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Sample records for swedish lexicalised phrases

  1. Lexicalisation Patterns in Danish and Spanish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woldersgaard, Casper A. G

    In this dissertation, I investigate the theoretical framework by Leonard Talmy (2000b) on lexicalisation patterns in Motion events. I examine his characterisations of Co-event languages (e.g., Danish) and Path-event languages (e.g., Spanish), and I relate his work to a Danish language setting....... Furthermore, my objective is to determine whether the predictions set forth by Talmy apply to Danish and Spanish from an empirical perspective, i.e., in a Danish monolingual reference corpus, Korpus-DK, and a Spanish monolingual reference corpus, CORPES. I present different methods for testing Talmy’s theory....... As a consequence, to identify Motion events and discard false positives is an extremely time-consuming process. I suggest that a context-free grammar is a way to facilitate the retrieval and analysis of linguistic data that contain Motion events. Thus, I implement a context-free grammar for Spanish. More...

  2. COLLOCATION PHRASES IN RELATION TO OTHER LEXICAL PHRASES IN CROATIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goranka Blagus Bartolec

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the semantic and lexicological aspects of collocation phrases in Croatian with tendency to separate them from other lexical phrases in Croatian (terms, idioms, names. The collocation phrase is defined as a special lexical phrase on a syntagmatic level, based on the semantic correlation of the two individual lexical components in which their meanings are specified.

  3. 1001 easy French phrases

    CERN Document Server

    McCoy, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The perfect companion for tourists and business travelers in France and other places where the French language is spoken, this book offers fast, effective communication. More than 1,000 basic words, phrases, and sentences cover everything from asking directions and renting a car to ordering dinner and finding a bank.Designed as a quick reference tool and an easy study guide, this inexpensive and easy-to-use book offers completely up-to-date terms for modern telecommunications, idioms, and slang. The contents are arranged for quick access to phrases related to greetings, transportation, shoppin

  4. Searching the ASRS Database Using QUORUM Keyword Search, Phrase Search, Phrase Generation, and Phrase Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Michael W.; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To support Search Requests and Quick Responses at the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), four new QUORUM methods have been developed: keyword search, phrase search, phrase generation, and phrase discovery. These methods build upon the core QUORUM methods of text analysis, modeling, and relevance-ranking. QUORUM keyword search retrieves ASRS incident narratives that contain one or more user-specified keywords in typical or selected contexts, and ranks the narratives on their relevance to the keywords in context. QUORUM phrase search retrieves narratives that contain one or more user-specified phrases, and ranks the narratives on their relevance to the phrases. QUORUM phrase generation produces a list of phrases from the ASRS database that contain a user-specified word or phrase. QUORUM phrase discovery finds phrases that are related to topics of interest. Phrase generation and phrase discovery are particularly useful for finding query phrases for input to QUORUM phrase search. The presentation of the new QUORUM methods includes: a brief review of the underlying core QUORUM methods; an overview of the new methods; numerous, concrete examples of ASRS database searches using the new methods; discussion of related methods; and, in the appendices, detailed descriptions of the new methods.

  5. Easy French phrase book over 700 phrases for everyday use

    CERN Document Server

    McCoy, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Over 700 French phrases and sentences include terms for modern telecommunications, idioms, and slang. Designed as a quick reference and study guide, this up-to-date volume is organized for quick access to phrases related to greetings, transportation, shopping, emergencies, and other common circumstances. A phonetic pronunciation accompanies each phrase.

  6. 15000 useful phrases

    CERN Document Server

    Kleiser, Grenville

    1900-01-01

    This incredibly useful book will appeal to writers, public speakers and anyone else who would like to improve their vocabulary. It contains a huge number of phrases which you can use in everyday speech and at special occasions, which will help you express your thoughts, ideas and feelings in a brand new way. A classic reference work, this edition has been specially formatted for today's e-readers.

