals with large non-corporate wealth. Reduction rules limited the wealth tax rates from 1934 for fortunes with high wealth/income ratios. The wealth tax on unlisted net business equity was abolished in 1991. Tax rates for wealthy individuals were decreased in 1991 and in 1992 and then remained at 0.5-1 percent through 2006, depending on whether the reduction rule was applicable. Tax rates for small-firm owners and small individual fortunes were substantially lower. Aggregate wealth tax revenues were rela-tively small; they never exceeded 0.4 percent of GDP in the postwar period and amounted to 0.16 percent of GDP in 2006.

  6. Prenatal phthalate exposures and anogenital distance in Swedish boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Carlstedt, Fredrik; Jönsson, Bo A G; Lindh, Christian H; Jensen, Tina K; Bodin, Anna; Jonsson, Carin; Janson, Staffan; Swan, Shanna H

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates are used as plasticizers in soft polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and in a large number of consumer products. Because of reported health risks, diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) has been introduced as a replacement for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in soft PVC. This raises concerns because animal data suggest that DiNP may have antiandrogenic properties similar to those of DEHP. The anogenital distance (AGD)--the distance from the anus to the genitals--has been used to assess reproductive toxicity. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and AGD in Swedish infants. AGD was measured in 196 boys at 21 months of age, and first-trimester urine was analyzed for 10 phthalate metabolites of DEP (diethyl phthalate), DBP (dibutyl phthalate), DEHP, BBzP (benzylbutyl phthalate), as well as DiNP and creatinine. Data on covariates were collected by questionnaires. The most significant associations were found between the shorter of two AGD measures (anoscrotal distance; AGDas) and DiNP metabolites and strongest for oh-MMeOP [mono-(4-methyl-7-hydroxyloctyl) phthalate] and oxo-MMeOP [mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate]. However, the AGDas reduction was small (4%) in relation to more than an interquartile range increase in DiNP exposure. These findings call into question the safety of substituting DiNP for DEHP in soft PVC, particularly because a shorter male AGD has been shown to relate to male genital birth defects in children and impaired reproductive function in adult males and the fact that human levels of DiNP are increasing globally.

  7. Preschool teachers’ reasoning about interactive whiteboard embedded in Swedish preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bourbour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the ways in which teachers enact the interactive whiteboard (IWB in Swedish preschools in relation to preschool children’s mathematical learning. Data collected from interviews with four preschool teachers have provided the opportunity to consider the potential of IWB to facilitate a creative approach to young children’s mathematic education. The findings suggest that IWB use in preschool is mostly viewed as “Space for children to involve in problem-solving situations”, “Supporting collaborative learning and mutual negotiation”, “Goal-oriented mathematics learning facilitated by IWB” and “Retaining children’s interest in learning activities”. This study also highlights the importance of teachers’ technological knowledge and skills in mediating the interaction and facilitating the use of IWB in preschool pedagogical practices. Normal 0 21 false false false SV JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Cambria","serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  8. Typical load shapes for six categories of Swedish commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noren, C.

    1997-01-01

    In co-operation with several Swedish electricity suppliers, typical load shapes have been developed for six categories of commercial buildings located in the south of Sweden. The categories included in the study are: hotels, warehouses/grocery stores, schools with no kitchen, schools with kitchen, office buildings, health, health buildings. Load shapes are developed for different mean daily outdoor temperatures and for different day types, normally standard weekdays and standard weekends. The load shapes are presented as non-dimensional normalized 1-hour load. All measured loads for an object are divided by the object`s mean load during the measuring period and typical load shapes are developed for each category of buildings. Thus errors were kept lower as compared to use of W/m{sup 2}-terms. Typical daytime (9 a.m. - 5 p.m.) standard deviations are 7-10% of the mean values for standard weekdays but during very cold or warm weather conditions, single objects can deviate from the typical load shape. On weekends, errors are higher and depending on very different activity levels in the buildings, it is difficult to develop weekend load shapes with good accuracy. The method presented is very easy to use for similar studies and no building simulation programs are needed. If more load data is available, a good method to lower the errors is to make sure that every category only consists of objects with the same activity level, both on weekdays and weekends. To make it easier to use the load shapes, Excel load shape workbooks have been developed, where it is even possible to compare typical load shapes with measured data. 23 refs, 53 figs, 20 tabs

  9. Recent development of seismic evaluation for Swedish NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennemo, L. [Vattenfall Energisystem, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-03-01

