Ehn, S; Agardh, A; Holmer, H; Krantz, G; Hagander, L
Global health education is increasingly acknowledged as an opportunity for medical schools to prepare future practitioners for the broad health challenges of our time. The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of global health education in Swedish medical schools and to assess students' perceived needs for such education. Data on global health education were collected from all medical faculties in Sweden for the years 2000-2013. In addition, 76% (439/577) of all Swedish medical students in their final semester answered a structured questionnaire. Global health education is offered at four of Sweden's seven medical schools, and most medical students have had no global health education. Medical students in their final semester consider themselves to lack knowledge and skills in areas such as the global burden of disease (51%), social determinants of health (52%), culture and health (60%), climate and health (62%), health promotion and disease prevention (66%), strategies for equal access to health care (69%) and global health care systems (72%). A significant association was found between self-assessed competence and the amount of global health education received (pmedical students (83%) wished to have more global health education added to the curriculum. Most Swedish medical students have had no global health education as part of their medical school curriculum. Expanded education in global health is sought after by medical students and could strengthen the professional development of future medical doctors in a wide range of topics important for practitioners in the global world of the twenty-first century. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Lynoe, N; Löfmark, R; Thulesius, H O
The goal of the present study was to elucidate what influences medical students' attitudes and interests in medical ethics. At the end of their first, fifth and last terms, 409 medical students from all six medical schools in Sweden participated in an attitude survey. The questions focused on the students' experience of good and poor role models, attitudes towards medical ethics in general and perceived effects of the teaching of medical ethics. Despite a low response rate at some schools, this study indicates that increased interest in medical ethics was related to encountering good physician role models, and decreased interest, to encountering poor role models. Physicians involved in the education of medical students seem to teach medical ethics as role models even when ethics is not on the schedule. The low response rate prevents us from drawing definite conclusions, but the results could be used as hypotheses to be further scrutinised.
Neumark, Thomas; Brudin, Lars; Mölstad, Sigvard
Studies of antibiotic prescribing related to diagnosis comparing prescribers trained abroad with those trained in Sweden are lacking. To determine whether general practices (GPs) and GP residents trained abroad had different prescribing patterns for antibiotics for common infections than those trained in Sweden using retrospective data from electronic patient records from primary health care in Kalmar County, Sweden. Consultations with an infection diagnosis, both with and without the prescription of antibiotics to 67 GPs and residents trained in Western Europe outside Sweden and other countries, were compared with a matched control group trained in Sweden. For 1 year, 44101 consultations of patients with an infection diagnosis and 16276 prescriptions of antibiotics were registered. Foreign-trained physicians had 20% more visits compared with physicians trained in Sweden. The prescription of antibiotics per visit and physician in the respective groups, and independent of diagnosis, did not significantly differ between groups, when scaled down from number of consultations to number of prescribing physicians. There were minor and non-significant differences in antibiotic prescribing comparing GPs and residents trained abroad and in Sweden, most likely the result of an adaptation to Swedish conditions. Nevertheless, no group prescribed antibiotics in accordance to national guidelines. The results suggest that interventions are needed to reduce irrational antibiotic prescribing patterns, targeting all physicians working in Swedish primary health care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Abstract Background An important goal for medical education today is professional development including gender equality and awareness of gender issues. Are medical teachers prepared for this task? We investigated gender awareness among physician teachers, expressed as their attitudes towards the role of gender in professional relationships, and how it varied with physician gender and specialty. We discuss how this might be related to the gender climate and sex segregation in different specialties. Method Questionnaires were sent to all 468 specialists in the clinical departments and in family medicine, who were engaged in educating medical students at a Swedish university. They were asked to rate, on visual analogue scales, the importance of physician and patient gender in consultation, of preceptor and student gender in clinical tutoring and of physician gender in other professional encounters. Differences between family physicians, surgical, and non-surgical hospital doctors, and between women and men were estimated by chi-2 tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results The response rate was 65 %. There were differences between specialty groups in all investigated areas mainly due to disparities among men. The odds for a male family physician to assess gender important were three times higher, and for a male non-surgical doctor two times higher when compared to a male surgical doctor. Female teachers assessed gender important to a higher degree than men. Among women there were no significant differences between specialty groups. Conclusions There was an interaction between physician teachers' gender and specialty as to whether they identified gender as important in professional relationships. Male physicians, especially from the surgical group, assessed gender important to a significantly lower degree than female physicians. Physicians' degree of gender awareness may, as one of many factors, affect working climate and the
Hamberg Katarina; Risberg Gunilla; Johansson Eva E
Abstract Background An important goal for medical education today is professional development including gender equality and awareness of gender issues. Are medical teachers prepared for this task? We investigated gender awareness among physician teachers, expressed as their attitudes towards the role of gender in professional relationships, and how it varied with physician gender and specialty. We discuss how this might be related to the gender climate and sex segregation in different special...
Brehmer, Daniel; Ryve, Andreas; Van Steenbrugge, Hendrik
The aim of this study is to analyse how mathematical problem solving is represented in mathematical textbooks for Swedish upper secondary school. The analysis comprises dominating Swedish textbook series, and relates to uncovering (a) the quantity of tasks that are actually mathematical problems, (b) their location in the chapter, (c) their…
Lilliedahl, Jonathan; Georgii-Hemming, Eva
This article draws on a study designed to analyse parental expectations of the Swedish municipal school of arts (hereafter MSA) (in Swedish: kommunal musik- och kulturskola). The study is based on in-depth interviews conducted and informed by grounded theory. Although parental expectations are scarcely uniform, the study reveals a hope that the…
Hinnerich, Bjørn Tyrefors; Höglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus
Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading.Werigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind...... and non-blind grading. The non-blind test score is on average 15% lower for boys than for girls. Blind grading lowers the average grades with 13%, indicating that personal ties and/or grade inflation are important in non-blind grading. But we find no evidence of discrimination against boys in grading....... The point estimate of the discrimination effect is close to zero with a 95% confidence interval of±4.5% of the average non-blind grade....
Svensson, E; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM; Lundborg, CS
To assess the extent of antibiotic self-medication in a Swedish population, a postal questionnaire was distributed to 1000 randomly selected subjects. The antibiotics used were in all but 3 cases reported to have been obtained with a prescription. Thus, prescribers are the primary target for
Holmqvist Olander, Mona; Olander, Clas
This study investigated beliefs about climate change among Swedish secondary school students at the end of their K-12 education. An embedded mixed method approach was used to analyse 51 secondary school students' written responses to two questions: (1) What implies climate change? (2) What affects climate? A quantitative analysis of the responses…
Lundgren, Mats; Schantz Lundgren, Ina von
This article is about how criticism from the Swedish Schools Inspectorate affects principals' leadership. The result builds on experiences from an on-going case study that started in the beginning of 2011 and that will be finished in 2015. We present two examples where the local school management and principals try to improve the activities on the basis of the Schools Inspectorate's report. The first example consists of a so called research circle where we as researchers together with a princ...
Gu, Limin; Kristoffersson, Margaretha
This study investigates homework in Swedish lower secondary schools: teachers' perceptions and experiences about it and their understanding of its potentials and challenges for students' learning and development. Data collected through an online survey (N = 201) mixed standardized questions and open questions. Descriptive statistics and…
Jakobsson, Niklas; Persson, Mattias; Svensson, Mikael
This paper analyzes whether class size has an effect on the prevalence of mental health problems and well-being among adolescents in Swedish schools. We use cross-sectional data collected in year 2008 covering 2755 Swedish adolescents in ninth grade from 40 schools and 159 classes. We utilize different econometric approaches to address potential…
Mansikka, Jan-Erik; Holm, Gunilla
Finland is experiencing increased cultural diversity due to immigration and is facing challenges in developing multicultural education (ME) in schools. There is a Swedish-speaking minority in Finland, and immigrant students entering Swedish-speaking schools hence become a minority within a minority. In this study, using open-ended interviews, we…
Persson, Louise; Haraldsson, Katarina
Schools are recognized worldwide as settings for health promotion, and leadership has a bearing on schools' ability to be health promoting. School managers have a great influence on what is prioritized in school, which in turn affects students' school performance and health. There is lack of research into school managers' views on health promotion, and what they consider to be central to health promotion. The aim was therefore to examine school managers' views about what health promotion in schools include. An explorative design, qualitative content analysis, was performed. In-depth interviews were conducted with all 13 school managers of a middle-sized municipality in central Sweden. The analysis had both manifest and latent content and three categories: 'Organization and Collaboration', 'Optimize the arena' and 'Strengthen the individual', and 10 subcategories emerged. The theme, 'Opportunities for learning and a good life', describes the latent content of these categories. Taking into account the views of school managers are important because these views help form a more complete picture of how school managers work with health promotion and what is needed to enhance health promotion to improve students' opportunities for learning and a good life. The Ottawa Charter for Health promotion is thereby transformed into practice. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Drakenberg, Margareth; Malmgren, Therese Vincenti
The purpose of this study is to compare how Swedish school principals understand basic values that are important in fulfilling the Swedish national curriculum, Curriculum 1994 (a new curriculum, Curriculum 2011, which came into operation in autumn 2011, has only minor differences compared to the common text in Curriculum 1994), considering…
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to revise a standard narrative about governance of the Swedish school system in the period of 1910-1908. According to this narrative, the Swedish school system was centralized during this period. However, this narrative does not fit the history of Swedish mathematics education (years 1-9. The research questions are: where in the school system was change initiated and how was change enforced? On the basis of studies of syllabi, textbooks, teaching literature, teacher journals and reports from investigations and development projects, different modes of governance of school mathematics are identified. The main results are that textbook producers rather than national syllabi and exams were drivers of change in the period 1910-1960. Moreover, the centralized attempts to change school mathematics, prepared in the 1960s, were soon abandoned in the early 1970s. Thus, centralized governance of Swedish school mathematics, with the ambition to achieve change, was something that took effect relatively late and during a very short period of time.
Dovemark, Marianne; Holm, Ann-Sofie
The aim of this article is to illustrate how Swedish schools construct different pedagogic identities in the way they marketize themselves. We examine through a Bernsteinian lens how upper secondary schools promote themselves; what identities are being called for by the schools and how these identities are expressed. Moreover, the article intends…
Qvarsebo, Jonas U. D.
This article examines the vision of the Swedish comprehensive school reform between 1946-1962 as it pertains to the ever-troubling questions of discipline and order in school. Inspired primarily by the work of Michel Foucault and his genealogical perspective, the article problematises the notion that character formation and school discipline…
This article provides results from a study of the hidden processes of consensus formation that precede and make possible official judgments and decisions of the Swedish Schools Inspectorate (SI). The research question for the study was: How is knowledge negotiated on the back stage of school inspection and presented on the front stage? The article…
Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Otterblad-Olausson, Petra; Pettersson, Birgitta U.; Ekbom, Anders
Swedish health care and national health registers are dependent on the presence of a unique identifier. This paper describes the Swedish personal identity number (PIN) and explores ethical issues of its use in medical research. A ten-digit-PIN is maintained by the National Tax Board for all individuals that have resided in Sweden since 1947. Until January 2008, an estimated 75,638 individuals have changed PIN. The most common reasons for change of PIN are incorrect recording of date of birth ...
Bean, Glynis; Kidder, Louise H.
Research on the characteristics of women in non-traditional fields, e.g., medicine, has yielded complex information in terms of adherence to sex-role stereotypes. To determine whether students' attitudes toward helping and achieving followed sex-role typing and were different at various stages in medical school, 384 male and female oncology…
The aim of this report is to describe and analyze the embodiment of acceptance and recognition in discourses and practices which address cultural diversity in the Swedish educational system. In order to fulfil this general aim, we study how different categories of practitioners in the Swedish school system, such as teachers, headmasters and union representatives, and other stakeholders, such as civil servants, and representatives of political parties and the civil society, discuss and relate ...
Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Otterblad-Olausson, Petra; Pettersson, Birgitta U; Ekbom, Anders
Swedish health care and national health registers are dependent on the presence of a unique identifier. This paper describes the Swedish personal identity number (PIN) and explores ethical issues of its use in medical research. A ten-digit-PIN is maintained by the National Tax Board for all individuals that have resided in Sweden since 1947. Until January 2008, an estimated 75,638 individuals have changed PIN. The most common reasons for change of PIN are incorrect recording of date of birth or sex among immigrants or newborns. Although uncommon, change of sex always leads to change of PIN since the PIN is sex-specific. The most common reasons for re-use of PIN (n = 15,887), is when immigrants are assigned a PIN that has previously been assigned to someone else. This is sometimes necessary since there is a shortage of certain PIN combinations referring to dates of birth in the 1950s and 1960s. Several ethical issues can be raised pro and con the use of PIN in medical research. The Swedish PIN is a useful tool for linkages between medical registers and allows for virtually 100% coverage of the Swedish health care system. We suggest that matching of registers through PIN and matching of national health registers without the explicit approval of the individual patient is to the benefit for both the individual patient and for society.
Szabó, Zoltán; Harangi, Márta; Nylander, Eva; Ljungman, Anders; Theodorsson, Annette; Ahn, Henrik; Davidsson, Bo
Introduction: student perception of problem-based learning (PBL) group tutorials was investigated at a Swedish University Medical College 27 years after the introduction of PBL into the curriculum. Methods: a survey questionnaire comprising 43 questions answered on a Likert-type scale, together with one open question was used. The questionnaire was distributed to all 821 students taking part in the Linköping University medical program at the beginning of the Spring Term 2013. The results were...
Johansson, Olof; Davis, Anna; Geijer, Luule
This study presents policy and theory as they apply to diversity, equality and equity in Swedish social and educational policy. All education in Sweden should, according to the curriculum (Lpo 94, 1994, p. 5) be of equivalent value, irrespective of where in the country it is provided and education should be adapted to each pupil's circumstances…
In Sweden, as in many countries before Sweden, boys' academic achievements are getting considerable attention as the big gender issue. The Swedish gender equality policy that was put on the agenda in the 1970s is now associated with extreme discussions. This study aims to explore how gender equality was discussed in the 1970s, in connection with…
Fernández, Christian; Jensen, Kristian Kriegbaum
, yet with different styles and content. Citizenship education in Denmark concentrates on reproducing a historically derived core of cultural values and knowledge to which minorities are expected to assimilate, while the Swedish model subscribes to a pluralist view that stresses mutual adaptation...
Bombi, Josep Antoni
Assesses the current situation of medical teaching, available healthcare facilities, and teaching staff employed at Spanish medical schools. Response rate was 100% from 27 schools surveyed. (Author/NB)
This article explores the language use and language attitudes as reported by a number of multilingual teenagers with a Swedish background in European Schools and international schools in Europe. Special attention is given to the concepts of Third Culture Kids and elite bilingualism in relation to teenagers' multilingualism. This study is based on…
The article aims to discuss the school's education for citizenship and democracy in light of the economic crisis in the early 1990s and the subsequent depletion of the Swedish welfare state. Increased economic inequality, exclusion and marginalization of the school as well as in society in general raise the question about the school equivalency. The discussion sets out from a theoretical approach and a historical perspective to visualize how the meaning and policies of citizenship and democra...
Peter Arcidiacono; Sean Nicholson
Using data on the universe of students who graduated from U.S. medical schools between 1996 and 1998, we examine whether the abilities and specialty preferences of a medical school class affect a student's academic achievement in medical school and his choice of specialty. We mitigate the selection problem by including school-specific fixed effects, and show that this method yields an upper bound on peer effects for our data. We estimate positive peer effects that disappear when school-specif...
This paper explores how "social democratic" Sweden initiated and implemented choice reforms that attracted the interest of "liberal" England. By studying how English media framed and portrayed the Swedish free school "export" from 2008 to 2014, this paper aims to describe and discuss how a market-oriented policy idea,…
Nelson, Karin Zetterqvist; Sandin, Bengt
The purpose of this article is to relate the different scholarly views on reading and writing problems, proposed by influential agents with different research backgrounds, to the general development of participation in schooling and to educational policies in the Swedish welfare state during the 1900s. An historical perspective makes it possible…
Ronnberg, Linda; Lindgren, Joakim; Segerholm, Christina
This paper focuses on the dual dependencies apparent at the intersection of the media society and the audit society by empirically exploring and discussing the relationship between Swedish local newspaper coverage and school inspection activities. The research questions pertain to the Inspectorate's media strategy, how inspection is represented…
Hakvoort, Ilse; Olsson, Elizabeth
Swedish educational policy mandates have given schools a double mission: the development of content-based knowledge as well as the promotion of democratic values and competencies. While detailed learning outcomes are specified for content domains, the democratic mission is imprecisely described and unsupported by practical measures. This leaves…
Most previous research on parental involvement in children's homework has focused on the pedagogical advantages or disadvantages of school assignments while neglecting the practice in its social context, family life. By studying parent-child homework negotiations in Swedish families, this paper examines how family members position themselves and…
Full Text Available Abstract Background To ascertain good and appropriate healthcare for both women and men implementation of gender perspectives in medical education is needed. For a successful implementation, knowledge about students' attitudes and beliefs about men, women, and gender is crucial. The aim of this study was to compare attitudes to gender and gender stereotyping among Dutch and Swedish male and female medical students. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we measured the attitudes and assumptions about gender among 1096 first year medical students (616 Dutch and 480 Swedish with the validated Nijmegen Gender Awareness in Medicine Scale (N-GAMS. The response rate was 94% in the Netherlands and 93% in Sweden. Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to compare the scores between Dutch and Swedish male and female students. Linear regressions were used to analyze the importance of the background variables. Results There were significant differences in attitudes to gender between Dutch and Swedish students. The Swedish students expressed less stereotypical thinking about patients and doctors and the Dutch were more sensitive to gender differences. The students' sex mattered for gender stereotyping, with male students in both countries agreeing more with stereotypical statements. Students' age, father's birth country and mother's education level had some impact on the outcome. Conclusions There are differences between cultures as well as between men and women in gender awareness that need to be considered when implementing gender in medical education. This study suggests that to arouse the students' interest in gender issues and make them aware of the significance of gender in medical work, the examples used in discussions need to be relevant and challenging in the context of the specific country. Due to different levels of knowledge and different attitudes within the student population it is important to create a climate for dialogue where
Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. I recently retired and have been encouraged to write about what has changed in medicine. However, the changes have been sufficiently extensive that one editorial would be too long. Therefore, this will be the first of several editorials examining medical school, residency, fellowship and practice.The beginning of my own medical career was 1972 when I entered medical school, graduating in 1976. My reasons for choosing the specific school I entered were several: 1. A scholarship was provided that paid tuition; 2. It was a state school and otherwise relatively cheap; 3. The school would accept me after 3 years of college and without a college degree; 4. It was the medical school of my undergraduate school and I knew many of the entering students; and 5. I was told that it mattered less where you did your medical school training than where you did your residency. I saw no …
Curran, Eileen A; Kenny, Louise C; Dalman, Christina; Kearney, Patricia M; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Khashan, Ali S
Our objective was to assess the impact of obstetric mode of delivery, and in particular birth by Caesarean section (CS), on school performance in adolescents using a large, population-based cohort. We extracted data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register and National School Register. We included all live singleton births in Sweden from 1982-1995 (n = 1,489,925). School grades were reported on a scale from 0 to 320, scores less than 160 (i.e. "pass") were considered to be "poor school performance." Mode of delivery was categorised as: unassisted vaginal delivery (VD), assisted VD, elective CS and emergency CS. We measured the association between mode of delivery and "poor school performance" using logistic regression. We then used quantile regression to assess the association between mode of delivery and school performance across the distribution of scores. We adjusted for maternal age, parity, small and large for gestational age, gestational age, maternal country of birth, maternal depression, non-affective disorder or bipolar disorder, parental income at time of birth, and parental social welfare at time of birth. We also conducted sensitivity analyses to investigate the association further. With logistic regression analysis, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of assisted VD and poor school performance, compared to unassisted VD, was 1.06 (95% CI: 1.03-1.08). For elective CS it was 1.06 (95% CI:1.03-1.09) and for emergency CS it was 1.12 (95% CI: 1.09-1.15). With quantile regression, assisted VD showed little difference in scores, when compared to unassisted VD, at any point across the distribution. Elective CS was associated with a 1-3 point decrease in scores, and emergency CS was associated with a 2-5 point decrease in scores. A slight association was found between birth by CS and school performance. However, the effect was quite small and given the complex nature of the relationship, should be interpreted with caution.
Karlsson, Marit; Milberg, Anna; Strang, Peter
To die with dignity is an important but ambiguous concept, and it is used in contradictory contexts, both for the promotion of palliative care and as an argument for euthanasia. Our goal was to explore medical students' definition of a dignified death. A questionnaire containing open-ended questions was answered anonymously by 165 first- and fifth-year medical students. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis with no predetermined categories. The students' descriptions of a dignified death resulted in five categories of death: (1) without suffering, (2) with limited medical interventions, (3) with a sense of security, which implied a safe environment nursed by professional staff, (4) with autonomy, respect for the individual and empowerment to the patient and (5) with acceptance. These findings show similarity to the established concepts of a good death, as well as the view of a dignified death by terminally ill patients. The data suggest that the students perceive that the medical system is over-treating patients and sometimes causing harm to dying patients. The results reveal a potential misunderstanding and contradiction relating to death without suffering and the use of necessary palliative interventions. These findings are important when planning education as regards palliative care and dignified death.
Full Text Available Finnish society, including the Swedish-medium school, has traditionally been considered linguistically and culturally homogeneous. During the last twenty years there has been a distinct development towards increasingly heterogeneous municipalities and schools, but with great local variations. The aim of his article is to present some teacher perspectives on this development towards linguistically and culturally more heterogeneous primary school classrooms, what kind of new challenges teachers experience and what tools they express the need for. The data consist of qualitative interviews and focus discussions with teachers and headmasters in Swedish-medium classrooms and CLIL classrooms, representing both urban and rural settings. The results show some variation concerning the types of multilingualism evident in different contexts and the views on multilingualism and multiculturalism. A number of challenges and needed tools are identified. These call for a professional, facilitating teacher role, as well as for complex societal networks.
Full Text Available Finnish society, including the Swedish-medium school, has traditionally been considered linguistically and culturally homogeneous. During the last twenty years there has been a distinct development towards increasingly heterogeneous municipalities and schools, but with great local variations. The aim of his article is to present some teacher perspectives on this development towards linguistically and culturally more heterogeneous primary school classrooms, what kind of new challenges teachers experience and what tools they express the need for. The data consist of qualitative interviews and focus discussions with teachers and headmasters in Swedish-medium classrooms and CLIL classrooms, representing both urban and rural settings. The results show some variation concerning the types of multilingualism evident in different contexts and the views on multilingualism and multiculturalism. A number of challenges and needed tools are identified. These call for a professional, facilitating teacher role, as well as for complex societal networks.
Mousavi, Fariba; Garcia, Danilo; Jimmefors, Alexander; Archer, Trevor; Ewalds-Kvist, Béatrice
.... Current research shows that there is an increase in young people's drug use in Sweden. The aim was to investigate Swedish high-school pupils' attitudes, impulsiveness and gender differences linked to drug use...
Gidlund, Ulrika; Boström, Lena
...’ greatest challenges and make the dilemma of inclusion displays its most difficult side. This article contributes to the understanding of how teachers in Swedish mainstream schools understand the concept of inclusive didactics for students with EBD...
Norberg, Katarina; Johansson, Olof
Being a skillful school leader presumes the competence to judge the ethical consequences of actions. This implies a need for all school agents to discover and analyze what values are at stake and, in turn, reconcile didactic rationality with ethical rationality. This article aims to explore ethical dilemmas in daily school practice, experienced…
This report presents the results from a survey study on Swedish upper secondary school physics andchemistry teachers’ use of models and representations in teaching the atom. The study builds upon an earlier systematic international literature review on the role of models and representations in the teaching, learning and understanding of the atom. The overall aim of the study is to explore what models and representations are used by Swedish upper secondary school physics and chemistry teachers...
Fröberg, Frida; Modin, Bitte; Rosendahl, Ingvar K; Tengström, Anders; Hallqvist, Johan
We aimed to examine the association between school grades at the age of 16 years and problem gambling at the age of 17-25 years among Swedish females and males. In a cohort design, we followed the 16- to 24-year-old participants in the representative Swedish Longitudinal Gambling Study for 2 years, 2008/2009 and 2009/2010, generating 3,816 person-years of follow-up time. The outcome, incidence of mild and moderate/severe gambling problems, was measured by the Problem Gambling Severity Index in telephone interviews. The exposure was register-linked information about final grades in compulsory school. The association between school grades and problem gambling was estimated in multinomial logistic regressions. Low and average school grades were associated with increased incidence of mild and moderate/severe problem gambling compared to high grades, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, psychological distress, and alcohol use. Low grades, compared to high grades, were associated with a higher risk of mild gambling problems for adolescent males, whereas the incidence proportion of moderate/severe problem gambling was high for males aged 20-25 years with low grades, among whom unemployment was also very high. Furthermore, we found a strong and graded association between school grades and moderate/severe problem gambling for women in both age groups, despite a low prevalence of gambling participation among females compared to males. Our findings show that Swedish youth with low school achievement have an increased risk of gambling problems up to 8 years after school graduation, after control for confounding from sociodemographic characteristics, psychological distress, and alcohol use, and that this association is stronger for females than males. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Summary of a GATEWAY report evaluation of a tunable LED lighting system installed in the new Swedish Medical Behavioral Health Unit in Seattle that incorporates color-tunable luminaires in common areas, and uses advanced controls for dimming and color tuning, with the goal of providing a better environment for staff and patients. The report reviews the design of the tunable lighting system, summarizes two sets of measurements, and discusses the circadian, energy, and commissioning implications as well as lessons learned from the project.
This article focuses on spontaneous knowledge-building in the field of "the arithmetic "of" the child." The aim is to investigate the conceptual progress of fifteen children during their early school years in the compulsory school. The study is based on the epistemology of radical constructivism and the methodology of…
Being aware of academic dishonesty in the Medical School made it. 86.3% likely that a student would participate. Having ... Key words: Academic Dishonesty, Medical Training,. Medical Students. Ann Afr Surg. 2017;14(1): 19-21. .... on Plagiarism and Cheating, in Perspectives on Plagiarism and Intellectual Property in the.
Eriksson, Ulrika; Hochwälder, Jacek; Carlsund, Asa; Sellström, Eva
The aim of the study was to explore the extent to which Swedish children's perceptions of social capital in the family, school and neighbourhood predicted health complaints and well-being. The study used data from the Swedish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey. The sample consisted of 3926 children aged 11-15 years. Correlations and hierarchical multiple linear regression were performed. Higher degrees of family, school and neighbourhood social capital corresponded to lower levels of health complaints and higher levels of well-being. Social capital in these three spheres had a cumulative effect on children's health and well-being. Social capital in the family, school and neighbourhood matters for children's health and well-being and the contributions from each context seem to be additive. Besides the family context, investments for improving child health should primarily be in the school, focusing on social relations and on creating safe and cohesive school environments. Neighbourhood social capital is also of importance and so must be taken into consideration when planning child health promotion interventions. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.
The use of mobile phones for teaching and learning in schools has been a controversial matter. In this paper the debate in two Swedish newspapers on the use of mobile phones in schools is analysed using a historical materialist framework. The results are discussed in relation to contemporary research on mobile learning. The analysis reveals that…
and that funding is only spent on that will deliver more or better medical education. So staffing and other resources will be kept to the minimum required to deliver a high‑quality service. Secondly as in other walks of life, the profit motive should be a driver of innovation, and this should also be the case in medical education.
O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wallstedt, Birgitta
INTRODUCTION Very few studies have reported on the effect of admission tests on medical school dropout.1 Recently Urlings-Strop et al. found the relative risk of dropout to be 2.6 times lower for ‘selected students’ than for ‘lottery admitted controls’.2 The main aim of our study was to evaluate...... the predictive validity of admission testing versus grade-based admission on dropout. METHOD This prospective cohort study followed 6 cohorts of medical students admitted to the medical school at University of Southern Denmark (USD) in 2002-2007 (N=1544). Half the students were admitted based on highest prior....... The outcome of interest was students’ dropout status 2 years after admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model dropout. RESULTS Quota 2 (admission tested) students had a lower relative risk of dropping out of medical school within 2 years of admission compared to quota 1 students...
The aim of the study was to analyse the factors predicting the outcome of the Swedish back school and spontaneous recovery in chronic low back pain. The predicting variables describing the treatment group (n = 95) and the control group (n = 93) at the initiation of study included sociodemographic factors, variables related to work, severity of low back pain, and a number of clinical measurements and evaluations. The Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire was used for judging recovery factors. It was found that the best predictor for the outcome of the treatment and for spontaneous recovery was work satisfaction.
The aim of this 12-month follow-up study was to evaluate the effect of the Swedish-type back school in chronic low back pain. 188 subjects completed the study (95 in the treatment group and 93 in the control group). The following were assessed: 1) subjective scores of pain and disability; 2) clinical measurement and evaluation including spinal mobility and strength measurement; 3) number and length of sick-leaves. At 12 months, subjective scores of pain and disability, and mobility of the lumbosacral section of the spine showed differences in the favour of the treatment group. There was no difference, however, in the number or the length of sick-leaves after the back school. It was concluded that patients with chronic or recurrent low back pain may get relief of subjective symptoms of low back pain from the back school. In addition to chronicity, there may be other factors affecting the outcome of treatment.
Franzén, C; Brown, G
Undergraduate degree projects have currently been introduced into courses in the four Swedish dental schools. The rationale for research projects is that they enable students to develop research expertise skills and to show their ability to apply and develop knowledge relevant to professional practice. This paper reports a qualitative analysis of the curriculum documents and handbooks including the criteria used to assess the students' research reports. The aim was to investigate commonalities and differences in the design of degree projects between the four Swedish dental schools and to explore any inconsistencies within the documents. The documentary analysis was based on the constant comparison method. Four overarching themes emerged from the analysis: (i) developing scientific expertise, (ii) developing professional expertise, (iii) following rules and (iv) fostering creativity. The documents from the four dental schools revealed similar views on the purposes of the projects and provided similar assessment criteria. The students were requested to formulate an odontological problem, apply a relevant scientific method, analyse texts and empirical data, express critical reflections and write a short thesis. The students were free to choose topics. There were differences between the dental schools on the emphasis placed on practical uses of the projects and theoretical background of the projects. Two of the schools insisted on rigid rules of completing and writing the project yet paradoxically emphasised creativity. There were wide variations in the required length of the project report. The report may prove useful to dental schools in other countries who are about to design undergraduate research projects. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Malmqvist, Erik; Furberg, Elisabeth; Sandman, Lars
According to European regulations and the legislations of individual member states, children who seek asylum have a different set of rights than adults in a similar position. To protect these rights and ensure rule of law, migration authorities are commonly required to assess the age of asylum seekers who lack reliable documentation, including through various medical methods. However, many healthcare professionals and other commentators consider medical age assessment to be ethically problematic. This paper presents a simplified and amended account of the main findings of a recent ethical analysis of medical age assessment in the asylum process commissioned by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. A number of ethical challenges related to conflicting goals, equality and fairness, autonomy and informed consent, privacy and integrity, and professional values and roles are identified and analysed. It is concluded that most of these challenges can be met, but that this requires a system where the assessment is sufficiently accurate and where adequate safeguards are in place. Two important ethical questions are found to warrant further analysis. The first is whether asylum seekers' consent to the procedure can be considered genuinely voluntary. The second is whether and how medical age assessments could affect negative public attitudes towards asylum seekers or discriminatory societal views more generally.
Borgvall, Jonathan; Lif, Patrik
.... The military research work presented here includes the three military administrations, FOI -- Swedish Defence Research Agency, FMV -- Swedish Defence Materiel Administration, and SNDC -- Swedish...
Torbjörnsson, Tomas; Molin, Lena
The present article presents results obtained from a survey focusing on attitudes to solidarity among upper secondary school students. A relation between positive attitudes to solidarity and future-orientation was evident. The survey results were reinforced by a second study, exploring how students in the Swedish upper secondary school perceived…
Bartholdsson, Åsa; Gustafsson-Lundberg, Johanna; Hultin, Eva
Social emotional learning (SEL) is common in preschools and schools both in Europe and North America today. Programmes for socio-emotional training and the rise of what is labelled therapeutic education have dramatically increased during the first decade of the millennium. In this article, a manual-based programme used for SEL in a Swedish school…
Bohm, Ingela; Lindblom, Cecilia; Åbacka, Gun; Bengs, Carita; Hörnell, Agneta
Objective: This study aimed to describe Discourses on vegetarian food in the Swedish school subject Home and Consumer Studies. Design: The study involved the observation of naturally occurring classroom talk, with audio recording and in some cases video-taping. Setting: The study was conducted during Home and Consumer Studies lessons in five…
This article is based on a field study in two boy-dominated classes in a vocational programme in a Swedish upper secondary school. The focus of the article is the boys' perspective on their cheating activities during lessons and tests within academic subjects. Since the boys often regarded these subjects as boring and useless in relation to their…
Lindberg, Ola J.; Olofsson, Anders D.; Fransson, Göran
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine Swedish upper secondary school teachers' and students' views and use of ICT in education. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 25 individual teachers and 39 students in small focus groups were interviewed. A qualitative content analysis was performed using NVivo11. The analysis was conducted in…
This case study explores the relationship between teachers' language knowledge and their grammar teaching practices within the context of a bilingual school for the deaf in Sweden, a country that has demonstrated success in educating deaf children bilingually in written Swedish and Sweden's signed language. The study's participants were two…
Gidlund, Ulrika; Boström, Lena
Including students with emotional and behavioral difficulties (EBD) in general education is one of teachers' greatest challenges and make the dilemma of inclusion displays its most difficult side. This article contributes to the understanding of how teachers in Swedish mainstream schools understand the concept of inclusive didactics for students…
Ollfors, Marianne; Andersson, Sven Ingmar
The aim of this study was to investigate self-theories (theories of intelligence, confidence in one's intelligence, internal attribution of failure, academic self-efficacy), specific control, and experiencing of stress by means of a questionnaire for 915 Swedish high school students. Factor analysis yielded 6 stress domains (Workload, Psychosocial…
The introverted medical school - time to rethink medical education. A. B. Zwi, M. Zwarenstein, S. Tollman, D. Sanders. Curricular reform in the education of medical students is highlighted within the context of changing patterns of provision of health care. A number of industrialised countries' medical schools have accepted ...
Gauffin, Karl; Vinnerljung, Bo; Fridell, Mats; Hesse, Morten; Hjern, Anders
To investigate whether socio-economic status (SES) in childhood and school failure at 15 years of age predict illicit drug abuse in youth and young adulthood. Register study in a Swedish national cohort born 1973-88 (n = 1,405,763), followed from age 16 to 20-35 years. Cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for any indication of drug abuse. Our outcomes were hospital admissions, death and criminality associated with illicit drug abuse. Data on socio-demographics, school grades and parental psychosocial problems were collected from censuses (1985 and 1990) and national registers. School failure was defined as having mean school grades from the final year in primary school lower than -1 standard deviation and/or no grades in core subjects. School failure was a strong predictor of illicit drug abuse with an HR of 5.87 (95% CI: 5.76-5.99) after adjustment for age and sex. Childhood SES was associated with illicit drug abuse later in life in a stepwise manner. The lowest stratum had a HR of 2.28 (95% CI: 2.20-2.37) compared with the highest stratum as the reference, when adjusted for other socio-demographic variables. In the fully adjusted model, the effect of SES was greatly attenuated to an HR of 1.23 (95% CI: 1.19-1.28) in the lowest SES category, while the effect of school failure remained high with an HR of 4.22 (95% CI: 4.13-4.31). School failure and childhood socio-economic status predict illicit drug abuse independently in youth and young adults in Sweden. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Smith, B H
Despite many relevant benefits, the study of literature has been rejected by medical schools this century. However, the role of literature and the arts is coming to the fore again in many branches of medicine, including education, leading to a broader approach to medical practice than the purely scientific approach. This is likely to enrich the profession and individuals therein. As well giving as a wider general education, areas of medical training and practice that a literary education will benefit directly include critical reading and appraisal, communication skills, history taking, 'surrogate experience', understanding the role of the physician, ethics, and self-expression. Many of these are central to our understanding of good medical practice. PMID:9747554
Taras, Howard; Haste, Nina M.; Berry, Angela T.; Tran, Jennifer; Singh, Renu F.
Background: This project quantified and categorized medications left unclaimed by students at the end of the school year. It determined the feasibility of a model medication disposal program and assessed school nurses' perceptions of environmentally responsible medication disposal. Methods: At a large urban school district all unclaimed…
The aim of this study was to explore the curricula of medical schools in Europe in order to establish a formal representation of physics in the study of medicine. Information on the curricular representation of physics was gathered from the Internet presentations of medical schools. It was intended to explore at least 25% of medical schools in…
Christine Persson Osowski
Full Text Available Background: In Sweden, school meals are served free of charge and Swedish law states that school meals must be nutritious. Nevertheless, data on children's energy and nutrient intake from school meals are scarce. Objective: The aim was to describe the contribution of school meals to Swedish children's nutrient and energy intake during weekdays and compare this to the reference values based on the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR, which have been adopted as the official Swedish recommendations. Design: A cross-sectional food consumption survey was performed on 1,840 Swedish children attending Grade 2 (mean age 8.6 and Grade 5 (mean age 11.7. The children's nutrient and energy intake was compared to the reference values based on the NNR. Results: The mean intake from school meals of energy, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, and vitamins D and E did not reach the reference values and the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA and sodium exceeded the reference values in both age groups (significant differences, all p≤0.001. Additionally, the pupils in Grade 5 did not reach the reference values for folate, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, selenium, and zinc (significant differences, all p≤0.001. Standardized for energy, dietary fiber, PUFA, and vitamins D and E did not reach the reference values, whereas the reference values for SFA and sodium were exceeded in both age groups (significant differences, all p≤0.001. Conclusions: The study pointed to some central nutrients in need of improvement as regards school meals in Sweden, namely the quality of fat, dietary fiber, sodium, vitamin D, and iron. Some of these results may be attributed to the children not reporting eating the recommended number of calories, the children omitting some components of the meal, or underreporting, as a consequence of which the reference values for several nutrients were not met.
Pettersson, Fanny L M
In 2011, Umeå University in Sweden was facing its first attempt to transform the existing medical program into a regionalized medical program (RMP), supported by the use of digital technologies. The Swedish RMP means that students are distributed in geographically separated groups while doing their five clinical clerkship semesters. To provide medical students with ways of undertaking their theoretical studies when geographically distributed, digital technologies are used for educational and administrative purposes. In this article, the Swedish RMP will be described and related to previous international research on educating medical students in rural settings. The aim of this article was, from a management perspective, to understand if and how contradictions arise during the implementation process of the Swedish RMP, supported by digital technologies. Based on this analysis, a further aim was to discuss, from a management perspective, the possibilities and challenges for improvement of this medical educational practice, as well as to provide implications for other similar changes in medical programs internationally. To identify possible contradictions during the implementation process, ethnographically inspired observations were made during management work meetings, before and during the first regionalized semester. In addition, in-depth follow-up interviews were held in May and June 2011 with six management executives of the Swedish RMP, concerning their expectations and experiences of the implementation process. The qualitative and activity theory (AT)-inspired analysis resulted in the emergence of two main themes and seven sub-themes. The analysis suggests that a number of contradictions arose during the implementation process of the Swedish RMP. For instance, a contradiction constituted as a conflict between the university management and some teachers concerning how digital technologies and technology enhanced learning (TEL) could and should be used when
Olsson, Cecilia; Waling, Maria
Objectives: Sweden is one of three countries worldwide which has a legal requirement to ensure that pupils in compulsory school should be offered free, nutritious school meals. Furthermore, the law states that school meal provision should be included in schools' internal quality management (IQM) system. The objective of this study was to examine…
The 1991, Swedish upper secondary school reform presents internationally an unusual case of the far-reaching integration of academic and vocational programmes. It has often been claimed that late tracking, such as characterizes this reform, helps to reduce inequalities between different social classes. This article addresses the question of how…
Key words:Schools, First Aid Boxes, Medical Emergencies. ABSTRACT. Introduction: The school system aims at ... the school system, it is not completely devoid of health challenges to the enrolee if adequate measures .... example, the Health and Safety (First-Aid) Regulations for schools since 1981 set out that schools must ...
After the outbreak of the Korean war, the Kingdom of Sweden, a permanent neutral nation, dispatched the Swedish Red Cross Field Hospital(SRCFH) instead of armed forces for humanitarian support to the allied forces in South Korea. The Hospital consisted of about 170 Swedes, all volunteers. From the early part of the Korean War, SRCFH took part in the medical assistance in Busan. When the frontline advanced to northern Korea, the number of inflowing casualties to this field hospital decreased. At that time, earnest medical aid for civilians commenced, and many Koreans were treated in available beds in SRCFH. After the armistice in July 1953, SRCFH became the Swedish Hospital in Busan, serving not only the military but also civilians, and continued its humanitarian mission until April 1957 for the Korean who were suffering from a collapsed medical system in the midst of war. When the Hospital returned to Sweden, it had treated over two million patients from twenty countries, including wounded UN allied force, Korean (south and north), Chinese prisoner of war and Korean civilian. Moreover, it left a transformative legacy, the National Medical Center in Seoul which was established in collaboration with other Scandinavian countries who dispatched medical assistance during the Korean War.
Ahlen, Johan; Hursti, Timo; Tanner, Lindsey; Tokay, Zelal; Ghaderi, Ata
Our study aimed at evaluating FRIENDS for Life, an intervention to prevent anxiety and depression in Swedish school children. A total of 695 children between the ages of 8 and 11 were recruited from 17 schools in Stockholm, Sweden, and cluster-randomized to either the intervention or control group. Teachers in the intervention group received a full day of training and administered FRIENDS for Life in their classrooms. We assessed the children's anxiety and depressive symptoms, general mental health, and academic performance at pre- and post-intervention as well as at the 12-month follow-up. A multi-informant approach was used with data collected from children, parents, and teachers. Assessment was done with the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, Children's Depression Inventory, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Children's baseline symptoms, gender, and age as well as their teacher's use of supervision were examined as moderators of effect. Our study found no short- or long-term effects of the intervention for any outcome with regard to the entire sample. We found an enhanced effect of the intervention regarding children with elevated depressive symptoms at baseline. We found a decrease in anxiety symptoms among children whose teachers attended a larger number of supervision sessions, compared to children whose teachers attended fewer supervised sessions or the control group. Mediation analyses showed that this effect was driven by change in the last phase of the intervention, suggesting that supervision might play an important role in enhancing teachers' ability to administer the intervention effectively.
Roper, Fred W.
This paper reviews the current situation in library school education for medical librarianship in the United States and Canada based on information from a questionnaire sent to teachers of courses in medical librarianship in accredited library schools. Since 1939, when the first course devoted entirely to medical librarianship was offered at Columbia University, courses have been introduced into the curricula of at least forty-seven of the ALA-accredited library schools. In 1978 there were seventy courses available through forty-seven library schools. Possibilities for specialization in medical librarianship are examined. Course content is reviewed. Implications of the MLA certification examination for library school courses are explored. PMID:385086
Skochelak, Susan E; Stack, Steven J
Despite wide consensus on needed changes in medical education, experts agree that the gap continues to widen between how physicians are trained and the future needs of our health care system. A new model for medical education is needed to create the medical school of the future. The American Medical Association (AMA) is working to support innovative models through partnerships with medical schools, educators, professional organizations, and accreditors. In 2013, the AMA designed an initiative to support rapid innovation among medical schools and disseminate the ideas being tested to additional medical schools. Awards of $1 million were made to 11 medical schools to redesign curricula for flexible, individualized learning pathways, measure achievement of competencies, develop new assessment tools to test readiness for residency, and implement new models for clinical experiences within health care systems. The medical schools have partnered with the AMA to create the AMA Accelerating Change in Medical Education Consortium, working together to share prototypes and participate in a national evaluation plan. Most of the schools have embarked on major curriculum revisions, replacing as much as 25% of the curriculum with new content in health care delivery and health system science in all four years of training. Schools are developing new certification in quality and patient safety and population management. In 2015, the AMA invited 21 additional schools to join the 11 founding schools in testing and disseminating innovation through the consortium and beyond.
Kind, Terry; Genrich, Gillian; Sodhi, Avneet; Chretien, Katherine C
Today's medical students are learning in a social media era in which patient confidentiality is at risk yet schools' social media policies have not been elucidated. The purpose of this study is to describe the presence of medical schools on top social media sites and to identify whether student policies for these schools explicitly address social media use. Websites of all 132 accredited US medical schools were independently assessed by two investigators for their presence (as of March 31, 2010) on the most common social networking and microblogging sites (Facebook and Twitter) and their publicly available policies addressing online social networking. Key features from these policies are described. 100% (n=132) of US medical schools had websites and 95.45% (126/132) had any Facebook presence. 25.76% (34/132) had official medical school pages, 71.21% (94/132) had student groups, and 54.55% (72/132) had alumni groups on Facebook. 10.6% of medical schools (14/132) had Twitter accounts. 128 of 132 medical schools (96.97%) had student guidelines or policies publicly available online. 13 of these 128 schools (10.16%) had guidelines/policies explicitly mentioning social media. 38.46% (5/13) of these guidelines included statements that defined what is forbidden, inappropriate, or impermissible under any circumstances, or mentioned strongly discouraged online behaviors. 53.85% (7/13) encouraged thoughtful and responsible social media use. Medical schools and their students are using social media. Almost all US medical schools have a Facebook presence, yet most do not have policies addressing student online social networking behavior. While social media use rises, policy informing appropriate conduct in medical schools lags behind. Established policies at some medical schools can provide a blueprint for others to adopt and adapt.
Pagels, Peter; Wester, Ulf; Söderström, Margareta
More scheduled outdoor stay is increasingly advocated for school children. This study measured 2nd, 5th and 8th graders' erythemal UV-exposure in September, March and May at four Swedish schools. We related those exposures, as fractions of total available ambient radiation, to the schools outdoor......, offer enough shade to protect children from overexposure during seasons with potentially harmful solar UV radiation. Pupils' outdoor stay may be extended during September and March. In May extended outdoor stay of the youngest pupils requires a more UVR-protective environment.......More scheduled outdoor stay is increasingly advocated for school children. This study measured 2nd, 5th and 8th graders' erythemal UV-exposure in September, March and May at four Swedish schools. We related those exposures, as fractions of total available ambient radiation, to the schools outdoor...... environments differing in amount of shade, vegetation, and peripheral city-scape quantified as percentage of free sky view calculated from fish-eye photographs. Exposures correlated with the sky views (with exceptions in May) and were suberythemal. The exposures were also below the threshold limit...
Jernbro, Carolina; Tindberg, Ylva; Lucas, Steven; Janson, Staffan
The aim of this study was to examine the overlap between child maltreatment types and their association with quality of life among school children. A national cross-sectional study of 3202 grade nine Swedish pupils of 15 years of age was carried out in 2011 with an 84% response rate. Data were analysed using Pearson chi-square and multiple linear regression analyses. Of the total sample, 650 children (20%) reported at least one type of maltreatment. There was a large degree of overlap between maltreatment types. In particular, neglect and witnessing intimate partner violence overlapped with most other types of maltreatment. There was a significant relationship between the degree of abuse and multitype maltreatment. Results showed a linear relationship between the number of types of maltreatment and quality of life (p children's lives and highlight the importance of taking the broad spectrum of child maltreatment into account in both research and practice. A more comprehensive assessment of the width of maltreatment among professionals may help to identify the most seriously maltreated children and lead to an improved ability to target intervention and prevention at these children. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Driemeyer, Wiebke; Janssen, Erick; Wiltfang, Jens; Elmerstig, Eva
Research about masturbation tends to be limited to the assessment of masturbation incidence and frequency. Consequently, little is known about what people experience connected to masturbation. This might be one reason why theoretical approaches that specifically address the persistent gender gap in masturbation frequency are lacking. The aim of the current study was to explore several aspects of masturbation in young men and women, and to examine possible associations with their social backgrounds and sexual histories. Data from 1,566 women and 1,452 men (ages 18 to 22) from 52 Swedish senior high schools were analyzed. Comparisons between men and women were made regarding incidence of and age at first masturbation, the use of objects (e.g., sex toys), fantasies, and sexual functioning during masturbation, as well as about their attitudes toward masturbation and sexual fantasies. Cluster analysis was carried out to identify similarities between and differences within the gender groups. While overall more men than women reported experience with several of the investigated aspects, cluster analyses revealed that a large proportion of men and women reported similar experiences and that fewer experiences are not necessarily associated with negative attitudes toward masturbation. Implications of these findings are discussed in consideration of particular social backgrounds.
Full Text Available Globalization and global education implies changes to practices at the classroom level to adapt to new imperatives associated with technology use and awareness, and environmental sustainability. It also implies much more. It implies that teachers apply their classroom pedagogy to take account of students’ new found global understandings of which they, and the school community, is largely unaware. This article addresses and discuses three key consequences of globalization for classrooms worldwide; an increased diversity of experience of the students within the classroom, an increased competitiveness of educational outcomes between national states and subsequently some standardisation of curriculum across nations to enable this, and an increased emphasis on teaching skills and values associated with intercultural understanding. Young children’s map knowledge and their resultant, and associated, interpretations of the world from a comparative study a from Swedish and Australian primary classrooms is used as examples of some of these implications of the impact of ‘global culture’ and ‘global issues’ on current and future classroom practice.
Diderichsen, Saima; Johansson, Eva E; Verdonk, Petra; Lagro-Janssen, Toine; Hamberg, Katarina
Today, women constitute about half of medical students in several Western societies, yet women physicians are still underrepresented in surgical specialties and clustered in other branches of medicine. Gender segregation in specialty preference has been found already in medical school. It is important to study the career preferences of our future physicians, as they will influence the maintenance of an adequate supply of physicians in all specialties and the future provision of health care. American and British studies dominate the area of gender and medical careers whereas Swedish studies on medical students' reasons for specialty preference are scarce. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare Swedish male and female medical students' specialty preferences and the motives behind them. Between 2006 and 2009, all last-year medical students at Umea University, Sweden (N = 421), were invited to answer a questionnaire about their future career and family plans. They were asked about their specialty preference and how they rated the impact that the motivational factors had for their choice. The response rate was 89% (N = 372); 58% were women (N = 215) and 42% were men (N = 157). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the independent impact of each motivational factor for specialty preference. On the whole, male and female last-year students opted for similar specialties. Men and women had an almost identical ranking order of the motivational factors. When analyzed separately, male and female students showed both similarities and differences in the motivational factors that were associated with their specialty preference. A majority of the women and a good third of the men intended to work part-time. The motivational factor combining work with family correlated with number of working hours for women, but not for men. The gender similarities in the medical students' specialty preferences are striking and contrast with research from other
Gren-Landell, Malin; Ekerfelt Allvin, Cornelia; Bradley, Maria; Andersson, Maria; Andersson, Gerhard
In the present online survey, 158 teachers in regular and special education teaching in grades six to nine were asked to rate the importance of probable reasons for problematic school absenteeism. On average, the teachers estimated that among their students, 19 students had presented with problematic school absenteeism over the last five years.…
Masić, Izet; Novo, Ahmed; Kudumović, Mensura; Masić, Zlatan
Standardization of education process and almost every aspect of life in EU moved the authors of this paper to evaluate medical informatics education at medical schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina. A very complex political structure and existence of two entities, one district and ten cantons in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina caused great differences in the curricula, teaching methods and quality of acquired knowledge among medical schools in the country. Also, on the example of the teaching process at the Medical School, University of Sarajevo, the authors propose a future united and integrated system in the area. Method of the study is descriptive, comparing education in medical informatics at five B&H medical schools. Over 500 students answered questionnaires designed at medical schools in Sarajevo and Tuzla. The questions tackled the contents of the subject of medical informatics, the possibility of acquiring knowledge from both practical and theoretic lessons, "good" and "bad" sides of the curricula as well as students' computer literacy. The subject of medical informatics is being taught in at least 3-4 different ways. Medical schools in Banja Luka and Foca/Srbinje are under a strong influence of the University of Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro; the teaching staff in Mostar are from Croatia; the University of Tuzla has its own way; and Medical School in Sarajevo maintains high quality values and principles. Things and events that distinguish the Medical School, University of Sarajevo is the fact that it is the only medical school in Bosnia and Herzegovina which has a web site of of the Department of Medical Informatics, organized a number of events including a distance learning course, and has a highly competent teaching staff. Medical School in Sarajevo is the oldest medical school in Bosnia and Herzegovina established in 1944. As a required subject, medical informatics was introduced in the academic year 1992/1993, and it is the only medical school
Full Text Available Abstract Background Teachers are at high risk of stress-related disorders. This study aimed to examine the occurrence of burnout in a sample of Swedish school-teachers, to test a combined measure of three burnout dimensions on the individual level, to characterize associations between burnout and factors encountered during work and leisure time, and to explore any differences between the genders. Methods A questionnaire of occupational, sociodemographic and life-style factors was answered by 490 teachers in school years 4–9. Outcome measures were (a the single burnout dimensions of exhaustion, cynicism and professional efficacy (Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and (b a combined measure based on high or low values in the three dimensions. The combined measure was used to stratify the study population into four levels (0–3 of burnout. Multivariable Poisson regression was applied on level 2 + 3 vs. level 0 + 1, for variables that we considered as relevant risk factors for burn out. Results Half of the teachers reported low values in all three dimensions (level 0, whereas 15 were classified as having high burnout in at least two out of the three dimensions (level 2 + 3, and 4 % in all three dimensions (level 3. Almost all psychosocial factors were incrementally more unfavourably reported through the rising levels of burnout, and so were dissatisfaction with the computer workstation, pain, sleep problems and lack of personal recovery. There was no association between gender and rising levels of overall burnout (p > 0.30. Low self-efficacy, poor leadership, high job demands and teaching in higher grades were the variables most clearly associated with burnout in multivariable Poisson regression. Conclusions Even if circa 50 % of the teachers appear do well with respect to burnout, the results points to the need of implementing multifaceted countermeasures that may serve to reduce burnout.