    In Scandinavia seismic activity is generally low. Only a few incidents have been registered in historic time, which might have damaged an industrial plant of today. There has been no earthquakes in Sweden strong enough to affect a NPP during our nuclear era (and not for very long time before either). So the risk for an nuclear accident i Sweden, caused by an earthquake, may thus be considered to be low. The basis and the methodology used in the design of Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3 with respect to seismic safety is not in all parts suited to be employed for the older reactors. The methods implies a number of simplifications which may be a practical approach in connection with a new design but which might cause too conservative judgements of existing designs. The development of methods is therefore a vital part in the analysis. The Swedish nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI), Vattenfall AB, Sydkraft AB and Oskarshams Kraftgrupp AB (OKG) have performed such a development of methods in a joint research program: `Project Seismic Safety`. The aim of the project was to develop methods for calculating the ground response to be used in the safety analysis of nuclear power plants in Sweden, as well as to demonstrate its application to the power plants at Ringhals and Barseback. The study also included a survey of geological and seismological conditions in the regions around the power plants studied. Since the large scale geological and seismological conditions around the individual nuclear plant sites are not very different as regards their expected effects on the seismic ground motion, the results obtained for the `typical hard rock site` can be taken as a basis for the characterization of the ground motions at the individual sites, after appropriate transformations to account for specific load conditions, seismological as well as geological. (J.P.N.)

  10. Swedish mothers' experience of continuous Kangaroo Mother Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Ylva Thernström; Nyqvist, Kerstin Hedberg

    2011-05-01

    To characterise the first infants receiving continuous Kangaroo Mother Care from birth to discharge in a Swedish neonatal intensive care unit and to investigate their mothers' experiences of this model of care. Admission of a newborn infant to a neonatal intensive care unit commonly implies separation of the new mother from her infant. Kangaroo Mother Care is a model of neonatal care which supports the parental role as primary care-giver and contributes to minimising the separation between the infant and parents. A retrospective survey design. A purposive sample consisting of 23 mother-infant pairs. Relevant infant data were obtained from their medical records. A questionnaire with questions about the infant's care and regarding Kangaroo Mother Care was designed for this study. The infants were born at a gestational age of 31-41 weeks, birth weight ranging from 1715-3700 g. The mothers of these moderately preterm and ill newborn infants showed good acceptance of the idea of providing their infants with continuous Kangaroo Mother Care during their stay at the neonatal intensive care unit. The mothers' evaluations of this method were predominantly positive. Negative comments concerned lack of information about practical application of the method, and some mothers perceived their infants' care during the night as exhausting. No mother would have preferred not to perform continuous Kangaroo Mother Care or to terminate Kangaroo Mother Care earlier than they did. These mothers accepted this model of care very well, provided that they received the help and support they required. Mothers whose infants are admitted to an neonatal intensive care units in settings similar to the study setting should be offered opportunities to be present and provide Kangaroo Mother Care for their infants, to the extent that they are able and willing to do so and as permitted by the infant's medical condition and care. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Psychosocial work environment among employed Swedish dairy and pig farmworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstrup, Christina; Lundqvist, Peter; Pinzke, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychosocial work environment for employed dairy and pig farmworkers in southern Sweden and to identify potential risk factors related to the psychosocial work environment for the development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Thirty-seven workers on 10 dairy farms and 30 workers on 10 pig farms participated in the study. The study was based on a Swedish translation of the short version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) for analyses of self-perceived psychosocial work environment and the general Nordic questionnaire for analyses of self-perceived MSDs. In general, the psychosocial work environment was assessed as "good" by both the dairy and pig farmworkers. However, the dairy and pig farmworkers experienced lower work demands, poorer general and mental health, and poorer vitality (physical and mental strength, vigor, and energy) compared to other occupations. Furthermore, the results indicated that the quality of leadership, feedback, and social support at work were poorer at the dairy farms than at the pig farms. No significant risk factors related to the psychosocial work environment were identified for MSDs in "the back" and in the "upper extremities." This study indicates that the psychosocial work environment for the dairy and pig farmworkers may well be improved in order to promote these workplaces as attractive and healthful. This especially seems to be the case concerning the quality of leadership, feedback, and social support at work for the dairy farmworkers. Furthermore, the present study suggests the probability that physical factors are more likely to lead to MSDs among employed livestock workers than factors related to the psychosocial work environment.

  12. Discursive Mechanisms and Human Agency in Language Policy Formation: Negotiating Bilingualism and Parallel Language Use at a Swedish University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källkvist, Marie; Hult, Francis M.

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the enactment of Sweden's Language Act in 2009 and in the face of the growing presence of English, Swedish universities have been called upon by the Swedish Higher Education Authority to craft their own language policy documents. This study focuses on the discursive negotiation of institutional bilingualism by a language policy…

  13. Teaching Minority Students within Minority Schools: Teachers' Conceptions of Multicultural Education in Swedish-Speaking Schools in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansikka, Jan-Erik; Holm, Gunilla

    2011-01-01

    Finland is experiencing increased cultural diversity due to immigration and is facing challenges in developing multicultural education (ME) in schools. There is a Swedish-speaking minority in Finland, and immigrant students entering Swedish-speaking schools hence become a minority within a minority. In this study, using open-ended interviews, we…

  14. The role of extra-linguistic factors in receptive bilingualism : Evidence from Danish and Swedish pre-schoolers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schüppert, Anja; Gooskens, Charlotte

    Danish and Swedish are closely related languages that are generally mutually intelligible. Previous research has shown, however, that Danes comprehend more spoken Swedish than vice versa. It has been suggested that this asymmetry is caused by extra-linguistic factors such as literacy, contact with,