Murray, Richard B; Larkins, Sarah; Russell, Heather; Ewen, Shaun; Prideaux, David
Medical education reform can make an important contribution to the future health care of populations. Social accountability in medical education was defined by the World Health Organization in 1995, and an international movement for change is gathering momentum. While change can be enabled with policy levers, such as funding tied to achieving equity outcomes and systems of accreditation, medical schools and students themselves can lead the transformation agenda. An international movement for change and coalitions of medical schools with an interest in socially accountable medical education provide a "community of practice" that can drive change from within.
Conclusions: Barriers to engagement in teaching primarily focused on differences in job structure in the community, administrative barriers both at the hospital and through the medical school, and lack of knowledge on how to teach. As medical schools look to expand the capacity of distributed campuses, misperceptions should be addressed and opportunities to improve engagement should be further explored.
Gupta, Aakriti; Chong, Alvin H; Scarff, Catherine E; Huilgol, Shyamala C
Although skin disease and skin cancers cause significant morbidity and mortality in Australia, limited time is dedicated to dermatology teaching in most medical courses. The aim of this study was to define the current state of dermatology teaching in Australian medical schools with a view to developing a national core curriculum for dermatology. An electronic questionnaire was circulated to the dermatology teaching leads and relevant medical program coordinators of the 18 medical schools in Australia. Replies were received from 17 medical schools. Dermatology was included as part of the core curriculum in 15 schools. Time set aside for dermatology teaching varied, as reflected by the number of lectures delivered (0-21, mean 5, median 3) and minimum clinics attended (0-10, mean 1.2, median 0). Only four medical schools had a compulsory clinical attachment in dermatology. Furthermore, satisfying requirements in dermatology was mentioned in the university examination regulations in only six schools. Certain core learning outcomes were addressed in most schools, including the structure and function of the skin, common conditions such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis and cutaneous malignancies. However, there were important omissions, ranging from common problems like dermatophyte infections and drug reactions to the recognition of dermatological emergencies. These results are a compelling impetus to improve current standards of dermatology teaching, learning and assessment. The introduction of a national core curriculum would provide guidelines for dermatology teaching in medical schools, enabling the more effective utilisation of available time for key learning outcomes. © 2016 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.
Libbrecht, Nele; Lievens, Filip; Carette, Bernd; Côté, Stéphane
Accumulating evidence suggests that effective communication and interpersonal sensitivity during interactions between doctors and patients impact therapeutic outcomes. There is an important need to identify predictors of these behaviors, because traditional tests used in medical admissions offer limited predictions of "bedside manners" in medical practice. This study examined whether emotional intelligence would predict the performance of 367 medical students in medical school courses on communication and interpersonal sensitivity. One of the dimensions of emotional intelligence, the ability to regulate emotions, predicted performance in courses on communication and interpersonal sensitivity over the next 3 years of medical school, over and above cognitive ability and conscientiousness. Emotional intelligence did not predict performance on courses on medical subject domains. The results suggest that medical schools may better predict who will communicate effectively and show interpersonal sensitivity if they include measures of emotional intelligence in their admission systems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
ALBashtawy, Mohammed; Batiha, Abdul-Monim; Tawalbeh, Loai; Tubaishat, Ahmad; AlAzzam, Manar
Self-medication, usually with over-the-counter (OTC) medication, is reported as a community health problem that affects many people worldwide. Most self-medication practice usually begins with the onset of adolescence. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Mafraq Governorate, Jordan, using a simple random sampling method to select…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to explore the structures for managing student fitness to practise hearings in medical schools in the UK. We surveyed by email the named fitness to practise leads of all full members of the UK Medical Schools Council with a medical undergraduate programme. We asked whether student fitness to practise cases were considered by a committee/panel dedicated to medicine, or by one which also considered other undergraduate health and social care students. Findings All 31 medical schools responded. 19 medical schools had a fitness to practise committee dealing with medical students only. Three had a committee that dealt with students of medicine and dentistry. One had a committee that dealt with students of medicine and veterinary medicine. Eight had a committee that dealt with students of medicine and two or more other programmes, such as dentistry, nursing, midwifery, physiotherapy, dietetics, social work, pharmacy, psychology, audiology, speech therapy, operating department practice, veterinary medicine and education. Conclusion All 31 UK medical schools with undergraduate programmes have a fitness to practise committee to deal with students whose behaviour has given rise to concern about their fitness to practise. The variation in governance structures for student fitness to practise committees/panels can in part be explained by variations in University structures and the extent to which Universities co-manage undergraduate medicine with other courses.
Saito, R; Asano, M; Oshima, A; Minowa, M
The theme of the 6th WHO World Non-Smoking Day in 1993 was "Health services: our window to a tobacco-free world". A survey of the public health departments of all medical schools and universities was conducted in April, 1992 in order to investigate the state of smoking restrictions in those departments responsible for training in health services. Responses were received from 76 schools out of 80. The results were as follows: 1) In school cafeteria: Smoking prohibited (17.8%), Separate smoking/non-smoking areas (21.9%), Unrestricted smoking (60.3%), In student lounges: Smoking prohibited (2.9%), Separate Smoking/non-smoking areas (7.1%), Unrestricted smoking (90.0%), 2) The number of schools with tobacco vending machines: 59 schools (77.6%), 3) In medical faculty meetings: Smoking prohibited--32 schools (42.1%), Unrestricted smoking--22 schools (28.9%), No rules but no smokers--22 schools (28.9%), A total of 54 schools (71.0%) have established non-smoking meetings. 4) The number of school that give no attention to raking students aware of smoking risks: 6 schools As a result of this investigation, one national and one private medical school initiated prohibition of smoking at medical faculty meetings. In order to stimulate consciousness of the health hazards of smoking in future medical professionals, freshmen orientation should be utilized for teaching about the risks of both tobacco and "chug-a-lugging" of alcoholic beverages. In addition, the elimination of tobacco vending machines from all medical department area is strongly indicated.
Tsinuel, Girma; Tsedeke, Asaminew; Matthias, Siebeck; Fischer, Martin R; Jacobs, Fabian; Sebsibe, Desalegn; Yoseph, Mamo; Abraham, Haileamlak
One urgent goal of countries in sub-Saharan Africa is to dynamically scale up the education and work force of medical doctors in the training institutions and health facilities, respectively. These countries face challenges related to the rapid scale up which is mostly done without proper strategic planning, without the basic elements of infrastructure development, educational as well as academic and administrative human resources. Medical education done in the context of limited resources is thus compromising the quality of graduates. In the future, a collaborative and need-based approach involving major stakeholders such as medical educators concerned, ministries, planners and policy makers is needed. This article identifies the challenges of establishing medical schools and sustaining the quality of education through rapid scale-up in Sub-Saharan Africa in the settings of limited resources. It also outlines the minimum requirements for establishing medical schools. A consensus building workshop was conducted in Bishoftu, Ethiopia, from Nov 8-12, 2013. Participants were professionals from 13 Ethiopian medical schools, and representatives of medical schools from South Sudan, Somaliland, Somalia, and Mozambique. Participants are listed in Appendix 1. The governments and stakeholders should jointly develop strategic plans and a roadmaps for opening or expanding medical schools to scale up educational resources. It is advisable that medical schools have autonomy regarding the number of student-intake, student selection, curriculum ownership, resource allocation including for infrastructure and staff development. Health science and medical curricula should be integrated within and harmonized nationally. An educational evaluation framework needs to be embedded in the curricula, and all medical schools should have Health Science Education Development Centers.
Kusnoor, Anita V; Falik, Ruth
The reported prevalence of cheating among US medical students ranges from 0% to 58%. Cheating behaviors include copying from others, using unauthorized notes, sharing information about observed structured clinical encounters, and dishonesty about performing physical examinations on patients. Correlates of cheating in medical school include prior cheating behavior, burnout, and inadequate understanding about what constitutes cheating. Institutional responses include expulsion, reprimands, counseling, and peer review. Preventing cheating requires establishing standards for acceptable behavior, focusing on learning rather than assessment, involving medical students in peer review, and creating a culture of academic integrity. Cheating in medical school may have serious long-term consequences for future physicians. Institutions should develop environments that promote integrity.
Nordström, Anna; Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine; Grysell, Tomas
One of the toughest tasks in any profession is the deliverance of death notification. Marathon Death is an exercise conducted during the fourth year of medical school in northern Sweden to prepare students for this responsibility. The exercise is designed to enable students to gain insight into the emotional and formal procedure of delivering death notifications. The exercise is inspired by Augusto Boal's work around Forum Theatre and is analyzed using video playback. The aim of the study was to explore reflections, attitudes and ideas toward training in delivering death notifications among medical students who participate in the Marathon Death exercise based on forum play. After participation in the Marathon Death exercise, students completed semi-structured interviews. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using the principles of qualitative content analysis including a deductive content analysis approach with a structured matrix based on Bloom's taxonomy domains. The Marathon Death exercise was perceived as emotionally loaded, realistic and valuable for the future professional role as a physician. The deliverance of a death notification to the next of kin that a loved one has died was perceived as difficult. The exercise conjured emotions such as positive expectations and sheer anxiety. Students perceived participation in the exercise as an important learning experience, discovering that they had the capacity to manage such a difficult situation. The feedback from the video playback of the exercise and the feedback from fellow students and teachers enhanced the learning experience. The exercise, Marathon Death, based on forum play with video playback is a useful pedagogical tool that enables students to practice delivering death notification. The ability to practice under realistic conditions contributes to reinforce students in preparation for their future professional role.
Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the toughest tasks in any profession is the deliverance of death notification. Marathon Death is an exercise conducted during the fourth year of medical school in northern Sweden to prepare students for this responsibility. The exercise is designed to enable students to gain insight into the emotional and formal procedure of delivering death notifications. The exercise is inspired by Augusto Boal's work around Forum Theatre and is analyzed using video playback. The aim of the study was to explore reflections, attitudes and ideas toward training in delivering death notifications among medical students who participate in the Marathon Death exercise based on forum play. Methods After participation in the Marathon Death exercise, students completed semi-structured interviews. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using the principles of qualitative content analysis including a deductive content analysis approach with a structured matrix based on Bloom's taxonomy domains. Results The Marathon Death exercise was perceived as emotionally loaded, realistic and valuable for the future professional role as a physician. The deliverance of a death notification to the next of kin that a loved one has died was perceived as difficult. The exercise conjured emotions such as positive expectations and sheer anxiety. Students perceived participation in the exercise as an important learning experience, discovering that they had the capacity to manage such a difficult situation. The feedback from the video playback of the exercise and the feedback from fellow students and teachers enhanced the learning experience. Conclusions The exercise, Marathon Death, based on forum play with video playback is a useful pedagogical tool that enables students to practice delivering death notification. The ability to practice under realistic conditions contributes to reinforce students in preparation for their future professional role.
Rigby, Perry G; Gururaja, Ramnarayan P
There is a worldwide shortage of doctors, which is true in most countries and on most continents. To enumerate the number of medical schools in the world at two different times, showing the trends and relating this to population is a beginning. The number is actually going up and has done so for some time; this has increased the supply of physicians and broadened healthcare delivery. The number to count for geographic and regional information about the medical schools relates directly to the supply of doctors. Regions were chosen from WHO and Foundation for the Advancement of International Medical Education and Research data to illustrate geographic distributions, physicians per patient and kinetics. The number of medical schools has consistently been rising around the world. However, world order is reverting to disorder, considering wars, disease and beleaguered stand-offs. None. Eight countries contain 40% of medical schools; however, several locations are rising faster than the rest. Some regions are stable, but sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, South Asia and South America have increased the most in percentage recently, but not uniformly. Medical schools are related not only by geography, political boundaries and population but are concentrated in some regions. Graduate Medical Education positions appear to be short on a worldwide basis, as well as in some regions and countries. The number of medical schools is increasing worldwide and the identification of rapidly rising geographic areas is useful in exploring, planning and comparing regions. Controversy continues in a variety of locations, especially concerning Graduate Medical Education. In addition to funding, faculty candidates and accreditation, new schools are confronting a variety of choices in standards and quality, sizing and regional concerns.
Jakobson, Britt; Axelsson, Monica
This study, on the unit measuring time, examines classroom use of different resources and their affordances for students' meaning-making. The data, comprising audio and video recordings, fieldnotes, photographs and student texts, were collected during a lesson in a multilingual Swedish grade 5 classroom (students aged 11-12). In order to analyse…
This article deals with how teachers and pupils in seventh to ninth grade in Sweden look upon and relate to the incorporation of new digital technology in mother tongue education (Swedish). The result shows that both the classification and framing of the subject is being challenged by new technology, but that the awareness of the impact seems to…
In order to illustrate and discuss the impacts of neo-liberal educational policies on equity, this article analyses the effects of different kinds of decentralisation strategies on the implementation of children's right to an equitable education in Sweden. It begins with a comprehensive overview of the changes implemented in the Swedish compulsory…
Giubilini, Alberto; Milnes, Sharyn; Savulescu, Julian
In this review article we describe the current scope, methods, and contents of medical ethics education in medical schools in Western English speaking countries (mainly the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia). We assess the strengths and weaknesses of current medical ethics curricula, and students' levels of satisfaction with different teaching approaches and their reported difficulties in learning medical ethics concepts and applying them in clinical practice. We identify three main challenges for medical ethics education: counteracting the bad effects of the "hidden curriculum," teaching students how to apply ethical knowledge and critical thinking to real cases in clinical practice, and shaping future doctors' right character through ethics education. We suggest ways in which these challenges could be addressed. On the basis of this analysis, we propose practical guidelines for designing, implementing, teaching, and assessing a medical ethics program within a four-year medical course. Copyright 2016 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to address the lack of evaluations of school-based substance use prevention programs and to conduct a quasi-experimental evaluation of the alcohol use part of the Triad intervention. Methods Eleven Swedish intervention schools (285 pupils and three control schools (159 pupils participated in the evaluation. Baseline measurements were conducted in 2011 before the alcohol part in the prevention program was implemented in the intervention schools (school year 6, ages 12–13. We estimated an Intention-To-Treat (ITT Difference-in-Difference (DD model to analyze the effectiveness of the intervention on subsequent alcohol use measured in grades 7, 8 and 9. Results The main results show no effect on the likelihood of drinking alcohol or drinking to intoxication. Conclusions The lack of positive effects highlights the need for policy-makers and public health officials need to carefully consider and evaluate prevention programs in order to ensure that they are worthwhile from school, health, and societal perspectives.
Marianne Bengtsson Agostino
Full Text Available Introduction. During the summer 2011 a study was undertaken in Italy and Sweden in families who had a son or a daughter at school with a Cochlear Implant (CI. CI-children are an emerging group in school and society today. Until recently studies have often compared CI-hearing with deafness but fortunately today CI-children and CI-hearing represent a new reality with sometimes surprising language acquisition. The main aim of the present study was to investigate CI-children in school, kind of CI and hearing devices, their well-being, friends, teachers availability, parents’ perception of collaboration that exist between teachers and special staff, acoustics in classrooms and other areas. Material and method. Data were collected using a multi-structured questionnaire of 27 items. Results. Ninety-seven Swedish families and 115 Italian families answered and sent back the questionnaire. The percentage of respondents in both samples was around 50%. The results show some similarities between the two countries and some interesting differences. The most striking difference between the Italian and the Swedish sample concerned the number of bilateral CI. In the Italian sample only two girls and four boys had bilateral implants, while in the Swedish sample 29 girls and 39 boys had bilateral implants. Discussion. From the results of the present study it seems that the CI-children who participated in both Italy and Sweden are well adapted at school. To identify those children who are born deaf and could have their hearing restored by CI is so important.
Introduction: The school system aims at developing pupils academically and socially. In the process of achieving this, pupils are prone to accidents and medical emergencies due to their vulnerabilities. The ability of the school system to respond to these challenges may depend on the availability of well equipped First Aid ...
Campbell, Amy T
Law is now routinely included in the medical school curriculum, often incorporated into bioethics and/or practice of medicine coursework. There seems to lack, however, a systematic understanding of what works in terms of getting across an effective depth and breadth of legal knowledge for medical students - or what such would even look like. Moreover, and more critically, while some literature addresses these what, when, how, and who questions, a more fundamental question is left unanswered: why teach law in medical school? This article suggests a process to reveal a more consensual understanding of this latter question. The author highlights findings and recommendations of some of the leading literature to date related to teaching law in medical schools, and also recent U.K. projects addressing legal teaching in medical schools. Reflecting on these materials and activities, the author suggests that we take a "pause" before we argue for more or different legal topics within the medical curriculum. Before we alter the curricula for more and/or different "law," first, it is critical to have a meaningful, stakeholder-driven, consensus-seeking discussion of the goals of legal education: why do we think it matters that medical students learn about "the law"? © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.
Charlotte Yhlén (1839-1919) was the first Swedish woman with medical education. New research has shed light on this forgotten pioneer. Charlotte was born in a Southern Sweden in a family without academical tradition. In her youth she got inspired by the woman emancipation movement. At an age of 28 she emigrated to the USA and studied at the Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania. Her student thesis dealt with glaucoma. After graduation, Charlotte applied for work in Sweden but got rejected. Therefore, she moved back to the USA to work at Woman's Hospital of Philadelphia and later with a private practice as a general practitioner. In 1874, she married a Norwegian engineer and the couple got two children. Her husband's successful company Tinius Olsen Company was probably the reason why she gave up her medical career in her 50s. The article describes the conditions for love and work for the first Swedish women with academical education.
Andriole, Dorothy A; Jeffe, Donna B; Hageman, Heather L; Klingensmith, Mary E; McAlister, Rebecca P; Whelan, Alison J
To identify predictors of attrition during graduate medical education (GME) in a single medical school cohort of contemporary US medical school graduates. Retrospective cohort study. Single medical institution. Recent US allopathic medical school graduates. Attrition from initial GME program. Forty-seven of 795 graduates (6%) did not complete the GME in their initial specialty of choice. At bivariate analysis, attrition was associated with election to the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society, being an MD-PhD degree holder, and specialty choice (all P sex (P = .67), or age (P = .12). In a multivariate logistic regression model, MD-PhD degree holder (odds ratio, 3.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-9.26; P = .02), election to Alpha Omega Alpha (2.19; 1.04-4.66; P = .04), choice of general surgery for GME (5.32; 1.98-14.27; P < .001), and choice of 5-year surgical specialty including those surgical specialties with a GME training requirement of 5 years or longer (2.74; 1.16-6.44; P = .02) each independently predicted greater likelihood of attrition. Academically highly qualified graduates and graduates who chose training in general surgery or in a 5-year surgical specialty were at increased risk of attrition during GME.
Full Text Available In school settings, self-control is central to the ability of learners to complete their academic work successfully. Learners’ self-control is directly influenced by the ways in which educators execute their work, including their instructional explanations, their classroom management, and the expectations that they express to their learners. Our research on this phenomenon investigated Finnish and Swedish learners in upper secondary schools. Not only is the use of digital technology very different in these two countries; the autonomy and status of educators are as well. This article compares the empirical significance of antecedents of learners’ academic self-control in the two national settings by surveying 2191 learners in Swedish and Finnish schools. Our analysis applies structural equation modeling to two cross-sectional datasets, and the results reveal that the associations between educators’ instructional explanations, classroom management, and their high expectations on the one hand and learners’ academic self-control on the other are stronger overall among Finnish students than among Swedish students. Furthermore, the association between digital technology use and learners’ perceptions of conflict between school norms and Internet opportunities are much stronger in the Swedish sample than the Finnish sample. Lastly, we discuss the meaning of these results and their possible implications for research and practice.
Full Text Available This study addressed school-contextual features of social disorder in relation to sixth-grade students’ experiences of bullying victimization and mental health complaints. It investigated, firstly, whether the school’s concentrations of behavioural problems were associated with individual students’ likelihood of being bullied, and secondly, whether the school’s concentrations of behavioural problems and bullying victimization predicted students’ emotional and psychosomatic health complaints. The data were derived from the Swedish National Survey of Mental Health among Children and Young People, carried out among sixth-grade students (approximately 12–13 years old in Sweden in 2009. The analyses were based on information from 59,510 students distributed across 1999 schools. The statistical method used was multilevel modelling. While students’ own behavioural problems were associated with an elevated risk of being bullied, attending a school with a higher concentration of students with behavioural problems also increased the likelihood of being bullied. Attending a school with higher levels of bullying victimization and behavioural problems predicted more emotional and psychosomatic complaints, even when adjusting for their individual level analogues. The findings indicate that school-level features of social disorder influence bullying victimization and mental health complaints among students.
Edwards, J C; Elam, C L; Wagoner, N E
Complex societal issues affect medical education and thus require new approaches from medical school admission officers. One of these issues--the recognition that the attributes of good doctors include character qualities such as compassion, altruism, respect, and integrity--has resulted in the recent focus on the greater use of qualitative variables, such as those just stated, for selected candidates. In addition, more emphasis is now being placed on teaching and licensure testing of the attributes of the profession during the four-year curriculum. The second and more contentious issue concerns the system used to admit white and minority applicants. Emphasizing character qualities of physicians in the admission criteria and selection process involves a paradigm shift that could serve to resolve both issues. To make this or any paradigm shift in admission policy, medical schools must think about all the elements of admission and their interrelationships. A model of medical school admission is proposed that can provide understanding of the admission system and serve as a heuristic guide. This model consists of (1) the applicant pool; (2) criteria for selection; (3) the admission committee; (4) selection processes and policies; and (5) outcomes. Each of these dimensions and the interrelationships among the dimensions are described. Finally, a hypothetical example is provided in which the model is used to help a medical school change its admission process to accommodate a new emphasis in the school's mission.
von Rosen, Philip; Heijne, Annette; Frohm, Anna; Fridén, Cecilia
Objective Female adolescent athletes seem to use oral contraceptives (OCs) in the same proportion as the general population. In athletes not using OCs, menstrual irregularity (MI) is reported to be common but there are few studies of MI in adolescent athletes. The aim of the study was to survey menarche, menstrual irregularity and use of OCs in adolescent athletes in the National Sports High Schools in Sweden. A further aim was to study the associations between current sport injury and menstrual irregularity as well as use of OCs. Subjects Two hundred and ninety-eight female adolescent athletes at Swedish National Sports High Schools. Methods A web-based questionnaire containing questions related to menstrual status, contraception and current injury. Results One third (32.6%) of the athletes used OCs and of the remaining athletes 31.8% had MI. The group of athletes with MI had a significantly (p = 0.038; Cohen's d, 0.32) lower BMI and consisted of a significantly (p = 0.043) higher proportion of endurance athletes. OC users were less likely to participate in endurance sports compared to non-OC users (p = 0.024). Current injury was equally distributed in the OC and the non-OC group but athletes with MI had fewer sports injuries compared to eumenorrheic women. Conclusion OCs are frequently used among athletes at Swedish National Sports High Schools. OC users were less likely to participate in endurance sports compared to non-OC users. MI was common and athletes with MI had lower BMI compared to eumenorrheic athletes. Sports injuries were not associated with use of OC and eumenorrheic athletes had a higher proportion of current injury.
Alzahrani, Hasan Ali
Bullying and sexual harassment of medical students by their teachers appears to be widespread phenomenon. However, nothing is published about its prevalence in conservative countries such as Saudi Arabia. This survey aims to ascertain the extent of these mistreatments among students in a Saudi medical school. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a group of 542 clinical years' medical students in a Saudi medical school to explore students' perceptions of their educational environment including exposure to different kinds of bullying. Bullying was defined as "a "persistent behaviour against a medical student that is intimidating, degrading, offensive or malicious and undermines the confidence and self- esteem of the recipient". Results revealed that more than one quarter (28.0%) of the surveyed students reported exposure to some sort of bullying during their clinical. Ninety percent of the reported insults were verbal, 6% sexual and 4% physical. Males were more exposed but difference was not statistically significant. Bullying among Saudi medical students is an existing problem. A policy against bullying and harassment should be adopted in all of medical colleges to monitor this phenomenon and support students who have been bullied.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and sexual harassment of medical students by their teachers appears to be widespread phenomenon. However, nothing is published about its prevalence in conservative countries such as Saudi Arabia. This survey aims to ascertain the extent of these mistreatments among students in a Saudi medical school. Findings A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a group of 542 clinical years’ medical students in a Saudi medical school to explore students' perceptions of their educational environment including exposure to different kinds of bullying. Bullying was defined as “a “persistent behaviour against a medical student that is intimidating, degrading, offensive or malicious and undermines the confidence and self- esteem of the recipient”. Results revealed that more than one quarter (28.0% of the surveyed students reported exposure to some sort of bullying during their clinical. Ninety percent of the reported insults were verbal, 6% sexual and 4% physical. Males were more exposed but difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions Bullying among Saudi medical students is an existing problem. A policy against bullying and harassment should be adopted in all of medical colleges to monitor this phenomenon and support students who have been bullied.
This study aimed to determine the prevalence and sources of stress among Thai medical students. The questionnaires,which consisted of the Thai Stress Test (TST) and questions asking about sources of stress, were sent to all medical students in the Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Thailand. A total of 686 students participated. The results showed that about 61.4% of students had some degree of stress. Seventeen students (2.4%) reported a high level of stress. The prevalence of stress is highest among third-year medical students. Academic problems were found to be a major cause of stress among all students. The most prevalent source of academic stress was the test/exam. Other sources of stress in medical school and their relationships are also discussed. The findings can help medical teachers understand more about stress among their students and guide the way to improvement in an academic context, which is important for student achievement.
Full Text Available Background and purpose:To measure the status of academic advising in medical schools, the present study was designed at the Secretariat for Education and Student Affairs of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education.Methods: A benchmarking tool, to assess the quality of different aspects of that field was devised. Every school was asked to introduce a representative who would complete a questionnaire, which was designed to collect schools’ information.Results: All the divisions were visited by one of the project’s members to revise and approve the data. Then data retrieval was performed, verified and analyzed at the project’s office.Conclusion: There are 45 public and private medical schools nationwide, which were stratified based on their individual scores for academic advising.Keywords: ACADEMIC ADVISING, BENCHMARKING
Kim, Sang Hyun
The purpose of this study was to investigate medical school applicants' involvements in extracurricular activities including medical volunteering/community services, nonmedical community services, club activities, leadership role, and research. Extracurricular characteristics were compared for 448 applicants (223 males and 225 females) who applied to Kangwon Medical School in 2013 to 2014. Frequency analysis, chi-square test, and simple correlation were conducted with the collected data. The 448 applicants participated in medical volunteer/community services (15.3%), nonmedical community services (39.8%), club activities (22.9%), club officials (10%), and research (13.4%). On average, applicants from foreign universities participated in 0.9 medical volunteer/community service, 0.8 nonmedical community service, 1.7 club activities, and 0.6 research work. On the other hand, applicants from domestic universities reported 0.2 medical volunteer/community service, 1.0 nonmedical community service, 0.7 club activity, and 0.3 research. Involvement in extracurricular activities was extensive for medical school applicants. Participation in extracurricular activities differed between applicants from foreign and domestic universities. Females consistently reported greater participation in extracurricular activities than males. The data can be helpful for admission committees to recruit well-rounded applicants and compare between applicants with similar academic backgrounds.
Ekedahl, Anders; Brosius, Helen; Jönsson, Julia; Karlsson, Hanna; Yngvesson, Maria
To study discrepancies between (i) the prescribed current treatment stated by patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) compared with patients with other chronic diseases, (ii) the data in the medication list (ML) in the electronic medical record and (iii) the data in the prescription list (PL) on the prescriptions stored in the national prescription repository in Sweden, to determine current, noncurrent, duplicate and missing prescriptions. At one healthcare centre, a random sample of patients 18 years and older with a diagnosis of CHF, diabetes mellitus (DM) or osteoarthritis (OA) provided written informed consent to participate. Participants were interviewed by telephone on the prescribed current treatment. Of 161 invited patients (61 CHF, 50 DM and 50 OA), 66 patients were included. More than 80% of the patients had at least one discrepancy, a noncurrent, a duplicate or a missing prescription, in the ML and PL. The overall congruence for unique prescriptions on current treatment between the ML and the PL was only 55%. Patients with CHF had overall more discrepancies and patients with DM fewer discrepancies in the ML. Prescriptions for noncurrent treatment, duplicates and missing prescriptions are common in both the ML in the electronic medical record and the list on prescriptions stored in the Swedish National Prescription Repository. Patients with CHF had more discrepancies in the ML. The risk for medication errors in primary care due to incorrect information on prescribed treatment may be substantial. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Annane, Djillali; Annane, Frédérique
The plagiarism has become very common in universities and medical school. Undoubtedly, the easy access to a huge amount of electronic documents is one explanation for the increasing prevalence of plagiarism among students. While most of universities and medical school have clear statements and rules about plagiarism, available tools for the detection of plagiarism remain inefficient and dedicate training program for students and teachers too scarce. As lack of time is one reason for students to choose plagiarism, it should be one main target for educational programs. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Wilkinson, Tim J; Hudson, Judith N; Mccoll, Geoffrey J; Hu, Wendy C Y; Jolly, Brian C; Schuwirth, Lambert W T
Benchmarking among medical schools is essential, but may result in unwanted effects. To apply a conceptual framework to selected benchmarking activities of medical schools. We present an analogy between the effects of assessment on student learning and the effects of benchmarking on medical school educational activities. A framework by which benchmarking can be evaluated was developed and applied to key current benchmarking activities in Australia and New Zealand. The analogy generated a conceptual framework that tested five questions to be considered in relation to benchmarking: what is the purpose? what are the attributes of value? what are the best tools to assess the attributes of value? what happens to the results? and, what is the likely "institutional impact" of the results? If the activities were compared against a blueprint of desirable medical graduate outcomes, notable omissions would emerge. Medical schools should benchmark their performance on a range of educational activities to ensure quality improvement and to assure stakeholders that standards are being met. Although benchmarking potentially has positive benefits, it could also result in perverse incentives with unforeseen and detrimental effects on learning if it is undertaken using only a few selected assessment tools.
Andresen, Nicholas S.; Olson, Tyler S.; Krasowski, Matthew D.
Background Attitudes towards conflict of interest (COI) and COI policy are shaped during medical school and influence both the education of medical students and their future medical practice. Understanding the current attitudes of medical students and medical school teaching faculty may provide insight into what is taught about COI and COI policy within the ?hidden? medical curriculum. Differences between medical student and medical school teaching faculty perceptions of COI and COI policy ha...
Sadowsky, Donald; And Others
A study of physicians who had graduated from or had matriculated without graduating from dental school prior to entering a medical school focused on reasons for career choices, medical school admissions process, academic perfromance in both schools, medical specialty, and attitudes toward dentistry and medicine. (Editor/JT)
Tammela, Monica; Lindberg, Magnus; Isaksson, Marléne; Inerot, Annica; Rudel, Jana; Berne, Berit
The Swedish Medical Products Agency (MPA) provides a voluntary reporting system for adverse reactions to cosmetics. However, the reporting is sparse, and the products involved are sometimes difficult to identify. To investigate how often patients referred for patch testing were tested with the cosmetic products that they had been using themselves, and to improve the reporting to the MPA by the use of photographic documentation of product labels. Consecutive patients at five dermatology departments who were patch tested with their own cosmetics were included. Reports including protocols of positive patch test results for the patients' own cosmetics and photographs/photocopies of product labels were sent to the MPA. Three hundred and sixteen of 948 patients (33%) were tested with their own cosmetics, and 15% of these tested positive with one or more products. The number of reports was more than three times higher than in corresponding periods in earlier years. For 79% of the products, photographs/photocopies of the containers were submitted, and for 30%, batch numbers were submitted. For a substantial number of patients, their own cosmetics were suspected of causing adverse reactions and were therefore tested. During the study, the number of reports to the MPA tripled, and the relevant products were easier to identify. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Neese, Randolph M.; Schiffman, Joshua D.
Presents a study in which a questionnaire was given to deans at North American medical schools to determine which aspects of evolutionary biology are included in the curricula and the factors that influence this. Suggests that most future physicians should learn evolutionary biology as undergraduates if they are to learn it at all. (Author/NB)
accessibility to students, and a considerable clinical experience. I say this not to exclude the value of research but merely to put research, as it were, in its place ... within them a vitality and enthusiasm so often lacking in their elders. They have little of the grandeur of the capital's medical school or teaching hospital being ...
During the 1990s, neoliberal reforms in Sweden increased local school actors' possibilities to develop school profiles regarding both organization and content. This restructuring has increased the total number of school sports programs as well as the possibilities for upper secondary schools and sports clubs to develop elite and amateur sports on…
The upper secondary school is in Sweden practically mandatory even though attendance is voluntary and today almost all students in Sweden continue their studies at upper secondary school. But not all of them leave this school with a complete certificate of schooling as a result of experiencing a range of difficulties which may be due to cognitive,…
Elizabeth M. Altmaier
Full Text Available Introduction. Prospective medical school applicants use Internet websites to gain information about medical school interviews as well as to offer their experience in such interviews. This study examined applicants reported experiences of interviews and compared them to the purposes of the interview as purported by medical schools. Method. Content analysis of student feedback regarding medical school interviews at 161 medical schools was conducted for entries of over 4600 students applying to medical school who anonymously and voluntarily completed an online questionnaire. Results. Across all medical schools, nearly one half of all cited interview questions addressed non-cognitive characteristics of the applicants. Top ranked medical schools were reported to ask significantly more interpersonal and illegal questions and fewer academic/general knowledge questions than other medical schools. Lower ranked schools did not differ significantly in the types of questions reportedly asked applicants compared to other medical schools. Discussion. Medical school interviews are generally gathering types of information about applicants that admissions personnel identify as important in the admission decision. In addition to measuring interpersonal characteristics, medical school admissions interviews are assessing cognitive abilities and ethical decision-making. Sources on the Internet provide actual medical school interview questions to prospective students. This practice can help them gain an undue advantage in interviewing. Admissions committees and faculty who interview students may want to consider how best to obtain accurate and valid responses from applicants.
Andersson, J.; Verdonk, P.; Johansson, E.E.; Lagro-Janssen, T.; Hamberg, K.
Background: To ascertain good and appropriate healthcare for both women and men implementation of gender perspectives in medical education is needed. For a successful implementation, knowledge about students' attitudes and beliefs about men, women, and gender is crucial. The aim of this study was to
Thunander Sundbom L
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to analyse gender differences in self-reported non-adherence (NA to prescribed medication in the Swedish general population. We aimed to study unintentional and intentional NA as well as the reasons given for NA. Methods: A questionnaire was mailed to a cross-sectional, random, national sample of people aged 18-84 years in Sweden (n=7985. The response rate was 61.1% (n=4875. The questionnaire covered use of prescription drugs, NA behaviour and reasons for NA. Results: Use of prescription drugs was reported by 59.5% (n=2802 of the participants, and 66.4% (n=1860 of these participants did not adhere to the prescribed regimen. No overall gender differences in reporting NA were found. However, when analysing the various types of NA behaviour and the reasons for NA, different gender patterns emerged. Men were more likely to report forgetting [OR=0.77 (95%CI 0.65:0.92], changing the dosage [OR=0.64 (95%CI 0.52:0.79] and that they had recovered [14.3%, (OR=0.71 (95%CI 0.56:0.90] as a reason. In contrast, more women than men reported filling the prescription but not taking the drug [OR=1.25 (95%CI 1.02:1.54] and reported the development of adverse drug reactions (ADRs [OR=1.89 (95%CI 1.37:2.59] as a reason more commonly. The gender differences remained, in most cases, after controlling for confounders such as age, socioeconomic factors, medical problems and attitudes toward drugs.Conclusions: Women and men have different patterns of NA behaviour and different reasons for NA. Therefore, if adherence is to be improved, a wide knowledge of all the reasons for NA is required, along with an understanding of the impact of gender on the outcomes.
Leadership is considered to be significant for creating a developing and learning school organisation. In Sweden, distributed leadership and teacher teams are an "institutionalised practice"; despite this, sustainable school improvement is difficult to achieve. This article presents findings from a case study of three schools that…
Liu, Ye; Cheng, Xunjia
Ideal medical care requires professional skills as well as appropriate communication skills. However, traditional medical education in medical schools mostly emphasizes the former. To remedy this situation, medical humanities education will be incorporated into education for medical students at Fudan University. Comprehensive medical education that includes both medical skills and humanities may greatly improve medical care.
In traditional schooling, one-way monologue from teacher to student is the established way of communication in the classroom. Modern pedagogues are presently breaking free of this status quo. This master thesis explores whether there is a change in the student’s attitudes towards their schooling and whether there is an academic benefit for the student when applying a flipped classroom model. This study was performed in Swedish upper secondary school during the students’ last course in mat...
O'Neill, Lotte; Vonsild, Maria; Wallstedt, Birgitta
-based” admission track to make it easier for students who may not be eligible for admission through the “grade-based” track, to be admitted on the basis of attributes other than academic performance. The aim of this research was to examine whether there were significant differences in the social composition...... of students admitted via the two tracks between the years 2002-2007. Method: This prospective cohort study included 1074 medical students admitted between the years 2002-2007 to the University of Southern Denmark (USD) medical school. Of these, 454 were admitted by grade-based selection and 620 were selected...
Salter, Brian; Filippakou, Ourania; Tapper, Ted
Since 1997 there have been two concerted attempts to expand the number of medical school students in England: by increasing the size of existing medical schools, and by creating new medical schools. These initiatives have been a direct result of government policy, although policy implementation was delegated to the state apparatus. They also led…
McCally, Michael; And Others
Several medical schools have sponsored courses on medical aspects of nuclear war, and faculties of medical schools conducting or considering such courses have many questions about the organization of their teaching. A survey of U.S. schools of medicine presentations of nuclear war-related subject matter is discussed. (MLW)
Full Text Available Purpose: Mentoring is considered a valuable component of undergraduate medical education with a variety of programs at established medical schools. This study presents how new medical schools have set up mentoring programs as they have developed their curricula. Methods: Administrators from 14 US medical schools established since 2006 were surveyed regarding the structure and implementation of their mentoring programs. Results: The majority of new medical schools had mentoring programs that varied in structure and implementation. Although the programs were viewed as valuable at each institution, challenges when creating and implementing mentoring programs in new medical schools included time constraints for faculty and students, and lack of financial and professional incentives for faculty. Conclusions: Similar to established medical schools, there was little uniformity among mentoring programs at new medical schools, likely reflecting differences in curriculum and program goals. Outcome measures are needed to determine whether a best practice for mentoring can be established.
Fornari, Alice; Murray, Thomas S.; Menzin, Andrew W.; Woo, Vivian A.; Clifton, Maurice; Lombardi, Marion; Shelov, Steven
Purpose Mentoring is considered a valuable component of undergraduate medical education with a variety of programs at established medical schools. This study presents how new medical schools have set up mentoring programs as they have developed their curricula. Methods Administrators from 14 US medical schools established since 2006 were surveyed regarding the structure and implementation of their mentoring programs. Results The majority of new medical schools had mentoring programs that varied in structure and implementation. Although the programs were viewed as valuable at each institution, challenges when creating and implementing mentoring programs in new medical schools included time constraints for faculty and students, and lack of financial and professional incentives for faculty. Conclusions Similar to established medical schools, there was little uniformity among mentoring programs at new medical schools, likely reflecting differences in curriculum and program goals. Outcome measures are needed to determine whether a best practice for mentoring can be established. PMID:24962112
Fornari, Alice; Murray, Thomas S; Menzin, Andrew W; Woo, Vivian A; Clifton, Maurice; Lombardi, Marion; Shelov, Steven
Mentoring is considered a valuable component of undergraduate medical education with a variety of programs at established medical schools. This study presents how new medical schools have set up mentoring programs as they have developed their curricula. Administrators from 14 US medical schools established since 2006 were surveyed regarding the structure and implementation of their mentoring programs. The majority of new medical schools had mentoring programs that varied in structure and implementation. Although the programs were viewed as valuable at each institution, challenges when creating and implementing mentoring programs in new medical schools included time constraints for faculty and students, and lack of financial and professional incentives for faculty. Similar to established medical schools, there was little uniformity among mentoring programs at new medical schools, likely reflecting differences in curriculum and program goals. Outcome measures are needed to determine whether a best practice for mentoring can be established.
Lievens, Filip; Ones, Deniz S; Dilchert, Stephan
Admissions and personnel decisions rely on stable predictor-criterion relationships. The authors studied the validity of Big Five personality factors and their facets for predicting academic performance in medical school across multiple years, investigating whether criterion-related validities change over time. In this longitudinal investigation, an entire European country's 1997 cohort of medical students was studied throughout their medical school career (Year 1, N = 627; Year 7, N = 306). Over time, extraversion, openness, and conscientiousness factor and facet scale scores showed increases in operational validity for predicting grade point averages. Although there may not be any advantages to being open and extraverted for early academic performance, these traits gain importance for later academic performance when applied practice increasingly plays a part in the curriculum. Conscientiousness, perhaps more than any other personality trait, appears to be an increasing asset for medical students: Operational validities of conscientiousness increased from .18 to .45. In assessing the utility of personality measures, relying on early criteria might underestimate the predictive value of personality variables. Implications for personality measures to predict work performance are discussed.
Garmy, Pernilla; Nyberg, Per; Jakobsson, Ulf
The aim of this study was to investigate sleep, television and computer habits and enjoyment and feelings of tiredness in school of school-age children and adolescents in Sweden. An instrument found to be valid and reliable here was distributed to 3,011 children aged 6, 7, 10, 14, and 16 years. Those sleeping less than the median length of time…
Warne, Maria; Snyder, Kristen; Gillander Gådin, Katja
Education is an important factor in health equity, but many students still do not complete high school. A focus on the school context rather than on individual problems might help to create a supportive environment for health and learning. In this study we explored factors that promote health and learning from the perspective of vocational and low-achieving high school students in Sweden. We used grounded theory with a constructivist orientation, informed and sensitized by the concept of salutogenesis. Students from a school in a mid-sized municipality in Sweden participated, and we collected data using the photovoice method and interviews. Students identified general factors as significant to their well-being and success in school. The main theme, "promoting driving forces for health and learning," emerged from the categories "longing to be seen by teachers," "longing for support," and "longing for recuperation."
O'Neill, Lotte; Vonsild, Maria C; Wallstedt, Birgitta; Dornan, Tim
The under-representation in medical education of students from lower socio-economic backgrounds is an important social issue. There is currently little evidence about whether changes in admission strategies might increase the diversity of the medical student population. Denmark introduced an 'attribute-based' admission track to make it easier for students who may not be eligible for admission on the 'grade-based' track to be admitted on the basis of attributes other than academic performance. The aim of this research was to examine whether there were significant differences in the social composition of student cohorts admitted via each of the two tracks during the years 2002-2007. This prospective cohort study included 1074 medical students admitted during 2002-2007 to the University of Southern Denmark medical school. Of these, 454 were admitted by grade-based selection and 620 were selected on attributes other than grades. To explore the social mix of candidates admitted on each of the two tracks, respectively, we obtained information on social indices associated with educational attainment in Denmark (ethnic origin, father's education, mother's education, parenthood, parents living together, parent in receipt of social benefits). Selection strategy (grade-based or attribute-based) had no statistically significant effect on the social diversity of the medical student population. The choice of admission criteria may not be very important to widening access and increasing social diversity in medical schools. Attracting a sufficiently diverse applicant pool may represent a better strategy for increasing diversity in the student population. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dee, Cheryl R
An increasing number of medical school libraries offer chat service to provide immediate, high quality information at the time and point of need to students, faculty, staff, and health care professionals. Part 2 of Chat Reference Service in Medical Libraries presents a snapshot of the current trends in chat reference service in medical school libraries. In late 2002, 25 (21%) medical school libraries provided chat reference. Trends in chat reference services in medical school libraries were compiled from an exploration of medical school library Web sites and informal correspondence from medical school library personnel. Many medical libraries are actively investigating and planning new chat reference services, while others have decided not to pursue chat reference at this time. Anecdotal comments from medical school library staff provide insights into chat reference service.
Lundborg, Petter; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus; Nystedt, Paul
By using historical data on about 50,000 twins born in Sweden during 1886-1958, we demonstrate a positive and statistically significant relationship between years of schooling and longevity. This relation remains almost unchanged when exploiting a twin fixed-effects design to control for the influence of genetics and shared family background. This result is robust to controlling for within-twin-pair differences in early-life health and cognitive ability, as proxied by birth weight and height, as well as to restricting the sample to MZ twins. The relationship is fairly constant over time but becomes weaker with age. Literally, our results suggest that compared with low levels of schooling (less than 10 years), high levels of schooling (at least 13 years of schooling) are associated with about three years longer life expectancy at age 60 for the considered birth cohorts. The real societal value of schooling may hence extend beyond pure labor market and economic growth returns. From a policy perspective, schooling may therefore be a vehicle for improving longevity and health, as well as equality along these dimensions.
Titova, Olga E.; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S.; Jacobsson, Josefin A.; Feldman, Inna; Schiöth, Helgi B.; Benedict, Christian
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of self-reported sleep disturbance and short sleep duration with the risk for academic failure. METHODS: A cohort of ~40,000 adolescents (age range: 12-19 years) who were attending high school grades 7, 9, and 2nd year of upper secondary school in the Swedish Uppsala County were invited to participate in the Life and Health Young Survey (conducted between 2005 and 2011 in Uppsala County, Sweden). In addition to the question how many subjects they failed duri...
Full Text Available Background. Illicit drug use influences people’s lives and elicits unwanted behaviour. Current research shows that there is an increase in young people’s drug use in Sweden. The aim was to investigate Swedish high-school pupils’ attitudes, impulsiveness and gender differences linked to drug use. Risk and protective factors relative to drug use were also a focus of interest.Method. High school pupils (n = 146 aged 17–21 years, responded to the Adolescent Health and Development Inventory, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and Knowledge, and the Attitudes and Beliefs. Direct logistic, multiple regression analyses, and Multivariate Analysis of Variance were used to analyze the data.Results. Positive Attitudes towards drugs were predicted by risk factors (odds ratio = 37.31 and gender (odds ratio = .32. Risk factors (odds ratio = 46.89, positive attitudes towards drugs (odds ratio = 4.63, and impulsiveness (odds ratio = 1.11 predicted drug usage. Risk factors dimensions Family, Friends and Individual Characteristic were positively related to impulsiveness among drug users. Moreover, although boys reported using drugs to a greater extent, girls expressed more positive attitude towards drugs and even reported more impulsiveness than boys.Conclusion. This study reinforces the notion that research ought to focus on gender differences relative to pro-drug attitudes along with testing for differences in the predictors of girls’ and boys’ delinquency and impulsiveness. Positive attitudes towards drugs among adolescents seem to be part of a vicious circle including risk factors, such as friendly drug environments (e.g., friends who use drugs and unsupportive family environments, individual characteristics, and impulsiveness.
Full Text Available The present text is based on a key note lecture (‘Civic Education, Democracy and Political Participation’ delivered at the symposium Globalization of School Subjects – Challenges for Civics, History, Geography and Religious Education, Karlstad University, 13–14 December, 2012. Drawing on recent developments in research on political participation and civic engagement, the text starts out with a discussion about different ways of understanding political passivity. Subsequently, the text turns to a brief analysis of ways in which schools may provide young people with political skills and competencies needed in a democratic society. Three dimensions of political citizenship are highlighted: political efficacy, political literacy, and political participation; and the analysis focuses on the impact of a number of different school-related factors on these three ‘citizenship competencies’.
Tongeren-Alers, M.L.G. van; Esch, M. van der; Verdonk, P.; Johansson, E.; Hamberg, K.; Lagro-Janssen, T.
BACKGROUND: Female students currently outnumber male students in most medical schools. Some medical specialties are highly gender segregated. Therefore, it is interesting to know whether medical students have early specialization preferences based on their gender. Consequently, we like to know
Schiekirka-Schwake, Sarah; Dreiling, Katharina; Pyka, Katharina; Anders, Sven; von Steinbüchel, Nicole; Raupach, Tobias
Student evaluations of teaching can provide useful feedback for teachers and programme coordinators alike. We have designed a novel evaluation tool assessing teacher performance and student learning outcome. This tool was implemented at two German medical schools. In this article, we report student and teacher perceptions of the novel tool, and the implementation process. Focus group discussions as well as one-to-one interviews involving 22 teachers and 31 undergraduate medical students were conducted. Following adjustments to the feedback reports (e.g. the colour coding of results) at one medical school, 42 teachers were asked about their perceptions of the revised report and the personal benefit of the evaluation tool. Teachers appreciated the individual feedback provided by the evaluation tool and stated that they wanted to improve their teaching, based on the results; however, they missed most of the preparative communication. Students were unsure about the additional benefit of the instrument compared with traditional evaluation tools. A majority was unwilling to complete evaluation forms in their spare time, and some felt that the new questionnaire was too long and that the evaluations occurred too often. They were particularly interested in feedback on how their comments have helped to further improve teaching. Student evaluations of teaching can provide useful feedback CONCLUSION: Despite evidence of the utility of the tool for individual teachers, implementation of changes to the process of evaluation appears to have been suboptimal, mainly owing to a perceived lack of communication. In order to motivate students to provide evaluation data, feedback loops including aims and consequences should be established. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.
Drechsler, Michal; Van Driel, Jan
We report in this paper on a study of chemistry teachers' perceptions of their teaching in upper secondary schools in Sweden, regarding models of acids and bases, especially the Bronsted and the Arrhenius model. A questionnaire consisting of a Likert-type scale was developed, which focused on teachers' knowledge of different models, knowledge of…
Forsman, Liselott; Hummelstedt-Djedou, Ida
This study, building on previous studies stressing the bond between positive sense of ethnic identity and school belonging, puts at its center the very process of ethnic identity construction. Thus, identity is viewed as co-constructed, within a social-constructionist perspective on learning. The study is two-folded. It starts out by describing…
Jonsson, Anna-Carin; Beach, Dennis
This article discusses the effects of separating 15-16 years-old school students in isolated academic and practical study programs in upper-secondary education. It is based on an investigation of the social identities developed by and about youth learners in these circumstances. In particular we examine the creation of identity positions by youth…
Ramey, David M.
In this article, the author examines how school- and district-level racial/ethnic and socioeconomic compositions influence schools' use of different types of criminalized and medicalized school discipline. Using a large data set containing information on over 60,000 schools in over 6,000 districts, the authors uses multilevel modeling and a…
Full Text Available Pooja Nair, Ishani Barai, Sunila Prasad, Karishma Gadhvi Department of Medicine, Imperial College School of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK Abstract: Guidelines in the UK require all doctors to actively take part in quality improvement. To ease future doctors into the process, formal quality improvement teaching can be delivered during medical school. Keywords: quality improvement, medical school, patient safety, patient satisfaction, medical student, clinical audit
Ott, Torbjörn; Magnusson, Anita Grigic; Weilenmann, Alexandra; Hård af Segerstad, Ylva
Drawing from a survey and focus group interviews, this study explores how Swedish upper secondary students reason about the usage of their personal mobile phones in school. As a contribution to the debate around the mobile phone's role in school, we present the students' own voices relative to the question of regulating mobile phone use. We use…
Adam O Goldstein
Full Text Available Adam O Goldstein, Rachel Sobel BearmanDepartment of Family Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USAIntroduction: This study examines the integration of community engagement and community-engaged scholarship at all accredited US and Canadian medical schools in order to better understand and assess their current state of engagement.Methods: A 32-question data abstraction instrument measured the role of community engagement and community-engaged scholarship as represented on the Web sites of all accredited US and Canadian medical schools. The instrument targeted a medical school's mission and vision statements, institutional structure, student and faculty awards and honors, and faculty tenure and promotion guidelines.Results: Medical school Web sites demonstrate little evidence that schools incorporate community engagement in their mission or vision statements or their promotion and tenure guidelines. The majority of medical schools do not include community service terms and/or descriptive language in their mission statements, and only 8.5% of medical schools incorporate community service and engagement as a primary or major criterion in promotion and tenure guidelines.Discussion: This research highlights significant gaps in the integration of community engagement or community-engaged scholarship into medical school mission and vision statements, promotion and tenure guidelines, and service administrative structures.Keywords: medical school, education, community service, mission, tenure, engagement
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research shows that medical education is characterized by unequal conditions for women and men, but there is a lack of qualitative studies investigating the social processes that enable and maintain gender inequalities that include both male and female students. In this focus group study, we therefore explored male as well as female medical students’ experiences of the gender climate – i.e., how beliefs, values, and norms about gender were communicated – during clinical training and how the students dealt with these experiences. Methods Focus group interviews were conducted with 24 medical students (nine men at Umeå University, Sweden. The interviews were structured around personal experiences in clinical training where the participants perceived that gender had mattered. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results The students described gender-stereotyped expectations, discriminatory treatment, compliments, comments, and demeaning jargon. Female students gave more personal and varied examples than the men. The students’ ways of handling their experiences were marked by efforts to fit in, for example, by adapting their appearance and partaking in the prevailing jargon. They felt dependent on supervisors and staff, and due to fear of repercussions they kept silent and avoided unpleasant situations and people rather than challenging humiliating jargon or supervisors who were behaving badly. Conclusions Everyday communication of gender beliefs combined with students’ adaptation to stereotyped expectations and discrimination came across as fundamental features through which unequal conditions for male and female students are reproduced and maintained in the clinic. Because they are in a dependent position, it is often difficult for students to challenge problematic gender attitudes. The main responsibility for improvements, therefore, lies with medical school leadership who need to provide students
O'Mara, Deborah A; Canny, Ben J; Rothnie, Imogene P; Wilson, Ian G; Barnard, John; Davies, Llewelyn
To report the level of participation of medical schools in the Australian Medical Schools Assessment Collaboration (AMSAC); and to measure differences in student performance related to medical school characteristics and implementation methods. Retrospective analysis of data using the Rasch statistical model to correct for missing data and variability in item difficulty. Linear model analysis of variance was used to assess differences in student performance. 6401 preclinical students from 13 medical schools that participated in AMSAC from 2011 to 2013. Rasch estimates of preclinical basic and clinical science knowledge. Representation of Australian medical schools and students in AMSAC more than doubled between 2009 and 2013. In 2013 it included 12 of 19 medical schools and 68% of medical students. Graduate-entry students scored higher than students entering straight from school. Students at large schools scored higher than students at small schools. Although the significance level was high (P performance. The effect on performance of multiple assessments compared with the test items as part of a single end-of-year examination was negligible. The variables investigated explain only 12% of the total variation in student performance. An increasing number of medical schools are participating in AMSAC to monitor student performance in preclinical sciences against an external benchmark. Medical school characteristics account for only a small part of overall variation in student performance. Student performance was not affected by the different methods of administering test items.
Lipworth, Wendy; Kerridge, Ian; Little, Miles; Gordon, Jill; Markham, Pippa
Bioethics and professionalism are standard subjects in medical training programmes, and these curricula reflect particular representations of meaning and practice. It is important that these curricula cohere with the actual concerns of practicing clinicians so that students are prepared for real-world practice. We aimed to identify ethical and professional concerns that do not appear to be adequately addressed in standard curricula by comparing ethics curricula with themes that emerged from a qualitative study of medical practitioners. Curriculum analysis: Thirty-two prominent ethics and professionalism curricula were identified through a database search and were analysed thematically. Qualitative study: In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 medical practitioners. Participants were invited to reflect upon their perceptions of the ways in which values matter in their practices and their educational experiences. The themes emerging from the two studies were compared and contrasted. While representations of meaning and value in ethics and professionalism curricula overlap with the preoccupations of practicing clinicians, there are significant aspects of 'real-world' clinical practice that are largely ignored. These fell into two broad domains: (1) 'sociological' concerns about enculturation, bureaucracy, intra-professional relationships, and public perceptions of medicine; and (2) epistemic concerns about making good decisions, balancing different kinds of knowledge, and practising within the bounds of professional protocols. Our findings support the view that philosophy and sociology should be included in medical school and specialty training curricula. Curricula should be reframed to introduce students to habits of thought that recognize the need for critical reflection on the social processes in which they are embedded, and on the philosophical assumptions that underpin their practice. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Kutikov, Alexander; Bonslaver, Jason; Casey, Jessica T.; Degrado, Justin; Dusseault, Beau N.; Fox, Janelle A.; Lashley-Rogers, Desri; Richardson, Ingride; Smaldone, Marc C.; Steinberg, Peter L.; Trivedi, Deep B.; Routh, Jonathan C.
Introduction Urology continues to be a highly desirable specialty, despite decreasing exposure of students to Urology in U.S. medical schools. In this study, we set out to assess how U.S. medical schools compare to one another with regard to the number of students that each sends into Urological training and to evaluate the reasons why some medical schools consistently send more students into urology than others. Materials and Methods The authors obtained AUA Match data for the 5 Match seasons from 2005–2009. A survey of all successful participants was then performed. The survey instrument was designed to determine what aspects of the medical school experience influenced students to choose to specialize in Urology. A bivariate and multivariate analysis was then performed to assess which factors correlated with more students entering Urology from a particular medical school. Results Between 2005 and 2009, 1,149 medical students from 130 medical schools successfully participated in the Urology match. Of the 132 allopathic medical schools, 128 sent at least 1 student into Urology (mean 8.9, median 8, SD 6.5). A handful of medical schools were remarkable outliers, sending significantly more students into Urology than other institutions. Multivariate analysis revealed that a number of medical-school related variables including strong mentorship, medical school ranking, and medical school size correlated with more medical students entering Urology. Conclusion Some medical schools launch more Urologic careers than others. Although reasons for these findings are multifactorial, recruitment of Urologic talent pivots on these realities. PMID:21168862
Hsu, Jiann-wien; Hsu, Roy
We describe and analyze the statistics of general physics and laboratory courses in the medical schools of Taiwan. We explore the development of the general physics curriculum for medical students of Taiwan. Also, an approach to designing a general physics course in combination with its application to medical sciences is proposed. We hope this preliminary study can provide a useful reference for physics colleagues in the medical schools of Taiwan to revolutionize the dynamics of teaching phys...
Full Text Available Cord blood IgE has previously been studied as a possible predictor of asthma and allergic diseases. Results from different studies have been contradictory, and most have focused on high-risk infants and early infancy. Few studies have followed their study population into adulthood. This study assessed whether cord blood IgE levels and a family history of asthma were associated with, and could predict, asthma medication and allergy-related respiratory symptoms in adults. A follow-up was carried out in a Swedish birth cohort comprising 1,701 consecutively born children. In all, 1,661 individuals could be linked to the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register and the Medical Birth Register, and 1,227 responded to a postal questionnaire. Cord blood IgE and family history of asthma were correlated with reported respiratory symptoms and dispensed asthma medication at 32-34 years. Elevated cord blood IgE was associated with a two- to threefold increased risk of pollen-induced respiratory symptoms and dispensed anti-inflammatory asthma medication. Similarly, a family history of asthma was associated with an increased risk of pollen-induced respiratory symptoms and anti-inflammatory medication. However, only 8% of the individuals with elevated cord blood IgE or a family history of asthma in infancy could be linked to current dispensation of anti-inflammatory asthma medication at follow-up. In all, 49 out of 60 individuals with dispensed anti-inflammatory asthma medication at 32-34 years of age had not been reported having asthma at previous check-ups of the cohort during childhood. Among those, only 5% with elevated cord blood IgE and 6% with a family history of asthma in infancy could be linked to current dispensation of anti-inflammatory asthma medication as adults. Elevated cord blood IgE and a positive family history of asthma were associated with reported respiratory symptoms and dispensed asthma medication in adulthood, but their predictive power was poor
Markert, R J
This paper reports an investigation of the incremental validity of noncognitive tests. Incremental validity is the predictive ability of a measure when entered into a regression equation after the routine predictors have first been included. Three noncognitive tests--Rotter Locus of Control, Adjective Check List, and Student Orientations Survey--were administered to a first-year medical school class. When entered after the usual academic predictors of success in medical school--Undergraduate Grade Point Average and Medical College Admission Test--the three noncognitive tests added little to the prediction of first-year medical school Grade Point Average. It is concluded that while noncognitive measures are useful in characterizing a medical school class and in discovering nonacademic correlates of academic success in medical school, limited incremental validity related to first-year academic performance was demonstrated.
Ali, Imran I.; Isaacson, Richard S.; Safdieh, Joseph E.; Finney, Glen R.; Sowell, Michael K.; Sam, Maria C.; Anderson, Heather S.; Shin, Robert K.; Kraakevik, Jeff A.; Coleman, Mary; Drogan, Oksana
Objective: To survey all US medical school clerkship directors (CDs) in neurology and to compare results from a similar survey in 2005. Methods: A survey was developed by a work group of the American Academy of Neurology Undergraduate Education Subcommittee, and sent to all neurology CDs listed in the American Academy of Neurology database. Comparisons were made to a similar 2005 survey. Results: Survey response rate was 73%. Neurology was required in 93% of responding schools. Duration of clerkships was 4 weeks in 74% and 3 weeks in 11%. Clerkships were taken in the third year in 56%, third or fourth year in 19%, and fourth year in 12%. Clerkship duration in 2012 was slightly shorter than in 2005 (fewer clerkships of ≥4 weeks, p = 0.125), but more clerkships have moved into the third year (fewer neurology clerkships during the fourth year, p = 0.051). Simulation training in lumbar punctures was available at 44% of schools, but only 2% of students attempted lumbar punctures on patients. CDs averaged 20% protected time, but reported that they needed at least 32%. Secretarial full-time equivalent was 0.50 or less in 71% of clerkships. Eighty-five percent of CDs were “very satisfied” or “somewhat satisfied,” but more than half experienced “burnout” and 35% had considered relinquishing their role. Conclusion: Trends in neurology undergraduate education since 2005 include shorter clerkships, migration into the third year, and increasing use of technology. CDs are generally satisfied, but report stressors, including inadequate protected time and departmental support. PMID:25305155
Capers, Quinn; Clinchot, Daniel; McDougle, Leon; Greenwald, Anthony G
Implicit white race preference has been associated with discrimination in the education, criminal justice, and health care systems and could impede the entry of African Americans into the medical profession, where they and other minorities remain underrepresented. Little is known about implicit racial bias in medical school admissions committees. To measure implicit racial bias, all 140 members of the Ohio State University College of Medicine (OSUCOM) admissions committee took the black-white implicit association test (IAT) prior to the 2012-2013 cycle. Results were collated by gender and student versus faculty status. To record their impressions of the impact of the IAT on the admissions process, members took a survey at the end of the cycle, which 100 (71%) completed. All groups (men, women, students, faculty) displayed significant levels of implicit white preference; men (d = 0.697) and faculty (d = 0.820) had the largest bias measures (P bias, 48% were conscious of their individual results when interviewing candidates in the next cycle, and 21% reported knowledge of their IAT results impacted their admissions decisions in the subsequent cycle. The class that matriculated following the IAT exercise was the most diverse in OSUCOM's history at that time. Future directions include preceding and following the IAT with more robust reflection and education on unconscious bias. The authors join others in calling for an examination of bias at all levels of academic medicine.
Bullock, Samuel C.; Houston, Earline
Thirty-one black medical students attending five white medical schools were seen in individual interviews of one to two hours to evaluate their perceptions of racism in their medical school education. The interviews focused on racism experienced in high school, college, and medical school. Over one half of the population experienced racism during their high school and college education, while 30 of 31 subjects reported racist experiences in their medical school education. The students reported a variety of methods of coping with racist experiences and emphasized the importance of fellow minority students, faculty, and the minority office in coping with the stresses of racist experiences. Those offering counseling services to minority students should recognize the reality of racist experiences in medical education. PMID:3612829
The Japanese medical education program has radically improved during the last 10 years. In 1999, the Task Force Committee on Innovation of Medical Education for the 21st Century proposed a tutorial education system, a core curriculum, and a medical student evaluation system for clinical clerkship. In 2001, the Model Core Curriculum of medical education was instituted, in which medical ethics became part of the core material. Since 2005, a nationwide medical student evaluation system has been applied for entrance to clinical clerkship. Within the Japan Society for Medical Education, the Working Group of Medical Ethics proposed a medical ethics education curriculum in 2001. In line with this, the Japanese Association for Philosophical and Ethical Research in Medicine has begun to address the standardization of the curriculum of medical ethics. A medical philosophy curriculum should also be included in considering illness, health, life, death, the body, and human welfare.
Full Text Available This special issue of Education & Democracy presents examples froma new generation of Swedish research on environmental and sustainability education and thereby complement the picture of the current Swedish environmental and sustainability education research outlined in the recent Danish-Swedish special issue of Environmental EducationResearch (Vol 16, No 1 and the anthology Democracy and Values inEducation for Sustainable Development – Contributions from Swedish Research (Öhman 2008. All the contributors to this issue are associatedwith the Graduate School in Education and Sustainable Development (GRESD, either as PhD students or as supervisors.
Martin, Glenna C; Kirgis, Julianne; Sid, Eric; Sabin, Janice A
The unequal representation of women and people of color compared with men and whites in medical school textbooks has been well documented, as have health care inequities, and biases-both overt and implicit-by health care providers and in access to care. The authors investigated whether this bias exists in PowerPoint slides used in didactic material for preclinical students at one medical school. The authors analyzed 747 "decks" of slides from 33 preclinical courses in the medical school curriculum at the University of Washington School of Medicine in the years spanning 2009 to 2011. The authors coded the human images into various sex- and race-specific classifications and evaluated the distribution of images into these categories. Of the 4,033 images that could be coded by sex, 39.6% (1,595) were female and 60.5% (2,438) were male. Of the 5,230 images that could be coded by race/ethnicity, 78.4% (4,100) were white and 21.6% (1,130) were persons of color. Thus, images of whites and males predominated. The proportion of images used in didactic courses at one school of medicine is not representative of the U.S. population in terms of race or sex. The authors discuss the potential sources and impact of this bias, make a case for sex and race diversity in didactic imagery, and propose possible avenues for further research and curricular reform in an era when the population is becoming increasingly racially and ethnically diverse.
Marjanovic, Marija; Buhlin, Kåre
To investigate if patients with periodontitis attending the Dental School in Huddinge, Sweden presented with more signs of systemic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and respiratory diseases, compared to healthy and gingivitis patients. In this retrospective study, dental charts were examined where the periodontal diagnoses of patients were known. A total of 325 patients with severe periodontitis and 149 patients without periodontitis, born 1928 to 1968, were identified. Diagnosis regarding the systemic diseases was self-reported. Odds ratios for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and respiratory diseases were calculated with a logistic regression model that was adjusted for age, gender and smoking. It was observed that more cases of periodontitis were found in older individuals than the controls (61.7 vs 56.2 years; P diabetes mellitus. Among the controls, 30.9% had cardiovascular disease, 23.5% suffered from respiratory diseases and 6.7% had diabetes mellitus. Across both groups, hypertension was the most frequent diagnosis. There was a significant association between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease (odds ratio [OR] = 1.79, confidence interval [CI] 1.12-2.86), but not between respiratory diseases and periodontitis (OR= 0.88, CI 0.53-1.47). The risk of diabetes mellitus was greater among those patients with periodontitis (OR= 2.95, CI 1.45- 6.01). This study found that patients with periodontitis presented with more systemic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus than control patients. However, no association was found between periodontitis and respiratory diseases. At the present time, the reasons for the associations or lack of association are unknown.
There is deficiency and gaps among medical graduates in performing certain procedures and skills. Till recent years, some school used an apprenticeship model for teaching procedures. The way of teaching skills should be revised and reinforced. Medical schools showed adopt formal curricula based training for teaching ...
Simunović, Vladimir J; Sonntag, Hans-Günther; Hren, Darko; Dørup, Jens; Krivokuća, Zdenka; Bokonjić, Dejan; Verhaaren, Henry; Horsch, Axel; Mimica, Mladen; Vojniković, Benjamin; Selesković, Hajrija; Marz, Richard; Marusić, Ana; Marusić, Matko
To perform internal and external evaluations of all 5 medical schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina against international standards. We carried out a 2-stage survey study using the same 5-point Likert scale for internal and external evaluations of 5 medical schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Banja Luka, Foca/East Sarajevo, Mostar, Sarajevo and Tuzla). Participants consisted of managerial staff, teaching staff and students of medical schools, and external expert assessors. Main outcome measures included scores on internal and external evaluation forms for 10 items concerning aspects of school curriculum and functioning: 'School mission and objectives'; 'Curriculum'; 'Management'; 'Staff'; 'Students'; 'Facilities and technology'; 'Financial issues'; 'International relationships'; 'Internal quality assurance', and 'Development plans'. During internal assessment, schools consistently either overrated their overall functioning (Foca/East Sarajevo, Mostar and Tuzla) or markedly overrated or underrated their performance on individual items on the survey (Banja Luka and Sarajevo). Scores for internal assessment differed from those for external assessment. These differences were not consistent, except for the sections 'School mission and objectives', 'Curriculum' and 'Development plans', which were consistently overrated in the internal assessments. External assessments was more positive than internal assessments on 'Students' and 'Facilities and technology' in 3 of 5 schools. This assessment exercise in 5 medical schools showed that constructive and structured evaluation of medical education is possible, even in complex and unfavourable conditions. Medical schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina have successfully formed a national consortium for formal collaboration in curriculum development and reform.
Full Text Available Background: Medical ethics has been accepted as part of every accredited medical curriculum for the past 40 years. Medical students’ attitudes have an important role for development and improvement of the curriculum. Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital is the oldest and largest medical school in Thailand, and has been teaching medical ethics since 1907. Objective: To determine attitudes among medical students and interns toward medical ethics education and understand the factors influencing their attitudes. Methods: Mixed quantitative and qualitative research was conducted with early 6th year medical students and interns. A questionnaire was adapted from previous studies and included some original items. Results: Of the 550 questionnaires distributed, 386 were returned (70.2% response rate. Males (n=180 made up 46.63 % of the sample. Interns (n=219, 56.74 % tended to have more positive attitudes toward ethics learning than did medical students (n = 167, 43.26 %. Male participants tended to agree more with negative statements about ethics learning than did females. There was no statistically significant effect of hometown (Bangkok versus elsewhere or grade point average on attitudes. The main problem cited with medical ethics education was lack of engaging methods. Conclusion: Because clinical experience has an effect on learners’ attitudes towards ethics education, medical ethics should be taught at the appropriate time and with proper techniques, such as drawing explicit ties between ethical principles and real-life situations. Attention to the more detailed aspects of these data should also facilitate improvements to curriculum content, thereby ensuring better educational outcomes.
Sánchez-Román, Francisco Raúl; Medina-Figueroa, Alda María; Rangel-Zertuche, Ricardo Alfonso; Sánchez-Ramos, Apolinar
To analyze the current situation of teaching occupational medicine (OM) in academic programs and medical schools in Mexico. A descriptive survey was conducted and schools were identified through the main directories of medical schools. For the analysis of information descriptive and inferential statistics were used. A total of 75 medical schools were identified. In 39 (52%) the subject is mandatory, with a predominance in public schools (pschools that offer the subject, only 15 (38%) have professors specialized in OM. Disparity in teaching basic aspects of OM in medical schools explains the little development and social and professional recognition of the specialty; it also highlights serious problems for public health, derived from the lack of prevention of risks in work environments.
McIlwraith, Robert D
Comments on the original article by Robiner et al. (see record 2014-07939-001) regarding psychologists in medical schools and academic medical center settings. Robiner et al. reported that their extensive review "revealed no independent departments of psychology in U.S. medical schools." The current authors note north of the border in Canada there is one department of psychology in a medical school. The Department of Clinical Health Psychology has been a department within the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Manitoba since 1995. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Unlike the schools of old, where students spent two years focused on science and theory before they set foot in a hospital, new medical schools are integrating clinical care into the first two years. Existing schools have taken steps in this direction. But, says John E. Prescott, chief academic officer of the Association of American Medical…
Results: Approximately half of the 13 responding medical schools had integrated bedside ultrasound teaching into their undergraduate curriculum. The most common trends in undergraduate ultrasound teaching related to duration (1-5 hours/year in 50% of schools, format (practical and theoretical in 67% of schools, and logistics (1:4 instructor to student ratio in 67% of schools. The majority of responding vice-deans indicated that bedside ultrasound education should be integrated into the medical school curriculum (77%, and cited a lack of ultrasound machines and infrastructure as barriers to integration. Conclusions: This study documents the current characteristics of undergraduate ultrasound education in Canada.
Project-based vocational education and training (PBVET) is a way to conduct vocational education in Swedish construction programmes. The educational settings used include projects ranging from minor construction to advanced houses. Due to limited research on this kind of educational setting, it is important to further develop knowledge on…
Cole, Leonard A; Wagner, Katherine; Scott, Sandra; Connell, Nancy D; Cooper, Arthur; Kennedy, Cheryl Ann; Natal, Brenda; Lamba, Sangeeta
Terror medicine, a field related to emergency and disaster medicine, focuses on medical issues ranging from preparedness to psychological manifestations specifically associated with terrorist attacks. Calls to teach aspects of the subject in American medical schools surged after the 2001 jetliner and anthrax attacks. Although the threat of terrorism persists, terror medicine is still addressed erratically if at all in most medical schools. This paper suggests a template for incorporating the subject throughout a 4-year medical curriculum. The instructional framework culminates in a short course for fourth year students, such as one recently introduced at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA. The proposed 4-year Rutgers curriculum serves as a model that could assist other medical schools contemplating the inclusion of terror medicine in pre-clerkship and clerkship training.
Leonard A Cole
Full Text Available Terror medicine, a field related to emergency and disaster medicine, focuses on medical issues ranging from preparedness to psychological manifestations specifically associated with terrorist attacks. Calls to teach aspects of the subject in American medical schools surged after the 2001 jetliner and anthrax attacks. Although the threat of terrorism persists, terror medicine is still addressed erratically if at all in most medical schools. This paper suggests a template for incorporating the subject throughout a 4-year medical curriculum. The instructional framework culminates in a short course for fourth year students, such as one recently introduced at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ. The proposed 4-year Rutgers curriculum serves as a model that could assist other medical schools contemplating the inclusion of terror medicine in pre-clerkship and clerkship training.
Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep
Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since June 2002, revised regulations in Germany have required "Emergency Medical Care" as an interdisciplinary subject, and state that emergency treatment should be of increasing importance within the curriculum. A survey of the current status of undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care establishes the basis for further committee work. Methods Using a standardized questionnaire, all medical faculties in Germany were asked to answer questions concerning the structure of their curriculum, representation of disciplines, instructors' qualifications, teaching and assessment methods, as well as evaluation procedures. Results Data from 35 of the 38 medical schools in Germany were analysed. In 32 of 35 medical faculties, the local Department of Anaesthesiology is responsible for the teaching of emergency medical care; in two faculties, emergency medicine is taught mainly by the Department of Surgery and in another by Internal Medicine. Lectures, seminars and practical training units are scheduled in varying composition at 97% of the locations. Simulation technology is integrated at 60% (n = 21; problem-based learning at 29% (n = 10, e-learning at 3% (n = 1, and internship in ambulance service is mandatory at 11% (n = 4. In terms of assessment methods, multiple-choice exams (15 to 70 questions are favoured (89%, n = 31, partially supplemented by open questions (31%, n = 11. Some faculties also perform single practical tests (43%, n = 15, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; 29%, n = 10 or oral examinations (17%, n = 6. Conclusion Emergency Medical Care in undergraduate medical education in Germany has a practical orientation, but is very inconsistently structured. The innovative options of simulation technology or state-of-the-art assessment methods are not consistently utilized. Therefore, an exchange of experiences and concepts between faculties and disciplines should be promoted to guarantee a standard
Beckers, Stefan K; Timmermann, Arnd; Müller, Michael P; Angstwurm, Matthias; Walcher, Felix
Since June 2002, revised regulations in Germany have required "Emergency Medical Care" as an interdisciplinary subject, and state that emergency treatment should be of increasing importance within the curriculum. A survey of the current status of undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care establishes the basis for further committee work. Using a standardized questionnaire, all medical faculties in Germany were asked to answer questions concerning the structure of their curriculum, representation of disciplines, instructors' qualifications, teaching and assessment methods, as well as evaluation procedures. Data from 35 of the 38 medical schools in Germany were analysed. In 32 of 35 medical faculties, the local Department of Anaesthesiology is responsible for the teaching of emergency medical care; in two faculties, emergency medicine is taught mainly by the Department of Surgery and in another by Internal Medicine. Lectures, seminars and practical training units are scheduled in varying composition at 97% of the locations. Simulation technology is integrated at 60% (n = 21); problem-based learning at 29% (n = 10), e-learning at 3% (n = 1), and internship in ambulance service is mandatory at 11% (n = 4). In terms of assessment methods, multiple-choice exams (15 to 70 questions) are favoured (89%, n = 31), partially supplemented by open questions (31%, n = 11). Some faculties also perform single practical tests (43%, n = 15), objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; 29%, n = 10) or oral examinations (17%, n = 6). Emergency Medical Care in undergraduate medical education in Germany has a practical orientation, but is very inconsistently structured. The innovative options of simulation technology or state-of-the-art assessment methods are not consistently utilized. Therefore, an exchange of experiences and concepts between faculties and disciplines should be promoted to guarantee a standard level of education in emergency medical care.
Kamin, Carol; Souza, Kevin H; Heestand, Diane; Moses, Anna; O'Sullivan, Patricia
To describe the current educational technology infrastructure and services provided by North American allopathic medical schools that are members of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), to present information needed for institutional benchmarking. A Web-based survey instrument was developed and administered in the fall of 2004 by the authors, sent to representatives of 137 medical schools and completed by representatives of 88, a response rate of 64%. Schools were given scores for infrastructure and services provided. Data were analyzed with one-way analyses of variance, chi-square, and correlation coefficients. There was no difference in the number of infrastructure features or services offered based on region of the country, public versus private schools, or size of graduating class. Schools implemented 3.0 (SD = 1.5) of 6 infrastructure items and offered 11.6 (SD = 4.1) of 22 services. Over 90% of schools had wireless access (97%), used online course materials for undergraduate medical education (97%), course management system for graduate medical education (95%) and online teaching evaluations (90%). Use of services differed across the undergraduate, graduate, and continuing medical education continuum. Outside of e-portfolios for undergraduates, the least-offered services were for services to graduate and continuing medical education. The results of this survey provide a benchmark for the level of services and infrastructure currently supporting educational technology by AAMC-member allopathic medical schools.
Morales, Raymond; Rodriguez, Lauren; Singh, Angad; Stratta, Erin; Mendoza, Lydia; Valerio, Melissa A; Vela, Monica
Patients with limited English proficiency (LEP) may be at risk for medical errors and worse health outcomes. Language concordance between patient and provider has been shown to improve health outcomes for Spanish-speaking patients. Nearly 40 % of Hispanics, a growing population in the United States, are categorized as having limited English proficiency. Many medical schools have incorporated a medical Spanish curriculum to prepare students for clinical encounters with LEP patients. To describe the current state of medical Spanish curricula at United States medical schools. The Latino Medical Student Association distributed an e-mail survey comprising 39 items to deans from each U.S. medical school from July 2012 through July 2014. This study was IRB-exempt. Eighty-three percent (110/132) of the U.S. medical schools completed the survey. Sixty-six percent (73/110) of these schools reported offering a medical Spanish curriculum. In addition, of schools with no curriculum, 32 % (12/37) planned to incorporate the curriculum within the next two years. Most existing curricula were elective, not eligible for course credit, and taught by faculty or students. Teaching modalities included didactic instruction, role play, and immersion activities. Schools with the curriculum reported that the diverse patient populations in their respective service areas and/or student interest drove course development. Barriers to implementing the curriculum included lack of time in students' schedules, overly heterogeneous student language skill levels, and a lack of financial resources. Few schools reported the use of validated instruments to measure language proficiency after completion of the curriculum. Growing LEP patient populations and medical student interest have driven the implementation of medical Spanish curricula at U.S. medical schools, and more schools have plans to incorporate this curriculum in the near future. Studies are needed to reveal best practices for developing and
Hsu, Jiann-wien; Hsu, Roy
We describe and analyze the statistics of general physics and laboratory courses in the medical schools of Taiwan. We explore the development of the general physics curriculum for medical students of Taiwan. Also, an approach to designing a general physics course in combination with its application to medical sciences is proposed. We hope this preliminary study can provide a useful reference for physics colleagues in the medical schools of Taiwan to revolutionize the dynamics of teaching physics to the medical students of Taiwan. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Stegers-Jager, Karen M.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Themmen, Axel P. N.
Medical Education 2012: 46:678688 Context Medical schools wish to better understand why some students excel academically and others have difficulty in passing medical courses. Components of self-regulated learning (SRL), such as motivational beliefs and learning strategies, as well as participation
Bråbäck, Lennart; Åström, Daniel Oudin; Strömgren, Magnus; Forsberg, Bertil
Objective To investigate associations between exposure to air pollution and child and adolescent mental health. Design Observational study. Setting Swedish National Register data on dispensed medications for a broad range of psychiatric disorders, including sedative medications, sleeping pills and antipsychotic medications, together with socioeconomic and demographic data and a national land use regression model for air pollution concentrations for NO2, PM10 and PM2.5. Participants The entire population under 18 years of age in 4 major counties. We excluded cohort members whose parents had dispensed a medication in the same medication group since the start date of the register. The cohort size was 552 221. Main outcome measures Cox proportional hazards models to estimate HRs and their 95% CIs for the outcomes, adjusted for individual-level and group-level characteristics. Results The average length of follow-up was 3.5 years, with an average number of events per 1000 cohort members of ∼21. The mean annual level of NO2 was 9.8 µg/m3. Children and adolescents living in areas with higher air pollution concentrations were more likely to have a dispensed medication for a psychiatric disorder during follow-up (HR=1.09, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.12, associated with a 10 µg/m3 increase in NO2). The association with NO2 was clearly present in 3 out of 4 counties in the study area; however, no statistically significant heterogeneity was detected. Conclusion There may be a link between exposure to air pollution and dispensed medications for certain psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents even at the relatively low levels of air pollution in the study regions. The findings should be corroborated by others. PMID:27259522
Moberg, T F; Whitcomb, M E
The present article is the second in a series of Background Papers prepared as part of the AAMC's Medical School Objectives Project (MSOP). This report provides information about and insight into U.S. medical schools' use of educational technology in 1998. The authors define educational technology as the use of information technology to facilitate students' learning. They note that in the last two decades, a number of reports have recommended that medical schools incorporate educational technology into their teaching programs. To gain insight into the effects of these recommendations, particularly those of the ACME-TRI Report in 1992, the authors analyzed the responses of administrators at 125 U.S. medical schools to relevant items of the 1997-98 Liaison Committee on Medical Education Part II Medical School Questionnaire and students' responses to relevant items of the 1998 AAMC Medical Student Graduation Questionnaire. In addition, site visits were made to six medical schools believed to be among the more advanced ones in the use of educational technology, to see what was happening on the "cutting edge" of educational technology applications. Data from 20 other schools were also used. The authors found that by 1998, medical schools as a group had made limited progress in accomplishing the recommended educational technology goals, and that there was a much greater use of such technology in basic sciences courses than in clinical clerkships. However, great variability existed across schools in the use of such technology and in the administrative arrangements for it. They observe that the use of educational technology in medical schools is increasing rapidly, and recommend that each school develop a strategic approach that will guarantee that it can meet the future educational technology needs of its students.
Diderichsen, S.; Johansson, E.E.; Verdonk, P.; Lagro-Janssen, T.; Hamberg, K.
BACKGROUND: Today, women constitute about half of medical students in several Western societies, yet women physicians are still underrepresented in surgical specialties and clustered in other branches of medicine. Gender segregation in specialty preference has been found already in medical school.
Full Text Available Background and purpose: After two decades of expansion of medical schools and increasing the number of medical students as one of the most attainable solutions for the problem of substandard status of Iranian community health, recently, quality-based policies in medical education have taken priority over most of the national health plans. To determine differences in the field of education between Iranian medical schools by stratifying their educational services.Method: To measure the educational performance that could be utilized to rate the schools nationwide, a benchmarking tool, consisting of more than 60 indicators, was devised. Each school was asked to introduce a representative who would complete a questionnaire, which was designed to collect schools’ information. In the next step, all the divisions were visited by one of the project’s members and the school’s representative to revise and approve the data. Then, data retrieval was performed and verified at the project’s office. Finally, a special computer software was exploited to perform the final analysis.Results: There were 45 public and private medical schools nationwide, which were stratified based on their individual scores. Furthermore, all schools were also ranked in each indicator.Conclusion: This study as one of the phases of Strategy Compilation for Educational Missions of the National System of Medical Education, defines the educational strengths and weaknesses of Iranian medical schools that could be used as a measure for authorities to determine the developmental limits and current stance of the medical schools; and optimize their budget and facilities.Keywords: EDUCATION, MEDICAL, IRAN, RANKINGS, EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE, STRATIFICATION, SCHOOL,BENCHMARKING, RANKING.
Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Hoshino, Shuhei; Hosoba, Minoru; Okuda, Yasuo; Konishi, Yasuhiko; Ikeda, Ryuji
The purpose of this study was to clarify actual conditions and problems in medical information education and to propose the educational concept to be adopted in medical information. A questionnaire survey was carried out by the anonymous method in June 2008. The survey was intended for 40 radiological technology schools. The questionnaire items were as follows: (1) educational environment in medical information education, (2) content of a lecture in medical information, (3) problems in medical information education. The response rate was 55.0% (22 schools). Half of the responding schools had a laboratory on medical information. Seventeen schools had a medical information education facility, and out of them, approximately 50% had an educational medical information system. The main problems of the medical information education were as follows: (a) motivation of the students is low, (b) the educational coverage and level for medical information are uncertain, (c) there are not an appropriate textbook and educational guidance. In conclusion, these findings suggest that it is necessary to have a vision of medical information education in the education of radiological technologists.
P Ravi Shankar, MD
Full Text Available Medical humanities (MH is using subjects traditionally known as the humanities for specific purposes in medical education. The first author of this manuscript had previously facilitated MH modules in the Himalayan country of Nepal. Since January 2013 he has been facilitating a module for first semester undergraduate medical students in Aruba. The second author has been co-facilitating the module since the last several semesters. In this manuscript the authors described how MH has gradually become more accepted and mainstream in the institution. They also briefly mention the use of movies with a medical theme and activities to further develop on and expand issues addressed during the MH module.
Background Sub-Saharan Africa suffers a disproportionate share of the world's burden of disease while having some of the world's greatest health care workforce shortages. Doctors are an important component of any high functioning health care system. However, efforts to strengthen the doctor workforce in the region have been limited by a small number of medical schools with limited enrolments, international migration of graduates, poor geographic distribution of doctors, and insufficient data on medical schools. The goal of the Sub-Saharan African Medical Schools Study (SAMSS) is to increase the level of understanding and expand the baseline data on medical schools in the region. Methods The SAMSS survey is a descriptive survey study of Sub-Saharan African medical schools. The survey instrument included quantitative and qualitative questions focused on institutional characteristics, student profiles, curricula, post-graduate medical education, teaching staff, resources, barriers to capacity expansion, educational innovations, and external relationships with government and non-governmental organizations. Surveys were sent via e-mail to medical school deans or officials designated by the dean. Analysis is both descriptive and multivariable. Results Surveys were distributed to 146 medical schools in 40 of 48 Sub-Saharan African countries. One hundred and five responses were received (72% response rate). An additional 23 schools were identified after the close of the survey period. Fifty-eight respondents have been founded since 1990, including 22 private schools. Enrolments for medical schools range from 2 to 1800 and graduates range from 4 to 384. Seventy-three percent of respondents (n = 64) increased first year enrolments in the past five years. On average, 26% of respondents' graduates were reported to migrate out of the country within five years of graduation (n = 68). The most significant reported barriers to increasing the number of graduates, and improving
Chen, Candice; Buch, Eric; Wassermann, Travis; Frehywot, Seble; Mullan, Fitzhugh; Omaswa, Francis; Greysen, S Ryan; Kolars, Joseph C; Dovlo, Delanyo; El Gali Abu Bakr, Diaa Eldin; Haileamlak, Abraham; Koumare, Abdel Karim; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi
Sub-Saharan Africa suffers a disproportionate share of the world's burden of disease while having some of the world's greatest health care workforce shortages. Doctors are an important component of any high functioning health care system. However, efforts to strengthen the doctor workforce in the region have been limited by a small number of medical schools with limited enrolments, international migration of graduates, poor geographic distribution of doctors, and insufficient data on medical schools. The goal of the Sub-Saharan African Medical Schools Study (SAMSS) is to increase the level of understanding and expand the baseline data on medical schools in the region. The SAMSS survey is a descriptive survey study of Sub-Saharan African medical schools. The survey instrument included quantitative and qualitative questions focused on institutional characteristics, student profiles, curricula, post-graduate medical education, teaching staff, resources, barriers to capacity expansion, educational innovations, and external relationships with government and non-governmental organizations. Surveys were sent via e-mail to medical school deans or officials designated by the dean. Analysis is both descriptive and multivariable. Surveys were distributed to 146 medical schools in 40 of 48 Sub-Saharan African countries. One hundred and five responses were received (72% response rate). An additional 23 schools were identified after the close of the survey period. Fifty-eight respondents have been founded since 1990, including 22 private schools. Enrolments for medical schools range from 2 to 1800 and graduates range from 4 to 384. Seventy-three percent of respondents (n = 64) increased first year enrolments in the past five years. On average, 26% of respondents' graduates were reported to migrate out of the country within five years of graduation (n = 68). The most significant reported barriers to increasing the number of graduates, and improving quality, related to
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa suffers a disproportionate share of the world's burden of disease while having some of the world's greatest health care workforce shortages. Doctors are an important component of any high functioning health care system. However, efforts to strengthen the doctor workforce in the region have been limited by a small number of medical schools with limited enrolments, international migration of graduates, poor geographic distribution of doctors, and insufficient data on medical schools. The goal of the Sub-Saharan African Medical Schools Study (SAMSS is to increase the level of understanding and expand the baseline data on medical schools in the region. Methods The SAMSS survey is a descriptive survey study of Sub-Saharan African medical schools. The survey instrument included quantitative and qualitative questions focused on institutional characteristics, student profiles, curricula, post-graduate medical education, teaching staff, resources, barriers to capacity expansion, educational innovations, and external relationships with government and non-governmental organizations. Surveys were sent via e-mail to medical school deans or officials designated by the dean. Analysis is both descriptive and multivariable. Results Surveys were distributed to 146 medical schools in 40 of 48 Sub-Saharan African countries. One hundred and five responses were received (72% response rate. An additional 23 schools were identified after the close of the survey period. Fifty-eight respondents have been founded since 1990, including 22 private schools. Enrolments for medical schools range from 2 to 1800 and graduates range from 4 to 384. Seventy-three percent of respondents (n = 64 increased first year enrolments in the past five years. On average, 26% of respondents' graduates were reported to migrate out of the country within five years of graduation (n = 68. The most significant reported barriers to increasing the number of
Fronteira, Inês; Rodrigues, Amabélia; Pereira, Camilo; Silva, Augusto P; Mercer, Hugo; Dussault, Guilles; Ferrinho, Paulo
In Guinea Bissau, the majority of university level professionals are still being trained abroad and most of them do not return to their country. This was a major incentive for creating Guinea Bissau's Medical School. An observational, cross-sectional, analytic study was conducted on the second trimester of 2007 to characterize the socio-demographic, familial and educational profile of medical students, their satisfaction levels, difficulties and expectations concerning the medicine course. A questionnaire was used and a response rate of 63% achieved (81 students). Data was analyzed using SPSS v.17 for descriptive statistics. Students are very committed to their education. They tend to decide to take the medicine course early in their lives and are influenced by their relatives. They choose to be medical doctors because they like it but also for altruistic reasons and the desire to save lives. Although many face financial and material difficulties, they tend to have success in their academic live. They live with their parents, do not have children and some have side jobs to provide for extra income to help with their education. They expect their education to make them good doctors in any part of the world and want to work simultaneously in the public (to serve their country and pay their debt to the State) and in the private sector (to enhance their income). The large majority wants to work in a hospital, in Bissau, and to be a pediatrician or obstetrician. They have unreasonably high expectations concerning their future income as medical doctors.
Attitudes of medical students towards patients, psychosocial factors in illness, and care-delivery have been assessed. The influence of (parts of) the medical curriculum has been studied. Students' evaluations of attitude and communication courses have been investigated. The main results were:
Meats, Emma; Heneghan, Carl; Crilly, Mike; Glasziou, Paul
It is recognized that clinicians need training in evidence-based medicine (EBM), however there is considerable variation in the content and methods of the EBM curriculum in UK medical schools. To determine current practice and variation in EBM undergraduate teaching in UK medical schools and inform the strategy of medical schools and the National Knowledge Service. We contacted all 32 medical schools in the UK and requested that the person primarily responsible for EBM undergraduate teaching complete a short online survey and provide their EBM curriculum. The survey was completed by representatives from 20 (63%) medical schools and curriculum details were received from 5 (16%). There is considerable variation in the methods and content of the EBM curriculum. Although the majority of schools teach core EBM topics, relatively few allow students to practice the skills or assess such skills. EBM teaching is restricted by lack of curriculum time, trained tutors and teaching materials. Key elements to progress include the integration of EBM with clinical specialties, tutor training and the availability of high-quality teaching resources. The development of a national undergraduate EBM curriculum may help in promoting progress in EBM teaching and assessment in UK medical schools.
Mateen, Farrah J; McKenzie, Erica D; Rose, Sherri
To report on medical schools in fragile states, countries with severe development challenges, and the impact on the workforce for health care delivery. 2007 and 2012 World Bank Harmonized List of Fragile Situations; 1998-2012 WHO Global Health Observatory; 2014 World Directory of Medical Schools. Fragile classification established from 2007 and 2012 World Bank status. Population, gross national income, health expenditure, and life expectancy were 2007 figures. Physician density was most recently available from WHO Global Health Observatory (1998-2012), with number of medical schools from 2014 World Directory of Medical Schools. Regression analyses assessed impact of fragile state status in 2012 on the number of medical schools in 2014. Fragile states were 1.76 (95 percent CI 1.07-2.45) to 2.37 (95 percent CI 1.44-3.30) times more likely to have fewer than two medical schools than nonfragile states. Fragile states lack the infrastructure to train sufficient numbers of medical professionals to meet their population health needs. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
instruments of data collection. SPSS statistical software version 16.0 was used for the ... during and even after attaining the desired qualification from such school system. The child in school spends more ... the school system, it is not completely devoid of health challenges to the enrolee if adequate measures are not put.
Lehmann, Lisa Soleymani; Kasoff, Willard S; Koch, Phoebe; Federman, Daniel D
To assess the format, content, method, and placement of medical ethics education in medical schools; the faculty and curricular resources and institutional structure and support of medical ethics; and the perceptions of ethics education among deans of medical education and medical ethics course directors at U.S. and Canadian medical schools. Two questionnaires were mailed to 125 U.S. medical schools and 16 Canadian schools: one to be completed by the deans of medical education and one to be completed by the medical ethics course director. Descriptive statistics were used to compare responses. In all, 123 (87%) deans and 91 (64%) course directors responded, providing information about 91 schools (six Canadian). All responding institutions offered some formal instruction in medical ethics, and among these, 71 (78%) incorporated ethics into required preclinical courses. The primary pedagogic course structure was small-group discussion and the primary pedagogic method was case discussions. One-fifth of schools provided no funding for ethics teaching, and 47 (52%) did not fund curricular development in ethics. Institutions with a dedicated ethics faculty member were twice as likely to have a mandatory introductory ethics course (64% versus 32%, p ethics education were thought to be a lack of time in the curriculum, a lack of qualified teachers, and a lack of time in faculty schedules. Within a few decades the number of U.S. and Canadian medical schools requiring medical ethics has increased. Nevertheless, significant variation in the content, method, and timing of ethics education suggests consensus about curricular content and pedagogic methods remains lacking. Further progress in ethics education may depend on institutions' willingness to devote more curricular time and funding to medical ethics.
Blouin, Danielle; Tekian, Ara; Kamin, Carol; Harris, Ilene B
Increased emphasis is being placed worldwide on accreditation of undergraduate medical education programmes, and costs of participation in accreditation continue to rise. The primary purposes of accreditation are to ensure the quality of medical education and to promote quality improvement. Student performance data as indicators of the impact of accreditation have important limitations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of accreditation using an innovative marker: the processes implemented at medical schools as a result of accreditation. This conceptual model suggests that accreditation drives medical schools to implement and strengthen processes that support quality in medical education. In this qualitative study, conducted in 2015-2016, interviews and focus group discussions with deans, undergraduate medical education deans and faculty leaders at 13 of the 17 Canadian medical schools were used to elicit perspectives about processes influenced by accreditation; the method of constant comparative analysis associated with grounded theory was used to generate themes of processes. Perceived negative consequences of accreditation on medical education programmes were also explored. Nine themes representing processes reported as resulting from accreditation were identified. These processes related to: (i) governance, (ii) data collection and analysis, (iii) monitoring, (iv) documentation, (v) creation and revision of policies and procedures, (vi) continuous quality improvement, (vii) faculty members' engagement, (viii) academic accountability and (ix) curriculum reforms. Themes representing negative consequences of accreditation included (i) costs, (ii) staff and faculty members' morale and feelings, (iii) school reputation and (iv) standards. The identified processes, given their nature, appear likely to be associated with improvement of quality in medical education. These results help justify the costs associated with accreditation. This study
Jorm, Christine; Roberts, Chris
Contemporary medical school evaluations are narrow in focus and often do not consider the wider systems implications of the relationship between learning and teaching, research, clinical care, and community engagement. The result is graduates who lack the necessary knowledge and skills for the modern health care system and an educational system that is limited in its ability to learn and change.To address this issue, the authors apply complexity theory to medical school evaluation, using four key factors-nesting, diversity, self-organization, and emergent outcomes. To help medical educators apply this evaluation approach in their own settings, the authors offer two tools-a modified program logic model and sensemaking. In sensemaking, they use the organic metaphor of the medical school as a neuron situated within a complex neural network to enable medical educators to reframe the way they think about program evaluation. The authors then offer practical guidance for applying this model, including describing the example of addressing graduates' engagement in the health care system. The authors consider the input of teachers, the role of culture and curriculum, and the clinical care system in this example.Medical school evaluation is reframed as an improvement science for complex social interventions (medical school is such an intervention) in this model. With complexity theory's focus on emergent outcomes, evaluation takes on a new focus, reimagining medical students as reaching their future potential as change agents, who transform health systems and the lives of patients.
Mileder, Lukas Peter
Junior medical staff provides a large proportion of undergraduate student education. However, despite increasing numbers of resident-as-teacher training programs, junior doctors may still not be sufficiently prepared to teach medical students. Hence, medical schools should consider implementing formal teaching skills training into undergraduate curricula.
where a person in a position of power harasses a subordinate) and contra power sexual harassment, (where a subordinate is the harasser of authority figure) in medical schools in Ghana. among. Design: Cross-sectional study. Method: Four ...
Richmond, Robyn; Zwar, Nicholas; Taylor, Rachel; Hunnisett, Joanne; Hyslop, Fran
As medical practitioners of the future, medical students should be taught about tobacco control strategies and smoking cessation interventions. By including education about tobacco in the medical curricula, they can be informed about the health effects of tobacco use and learn to assist smokers to quit. Our study aimed to estimate the extent of teaching about tobacco and smoking cessation techniques in medical schools worldwide and compare with results we reported 10 years ago, to determine the content of curricula and range of teaching formats and to identify barriers to teaching about tobacco in medical schools and solutions. A cross-sectional survey of all existing medical schools (n = 2090) in 171 countries was conducted. A questionnaire was designed, translated and sent to all medical schools. Main outcome measures included whether and how tobacco is taught; comparisons with the survey conducted 10 years ago; tobacco content in the curriculum; format of teaching; and barriers to teaching and solutions. 665 medical schools from 109 countries completed the full questionnaire, with a response rate of 31.8% from medical schools and 64% of countries and consisting of 39% of medical schools in developed and 28% in less developed countries. A further 67 medical schools responded to a single question on whether they taught about tobacco. The total response rate was 35%. Of 561 medical schools responding to questions on teaching options, 27% of medical schools taught a specific module on tobacco compared with only 11% in our survey of medical schools conducted a decade ago; 77% integrated teaching on tobacco with other topics compared with 40% 10 years ago; 31% taught about tobacco informally as the topic arose (vs. 58%) and 4% did not teach about tobacco (vs. 12%). Most common topics taught were: health effects of smoking (94%), health effects of passive smoking (84.5%), epidemiology of tobacco use (81%), nicotine dependence (78%) and taking a smoking history (75
Jefferies, Richard; Sheriff, Ibrahim H N; Matthews, Jacob H; Jagger, Olivia; Curtis, Sarah; Lees, Peter; Spurgeon, Peter C; Fountain, Daniel Mark; Oldman, Alex; Habib, Ali; Saied, Azam; Court, Jessica; Giannoudi, Marilena; Sayma, Meelad; Ward, Nicholas; Cork, Nick; Olatokun, Olamide; Devine, Oliver; O'Connell, Paul; Carr, Phoebe; Kotronias, Rafail Angelos; Gardiner, Rebecca; Buckle, Rory T; Thomson, Ross J; Williams, Sarah; Nicholson, Simon J; Goga, Usman
Purpose Although medical leadership and management (MLM) is increasingly being recognised as important to improving healthcare outcomes, little is understood about current training of medical students in MLM skills and behaviours in the UK. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This qualitative study used validated structured interviews with expert faculty members from medical schools across the UK to ascertain MLM framework integration, teaching methods employed, evaluation methods and barriers to improvement. Findings Data were collected from 25 of the 33 UK medical schools (76 per cent response rate), with 23/25 reporting that MLM content is included in their curriculum. More medical schools assessed MLM competencies on admission than at any other time of the curriculum. Only 12 schools had evaluated MLM teaching at the time of data collection. The majority of medical schools reported barriers, including overfilled curricula and reluctance of staff to teach. Whilst 88 per cent of schools planned to increase MLM content over the next two years, there was a lack of consensus on proposed teaching content and methods. Research limitations/implications There is widespread inclusion of MLM in UK medical schools' curricula, despite the existence of barriers. This study identified substantial heterogeneity in MLM teaching and assessment methods which does not meet students' desired modes of delivery. Examples of national undergraduate MLM teaching exist worldwide, and lessons can be taken from these. Originality/value This is the first national evaluation of MLM in undergraduate medical school curricula in the UK, highlighting continuing challenges with executing MLM content despite numerous frameworks and international examples of successful execution.
O’Brien, Bridget C.; Brian Niehaus; Arianne Teherani; Young, John Q.
Objectives: To characterize junior residents' perspectives on the purpose, value, and potential improvement of the final year of medical school. Methods: Eighteen interviews were conducted with junior residents who graduated from nine different medical schools and who were in internal medicine, surgery, and psychiatry programs at one institution in the United States. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed inductively for themes. Results: Participants' descriptions of the purpose of the...