  15. In Praise of the Present: The Pupil at Centre in Swedish Educational Politics in the Post-War Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedin, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    According to an influential narrative in Swedish educational historiography, the Swedish educational system underwent a drastic change during the 1990s, moving towards a more individualistic and marketised system. Without denying the relevance of this perspective, this article argues that we can trace antecedents to the reforms undertaken in the…

  16. School Principals' Perceptions of "Basic Values" in the Swedish Compulsory School System in Regard to Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakenberg, Margareth; Malmgren, Therese Vincenti

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare how Swedish school principals understand basic values that are important in fulfilling the Swedish national curriculum, Curriculum 1994 (a new curriculum, Curriculum 2011, which came into operation in autumn 2011, has only minor differences compared to the common text in Curriculum 1994), considering…

  17. Cross-cultural comparison of motivation to learn in physical education: Japanese vs Swedish schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Tamotsu; Isogai, Hirohisa; Aström, Peter; Karp, Staffan; Johansson, Martin

    2007-10-01

    The present study compared differences between Japanese and Swedish schoolchildren in learning motivation-related variables in physical education. The subjects were 1,562 Japanese fifth and sixth graders (776 boys and 786 girls) ranging in age from 10 to 12 years and 573 Swedish fifth graders (306 boys and 267 girls) from 10 to 13 years (M = 11.4, SD = 0.5). They completed three questionnaires to evaluate the children's learning motivation, factors supporting motivation to learn, and preferences of learning behavior. The questionnaires were taken from Nishida's Diagnosis of Learning Motivation in Physical Education Test, a multidimensional and comprehensive test that measures learning motivation. A 2 x 2 (country by sex) multivariate analysis of variance indicated both Swedish boys and girls scored significantly higher than the Japanese children on most subscales. Results were discussed in relation to differences in the sports environment and culture of the two countries.

  18. Hearing status among cabin crew in a Swedish commercial airline company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Torsten; Wieslander, Gunilla; Nordquist, Tobias; Dammström, Bo-Göran; Norbäck, Dan

    2009-07-01

    To study hearing loss in commercial airline cabin crew (CC). Totally 155 male and 781 female CC (n = 936) in a Swedish airline company underwent repeated audiometric tests during 1974-2005. The last test was used to study hearing loss. The mean test values at 3, 4, 6 kHz were used for the ear with worse hearing loss. Data were compared with a Swedish population (n = 603) who were not occupationally exposed to noise. Equivalent noise levels (Leq) were measured in different aircraft. Leq was 78-84 dB (A), maximum A-weighted exposure was 114 dB. Median values for all ages were close to the reference group. No association was found between years of employment and hearing loss, when adjusting for age and gender by multiple logistic regression analysis. Cabin crew are exposed to equivalent noise levels below the current Swedish occupational standard, and have normal age-matched hearing threshold levels.

  19. Applying and adapting the Swedish regulatory system for decommissioning to nuclear power reactors - The regulator's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amft, Martin; Leisvik, Mathias; Carroll, Simon

    2017-03-16

    Half of the original 13 Swedish nuclear power reactors will be shut down by 2020. The decommissioning of these reactors is a challenge for all parties involved, including the licensees, the waste management system, the financing system, and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM). This paper presents an overview of the Swedish regulations for decommissioning of nuclear facilities. It describes some of the experiences that SSM has gained from the application of these regulations. The focus of the present paper is on administrative aspects of decommissioning, such as SSM's guidelines, the definition of fundamental concepts in the regulatory framework, and a proposed revision of the licensing process according to the Environmental Act. These improvements will help to streamline the administration of the commercial nuclear power plant decommissioning projects that are anticipated to commence in Sweden in the near future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dietary Fiber Intake and Risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study of Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluza, Joanna; Harris, Holly; Wallin, Alice; Linden, Anders; Wolk, Alicja

    2017-09-07

    The limited literature suggests that dietary fiber intake from whole grains, fruits, and vegetables is negatively associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) via fiber's anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, we investigated the association between total fiber and fiber sources and risk of COPD in the population-based prospective Cohort of Swedish Men (45,058 men, aged 45-79 years) with no history of COPD at baseline. Dietary fiber intake was assessed with a self-administered questionnaire in 1997 and was energy-adjusted using the residual method. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) adjusted for potential confounders. During a mean follow-up of 13.1 years (1998-2012), 1,982 incident cases of COPD were ascertained via linkage to the Swedish health registers. A strong inverse association between total fiber intake (≥36.8 vs. fiber, HRs for highest vs. lowest quintile were 0.62 (95%CI=0.51-0.77,P-trendfiber the HR was 0.65 (95%CI=0.52-0.81,P-trendvegetable fiber it was 0.71 (95%CI=0.57-0.88,P-trend=0.003) in current smokers and 0.92 (95%CI=0.71-1.19,P-trend=0.48) in ex-smokers. Our findings indicate that high fiber intake was inversely associated with COPD incidence in men who are current or ex-smokers.