Caramiciu, Justin; Arcella, David; Desai, Manisha S
To determine the extent to which the history of medicine (HOM) and its related topics are included within the curriculum of accredited medical schools in the United States. Survey instrument. US allopathic medical schools. An online survey was sent to officials from every medical school in the US. Respondents were asked to provide institutional identifiers, the presence of an HOM elective offered to medical students, the years during which the elective is offered, the existence of an HOM department, and the contact information for that particular department. Nonresponders were contacted by phone to elicit the same information. History of medicine electives included didactic sessions and seminars with varying degrees of credit offered in different years of medical school. Based on responses from 119 of 121 contacted medical schools (98%), 45 (37%) included formal lectures or weekly seminars in the medical school curriculum. Five (11%) curricula had or have required HOM, whereas 89% offered elective HOM instruction. Course duration and credit awarded varied. Eighteen (15%) medical schools included departments dedicated to HOM. Providing education in HOM was limited by faculty interest, clinical training hours, and low interest. Data collected by our study suggest that substantial barriers exist within the academic medical community towards a wider acceptance of the importance of HOM. Causes for such lack of interest include absence of questions on written or oral tests related to HOM, difficulty in publishing articles related to HOM in peer reviewed journals, near absence of research grants in HOM, difficulty in getting academic promotions or recognition for activities related to HOM, and a lack of support from academic chairpersons for activities related to HOM. Copyright © 2015 Anesthesia History Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shin, Hong-Im; Jeon, Woo Tack; Yang, Eunbae B
Cognitive researchers assume that learning strategies are related to three types of learning processes: 'surface learning,' 'strategy learning,' and 'deep learning.' A 'deep learning' approach is widely accepted to be associated with long-term success in medical school, contributing to the development of doctors who take desirable approaches to self-directed learning and studying in medical practice. Therefore, this study measured how medical students learn and determined whether the use of learning strategies differs between high and low academic performers. In addition, we compared medical college students with graduate medical school students with regard to the use of learning strategies. To explore the learning strategies of students and their relation to academic achievement, we performed LIST (Learning Strategies in Higher Education Inventory) in a sample of 111 Year 1 medical students. Medical students with high academic performance scored higher in most learning strategies than low performers. Additionally, learning strategies were used more frequently by graduate medical school students than medical students, specifically with regard to organization, elaboration, critical thinking, and time management. We conclude that learning strategy instruments provide information that enables medical students to optimize their study. To foster deep learning and intrinsic motivation in students, it might also be necessary to adopt more changes in teaching and assessment in medical schools.
Abstract Titel: The Introduction of English at the Junior level of the Swedish 9-Year Comprehensive Compulsory School: A study of perceived knowledge in relation to motivation conducted among 3rdgrade students. Författare: Andersson, Rolf Engelska C, 2011 Antal sidor: 26 Abstract: This paper focuses on perceived knowledge of students at the junior level of the comprehensive compulsory 9-year school, as this has an impact on their motivation to study the language. The national curriculum o...
Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2001
Reviews the racial history of Harvard University Medical School. Highlights include: the schools' founding (1782); unsuccessful petitioning by black men for entry (1850); graduation of the first black student (1896); graduation of the first black women (1951); attacks on affirmative action policies (1976); founding of the Coleus Society (1988);…
Aktan, Ahmet O.; Gulluoglu, Bahadir M.
In Turkey there are 83 medical schools and the oldest six are regarded as the best institutions. Marmara University School of Medicine (MUSM) is one of the 6 leading institutions. MUSM Hospital was delivered to Turkish Ministry of Health (TMoH) for its operational management in 2010. In this study, we aim to assess the current status and trend of…
DuPaul, George J.; And Others
Information is presented to familiarize school psychologists with (1) behavioral effects and side-effects associated with stimulant medications used for the Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); (2) factors to consider in recommending medicine trials for individual children; (3) methods to assess treatment response within schools; and…
Medical emergencies can happen in any school at any time. They can be the result of preexisting health problems, accidents, violence, unintentional actions, natural disasters, and toxins. Premature deaths in schools from sudden cardiac arrest, blunt trauma to the chest, firearm injuries, asthma, head injuries, drug overdose, allergic reactions,…
Walton, Merrilyn; Woodward, Helen; Van Staalduinen, Samantha; Lemer, C; Greaves, F; Noble, D; Ellis, B; Donaldson, L; Barraclough, B
The urgent need for patient safety education for healthcare students has been recognised by many accreditation bodies, but to date there has been sporadic attention to undergraduate/graduate medical programmes. Medical students themselves have identified quality and safety of care as an important area of instruction; as future doctors and healthcare leaders, they must be prepared to practise safe healthcare. Medical education has yet to fully embrace patient safety concepts and principles into existing medical curricula. Universities are continuing to produce graduate doctors lacking in the patient safety knowledge, skills and behaviours thought necessary to deliver safe care. A significant challenge is that patient safety is still a relatively new concept and area of study; thus, many medical educators are unfamiliar with the literature and unsure how to integrate patient safety learning into existing curriculum. To address this gap and provide a foothold for medical schools all around the world, the WHO's World Alliance for Patient Safety sponsored the development of a patient safety curriculum guide for medical students. The WHO Patient Safety Curriculum Guide for Medical Schools adopts a 'one-stop-shop' approach in that it includes a teacher's manual providing a step-by-step guide for teachers new to patient safety learning as well as a comprehensive curriculum on the main patient safety areas. This paper establishes the need for patient safety education of medical students, describes the development of the WHO Patient Safety Curriculum Guide for Medical Schools and outlines the content of the Guide.
Papadakis, Maxine A; Teherani, Arianne; Banach, Mary A; Knettler, Timothy R; Rattner, Susan L; Stern, David T; Veloski, J Jon; Hodgson, Carol S
Evidence supporting professionalism as a critical measure of competence in medical education is limited. In this case-control study, we investigated the association of disciplinary action against practicing physicians with prior unprofessional behavior in medical school. We also examined the specific types of behavior that are most predictive of disciplinary action against practicing physicians with unprofessional behavior in medical school. The study included 235 graduates of three medical schools who were disciplined by one of 40 state medical boards between 1990 and 2003 (case physicians). The 469 control physicians were matched with the case physicians according to medical school and graduation year. Predictor variables from medical school included the presence or absence of narratives describing unprofessional behavior, grades, standardized-test scores, and demographic characteristics. Narratives were assigned an overall rating for unprofessional behavior. Those that met the threshold for unprofessional behavior were further classified among eight types of behavior and assigned a severity rating (moderate to severe). Disciplinary action by a medical board was strongly associated with prior unprofessional behavior in medical school (odds ratio, 3.0; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.9 to 4.8), for a population attributable risk of disciplinary action of 26 percent. The types of unprofessional behavior most strongly linked with disciplinary action were severe irresponsibility (odds ratio, 8.5; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.8 to 40.1) and severely diminished capacity for self-improvement (odds ratio, 3.1; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.2 to 8.2). Disciplinary action by a medical board was also associated with low scores on the Medical College Admission Test and poor grades in the first two years of medical school (1 percent and 7 percent population attributable risk, respectively), but the association with these variables was less strong than that with
Malik Samina; Hasan Shahid; Shah Mohsin; Sreeramareddy Chandrashekhar T
Abstract Background Recently there is a growing concern about stress during undergraduate medical training. However, studies about the same are lacking from Pakistani medical schools. The objectives of our study were to assess perceived stress, sources of stress and their severity and to assess the determinants of stressed cases. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among undergraduate medical students of CMH Lahore Medical College, Pakistan during January to ...
Rademakers, J.J.D.J.M.; Muijsenbergh, M.E.T.C. van den; Slappendel, G.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Borleffs, J.C.C.
Context Sexual harassment of medical students has been the focus of many international studies. Prevalence rates from 18% to over 60% have been reported. However, a Dutch study at Nijmegen Medical School found the prevalence rate to be lower (13.3% in the total group; 20% among female students
Rademakers, J.J.D.J.M.; Muijsenbergh, M.E.T.C. van den; Slappendel, G.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Borleffs, J.C.C.
CONTEXT: Sexual harassment of medical students has been the focus of many international studies. Prevalence rates from 18% to over 60% have been reported. However, a Dutch study at Nijmegen Medical School found the prevalence rate to be lower (13.3% in the total group; 20% among female students
Education of the General Practitioner and the Other Medical Schools in. R. S. TEN CATE, Wassenaar, The Netherlands in Leyden. Holland*. SUMMARY. The new medical curriculum and specialization in the. Netherlands are discussed. In Leyden a 'peripheral clinic' has been established where 128 GPs work together with.
de Visser, Marieke; Fluit, Cornelia; Fransen, Jaap; Latijnhouwers, Mieke; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Laan, Roland F. J.
In the Netherlands, students are admitted to medical school through (1) selection, (2) direct access by high pre-university Grade Point Average (pu-GPA), (3) lottery after being rejected in the selection procedure, or (4) lottery. At Radboud University Medical Center, 2010 was the first year we
de Visser, Marieke; Fluit, Cornelia; Fransen, Jaap; Latijnhouwers, Mieke; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Laan, Roland
In the Netherlands, students are admitted to medical school through (1) selection, (2) direct access by high pre-university Grade Point Average (pu-GPA), (3) lottery after being rejected in the selection procedure, or (4) lottery. At Radboud University Medical Center, 2010 was the first year we selected applicants. We designed a procedure based on…
I note disquiet among those who teach in the regions medical schools. Two recent articles in this journal report their unresponsiveness to the needs of the students and, even more importantly, to the needs of the populace who look towards them to provide the medical services the region sorely needs. The issue of this ...
Verkstaden som skola eller skolan som verkstad: Om produktion som pedagogisk praktik i svensk yrkesutbildning [The workshop as school or the school as workshop: Production as educational practice in Swedish vocational education and training
Full Text Available The workshop school was a particular form of education in the Swedish vocational education system of 1918. It was established and developed over a period of 50 years before it disappeared in the upper secondary reform of 1968. The workshop school differed, in many respects, from the kind of school workshops of today where students attain most of their vocational practice. It was not unusual that the workshop schools operated as small business enterprises on the local market, even when the municipality was the organizer of the education. The wide scope of this article is about this historical phenomenon. The aim is to investigate the production as a pedagogical tool through the artefacts and spaces of the workshop school. This is done within the theoretical framework materiality of schooling, a perspective that can be described as school archaeology. City- or municipal archives hold a treasure trove of photographs and narratives from the era of workshop schools in Sweden. They reveal how production shaped the content and relations to society in a very different way from the vocational training that takes place in the modern school workshop.
Kötter, Thomas; Wagner, Josefin; Brüheim, Linda; Voltmer, Edgar
Medical students are exposed to high amounts of stress. Stress and poor academic performance can become part of a vicious circle. In order to counteract this circularity, it seems important to better understand the relationship between stress and performance during medical education. The most widespread stress questionnaire designed for use in Medical School is the "Perceived Medical School Stress Instrument" (PMSS). It addresses a wide range of stressors, including workload, competition, social isolation and financial worries. Our aim was to examine the relation between the perceived Medical School stress of undergraduate medical students and academic performance. We measured Medical School stress using the PMSS at two different time points (at the end of freshman year and at the end of sophomore year) and matched stress scores together with age and gender to the first medical examination (M1) grade of the students (n = 456). PMSS scores from 2 and 14 months before M1 proved to be significant predictors for medical students' M1 grade. Age and gender also predict academic performance, making older female students with high stress scores a potential risk group for entering the vicious circle of stress and poor academic performance. PMSS sum scores 2 and 14 months before the M1 exam seem to have an independent predictive validity for medical students' M1 grade. More research is needed to identify potential confounders.
Miller, Lynn E; Weiss, Richard M
The dramatic decline in the number of US medical schools in the early twentieth century has been traced to a medical education reform movement that gained momentum after the Civil War. The major parties to reform-the universities themselves, the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), state licensing boards, the American Medical Association (AMA), and Flexner-had different interests and strategies, however, and scholars have continued to debate the impact each had on the decline. To isolate the independent effects that the temporally intertwined forces for reform had on medical school failures, this study applies statistical survival analysis to an extensive and unique data set on medical schools operating in the United States between 1870 and 1930. Contrary to the views of some scholars, the results indicate that schools closed in response to critical evaluations published by the Illinois State Board of Health in the nineteenth century and the AMA and Flexner in the twentieth century. Additionally, the results indicate that schools were less likely to have failed if they adopted certain reforms implemented at leading schools or joined the AAMC, and were more likely to have failed if their state's licensing regulations mandated lengthier premedical and medical training.
Yoshioka, Toshimasa; Nara, Nobuo
An internationalization of practical medicine evoked international migrations of medical professionals. Since basic medical education is different among countries, the internationalization required international quality assurance of medical education. Global trend moves toward establishment of international accreditation system based on international standards. The World Federation for Medical Education proposed Global Standards for Quality Improvement as the international standards. Medical schools in Japan have started to establish program evaluation system. The standards which incorporated international standards have been published. The system for accreditation is being considered. An accreditation body, Japan Accreditation Council for Medical Education, is under construction. The accreditation is expected to enhance quality of education in Japan.
Full Text Available Virginia S Cowen,1 Vicki Cyr2 1Rutgers School of Health Related Professions Institute for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Newark, NJ, USA; 2Department of Interdisciplinary Studies at the Rutgers University School of Health Related Professions, Newark, NJ, USA Abstract: An analysis of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in US medical school curriculum was undertaken. Websites for 130 US medical schools were systematically analyzed for course listings and content. Half of the schools (50.8% offered at least one CAM course or clerkship. A total of 127 different course listings were identified, embracing a range of topics and methods of instruction. The most frequently listed topics were traditional medicine, acupuncture, spirituality, and herbs, along with the general topic of CAM. Nearly 25.0% of the courses referenced personal growth or self-care through CAM practices, while only 11.0% referenced inter-professional education activities involving interaction with CAM providers. The most frequently reported instructional methods were lectures, readings, and observation of, or receiving a CAM treatment. The findings of this analysis indicated fewer medical schools offered instruction in CAM than previously reported and a wide range of approaches to the topic across the schools where CAM is taught. Keywords: complementary and alternative medicine, CAM, medical education, curriculum
Steinmetz, Peter; Dobrescu, Octavian; Oleskevich, Sharon; Lewis, John
This study was carried out to determine the extent and characteristics of bedside ultrasound teaching in medical schools across Canada. A cross-sectional, survey-based study was used to assess undergraduate bedside ultrasound education in the 17 accredited medical schools in Canada. The survey, consisting of 19 questions was pilot-tested, web-based, and completed over a period of seven months in 2014. Approximately half of the 13 responding medical schools had integrated bedside ultrasound teaching into their undergraduate curriculum. The most common trends in undergraduate ultrasound teaching related to duration (1-5 hours/year in 50% of schools), format (practical and theoretical in 67% of schools), and logistics (1:4 instructor to student ratio in 67% of schools). The majority of responding vice-deans indicated that bedside ultrasound education should be integrated into the medical school curriculum (77%), and cited a lack of ultrasound machines and infrastructure as barriers to integration. This study documents the current characteristics of undergraduate ultrasound education in Canada.
Norman, I D; Aikins, M; Binka, F N
This study investigated the prevalence and incidence of Traditional (where a person in a position of power harasses a subordinate) and contra power sexual harassment, (where a subordinate is the harasser of authority figure) in medical schools in Ghana. among. Cross-sectional study. Four hundred and nine medical students from four medical schools in Ghana were interviewed. We also considered if academic and financial dependence would predict either traditional or contra power sexual harassment. We further investigated, whether women were more bothered by sexual harassment than men and the correlation between sexual harassment and health. Women were 61% more likely to be sexually harassed than men 39%. Sexual harassment negatively affects the victims' health outcome. We found that the traditional form of sexual harassment was prevalent in medical schools in Ghana and that academic dependence predicted attacks. In the first and second years, women at these institutions are more likely to be sexually harassed than men. Sexual harassment policies of medical school need to be widely circulated. The various medical schools should provide reporting procedures and counseling for victims. This paper would inform policy and research.
de Oliveira Vidal, Edison Iglesias; Silva, Vanessa Dos Santos; Santos, Maria Fernanda Dos; Jacinto, Alessandro Ferrari; Boas, Paulo José Fortes Villas; Fukushima, Fernanda Bono
The exposure to unethical and unprofessional behavior is thought to play a major role in the declining empathy experienced by medical students during their training. We reflect on the reasons why medical schools are tolerant of unethical behavior of faculty. First, there are barriers to reporting unprofessional behavior within medical schools including fear of retaliation and lack of mechanisms to ensure anonymity. Second, deans and directors do not want to look for unethical behavior in their colleagues. Third, most of us have learned to take disrespectful circumstances in health care institutions for granted. Fourth, the accreditation of medical schools around the world does not usually cover the processes or outcomes associated with fostering ethical behavior in students. Several initiatives promise to change that picture. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.
Shah, Mohsin; Hasan, Shahid; Malik, Samina; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T
.... However, studies about the same are lacking from Pakistani medical schools. The objectives of our study were to assess perceived stress, sources of stress and their severity and to assess the determinants of stressed cases...
Titova, Olga E; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Jacobsson, Josefin A; Feldman, Inna; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian
To examine associations of self-reported sleep disturbance and short sleep duration with the risk for academic failure. A cohort of ~40,000 adolescents (age range: 12-19 years) who were attending high school grades 7, 9, and 2nd year of upper secondary school in the Swedish Uppsala County were invited to participate in the Life and Health Young Survey (conducted between 2005 and 2011 in Uppsala County, Sweden). In addition to the question how many subjects they failed during the school year (outcome variable), subsamples of adolescents also answered questions related to subjective sleep disturbance (n = 20,026) and habitual sleep duration (n = 4736) (exposure variables). Binary logistic regression analysis was utilized to explore if self-reported sleep disturbances and habitual short sleep duration (defined as less than 7-8 h sleep per night) increase the relative risk to fail subjects during the school year (controlled for possible confounders, e.g. body-mass-index). Adolescents with self-reported sleep disturbances had an increased risk for academic failure (i.e., they failed at least one subject during the school year; OR: boys, 1.68; girls, 2.05, both P school than those who slept at least 7-8 h per night (OR: boys, 4.1; girls, 5.0, both P failure in adolescents. Based on our data, causality cannot be established. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Huang, Lei; Cheng, Liming; Cai, Qiaoling; Kosik, Russell Olive; Huang, Yun; Zhao, Xudong; Xu, Guo-Tong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Fan, Angela Pei-Chen
Curriculum reform at Chinese medical schools has attracted a lot of attention recently. Several leading medical schools in China have undergone exploratory reforms and in so doing, have accumulated significant experience and have made considerable progress. An analysis of the reforms conducted by 38 Chinese medical colleges that were targeted by the government for upgrade was performed. Drawing from both domestic and international literature, we designed a questionnaire to determine what types of curricular reforms have occurred at these institutions and how they were implemented. Major questions touched upon the purpose of the reforms, curricular patterns, improvements in teaching methods post-reform, changes made to evaluation systems post-reform, intra-university reform assessment, and what difficulties the schools faced when instituting the reforms. Besides the questionnaire, relevant administrators from each medical school were also interviewed to obtain more qualitative data. Out of the 38 included universities, twenty-five have undergone major curricular reforms. Among them, 60.0% adopted an organ system-based curriculum model, 32.0% adopted a problem-based curriculum model, and 8.0% adopted a hybrid curriculum model. About 60.0% of the schools' reforms involved both the "pre-clinical" and the "clinical" curricula, 32.0% of the schools' reforms were limited to the "pre-clinical" curricula, and 8.0% of the schools' reforms only involved the "clinical" curricula. Following curricular reform, 60.0% of medical schools experienced an overall reduction in teaching hours, 76.0% reported an increase in their students' clinical skills, and 60.0% reported an increase in their students' research skills. Medical curricular reform is still in its infancy in China. The republic's leading medical schools have engaged in various approaches to bring innovative teaching methods to their respective institutions. However, due to limited resources and the shackle of traditional
Sa, B; Baboolal, N; Williams, S; Ramsewak, S
Objective: To explore the emotional intelligence (EI) in medical students in a Caribbean medical school and investigate its association with gender, age, year of study and ethnicity. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional design using convenient sampling of 304 years two to five undergraduate medical students at the School of Medicine, The University of the West Indies (UWI), St Augustine campus, was conducted. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT-V2.0) was administered to test four branches of EI: perceiving emotions, facilitating thought, understanding emotions and managing emotions. Data were analysed using SPSS version 19. T-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and r (product moment correlation) were calculated to establish the effects of selected variables (gender, age, year of study and ethnicity) on total and sub-scales EI scores and tested against 0.05 and 0.01 significance levels. Results: The total mean score for EI fell within the average according to MSCEIT standards. Gender analysis showed significantly higher scores for males and for younger age groups (emotional stability. It would be valuable to widen this study by including other UWI campuses and offshore medical schools in the Caribbean. This preliminary study examined a sample of medical students from a well-established Caribbean medical school. Since EI is considered to be important in the assessment and training of medical undergraduates, consideration should be given to introducing interventions aimed at increasing EI. PMID:25303251
Sa, B; Baboolal, N; Williams, S; Ramsewak, S
To explore the emotional intelligence (EI) in medical students in a Caribbean medical school and investigate its association with gender, age, year of study and ethnicity. A cross-sectional design using convenient sampling of 304 years two to five undergraduate medical students at the School of Medicine, the University of the West Indies (UWI), St Augustine campus, was conducted. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT-V2.0) was administered to test four branches of EI: perceiving emotions, facilitating thought, understanding emotions and managing emotions. Data were analysed using SPSS version 19. T-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and r (product moment correlation) were calculated to establish the effects of selected variables (gender, age, year of study and ethnicity) on total and sub-scales EI scores and tested against 0.05 and 0.01 significance levels. The total mean score for EI fell within the average according to MSCEIT standards. Gender analysis showed significantly higher scores for males and for younger age groups (emotional stability. It would be valuable to widen this study by including other UWI campuses and offshore medical schools in the Caribbean. This preliminary study examined a sample of medical students from a well-established Caribbean medical school. Since EI is considered to be important in the assessment and training of medical undergraduates, consideration should be given to introducing interventions aimed at increasing EI.
Oudin, Anna; Bråbäck, Lennart; Oudin Åström, Daniel; Forsberg, Bertil
It has been suggested that children that are exposed to a stressful environment at home have an increased susceptibility for air pollution-related asthma. The aim here was to investigate the association between air pollution exposure and asthma, and effect modification by mental health and by socio-economic status (as markers of a stressful environment). All individuals under 18 years of age in four Swedish counties during 2007 to 2010 (1.2 million people) were included. The outcome was defined as dispensing at least two asthma medications during follow up. We linked data on NO₂ from an empirical land use regression to data from national registers on outcome and potential confounders. Data was analyzed with logistic regression. There was an odds ratio (OR) of 1.02 (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.01-1.03) for asthma associated with a 10 µg·m -3 increase in NO₂. The association only seemed to be present in areas where NO₂ was higher than 15 µg·m -3 with an OR of 1.09 (95% CI: 1.07-1.12), and the association seemed stronger in children with parents with a high education, OR = 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02-1.09) and OR = 1.04 (95% CI: 1.01-1.07) in children to mothers and father with a high education, respectively. The association did not seem to depend on medication history of psychiatric disorders. There was weak evidence for the association between air pollution and asthma to be stronger in neighborhoods with higher education levels. In conclusion, air pollution was associated with dispensed asthma medications, especially in areas with comparatively higher levels of air pollution, and in children to parents with high education. We did not observe support for our hypothesis that stressors linked to socio-economy or mental health problems would increase susceptibility to the effects of air pollution on the development of asthma.
Klugman, Craig M
Although the AAMC requires annual reporting of medical humanities teaching, most literature is based on single-school case reports and studies using information reported on schools' websites. This study sought to discover what medical humanities is offered in North American allopathic and osteopathic undergraduate medical schools. An 18-question, semi-structured survey was distributed to all 146 (as of June 2016) member schools of the American Association of Medical Colleges and the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine. The survey sought information on required and elective humanities content, hours of humanities instruction, types of disciplines, participation rates, and humanities administrative structure. The survey was completed by 134 schools (145 AAMC; 31 AACOM). 70.8% of schools offered required and 80.6% offered electives in humanities. Global health and writing were the most common disciplines. Schools required 43.9 mean (MD 45.4; DO 37.1) and 30 (MD 29; DO 37.5) median hours in humanities. In the first two years, most humanities are integrated into other course work; most electives are offered as stand-alone classes. 50.0% of schools report only 0-25% of students participating in humanities electives. Presence of a certificate, concentration or arts journal increased likelihood of humanities content but decreased mean hours. Schools with a medical humanities MA had a higher number of required humanities hours. Medical humanities content in undergraduate curriculum is lower than is indicated in the AAMC annual report. Schools with a formal structure have a greater humanities presence in the curriculum and are taken by more students.
Hong, Bong Sik; Kim, Tae Ho; Seo, Jeong Seok; Kim, Tong Wook; Moon, Seok Woo
The aim of this study was to compare patient-centeredness changes between medical school graduates and medical students after a psychiatric clinical clerkship. We focused on 40 medical school graduates. We received permission to use data from a 2006 study on patient-centeredness of 94 medical students. The following was repeated before and after clerkship: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), Meyers-Briggs type indicator (MBTI), Patient-practitioner Orientation Scale (PPOS) and Authoritarian Personality (AP) scale. In the 2006 study on patient-centeredness of medical students, the AP scores were significantly lower than before clerkship and the PPOS scores were significantly higher than before clerkship. AP score changes were related to MBTI, correlated with MMPI subscales, but inversely correlated with PPOS changes. In this study, the change in PPOS scores was not significant after clerkship in case of medical school graduates. AP score changes inversely correlated with PPOS changes, but neither correlated with MMPI subscales or MBTI. Considering previous findings, medical school graduates tend to be more patient-centered than medical students, but medical students can adopt a more patient-centered attitude than graduates through a psychiatric clinical clerkship.
Mowat, D L; White, C
Children who were scheduled for medical examination before entering school were followed in school one or two years later. Non-attenders had a two-fold risk of repeating grades, special class placement, referral for speech/language problems, teacher-reported learning or behavior problems, failure of vision or hearing screening, and transfer between schools. Absenteeism was also significantly more common. Children not brought in for preventive health care are at greater risk than others for difficulties in school.
Björnstig, Johanna; Bylund, Per-Olof; Björnstig, Ulf
A data acquisition from the medical sector may give one important view of the burden on the society caused by vehicle related injuries. The official police-reported statistics may only reflect a part of all vehicle-related injured seeking medical attention. The aim is to provide a comprehensive picture of the burden of vehicle related injuries on the medical sector (2013), and to compare with official police-reported statistics and the development year 2000-2013. The data set includes 1085 injured from the Injury Data Base at Umeå University Hospital's catchment area with 148,500 inhabitants in 2013. Bicyclists were the most frequently injured (54%). One-third had non-minor (MAIS2+) injuries, and bicyclists accounted for 58% of the 1071 hospital bed days for all vehicle-related injuries. Car occupants represented 23% of all injured, and only 9% had MAIS2+ injuries. They accounted for 17% of the hospital bed days. Motorized two wheel vehicle riders represented 11% of the injured and 39% had MAIS2+ injuries and they occupied 11% of the hospital bed days. Of the 1085 medically treated persons, 767 were injured in public traffic areas, and, therefore, should be included in the official police statistics; however, only a third (232) of them were reported by the police. The annual injury rate had not changed during 2000-2013 for bicyclists, motor-cycle riders, pedestrians or snowmobile riders. However, for passenger car occupants a decrease was observed after 2008, and for mopedists the injury rate was halved after 2009 when a licensing regulation was introduced. The Swedish traffic injury reducing strategy Vision Zero, may have contributed to the reduction of injured car occupants and moped riders. The official police-reported statistics was a biased data source for vehicle related injuries and the total number medically treated was in total five times higher. Bicyclists caused the heaviest burden on the medical sector; consequently, they need to be prioritized in
de Visser, Marieke; Fluit, Cornelia; Fransen, Jaap; Latijnhouwers, Mieke; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Laan, Roland
In the Netherlands, students are admitted to medical school through (1) selection, (2) direct access by high pre-university Grade Point Average (pu-GPA), (3) lottery after being rejected in the selection procedure, or (4) lottery. At Radboud University Medical Center, 2010 was the first year we selected applicants. We designed a procedure based on tasks mimicking the reality of early medical school. Applicants took an online course followed by an on-site exam, resembling courses and exams in early medical school. Based on the exam scores, applicants were selected or rejected. The aim of our study is to determine whether curriculum sample selection explains performance in medical school and is preferable compared to selection based on performance in secondary school. We gathered data on the performance of students of three consecutive cohorts (2010-2012, N = 954). We compared medical school performance (course credits and grade points) of selected students to the three groups admitted in other ways, especially lottery admissions. In regression analyses, we controlled for out of context cognitive performance by adjusting for pu-GPA. Selection-admitted students outperformed lottery-admitted students on most outcome measures, unadjusted as well as adjusted for pu-GPA (p ≤ 0.05). They had higher grade points than non-selected lottery students, both unadjusted and adjusted for pu-GPA (p ≤ 0.025). Adjusted for pu-GPA, selection-admitted students and high-pu-GPA students performed equally. We recommend this selection procedure as it adds to secondary school cognitive performance for the general population of students, is efficient for large numbers of applicants and not labour-intensive.
Full Text Available Background: The motivations behind why people choose to study medicine in Iraqi medical schools are unknown. Such information could help school pupils to make more informed career decisions and assist medical schools in enhancing the student selection process. Aims: To investigate why people choose to study medicine in Iraq. Subjects and methods: The first-year students admitted on the academic year 2015-2016 to Baghdad College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, were invited to complete a structured questionnaire, which was administered through the college electronic education portal. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 21 software. Results: A total of 152 (50% response rate students responded. Women constituted 69.1% of respondents. Most students (61.8% had made their choice by themselves without family pressure. The most frequent reasons that affected this choice were “humanitarian reasons and a wish to provide help to others” as well as “childhood dream,” “positive community appraisal of doctors,” and “ready availability of work for physicians.” About three-quarters (73.6% of the students made some inquiry about medical school before making their choice, and the people asked were most frequently a medical student or a doctor. Information provided by the consulted parties was regarded as satisfactory by 64.2% of the surveyed students, had a positive value in 47.2%, and affected their decision in 34.9%. The highest proportion (42.2% of the study sample was thinking about studying medicine since primary school. In addition, students with personal preference made their choice at a significantly younger age. Conclusions: Reasons to apply for medical schools in Iraq are similar to those in many countries. Most of the students who inquired about studying medicine had not contacted the medical school itself.
Huang, Grace; Reynolds, Robby; Candler, Chris
"Virtual patients" are computer-based simulations designed to complement clinical training. These applications possess numerous educational benefits but are costly to develop. Few medical schools can afford to create them. The purpose of this inventory was to gather information regarding in-house virtual patient development at U.S. and Canadian medical schools to promote the sharing of existing cases and future collaboration. From February to September 2005, the authors contacted 142 U.S. and Canadian medical schools and requested that they report on virtual patient simulation activities at their respective institutions. The inventory elicited information regarding the pedagogic and technical characteristics of each virtual patient application. The schools were also asked to report on their willingness to share virtual patients. Twenty-six out of 108 responding schools reported that they were producing virtual patients. Twelve schools provided additional data on 103 cases and 111 virtual patients. The vast majority of virtual patients were media rich and were associated with significant production costs and time. The reported virtual patient cases tended to focus on primary care disciplines and did not as a whole exhibit racial or ethnic diversity. Funding sources, production costs, and production duration influenced the extent of schools' willingness to share. Broader access to and cooperative development of these resources would allow medical schools to enhance their clinical curricula. Virtual patient development should include basic science objectives for more integrative learning, simulate the consequences of clinical decision making, and include additional cases in cultural competency. Together, these efforts can enhance medical education despite external constraints on clinical training.
Full Text Available Background: Matriculation of international students to United States’ (US medical schools has not mirrored the remarkable influx of these students to other US institutions of higher education. Methods: While these students’ numbers are on the rise, the visibility for their unique issues remains largely ignored in the medical literature. Results: These students are disadvantaged in the medical school admissions process due to financial and immigration-related concerns, and academic standards for admittance also continue to be significantly higher compared with their US-citizen peers. Furthermore, it is simply beyond the mission of many medical schools – both public and private – to support international students’ education, especially since federal, state-allocated or institutional funds are limited and these institutions have a commitment to fulfill the healthcare education needs of qualified domestic candidates. In spite of these obstacles, a select group of international students do gain admission to US medical schools and, upon graduation, are credentialed equally as their US-citizen counterparts by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME. However, owing to their foreign citizenship, these students have visa requirements for post-graduate training that may adversely impact their candidacy for residency placement. Conclusion: By raising such issues, this article aims to increase the awareness of considerations pertinent to this unique population of medical students. The argument is also made to support continued recruitment of international students to US medical schools in spite of these impediments. In our experience, these students are not only qualified to tackle the rigors of a US medical education, but also enrich the cultural diversity of the medical student body. Moreover, these graduates could effectively complement the efforts to augment US physician workforce diversity while contributing to
Chauvin, Sheila W; Anderson, William; Mylona, Elza; Greenberg, Ruth; Yang, Tong
Little is known about common elements or "best practices" of new faculty orientation (NFO) programs in medical schools. The objective was to examine school-wide NFO programs in North American medical schools. We reviewed the literature and conducted a web-based survey. Analyses included descriptive statistics and content analysis. We found little evidence of "best practices." Of the 106 responding schools (106/148=71.62%), 72 (67.9%) reported some type of school-wide NFO program. The typical program was organized by an Office of Faculty Affairs or Faculty Development, targeted broad goals, 4 to 8 hour long, offered early in the academic year, and used 2 or more presentation formats (e.g., oral, print). Based on the literature, this study appears to be the first comprehensive description of NFO programs in medical schools. Multiple types of NFO are needed to accommodate the diversity of faculty and faculty responsibilities. School-wide programs may serve best to develop institutional affiliation and collegiality.
Stringer, Neil; Chan, Michael; Bimpeh, Yaw; Chan, Philip
This study investigates the effects of socioeconomic status and schooling on the academic attainment of a cohort of students at a single medical school (N = 240). Partial least squares structural equation modelling was used to explore how students' summative assessment scores over 4 years of medical school were affected by: attainment in secondary school examinations (GCSEs and A-levels); the Income Deprivation Affecting Children Index (IDACI) rank associated with students' home postcodes; the performance of students' A-level institutions, measured as the percentage of A-level students achieving 3 A-levels at AAB or higher in two or more facilitating subjects. The effects were consistent across time; the final linear regression model used students' cumulative scores (the basis of the medical school's UK Foundation Programme submission) as the dependent variable. The final model fit was quite poor (R 2 = .184, n = 178). IDACI Rank was non-significant and excluded from the final model. Both GCSE (.340, p School Performance was associated with decreasing Cumulative Score (-.159, p schooling and medical course performance as previous studies. The study found no evidence that socioeconomic background affects course performance; however, students admitted to medicine from poorly performing schools achieve higher academic attainment throughout the course than students admitted from better-performing schools with the same grades. Schooling could be taken into account for admissions purposes.
Phillips, S P; Ferguson, K E
Medical school has historically reinforced traditional views of women. This cohort study follows implementation of a revitalized curriculum and examines students' attitudes toward women on entry into an Ontario medical school, and 3 years later. Of the 75 students entering first year at Queen's University medical school 70 completed the initial survey in September 1994 and 54 were resurveyed in May 1997. First-year students at 2 other Ontario medical schools were also surveyed in 1994, and these 166 respondents formed a comparison group. Changes in responses to statements about sex-role stereotypes, willingness to control decision-making of female patients, and conceptualization of women as "other" or "abnormal" because they are women were examined. Responses from the comparison group were used to indicate whether the Queen's group was representative. Attitudinal differences between the primary group and the comparison group were not significant. After 3 years of medical education students were somewhat less accepting of sex-role stereotypes and less controlling in the doctor-patient encounter. They continued, however, to equate adults with men and to see women as "not adult" or "other." Female students began and remained somewhat more open-minded in all areas studied. A predicted trend toward conservatism was not seen as students became older, more aware and closer to completion of medical training, although they continued to equate adults with male and to see women as "other." Findings may validate new curricular approaches and increased attention to gender issues in the academic environment.
Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B
The relationship between medical schools and their teaching hospitals involves a complex and variable mixture of monopoly and monopsony power, which has not been previously been ethically analyzed. As a consequence, there is currently no ethical framework to guide leaders of both institutions in the responsible management of this complex power relationship. The authors define these two forms of power and, using economic concepts, analyze the nature of such power in the medical school-teaching hospital relationship, emphasizing the potential for exploitation. Using concepts from both business ethics and medical ethics, the authors analyze the nature of transparency and co-fiduciary responsibility in this relationship. On the basis of both rational self-interest, drawn from business ethics, and co-fiduciary responsibility, drawn from medical ethics, they argue for the centrality of transparency in the medical school-teaching hospital relationship. Understanding the ethics of monopoly and monopsony power is essential for the responsible management of the complex relationship between medical schools and their teaching hospitals and can assist the leadership of academic health centers in carrying out one of their major responsibilities: to prevent the exploitation of monopoly power and monopsony power in this relationship.
Suvarnabhumi, Krishna; Sowanna, Non; Jiraniramai, Surin; Jaturapatporn, Darin; Kanitsap, Nonglak; Soorapanth, Chiroj; Thanaghumtorn, Kanate; Limratana, Napa; Akkayagorn, Lanchasak; Staworn, Dusit; Praditsuwan, Rungnirand; Uengarporn, Naporn; Sirithanawutichai, Teabaluck; Konchalard, Komwudh; Tangsangwornthamma, Chaturon; Vasinanukorn, Mayuree; Phungrassami, Temsak
The Thai Medical School Palliative Care Network conducted this study to establish the current state of palliative care education in Thai medical schools. A questionnaire survey was given to 2 groups that included final year medical students and instructors in 16 Thai medical schools. The questionnaire covered 4 areas related to palliative care education. An insufficient proportion of students (defined as fewer than 60%) learned nonpain symptoms control (50.0%), goal setting and care planning (39.0%), teamwork (38.7%), and pain management (32.7%). Both medical students and instructors reflected that palliative care education was important as it helps to improve quality of care and professional competence. The percentage of students confident to provide palliative care services under supervision of their senior, those able to provide services on their own, and those not confident to provide palliative care services were 57.3%, 33.3%, and 9.4%, respectively. The lack of knowledge in palliative care in students may lower their level of confidence to practice palliative care. In order to prepare students to achieve a basic level of competency in palliative care, each medical school has to carefully put palliative care content into the undergraduate curriculum.
Durkin, Shane R.; Bascomb, Angela; Turnbull, Deborah; Marley, John
A survey of 163 senior medical students attending a South Australian medical school found that rural students were more likely than urban students to experience stress; be concerned about getting a provider number (license); feel that consultants had little time for them; have made the decision to study medicine without pressure from others; and…
Matthies, Herbert K.
Full Text Available In the recent years various multimedia learning modules were developed at the Hannover Medical School. So, for example the web-based content management system Schoolbook is used to collect medical cases for education. It enables authors to present their specialised knowledge in the World Wide Web without the need to be familiar with internet technologies. The System provides access to several sources of medical knowledge and is used as an elearning platform for different medical departments. Furthermore it was established in combination with the learning management system ILIAS which contains web-based learning units as well as self-tests (multiple choice with direct feedback.
Dunham, Lisette; Dekhtyar, Michael; Gruener, Gregory; CichoskiKelly, Eileen; Deitz, Jennifer; Elliott, Donna; Stuber, Margaret L; Skochelak, Susan E
Phenomenon: The learning environment is the physical, social, and psychological context in which a student learns. A supportive learning environment contributes to student well-being and enhances student empathy, professionalism, and academic success, whereas an unsupportive learning environment may lead to burnout, exhaustion, and cynicism. Student perceptions of the medical school learning environment may change over time and be associated with students' year of training and may differ significantly depending on the student's gender or race/ethnicity. Understanding the changes in perceptions of the learning environment related to student characteristics and year of training could inform interventions that facilitate positive experiences in undergraduate medical education. The Medical School Learning Environment Survey (MSLES) was administered to 4,262 students who matriculated at one of 23 U.S. and Canadian medical schools in 2010 and 2011. Students completed the survey at the end of each year of medical school as part of a battery of surveys in the Learning Environment Study. A mixed-effects longitudinal model, t tests, Cohen's d effect size, and analysis of variance assessed the relationship between MSLES score, year of training, and demographic variables. After controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, and school, students reported worsening perceptions toward the medical school learning environment, with the worst perceptions in the 3rd year of medical school as students begin their clinical experiences, and some recovery in the 4th year after Match Day. The drop in MSLES scores associated with the transition to the clinical learning environment (-0.26 point drop in addition to yearly change, effect size = 0.52, p medical school learning environment in the 4th year. Insights: Perceptions of the medical school learning environment worsen as students continue through medical school, with a stronger decline in perception scores as students' transition to the
Andersson, J.; Verdonk, P.; Johansson, E.E.; Lagro-Janssen, T.; Hamberg, K.
BACKGROUND: To ascertain good and appropriate healthcare for both women and men implementation of gender perspectives in medical education is needed. For a successful implementation, knowledge about students' attitudes and beliefs about men, women, and gender is crucial. The aim of this study was to
McGaghie, William C.
Ten qualitative categories associated with excellence in medical education and practice are identified: character and integrity; breadth of knowledge; leadership; geographic preferences; gender, race, and religious preference; work habits and motivation to study; personality and attitude; personal orientation toward service; altruism; and personal…
Kelly, Jeffrey A.; And Others
An effort to teach medical students practical stress management skills is discussed. A group of students volunteered to participate in a six-session program that taught them personal stress management techniques including self-relaxation training, schedule-planning, priority-setting, leisure time-planning, and cognitive modification techniques.…
Chae, Sujin; Lim, Kiyoung
This study aimed to examine the necessity for research ethics and learning objectives in ethics education at the undergraduate level. A total of 393 fourth-year students, selected from nine medical schools, participated in a survey about learning achievement and the necessity for it. It was found that the students had very few chances to receive systematic education in research ethics and that they assumed that research ethics education was provided during graduate school or residency programs. Moreover, the students showed a relatively high learning performance in life ethics, while learning achievement was low in research ethics. Medical school students revealed low interest in and expectations of research ethics in general; therefore, it is necessary to develop guidelines for research ethics in the present situation, in which medical education mainly focuses on life ethics.
de la Garza-Aguilar, Javier
At the end of the XXth century, collegiate efforts (evaluation and accreditation) were carried out to identify the quality of undergraduate medical education in Mexico. The growth of medical schools during the 1970's had stabilized and the combination of other factors had contributed to increase its quality. Analytic-descriptive research of selected indicators of the medical curricula from the sixties to the year 2000: entry, enrollment, and drop out rates, graduates, title, selection by the national postgraduate exam of medical residences (ENARM), faculty members and creation of medical schools. Statistical analysis included chi2 and T tests. In the seventies the number of medical schools doubled and the country increased its entry by 400%, enrollment by 700% and the number of graduates by 600%. The drop out rates and title efficiencies remained stable with averages of 76.2 and 76.4%, respectively: the first one that reflects the efficiency of the educational system, was not different in the period studied, when student's t- test (p ENARM in 1991 and in 2001, one out of six. The growth in enrollment and graduates once again, stands in contrast with the drop out rate that has remained stable. This suggests that the country has not increased significantly the quality of its medical education. The latter could be verified for each institution with the indicators used in the present study and by the assessment and accreditation of the programs.
Wilson, Sam; Denison, Alan R; McKenzie, Hamish
Undergraduate medical education in the UK has changed considerably over the last decade. One development has involved the creation of teaching-specific posts for junior doctors by medical schools. These posts are generally termed 'clinical teaching fellowships', but it is not known how many of them exist, or whether they are similar in terms of educational activities, professional development, and research and clinical experience opportunities. Teaching deans in all UK medical schools were sent a questionnaire relating to clinical teaching fellowships, and were asked to distribute a second set of different questionnaires to their clinical teaching fellows, which were to be returned to the authors separately. A total of 28 deans and 46 fellows responded. Fifteen medical schools had clinical teaching fellows and there appeared to be a total of 77 such posts in the UK. There was little uniformity in the activities undertaken within the posts. Deans who employed clinical teaching fellows were unanimously positive regarding the posts. Fellows were generally positive but expressed reservations relating to approval for postgraduate training, career development, deterioration in clinical skills, financial disincentives, credibility within one's own specialty, and provision of training and support. Clinical teaching fellow posts are generally enjoyed by fellows and valued by deans. Fellows carry out differing duties and their training in medical education is variable. The posts can be unstructured and may lack credibility to doctors outside medical education. Providing specific structured training in medical education, recognised at a national level, would help deal with these concerns.
Almohaya, Abdulellah; Qrmli, Abdulaziz; Almagal, Naeif; Alamri, Khaled; Bahammam, Salman; Al-Enizi, Mashhour; Alanazi, Atif; Almeneessier, Aljohara S; Sharif, Munir M; Bahammam, Ahmed S
Limited information is available regarding sleep medicine education worldwide. Nevertheless, medical education has been blamed for the under-recognition of sleep disorders among physicians. This study was designed to assess the knowledge of Saudi undergraduate medical students about sleep and sleep disorders and the prevalence of education on sleep medicine in medical schools as well as to identify the obstacles to providing such education. We surveyed medical schools that were established more than 10 years ago, asking fourth- and fifth-year medical students (men and women) to participate. Seven medical schools were selected. To assess knowledge on sleep and sleep disorders, we used the Assessment of Sleep Knowledge in Medical Education (ASKME) Survey, which is a validated 30-item questionnaire. The participants were separated into two groups: those who scored ≥60% and those who scored students completed the survey (54.9% male). Among the participants, 27.7% had a specific interest in sleep medicine. More than 80% of the study sample had rated their knowledge in sleep medicine as below average. Only 4.6% of the respondents correctly answered ≥60% of the questions. There was no difference in the scores of the respondents with regard to university, gender, grade-point average (GPA) or student academic levels. Only five universities provided data on sleep medicine education. The time spent teaching sleep medicine in the surveyed medical schools ranged from 0-8 hours with a mean of 2.6 ±2.6 hours. Identified obstacles included the following: (1) sleep medicine has a lower priority in the curriculum (53%) and (2) time constraints do not allow the incorporation of sleep medicine topics in the curriculum (47%). Medical students in the surveyed institutions possess poor knowledge regarding sleep medicine, which reflects the weak level of education in this field of medicine. To improve the recognition of sleep disorders among practicing physicians, medical schools
Whalen, Desmond; Harris, Chelsea; Harty, Chris; Greene, Alison; Faour, Elizabeth; Thomson, Kalen; Ravalia, Mohamed
A major goal of the Faculty of Medicine at the Memorial University of Newfoundland is to produce physicians who will return to rural areas that are currently underserviced. Research shows that the strongest indicator of practice in a rural area is a rural background, and thus it is important that rural students apply to medical school. We investigated what high school students believe to be preventing them from pursuing medical education. Between September 2013 and June 2014, we administered a paper survey to high school students in Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island. A total of 665 participants completed the survey. We found that fewer rural students (75.6%) than urban students (98.6%) believed that they could gain admission to medical school (p career choice in fewer rural schools (55.7%) than urban schools (69.7%). Also, 55.4% of urban students, but only 44.4% of rural students, believed that rural students were disadvantaged when applying to medical school. In our study, rural students believed they were less likely to be accepted into medical school than urban students, and fewer rural students felt that medicine was promoted as a potential career choice. Our results may be explained by a lack of role models or perhaps by financial barriers, although further research is needed.
Bunton, Sarah A; Walling, Anne; Durham, Dianne
To assess post-tenure review policies at U.S. medical schools by examining how prevalent post-tenure review is, what models of post-tenure review are employed, and what outcomes result from post-tenure review processes. In late 2014, a Web-based survey was sent to the associate dean for faculty affairs (or equivalent) at each U.S. medical school accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (N = 141). The survey addressed elements of post-tenure review policies, including whether a policy was in place, the frequency of the review, and the review outcomes. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Of the 94 responding schools with a tenure system, 39 (41%) had an established post-tenure review policy. Although these policies showed great variability across schools in duration, having been in place from 1 to 50 years, 12 (31%) were established within the last 5 years. The outcomes of post-tenure review also varied. Superior performance ratings generally resulted in notations in the faculty member's personnel file and notifications to school leadership. Conversely, when a faculty member received an unsatisfactory rating, a remediation or development plan was sometimes required. At least 40% of medical schools with a tenure system have post-tenure review, and it is becoming more common. These findings about the prevalence and use of post-tenure review across institutions can assist medical school leaders as they strive to shape policies to facilitate faculty engagement and productivity. They also can provide the foundation for future evaluative studies on the effectiveness, outcomes, and impact of post-tenure review.
Full Text Available Objectives: A potential new avenue to address the shortage of country doctors is to change the rules for admission to medical school. We therefore study the link between high-school grade point average and prospective physicians’ choice to work in rural areas. To further inform the discussion about rules for admission, we also study the effects of other predictors: a measure of students’ attitudes towards risk; whether they waited for their place of study (; whether their parents worked as medical doctors; and whether they have some practical experience in the medical sector.Methods: We conducted two internet surveys in 2012 and 2014. In the first survey, the sample comprised 701 students and in the second, 474 students. In both surveys, we asked students for their regional preferences; in the 2014 survey, we additionally asked students for their first, second, and third preferences among a comprehensive set of specializations, including becoming a general practitioner. In both surveys, we asked students for basic demographic information (age and gender, their parents’ occupation, a measure of subjective income expectations, a measure of risk attitudes, and their high-school grade point average (, and First National Boards Examination grade (. In 2014, we additionally asked for waiting periods ( as well as for prior professional experience in the health-care sector.Results: We find that three factors increase the probability of having a preference for working in a rural area significantly, holding constant all other influences: Moreover, we find that those willing to work in the countryside have significantly more experience in the medical sector before admission to medical school.Discussion: Our results suggest that a change in the selection process for medical school may increase the supply of country doctors. Instead of focusing on the high-school grade point average, universities could even more intensely screen for study motivation
Full Text Available Background: Much evidence exists to demonstrate that poor handover can directly impact patient safety. There have been calls for formal education on handover, but evidence to guide intervention design and implementation is limited. It is unclear how undergraduate medical schools are tackling this issue and what barrier or facilitators exist to handover education. We set out to determine curriculum objectives, teaching and assessment methods, as well as institutional attitudes towards handover within UK medical schools. Methods: A descriptive, non-experimental, cross-sectional study design was used. A locally developed online questionnaire survey was sent to all UK Medical Schools, after piloting. Descriptive statistics were calculated for closed-ended responses, and free text responses were analysed using a grounded theory approach, with constant comparison taking place through several stages of analysis. Results: Fifty percent of UK medical schools took part in the study. Nine schools (56% reported having curriculum outcomes for handover. Significant variations in the teaching and assessments employed were found. Qualitative analysis yielded four key themes: the importance of handover as an education issue, when to educate on handover, the need for further provision of teaching and the need for validated assessment tools to support handover education. Conclusions: Whilst undergraduate medical schools recognised handover as an important education issue, they do not feel they should have the ultimate responsibility for training in this area and as such are responding in varying ways. Undergraduate medical educators should seek to reach consensus as to the extent of provision they will offer. Weaknesses in the literature regarding how to design such education have exacerbated the problem, but the contemporaneous and growing published evidence base should be employed by educators to address this issue.
Cleland, Jennifer; Johnston, Peter W; French, Fiona H; Needham, Gillian
Little is known about the relationship between the career preferences of medical students and the medical schools at which they are enrolled. Our aim was to explore this relationship early in students' medical training. Year 1 (2009-2010) medical students at the five Scottish medical schools were invited to take part in a career preference questionnaire survey. Questions were asked about demographic factors, career preferences and influencing factors. The response rate was 87.9% (883/1005). No significant differences were found among medical schools with regard to first-choice specialty. Surgery (22.5%), medicine (19.0%), general practice (17.6%) and paediatrics (16.1%) were the top career choices. Work-life balance, perceived aptitude and skills, intellectual satisfaction, and amount of patient contact were rated as the most important job-related factors by most respondents. Few differences were found among schools in terms of the impact of job-related factors on future career preferences. Students for whom the work-life balance was extremely important (odds ratio [OR]=0.6) were less likely to prefer surgery. Students for whom the work-life balance (OR=2.2) and continuity of care (OR=2.1) were extremely important were more likely to prefer general practice. Students' early career preferences were similar across the five medical schools. These preferences result from the interplay among demographic factors and the perceived characteristics of the various specialties. Maintaining a satisfactory work-life balance is very important to tomorrow's doctors, and the data hint that this may be breaking down some of the traditional gender differences in specialty choice. Longitudinal work is required to explore whether students' career preferences change as they progress through medical school and training. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.
Grover, P L; Smith, D U
Programs designed to assist medical students in academic difficulty typically fail to consider the importance of such factors as academic anxiety and the individual's mechanisms for coping with stress. The authors have addressed this issue by examining relationships among prior achievement, academic anxiety, locus of control, and performance in the first year of medical school. Academic anxiety not only was found to be significantly related to first year performance, but also, when combined with a measure of prior achievement, resulted in a significant increase in prediction. Additional evidence is presented which suggests that the relationship between academic anxiety and achievement may be curvilinear. Locus of control was found to correlate significantly with academic anxiety and tended to shift in a direction of greater externality during the first year of medical school. Findings are discussed within the framework of existing psychological research, and implications are presented for medical admissions, curricula, and counseling.
Interest in global health (GH) among medical students worldwide is measurably increasing. There is a concomitant emphasis on emphasizing globally-relevant health professions education. Through a structured literature review, expert consensus recommendations, and contact with relevant professional organizations, we review the existing state of GH education in US medical schools for which data were available. Several recommendations from professional societies have been developed, along with a renewed emphasis on competencies in global health. The implementation of these recommendations was not observed as being uniform across medical schools, with variation noted in the presence of global health curricula. Recommendations for including GH in medical education are suggested, as well as ways to formalize GH curricula, while providing flexibility for innovation and adaptation PMID:23331630
Physicians have to visit, diagnose and refer patients with genetic disorders, so they need to be familiar with the basics and indications of genetic tests. In other words, they should have effective theoretical and practical knowledge about medical genetics before they do their job. Medical genetics courses at Medical Universities of Iran are generally presented as a theoretical subject in the first period of medical education. In this descriptive research, the results of interviews with teachers of medical genetics in 30 medical schools in Islamic Republic of Iran and responses to a questionnaire by 125 medical students of Ahvaz Jundishapour University of medical sciences, about presentation time, curricula and also efficacy of medical genetics courses were analyzed. The interviews with teachers were done on phone and the students' comments were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire. The data were analyzed, using SPSS software, version 14. In two thirds of medical universities, medical genetics is taught in the third or fourth semester and in 5 universities in the fifth semester. 86% of the students believed that the quality of genetics courses is moderate and such courses are very beneficial to medical students. This article suggests that medical genetics be offered in the second or third period of medical education (physiopathology or stagger period). Furthermore, in teaching such courses advanced educational methods (animation presentation, case-based learning, problem-based learning, etc.) should be used, together with simple genetic tests in laboratories, and the visit of genetic patients in hospitals and genetics centers.
Galván-Molina, Jesús Francisco; Jiménez-Capdeville, María E; Hernández-Mata, José María; Arellano-Cano, José Ramón
Screening of psychopathology and associated factors in medical students employing an electronic self-report survey. A transversal, observational, and comparative study that consisted of the following instruments: Sociodemographic survey; 2. Adult Self-Report Scale-V1 (ASRS); State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI); Zung and Conde Self-Rating Depression Scale, Almonte-Herskovic Sexual Orientation Self-Report; Plutchik Suicide Risk Scale; Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Identification (AUDIT); Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence; 9. Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI); Eating Disorder Inventory 2 (EDI). We gathered 323 student surveys from medical students of the first, third and sixth grades. The three more prevalent disorders were depression (24%), attention deficit disorders with hyperactivity (28%) and anxiety (13%); the prevalence of high-level burnout syndrome was 13%. Also, the fifth part of the students had detrimental use of tobacco and alcohol. Sixty percent of medical students had either one or more probable disorder or burnout. An adequate screening and treatment of this population could prevent severe mental disorders and the associated factors could help us to create a risk profile. This model is an efficient research tool for screening and secondary prevention.
Mansh, Matthew; White, William; Gee-Tong, Lea; Lunn, Mitchell R; Obedin-Maliver, Juno; Stewart, Leslie; Goldsmith, Elizabeth; Brenman, Stephanie; Tran, Eric; Wells, Maggie; Fetterman, David; Garcia, Gabriel
To assess identity disclosure among sexual and gender minority (SGM) students pursuing undergraduate medical training in the United States and Canada. From 2009 to 2010, a survey was made available to all medical students enrolled in the 176 MD- and DO-granting medical schools in the United States and Canada. Respondents were asked about their sexual and gender identity, whether they were "out" (i.e., had publicly disclosed their identity), and, if they were not, their reasons for concealing their identity. The authors used a mixed-methods approach and analyzed quantitative and qualitative survey data. Of 5,812 completed responses (of 101,473 eligible respondents; response rate 5.7%), 920 (15.8%) students from 152 (of 176; 86.4%) institutions identified as SGMs. Of the 912 sexual minorities, 269 (29.5%) concealed their sexual identity in medical school. Factors associated with sexual identity concealment included sexual minority identity other than lesbian or gay, male gender, East Asian race, and medical school enrollment in the South or Central regions of North America. The most common reasons for concealing one's sexual identity were "nobody's business" (165/269; 61.3%), fear of discrimination in medical school (117/269; 43.5%), and social or cultural norms (110/269; 40.9%). Of the 35 gender minorities, 21 (60.0%) concealed their gender identity, citing fear of discrimination in medical school (9/21; 42.9%) and lack of support (9/21; 42.9%). SGM students continue to conceal their identity during undergraduate medical training. Medical institutions should adopt targeted policies and programs to better support these individuals.
Garcia, Danilo; Rosenberg, Patricia; Lindskär, Erik; Amato, Clara; Al Nima, Ali
The data include responses to the Swedish version of a questionnaire used to operationalize self-regulation or regulatory mode: assessment and locomotion. The data was collected among 567 Swedish high school and university students (see Garcia and Lindskär, 2016 ). In this article, we also include the Swedish version of the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire. The data is available, SPSS file, as supplementary material in this article.
Egnew, Thomas R; Lewis, Peter R; Schaad, Douglas C; Karuppiah, Sabesan; Mitchell, Suzanne
Little is known about what students perceive they are taught about suffering in medical school. We sought to explore medical student perceptions of their medical school education about suffering. We used an online survey of medical students enrolled in four US medical schools with chi-square analysis of responses by gender and preclinical/clinical status. A total of 1,043 students (38%) responded and indicated that teaching about suffering is occurring in the schools surveyed. Respondents most strongly endorsed statements that their medical school education explicitly teaches that the relief of suffering is an inherent function of being a physician (46.5%) and that most of what they learned about dealing with suffering patients is taught by modeling (46.6%). They reported that their education explicitly teaches about suffering (32.8%), provides a good understanding of suffering (31.7%), and teaches how to interact with suffering patients (31.7%). Students gave the least support to statements that their education prepares them to personally deal with their reactions to the suffering of patients (25.1%) and teaches how to diagnose suffering (15.3%). Responses varied markedly according to gender and clinical status at two of the four schools surveyed. Teaching about suffering is occurring in the schools surveyed and can be variably experienced according to gender and clinical status. Implied curricular gaps include teaching about how to diagnose suffering and how to personally deal with the feelings that arise when caring for suffering patients. Further research on how students are learning about suffering is warranted to guide curriculum development and implementation.
The author maintains that the quality of medical education has been dropping for the last few decades as medical schools become less and less focused on their primary purpose of training physicians. Until the years immediately following World War II, the administration of the medical school was carried out by a small staff headed by a dean whose role was to provide leadership in educational matters. Academic departments managed the educational program, and the faculty were expected to be teachers and to participate in educational planning, preparation of teaching materials, advising of students, assessment of students' performances, admission, and all other tasks associated with having a teaching position. Today, the administration of a typical school includes any number of assistants to the dean and a wide variety of other staff dealing not only with educational functions but with grant management, public relations, fund-raising, personnel policy, budgeting, and an enormous and complex parallel structure designed to manage clinical practice and to respond to market pressures. The role of faculty has also changed greatly; faculty are expected to be researchers and clinicians first, and teaching is usually shortchanged. The author explains why he believes these changes have come about; for example, the strong federal support of research after World War II, which encouraged a growing dependence of medical schools on research grants and consequently raised in importance those faculty who could obtain such grants. He concludes with common-sense proposals for reform (such as having the education of medical students in the hands of a small number of faculty whose prime responsibility is teaching), but admits that there are fundamental barriers to such reforms, especially vested interests and resistance to change. In the end, change will come only when those in power recognize that medical schools must be returned to their primary role of training physicians.
Tyrefors Hinnerich, Björn; Vlachos, Jonas
Sweden has a school voucher system with universal coverage and full acceptance of corporate providers. Using a value added approach, we find that students at upper-secondary voucher schools on average score 0.06 standard deviations lower on externally graded standardized tests in first year core courses. The negative impact is larger among lower achieving students (but not among immigrant students), the same students who are most prone to attend voucher schools. For high achieving students, t...
Carlson, John S.; Thaler, Cara L.; Hirsch, Amanda J.
Assessing, consulting, and intervening with students being treated with psychotropic medications is an increasingly common activity for school psychologists. This article reviews some of the literature providing evidence for the greater need for training in school psychopharmacology. A legal and ethical case study is presented that highlights the…
Bakker, Nelleke; de Beer, Fedor
In this article the authors address the question of why school medical inspection in the Netherlands developed not only considerably slower than the British service but did so also on a more modest scale in terms of the impact on children's lives. In the Netherlands school doctors were not allowed
Sherer, Renslow; Dong, Hongmei; Cong, Yali; Wan, Jing; Chen, Hua; Wang, Yanxia; Ma, Zhiying; Cooper, Brian; Jiang, Ivy; Roth, Hannah; Siegler, Mark
Ethics teaching is a relatively new area of medical education in China, with ethics curricula at different levels of development. This study examined ethics education at three medical schools in China to understand their curricular content, teaching and learning methods, forms of assessments, changes over time, and what changes are needed for further improvement. We used student and faculty surveys to obtain information about the ethics courses' content, teaching methods, and revisions over time. The surveys also included five realistic cases and asked participants whether each would be appropriate to use for discussion in ethics courses. Students rated the cases on a scale and gave written comments. Finally, participants were asked to indicate how much they would agree with the statement that medical professionalism is about putting the interests of patients and society above one's own. There were both similarities and differences among these schools with regard to course topics, teaching and assessment methods, and course faculty compositions, suggesting their courses are at different levels of development. Areas of improvement for the schools' courses were identified based on this study's findings and available literature. A model of the evolution of medical ethics education in China was proposed to guide reform in medical ethics instruction in China. Analysis identified characteristics of appropriate cases and participants' attitudes toward the ideal of professionalism. We conclude that the development of medical ethics education in China is promising while much improvement is needed. In addition, ethics education is not confined to the walls of medical schools; the society at large can have significant influence on the formation of students' professional values.
Stegers-Jager, Karen M; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Themmen, Axel P N
Medical schools wish to better understand why some students excel academically and others have difficulty in passing medical courses. Components of self-regulated learning (SRL), such as motivational beliefs and learning strategies, as well as participation in scheduled learning activities, have been found to relate to student performance. Although participation may be a form of SRL, little is known about the relationships among motivational beliefs, learning strategies, participation and medical school performance. This study aimed to test and cross-validate a hypothesised model of relationships among motivational beliefs (value and self-efficacy), learning strategies (deep learning and resource management), participation (lecture attendance, skills training attendance and completion of optional study assignments) and Year 1 performance at medical school. Year 1 medical students in the cohorts of 2008 (n = 303) and 2009 (n = 369) completed a questionnaire on motivational beliefs and learning strategies (sourced from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire) and participation. Year 1 performance was operationalised as students' average Year 1 course examination grades. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the data. Participation and self-efficacy beliefs were positively associated with Year 1 performance (β = 0.78 and β = 0.19, respectively). Deep learning strategies were negatively associated with Year 1 performance (β =- 0.31), but positively related to resource management strategies (β = 0.77), which, in turn, were positively related to participation (β = 0.79). Value beliefs were positively related to deep learning strategies only (β = 0.71). The overall structural model for the 2008 cohort accounted for 47% of the variance in Year 1 grade point average and was cross-validated in the 2009 cohort. This study suggests that participation mediates the relationships between motivation and learning strategies, and medical school
Saguil, Aaron; Dong, Ting; Gingerich, Robert J; Swygert, Kimberly; LaRochelle, Jeffrey S; Artino, Anthony R; Cruess, David F; Durning, Steven J
The Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) is a high-stakes test required for entry to most U. S. medical schools; admissions committees use this test to predict future accomplishment. Although there is evidence that the MCAT predicts success on multiple choice-based assessments, there is little information on whether the MCAT predicts clinical-based assessments of undergraduate and graduate medical education performance. This study looked at associations between the MCAT and medical school grade point average (GPA), Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores, observed patient care encounters, and residency performance assessments. This study used data collected as part of the Long-Term Career Outcome Study to determine associations between MCAT scores, USMLE Step 1, Step 2 clinical knowledge and clinical skill, and Step 3 scores, Objective Structured Clinical Examination performance, medical school GPA, and PGY-1 program director (PD) assessment of physician performance for students graduating 2010 and 2011. MCAT data were available for all students, and the PGY PD evaluation response rate was 86.2% (N = 340). All permutations of MCAT scores (first, last, highest, average) were weakly associated with GPA, Step 2 clinical knowledge scores, and Step 3 scores. MCAT scores were weakly to moderately associated with Step 1 scores. MCAT scores were not significantly associated with Step 2 clinical skills Integrated Clinical Encounter and Communication and Interpersonal Skills subscores, Objective Structured Clinical Examination performance or PGY-1 PD evaluations. MCAT scores were weakly to moderately associated with assessments that rely on multiple choice testing. The association is somewhat stronger for assessments occurring earlier in medical school, such as USMLE Step 1. The MCAT was not able to predict assessments relying on direct clinical observation, nor was it able to predict PD assessment of PGY-1 performance. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of
Eckhert, N Lynn
Twenty-five percent of the U.S. physician workforce is made up of international medical graduates (IMGs), a growing proportion of whom (27% in 2005) are U.S. citizens. Most IMGs graduate from "offshore medical schools" (OMSs), for-profit institutions primarily located in the Caribbean region and established to train U.S. students who will return home to practice medicine. Following the recent call for a larger physician workforce, OMSs rapidly increased in number. Unlike U.S. schools, which must be accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education, OMSs are recognized by their home countries and may not be subject to a rigorous accreditation process. Although gaps in specific data exist, a closer look at OMSs reveals that most enroll three groups of students per year, and many educate students initially at "offshore campuses" and later at clinical sites in the United States. Students from some OMSs are eligible for the U.S. Federal Family Education Loan Program. The lack of uniform data on OMSs is problematic for state medical boards, which struggle to assess the quality of the medical education offered at any one school and which, in some cases, disapprove a school. With the United States' continued reliance on IMGs to meet its health needs, the public and the profession will be best served by knowing more about medical education outside of the United States. Review of medical education in OMSs whose graduates will become part of U.S. health care delivery is timely as the United States reforms its health-care-delivery system.
Derck, Jordan; Zahn, Kate; Finks, Jonathan F; Mand, Simanjit; Sandhu, Gurjit
Racial minorities continue to be underrepresented in medicine (URiM). Increasing provider diversity is an essential component of addressing disparity in health delivery and outcomes. The pool of students URiM that are competitive applicants to medical school is often limited early on by educational inequalities in primary and secondary schooling. A growing body of evidence recognizing the importance of diversifying health professions advances the need for medical schools to develop outreach collaborations with primary and secondary schools to attract URiMs. The goal of this paper is to describe and evaluate a program that seeks to create a pipeline for URiMs early in secondary schooling by connecting these students with support and resources in the medical community that may be transformative in empowering these students to be stronger university and medical school applicants. The authors described a medical student-led, action-oriented pipeline program, Doctors of Tomorrow, which connects faculty and medical students at the University of Michigan Medical School with 9th grade students at Cass Technical High School (Cass Tech) in Detroit, Michigan. The program includes a core curriculum of hands-on experiential learning, development, and presentation of a capstone project, and mentoring of 9th grade students by medical students. Cass Tech student feedback was collected using focus groups, critical incident written narratives, and individual interviews. Medical student feedback was collected reviewing monthly meeting minutes from the Doctors of Tomorrow medical student leadership. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Two strong themes emerged from the Cass Tech student feedback: (i) Personal identity and its perceived effect on goal achievement and (ii) positive affect of direct mentorship and engagement with current healthcare providers through Doctors of Tomorrow. A challenge noted by the medical students was the lack of structured curriculum beyond the 1st
Tucker, James B.; And Others
A survey of New York secondary schools showed that nearly 25 percent do not employ a physician to oversee medical coverage of football games. The authors suggest several ways to improve this much-needed coverage--not only to protect athletes but also to shield the administration from litigation. (JD)
Sep 1, 2013 ... SUMMARY. Objective: This study investigated the prevalence and incidence of Traditional (where a person in a position of power harasses a subordinate) and contra power sexual harassment, (where a subordinate is the harasser of authority figure) in medical schools in Ghana. among. Design: ...
Gadow, Kenneth D.
Intended as a primer for school personnel, the book discusses children whose various disorders require them to be on medication, and describes the behavioral effects of these drugs along with their major side effects. Fundamental concepts in pharmacotherapy are reviewed, including dosage adjustment and side effects, and a brief introduction to the…
Feminist scholarship has considered how pedagogical identities and emotions are implicated in the gender politics of belonging and othering in higher education. This paper examines how gendered and embodied pedagogy is mobilised in Greek medical schools to construct notions of the ideal academic and assert women's position women in Academic…
Mindell, Jodi A; Bartle, Alex; Wahab, Norrashidah Abd; Ahn, Youngmin; Ramamurthy, Mahesh Babu; Huong, Huynh Thi Duy; Kohyama, Jun; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Sekartini, Rini; Teng, Arthur; Goh, Daniel Y T
The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of education about sleep and sleep disorders in medical school education and to identify barriers to providing such education. Surveys were sent to 409 medical schools across 12 countries (Australia, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand, United States, Canada and Viet Nam). Overall, the response rate was 25.9%, ranging from 0% in some countries (India) to 100% in other countries (New Zealand and Singapore). Overall, the average amount of time spent on sleep education is just under 2.5h, with 27% responding that their medical school provides no sleep education. Three countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, and Viet Nam) provide no education, and only Australia and the United States/Canada provide more than 3h of education. Paediatric topics were covered for a mere 17 min compared to over 2h on adult-related topics. These results suggest that there continues to be very limited coverage of sleep in medical school education despite an incredible increase in acknowledgement of the importance of sleep and need for recognition of sleep disorders by physicians. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pindiprolu, Sekhar S.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed disorders among children today. Stimulants are commonly prescribed to children with ADHD to improve attention span and decrease distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Given the increased use of stimulant medication, school personnel need to be aware of…
Full Text Available Raihan Mohammed, Jamil Shah Foridi, Innocent OgunmwonyiFaculty of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UKAs clinical medical students, we read with great interest the perspective by Malik et al.1 Although medical schools excel at educating students on the pathology and treatment of diseases, we agree on the severe deficiency in teaching health policy (HP in the medical curriculum. However, the authors fail to include challenges facing this implementation, which is an important aspect of the analysis. Thus, here we outline 3 key barriers that must be considered when including HP teaching in the medical curricula.First, as the authors mention, the medical curriculum is already saturated and there is insufficient space to add obligatory HP learning in timetables. The UK curriculum is so packed that lecturers resort to teaching facts, which students then rote-learn and commit to memory. This leaves little time for students to develop a deep understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases and subsequent management, and they also fail to develop core lifelong skills, including problem solving and critical thinking.2 It is well acknowledged that the medical course is extremely rigorous, and up to 90% of students have admitted to suffering from stress and up to 75% have complained of burnout.3 With mental health issues among students reaching epidemic levels, adding HP lectures to the timetable would put undue strain on both the medical school curricula and the students.View the original article by Malik et al.
Thurston, Virginia Carol; Wales, Paula Sue; Bell, Mary Alice; Torbeck, Laura; Brokaw, James Joseph
Relatively little is known about how medical genetics is being taught in the undergraduate medical curriculum and whether educators concur regarding topical priority. This study sought to document the current state of medical genetics education in U.S. and Canadian accredited medical schools. In August 2004, surveys were sent from the Indiana University School of Medicine to 149 U.S. and Canadian medical genetics course directors or curricular deans. Returned surveys were collected through June 2005. Participants were asked about material covered, number of contact hours, year in which the course was offered, and what department sponsored the course. Data were collated according to instructional method and course content. The response rate was 75.2%. Most respondents (77%) taught medical genetics in the first year of medical school; only half (47%) reported that medical genetics was incorporated into the third and fourth years. About two thirds of respondents (62%) devoted 20 to 40 hours to medical genetics instruction, which was largely concerned with general concepts (86%) rather than practical application (11%). Forty-six percent of respondents reported teaching a stand-alone course versus 54% who integrated medical genetics into another course. Topics most commonly taught were cancer genetics (94.2%), multifactorial inheritance (91.3%), Mendelian disorders (90.3%), clinical cytogenetics (89.3%), and patterns of inheritance (87.4%). The findings provide important baseline data relative to guidelines recently established by the Association of American Medical Colleges. Ultimately, improved genetics curricula will help train physicians who are knowledgeable and comfortable discussing and answering questions about genetics with their patients.
Olsson, D.; Gericke, N.; Chang Rundgren, S.-N.
During the past decade, numerous schools in Sweden have implemented education for sustainable development (ESD) as an explicit guiding approach in teaching. In this paper, we investigate the effect of this approach in comparison with that of pupils taught in ordinary schools. Accordingly, we introduce the concept of sustainability consciousness to…
Rudberg, Lennart; Nilsson, Sten; Wikblad, Karin; Carlsson, Marianne
The purpose of this study was to investigate to what extent school nurses in Sweden inform adolescent men about testicular cancer (TC) and testicular self-examination (TSE). A questionnaire was completed by 129 school nurses from 29 randomly selected municipalities. All respondents were women, with a mean age of 42 years. The results showed that…
Kesternich, Iris; Schumacher, Heiner; Winter, Joachim; Fischer, Martin R; Holzer, Matthias
Objectives: A potential new avenue to address the shortage of country doctors is to change the rules for admission to medical school. We therefore study the link between high-school grade point average and prospective physicians' choice to work in rural areas. To further inform the discussion about rules for admission, we also study the effects of other predictors: a measure of students' attitudes towards risk; whether they waited for their place of study (Wartesemester); whether their parents worked as medical doctors; and whether they have some practical experience in the medical sector. Methods: We conducted two internet surveys in 2012 and 2014. In the first survey, the sample comprised 701 students and in the second, 474 students. In both surveys, we asked students for their regional preferences; in the 2014 survey, we additionally asked students for their first, second, and third preferences among a comprehensive set of specializations, including becoming a general practitioner. In both surveys, we asked students for basic demographic information (age and gender), their parents' occupation, a measure of subjective income expectations, a measure of risk attitudes, and their high-school grade point average (Abiturnote), and First National Boards Examination grade (Physikum). In 2014, we additionally asked for waiting periods (Wartesemester) as well as for prior professional experience in the health-care sector. Results: We find that three factors increase the probability of having a preference for working in a rural area significantly, holding constant all other influences: having a medical doctor among the parents, having worse grades in the high-school grade point average, and being more risk averse. Moreover, we find that those willing to work in the countryside have significantly more experience in the medical sector before admission to medical school. Discussion: Our results suggest that a change in the selection process for medical school may increase the
Batistatou, A; Doulis, E A; Tiniakos, D; Anogiannaki, A; Charalabopoulos, K
Medical humanities is a multidisciplinary field, consisting of humanities (theory of literature and arts, philosophy, ethics, history and theology), social sciences (anthropology, psychology and sociology) and arts (literature, theater, cinema, music and visual arts), integrated in the undergraduate curriculum of Medical schools. The aim of the present study is to discuss medical humanities and support the necessity of introduction of a medical humanities course in the curriculum of Greek medical schools. Through the relevant Pub-Med search as well as taking into account various curricula of medical schools, it is evident that medical education today is characterized by acquisition of knowledge and skills and development of medical values and attitudes. Clinical observation with the recognition of key data and patterns in the collected information, is crucial in the final medical decision, i.e. in the complex process, through which doctors accumulate data, reach conclusions and decide on therapy. All sciences included in medical humanities are important for the high quality education of future doctors. The practice of Medicine is in large an image-related science. The history of anatomy and art are closely related, already from the Renaissance time. Studies have shown that attendance of courses on art critics improves the observational skills of medical students. Literature is the source of information about the nature and source of human emotions and behavior and of narratives of illness, and increases imagination. Philosophy aids in the development of analytical and synthetical thinking. Teaching of history of medicine develops humility and aids in avoiding the repetition of mistakes of the past, and quite often raises research and therapeutic skepticism. The comprehension of medical ethics and professional deontology guides the patient-doctor relationship, as well as the relations between physicians and their colleagues. The Medical Humanities course, which is
van Tongeren-Alers, Margret; van Esch, Maartje; Verdonk, Petra; Johansson, Eva; Hamberg, Katarina; Lagro-Janssen, Toine
Female students currently outnumber male students in most medical schools. Some medical specialties are highly gender segregated. Therefore, it is interesting to know whether medical students have early specialization preferences based on their gender. Consequently, we like to know importance stipulated to motivational factors. Our study investigates new medical students' early specialization preferences and motivational factors. New students at a Dutch medical school (n = 657) filled in a questionnaire about specialty preferences (response rate = 94%; 69.5% female, 30.5% male). The students chose out of internal medicine, psychiatry, neurology, pediatrics, surgery, gynecology and family medicine, "other" or "I don't know." Finally, they valued ten motivational factors. Forty percent of the medical students reported no specialty preference yet. Taken together, female medical students preferred pediatrics and wished to combine work and care, whereas male students opted for surgery and valued career opportunities. Gender-driven professional preferences in new medical students should be noticed in order to use competencies. Changes in specialty preferences and motivational factors in pre- and post graduates should further assess the role of medical education.
Fando, R A
The article considers medical genetic studies carried out by S.G. Levit scientific School. The workers of the Medical biologic institute studied geographical prevalence of different forms of colorblindness, early canities and surdomutism. The hospital examination of twins was another direction of research studies of Levit School. The organization of the mentioned research was clear-cut planned. The groups of researchers were organized to study normal and pathologic characteristics. The special research program was developed. The institute permanently carried out active workshops and conferences, published scientific transactions. The consolidation of various specialists around the scientific school made it possible to resolve many inter-disciplinary problems in the field of inherent pathology.
Fox, Joshua; Faber, David; Pikarsky, Solomon; Zhang, Chi; Riley, Richard; Mechaber, Alex; O'Connell, Mark; Kirsner, Robert S
The flipped classroom module incorporates independent study in advance of in-class instructional sessions. It is unproven whether this methodology is effective within a medical school second-year organ system module. We report the development, implementation, and effectiveness of the flipped classroom methodology in a second-year medical student dermatology module at the University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine. In a retrospective cohort analysis, we compared attitudinal survey data and mean scores for a 50-item multiple-choice final examination of the second-year medical students who participated in this 1-week flipped course with those of the previous year's traditional, lecture-based course. Each group comprised nearly 200 students. Students' age, sex, Medical College Admission Test scores, and undergraduate grade point averages were comparable between the flipped and traditional classroom students. The flipped module students' mean final examination score of 92.71% ± 5.03% was greater than that of the traditional module students' 90.92% ± 5.51% ( P flipped methodology to attending live lectures or watching previously recorded lectures. The flipped classroom can be an effective instructional methodology for a medical school second-year organ system module.
In American medical schools, the period of time between the announcement of internships and graduation is known as FYBIGMI, for "Fuck You Brother I Got My Internship." At University Medical School (pseudonym), as at most American medical schools, this period culminates in an elaborate musical comedy (attended by faculty and relatives) in which faculty are abused, patients are represented in terms of stigmatized stereotypes, and the students demonstrate a profane familiarity with cultural taboos. Using the analytic methods of cultural anthropology, this examination of the FYBIGMI performance at U.M.S. focuses primarily on the seniors' presentation of their newly acquired professional identity, which is constituted in the skits by recurring oppositions to socially stigmatized, medically self-destructive patients. In this oppositional logic, racial stereotypes play a particularly large role. In addition, the seniors establish their new social status by inverting their relationship to their (former) supervisors on a personal basis, and by confronting the audience with their professional ability to treat cultural taboos with profane familiarity. The FYBIGMI theatrical, and its representation of professional identity, is analyzed in relation to a proposed model of the underlying structure of the process of medical education, that is, an escalating dialectic of intimidation and self-congratulation.
Khan, Aamer Zaman
To identify the non-academic attributes developed during 5 years of training in medical school. Sequential mixed method. The study was conducted on final year medical students of four medical colleges in the city of Lahore, from March to September 2010. Probability random sampling was employed to identify public sector medical colleges for inclusion in the study through Lottery method. In the first phase, survey was done with the help of questionnaires, distributed amongst 280 students, selected on the basis of convenience sampling. It was triangulated with data collected by in-depth structured interviews on 46 students selected using purposive sampling after formal informed consent. For quantitative data percentages of the categorical variables were calculated through SPSS version 10. For qualitative data, themes and patterns were identified using Content Analysis technique. Majority of the medical students (80%) learn the attributes of integrity, self-reliance, tolerance and independence during their schooling. Sixty five percent students thought that the values of humanity, forbearance, righteous attitude in face of adversities and sympathetic behaviour towards peers and patients helped them in being better medical students. Thirty five percent said they faced the negative influences of gender bias and gender discrimination which has led to their impaired professional growth. Eighty percent of the students believe that the teaching methodology employed is teacher centric which does not let them become problem solvers, team players, reflective learners and hampers development of effective communication skills. Medical schooling in our part of the world helps in developing untaught attributes such as integrity, selfreliance, tolerance, independence, sympathetic attitude and good communication skills which are the same as are developed in the medical students of advanced countries, which can be fostered further by formally addressing them in the curriculum.
Hardy, S P
Published histories of bacteriology concentrate on the scientific concepts, exemplified by Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch. Arguably, the early British bacteriological studies are headed by Lord Lister, whereas other notables such as Ronald Ross, Robert Bruce and Patrick Manson are honoured for their discoveries of 'tropical' microbes, accomplished abroad. What then was happening in Great Britain? The introduction of bacteriology into the medical school curriculum is examined according to the published lectures in The Lancet between 1889 and 1901 and the dates are reviewed in light of other published sources. The names of the people delivering bacteriology at the medical schools in Great Britain and Ireland provide a guide to the relevance of crediting Lister as the leading light for microbiology in the UK. The diversity of names and backgrounds suggests that a critical reassessment of the perceived late and limited start of UK medical bacteriology is needed.
Neeley, Brandon C; Golden, Daniel W; Brower, Jeffrey V; Braunstein, Steve E; Hirsch, Ariel E; Mattes, Malcolm D
Delivering a cohesive oncology curriculum to medical students is challenging due to oncology's multidisciplinary nature, predominantly outpatient clinical setting, and lack of data describing effective approaches to teaching it. We sought to better characterize approaches to oncology education at US medical schools by surveying third and fourth year medical students who serve on their institution's curriculum committee. We received responses from students at 19 schools (15.2% response rate). Key findings included the following: (1) an under-emphasis of cancer in the curriculum relative to other common diseases; (2) imbalanced involvement of different clinical subspecialists as educators; (3) infrequent requirements for students to rotate through non-surgical oncologic clerkships; and (4) students are less confident in their knowledge of cancer treatment compared to basic science/natural history or workup/diagnosis. Based on these findings, we provide several recommendations to achieve robust multidisciplinary curriculum design and implementation that better balances the clinical and classroom aspects of oncology education.
Hans O. Thulesius, MD, Ph.D.
Full Text Available On-the-job-ethics exist in all businesses and can also be called proximity morality forming. In this paper we propose that medical students take a proximity morality stance towards ethics education at medical school. This means that they want to form physician morality “on the job” instead of being taught ethics like any other subject. On-the-job-ethics for medical students involves learning ethics that is used when practicing ethics. Learning ethics includes comprehensive ethics courses in which quality lectures provide ethics grammar useful for the ethics practicing in attitude exercises and vignette reflections in tutored group discussions. On-the-job-ethics develops professional identity, handles diversity of religious and existential worldviews, trains students described as ethically naive, processes difficult clinical experiences, and desists negative role modeling from physicians in clinical or teaching situations. This grounded theory analysis was made from a questionnaire survey on attitudes to ethics education with 409 Swedish medical students participating. We analyzed over 8000 words of open-ended responses and multiplechoice questions using classic grounded theory procedures, but also compared questionnaire data using statistics such as multiple regression models. The paper gives an example of how grounded theory can be used with a limited amount of survey data.
Chertoff, Jason; Wright, Ashleigh; Novak, Maureen; Fantone, Joseph; Fleming, Amy; Ahmed, Toufeeq; Green, Marianne M; Kalet, Adina; Linsenmeyer, Machelle; Jacobs, Joshua; Dokter, Christina; Zaidi, Zareen
We sought to investigate the number of US medical schools utilizing portfolios, the format of portfolios, information technology (IT) innovations, purpose of portfolios and their ability to engage faculty and students. A 21-question survey regarding portfolios was sent to the 141 LCME-accredited, US medical schools. The response rate was 50% (71/141); 47% of respondents (33/71) reported that their medical school used portfolios in some form. Of those, 7% reported the use of paper-based portfolios and 76% use electronic portfolios. Forty-five percent reported portfolio use for formative evaluation only; 48% for both formative and summative evaluation, and 3% for summative evaluation alone. Seventy-two percent developed a longitudinal, competency-based portfolio. The most common feature of portfolios was reflective writing (79%). Seventy-three percent allow access to the portfolio off-campus, 58% allow usage of tablets and mobile devices, and 9% involve social media within the portfolio. Eighty percent and 69% agreed that the portfolio engaged students and faculty, respectively. Ninety-seven percent reported that the portfolios used at their institution have room for improvement. While there is significant variation in the purpose and structure of portfolios in the medical schools surveyed, most schools using portfolios reported a high level of engagement with students and faculty.
Green, Emily P; Borkan, Jeffrey M; Pross, Susan H; Adler, Shelley R; Nothnagle, Melissa; Parsonnet, Julie; Gruppuso, Philip A
Many medical curricula now include programs that provide students with opportunities for scholarship beyond that provided by their traditional, core curricula. These scholarly concentration (SC) programs vary greatly in focus and structure, but they share the goal of producing physicians with improved analytic, creative, and critical-thinking skills. In this article, the authors explore models of both required and elective SC programs. They gathered information through a review of medical school Web sites and direct contact with representatives of individual programs. Additionally, they discuss in-depth the SC programs of the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University; the University of South Florida College of Medicine; the University of California, San Francisco; and Stanford University School of Medicine. The authors describe each program's focus, participation, duration, centralization, capstone requirement, faculty involvement, and areas of concentration. Established to address a variety of challenges in the U.S. medical education system, these four programs provide an array of possible models for schools that are considering the establishment of an SC program. Although data on the impact of SC programs are lacking, the authors believe that this type of program has the potential to significantly impact the education of medical students through scholarly, in-depth inquiry and longitudinal faculty mentorship.
Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi
The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the "old" curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations.
Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet; Borneskog, Catrin; Eriksson, Mats; Tydén, Tanja
To investigate sexual behaviour and contraceptive use among first-year high school students in two Swedish cities in 2009, to compare male and female students, students in theoretical and vocational study programmes, and their sexual behaviour with that reported in 1979, 1989 and 1999. In a cluster sample of 20 classes, students (N = 387), median age 16 years, completed a questionnaire consisting of 46 questions. More girls than boys had experienced petting (p ≤ 0.003) and had received oral sex (p ≤ 0.01). More boys than girls had masturbated (p ≤ 0.0001) and watched pornography (p ≤ 0.0001). The median age at first sexual intercourse was 15 years. Students in vocational programmes were more sexually experienced compared to their theoretical peers. The proportion of students having had sexual intercourse (p ≤ 0.0002), and contraceptive use at first (p ≤ 0.0001) and latest (p ≤ 0.0001) sexual intercourse increased from 1979 to 2009. Alcohol use at first intercourse decreased over the period (p ≤ 0.0001). Girls were more sexually experienced than boys, as were students in vocational programmes compared to their theoretical peers; this should be considered when tailoring sex education and counselling. Over time, an increase in students having had sexual intercourse, and contraceptive use at first and latest sexual intercourse was found.
Adolescent interethnic friendship is an important indicator of social cohesion in multi-ethnic societies. Therefore, this dissertation examines individual, network, and contextual explanations for ethnic segregation in adolescent friendship networks in school classes. More specifically, the
Lena K. Hedendahl
Full Text Available IntroductionWireless access to the Internet is now commonly used in schools. Many schools give each student their own laptop and utilize the laptops and wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi connection for educational purposes. Most children also bring their own mobile phones to school. Since children are obliged by law to attend school, a safe environment is important. Lately, it has been discussed if radiofrequency (RF radiation can have long-term adverse effects on children’s health.MethodThis study conducted exposimetric measurements in schools to assess RF emissions in the classroom by measuring the teachers’ RF exposure in order to approximate the children’s exposure. Teachers in grades 7–12 carried a body-borne exposimeter, EME-Spy 200, in school during 1–4 days of work. The exposimeter can measure 20 different frequency bands from 87 to 5,850 MHz.ResultsEighteen teachers from seven schools participated. The mean exposure to RF radiation ranged from 1.1 to 66.1 µW/m2. The highest mean level, 396.6 µW/m2, occurred during 5 min of a lesson when the teacher let the students stream and watch YouTube videos. Maximum peaks went up to 82,857 µW/m2 from mobile phone uplink.DiscussionOur measurements are in line with recent exposure studies in schools in other countries. The exposure levels varied between the different Wi-Fi systems, and if the students were allowed to use their own smartphones on the school’s Wi-Fi network or if they were connected to GSM/3G/4G base stations outside the school. An access point over the teacher’s head gave higher exposure compared with a school with a wired Internet connection for the teacher in the classroom. All values were far below International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection’s reference values, but most mean levels measured were above the precautionary target level of 3–6 µW/m2 as proposed by the Bioinitiative Report. The length of time wireless devices are used is an
Garmy, Pernilla; Clausson, Eva K; Nyberg, Per; Jakobsson, Ulf
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents (6-16 years), and relationships between being overweight and sleep, experiencing of fatigue, enjoyment of school, and time spent in watching television and in sitting at the computer. Trained school nurses measured the weight and height of 2891 children aged 6, 7, 10, 14, and 16, and distributed a questionnaire to them regarding television and computer habits, sleep, and enjoyment of school. Overweight, obesity included, was present in 16.1% of the study population. Relationships between lifestyle factors and overweight were studied using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Having a bedroom television and spending more than 2 h a day watching television were found to be associated with overweight (OR 1.26 and 1.55 respectively). No association was found between overweight and time spent at the computer, short sleep duration, enjoyment of school, tiredness at school, or difficulties in sleeping and waking up. It is recommended that the school health service discuss with pupils their media habits so as to promote their maintaining a healthy lifestyle. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Daugherty, R M
The magnitude and pace of change in the health care environment demand that medical schools change. Leading in a time of great change is difficult, and it is ironic that just when stability in leadership is most needed, the average tenure of deans is dropping. Indeed, the path to leadership in academic medicine is strewn with inherent ironies, paradoxes, and idiosyncrasies. For example, few people who become leaders in academic medicine aspire to, plan for, or seek training for leadership, yet leadership skills are essential to meet today's complex institutional demands. Also, most medical school deans were once medical students, and were selected and trained to be assertive, independent physicians, not to collaborate. For faculty, the medical school environment traditionally values individual autonomy and rewards individual achievement, not behavior that supports a larger community interest. Yet today's deans must be skilled at collaborative behavior, since they must have a vision for their schools and find ways to offer direction to the faculty and others to realize that vision. The author offers ideas about leadership and its development, and stresses that good leaders must above all curtail their egos in order to do what is best for their institutions. What a dean does as an individual is not nearly as important as what a dean enables others to do. The author also provides a checklist of dean's characteristics and responsibilities to help deans-to-be understand the job and current deans to think about how to succeed and thrive. He concluded by reiterating that the culture of individual faculty success based on individual entrepreneurism is passé. To operate in the new collaborative culture, today's successful dean must meld persuasion with educational statesmanship, always informed by a vision of how the school can prosper and serve.
The Universidad Austral de Chile Medical School was created in 1966. Its general goal was to train a general physician with capacities to integrate biological, psychological and social issues, to deal with prevalent diseases as well as with the non referable casualties, to analyze health situations and to manage health teams. From its beginning, it incorporated anthropological and the public health contents to medical curriculum. Moreover, the formal teaching formation was reduced to 5 years, increasing the internship cycle to 2 years, with an important practice on primary health care in regional hospitals, that included a research project on health administration. A revision of the School curriculum showed the need of a better horizontal and vertical integration of medical education. Consequently, global courses were organized to gather knowledge that, until now, was delivered in a fragmented form. Our Medical School has a major impact in the southern region of the country and over 60% of its graduates have settled in this zone, improving its physician/inhabitant relationship and the number of specialists.
Coria, Alexandra; McKelvey, T Greg; Charlton, Paul; Woodworth, Michael; Lahey, Timothy
The acquisition of skills to recognize and redress adverse social determinants of disease is an important component of undergraduate medical education. In this article, the authors justify and define "social justice curriculum" and then describe the medical school social justice curriculum designed by the multidisciplinary Social Justice Vertical Integration Group (SJVIG) at the Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth. The SJVIG addressed five goals: (1) to define core competencies in social justice education, (2) to identify key topics that a social justice curriculum should cover, (3) to assess social justice curricula at other institutions, (4) to catalog institutionally affiliated community outreach sites at which teaching could be paired with hands-on service work, and (5) to provide examples of the integration of social justice teaching into the core (i.e., basic science) curriculum. The SJVIG felt a social justice curriculum should cover the scope of health disparities, reasons to address health disparities, and means of addressing these disparities. The group recommended competency-based student evaluations and advocated assessing the impact of medical students' social justice work on communities. The group identified the use of class discussion of physicians' obligation to participate in social justice work as an educational tool, and they emphasized the importance of a mandatory, longitudinal, immersive, mentored community outreach practicum. Faculty and administrators are implementing these changes as part of an overall curriculum redesign (2012-2015). A well-designed medical school social justice curriculum should improve student recognition and rectification of adverse social determinants of disease.
Chur-Hansen, Anna; Carr, John E; Bundy, Christine; Sanchez-Sosa, Juan Jose; Tapanya, Sombat; Wahass, Saeed H
The behavioral sciences are taught in medical curricula around the world. In the current paper psychologists teaching in medical schools in Australia, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Thailand, the United Kingdom and the United States share their experience and reflections. Whilst direct comparisons between countries are not made, the themes that are evident within and between accounts are instructive. As behavioral scientists around the globe are struggling to maintain a presence in medical education many of the reasons behind this are shared, regardless of the country. Challenges discussed include those related to the impact of unrealized potential contributions of psychologists as health care professionals, teaching of behavioral sciences by other professions, domination of the biomedical model without a corresponding recognition of psychology as science, and modern medical pedagogies such as problem-based learning, which favor biomedicine. Systemic and political barriers over which we as a discipline may have little control are also highlighted.
Bruns, Florian; Chelouche, Tessa
Nazi medicine and its atrocities have been explored in depth over the past few decades, but scholars have started to examine medical ethics under Nazism only in recent years. Given the medical crimes and immoral conduct of physicians during the Third Reich, it is often assumed that Nazi medical authorities spurned ethics. However, in 1939, Germany introduced mandatory lectures on ethics as part of the medical curriculum. Course catalogs and archival sources show that lectures on ethics were an integral part of the medical curriculum in Germany between 1939 and 1945. Nazi officials established lecturer positions for the new subject area, named Medical Law and Professional Studies, at every medical school. The appointed lecturers were mostly early members of the Nazi Party and imparted Nazi political and moral values in their teaching. These values included the unequal worth of human beings, the moral imperative of preserving a pure Aryan people, the authoritarian role of the physician, the individual's obligation to stay healthy, and the priority of public health over individual-patient care. This article shows that there existed not only a Nazi version of medical ethics but also a systematic teaching of such ethics to students in Nazi Germany. The findings illustrate that, from a historical point of view, the notion of "eternal values" that are inherent to the medical profession is questionable. Rather, the prevailing medical ethos can be strongly determined by politics and the zeitgeist and therefore has to be repeatedly negotiated.
L.C. Urlings-Strop (Louise); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel); K.M. Stegers-Jager (Karen)
textabstractSeveral medical schools include candidates’ extracurricular activities in their selection procedure, with promising results regarding their predictive value for achievement during the clinical years of medical school. This study aims to reveal whether the better achievement in clinical
Brooks, Lucy; Bell, Dominic
To evaluate the UK undergraduate medical ethics curricula against the Institute of Medical Ethics (IME) recommendations; to identify barriers to teaching and assessment of medical ethics and to evaluate perceptions of ethics faculties on the preparation of tomorrow's doctors for clinical practice. Questionnaire survey of the UK medical schools enquiring about content, structure and location of ethics teaching and learning; teaching and learning processes; assessment; influences over institutional approach to ethics education; barriers to teaching and assessment; perception of student engagement and perception of student preparation for clinical practice. The lead for medical ethics at each medical school was invited to participate (n=33). Completed responses were received from 11/33 schools (33%). 73% (n=8) teach all IME recommended topics within their programme. 64% (n=7) do not include ethics in clinical placement learning objectives. The most frequently cited barrier to teaching was lack of time (64%, n=7), and to assessment was lack of time and suitability of assessments (27%, n=3). All faculty felt students were prepared for clinical practice. IME recommendations are not followed in all cases, and ethics teaching is not universally well integrated into clinical placement. Barriers to assessment lead to inadequacies in this area, and there are few consequences for failing ethics assessments. As such, tomorrow's patients will be treated by doctors who are inadequately prepared for ethical decision making in clinical practice; this needs to be addressed by ethics leads with support from medical school authorities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Wright, William S; Baston, Kirk
The National Board of Medical Examiners® (NBME) Comprehensive Basic Science Exam (CBSE) is a subject exam offered to US medical schools, where it has been used for external validation of student preparedness for the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE) Step 1 in new schools and schools undergoing curricular reform. Information regarding the actual use of the NBME CBSE is limited. Therefore, the aim of the survey was to determine the scope and utilization of the NBME CBSE by US medical schools. A survey was sent in May 2016 to curriculum leadership of the 139 US medical schools listed on the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME®) website with provisional or full accreditation as of February 29, 2016. Responses were received from 53 schools (38% response rate). A series of different follow-up questions were asked if respondents stated "yes" or "no" to the initial question "Does your institution administer the NBME CBSE prior to the USMLE Step 1?". A total of 37 schools (70%) administered the NBME CBSE. In all, 36 of the 37 schools responded to follow-up questions. Of 36 schools, 13 schools (36%) used the NBME CBSE for curriculum modification. Six schools (17%) used the NBME CBSE for formative assessment for a course, and five schools (14%) used the NBME CBSE for summative assessment for a course. A total of 28 schools (78%) used the NBME CBSE for identifying students performing below expectations and providing targeted intervention strategies. In all, 24 schools (67%) of the 36 responding schools administering the NBME CBSE administered the test once prior to the administration of the USMLE Step 1, whereas 10 (28%) schools administered the NBME CBSE two or more times prior to the administration of the USMLE Step 1. Our data suggest that the NBME CBSE is administered by many US medical schools. However, the objective, timing, and number of exams administered vary greatly among schools.
Full Text Available Introduction: Physicians have to visit, diagnose and refer patients with genetic disorders, so they need to be familiar with the basics and indications of genetic tests. In other words, they should have effective theoretical and practical knowledge about medical genetics before they do their job. Medical genetics courses at Medical Universities of Iran are generally presented as a theoretical subject in the first period of medical education. Methods: In this descriptive research, the results of interviews with teachers of medical genetics in 30 medical schools in Islamic Republic of Iran and responses to a questionnaire by 125 medical students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of medical sciences, about presentation time, curricula and also efficacy of medical genetics courses were analyzed. The interviews with teachers were done on phone and the students’ comments were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire. The data were analyzed, using SPSS software, version 14. Results: In two thirds of medical universities, medical genetics is taught in the third or fourth semester and in 5 universities in the fifth semester. 86% of the students believed that the quality of genetics courses is moderate and such courses are same as clinical manifestation of genetic disorders are benefitial to medical students. Conclusion: This article suggests that medical genetics be offered in the second or third period of medical education (physiopathology or stagger period. Furthermore, in teaching such courses advanced educational methods (animation presentation, case-based learning, problem-based learning, etc. should be used, together with simple genetic tests in laboratories, the visit of genetic patients in hospitals, and the genetics consult.
Zhang, Ming-ya; Wang, Guang; Cheng, Xin; Yang, Xuesong
A great number of overseas students have studied medicine at Jinan University Medical School over the past decade. Statistics from the past ten years show that these students' test scores on diagnosis and medicine I & II are lower than those of their classmates from mainland China. To address the underlying causes of this phenomenon, we…
Commander, Clayton W; Pabon-Ramos, Waleska M; Isaacson, Ari J; Yu, Hyeon; Burke, Charles T; Dixon, Robert G
To determine if there was a difference in the level of knowledge about interventional radiology (IR) between medical students in preclinical years of training compared with medical students in clinical years of training at two medical schools and to compare awareness of IR based on the curriculum at each school: one with required radiology education and one without such a requirement. An anonymous survey was distributed to students at two medical schools; the survey assessed knowledge of IR, knowledge of training pathways, and preferred methods to increase exposure. Responses of the preclinical and clinical groups were compared, and responses from the clinical groups at each school were compared. "Poor" or "fair" knowledge of IR was reported by 84% (n = 217 of 259) of preclinical students compared with 62% of clinical students (n = 110 of 177; P lack of knowledge" (65%, n = 136 of 210 preclinical; 20%, n = 32 of 162 clinical). Students in the clinical group at the institution with a required radiology rotation reported significantly better knowledge of IR than clinical students from the institution without a required clerkship (P = .017). There are significant differences in knowledge of IR between preclinical and clinical students. Required radiology education in the clinical years does increase awareness of IR. Copyright © 2014 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Grbic, Douglas; Jones, David J; Case, Steven T
Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts educational opportunities and outcomes which explains, in part, why the majority of medical students come from the upper two quintiles of family income. A two-factor SES indicator based on parental education (E) and occupation (O) has recently been established by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). This study validates this two-factor indicator as applicable to the national pool of medical school applicants. The AAMC SES EO indicator classifies applicants into five ordered groups (EO-1 through EO-5) based on four aggregated categories of parental education and two aggregated categories of occupation. The EO indicator was applied to the 2012 American Medical College Application Service applicant pool. The authors examined the associations that the EO category had with six additional and independent indicators of socioeconomic (dis)advantage, as well as with demographic and educational characteristics and life experiences. The EO indicator could be applied to 89% of the 2012 applicants. The lower the EO category, the stronger the association with each of the six indicators of socioeconomic disadvantage. Other notable, but weaker, associations with the EO indicator were differences by age, race/ethnicity, performance on the Medical College Admission Test, community college attendance, and certain self-reported life experiences. The EO indicator provides a simple, intuitive, widely applicable, and valid means for identifying applicants from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds. This affords admissions committees an additional factor to consider during the holistic review of applicants in order to further diversify the medical school class.
Schweller, Marcelo; Costa, Felipe Osorio; Antônio, Maria Ângela R G M; Amaral, Eliana M; de Carvalho-Filho, Marco Antonio
To examine the impact of simulated medical consultations using standardized patients (SPs) on the empathy levels of fourth- and sixth-year students at the Unicamp medical school in Brazil. Throughout 2011 and 2012, the authors conducted this study with two classes of fourth-year (n = 124) and two classes of sixth-year (n = 123) medical students. Students completed the medical student version of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy before and after simulated medical consultations with SPs, followed by an in-depth debriefing dealing with the feelings of the patient about the disease, such as fear, guilt, anger, and abandonment; the feelings of the doctor towards the patient; and other topics as they arose. The simulation activity increased the empathy scores of the fourth-year students (from 115.8 to 121.1, P students (from 117.1 to 123.5, P consultations with SPs may improve medical students' empathy levels. One unexpected result was that this activity, during the debriefing, became a forum for debating topics such as the doctor-patient relationship, the hidden curriculum, negative role models, and emotionally significant experiences of students in medical school. This kind of activity in itself may influence young doctors to become more empathetic and compassionate with their patients and foster a more meaningful way of practicing medicine.
Jacque, Berri; Malanson, Katherine; Bateman, Kathleen; Akeson, Bob; Cail, Amanda; Doss, Chris; Dugan, Matt; Finegold, Brandon; Gauthier, Aimee; Galego, Mike; Roundtree, Eugene; Spezzano, Lawrence; Meiri, Karina F
Medical schools, although the gatekeepers of much biomedical education and research, rarely engage formally with K-12 educators to influence curriculum content or professional development. This segregation of content experts from teachers creates a knowledge gap that limits inclusion of current biomedical science into high school curricula, affecting both public health literacy and the biomedical pipeline. The authors describe how, in 2009, scientists from Tufts Medical School and Boston public school teachers established a partnership of formal scholarly dialogue to create 11th- to 12th-grade high school curricula about critical health-related concepts, with the goal of increasing scientific literacy and influencing health-related decisions. The curricula are based on the great diseases (infectious diseases, neurological disorders, metabolic disease, and cancer). Unlike most health science curricular interventions that provide circumscribed activities, the curricula are comprehensive, each filling one full term of in-class learning and providing extensive real-time support for the teacher. In this article, the authors describe how they developed and implemented the infectious disease curriculum, and its impacts. The high school teachers and students showed robust gains in content knowledge and critical thinking skills, whereas the Tufts scientists increased their pedagogical knowledge and appreciation for health-related science communication. The results show how formal interactions between medical schools and K-12 educators can be mutually beneficial.
William S Wright,1 Kirk Baston2 1Department of Biomedical Sciences, 2Department of Pathology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine Greenville, Greenville, SC, USA Purpose: The National Board of Medical Examiners® (NBME) Comprehensive Basic Science Exam (CBSE) is a subject exam offered to US medical schools, where it has been used for external validation of student preparedness for the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE) Step 1 in new schools and sch...
Huang, Lei; Cai, Qiaoling; Cheng, Liming; Kosik, Russell; Mandell, Greg; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Xu, Guo-Tong; Fan, Angela P
A comprehensive search of the literature published between 2001 and 2010 was performed to gain a greater understanding of curricular reform practices at Chinese medical schools. There were 10,948 studies published between 2001 and 2010 that were retrieved from the database. Following preliminary screening, 76 publications from 49 different medical schools were selected. Thirty-one publications regarding clinical medicine curricular reforms were analyzed further. Of the 76 studies, 53 described curricular reforms that were instituted in theoretical courses, 22 described curricular reforms that were instituted in experimental courses, and 1 described curricular reforms that were instituted in a clinical skills training course. Of the 31 clinical medicine publications, 2 described reforms that were implemented for 3-year program medical students, 12 described reforms that were implemented for 5-year program medical students, 6 described reforms that were implemented for 7-year program medical students, and 2 described reforms that were implemented for 8-year program medical students. Currently, the majority of medical schools in China use the discipline-based curriculum model. Thirteen studies described transition to an organ-system-based curriculum model, 1 study described transition to a problem-based curriculum model, and 3 studies described transition to a clinical presentation-based curriculum model. In 7 studies educators decided to retain the discipline-based curriculum model while integrating 1 or several new courses to remedy the weaker aspects of the traditional curriculum, in 7 studies educators decided to integrate the preclinical courses with the clinical courses by using the systemic-integrating curricular system that dilutes classical disciplines and integrates material based on organ systems, and in 2 studies educators limited reforms to clinical courses only. Eight studies discussed the implementation of a formative evaluation system, 4 studies
Ng, C L; Tambyah, P A; Wong, C Y
Medical tuition fees have been rising in many countries, including in Singapore. No formal study has been conducted to evaluate the financial situation of medical students in relation to the cost of medical education in Singapore. This study was conducted to determine the financial profile of Singaporean medical students and the financial expenses they incur over the five-year duration of their undergraduate medical course. A questionnaire study was conducted among Year one to Year five medical students in the Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore. The following quantifiable parameters were analysed: monthly household income, financial assistance, monthly allowances and expenses. 64.3 percent (735) of the 1,143 undergraduates completed the survey. 21.9 percent came from families with a monthly income of less than S$3,000, with another 26.2 percent from families with monthly incomes of S$3,000-S$5,000. The total tuition fees for a five-year medical course amounted to S$87,450. The average annual expenditure of medical students amounted to S$4,470. 31.1 percent of respondents were on loans. 14.6 percent received scholarships or bursaries. A five-year medical course can cost more than S$100,000 and pose a significant financial burden for students. The proportion of students who came from lower-income families was lower in medical school than at the national level, while the proportion from high-income families was significantly higher than at the national level. A significant proportion of students took loans to pay for tuition, and a smaller percentage was under scholarships and bursaries. More substantial financial assistance is required, particularly for students from lower-income families.
This report surveys the various provisions made by the Swedish government to protect and insure the rights of its children. Topics discussed include: the legal status of children born in or out of wedlock; custody and guardianship, economic status of the child (children's allowances, social insurance, maternity benefits, inheritance); the child at…
Malmqvist, Johan; Nilholm, Claes
The neuropsychiatric paradigm has substantial impact on schools. The increase in the number of pupils being diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an expression of the medicalisation of deviance. There is also an increase in educational classes specially designed to meet the needs of children with ADHD. This is contrary…
Bardes, Charles L; Best, Peggy Carey; Kremer, Sara J; Dienstag, Jules L
Medical schools use a variety of criteria in selecting applicants for admission, attempting to assess both the academic preparation and the personal characteristics suitable for a career in medicine. While assessing academic preparation is fairly straightforward, assessing applicants' personal characteristics is difficult and controversial. The possibility of implementing standardized testing of personal characteristics, so-called "noncognitive testing," has been proposed as part of the admissions process. Such a proposal, however, raises numerous questions about the validity, fairness, and cost of such testing and the impact of commercial test-preparation services on test performance and reliability. Therefore, before noncognitive testing is adopted for screening applicants to medical school, open discussion among all stakeholders in the admissions process is critically important.
Gangata, Hope; Ntaba, Phatheka; Akol, Princess; Louw, Graham
The study of gross Anatomy through the use of cadaveric dissections in medical schools is an essential part of the comprehensive learning of human Anatomy, and unsurprisingly, 90% of the surveyed medical schools in Africa used cadaveric dissections. Donated cadavers now make up 80% of the total cadavers in North American medical schools and all…
Park, H W
Kwang Hye Won(Je Joong Won), the first western hospital in Korea, was founded in 1885. The first western Medical School in Korea was open in 1886 under the hospital management. Dr. O. R. Avison, who came to Korea in 1893, resumed the medical education there, which was interrupted for some time before his arrival in Korea. He inaugurated translating and publishing medical textbooks with the help of Kim Pil Soon who later became one of the first seven graduates in Severance Hospital Medical School. The first western medical textbook translated into Korean was Henry Gray's Anatomy. However, these twice-translated manuscripts were never to be published on account of being lost and burnt down. The existing early anatomy textbooks, the editions of 1906 and 1909, are not the translation of Gray's Anatomy, but that of Japanese anatomy textbook of Gonda. The remaining oldest medical textbook in Korean is Inorganic Materia Medica published in 1905. This book is unique among its kind that O. R. Avison is the only translator of the book and it contains the prefaces of O. R. Avison and Kim Pil Soon. The publication of medical textbook was animated by the participation of other medical students, such as Hong Suk Hoo and Hong Jong Eun. The list of medical textbooks published includes almost all the field of medicine. The medical textbooks in actual existence are as follows: Inorganic Materia Medica (1905), Inorganic Chemistry (1906), Anatomy I (1906), Physiology (1906), Diagnostics I (1906), Diagnostics II (1907), Obstetrics (1908), Organic Chemistry (1909), Anatomy (1909), and Surgery (1910).
Sen Gupta, T K; Hays, R B; Kelly, G; Buettner, P G
As medical education becomes more decentralised, and greater use is made of rural clinical schools and other dispersed sites, attention is being paid to the quality of the learning experiences across these sites. This article explores this issue by analysing the performance data of 4 cohorts of students in a dispersed clinical school model across 4 sites. The study is set in a newly established medical school in a regional area with a model of dispersed education, using data from the second to fifth cohorts to graduate from this school. Summative assessment results of 4 graduating cohorts were examined over the final 2 years of the course. Two analyses were conducted: an analysis of variance of mean scores in both years across the 4 sites; and an analysis of the effect of moving to different clinical schools on the students' rank order of performance by use of the Kruskal-Wallis test. Analysis revealed no significant difference in the mean scores of the students studying at each site, and no significant differences overall in the median ranking across the years. Some small changes in the relative ranking of students were noticed, and workplace-based assessment scores in the final year were higher than the examination-based scores in the previous year. The choice of clinical school site for the final 2 years of an undergraduate rural medical school appears to have no effect on mean assessment scores and only a minor effect on the rank order of student scores. Workplace-based assessment produces higher scores but also has little effect on student rank order. Further studies are necessary to replicate these findings in other settings and demonstrate that student learning experiences in rural sites, while popular with students, translate into required learning outcomes, as measured by summative assessments.
Maria Cristina Pereira Lima
The students’ relationships with one another and their teachers can become difficult at different times. However, entrance into the university seems to be a particularly tense moment, due to the hazing suffered this stage of their academic lives. This study presents a review of the literature on the hazing, especially that have happen in medical schools, trying to identify the characteristics and maintaining factors of those ritual. In parallel, constructs a metaphor of the vampire myth, prop...
Schweller, Marcelo; Costa, Felipe Osorio; Antônio, Maria Ângela R.G.M.; Amaral, Eliana M.
Purpose To examine the impact of simulated medical consultations using standardized patients (SPs) on the empathy levels of fourth- and sixth-year students at the Unicamp medical school in Brazil. Method Throughout 2011 and 2012, the authors conducted this study with two classes of fourth-year (n = 124) and two classes of sixth-year (n = 123) medical students. Students completed the medical student version of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy before and after simulated medical consultations with SPs, followed by an in-depth debriefing dealing with the feelings of the patient about the disease, such as fear, guilt, anger, and abandonment; the feelings of the doctor towards the patient; and other topics as they arose. Results The simulation activity increased the empathy scores of the fourth-year students (from 115.8 to 121.1, P empathy levels. One unexpected result was that this activity, during the debriefing, became a forum for debating topics such as the doctor–patient relationship, the hidden curriculum, negative role models, and emotionally significant experiences of students in medical school. This kind of activity in itself may influence young doctors to become more empathetic and compassionate with their patients and foster a more meaningful way of practicing medicine. PMID:24556779
Quinlivan, Julie A; Lam, Lawrence T; Wan, Siu hong; Petersen, Rodney W
To evaluate whether the four criteria used by the University of Notre Dame Australia (UNDA) to select medical students are successful in selecting for graduates with the desired outcomes of academic excellence and Catholic "mission fit". Prospective cohort study of medical students selected for 2008 and 2009 entry to UNDA in Sydney, New South Wales. The statistical association between the two academic selection criteria of the Graduate Australian Medical School Admissions Test (GAMSAT) and grade point average (GPA) compared with the outcome of medical school examination performance, and the two mission selection criteria of a portfolio score and interview score compared with the outcome of a positive attitude towards serving underserved communities as measured using the Medical Student Attitudes Toward the Underserved (MSATU) test. A total of 223 students were enrolled. GAMSAT section 3, GPA and the interview scores were significantly positively associated with academic performance (P attitude towards serving underserved communities, as measured by the MSATU score. None of the four selection tools used were significantly associated with medical students who had a positive attitude towards serving underserved communities.
Reutzel, Thomas J.; Desai, Archana; Workman, Gloria; Atkin, John A.; Grady, Sarah; Todd, Timothy; Nguyen, Nhu; Watkins, Melissa; Tran, Kim; Liu, Nian; Rafinski, Michelle; Dang, Thanh
An increasing number of students are taking medications while they are in school or are under the influence of medication during school hours. In a novel effort, clinical pharmacists and mental health therapists worked together to provide "mini-in-service" educational programs on psychological disorders and medications used to treat…
Mubuuke, Aloysius Gonzaga; Mwesigwa, Catherine; Maling, Samuel; Rukundo, Godfrey; Kagawa, Mike; Kitara, David Lagoro; Kiguli, Sarah
Health professions education is gradually moving away from the more traditional approaches to new innovative ways of training aimed at producing professionals with the necessary competencies to address the community health needs. In response to these emerging trends, Medical Education for Equitable Services to All Ugandans (MESAU), a consortium of Ugandan medical schools developed key competencies desirable of graduates and successfully implemented Competency Based Education (CBE) for undergraduate medical students. To examine the current situation and establish whether assessment methods of the competencies are standardized across MESAU schools as well as establish the challenges, opportunities and lessons learned from the MESAU consortium. It was a cross-sectional descriptive study involving faculty of the medical schools in Uganda. Data was collected using focus group discussions and document reviews. Findings were presented in form of themes. Although the MESAU schools have implemented the developed competencies within their curricular, the assessment methods are still not standardized with each institution having its own assessment procedures. Lack of knowledge and skills regarding assessment of the competencies was evident amongst the faculty. The fear for change amongst lecturers was also noted as a major challenge. However, the institutional collaboration created while developing competencies was identified as key strength. Findings demonstrated that despite having common competencies, there is no standardized assessment blue print applicable to all MESAU schools. Continued collaboration and faculty development in assessment is strongly recommended.
Oda, Yasutomo; Koizumi, Shunzo
In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL) is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums) to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors). Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum) is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including "silent tutors" and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan.
Full Text Available In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors. Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including “silent tutors” and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan.
O'Ferrall, Ilse; Hoare, Samuel; Caroline, Bulsara; Mak, Donna B.
Objectives This study explores how medical graduates and their workplace supervisors perceive the value of a structured clinical audit program (CAP) undertaken during medical school. Methods Medical students at the University of Notre Dame Fremantle complete a structured clinical audit program in their final year of medical school. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 Notre Dame graduates (who had all completed the CAP), and seven workplace supervisors (quality and safety staff and clinical supervisors). Purposeful sampling was used to recruit participants and data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Both graduates and workplace supervisors perceived the CAP to be valuable. A major theme was that the CAP made a contribution to individual graduate’s medical practice, including improved knowledge in some areas of patient care as well as awareness of healthcare systems issues and preparedness to undertake scientifically rigorous quality improvement activities. Graduates perceived that as a result of the CAP, they were confident in undertaking a clinical audit after graduation. Workplace supervisors perceived the value of the CAP beyond an educational experience and felt that the audits undertaken by students improved quality and safety of patient care. Conclusions It is vital that health professionals, including medical graduates, be able to carry out quality and safety activities in the workplace. This study provides evidence that completing a structured clinical audit during medical school prepares graduates to undertake quality and safety activities upon workplace entry. Other health professional faculties may be interested in incorporating a similar program in their curricula. PMID:28692425
Full Text Available Funmilayo Eniola Olopade,1 Oluwatosin Adekunle Adaramoye,2 Yinusa Raji,3 Abiodun Olubayo Fasola,4 Emiola Oluwabunmi Olapade-Olaopa5 1Department of Anatomy, 2Department of Biochemistry, 3Department of Physiology, 4Department of Oral Pathology, 5Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria Abstract: The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the “old” curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula
Gottvall, Maria; Stenhammar, Christina; Grandahl, Maria
Objective: To explore parents' views of extending the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme to also include boys. Design: Explorative qualitative design using individual, face-to-face, interviews and inductive thematic analysis. Setting: 11 strategically chosen municipalities in central Sweden. Participants: Parents (n= 42) who were offered HPV vaccination for their 11-12 years old daughter in the national school-based vaccination programme. Results: The key themes were: equality f...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Today, there is a trend towards establishing the medical humanities as a component of medical education. However, medical humanities programs that exist within the context of a medical school can be problematic. The aim of this study was to explore problems that can arise with the establishment of a medical humanities curriculum in a medical school program. Methods Our theoretical approach in this study is informed by derridean deconstruction and by post-structuralist analysis. We examined the ideology of the Humanities and Medicine program at Lund University, Sweden, the practical implementation of the program, and how ideology and practice corresponded. Examination of the ideology driving the humanities and medicine program was based on a critical reading of all available written material concerning the Humanities and Medicine project. The practice of the program was examined by means of a participatory observation study of one course, and by in-depth interviews with five students who participated in the course. Data was analysed using a hermeneutic editing approach. Results The ideological language used to describe the program calls it an interdisciplinary learning environment but at the same time shows that the conditions of the program are established by the medical faculty's agenda. In practice, the "humanities" are constructed, defined and used within a medical frame of reference. Medical students have interesting discussions, acquire concepts and enjoy the program. But they come away lacking theoretical structure to understand what they have learned. There is no place for humanities students in the program. Conclusion A challenge facing cross-disciplinary programs is creating an environment where the disciplines have equal standing and contribution.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Learning environment in any medical school is found to be important in determining students' academic success. This study was undertaken to compare the perceptions of first year and clinical phase students regarding the learning environment at Melaka Manipal Medical College (MMMC (Manipal Campus and also to identify the gender wise differences in their perceptions. Methods In the present study, the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM inventory was used. DREEM was originally developed at Dundee and has been validated as a universal diagnostic inventory for assessing the quality of educational environment. In the present study, DREEM was administered to undergraduate medical students of first year (n = 118 and clinical phase (n = 108 and the scores were compared using a nonparametric test. Results Among the two batches, first year students were found to be more satisfied with the learning environment at MMMC (as indicated by their higher DREEM score compared to the clinical batch students. Gender wise, there was not much difference in the students' perceptions. Conclusion The present study revealed that both groups of students perceived the learning environment positively. Nevertheless, the study also revealed problematic areas of learning environment in our medical school which enabled us to adopt some remedial measures.
Villavicencio, J Leonel; Merrill, Daniel M; Rich, Norman M
It is a historical fact that warfare and surgery have been linked together as far back as military history has been recorded. In the 18th century, the tendency of most armies to dismiss their medical services at the end of every major conflict resulted in higher mortality at the beginning of the next war. This became evident in the French and British Armies during the Battle of Waterloo. These countries went to great efforts to mobilize their civilian reserve physicians, only to discover that more than half of the medical personnel declined to serve. The scarcity of physicians and the inexperience of those caring for the wounded resulted in a high casualty rate. The current armed conflicts throughout the world with their high number of victims are living evidence of the need for preparedness of the military medical personnel. In this article, we review the systems of military medical education in several countries, and offer the example of the Escuela Medico Militar (Military Medical School) of Mexico, a prestigious source of military medical physicians for the Mexican armed forces.
Walker-Bartnick, L A; Berger, J H; Kappelman, M M
For the past several years, the University of Maryland School of Medicine has operated a successful and efficient basic science peer tutorial program through the management of the Office of Medical Education. During the 1981-82 and 1982-83 academic years, 122 tutoring dyads were formed to take advantage of the tutoring program in nine of the 10 basic science courses encountered during the first two years of medical training. The success of the program is evident in that tutored students received passing grades in 102 (84 percent) of the courses in which they were tutored. In this paper, the authors discuss the systematic procedure of managing a peer tutorial program and the potential positive effects the program has on student tutors as well as on the medical student in academic difficulty.
Full Text Available Audrey Menezes,1,2 Annette Burgess,1 Antonia J Clarke,1,3 Craig Mellis1 1Central Clinical School, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney; 2Hornsby Ku-ring-gai Hospital; 3Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia Purpose: Peer tutoring offers a valuable method of enhancing students’ learning experience in medical school. Junior students learn from senior peers to reinforce curriculum content in an engaging community environment. The aim of our study was to assess tutees’ perceptions of a formal peer tutoring program at the Central Clinical School of Sydney Medical School. We used the learning theory of the community of practice in order to understand tutees’ perspectives. Patients and methods: All Year 1 and Year 2 students within the Central Clinical School were invited to be tutored by Year 3 and Year 4 students, respectively. Tutor pairs taught a group of three to four tutees fortnightly, and the tutorials were largely clinically based. A questionnaire containing 13 closed items and four open-ended questions regarding their experiences in the program was distributed to the tutees. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: A total of 66 of 101 (65% Year 1 and Year 2 students took part as tutees and 42 of 106 (40% students as tutors. The tutees' response rate was 53% (35/66. Results were largely positive, with 97% of the tutees enjoying the program, 90% showing interest in tutorial topics, 91% feeling a sense of community, 100% wanting to take part next year, 97% finding small groups effective, and 97% and 91% feeling an improved understanding of medical concepts and clinical skills, respectively. Tutees perceived the most useful aspects to be learning and revision and advice from experienced peers. The most frequent suggestion for improvement was to resolve scheduling conflicts. Conclusion: Tutees found the peer tutoring program to be valuable in learning and revision, establishing a community, and
Simmenroth-Nayda, Anne; Görlich, Yvonne
Admission candidates especially in medicine do not represent the socio-demographic proportions of the average population: children of parents with an academic background are highly overrepresented, and those with parents who are medical doctors represent quite a large and special group. At Göttingen University Medicine, a new admission procedure was established with the intention to broaden the base of applicants towards including candidates with previous medical training or lower final school grades. With a view to family background, we wished to know whether candidates differ in the test scores in our admission procedure. In February 2014 we asked all admission candidates of Göttingen University Medicine by questionnaire (nine closed, four open questions) about the academic background in their families, specifically, the medical background, school exam grades, and previous medical training as well as about how they prepared for the admission test. We also analysed data from admission scores of this group (semi-structured interview and four multiple mini-interviews). In addition to descriptive statistics, we used a Pearson correlation, means comparisons (t-test, analysis of variance), ANOVA, and a Scheffé test. In February 2014 nearly half of the applicants (44%) at Göttingen University Medicine had a medical background, most frequently, their parents were physicians. This rate is much higher than reported in the literature. Other socio-demographic baseline data did not differ from the percentages given in the literature. Of all applicants, 20% had previous medical training. The group of applicants with parents who were medical doctors did not show any advantage in either test-scoring (MMI and interview), their individual preparation for the admission test, or in receiving or accepting a place at medical school. Candidates with parents who were medical doctors had scored slightly lower in school exam grades. Our results suggest that there is a self
Jang Hee Park
Full Text Available lt has been an issue whether the current medical examination system can evaluate medical students' competencies efficiently. This study was performed to survey on the satisfaction for the current medical examination system and present situation for clinical skill test in medical schools. We conducted a survey for this research and the subjects of this study were deans, medical professors, resident and medical students. We met with interesting results. First, most respondents answered the current medical examination system couldn't evaluate the medical students' competencies efficiently. Second, many residents thought preparing for paper-pencil test was not helpful for training, while experiencing clinical skill test was helpful for it. Third, the current contents and methods to evaluate clinical skill in the medical schools were variable and desirable. We concluded it was high time to change our medical examination system for evaluating the clinical skill performance of medical students.
The main characteristics of ‘the Swedish model’ are arguably related to the country's knowledge-intensive industry and its advanced welfare state. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the historical development of these two features of the Swedish economy. The first part looks at industrial...
Do differentials in the support and advice available at UK schools and colleges influence candidate performance in the medical school admissions interview? A survey of direct school leaver applicants to a UK medical school.
Lambe, Paul; Waters, Catherine; Bristow, David
To our knowledge, nothing is known about whether differentials in support and advice during preparation for the interview influence candidate performance and thereby contribute to bias in selection for medical school. To assess if differences in advice and support with preparation for the medical school admissions interview given type of school last attended influence interview score achieved by direct school leaver applicants to study on an undergraduate UK medical degree course. Confidential self-completed on-line questionnaire survey. Interview performance was positively related to whether a teacher, tutor or career advisors at the School or College last attended had advised a respondent to prepare for the interview, had advised about the various styles of medical interview used and the types of questions asked, and what resources were available to help in preparation. Respondents from Private/Independent schools were more likely than those from State schools to have received such advice and support. Differentials in access to advice on and support with preparation for the medical school interview may advantage some candidates over others. This inequity would likely be ameliorated by the provision of an authoritative and comprehensive guide to applying to medical school outlining admission requirements and the preparation strategy applicants should use in order to best meet those requirements. The guide could be disseminated to the Principals of all UK schools and colleges and freely available electronic versions signposted in medical school prospectuses and the course descriptor on the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service.
Miller, G D; Frank, D; Franks, R D; Getto, C J
In 1986 the authors mailed a one-page questionnaire to 135 North American medical schools requesting information about written expectations for students that contain noncognitive criteria. Eighty-eight questionnaires (65.2%) were returned, and 48 schools (54.5%) indicated they possessed written noncognitive criteria. Those schools having noncognitive criteria were asked to submit the criteria for review and were questioned about their reasons for establishing such criteria. Those schools not having noncognitive criteria were asked whether they perceived a need for such criteria and had plans for developing them. The study showed an increasing trend to create criteria that assist in administrative actions when problems arise. In the 31 sets of noncognitive criteria submitted for the study, the rank order of specific expectations was, from most to least frequently mentioned: honesty, professional behavior, dedication to learning, appearance, respect for law, respect for others, confidentiality, aid to others, substance abuse, and financial responsibility. The authors make recommendations for schools wishing to create noncognitive criteria and explain why they feel such criteria should receive the recognition and importance given to cognitive criteria.
Jerant, Anthony; Srinivasan, Malathi; Bertakis, Klea D; Azari, Rahman; Pan, Richard J; Kravitz, Richard L
Favorable primary care (PC) experiences might encourage more medical students to pursue generalist careers, yet academicians know little about which attributes influence the medical school PC experience. The authors sought to identify such attributes and weight their importance. Semistructured interviews with 16 academic generalist leaders of family medicine, general internal medicine, and general pediatrics led to the development of a Web-based survey, administered to a national sample of 126 generalist faculty. Survey respondents rated (on a nine-point Likert-like scale) the importance of each interview-generated PC medical school attribute and indicated (yes/no) whether outside experts' assessment of the attributes would be valid. The authors assessed interrater agreement. Interview thematic analysis generated 58 institutional attributes in four categories: informal curriculum (23), institutional infrastructure (6), educational/curricular infrastructure (6), and specific educational experiences (23). Of these 58, 31 (53%) had median importance ratings of >7 (highly important). For 14 of these (45%), more than two-thirds of respondents indicated external expert surveys would provide a valid assessment. Of the 23 informal curriculum attributes, 20 (87%) received highly important ratings; however, more than two-thirds of respondents believed that external expert survey ratings would be valid for only 4 (20%) of them. Strong agreement occurred among respondents across the generalist fields. Academic generalist educators identified several attributes as highly important in shaping the quality of the medical school PC experience. Informal curriculum attributes appeared particularly influential, but these attributes may not be validly assessed via expert surveys, suggesting the need for other measures.
Full Text Available Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad,1 Dorota Religa,2,3 Eric Westman,1 Dag Aarsland,2,4 Johan Lökk,1,3 Maria Eriksdotter1,3 1Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society (NVS, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Department of Geriatric Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; 4Centre for Age-Related Diseases, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, Norway Introduction: Whether dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB and Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD should be considered as one entity or two distinct conditions is a matter of controversy. The aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of DLB and PDD patients using data from the Swedish Dementia Quality Registry (SveDem. Methods: SveDem is a national Web-based quality registry initiated to improve the quality of diagnostic workup, treatment, and care of patients with dementia across Sweden. Patients with newly diagnosed dementia of various types were registered in SveDem during the years 2007–2011. The current cross-sectional report is based on DLB (n = 487 and PDD (n = 297 patients. Demographic characteristics, diagnostic workup, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE score, and medications were compared between DLB and PDD groups. Results: No gender differences were observed between the two study groups (P = 0.706. PDD patients were significantly younger than DLB patients at the time of diagnosis (74.8 versus 76.8 years, respectively; P < 0.001. A significantly higher prevalence of patients with MMSE score #24 were found in the PDD group (75.2% versus 67.6%; P = 0.030. The mean number of performed diagnostic modalities was significantly higher in the DLB group (4.9 ± 1.7 than in the PDD group (4.1 ± 1.6; P< 0.001. DLB patients were more likely than PDD patients to be treated with
Abedini, Nauzley C; Danso-Bamfo, Sandra; Moyer, Cheryl A; Danso, Kwabena A; Mäkiharju, Heather; Donkor, Peter; Johnson, Timothy R B; Kolars, Joseph C
International medical electives typically represent a unidirectional flow of students from economically advantaged countries in the global "North" to resource-poor nations in the global "South." Little is known about the impact of bilateral exchanges on students from less affluent nations. Since 2007, students from the University of Michigan Medical School (UMMS) and medical schools in Ghana have engaged in a bilateral clinical exchange program. A 45-item online survey was distributed to all 73 Ghanaian medical students who had rotated at UMMS from 2008 to 2010 to assess perspectives on the value and impact of their participation. Incoming Ghanaian students outnumbered outgoing UMMS students 73 to 33 during the study period. Of eligible Ghanaian students, 70% (51/73) participated in the survey, with 40 of 51 providing valid data on at least 50% of questions. Ninety-seven percent (37/38) reported that the UMMS rotation was valuable to their medical training, 90% (35/39) reported changes in how they approach patient care, and 77% (24/31) reported feeling better equipped to serve patients in their home community. Eighty-five percent of students (28/33) felt more inclined to pursue training opportunities outside of their home country after their rotation at UMMS. More studies are needed to determine the feasibility of bidirectional exchanges as well as the short-term and long-term impact of rotations on students from underresourced settings and their hosts in more resource-rich environments.
Kahlin, Yvonne; Werner, Suzanne; Edman, Gunnar; Raustorp, Anders; Alricsson, Marie
Physical activity provides fundamental health benefits and plays a positive role in physical well-being. The aim of this present study was to investigate whether a 6-month physical activity program could influence physical self-esteem and frequency of physical activity in physically inactive female high school students in short- and long-term periods and whether personality traits were related to physical activity behaviour and compliance with the program. The study was a cluster-randomised controlled intervention study including 104 physically inactive female high school students aged 16-19 years, 60 females in an intervention group and 44 females in a control group. The intervention group exercised at sport centres at least once per week during a 6-month period. Questionnaires were used for evaluation. At a 6-month follow up, the intervention group improved physical self-perception in all subdomains and significantly improved physical condition, physical self-worth and self-related health compared to the control group. At 1-year follow up, 25 females out of 53 females were still physically active, and all ratings remained almost the same as at the 6-month follow up. There were no particular personality traits that were dominant in the groups. A 6-month physical activity program can positively influence physical self-esteem and the frequency of physical activity, both from a short- and long-term perspective.
The increasing globalisation of medicine, as manifested in the migration rate of medical doctors and in the growth of cross-border education providers, has inflicted a wave of quality assurance efforts in medical education, and underlined the need for definition of standards and for introduction of effective and transparent accreditation systems. In 2004, reflecting the importance of the interface between medical education and the healthcare delivery sector, a World Health Organization (WHO)/World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) Strategic Partnership to improve medical education was formed. In 2005, the partnership published Guidelines for Accreditation of Basic Medical Education. The WHO/WFME Guidelines recommend the establishment of proper accreditation systems that are effective, independent, transparent and based on medical education-specific criteria. An important prerequisite for this development was the WFME Global Standards programme, initiated in 1997 and widely endorsed. The standards are now being used in all 6 WHO/WFME regions as a basis for quality improvement of medical education throughout its continuum and as a template for national and regional accreditation standards. Promotion of national accreditation systems will have a pivotal influence on future international appraisal of medical education. Information about accreditation status - the agencies involved and the criteria and procedure used - will be an essential component of new Global Directories of Health Professions Educational Institutions. According to an agreement between the WHO and the University of Copenhagen (UC), these Directories (the Avicenna Directories) will be developed and published by the UC with the assistance of the WFME, starting with renewal of the WHO World Directory of Medical Schools, and sequentially expanding to cover educational institutions for other health professions. The Directories will be a foundation for international meta-recognition ("accrediting the
Boelen, Charles; Dharamsi, Shafik; Gibbs, Trevor
There is growing interest worldwide in social accountability for medical and other health professional schools. Attempts have been made to apply the concept primarily to educational reform initiatives with limited concern towards transforming an entire institution to commit and assess its education, research and service delivery missions to better meet priority health needs in society for an efficient, equitable an sustainable health system. In this paper, we clarify the concept of social accountability in relation to responsibility and responsiveness by providing practical examples of its application; and we expand on a previously described conceptual model of social accountability (the CPU model), by further delineating the parameters composing the model and providing examples on how to translate them into meaningful indicators. The clarification of concepts of social responsibility, responsiveness and accountability and the examples provided in designing indicators may help medical schools and other health professional schools in crafting their own benchmarks to assess progress towards social accountability within the context of their particular environment.
Benotmane, Ilies; Glatz, Nicolas; Bihan, Solenn; Legrand, Fanny; Gosset, Didier; Boulanger, Eric
The purpose of this study was to determine the future, in terms of scientific publication, of medical thesis (MT) defended in the Medical School of Lille 2 University (MSL2U) between January 1st, 2001 and December 31st, 2007. The collection of MT published as a corresponding scientific article was realized from PubMed(®). For every corresponding article, we determined the journal Impact Factor (IF), the language of publication and the rank of the student and his MT director in the author list. Analyses were also realized according to the group of speciality of the TM. In all, 11.3% of the 2150 MT defended in the MSL2U were followed up by a scientific publication. The average IF was 2.32 with a median at 1.75 and extreme values from 0 to 14.78. Seventy percent of the articles were published in English. The rank of the student was placed before his MT director (2.06 vs. 3.15). The MT defended by students in the field of medical specialities presented the highest rate of publication (25.1%). The general medicine was the second speciality the most productive in term of number of published articles (n=49) after medical specialities (n=103). The MT director and the PhD students must be more motivated to publish their results. The value of 11.3% could be considered as weak but, because of a huge lack of references, it is impossible to compare our results to those of other French medical schools. It remains important to reform the objectives and the modalities of the writing of a MT: should we not have to turn to thesis called "on article"? Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Gadin, Katja Gillander; Weiner, Gaby; Ahlgren, Christina
A school health promotion project was carried out in an elementary school in Sweden where active participation, gender equality, and empowerment were leading principles. The objective of the study was to understand challenges and to identify social processes of importance for such a project. Focus group interviews were conducted with 6 single-sex…
Frey, Melissa K; Biewald, Mollie A; Worley, Michael J.; Taylor, Jolyn S; Lin, Stephanie N; Holcomb, Kevin
Introduction: Lynch syndrome was first described in the 1950s however until recently it was rarely included in medical school curricula. As a result, many practicing physicians have limited exposure, potentially contributing to significant under diagnosis. As identification of Lynch syndrome prior to malignancy allows for intensified screening, prophylactic surgery and improved patient outcomes, all physicians should be aware of the characteristics of affected families. We aim to determine th...
Härtl, Anja; Berberat, Pascal; Fischer, Martin R; Forst, Helmuth; Grützner, Stefanie; Händl, Thomas; Joachimski, Felix; Linné, Renate; Märkl, Bruno; Naumann, Markus; Putz, Reinhard; Schneider, Werner; Schöler, Claus; Wehler, Markus; Hoffmann, Reinhard
Aim: With the resolution from April 28, 2014, the Bavarian state government in Germany decided to found a new medical school at Augsburg University, thereby requiring the development of a competency-based medical curriculum. Methods: Two interdisciplinary groups developed a spiral curriculum (following Harden) employing the model of Thumser-Dauth & Öchsner. The curriculum focuses on specifically defined competencies: medical expertise, independent scientific reasoning, argumentation and scholarship, as well as communication skills. Results: The spiral curriculum was developed as a hybrid curriculum. Its modular structure incorporates the mandatory subjects required by the German regulations for medical licensure (Approbationsordnung) into organ- and system-centered blocks which are integrated both horizontally and vertically. Basic preclinical sciences are covered in the blocks "Movement," "Balance" and "Contact." The clinical sciences are organized according to six pillars (conservative medicine, surgical medicine, men's-women's-children's medicine, the senses, the nervous system and the mind, and general medicine) which students revisit three times each over the course of the program. A longitudinal clinical course incorporates interdisciplinary education. A particular focus is on scientific education encompassing a longitudinal course in the sciences (including interdisciplinary classes with other university departments), block practicums, and two scientific projects. Conclusion: It is not only the degree of integration und intensity of the Augsburg University undergraduate medical degree program, but also its targeted advancement of academic, social and communication skills that have not yet been realized to such an extent elsewhere in Germany. On July 8, 2016, the German Council of Science and Humanities unanimously gave this concept a positive evaluation. Future research will examine and evaluate the Augsburg medical curriculum and the impact of the new
Full Text Available Aim: With the resolution from April 28, 2014, the Bavarian state government in Germany decided to found a new medical school at Augsburg University, thereby requiring the development of a competency-based medical curriculum.Methods: Two interdisciplinary groups developed a spiral curriculum (following Harden employing the model of Thumser-Dauth & Öchsner. The curriculum focuses on specifically defined competencies: medical expertise, independent scientific reasoning, argumentation and scholarship, as well as communication skills.Results: The spiral curriculum was developed as a hybrid curriculum. Its modular structure incorporates the mandatory subjects required by the German regulations for medical licensure (Approbationsordnung into organ- and system-centered blocks which are integrated both horizontally and vertically. Basic preclinical sciences are covered in the blocks “Movement,” “Balance” and “Contact.” The clinical sciences are organized according to six pillars (conservative medicine, surgical medicine, men’s-women’s-children’s medicine, the senses, the nervous system and the mind, and general medicine which students revisit three times each over the course of the program. A longitudinal clinical course incorporates interdisciplinary education. A particular focus is on scientific education encompassing a longitudinal course in the sciences (including interdisciplinary classes with other university departments, block practicums, and two scientific projects.Conclusion: It is not only the degree of integration und intensity of the Augsburg University undergraduate medical degree program, but also its targeted advancement of academic, social and communication skills that have not yet been realized to such an extent elsewhere in Germany. On July 8, 2016, the German Council of Science and Humanities unanimously gave this concept a positive evaluation. Future research will examine and evaluate the Augsburg medical curriculum
Garcia, C D; Barboza, A P; Goldani, J C; Neumann, J; Chem, R; Camargo, J; Lucchese, F; Marcon, I; Marcon, A; Brandão, A; Kalil, A; Vitola, S P; Bittencourt, V; Hausen, S; Todeschini, D; Elbern, L; Castro, E; Garcia, V D
A favorable attitude of health professionals to organ donation can positively influence the decision of families of potential donors. By increasing health professionals knowledge about donation and transplantation and qualifying them to disseminate information, education has produced a positive response to increase the insufficient number of donors. Educating students early in their careers may become crucial in this setting. In order to supply the necessary information about the process of donation and transplantation, a medical school in association with the Hospital Transplant Coordination Department created an educational program of organ donation and transplantation. This course is intended for medical, biomedical, and nutrition students. The objective of our program is to supply basic knowledge about organ donation and transplantation to students of medicine, nutrition, and biomedicine and to enhance their commitment to this process. Each semester, 50 to 90 students are enrolled in the course, which involves a total of 25 hours. Various aspects are approached such as brain death, donor management, political and legal aspects of donation, and skin, lung, bone marrow, heart, pancreas, liver, and kidney transplantation. Between March 2006 and June 2007, three courses were carried out and 200 students were trained. The students evaluated the course and rated it as excellent, concluding that it contributed to their education. Their attitude toward organ donation and transplantation was strongly positive at the end of the course. This project aims to educate and stimulate students in the process of organ donation and transplantation and should be implemented in other medical schools.
Kiguli-Malwadde, Elsie; Talib, Zohray M; Wohltjen, Hannah; Connors, Susan C; Gandari, Jonathan; Banda, Sekelani S; Maggio, Lauren A; van Schalkwyk, Susan C
Many African countries are investing in medical education to address significant health care workforce shortages and ultimately improve health care. Increasingly, training institutions are establishing medical education departments as part of this investment. This article describes the status of four such departments at sub-Saharan African medical schools supported by the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI). This article will provide information about the role of these institutional structures in fostering the development of medical education within the African context and highlight factors that enable or constrain their establishment and sustainability. In-depth interviews were conducted with the heads or directors of the four medical education departments using a structured interview protocol developed by the study group. An inductive approach to analysis of the interview transcripts was adopted as the texts were subjected to thematic content analysis. Medical education departments, also known as units or centers, were established for a range of reasons including: to support curriculum review, to provide faculty development in Health Professions Education, and to improve scholarship in learning and teaching. The reporting structures of these departments differ in terms of composition and staff numbers. Though the functions of departments do vary, all focus on improving the quality of health professions education. External and internal funding, where available, as well as educational innovations were key enablers for these departments. Challenges included establishing and maintaining the legitimacy of the department, staffing the departments with qualified individuals, and navigating dependence on external funding. All departments seek to expand the scope of their services by offering higher degrees in HPE, providing assistance to other universities in this domain, and developing and maintaining a medical education research agenda. The establishment of
Day, Charles S; Yeh, Albert C; Franko, Orrin; Ramirez, Miguel; Krupat, Edward
To assess medical students' knowledge and clinical confidence in musculoskeletal medicine as well as their attitudes toward the education they receive in this specialty. A cross-sectional survey of students in all four years of Harvard Medical School was conducted during the 2005-2006 academic year. Participants were asked to fill out a 30-question survey and a nationally validated basic competency exam in musculoskeletal medicine. The response rate was 74% (449/608). Medical students rated musculoskeletal education to be of major importance (3.8/5) but rated the amount of curriculum time spent on musculoskeletal medicine as poor (2.1/5). Third-year students felt a low to adequate level of confidence in performing a musculoskeletal physical examination (2.7/5) and failed to demonstrate cognitive mastery in musculoskeletal medicine (passing rate on competency exam: 7%), whereas fourth-year students reported a similar level of confidence (2.7/5) and exhibited a higher passing rate (26%). Increasing exposure to the subject by taking clinical electives resulted in greater clinical confidence and enhanced performance on the exam (P Students' feedback suggested that musculoskeletal education can be better integrated into the preclinical curriculum, more time should be spent in the field, and more focus should be placed on common clinical conditions. These findings, which are consistent with those from other schools, suggest that medical students do not feel adequately prepared in musculoskeletal medicine and lack both clinical confidence and cognitive mastery in the field. Implementing a four-year integrated musculoskeletal curriculum is one way that medical schools can address this concern.
Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is the leading cause of disability and mortality in children and young adults worldwide. It remains unclear, however, how TBI in childhood and adolescence is associated with adult mortality, psychiatric morbidity, and social outcomes.In a Swedish birth cohort between 1973 and 1985 of 1,143,470 individuals, we identified all those who had sustained at least one TBI (n = 104,290 or 9.1% up to age 25 y and their unaffected siblings (n = 68,268 using patient registers. We subsequently assessed these individuals for the following outcomes using multiple national registries: disability pension, specialist diagnoses of psychiatric disorders and psychiatric inpatient hospitalisation, premature mortality (before age 41 y, low educational attainment (not having achieved secondary school qualifications, and receiving means-tested welfare benefits. We used logistic and Cox regression models to quantify the association between TBI and specified adverse outcomes on the individual level. We further estimated population attributable fractions (PAF for each outcome measure. We also compared differentially exposed siblings to account for unobserved genetic and environmental confounding. In addition to relative risk estimates, we examined absolute risks by calculating prevalence and Kaplan-Meier estimates. In complementary analyses, we tested whether the findings were moderated by injury severity, recurrence, and age at first injury (ages 0-4, 5-9, 6-10, 15-19, and 20-24 y. TBI exposure was associated with elevated risks of impaired adult functioning across all outcome measures. After a median follow-up period of 8 y from age 26 y, we found that TBI contributed to absolute risks of over 10% for specialist diagnoses of psychiatric disorders and low educational attainment, approximately 5% for disability pension, and 2% for premature mortality. The highest relative risks, adjusted for sex, birth year, and birth order, were found for
Eley, Diann S; Zhang, Jianzhen; Wilkinson, David
The doctor shortage in Australia generally, and the rural shortage in particular, has led to an increase in medical schools, medical places and rural training. If effective, these strategies will first impact on the intern workforce. We studied the source of interns in Queensland. Analysis of number, source and location of interns by Rural, Remote and Metropolitan Area (RRMA) classification (an index of remoteness) from university and health department records (2003-2008). Odds ratios compared the likelihood of intern supply from Queensland universities and rural clinical schools. Most interns in Queensland graduated from Queensland universities in 2007 (287 [72%]) and 2008 (344 [84%]). Proportions increased across all three RRMA groups from: 82% to 93% in RRMA1; 56% to 68% in RRMA2 and 67% to 79% in RRMA3. The University of Queensland (UQ) provides most interns in all RRMA locations including RRMA3, and this increased from 2007 (n = 33 [35%]) to 2008 (n = 57 [58%]). Interns from interstate decreased from 61 (15%) in 2007 to 40 (10%) in 2008. Interns from overseas fell from 53 (13%) in 2007 to 27 (7%) in 2008. Rural clinical schools compared with traditional urban-based schools were more likely to supply interns to RRMA3 than RRMA1 hospitals in 2007 (OR, 8.8; 95% CI, 4.6-16.7; P self-sufficiency in intern supply and will achieve this in the next few years. Rural clinical schools are playing an important role in producing interns for RRMA3 hospitals. Due to its large cohort, UQ remains the major provider across all RRMA groups.
The Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research recently visited CERN. The Swedish Minister was greeted by Swedish scientists working at CERN. Signing of the Swedish Computing Memorandum of Understanding. Pär Omling, Director-General of the Swedish Research Council (left), and Jos Engelen, CERN’s Chief Scientific Officer. Lars Leijonborg, the Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research, was welcomed to CERN by Director-General Robert Aymar on 10 March. After an introduction to the Laboratory’s activities, the Minister was given guided tours of the control room, the ATLAS surface hall and experiment cavern and the adjoining LHC tunnel. Mr Leijonborg was then greeted by Swedish scientists and given an overview of the Swedish research programme at CERN. Five Swedish university groups are taking part in LHC research. Swedish universities are notably involved in the manufacture of parts for the sub-detectors of AT...
Augustine Egwu, Ogugua; Dimkpa, Uche; Ogbonnaya Orji, Jude; Ogbannaya Njoku, Clinton; Ogbonnia Eni, Egwu; Besong, Elizabeth
Self-reported confidence before any examination in all levels of medical training is a product of previous experience, attitudinal inclinations overtime, degree of self subjection to tenets of professionalism and possibly, the inadvertent role of the medical school environment including colleagues, teachers and faculty members, comfort, satisfaction and psychosocial stability; which may be addressed as sub-factors that determine the level of preparedness. Let medical schools in Nigeria; adopt...
Borges, Nicole J; Manuel, R Stephen; Elam, Carol L; Jones, Bonnie J
Two main generational cohorts comprising students enrolled in medical schools today are Generation Xers (born 1965-1980) and Millennial students (born 1981-1999). A subset is Cuspars (born 1975-1980), who share traits with both generations. Population theorists ascribe different personal characteristics, attitudes, and preferences to each group. The authors examined whether selected characteristics describing Generation X and Millennial students were quantifiable using a personality measure. Differences among Generation X, Millennial, and Cuspar medical students were investigated. Eight hundred and nine medical students (399 females and 410 males) who matriculated between 1989-94 and 2001-04 at the Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine completed the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). Differences in responses to the 16PF among the three generations were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Analyses showed significant differences for Generation X versus Millennial students on 10 of the 16 personality factors. Millennial students scored significantly higher than Generation X students on factors including Rule-Consciousness, Emotional Stability, and Perfectionism; Generation X students scored higher than Millennials on Self-Reliance. Millennials also were significantly different from Generation Xers on several other factors. Significant differences were noted among Cuspars, Generation Xers, and Millennials. The 16PF is a useful tool to examine differences among these groups and to help understand the factors that constitute their personalities. Given differences among the generational groups, the authors forecast possible educational implications for medical school academic affairs and student services, and suggest areas for future research.
Harden, R M; Hart, I R
The introduction of new learning technologies, the exponential growth of Internet usage and the advent of the World Wide Web have the potential of changing the face of higher education. There are also demands in medical education for greater globalization, for the development of a common core curriculum, for improving access to training, for more flexible and student-centred training programmes including programmes with multi-professional elements and for maintaining quality while increasing student numbers and working within financial constraints. An international virtual medical school (IVIMEDS) with a high-quality education programme embodying a hybrid model of a blended curriculum of innovative e-learning approaches and the best of traditional face-to-face teaching is one response to these challenges. Fifty leading international medical schools and institutions are participating in a feasibility study. This is exploring: innovative thinking and approaches to the new learning technologies including e-learning and virtual reality; new approaches to curriculum planning and mapping and advanced instructional design based on the use of 'reusable learning objects'; an international perspective on medical education which takes into account the trend to globalization; a flexible curriculum which meets the needs of different students and has the potential of increasing access to medicine.
Cleland, Jennifer A; Johnston, Peter W; Anthony, Micheal; Khan, Nadir; Scott, Neil W
Workforce planning is a central issue for service provision and has consequences for medical education. Much work has been examined the career intentions, career preferences and career destinations of UK medical graduates but there is little published about medical students career intentions. How soon do medical students formulate careers intentions? How much do these intentions and preferences change during medical school? If they do change, what are the determining factors? Our aim was to compare medical students' career preferences upon entry into and exit from undergraduate medical degree programmes. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Two cohorts [2009-10, 2010-11] of first and final year medical students at the four Scottish graduating medical schools took part in career preference questionnaire surveys. Questions were asked about demographic factors, career preferences and influencing factors. The response rate was 80.9% [2682/3285]. Significant differences were found across the four schools, most obviously in terms of student origin [Scotland, rest of UK or overseas], age group, and specialty preferences in Year 1 and Year 5. Year 1 and Year 5 students' specialty preferences also differed within each school and, while there were some common patterns, each medical school had a different profile of students' career preferences on exit. When the analysis was adjusted for demographic and job-related preferences, specialty preferences differed by gender, and wish for work-life balance and intellectual satisfaction. This is the first multi-centre study exploring students' career preferences and preference influences upon entry into and exit from undergraduate medical degree programmes. We found various factors influenced career preference, confirming prior findings. What this study adds is that, while acknowledging student intake differs by medical school, medical school itself seems to influence career preference. Comparisons across medical school
Background Workforce planning is a central issue for service provision and has consequences for medical education. Much work has been examined the career intentions, career preferences and career destinations of UK medical graduates but there is little published about medical students career intentions. How soon do medical students formulate careers intentions? How much do these intentions and preferences change during medical school? If they do change, what are the determining factors? Our aim was to compare medical students’ career preferences upon entry into and exit from undergraduate medical degree programmes. Methods This was a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Two cohorts [2009–10, 2010–11] of first and final year medical students at the four Scottish graduating medical schools took part in career preference questionnaire surveys. Questions were asked about demographic factors, career preferences and influencing factors. Results The response rate was 80.9% [2682/3285]. Significant differences were found across the four schools, most obviously in terms of student origin [Scotland, rest of UK or overseas], age group, and specialty preferences in Year 1 and Year 5. Year 1 and Year 5 students’ specialty preferences also differed within each school and, while there were some common patterns, each medical school had a different profile of students’ career preferences on exit. When the analysis was adjusted for demographic and job-related preferences, specialty preferences differed by gender, and wish for work-life balance and intellectual satisfaction. Conclusions This is the first multi-centre study exploring students’ career preferences and preference influences upon entry into and exit from undergraduate medical degree programmes. We found various factors influenced career preference, confirming prior findings. What this study adds is that, while acknowledging student intake differs by medical school, medical school itself seems to influence
Soo, K C
The proposed Graduate Medical School at the Outram Campus will open in 2007. The main value of this medical school is the transformation of the medical institutions in the campus and SingHealth into Academic Medical Centres. Such centres will train and host quality physicians and physician-scientists. It will help push the development of translational research, complementing the country's investment in Biopolis. It will also underpin Singapore's push into regional medical tourism and its development as an educational hub in the biomedical sciences.
Haviland, Mark G; Yamagata, Hisashi; Werner, Leonard S; Zhang, Kehua; Dial, Thomas H; Sonne, Janet L
Student mistreatment in medical school is a persistent problem with both known and unexplored consequences [corrected]. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a perception of having been mistreated in medical school had an association with planning a full-time career in academic medicine. Using Association of American Medical Colleges' 2000-2004 Medical School Graduation Questionnaire data, we evaluated the relationship between students' mistreatment experience and their career choice, academic versus nonacademic setting. Meta-analysis and regression were used to evaluate this relationship. At medical schools where relatively high percentages of graduating seniors were planning academic careers, students reporting mistreatment experiences were less likely at graduation to be planning careers in academic medicine. A perception of having been mistreated in medical school is related to students' career choices, a finding that may be useful to medical school administrators/faculty and students as mistreatment is addressed in program planning, counseling, and faculty recruitment.
Full Text Available Background: Growing national concern about distortions in the size, specially composition, and availability of the physician workforce -especially after "cultural revolution n- has evoked challenges in Iran. Purpose: To determine various factors that influence medical graduates choices for residency program. Methods: All applicants for residency program in Mazandaran university of Medical Sciences and Health Services completed the Medical School Graduation Questionnaire, and rated each factor using 0 to 4 Likert-type scale. Factors' ratings were also compared across applicants of different residency program, and demographic variables. Results: The top two factors rated as having strong influences were ones related to interest in helping peop1e (rated 3.07, and intellectual content of the specially (rated 3. Malpractice insurance cost has the least influence (rated 0.98. Most of men preferred independence, whereas most of women preferred predictable working hours. Opportunity to make differences in people's l(fe influenced the specially choices of usual participants. whereas those who used war veterans quota paid more attention to independence and exercise of social responsibility. Patient contact factors were less important to graduates who chose diagnostic speciafties. Also, there was a significant association between the participants' age and four factors. Conclusion: These graduates based their specially preference heavily on the opportunity that the specially affords to help people, and intellectual content of the specially. Knowing the hierarchy of influences on graduates' motivations should help education strategists determine what experiences and perceptions must change if a different mix of specially decision is to result. Keywords: SPECIAL TY, MEDICAL SCHOOL, SARI, MAZANDARAN
Gottvall, Maria; Stenhammar, Christina; Grandahl, Maria
To explore parents' views of extending the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme to also include boys. Explorative qualitative design using individual, face-to-face, interviews and inductive thematic analysis. 11 strategically chosen municipalities in central Sweden. Parents (n=42) who were offered HPV vaccination for their 11-12 years old daughter in the national school-based vaccination programme. The key themes were: equality from a public health perspective and perception of risk for disease. Parents expressed low knowledge and awareness about the health benefits of male HPV vaccination, and they perceived low risk for boys to get HPV. Some parents could not see any reason for vaccinating boys. However, many parents preferred gender-neutral vaccination, and some of the parents who had not accepted HPV vaccination for their daughter expressed that they would be willing to accept vaccination for their son, if it was offered. It was evident that there was both trust and distrust in authorities' decision to only vaccinate girls. Parents expressed a preference for increased sexual and reproductive health promotion such as more information about condom use. Some parents shared that it was more important to vaccinate girls than boys since they believed girls face a higher risk of deadly diseases associated with HPV, but some also believed girls might be more vulnerable to side effects of the vaccine. A vaccine offered only to girls may cause parents to be hesitant to vaccinate, while also including boys in the national vaccination programme might improve parents' trust in the vaccine. More information about the health benefits of HPV vaccination for males is necessary to increase HPV vaccination among boys. This may eventually lead to increased HPV vaccine coverage among both girls and boys. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Academic Medicine, 1999
The report of the Association of American Medical Colleges' Medical School Objectives Program presents the work of two expert panels. One, on medical informatics, identified five important physician roles: lifelong learner, clinician, educator, researcher, and manager. Another panel established a definition for "population health…
Cahill, Kevin C; Ettarh, Raj R
Many studies around the world have looked at the stresses placed on medical students by cadaveric dissection. Although these studies have linked the use of cadavers in medical teaching to stress, some investigations have suggested an association with severe psychological stress and even post-traumatic stress disorder. This study assessed the attitudes of medical and biomedical sciences students in an Irish medical school towards cadaveric dissection by recording, through a questionnaire, their perceptions and experience before initial exposure to dissection and subsequently examining their attitudes after the first dissection and after 9 weeks. Student attitudes towards the dissecting room remained consistently positive for the duration of the study with only a minority of respondents reporting negative symptoms. Pre-existing attitudes to the idea of dissection were unaffected by exposure and subsequent continuous experience of dissection. The majority of students in this study did not find the dissecting room experience stressful, and considered time spent in the dissecting room valuable. However, the proportion of students with negative experiences in the dissecting room was higher than has been reported in previous studies. Many respondents felt they could be better prepared for the dissecting room experience, indicating an increasing requirement for effective preparatory programmes. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Choi, Phillip A; Xu, Shuai; Ayanian, John Z
Despite a growing need for primary care physicians in the United States, the proportion of medical school graduates pursuing primary care careers has declined over the past decade. To assess the association of medical school research funding with graduates matching in family medicine residencies and practicing primary care. Observational study of United States medical schools. One hundred twenty-one allopathic medical schools. The primary outcomes included the proportion of each school's graduates from 1999 to 2001 who were primary care physicians in 2008, and the proportion of each school's graduates who entered family medicine residencies during 2007 through 2009. The 25 medical schools with the highest levels of research funding from the National Institutes of Health in 2010 were designated as "research-intensive." Among research-intensive medical schools, the 16 private medical schools produced significantly fewer practicing primary care physicians (median 24.1% vs. 33.4%, p careers (median 36.1% vs. 36.3%, p = 0.87) and matching in family medicine residencies (median 7.4% vs. 10.0%, p = 0.37) relative to the other 66 public medical schools. To meet the health care needs of the US population, research-intensive private medical schools should play a more active role in promoting primary care careers for their students and graduates.
Block, Susan D.; Clark-Chirarelli, Nancy; Singer, Judith D.
Survey data (1993-94) from 264 fourth-year medical students and 500 clinical faculty members at 59 medical schools found that schools that have primary care missions and have historically produced more generalists transmit higher levels of encouragement to their students about primary care. However, even at schools with strong primary care…
McHugh, S M
Obtaining a place in an Irish medical school is extremely competitive, a situation mirrored in many other countries. We aimed to determine the factors influencing school students in deciding to study medicine in university. We further determined what level of interest exists in pursuing a surgical career after completion of medical school.
McGurgan, Paul M; Olson-White, Debbie; Holgate, Marie; Carmody, Di
To describe current use and possible effects of Australian medical school fitness-to-practise policies (FTPPs), and to define and benchmark FTPP best practice. A questionnaire-based study of Australian medical schools was conducted in August 2009. Use of FTPPs by medical schools; criteria used in FTPPs; remediation processes; numbers of students excluded for professional misconduct, reasons for exclusion, and year of study at time of exclusion. The questionnaire was completed by 15 of 19 medical schools to which it was sent, and 12 schools reported using an FTPP. There was wide variation in the FTPP criteria used by individual schools, and use of an FTPP appeared to be independent of medical student registration with state medical boards and type of course entry. There were no apparent differences in medical student exclusion rates between schools with FTPPs and those without. The most common reason for exclusion was persistent inappropriate attitude or behaviour, including poor attendance, and most exclusions occurred by the third year of study. Most Australian medical schools use FTPPs, but these policies are variable and lack proven effectiveness. The variations in the numbers of students excluded by the different medical schools for unprofessional behaviour suggest discrepancies in the medical schools' abilities to detect and manage students with problems in this area. Previous calls to develop a nationally consistent approach to the management of poorly behaving students should be addressed.
Hidaka, Brandon H; Asghar, Anila; Aktipis, C Athena; Nesse, Randolph M; Wolpaw, Terry M; Skursky, Nicole K; Bennett, Katelyn J; Beyrouty, Matthew W; Schwartz, Mark D
Background Medical and public health scientists are using evolution to devise new strategies to solve major health problems. But based on a 2003 survey, medical curricula may not adequately prepare physicians to evaluate and extend these advances. This study assessed the change in coverage of evolution in North American medical schools since 2003 and identified opportunities for enriching medical education. Methods In 2013, curriculum deans for all North American medical schools were invited ...
Orimo, Hideo; Ueno, Takahiro; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Sone, Hirohito; Tanaka, Akira; Itakura, Hiroshige
A questionnaire survey was used to determine the status of nutrition education in Japanese medical schools in 2009. A similar survey was conducted in 2004, at which time nutritional education was determined to be inadequate in Japanese medical schools. The current questionnaire was sent to the directors of Centers for Medical Education of 80 medical schools, who represented all medical schools in Japan. Sixty-seven medical schools (83.8%) responded, of which 25 schools (37.3%) offered dedicated nutrition courses and 36 schools (53.7%) did not offer dedicated nutrition courses but offered something related to nutrition in other courses; six schools (9.0%) did not offer any nutrition education. Overall, 61 schools (91.0%) offered at least some nutritional topics in their undergraduate education. Nevertheless, only 11 schools (16.4%) seem to dedicate more than 5 hours to substantial nutrition education as judged by their syllabi. Although the mean length of the course was 11 hours, substantial nutrition education accounted for only 4.2 hours. Of the 25 medical schools that offered dedicated nutrition courses, seven schools offered the nutrition course as a stand-alone course and 18 schools offered it as an integrated course. In conclusion, the status of nutrition education in Japan has improved slightly but is still inadequate.
Ziring, Deborah; Danoff, Deborah; Grosseman, Suely; Langer, Debra; Esposito, Amanda; Jan, Mian Kouresch; Rosenzweig, Steven; Novack, Dennis
Teaching and assessing professionalism is an essential element of medical education, mandated by accrediting bodies. Responding to a call for comprehensive research on remediation of student professionalism lapses, the authors explored current medical school policies and practices. In 2012-2013, key administrators at U.S. and Canadian medical schools accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education were interviewed via telephone or e-mail. The structured interview questionnaire contained open-ended and closed questions about practices for monitoring student professionalism, strategies for remediating lapses, and strengths and limitations of current systems. The authors employed a mixed-methods approach, using descriptive statistics and qualitative analysis based on grounded theory. Ninety-three (60.8%) of 153 eligible schools participated. Most (74/93; 79.6%) had specific policies and processes regarding professionalism lapses. Student affairs deans and course/clerkship directors were typically responsible for remediation oversight. Approaches for identifying lapses included incident-based reporting and routine student evaluations. The most common remediation strategies reported by schools that had remediated lapses were mandated mental health evaluation (74/90; 82.2%), remediation assignments (66/90; 73.3%), and professionalism mentoring (66/90; 73.3%). System strengths included catching minor offenses early, emphasizing professionalism schoolwide, focusing on helping rather than punishing students, and assuring transparency and good communication. System weaknesses included reluctance to report (by students and faculty), lack of faculty training, unclear policies, and ineffective remediation. In addition, considerable variability in feedforward processes existed between schools. The identified strengths can be used in developing best practices until studies of the strategies' effectiveness are conducted.
Full Text Available William S Wright,1 Kirk Baston2 1Department of Biomedical Sciences, 2Department of Pathology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine Greenville, Greenville, SC, USA Purpose: The National Board of Medical Examiners® (NBME Comprehensive Basic Science Exam (CBSE is a subject exam offered to US medical schools, where it has been used for external validation of student preparedness for the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE Step 1 in new schools and schools undergoing curricular reform. Information regarding the actual use of the NBME CBSE is limited. Therefore, the aim of the survey was to determine the scope and utilization of the NBME CBSE by US medical schools.Methods: A survey was sent in May 2016 to curriculum leadership of the 139 US medical schools listed on the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME® website with provisional or full accreditation as of February 29, 2016. Responses were received from 53 schools (38% response rate. A series of different follow-up questions were asked if respondents stated “yes” or “no” to the initial question “Does your institution administer the NBME CBSE prior to the USMLE Step 1?”.Results: A total of 37 schools (70% administered the NBME CBSE. In all, 36 of the 37 schools responded to follow-up questions. Of 36 schools, 13 schools (36% used the NBME CBSE for curriculum modification. Six schools (17% used the NBME CBSE for formative assessment for a course, and five schools (14% used the NBME CBSE for summative assessment for a course. A total of 28 schools (78% used the NBME CBSE for identifying students performing below expectations and providing targeted intervention strategies. In all, 24 schools (67% of the 36 responding schools administering the NBME CBSE administered the test once prior to the administration of the USMLE Step 1, whereas 10 (28% schools administered the NBME CBSE two or more times prior to the administration of the USMLE Step 1.Conclusion
Marques, Joana; Rosado-Pinto, Patrícia
To be a college teacher requires a permanent effort in developing specific competencies, namely in the pedagogical domain. This paper aims both to describe the pedagogical professional development program offered by the Medical Education Office of NOVA Medical School of Universidade Nova de Lisboa and to analyse its role in the enhancement of reflection around curriculum and teaching practice. Description of the pedagogical programme offered between 2010 and 2016. We focused the analysis on different kinds of data - opinions of the participants in the training programme (questionnaire before and after the training); pedagogical products elaborated by the participants in the programme - design of lessons, modules or curricular units; questionnaire sent in 2016 to NOVA Medical School teachers responsible for the curricular units, about the contribution of their disciplines to the accomplishment of the core learning outcomes of the NOVA Medical School medical graduates. The pedagogical training needs identified by the teachers focused mainly on improving practice, critically analysing the curriculum and sharing experiences. Globally the training programme was deeply appreciated and considered very good by 97% of the participants. The lesson plans delivered showed that the teachers were able to integrate and apply the concepts developed during the training. The answers from the 46 faculty responsible for the curricular units (the majority of them had attended the Medical Education Office training programme) highlighted their capacity to critically approach content and pedagogical strategies within their disciplines as well as their contribution to the main goals of the medical curriculum. The results underlined the importance of a pedagogical training focused on the critical analysis of curriculum and pedagogical practice. On the other hand, the pedagogical products analyzed revealed great mastery by teachers of the content and pedagogical strategies present in the
Seibert, Warren F.; Kuenz, Marjorie A.
The analyses reported here on the growth and change of medical school libraries are based on the annual statistics of 67 U.S. and Canadian medical school libraries, 1975-89, and 4 primary statistics from "parent," main campus libraries, all of them members of the Association of Research Libraries. The results show that medical school…
Daubney, John H.; Wagner, Edwin E.
Two successive classes of accelerated medical students were administered a variety of tests to find predictors of medical school grades. Through a combination of the Hand Test and Rorschach, a single index of maladjustment, Daubney Index, was derived. This correlated -.55 with medical school grades for 23 students. (Author/SJL)
Clay, Daniel; Farris, Karen; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Kelly, Michael W.; Howarth, Robyn
Medications are administered every day in schools across the country. Researchers and clinicians have studied school nurses' and educators' experiences with medication administration, but not the experiences of children or their parents. This study examined medication administration from the child and parent perspectives to (a) determine problems…
Mathews, Michael B.; Stagnaro-Green, Alex
Biochemistry and molecular biology occupy a unique place in the medical school curriculum. They are frequently studied prior to medical school and are fundamental to the teaching of biomedical sciences in undergraduate medical education. These two circumstances, and the trend toward increased integration among the disciplines, have led to…
Seoane, Leonardo; Tompkins, Lisa M.; De Conciliis, Anthony; Boysen, Philip G.
Background: Studies have shown that medical students have high rates of burnout accompanied by a loss of empathy as they progress through their training. This article describes a course for medical students at The University of Queensland-Ochsner Clinical School in New Orleans, LA, that focuses on the development of virtues and character strengths necessary in the practice of medicine. Staff of the Ochsner Clinical School and of the Institute of Medicine, Education, and Spirituality at Ochsner, a research and consulting group of Ochsner Health System, developed the course. It is a curricular innovation designed to explicitly teach virtues and their associated prosocial behaviors as a means of promoting professional formation among medical students. Virtues are core to the development of prosocial behaviors that are essential for appropriate professional formation. Methods: Fourth-year medical students receive instruction in the virtues as part of the required Medicine in Society (MIS) course. The virtues instruction consists of five 3-hour sessions during orientation week of the MIS course and a wrapup session at the end of the 8-week rotation. Six virtues—courage, wisdom, temperance, humanity, transcendence, and justice—are taught in a clinical context, using personal narratives, experiential exercises, contemplative practices, and reflective practices. Results: As of July 2015, 30 medical students had completed and evaluated the virtues course. Ninety-seven percent of students felt the course was well structured. After completing the course, 100% of students felt they understood and could explain the character strengths that improve physician engagement and patient care, 100% of students reported understanding the importance of virtues in the practice of medicine, and 83% felt the course provided a guide to help them deal with the complexities of medical practice. Ninety-three percent of students stated they would use the character strengths for their own
Seoane, Leonardo; Tompkins, Lisa M; De Conciliis, Anthony; Boysen, Philip G
Studies have shown that medical students have high rates of burnout accompanied by a loss of empathy as they progress through their training. This article describes a course for medical students at The University of Queensland-Ochsner Clinical School in New Orleans, LA, that focuses on the development of virtues and character strengths necessary in the practice of medicine. Staff of the Ochsner Clinical School and of the Institute of Medicine, Education, and Spirituality at Ochsner, a research and consulting group of Ochsner Health System, developed the course. It is a curricular innovation designed to explicitly teach virtues and their associated prosocial behaviors as a means of promoting professional formation among medical students. Virtues are core to the development of prosocial behaviors that are essential for appropriate professional formation. Fourth-year medical students receive instruction in the virtues as part of the required Medicine in Society (MIS) course. The virtues instruction consists of five 3-hour sessions during orientation week of the MIS course and a wrapup session at the end of the 8-week rotation. Six virtues-courage, wisdom, temperance, humanity, transcendence, and justice-are taught in a clinical context, using personal narratives, experiential exercises, contemplative practices, and reflective practices. As of July 2015, 30 medical students had completed and evaluated the virtues course. Ninety-seven percent of students felt the course was well structured. After completing the course, 100% of students felt they understood and could explain the character strengths that improve physician engagement and patient care, 100% of students reported understanding the importance of virtues in the practice of medicine, and 83% felt the course provided a guide to help them deal with the complexities of medical practice. Ninety-three percent of students stated they would use the character strengths for their own well-being, and 90% said they would
Larsson, Margareta; Tydén, Tanja; Stenhammar, Christina
The aim was to investigate school nurses’ attitudes towards, and experiences of vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), and compare the results with a similar study three years earlier. School nurses (n = 736) from all counties in Sweden completed a questionnaire in spring 2016, four years after the implementation of the national HPV vaccination programme, and three years after the previous survey. Overall, the school nurses had more favourable attitudes towards the HPV vaccination programme compared to the study in 2013 (p = 0.015). More than half of the nurses (n = 415, 56%) strongly agreed that boys should also be offered the vaccine (pnurses’ perceived knowledge about HPV in order to inform and to answer questions about the vaccine from the girls or from the parents. More than half of the nurses (n = 409, 56%) reported that they needed more education about HPV. Almost all nurses (n = 659, 90%) had been contacted by parents with questions about the vaccine, and most questions were related to vaccine safety. School nurses have a more favourable attitude towards the vaccination programme against HPV compared to three years earlier, although almost all nurses had been contacted by parents with diverse questions and concerns. The nurses believed that they needed more education about HPV. Thus, it is essential to provide ongoing education and training for school nurses who are key healthcare professionals for providing information about HPV and HPV vaccination to parents and to pupils. PMID:28419156
Skochelak, Susan E; Stansfield, R Brent; Dunham, Lisette; Dekhtyar, Michael; Gruppen, Larry D; Christianson, Charles; Filstead, William; Quirk, Mark
Accreditation and professional organizations have recognized the importance of measuring medical students' perceptions of the learning environment, which influences well-being and professional competency development, to optimize professional development. This study was conducted to explore interactions between students' perceptions of the medical school learning environment, student demographic variables, and students' professional attributes of empathy, coping, tolerance of ambiguity, and patient-centeredness to provide ideas for improving the learning environment. Twenty-eight medical schools at 38 campuses recruited 4,664 entering medical students to participate in the two-cohort longitudinal study (2010-2014 or 2011-2015). The authors employed chi-square tests and analysis of variance to examine the relationship between Medical School Learning Environment Survey (MSLES) scores and student characteristics. The authors used mixed-effects models with random school and campus effects to test the overall variances accounted for in MSLES scores at the end of the first year of medical school. Student attributes and demographic characteristics differed significantly across schools but accounted for only 2.2% of the total variance in MSLES scores. Medical school campus explained 15.6% of the variance in MSLES scores. At year's end, students' perceptions toward the learning environment, as reported on the MSLES, differed significantly according to the medical school campus where they trained. Further studies are needed to identify specific factors, such as grading policies, administrative support, and existence of learning communities, which may influence perceptions of the learning environment at various schools. Identifying such variables would assist schools in developing a positive learning environment.
Byszewski, Anna; Gill, Jeewanjit S; Lochnan, Heather
Accrediting bodies now recognize the importance of developing the professionalism competency, by setting standards that require medical schools to identify where professionalism is addressed and how it is evaluated within the formal curriculum. The objective of this study was to compare how professionalism competency is formally addressed in the curricula of Canadian medical schools, and to better understand the Canadian approach to reporting and remediation of lapses. A literature review was performed and with the input of the AFMC(Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada) Professionalism group, questionnaires were generated. An electronic survey was circulated to key leaders across the country at all the medical schools. In-depth telephone interviews were used to further explore themes, and a subsequent focus group was held to discuss challenges, particularly related to reporting and remediation. The preponderance of formal professionalism teaching remains in the form of lectures and small group sessions in the preclinical years. Formal teaching declines significantly in the clerkship/clinical years. Evaluation is usually performed by a clinical supervisor, but OSCE, portfolio, and concern notes are increasingly used. Role modeling is heavily relied upon in clinical years, suggesting faculty training can help ensure clinical teachers recognize their influence on trainees. Formal remediation strategies are in place at most schools, and often involve essay writing, reflection exercises, or completion of learning modules about professionalism. Lack of clarity on what defines a lapse and fear of reprisal (for both trainees and faculty) limits reporting. This study provides an overview of how professional identity formation is supported in the Canadian context, guided by the standards set out by CanMEDS. Despite a rich literature that describes the definition, program design and evaluation methods for professionalism, in some areas of the curriculum there is
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to determine the correlation between medical education systems, medical college (MC and medical school (MS, and empathy by investigating the changes in empathy among students with each additional year of medical education. Methods The subjects were MC and MS students who had participated in the same study the previous year. All participants completed the same self-report instruments: a questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, and the Korean edition of the Student Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE-S-K, Among 334 students, the final analysis was conducted on the data provided by 113 MC and 120 MS students, excluding 101 with incomplete data. Results The age and sex did not affect the changes in empathy. Though the JSE-S-K score of MS was significantly higher than that of MC in initial investigation, this study found no difference of empathy between MC and MS. Conclusion Empathy increased significantly after one year of medical education. The difference between two education systems, MC and MS, did not affect the changes in empathy.
Wright, William S; Baston, Kirk
Purpose The National Board of Medical Examiners® (NBME) Comprehensive Basic Science Exam (CBSE) is a subject exam offered to US medical schools, where it has been used for external validation of student preparedness for the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE) Step 1 in new schools and schools undergoing curricular reform. Information regarding the actual use of the NBME CBSE is limited. Therefore, the aim of the survey was to determine the scope and utilization of the NBME CBSE by US medical schools. Methods A survey was sent in May 2016 to curriculum leadership of the 139 US medical schools listed on the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME®) website with provisional or full accreditation as of February 29, 2016. Responses were received from 53 schools (38% response rate). A series of different follow-up questions were asked if respondents stated “yes” or “no” to the initial question “Does your institution administer the NBME CBSE prior to the USMLE Step 1?”. Results A total of 37 schools (70%) administered the NBME CBSE. In all, 36 of the 37 schools responded to follow-up questions. Of 36 schools, 13 schools (36%) used the NBME CBSE for curriculum modification. Six schools (17%) used the NBME CBSE for formative assessment for a course, and five schools (14%) used the NBME CBSE for summative assessment for a course. A total of 28 schools (78%) used the NBME CBSE for identifying students performing below expectations and providing targeted intervention strategies. In all, 24 schools (67%) of the 36 responding schools administering the NBME CBSE administered the test once prior to the administration of the USMLE Step 1, whereas 10 (28%) schools administered the NBME CBSE two or more times prior to the administration of the USMLE Step 1. Conclusion Our data suggest that the NBME CBSE is administered by many US medical schools. However, the objective, timing, and number of exams administered vary greatly among schools. PMID
Lopez-Valcarcel, B G; Ortún, V; Barber, P; Harris, J E; García, B
Medical school graduates in Spain must take a uniform national exam (called "examen MIR") in order to enter postgraduate training in a specialty. Its results offer a unique opportunity to rank medical schools according to this exam. We measured differences in the MIR exam results among Spanish medical schools and assessed the stability of the MIR-based rankings for the period 2003-2011. In the year 2011 a total of 6873 residency positions nationwide were offered by the Spanish Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality. These positions covered 47 specialties distributed over 231 training centers. A total of 11,550 medical graduates (including 1997 foreign graduates) took the MIR examination. Marked differences among medical schools were evident. The median graduate from medical school #1 and #29 occupied the positions 1477 and 5383, respectively. These figures correspond to a standardized ranking of 21 out of 100 for medical school #1 (that is, 1477/6873; half of medical school #1 obtained better [below position 21%] and half worse [over position 21%] results) and a standardized ranking of 70 out of 100 for medical school #29. While 81% of the medical school #1 graduates were amongst the best 3000 MIR exams and only 5% above the 5000 position the corresponding figures for medical school #29 graduates were 21% and 44%, respectively. The ranking position of the 29 medical schools was very stable between the years 2003 and 2011. There are marked differences in medical schools in Spain and these differences are very consistent over the years 2003-2011. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Borg, Erik; Edquist, Gertrud; Reinholdson, Anna-Clara; Risberg, Arne; McAllister, Bob
There is little information on speech and language development in pre-school children with mild, moderate or severe hearing impairment. The primary aim of the study is to establish a reference material for clinical use covering various aspects of speech and language functions and to relate test values to pure tone audiograms and parents' judgement of their children's hearing and language abilities. Nine speech and language tests were applied or modified, both classical tests and newly developed tests. Ninety-seven children with normal hearing and 156 with hearing impairment were tested. Hearing was 80 dB HL PTA or better in the best ear. Swedish was their strongest language. None had any additional diagnosed major handicaps. The children were 4-6 years of age. The material was divided into 10 categories of hearing impairment, 5 conductive and 5 sensorineural: unilateral; bilateral 0-20; 21-40; 41-60; 61-80 dB HL PTA. The tests, selected on the basis of a three component language model, are phoneme discrimination; rhyme matching; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III, word perception); Test for Reception of Grammar (TROG, grammar perception); prosodic phrase focus; rhyme construction; Word Finding Vocabulary Test (word production); Action Picture Test (grammar production); oral motor test. Only categories with sensorineural loss showed significant differences from normal. Word production showed the most marked delay for 21-40 dB HL: 5 and 6 years ptest showed a 1.5-2 years delay for sensorineural impairment 41-80 dB HL through 4-6 years of age. There were no differences between hearing-impaired boys and girls. Extended data for the screening test [E. Borg, A. Risberg, B. McAllister, B.M. Undemar, G. Edquist, A.C. Reinholdsson, et al., Language development in hearing-impaired children. Establishment of a reference material for a "Language test for hearing-impaired children", Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 65 (2002) 15-26] are presented. Reference values for
Full Text Available Mainul Haque,1 Zainal Zulkifli,2 Seraj Zohurul Haque,3 Zubair M Kamal,4 Abdus Salam,5 Vidya Bhagat,2 Ahmed Ghazi Alattraqchi,2 Nor Iza A Rahman2 1Unit of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and Defense Health, National Defense University of Malaysia, Kem Sungai Besi, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Jalan Sultan Mahmud, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia; 3School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital & Medical School, Dundee, UK; 4Sleep Research Unit, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada; 5Department of Medical Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: Defining professionalism in this constantly evolving world is not easy. How do you measure degrees of benevolence and compassion? If it is so obvious to our profession, what professionalism is, then why is it so difficult to teach it to medical students and residents? Today’s definition of medical professionalism is evolving – from autonomy to accountability, from expert opinion to evidence-based medicine, and from self-interest to teamwork and shared responsibility. However, medical professionalism is defined as the basis for the trust in the patient–physician relationship, caring and compassion, insight, openness, respect for patient dignity, confidentiality, autonomy, presence, altruism, and those qualities that lead to trust-competence, integrity, honesty, morality, and ethical conduct. The purpose of this study is to explore professionalism in terms of its fundamental elements among medical students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA. This was a cross-sectional study carried out on medical students of UniSZA. The study population included preclinical and clinical medical students of UniSZA from Year I to Year V of academic session 2014/2015. The simple random sampling technique was used to select the sample. Data were
Miller, Jeffrey C; Andersson, George E; Cohen, Marcia; Cohen, Stephen M; Gibson, Scott; Hindery, Michael A; Hooven, Martha; Krakower, Jack; Browdy, David H
Medical schools conduct research, provide clinical care, and educate future physicians and scientists. Each school has its own unique mix of revenue sources and expense sharing among the medical school, faculty practice plan(s), parent university, and affiliated hospital(s). Despite these differences, revenues from clinical care subsidize the money-losing research and education missions at every medical school.In this perspective, the authors discuss the flow of funds among a medical school, its faculty practice plan(s), parent university, and affiliated hospital(s). They summarize where medical school revenues come from, how revenues and expenses flow within a medical school and between a medical school and its partners, and why understanding this process is crucial to leading and managing such an enterprise. They conclude with recommendations for medical schools to consider in developing funds flow models that meet their individual needs and circumstances: (1) understand economic drivers, (2) reward desired behaviors, (3) enable every unit to generate a positive margin, (4) communicate budget priorities, financial performance, and the use of institutional resources, and (5) establish principles for sharing resources and allocating expenses among entities within the institution.Medical schools should develop funds flow models that are transparent, aligned with their strategic priorities, and reward the behaviors necessary to produce effective collaboration within and across mission areas.
Ike, Brooke R; Calhoun, Rebecca; Angulo, Antoinette S; Meischke, Hendrika; Senturia, Kirsten D
Dissemination of trusted disaster information to limited English proficient (LEP) communities may mitigate the negative effects these higher risk communities experience in disasters. For immigrant communities, disaster messages may be perceived with skepticism, and fear of public officials may affect compliance with disaster messages. This study explores whether medical interpreters (MIs) and bilingual school staff (BSS) are already informal information sources for LEP communities, and could their connection to both public service organizations and LEP communities make them ideal efficient, trusted disaster information conduits for LEP communities. The authors conducted a mixed methods study, which included MI individual interviews, Latino community focus groups, an MI employer survey, and school administrator interviews. To ensure diversity in the sample, data were collected in both Los Angeles and Seattle. MIs, MI employers, and schools are willing to communicate disaster information to LEP communities. MIs and BSS are connected to and share information with LEP communities. Latino LEP communities are eager for more disaster information and sources. The study adds to the evidence that a multipronged approach that includes collaborating with professionals linked to immigrant communities, such as MIs and BSS, could be an effective method of disaster information dissemination. Working with MIs and BSS as part of a wider dissemination strategy would promote a community-based interpersonal flow of information that would contribute to LEP community's trust in the message.
Dewan, Mantosh; Norcini, John
The fourth year of medical school has been repeatedly found to be ineffective, and concerns exist about its purpose and academic quality, as well as grade inflation. Since Flexner, the purpose of undergraduate medical training has moved from readiness for independent practice to readiness for postgraduate training. However, training directors report that medical graduates are inadequately prepared to enter residency. The authors propose a fourth year with two components: first, a yearlong, longitudinal ambulatory experience of at least three days each week on an interprofessional team with consistent faculty supervision and mentoring, increasing independence, and a focus on education; and second, rigorous clinical-scales-based assessment of meaningful outcomes.In the proposed model, the medical student has generous time with a limited panel of patients, and increasing autonomy, with faculty moving from supervising physicians to collaborating physicians. There is regular assessment and formative feedback. This more independent, longitudinal clinical experience uniquely allows assessment of the most meaningful work-based performance outcomes-that is, patient outcomes assessed by validated clinical scales. The proposed fourth year will require a realignment of resources and faculty time; however, models already exist. Barriers and possible solutions are discussed.A purpose-driven, assessment-rich fourth year with patient and supervisor continuity will provide real-world experience, making medical graduates more competent and confident on the first day of residency. Use of clinical scales will also allow educators new confidence that the performance-based competence of these more experienced and expert graduates leads to demonstrable collaboration, healing, and good patient outcomes.
Medical research during the Japanese Colonial Period became systematic and active after the Keijo Imperial University Medical School was established in 1926. Various kinds of research were conducted there including pharmacological, physiological, pathological and parasitological research. The Keijo Imperial University was give a mission to study about Korea. Urgent topics for medical research included control of infectious diseases, hygiene and environmental health that might have affected colonizing bodies of the Japanese as well as the colonized. The bodies of Koreans had been studied by Japanese even before the establishment of the University. The Keijo Imperial University research team, however, organized several field studies for physical anthropology and blood typing research at the national scale to get representative sampling of the people from its north to its south of the Korean peninsula. In the filed, they relied upon the local police and administrative power to gather reluctant women and men to measure them in a great detail. The physical anthropology and blood typing research by the Japanese researchers was related to their eagerness to place Korean people in the geography of the races in the world. Using racial index R.I.(= (A%+AB%)/(B%+AB%)), the Japanese researchers put Koreans as a race between the Mongolian and the Japanese. The preoccupation with constitution and race also pervasively affected the medical practice: race (Japanese, Korean, or Japanese living in Korea) must be written in every kind of medical chart as a default. After the breakout of Chinese-Japanese War in 1937, the Keijo Imperial University researchers extended its physical anthropology field study to Manchuria and China to get data on physics of the people in 1940. The Japanese government and research foundations financially well supported the Keijo Imperial University researchers and the field studies for physical anthropology in Korea, Manchuria and China. The physical
Yamazaki, Yuka; Uka, Takanori; Shimizu, Haruhiko; Miyahira, Akira; Sakai, Tatsuo; Marui, Eiji
The number of physicians engaged in basic sciences and teaching is sharply decreasing in Japan. To alleviate this shortage, central government has increased the quota of medical students entering the field. This study investigated medical students' interest in basic sciences in efforts to recruit talent. A questionnaire distributed to 501 medical students in years 2 to 6 of Juntendo University School of Medicine inquired about sex, grade, interest in basic sciences, interest in research, career path as a basic science physician, faculties' efforts to encourage students to conduct research, increases in the number of lectures, and practical training sessions on research. Associations between interest in basic sciences and other variables were examined using χ(2) tests. From among the 269 medical students (171 female) who returned the questionnaire (response rate 53.7%), 24.5% of respondents were interested in basic sciences and half of them considered basic sciences as their future career. Obstacles to this career were their original aim to become a clinician and concerns about salary. Medical students who were likely to be interested in basic sciences were fifth- and sixth-year students, were interested in research, considered basic sciences as their future career, considered faculties were making efforts to encourage medical students to conduct research, and wanted more research-related lectures. Improving physicians' salaries in basic sciences is important for securing talent. Moreover, offering continuous opportunities for medical students to experience research and encouraging advanced-year students during and after bedside learning to engage in basic sciences are important for recruiting talent.
Full Text Available Tzu-Chieh Yu¹, Nichola C Wilson², Primal P Singh¹, Daniel P Lemanu¹, Susan J Hawken³, Andrew G Hill¹¹South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; ²Department of Surgery, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; ³Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland, New ZealandIntroduction: International interest in peer-teaching and peer-assisted learning (PAL during undergraduate medical programs has grown in recent years, reflected both in literature and in practice. There, remains however, a distinct lack of objective clarity and consensus on the true effectiveness of peer-teaching and its short- and long-term impacts on learning outcomes and clinical practice.Objective: To summarize and critically appraise evidence presented on peer-teaching effectiveness and its impact on objective learning outcomes of medical students.Method: A literature search was conducted in four electronic databases. Titles and abstracts were screened and selection was based on strict eligibility criteria after examining full-texts. Two reviewers used a standard review and analysis framework to independently extract data from each study. Discrepancies in opinions were resolved by discussion in consultation with other reviewers. Adapted models of “Kirkpatrick’s Levels of Learning” were used to grade the impact size of study outcomes.Results: From 127 potential titles, 41 were obtained as full-texts, and 19 selected after close examination and group deliberation. Fifteen studies focused on student-learner outcomes and four on student-teacher learning outcomes. Ten studies utilized randomized allocation and the majority of study participants were self-selected volunteers. Written examinations and observed clinical evaluations were common study outcome assessments. Eleven studies provided student-teachers with formal teacher training. Overall, results suggest that peer-teaching, in highly selective
Dacey, Marie L.; Kennedy, Mary A.; Polak, Rani; Phillips, Edward M.
Background Despite a large evidence base to demonstrate the health benefits of regular physical activity (PA), few physicians incorporate PA counseling into office visits. Inadequate medical training has been cited as a cause for this. This review describes curricular components and assesses the effectiveness of programs that have reported outcomes of PA counseling education in medical schools. Methods The authors systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and ERIC databases for articles published in English from 2000 through 2012 that met PICOS inclusion criteria of medical school programs with PA counseling skill development and evaluation of outcomes. An initial search yielded 1944 citations, and 11 studies representing 10 unique programs met criteria for this review. These studies were described and analyzed for study quality. Strength of evidence for six measured outcomes shared by multiple studies was also evaluated, that is, students’ awareness of benefits of PA, change in students’ attitudes toward PA, change in personal PA behaviors, improvements in PA counseling knowledge and skills, self-efficacy to conduct PA counseling, and change in attitude toward PA counseling. Results Considerable heterogeneity of teaching methods, duration, and placement within the curriculum was noted. Weak research designs limited an optimal evaluation of effectiveness, that is, few provided pre-/post-intervention assessments, and/or included control comparisons, or met criteria for intervention transparency and control for risk of bias. The programs with the most evidence of improvement indicated positive changes in students’ attitudes toward PA, their PA counseling knowledge and skills, and their self-efficacy to conduct PA counseling. These programs were most likely to follow previous recommendations to include experiential learning, theoretically based frameworks, and students’ personal PA behaviors. Conclusions Current results provide some support for
Marie L. Dacey
Full Text Available Background: Despite a large evidence base to demonstrate the health benefits of regular physical activity (PA, few physicians incorporate PA counseling into office visits. Inadequate medical training has been cited as a cause for this. This review describes curricular components and assesses the effectiveness of programs that have reported outcomes of PA counseling education in medical schools. Methods: The authors systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and ERIC databases for articles published in English from 2000 through 2012 that met PICOS inclusion criteria of medical school programs with PA counseling skill development and evaluation of outcomes. An initial search yielded 1944 citations, and 11 studies representing 10 unique programs met criteria for this review. These studies were described and analyzed for study quality. Strength of evidence for six measured outcomes shared by multiple studies was also evaluated, that is, students’ awareness of benefits of PA, change in students’ attitudes toward PA, change in personal PA behaviors, improvements in PA counseling knowledge and skills, self-efficacy to conduct PA counseling, and change in attitude toward PA counseling. Results: Considerable heterogeneity of teaching methods, duration, and placement within the curriculum was noted. Weak research designs limited an optimal evaluation of effectiveness, that is, few provided pre-/post-intervention assessments, and/or included control comparisons, or met criteria for intervention transparency and control for risk of bias. The programs with the most evidence of improvement indicated positive changes in students’ attitudes toward PA, their PA counseling knowledge and skills, and their self-efficacy to conduct PA counseling. These programs were most likely to follow previous recommendations to include experiential learning, theoretically based frameworks, and students’ personal PA behaviors. Conclusions: Current results provide
Dacey, Marie L; Kennedy, Mary A; Polak, Rani; Phillips, Edward M
Despite a large evidence base to demonstrate the health benefits of regular physical activity (PA), few physicians incorporate PA counseling into office visits. Inadequate medical training has been cited as a cause for this. This review describes curricular components and assesses the effectiveness of programs that have reported outcomes of PA counseling education in medical schools. The authors systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and ERIC databases for articles published in English from 2000 through 2012 that met PICOS inclusion criteria of medical school programs with PA counseling skill development and evaluation of outcomes. An initial search yielded 1944 citations, and 11 studies representing 10 unique programs met criteria for this review. These studies were described and analyzed for study quality. Strength of evidence for six measured outcomes shared by multiple studies was also evaluated, that is, students' awareness of benefits of PA, change in students' attitudes toward PA, change in personal PA behaviors, improvements in PA counseling knowledge and skills, self-efficacy to conduct PA counseling, and change in attitude toward PA counseling. Considerable heterogeneity of teaching methods, duration, and placement within the curriculum was noted. Weak research designs limited an optimal evaluation of effectiveness, that is, few provided pre-/post-intervention assessments, and/or included control comparisons, or met criteria for intervention transparency and control for risk of bias. The programs with the most evidence of improvement indicated positive changes in students' attitudes toward PA, their PA counseling knowledge and skills, and their self-efficacy to conduct PA counseling. These programs were most likely to follow previous recommendations to include experiential learning, theoretically based frameworks, and students' personal PA behaviors. Current results provide some support for previous recommendations, and current initiatives
Brähler, E; Strauss, B
During the last 15 years, the performance-based allocation of funds (Leistungsorientierte Mittelvergabe, LOM) has become remarkably important at medical schools in Germany. In the meantime, all medical schools have established procedures adopting LOM to research. More recently, several medical schools have also begun to use LOM for teaching. The procedures used for both research and teaching are still very heterogeneous. For research, the DFG and the Wissenschaftsrat made suggestions to the medical schools, which were appreciated in a very normative way. The DFG is currently revising its recommendations in cooperation with the AWMF. In some federal states, LOM is also used to control the allocation of funds between different medical schools. Medical schools very often use the impact factor for the evaluation of individuals (postdoctoral qualification (habilitation), appointments), although the impact factor is not suitable for that purpose. In these cases, citation systems should be preferred.
Anecdotal evidence indicates that more students with type 1 diabetes are enrolling in Catholic schools across the United States. Meeting the medical needs of these students appears to be a significant challenge--legally and logistically--for many Catholic schools. District officials, school leaders, and school staff need support to understand the…
Wang, Juan; Smedje, Greta; Nordquist, Tobias; Norbäck, Dan
This paper studies changes in subjective indoor air quality (SIAQ) among school children and relates these data to repeated exposure measurements during a two-year follow-up period. Data on SIAQ and demographic information were gathered by a questionnaire sent to 1476 primary and secondary school pupils in 39 randomly selected schools at baseline and after two years (follow-up). Exposure measurements were applied after questionnaire data were collected at baseline and follow-up in approximately 100 classrooms. The arithmetic mean values for baseline and follow-up were: for indoor air temperature 23.6°C and 21.8°C and for outdoor air flow rate 5.4 L/s and 7.9L/s. Older children, those with atopy at baseline, and those in larger schools reported impaired SIAQ during follow-up. Installation of new ventilation systems, higher personal air flow rate and air exchange rate, and better illumination were associated with improved SIAQ. Higher CO2 levels were associated with impaired SIAQ. In conclusion, sufficient ventilation and illumination in classrooms are essential for the perception of good indoor air quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This study explores the movements of some Swedish former education policy-makers that are currently active as commercial edu-business actors with the ambition to expand in the Global Education Industry (GEI). The aim is to map and analyze how a selection of Swedish edu-preneurs affiliated with a particular Swedish school chain enter the GEI and…
Nestel D; Gray K; Simmons M; Pritchard SA; Islam R; Eng WQ; Ng A; Dornan T
Debra Nestel,1 Katherine Gray,1 Margaret Simmons,1 Shane A Pritchard,1 Rumana Islam,1 Wan Q Eng,1 Adrian Ng,1 Tim Dornan2 1Gippsland Medical School/School of Rural Health, Monash University, Clayton, Australia; 2School of Health Professions Education, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands Background: This paper explores local community perceptions of a relatively new rural medical school. For the purposes of this paper, community engagement is conceptualized as involvement in pl...
Mejia, Christian R; Inga-Berrospi, Fiorella; Mayta-Tristán, Percy
We surveyed physicians who obtained their medical degree with a thesis in 2011 from the seven medical schools in Lima to know the characteristics of the degree by thesis process, as well as participants motivations and perceptions of that process. We included 98 students who did a thesis (87% of total); 99% conducted observational thesis, 30% did so in groups of three. The main motivation was that it was good for their curriculum vitae (94%). At the university where the thesis is compulsory, the process began with the choice of topic and adviser. Perceived greatest and least difficulty in the process was the completion of administrative procedures (53%) and selection of their advisor (11%), respectively. Administrative timeliness and processes should be reviewed so as not to impede the completion of thesis, since the new University Act requires the completion of a thesis to graduate.
Bifulco, Maurizio; Capunzo, Mario; Marasco, Magda; Pisanti, Simona
The link between hygiene and the concept of transmission of infective diseases was established earlier than the birth of microbiology, thanks to the studies of two neglected physicians of maternity clinic, Ignác Fülöp Semmelweis and Oliver Holmes, in the mid-1800s. Surprisingly, centuries earlier, a medieval women physician, Trotula de Ruggiero, introduced for the first time the notion of diseases’ prevention, highlighting the importance of the association of personal hygiene, balanced nutrition and physical activity for better health. Moreover, she was particularly concerned of hands hygiene for the midwives during child birth, to preserve the good health of both the mother and the baby. She practiced inside the medieval Medical School of Salerno, whose main text, the “Regimen Sanitatis Salerni” has an entire part dedicated to hygiene, providing hygienic precepts that anticipate the concepts derived from the revolutionary discoveries in medical science only centuries later.
Williams, Reed G; Klamen, Debra L; White, Christopher B; Petrusa, Emil; Fincher, Ruth-Marie E; Whitfield, Carol F; Shatzer, John H; McCarty, Teresita; Miller, Bonnie M
Little is known about the acquisition of clinical reasoning skills in medical school, the development of clinical reasoning over the medical curriculum as a whole, and the impact of various curricular methodologies on these skills. This study investigated (1) whether there are differences in clinical reasoning skills between learners at different years of medical school, and (2) whether there are differences in performance between students at schools with various curricular methodologies. Students (n = 2,394) who had completed zero to three years of medical school at five U.S. medical schools participated in a cross-sectional study in 2008. Students took the same diagnostic pattern recognition (DPR) and clinical data interpretation (CDI) tests. Percent correct scores were used to determine performance differences. Data from all schools and students at all levels were aggregated for further analysis. Student performance increased substantially as a result of each year of training. Gains in DPR and CDI performance during the third year of medical school were not as great as in previous years across the five schools. CDI performance and performance gains were lower than DPR performance and gains. Performance gains attributable to training at each of the participating medical schools were more similar than different. Years of training accounted for most of the variation in DPR and CDI performance. As a rule, students at higher training levels performed better on both tests, though the expected larger gains during the third year of medical school did not materialize.
Cook, Christian Jaeger; Cook, Chad E; Hilton, Tiffany N
It aimed at determining whether emotional intelligence is a predictor for success in a medical school program and whether the emotional intelligence construct correlated with other markers for admission into medical school. Three databases (PubMed, CINAHL, and ERIC) were searched up to and including July 2016, using relevant terms. Studies written in English were selected if they included emotional intelligence as a predictor for success in medical school, markers of success such as examination scores and grade point average and association with success defined through traditional medical school admission criteria and failures, and details about the sample. Data extraction included the study authors and year, population description, emotional intelligence I tool, outcome variables, and results. Associations between emotional intelligence scores and reported data were extracted and recorded. Six manuscripts were included. Overall, study quality was high. Four of the manuscripts examined emotional intelligence as a predictor for success while in medical school. Three of these four studies supported a weak positive relationship between emotional intelligence scores and success during matriculation. Two of manuscripts examined the relationship of emotional intelligence to medical school admissions. There were no significant relevant correlations between emotional intelligence and medical school admission selection. Emotional intelligence was correlated with some, but not all, measures of success during medical school matriculation and none of the measures associated with medical school admissions. Variability in success measures across studies likely explains the variable findings.
Christian Jaeger Cook
Full Text Available Purpose It aimed at determining whether emotional intelligence is a predictor for success in a medical school program and whether the emotional intelligence construct correlated with other markers for admission into medical school. Methods Three databases (PubMed, CINAHL, and ERIC were searched up to and including July 2016, using relevant terms. Studies written in English were selected if they included emotional intelligence as a predictor for success in medical school, markers of success such as examination scores and grade point average and association with success defined through traditional medical school admission criteria and failures, and details about the sample. Data extraction included the study authors and year, population description, emotional intelligence I tool, outcome variables, and results. Associations between emotional intelligence scores and reported data were extracted and recorded. Results Six manuscripts were included. Overall, study quality was high. Four of the manuscripts examined emotional intelligence as a predictor for success while in medical school. Three of these four studies supported a weak positive relationship between emotional intelligence scores and success during matriculation. Two of manuscripts examined the relationship of emotional intelligence to medical school admissions. There were no significant relevant correlations between emotional intelligence and medical school admission selection. Conclusion Emotional intelligence was correlated with some, but not all, measures of success during medical school matriculation and none of the measures associated with medical school admissions. Variability in success measures across studies likely explains the variable findings.
Russ-Sellers, Rebecca; Blackwell, Thomas H
Medical schools are encouraged to introduce students to clinical experiences early, to integrate biomedical and clinical sciences, and to expose students to interprofessional health providers and teams. One important goal is for students to gain a better understanding of the patients they will care for in the future and how their social and behavioral characteristics may affect care delivery. To promote early clinical exposure and biomedical integration, in 2012 the University of South Carolina School of Medicine Greenville incorporated emergency medical technician (EMT) training into the curriculum. This report describes the program; outlines changes (made after year 1) to improve biomedical integration; and provides a brief analysis and categorization of comments from student reflections to determine whether particular themes, especially related to the hidden curriculum, appeared. Medical students wrote frequently about EMT-related experiences: 29% of reflections in the charter year (1.2 per student) and 38% of reflections in the second year (1.5 per student) focused on EMT-related experiences. Reflections related to patient care, professionalism, systems-based practice, and communication/interpersonal skills. The frequency of themes in student reflections may provide insight into a medical program's hidden curriculum. This information may serve to inform curricula that focus on biosocial elements such as professionalism and communication with the goal of enhancing future physicians' tolerance, empathy, and patient-centeredness. The authors plan to conduct further qualitative analysis of student reflections to iteratively revise curricula to address gaps both in learning and in the differences between the explicit curriculum and actual experiences.
Frey, Melissa K; Biewald, Mollie A; Worley, Michael J; Taylor, Jolyn S; Lin, Stephanie N; Holcomb, Kevin
INTRODUCTION: Lynch syndrome was first described in the 1950s however until recently it was rarely included in medical school curricula. As a result, many practicing physicians have limited exposure, potentially contributing to significant under diagnosis. As identification of Lynch syndrome prior to malignancy allows for intensified screening, prophylactic surgery and improved patient outcomes, all physicians should be aware of the characteristics of affected families. We aim to determine the overall level of awareness of Lynch syndrome among medical students at an American medical school. METHODS: A voluntary and anonymous questionnaire was delivered to students at an American medical school. The survey instrument assessed the respondent's perceived knowledge regarding the genetics and recommended screening for carriers of Lynch syndrome mutations. RESULTS: The questionnaire was distributed to the entire student body (405 students) with a response rate of 50%. Fifty-nine percent of students reported that they had learned about Lynch syndrome; 27% of first year students, 44% of second year students; 90% of third year students and 100% of fourth year students. Of the students familiar with Lynch syndrome, the reported knowledge of the underlying genetics was 46%, available genetic screening, 18%, criteria used to screen for the syndrome, 24%, recommendations for colon screening, 31% and recommendations for endometrial cancer screening, 17%. CONCLUSION: The majority of medical students surveyed had been exposed to Lynch syndrome and awareness increased over each year of education. Significantly more students were aware of recommendations for colon cancer screening than endometrial cancer screening (32% versus 17%, p = 0.01). Studies of the natural history of Lynch syndrome indicate that affected women are more likely to present with endometrial cancer than colon cancer and while there are no prospective data proving the efficacy of endometrial cancer screening in
Schripsema, Nienke R; van Trigt, Anke M; van der Wal, Martha A; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke
BACKGROUND: Research indicates that certain personality traits relate to performance in the medical profession. Yet, personality testing during selection seems ineffective. In this study, we examine the extent to which different medical school selection processes call upon desirable personality
Rocha, Paulo Novis; de Castro, Naara Alethéa Azael
... cultures.To determine the frequency with which students from a Brazilian Medical School come across ten given examples of unprofessional online behavior by medical students or physicians, and gather...
Kumwenda, Ben; Cleland, Jennifer A; Walker, Kim; Lee, Amanda J; Greatrix, Rachel
Differential attainment in school examinations is one of the barriers to increasing student diversity in medicine. However, studies on the predictive validity of prior academic achievement and educational performance at medical school are contradictory, possibly due to single-site studies or studies which focus only on early years' performance. To address these gaps, we examined the relationship between sociodemographic factors, including school type and average educational performance throughout medical school across a large number of diverse medical programmes. This retrospective study analysed data from students who graduated from 33 UK medical schools between 2012 and 2013. We included candidates' demographics, pre-entry grades (adjusted Universities and Colleges Admissions Service tariff scores) preadmission test scores (UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) and Graduate Medical School Admissions Test (GAMSAT)) and used the UK Foundation Programme's educational performance measure (EPM) decile as an outcome measure. Logistic regression was used to assess the independent relationship between students' background characteristics and EPM ranking. Students from independent schools had significantly higher mean UKCAT scores (2535.1, SD=209.6) than students from state-funded schools (2506.1, SD=224.0, pschools came into medical school with significantly higher mean GAMSAT scores (63.9, SD=6.9) than students from state-funded schools (60.8, SD=7.1, pschools were almost twice as likely (OR=2.01, 95% CI 1.49 to 2.73) to finish in the highest rank of the EPM ranking than those who attended independent schools. This is the first large-scale study to examine directly the relationship between school type and overall performance at medical school. Our findings provide modest supportive evidence that, when students from independent and state schools enter with similar pre-entry grades, once in medical school, students from state-funded schools are likely to outperform students
Sierles, Frederick; Brodkey, Amy; Cleary, Lynn; McCurdy, Frederick A; Mintz, Matthew; Frank, Julia; Lynn, Deborah Joanne; Chao, Jason; Morgenstern, Bruce; Shore, William; Woodard, John
The authors sought to ascertain the details of medical school policies about relationships between drug companies and medical students as well as student affairs deans' attitudes about these interactions. In 2005, the authors surveyed deans and student affairs deans at all U.S. medical schools and asked whether their schools had a policy about relationships between drug companies and medical students. They asked deans at schools with policies to summarize them, queried student affairs deans regarding their attitudes about gifts, and compared their attitudes with those of students who were studied previously. Independently of each other, 114 out of 126 deans (90.5%) and 114 out of 126 student affairs deans (90.5%) responded (identical numbers are not misprints). Ten schools had a policy regarding relationships between medical students and drug company representatives. Student affairs deans were much more likely than students to perceive that gifts were inappropriate. These 2005 policies show trends meriting review by current medical schools in considering how to comply with the 2008 Association of American Medical Colleges recommendations about relationships between drug companies and medical students or physicians.
Peters, A S; Feins, A; Rubin, R; Seward, S; Schnaidt, K; Fletcher, R H
The primary care clerkship (PCC) at Harvard Medical School was established in 1997. The goals are to provide students with longitudinal experiences with patients and to include modern themes in the curriculum: managing illness and clinical relationships over time; finding the best available answers to clinical questions; preventing illness and promoting health; dealing with clinical uncertainty; getting the best outcomes with available resources; working in a health care team; and sharing decision making with patients. The PCC, a required course in the clinical years, meets one afternoon a week for nine months. Students spend three afternoons per month in primary care practices, where they see three to five patients per session and follow at least one patient ("longitudinal patient") over time. Classroom sessions, in both large- and small-group formats, promote a common educational philosophy and experience, and reinforce habits of problem-based learning established in the preclinical years. The students rated 74% of their preceptors excellent, especially praising their ability to facilitate and support good interpersonal relationships with patients, their ability to encourage students' independent evaluation of patients (as opposed to shadowing), and their enthusiasm for teaching. Students saw their longitudinal patients a mean of 4.8 times; 83% saw their patients at least three times. The PCC complements the curriculum of block clerkships in hospitals, and because the two are offered concurrently, students are required to come to terms with two substantially different cultures within medicine. Other medical schools are beginning to develop longitudinal clerkships to ensure that students have essential educational experiences that are difficult to achieve in block, hospital-based clerkships.
Cushing Herbert E
Full Text Available Abstract Background A Family Day program was implemented at Indiana University School of Medicine to educate the families and friends of in-coming medical students about the rigors of medical school and the factors that contribute to stress. Methods Surveys that assessed knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes about medical school were administered to participants before and after the program. Results After the program, participants showed a significant improvement in their understanding of medical school culture and the importance of support systems for medical students. Post-test scores improved by an average of 29% (P Conclusions The inclusion of family members and other loved ones in pre-matriculation educational programs may serve to mitigate the stress associated with medical school by enhancing the students' social support systems.
Freedman, Daniel A; Albert, Dara V F
Osteopathic medical schools have a longstanding tradition of training primary care physicians (PCP). Neurologic symptoms are common in the PCP's office and there is an undersupply of neurologists in the United States. It is therefore crucial for osteopathic medical students to have a strong foundation in clinical neurology. Despite the importance, a mere 6% of osteopathic medical schools have required neurology clerkships. Furthermore, exposure to neurology in medical school through required clerkships has been correlated with matching into neurology residency. As osteopathic medical schools continue to expand, it will become increasingly important to emphasize the American Academy Neurology's published guidelines for a core clerkship curriculum. Practicing neurologists should take an active role in encouraging osteopathic medical schools to adopt these guidelines. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.
Seung Won Park
Full Text Available Purpose: In outbreaks of infectious disease, medical students are easily overlooked in the management of healthcare personnel protection although they serve in clinical clerkships in hospitals. In the early summer of 2015, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS struck South Korea, and students of Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine (SKKUSOM were at risk of contracting the disease. The purpose of this report is to share SKKUSOM’s experience against the MERS outbreak and provide suggestions for medical schools to consider in the face of similar challenges. Methods: Through a process of reflection-on-action, we examined SKKUSOM’s efforts to avoid student infection during the MERS outbreak and derived a few practical guidelines that medical schools can adopt to ensure student safety in outbreaks of infectious disease. Results: The school leadership conducted ongoing risk assessment and developed contingency plans to balance student safety and continuity in medical education. They rearranged the clerkships to another hospital and offered distant lectures and tutorials. Five suggestions are extracted for medical schools to consider in infection outbreaks: instant cessation of clinical clerkships; rational decision making on a school closure; use of information technology; constant communication with hospitals; and open communication with faculty, staff, and students. Conclusion: Medical schools need to take the initiative and actively seek countermeasures against student infection. It is essential that medical schools keep constant communication with their index hospitals and the involved personnel. In order to assure student learning, medical schools may consider offering distant education with online technology.
Albishri, Jamal A; Aly, Syed M; Alnemary, Yasir
To assess the relationship between current pre-admission criteria and medical student's grade point average (GPA) at the end of year 6 in 3 medical schools in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We conducted this observational analytical study at 3 government medical schools in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2011 and February 2012. High school grades, achievement test (Tahsili test) scores, aptitude test (Qudraat tests) scores, Mathematics, and English grades in the high school were used to predict medical student's GPA at the end of year 6. The criterion variable was student's cumulative GPA at the end of year 6. Correlation between pre-admission variables and GPA was calculated using Pearson's correlation, and multiple regression analyses. The Institutional review board and ethical committee at Taif Medical College approved the study. We included 727 students in this study from the chosen medical schools. A significant positive correlation was observed among all pre-admission variables and GPA. Inclusion of all 5 sets in multiple regression analyses revealed that the achievement test, English grade in the high school, high school grade and aptitude test (Qudraat tests) were statistically predictive of GPA. A 20.8% variance in the GPA can be accounted for by the pre-admission criteria. Multiple pre-admission factors predict medical students GPA. Achievement test is the most important predictor. High school grades in English emerged as an independent predictor. Medical schools should give more attention to these predictors during admissions.
Engström, K; Laflamme, L; Diderichsen, F
The objective of the study was to investigate whether there is equalisation of socioeconomic differences in injury risks among Swedish children and adolescents. Equalisation was defined as a reduction in relative differences in risks between socioeconomic groups. All Swedish children...... and adolescents aged 5-19 in 1990 were grouped into three age cohorts and allocated to four household socioeconomic statuses, considering boys and girls separately. Each cohort was then followed up over a 5-year period (1990-1994) with regard to three injury diagnosis groups (as registered in the national...... applicable, relative risks were computed in order to see whether equalisation benefited all socioeconomic groups. Tendencies of equalisation were found among girls for two of the diagnosis groups: in traffic injuries for the youngest cohort (aged 5-9 in 1990) and in the case of self-inflicted injuries within...
Fan, Angela Pei-Chen; Kosik, Russell O; Tsai, Thomas Chen-Chia; Cai, Qiaoling; Xu, Guo-Tong; Guo, Li; Su, Tung-Ping; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Chen, Qi
In North America, where it was born, problem-based learning (PBL) has seen dips and rises in its popularity, but its inherent strengths have led to its spread to medical schools all over the world. Although its use at medical schools in some Western countries has already been examined, no one has looked at its status in many other countries, including China. The aim of this study is to determine the number of schools currently using PBL in China, the degree to which they use it, and the reasoning behind such usage. We used survey and internet search to examine PBL usage at Chinese medical schools. We were able to collect data from 43 first-class Chinese medical schools that are geographically diverse and thus representative of medical schools all across China. 34 (79.1%) of the 43 medical schools use PBL in the preclinical curriculum. Of the 34, data were collected from 24 (70.6%) medical schools regarding the extent of their PBL usage. Nine (37.5%) schools use PBL for less than 10% of preclinical hours, 14 (58.3%) schools use PBL for 10-50% of preclinical hours, and one (4.2%) school uses PBL for more than 50% of preclinical hours. In our sample of Chinese medical institutions, a large majority of schools use PBL, however, most schools use it for less than 50% of total preclinical curricular hours. Our results suggest that schools are interested in increasing the number of curricular hours devoted to PBL but are constrained by resources.
Five proposals for admitting better applicants into medical school are discussed in this article: (1) An A level in a humanity or social science would be required, to supplement--not replace--the stringent science requirement. This would ensure that successful candidates would be better "primed" for the medical curriculum. (2) Extra points in the applicant's initial screening would be awarded for an A level in English literature. (3) There would be a minimum age of 23 for applicants, although a prior degree would not be required. This is to ensure that the applicants are mature enough to know themselves and the world better, to make a more informed and motivated choice of career, and to get more out of the humanities components of the curriculum. (4) A year's full-time experience in a healthcare or charity environment would be desirable. (5) Applicants would be given two lists of interview discussion topics to prepare: works of literature and topics in healthcare politics.
Calvin L. Chou
Full Text Available Purpose: When medical students move from the classroom into clinical practice environments, their roles and learning challenges shift dramatically from a formal curricular approach to a workplace learning model. Continuity among peers during clinical clerkships may play an important role in this different mode of learning. We explored students’ perceptions about how they achieved workplace learning in the context of intentionally formed or ad hoc peer groups. Method: We invited students in clerkship program models with continuity (CMCs and in traditional block clerkships (BCs to complete a survey about peer relationships with open-ended questions based on a workplace learning framework, including themes of workplace-based relationships, the nature of work practices, and selection of tasks and activities. We conducted qualitative content analysis to characterize students’ experiences. Results: In both BCs and CMCs, peer groups provided rich resources, including anticipatory guidance about clinical expectations of students, best practices in interacting with patients and supervisors, helpful advice in transitioning between rotations, and information about implicit rules of clerkships. Students also used each other as benchmarks for gauging strengths and deficits in their own knowledge and skills. Conclusions: Students achieve many aspects of workplace learning in clerkships through formal or informal workplace-based peer groups. In these groups, peers provide accessible, real-time, and relevant resources to help each other navigate transitions, clarify roles and tasks, manage interpersonal challenges, and decrease isolation. Medical schools can support effective workplace learning for medical students by incorporating continuity with peers in the main clinical clerkship year.
Farrokhi-Khajeh-Pasha, Yasin; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Mohammadi, Aeen; Malakan Rad, Elaheh; Majdzadeh, Reza
One of the challenges medical education policy-makers confront is matriculants' informed choice of entering medicine. However, students' reasons for choosing medicine do not seem rational. We compared students who made an informed choice about entering medicine with those who did not, in terms of academic success. The study was carried out with a self-administered questionnaire on 220 final-year medical students randomly selected from six Iranian medical schools. Depending on their informed choice of entering medicine or not at the time of application, they were divided into two groups. We compared these two groups' academic achievement as well as their satisfaction with medicine. The students who had not made an informed choice had a higher tendency not to choose medicine if they were to start over (p value ≤0.001). The pre-admission scores of students who had made an informed choice of medicine were worse than the other group (p = 0.03). However, their final year scores as well as their satisfaction with medicine were higher than the other group. Idealistic views of medicine should be replaced by rational and logical ones to help students select the careers best suited to their abilities and talents.
(firstname.lastname@example.org), Dictionary Staff of the Swedish Academy,. Lund, Sweden. Abstract: The Swedish Academy Dictionary is one of the world's largest dictionary projects. Work on it was started in 1884 and it will be completed by 2017. The dictionary describes the writ- ten standard language of Swedish from ...
Reutzel, Thomas J; Desai, Archana; Workman, Gloria; Atkin, John A; Grady, Sarah; Todd, Timothy; Nguyen, Nhu; Watkins, Melissa; Tran, Kim; Nian Liu; Rafinski, Michelle; Dang, Thanh
An increasing number of students are taking medications while they are in school or are under the influence of medication during school hours. In a novel effort, clinical pharmacists and mental health therapists worked together to provide "mini-in-service" educational programs on psychological disorders and medications used to treat these disorders. The purpose of this study was to implement and evaluate the effectiveness of these educational programs presented to school nurses, teachers, school administrators, and other personnel. The study compared participant responses before and after attending a medication in-service session on a psychological disorder and its related medications. Results indicated that in-service education on attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression improved the knowledge and confidence levels of school personnel regarding medications and symptoms. Feedback indicated school personnel wanted longer educational sessions and more information on these disorders and treatments. School nurses working with health professionals can improve education for staff, families, and students about mental health disorders and their treatment.
Boscoe, Elizabeth F; Cabrera-Muffly, Cristina
To identify trends in medical school otolaryngology curriculum requirements. Survey of United States allopathic medical schools. A survey was sent to deans of curriculum at allopathic medical schools. We identified opportunities for medical students to learn basic concepts in otolaryngology during their undergraduate medical training. The opportunities were classified into preclinical and clinical as well as elective and mandatory rotations. Of the schools surveyed, 60% responded. Mean class size was 149 students. Sixty-eight percent of surveyed schools noted that 75% to 100% of their students participated in preclinical otolaryngology experiences, with 59% reporting a mandatory preclinical otolaryngology module for all students. Eighty-nine percent of schools offered otolaryngology as a clinical elective rotation, with a mean of 12 students participating yearly. Only 7% of schools required a mandatory otolaryngology clinical rotation. Our data suggest that medical students do not receive sufficient exposure to otolaryngology during medical school. Increased requirements for otolaryngology curriculum may be beneficial to all medical students, regardless of their specialty choice. NA. Laryngoscope, 00:000-000, 2016 127:346-348, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Cheng, Hwee-Ming; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi
The annual Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ), initiated in 2003, is now an event that attracts a unique, large gathering of selected medical students from medical schools across the globe. The 8th IMSPQ, in 2010, hosted by the Department of Physiology, University of Malaya, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, had 200 students representing 41…
Urlings-Strop, Louise C.; Themmen, Axel P. N.; Stegers-Jager, Karen M.
Several medical schools include candidates' extracurricular activities in their selection procedure, with promising results regarding their predictive value for achievement during the clinical years of medical school. This study aims to reveal whether the better achievement in clinical training of students selected on the basis of their…
Cuca, Janet Melei; And Others
This document reviews the research on the medical school admissions process that has been completed during the past twenty years. The process is put into perspective by a historical overview chapter that traces trends in medical school admissions and highlights, where possible, relationships between the admissions process and institutional and…
Remmen, R; Scherpbier, A; van der Vleuten, C; Denekens, J; Derese, A; van Rossum, Herman; Hoogenboom, R; Kramer, A; Van Royen, P; Bossaert, L
Objective Training in physical diagnostic skills is an important part of undergraduate medical education. The objective of this study was to study the outcome of skills training at four medical schools. Context At the time of the study, three schools had a traditional lecture-based curriculum and
Ferreira-Valente, Alexandra; Monteiro, Joana S.; Barbosa, Rita M.; Salgueira, Ana; Costa, Patrício; Costa, Manuel J.
Despite the increasing awareness of the relevance of empathy in patient care, some findings suggest that medical schools may be contributing to the deterioration of students' empathy. Therefore, it is important to clarify the magnitude and direction of changes in empathy during medical school. We employed a scoping review to elucidate trends in…
Gustafson, Diana L; Reitmanova, Sylvia
Cultural diversity education is a required curriculum component at all accredited North American medical schools. Each medical school determines its own content and pedagogical approaches. This preliminary study maps the approaches to cultural diversity education in English Canadian medical schools. A review of 14 English Canadian medical school websites was undertaken to identify the theoretical approaches to cultural diversity education. A PubMed search was also completed to identify the recent literature on cultural diversity medical education in Canada. Data were analysed using 10 criteria that distinguish pedagogical approaches, curricular structure, course content and theoretical understandings of cultural diversity. Based on the information posted on English Canadian medical school websites, all schools offer cultural diversity education although how each 'does' cultural diversity differs widely. Two medical schools have adopted the cultural competency model; five have adopted a critical cultural approach to diversity; and the remaining seven have incorporated some aspects of both approaches. More comprehensive research is needed to map the theoretical approaches to cultural diversity at Canadian medical schools and to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of these approaches on improving physician-patient relationships, reducing health disparities, improving health outcomes and producing positive learning outcomes in physicians.
Nawaz, Hamayun; Brett, Allan S
Medical students and doctors in the USA frequently mention the patient's race at the beginning of oral or written clinical case presentations. However, this practice is controversial. We aimed to determine whether US medical schools explicitly teach students to mention race at the beginning of case presentations, and to collect additional information on the schools' perspectives on this practice. An Internet-based questionnaire was submitted to directors of courses on history taking and physical examination at all US medical schools. The response rate was 85%. Students are taught to mention race routinely at 11% of schools and selectively at 63% of schools; this practice is discouraged at 9% of schools and not addressed at 18% of schools. Most respondents noted that resident doctors at their institutions routinely mention race at the beginning of case presentations. Even at schools in which mentioning race is discouraged or not addressed, students tend to include race during their clinical rotations. Respondents were divided on whether a standardised approach to inclusion of race should exist at US schools. Teaching about inclusion or exclusion of race in the opening statement of clinical case presentations varies across US medical schools. This variation presents an opportunity for medical educators to discuss tensions between stereotyping and cultural competence in medical education.
Wouters, Anouk; Croiset, Gerda; Schripsema, Nienke R; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Spaai, Gerard W G; Hulsman, Robert L; Kusurkar, Rashmi A
The aim was to examine main reasons for students' medical school choice and their relationship with students' characteristics and motivation during the students' medical study. In this multisite cross-sectional study, all Year-1 and Year-4 students who had participated in a selection procedure in one of the three Dutch medical schools included in the study were invited to complete an online survey comprising personal data, their main reason for medical school choice and standard, validated questionnaires to measure their strength of motivation (Strength of Motivation for Medical School-Revised) and autonomous and controlled type of motivation (Academic Self-regulation Questionnaire). Four hundred seventy-eight students participated. We performed frequency analyses on the reasons for medical school choice and regression analyses and ANCOVAs to study their associations with students' characteristics and motivation during their medical study. Students indicated 'city' (Year-1: 24.7%, n=75 and Year-4: 36.0%, n=52) and 'selection procedure' (Year-1: 56.9%, n=173 and Year-4: 46.9%, n=68) as the main reasons for their medical school choice. The main reasons were associated with gender, age, being a first-generation university student, ethnic background and medical school, and no significant associations were found between the main reasons and the strength and type of motivation during the students' medical study. Most students had based their medical school choice on the selection procedure. If medical schools desire to achieve a good student-curriculum fit and attract a diverse student population aligning the selection procedure with the curriculum and taking into account various students' different approaches is important.
Croiset, Gerda; Schripsema, Nienke R.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Spaai, Gerard W.G.; Hulsman, Robert L.; Kusurkar, Rashmi A.
Objectives The aim was to examine main reasons for students’ medical school choice and their relationship with students’ characteristics and motivation during the students’ medical study. Methods In this multisite cross-sectional study, all Year-1 and Year-4 students who had participated in a selection procedure in one of the three Dutch medical schools included in the study were invited to complete an online survey comprising personal data, their main reason for medical school choice and standard, validated questionnaires to measure their strength of motivation (Strength of Motivation for Medical School-Revised) and autonomous and controlled type of motivation (Academic Self-regulation Questionnaire). Four hundred seventy-eight students participated. We performed frequency analyses on the reasons for medical school choice and regression analyses and ANCOVAs to study their associations with students’ characteristics and motivation during their medical study. Results Students indicated ‘city’ (Year-1: 24.7%, n=75 and Year-4: 36.0%, n=52) and ‘selection procedure’ (Year-1: 56.9%, n=173 and Year-4: 46.9%, n=68) as the main reasons for their medical school choice. The main reasons were associated with gender, age, being a first-generation university student, ethnic background and medical school, and no significant associations were found between the main reasons and the strength and type of motivation during the students’ medical study. Conclusions Most students had based their medical school choice on the selection procedure. If medical schools desire to achieve a good student-curriculum fit and attract a diverse student population aligning the selection procedure with the curriculum and taking into account various students’ different approaches is important. PMID:28624778
Stewart, S M; Lam, T H; Betson, C L; Wong, C M; Wong, A M
This study provides prospective, longitudinal data on the relationship between stress-related measures and academic performance during the first two years of medical school. First year medical students (n = 121) were surveyed prior to beginning classes (wave 1), and again 8 months later (wave 2). Personality variables predisposing to distress (optimism and trait anxiety), stress response (depression and state anxiety), and stress management strategies were assessed at wave 1 and wave 2. Pre-medical academic scores, and grades at the end of five assessment periods over the course of the first 2 years of medical school were also obtained. As expected, pre-medical-school academic performance strongly predicted performance in medical school. Academic performance before and during medical school was negatively related to reported stress levels. On bivariate correlations, there were numerous significant relationships between stress reported at waves 1 and 2, and medical school academic performance assessed after these measures. In addition there were modest negative correlations between self-reported coping strategies of 'humour' and 'wishful thinking', and consequent academic performance. However, the predictive value of stress and its management on prospective academic performance was much decreased once pre-medical-school performance was statistically controlled.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently there is a growing concern about stress during undergraduate medical training. However, studies about the same are lacking from Pakistani medical schools. The objectives of our study were to assess perceived stress, sources of stress and their severity and to assess the determinants of stressed cases. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among undergraduate medical students of CMH Lahore Medical College, Pakistan during January to March 2009. Perceived stress was assessed using the perceived stress scale. A 33-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. Results The overall response rate was 80.5% (161 out of 200 students. The overall mean perceived stress was 30.84 (SD = 7.01 and was significantly higher among female students. By logistic regression analysis, stressed cases were associated with occurrence of psychosocial (OR 5.01, 95% CI 2.44-10.29 and academic related stressors (OR 3.17 95% CI 1.52-6.68. The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. 'High parental expectations', 'frequency of examinations', 'vastness of academic curriculum', 'sleeping difficulties', 'worrying about the future', 'loneliness', 'becoming a doctor', 'performance in periodic examinations' were the most frequently and severely occurring sources of stress. There was a negative but insignificant correlation between perceived stress and academic performance (r = -0.099, p > 0.05. Conclusion A higher level of perceived stress was reported by the students. The main stressors were related to academic and psychosocial domains. Further studies are required to test the association between stressed cases and gender, academic stressors and psychosocial stressors.
Shah, Mohsin; Hasan, Shahid; Malik, Samina; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T
Recently there is a growing concern about stress during undergraduate medical training. However, studies about the same are lacking from Pakistani medical schools. The objectives of our study were to assess perceived stress, sources of stress and their severity and to assess the determinants of stressed cases. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among undergraduate medical students of CMH Lahore Medical College, Pakistan during January to March 2009. Perceived stress was assessed using the perceived stress scale. A 33-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. The overall response rate was 80.5% (161 out of 200 students). The overall mean perceived stress was 30.84 (SD = 7.01) and was significantly higher among female students. By logistic regression analysis, stressed cases were associated with occurrence of psychosocial (OR 5.01, 95% CI 2.44-10.29) and academic related stressors (OR 3.17 95% CI 1.52-6.68). The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. 'High parental expectations', 'frequency of examinations', 'vastness of academic curriculum', 'sleeping difficulties', 'worrying about the future', 'loneliness', 'becoming a doctor', 'performance in periodic examinations' were the most frequently and severely occurring sources of stress. There was a negative but insignificant correlation between perceived stress and academic performance (r = -0.099, p > 0.05). A higher level of perceived stress was reported by the students. The main stressors were related to academic and psychosocial domains. Further studies are required to test the association between stressed cases and gender, academic stressors and psychosocial stressors.
Background Recently there is a growing concern about stress during undergraduate medical training. However, studies about the same are lacking from Pakistani medical schools. The objectives of our study were to assess perceived stress, sources of stress and their severity and to assess the determinants of stressed cases. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among undergraduate medical students of CMH Lahore Medical College, Pakistan during January to March 2009. Perceived stress was assessed using the perceived stress scale. A 33-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. Results The overall response rate was 80.5% (161 out of 200 students). The overall mean perceived stress was 30.84 (SD = 7.01) and was significantly higher among female students. By logistic regression analysis, stressed cases were associated with occurrence of psychosocial (OR 5.01, 95% CI 2.44-10.29) and academic related stressors (OR 3.17 95% CI 1.52-6.68). The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. 'High parental expectations', 'frequency of examinations', 'vastness of academic curriculum', 'sleeping difficulties', 'worrying about the future', 'loneliness', 'becoming a doctor', 'performance in periodic examinations' were the most frequently and severely occurring sources of stress. There was a negative but insignificant correlation between perceived stress and academic performance (r = -0.099, p > 0.05). Conclusion A higher level of perceived stress was reported by the students. The main stressors were related to academic and psychosocial domains. Further studies are required to test the association between stressed cases and gender, academic stressors and psychosocial stressors. PMID:20078853
van Ryn, Michelle; Hardeman, Rachel; Phelan, Sean M; Burgess, Diana J; Dovidio, John F; Herrin, Jeph; Burke, Sara E; Nelson, David B; Perry, Sylvia; Yeazel, Mark; Przedworski, Julia M
Physician implicit (unconscious, automatic) bias has been shown to contribute to racial disparities in medical care. The impact of medical education on implicit racial bias is unknown. To examine the association between change in student implicit racial bias towards African Americans and student reports on their experiences with 1) formal curricula related to disparities in health and health care, cultural competence, and/or minority health; 2) informal curricula including racial climate and role model behavior; and 3) the amount and favorability of interracial contact during school. Prospective observational study involving Web-based questionnaires administered during first (2010) and last (2014) semesters of medical school. A total of 3547 students from a stratified random sample of 49 U.S. medical schools. Change in implicit racial attitudes as assessed by the Black-White Implicit Association Test administered during the first semester and again during the last semester of medical school. In multivariable modeling, having completed the Black-White Implicit Association Test during medical school remained a statistically significant predictor of decreased implicit racial bias (-5.34, p ≤ 0.001: mixed effects regression with random intercept across schools). Students' self-assessed skills regarding providing care to African American patients had a borderline association with decreased implicit racial bias (-2.18, p = 0.056). Having heard negative comments from attending physicians or residents about African American patients (3.17, p = 0.026) and having had unfavorable vs. very favorable contact with African American physicians (18.79, p = 0.003) were statistically significant predictors of increased implicit racial bias. Medical school experiences in all three domains were independently associated with change in student implicit racial attitudes. These findings are notable given that even small differences in implicit racial attitudes have been
Haight, Scott J; Chibnall, John T; Schindler, Debra L; Slavin, Stuart J
To assess the relationships of cognitive and noncognitive performance predictors to medical student preclinical and clinical performance indicators across medical school years 1 to 3 and to evaluate the association of psychological health/wellness factors with performance. In 2010, the authors conducted a cross-sectional, correlational, retrospective study of all 175 students at the Saint Louis University School of Medicine who had just completed their third (first clinical) year. Students were asked to complete assessments of personality, stress, anxiety, depression, social support, and community cohesion. Performance measures included total Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) score, preclinical academic grades, National Board of Medical Examiners subject exam scores, United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 score, clinical evaluations, and Humanism in Medicine Honor Society nominations. A total of 152 students (87%) participated. MCAT scores predicted cognitive performance indicators (academic tests), whereas personality variables (conscientiousness, extraversion, empathy) predicted noncognitive indicators (clinical evaluations, humanism nominations). Conscientiousness predicted all clinical skills, extraversion predicted clinical skills reflecting interpersonal behavior, and empathy predicted motivation. Health/wellness variables had limited associations with performance. In multivariate analyses that included control for shelf exam scores, conscientiousness predicted clinical evaluations, and extraversion and empathy predicted humanism nominations. This study identified two sets of skills (cognitive, noncognitive) used during medical school, with minimal overlap across the types of performance (e.g., exam performance versus clinical interpersonal skills) they predict. Medical school admission and evaluation efforts may need to be modified to reflect the importance of personality and other noncognitive factors.
These regulations are applicable to medical and dental practices with ionising radiation used for medical exposures. The regulations are also applicable to exposures of persons who knowingly and willingly, other than as part of their occupation, support and comfort patients undergoing medical exposure.
Shaw, Graham P; Coffman, Jonathan
Attrition from medical school remains a serious cause of concern for the medical education community. Thus, there is a need to improve our ability to select only those candidates who will succeed at medical school from many highly qualified and motivated applicants. This can be achieved, in part, by reducing the reliance on cognitive factors and increasing the use of noncognitive character traits in high-stakes admissions decisions. Herein we describe an analytic rubric that combines research-derived predictors of medical school success to generate a composite score for use in admissions decisions. The analytic rubric as described herein represents a significant step toward evidenced-based admissions that will facilitate a more consistent and transparent qualitative evaluation of medical school applicants beyond their grades and Medical College Admissions Test scores and contribute to a redesigned and improved admissions process.
Jena, Anupam B; Olenski, Andrew R; Blumenthal, Daniel M
Limited evidence exists on salary differences between male and female academic physicians, largely owing to difficulty obtaining data on salary and factors influencing salary. Existing studies have been limited by reliance on survey-based approaches to measuring sex differences in earnings, lack of contemporary data, small sample sizes, or limited geographic representation. To analyze sex differences in earnings among US academic physicians. Freedom of Information laws mandate release of salary information of public university employees in several states. In 12 states with salary information published online, salary data were extracted on 10 241 academic physicians at 24 public medical schools. These data were linked to a unique physician database with detailed information on sex, age, years of experience, faculty rank, specialty, scientific authorship, National Institutes of Health funding, clinical trial participation, and Medicare reimbursements (proxy for clinical revenue). Sex differences in salary were estimated after adjusting for these factors. Physician sex. Annual salary. Among 10 241 physicians, female physicians (n = 3549) had lower mean (SD) unadjusted salaries than male physicians ($206 641 [$88 238] vs $257 957 [$137 202]; absolute difference, $51 315 [95% CI, $46 330-$56 301]). Sex differences persisted after multivariable adjustment ($227 783 [95% CI, $224 117-$231 448] vs $247 661 [95% CI, $245 065-$250 258] with an absolute difference of $19 878 [95% CI, $15 261-$24 495]). Sex differences in salary varied across specialties, institutions, and faculty ranks. For example, adjusted salaries of female full professors ($250 971 [95% CI, $242 307-$259 635]) were comparable to those of male associate professors ($247 212 [95% CI, $241 850-$252 575]). Among specialties, adjusted salaries were highest in orthopedic surgery ($358 093 [95% CI, $344 354-$371 831]), surgical subspecialties ($318 760 [95
McManus, I C; Woolf, Katherine; Dacre, Jane; Paice, Elisabeth; Dewberry, Chris
Selection of medical students in the UK is still largely based on prior academic achievement, although doubts have been expressed as to whether performance in earlier life is predictive of outcomes later in medical school or post-graduate education. This study analyses data from five longitudinal studies of UK medical students and doctors from the early 1970s until the early 2000s. Two of the studies used the AH5, a group test of general intelligence (that is, intellectual aptitude). Sex and ethnic differences were also analyzed in light of the changing demographics of medical students over the past decades. Data from five cohort studies were available: the Westminster Study (began clinical studies from 1975 to 1982), the 1980, 1985, and 1990 cohort studies (entered medical school in 1981, 1986, and 1991), and the University College London Medical School (UCLMS) Cohort Study (entered clinical studies in 2005 and 2006). Different studies had different outcome measures, but most had performance on basic medical sciences and clinical examinations at medical school, performance in Membership of the Royal Colleges of Physicians (MRCP(UK)) examinations, and being on the General Medical Council Specialist Register. Correlation matrices and path analyses are presented. There were robust correlations across different years at medical school, and medical school performance also predicted MRCP(UK) performance and being on the GMC Specialist Register. A-levels correlated somewhat less with undergraduate and post-graduate performance, but there was restriction of range in entrants. General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE)/O-level results also predicted undergraduate and post-graduate outcomes, but less so than did A-level results, but there may be incremental validity for clinical and post-graduate performance. The AH5 had some significant correlations with outcome, but they were inconsistent. Sex and ethnicity also had predictive effects on measures of educational
Background Selection of medical students in the UK is still largely based on prior academic achievement, although doubts have been expressed as to whether performance in earlier life is predictive of outcomes later in medical school or post-graduate education. This study analyses data from five longitudinal studies of UK medical students and doctors from the early 1970s until the early 2000s. Two of the studies used the AH5, a group test of general intelligence (that is, intellectual aptitude). Sex and ethnic differences were also analyzed in light of the changing demographics of medical students over the past decades. Methods Data from five cohort studies were available: the Westminster Study (began clinical studies from 1975 to 1982), the 1980, 1985, and 1990 cohort studies (entered medical school in 1981, 1986, and 1991), and the University College London Medical School (UCLMS) Cohort Study (entered clinical studies in 2005 and 2006). Different studies had different outcome measures, but most had performance on basic medical sciences and clinical examinations at medical school, performance in Membership of the Royal Colleges of Physicians (MRCP(UK)) examinations, and being on the General Medical Council Specialist Register. Results Correlation matrices and path analyses are presented. There were robust correlations across different years at medical school, and medical school performance also predicted MRCP(UK) performance and being on the GMC Specialist Register. A-levels correlated somewhat less with undergraduate and post-graduate performance, but there was restriction of range in entrants. General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE)/O-level results also predicted undergraduate and post-graduate outcomes, but less so than did A-level results, but there may be incremental validity for clinical and post-graduate performance. The AH5 had some significant correlations with outcome, but they were inconsistent. Sex and ethnicity also had predictive effects on
Marketos, S; Lascaratos, J; Diamandopoulos, A
Between the 15th and 19th centuries the University of Padua attracted a great number of Greek students, who wanted to study medicine. They came not only from Venetian dominions (where the percentage reaches 97% of the students in Italian universities) but also from Turkish-occupied territories of Greece. It is also characteristic that several professors of the School of Medicine and Philosophy of this famous University were Greeks. They were the following ten: giovanni Cottunio, Niccolò Calliachi, Giorgio Calafatti, Tomaso Catani, Simone Stratigo, Giovanni Zografo, Pietro Zografo, Marco Carburi, Pietro Antonio Bondioli, and Angelo Dalla Decima. It is also interesting that most physicians who distinguished themselves as leading personalities in the political and scientific life of Europe had studied at the University of Padua. Five names stand out from among the multitude: Alessandro Mavrocordato (politician and diplomat), Giovanni Capodistria (first governor of Greece), Lazzaro de Mordo (philosopher-physician), Giacomo Pilarino and Emmanuel Timoni (the two discoverers of the smallpox inoculation with pus extracted from a patient suffering from a slight attack of the disease). It is concluded that the close traditional relations between Greece and the Medical School of the Universitiy of Padua were at their strongest during the period from the 15th to the 19th centuries.
La scuola svedese e la teoria macroeconomica: riflessioni su una piccola economia aperta operante in regime di cambi flessibiliThe Swedish School and macroeconomic theory: Reflections on a small open economy operating within a regime of flexible exchanges
Full Text Available The Swedish School, with its representatives Ohlin, Hammarskjöld and Lindahl, madeimportant contributions to the economic theory of the open economy, even if such contributions have never been at the centre of attention of economists, probably due to their dark language style. In particular, it had a vision of the operating of an open economy that was completely different from post-war Keynesian orthodoxy. The exchange rate regime does not isolate a small economy from the repercussions of events that occur in financial markets and from goods at the international level. The other major assumption of open economy macroeconomics was the independence of monetary policy. The Keynesian models in the 1950s included only external money. On the contrary, the Swedes considered the credit system and the working of international banks.JEL: F41
Khan, M M; Saeed, S R
Despite longstanding concern, provision of undergraduate ENT teaching has not improved in response to the aims of the UK General Medical Council's initiative Tomorrow's Doctors. Previous studies have demonstrated poor representation of ENT within the undergraduate curriculum. We aimed to identify current practice in order to establish undergraduate ENT experience across UK medical schools, a timely endeavour in light of the General Medical Council's new 2011-2013 education strategy. Questionnaires were sent to ENT consultants, medical school deans and students. All schools with a clinical curriculum were anonymously represented. Our outcome measures were the provision of mandatory or optional ENT placements, and their duration and content. A compulsory ENT placement was available to over half (53 per cent) of the students. Ten of the 26 participating schools did not offer an ENT attachment. The mean mandatory placement was 8 days. Overall, 38 per cent of students reported a satisfactory compulsory ENT placement. Most ENT consultants questioned considered that newly qualified doctors were not proficient in managing common ENT problems that did not require specialist referral. Little improvement in the provision of undergraduate ENT teaching was demonstrated. An increase in the proportion of students undertaking ENT training is necessary. Time and curriculum constraints on medical schools mean that optimisation of available resources is required.
Dinh, Vi Am; Fu, Jasmine Y; Lu, Samantha; Chiem, Alan; Fox, J Christian; Blaivas, Michael
Despite the rise of ultrasound in medical education (USMED), multiple barriers impede the implementation of such curricula in medical schools. No studies to date have surveyed individuals who are successfully championing USMED programs. This study aimed to investigate the experiences with ultrasound integration as perceived by active USMED directors across the United States. In 2014, all allopathic and osteopathic medical schools in the United States were contacted regarding their status with ultrasound education. For schools with required point-of-care ultrasound curricula, we identified the USMED directors in charge of the ultrasound programs and sent them a 27-question survey. The survey included background information about the directors, ultrasound program details, the barriers directors faced toward implementation, and the directors' attitudes toward ultrasound education. One-hundred seventy-three medical schools were contacted, and 48 (27.7%) reported having a formal USMED curriculum. Thirty-six USMED directors responded to the survey. The average number of years of USMED curriculum integration was 2.8 years (SD, 2.9). Mandatory ultrasound curricula had most commonly been implemented into years 1 and 2 of medical school (71.4% and 62.9%, respectively). The most common barriers faced by these directors when implementing their ultrasound programs were the lack of funding for faculty/ equipment (52.9%) and lack of time in current medical curricula (50.0%). Financial commitments and the full schedules of medical schools are the current prevailing roadblocks to implementation of ultrasound education. Experiences drawn from current USMED directors in this study may be used to help programs starting their own curricula. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
Bowser, Diana; Abbas, Yasmin; Odunleye, Temitope; Broughton, Edward; Bossert, Thomas
To identify the level of knowledge and competencies related to quality of care during medical education in sub-Saharan African medical schools. A cross-sectional study design was utilized to examine the capacity of medical schools in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries to teach about the concepts of quality of care and the inclusion of these concepts in their curriculum. A purposeful convenience sampling technique was used to select participants from 25 medical schools in 5 sub-Saharan African countries. Respondents included medical school deans or senior academic personnel. A survey was developed using the Institute of Medicine's definition of quality of care as the guiding framework. Sample means and summary statistics were used to present the results of the survey responses. While 45% of the schools surveyed are teaching on at least one of the six domains of the Institute of Medicine's definition of quality of care, there are some schools who report not teaching about quality at all, or that they "do not know". Despite these low numbers, when asked about topics related to quality of care, many schools are teaching applied management related topics and almost all schools teach about equity and patient-centered care. The results have important impacts both for incorporating quality of care into medical education and for practitioners. The tool developed for this study can be used in future qualitative and quantitative studies to further understanding of how to improve the teaching and learning about quality of care in medical schools. Keywords: quality of care, medical schools, sub-Saharan Africa, medical errors, healthcare improvement.
Tan, E.C.T.H.; Hekkert, K.D.; Vugt, A.B. van; Biert, J.
PURPOSE: Adequate education in first aid and basic life support (BLS) should be considered as an essential aspect of the medical curriculum. The objective of this study was to investigate the current medical training in first aid and BLS at all 8 medical schools in the Netherlands. SUMMARY: An
Prioritizing lectures on end of life care in a Nigerian Medical School: final year medical students' perspectives. A Akoria Obehi. Abstract. No Abstract. Keywords: End-of-life Care, Palliative Care, Dying & Death, Medical Students, Nigeria. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...
College of Medicine, Rangsit University (RSU), is the only private medical school in Thailand. RSU College of Medicine recruiting method includes the examination together with state's medical schools and its own examination. The study aims to compare number of students in each group who passed, as required in the curriculum, pre-clinical subjects in 3 academic years, graduated Doctor of Medicine degree in 6 academic years, and finally passed the National Board examination for the Medical License following graduation. All medical students enrolled in the College of Medicine from 2000 to 2004 academic year were included in the study. The numbers of students from each group who passed pre-clinical level in 3 academic years, graduated in 6 academic years and finally passed the National Board examination for the Medical License following graduation were analyzed. During the year 2000 to 2004 College of Medicine recruited and enrolled 506 students, of these, 51 resigned. The number of students recruited by examination with other state's medical schools (first group) was 178 and by RSU examination (second group) was 277. Number of medical students who finished pre-clinical study and passed to clinical level in three years as required in the curriculum were 144 from 178 (80.9%) in the first group and 205 from 277 (74.0%) in the second group. Number of medical students who graduated in six years as required in the curriculum were 140 from 178 (78.7%) in the first group and 202 from 277 (72.9%) in the second group. One-hundred and thirteen from 178 students (63.5%) in the first group graduated within 6 years and passed the National Board Examination for Medical License following graduation. However, 149 from 277 students (53.8%) in the second group passed the same described process. Numbers of medical students admitted by examination together with other state's medical schools and examination by RSU itself are not significantly different in finishing pre-clinical subjects in
Högberg, Torbjörn; Magnusson, Annabella; Lützén, Kim; Ewalds-Kvist, Béatrice
Negative and stigmatizing attitudes towards persons with mental illness must be dealt with to facilitate the sufferers' social acceptance. The present study aimed at survey Swedish attitudes towards persons with mental illness related to factors impacting these attitudes. New CAMI-S based on the questionnaire "Community Attitudes to Mental Illness in Sweden" ([CAMI] Taylor & Dear, 1981) was developed with nine behavioral-intention items and thus comprised a total of 29 items. Of 5000 Swedish people, 2391 agreed to complete the questionnaire. Principal component analysis rendered four factors reflecting attitudes towards the mentally ill: Intention to Interact, Fearful and Avoidant, Open-minded and Pro-Integration, as well as Community Mental Health Ideology. The factors were analyzed for trends in attitudes. By MANOVA, the experience of mental illness effects on mind-set towards the sufferers was assessed. By means of logistic regression, demographic factors contributing to positive attitudes towards persons with mental illness residing in the neighborhood were assessed. By New CAMI-S, the Swedish attitudes towards the mentally ill were surveyed and trends in agreement with living next to a person with mental illness were revealed in three out of four factors derived by principal component analysis. Aspects impacting the Swedish attitudes towards persons with mental illness and willingness to have him/her residing in the neighborhood comprised experience of mental illness, female gender, age (31-50 years), born in Scandinavia or outside Europe, only 9 years of compulsory school and accommodation in flat. The New CAMI-S came out as a useful tool to screen Swedish attitudes towards persons with mental illness. Most Swedes were prepared to live next to the mentally ill.
Feeney, James M; Ziegler, Kristina; Armstrong, Jessica M; Shapiro, David
September 11, 2001 saw the dawn of the US-led global war on terror, a combined diplomatic, military, social, and cultural war on terrorist activities. Chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high-yield explosives (CBRNE), as a group of tactics, are often the preferred weapons of terrorists across the globe. We undertook a survey of US medical schools to determine what their self-reported level of training for terrorist events encompasses during the four years of undergraduate medical education. We surveyed 170 medical schools in the US and Puerto Rico using a five-question, internet-based survey, followed by telephone calls to curriculum offices for initial nonresponders. We used simple descriptive statistics to analyze the data. A majority of US medical schools that completed the survey (79 schools or 65.3%) have no required lecture or course on CBRNE or terrorist activities during the first or second year (preclinical years). Ninety-eight out of the 121 respondents (81.0%), however, believed that CBRNE training was either very important or somewhat important, as reflected in survey answers. Most physician educators believe that training in CBRNE is important; however this belief has not resulted in widespread acceptance of a CBRNE curriculum in US medical schools.
This is a time of considerable uncertainty about the future of the postgraduate medical education policy of the Japanese government. Strong and visionary academic leadership of laboratory physicians in private medical schools is needed. The medical schools must not only adapt to a changing health care system, but also maintain excellence in education, patient care, and clinical research. In Japan, tradition has it that the comparatively few faculty members at national medical schools are mostly promoted only on the basis of research in experimental medicine, therefore, young medical graduates are increasingly drawn to bench work or molecular medicine, not to clinical practice. Single-minded specialization tends to produce single track minds, which may lack balanced judgment in approaching the appropriateness of both investigation and management. For continuity of care and containment of costs, a year or two of general professional training after graduation preceded by a broad medical education is an invaluable investment. All medical graduates, whatever their intended or unintended final destination (even if not clinical), should spend more than six months in medicine and four or five months in surgery, at least half of each to be spent in the general disciplines, including responsibilities for acute emergency admissions. As certified laboratory physicians we must attempt to attract graduates into laboratory medicine by developing imaginative training programs including common laboratory procedures such as Gram's stain, Wright-Giemsa stain and point of care testing at the patient's bedside or in ambulatory clinics, not only in central clinical laboratories.
Fan, Jennifer C; Sherwin, Trevor; McGhee, Charles N J
Despite established international guidelines on preferred teaching components for ophthalmology in undergraduate curricula, with increasingly less specialty-based undergraduate teaching within curricula, teaching of core ophthalmology knowledge and skills may become marginalized. This survey aims to evaluate the current state of undergraduate ophthalmology teaching in Australasia and proximate Asian medical schools. A questionnaire was developed to determine the content and extent of ophthalmology teaching in the undergraduate medical curriculum. The questionnaire was sent to 25 medical schools throughout Australasia and Asia. Nineteen of the 25 questionnaires were returned (76% response rate). Ophthalmology teaching programmes ranged from 2 to 20 days: five (26%) medical schools having one ophthalmology attachment; six schools (32%) two attachments; and the remainder three or more. Only seven of the schools taught all 13 ophthalmology topics recommended in current curriculum guidelines. Ocular examination (100%), lens and cataract (95%) and ocular manifestations of systemic disease (95%) were the most commonly taught topics, with intraocular tumours only covered by 10 schools (53%). Students in 14 schools (74%) attended ophthalmology operating theatre, but only two schools (11%) offered attendance at optometry clinics. Ten schools (53%) required a pass in ophthalmology to complete the academic year. Ophthalmology may increasingly be a small, or even absent, component of undergraduate medical curricula. Despite established international ophthalmology curriculum guidelines, this survey highlights significant lack of uniformity in their implementation.
Schulman, Carl I; Kuchkarian, Fernanda M; Withum, Kelly F; Boecker, Felix S; Graygo, Jill M
Social networking (SN) has become ubiquitous in modern culture. The potential consequences of revealing personal information through SN websites are not fully understood. To assess familiarity with, usage of, and attitudes towards, SN websites by admissions offices at US medical schools and residency programmes. A 26-question survey was distributed in autumn 2009 to 130 US medical school admissions officers and 4926 residency programme directors accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A total of 600 surveys were completed, with 46 (8%) respondents who self-identified as reviewing only medical school applications, 511 (85%) who reported reviewing residency programme applications and 43 (7%) who reported reviewing both. 90/600 (15%) medical schools or programmes maintain profiles on SN websites and 381/600 (64%) respondents reported being somewhat or very familiar with searching individual profiles on SN websites. While a minority of medical schools and residency programmes routinely use SN websites in the selection process (53/600; 9%), more than half of respondents felt that unprofessional information on applicants' SN websites could compromise their admission into medical school or residency (315/600; 53%). SN websites will affect selection of medical students and residents. Formal guidelines for professional behaviour on SN websites might help applicants avoid unforeseen bias in the selection process.
Hidaka, Brandon H; Asghar, Anila; Aktipis, C Athena; Nesse, Randolph M; Wolpaw, Terry M; Skursky, Nicole K; Bennett, Katelyn J; Beyrouty, Matthew W; Schwartz, Mark D
Medical and public health scientists are using evolution to devise new strategies to solve major health problems. But based on a 2003 survey, medical curricula may not adequately prepare physicians to evaluate and extend these advances. This study assessed the change in coverage of evolution in North American medical schools since 2003 and identified opportunities for enriching medical education. In 2013, curriculum deans for all North American medical schools were invited to rate curricular coverage and perceived importance of 12 core principles, the extent of anticipated controversy from adding evolution, and the usefulness of 13 teaching resources. Differences between schools were assessed by Pearson's chi-square test, Student's t-test, and Spearman's correlation. Open-ended questions sought insight into perceived barriers and benefits. Despite repeated follow-up, 60 schools (39%) responded to the survey. There was no evidence of sample bias. The three evolutionary principles rated most important were antibiotic resistance, environmental mismatch, and somatic selection in cancer. While importance and coverage of principles were correlated (r = 0.76, P evolutionary principles were covered by 4 to 74% more schools. Nearly half (48%) of responders anticipated igniting controversy at their medical school if they added evolution to their curriculum. The teaching resources ranked most useful were model test questions and answers, case studies, and model curricula for existing courses/rotations. Limited resources (faculty expertise) were cited as the major barrier to adding more evolution, but benefits included a deeper understanding and improved patient care. North American medical schools have increased the evolution content in their curricula over the past decade. However, coverage is not commensurate with importance. At a few medical schools, anticipated controversy impedes teaching more evolution. Efforts to improve evolution education in medical schools
Al Rumayyan, Ahmed Rumayyan; Al Zahrani, Abdulaziz Ahmed; Hameed, Tahir Kamal
King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS) was the first university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia offering both high school entry and graduate entry (GE) students into medical school. We compared the academic performance and professionalism lapses of high school entry and GE students who undertook the same curriculum and examinations in the College of Medicine, Riyadh, KSAU-HS. Examination scores of 196 high school graduates and 54 GE students over a 4-year period (2010-2014) were used as a measure of academic achievement. For assessment of professionalism lapses, we compared the number of warning letters in both streams of students. In some pre-clinical courses, high school entry students performed significantly better than GE students. There was no significant difference in academic performance of high school entry and GE students in clinical rotations. GE students had a significantly greater number of warning letters per student as compared to high school entry students. This is the first Saudi study to compare the performance of high school entry and GE students in a medical school. Overall, both streams of students performed equally well with high school entry students performing better than GE students in a few pre-clinical courses. We compared professionalism lapses and found an increase in number of warning letters for GE students. More studies are needed to evaluate if there are differences in other assessments of professionalism between these two streams of students.
Kwan, Jennifer Y Y; Nyhof-Young, Joyce; Catton, Pamela; Giuliani, Meredith E
To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health needs. Defining minimum curricular content
Kwan, Jennifer Y.Y. [School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Nyhof-Young, Joyce [Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Catton, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Giuliani, Meredith E., E-mail: Meredith.Giuliani@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)
Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health
Seguchi, Masaru; Furuta, Noriko; Kobayashi, Seiji; Kato, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Kouji; Hori, Hiroki; Okuno, Masataka
The shortage of medical workforce in rural areas is a global long-standing problem. Due to the severity of shortages in the medical workforce, Mie prefectural government has collaborated with a medical school and the municipal governments to increase the rural medical workforce. Since 2010, this collaboration has led to an annual lecture series on rural practice for medical students. We distributed questionnaires at the beginning and end of the lecture series to examine the effect of this program. The questionnaire consisted of two parts that included an understanding of rural practice and the motivation to work in rural areas. The lecture series significantly improved the respons