  7. Rhetoric and Lexicalisation as Aspects of Persuasive Strategy in the Language of Insurance Advertising in the Nigerian Print Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Lekan Oyeleye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the discourse function of rhetoric and lexicalisation in insurance advertising discourse in the Nigerian print media. It investigates how they are used as part of the advertisers’ strategies of persuasion. Published insurance advertisements were collected from three purposively selected Nigerian national newspapers The Guardian, The Punch and Daily Champion, complemented with billboard advertisements from all the southwestern states of Nigeria. These were analysed using insights from Gumperz (1982’s theory of interactional sociolinguistics and M.A.K. Halliday’s systemic functional grammar. The analysis reveals that the lexical choice of the advertisers contained a dominant use of skill-indicative lexical items which portrayed the insurance companies as experts in their field. There was also a strategic use of morality indicative lexical items, to persuade potential clients about the trustworthiness of the company. Risk-indicative and, action-provoking lexical items, pictorial rhetoric and rhetorical devices like metaphor, hyperbole and personification were employed as persuasive strategies.

  8. Novel figurative phrases and idioms: phrase characteristics over multiple presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, Wendy A; Cintron, Jennifer; Sullivan, Karin; Ilic, Emily; Ellis, Shannon; Dobrowits, Carrie; Roberts, Crystal

    2003-07-01

    In a series of three studies, characteristics of novel figurative phrases were compared with those of established idioms. Studies 1 and 2 found that certain correlations were found to be strong and in one direction for familiar idioms and comparably strong but in the opposite direction for novel figurative phrases, with the correlations for less familiar idioms usually falling partway between these extremes. Study 2 also noted that written or auditory presentation had minimal effects on characteristic ratings. In Study 3 the correlations among characteristics stayed relatively constant for familiar idioms after one, three, or six presentations, but for the novel figurative phrases, after multiple presentations the correlations changed in the direction of the established idioms.

  9. Building Fluency through the Phrased Text Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinski, Timothy; Yildirim, Kasim; Nageldinger, James

    2012-01-01

    This Teaching Tip article explores the importance of phrasing while reading. It also presents an instructional intervention strategy for helping students develop greater proficiency in reading with phrases that reflect the meaning of the text.

  10. Dictionary of Idioms and Phrases in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the use of arrows to show the grammatical form from which the spoken form of a used word is derived, other phrases that may be formed from the head phrase, the numbering of the various meanings, . the explanation of head idioms and phrases in Tamil within their context and the advanced meanings of head idioms and ...

  11. Explaining word order in the noun phrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    1990-01-01

    This article argues that word order in the noun phrase is largely determined by three iconic principles of constituent ordering. The patterns that these principles predict for simple noun phrases are tested against data from various existing samples. It appears that the predicted patterns are all...

  12. Generic Adaptively Secure Searchable Phrase Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissel Zachary A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years searchable symmetric encryption has seen a rapid increase in query expressiveness including keyword, phrase, Boolean, and fuzzy queries. With this expressiveness came increasingly complex constructions. Having these facts in mind, we present an efficient and generic searchable symmetric encryption construction for phrase queries. Our construction is straightforward to implement, and is proven secure under adaptively chosen query attacks (CQA2 in the random oracle model with an honest-but-curious adversary. To our knowledge, this is the first encrypted phrase search system that achieves CQA2 security. Moreover, we demonstrate that our document collection preprocessing algorithm allows us to extend a dynamic SSE construction so that it supports phrase queries. We also provide a compiler theorem which transforms any CQA2-secure SSE construction for keyword queries into a CQA2-secure SSE construction that supports phrase queries.

  13. Predicting binary choices from probability phrase meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallsten, Thomas S; Jang, Yoonhee

    2008-08-01

    The issues of how individuals decide which of two events is more likely and of how they understand probability phrases both involve judging relative likelihoods. In this study, we investigated whether derived scales representing probability phrase meanings could be used within a choice model to predict independently observed binary choices. If they can, this simultaneously provides support for our model and suggests that the phrase meanings are measured meaningfully. The model assumes that, when deciding which of two events is more likely, judges take a single sample from memory regarding each event and respond accordingly. The model predicts choice probabilities by using the scaled meanings of individually selected probability phrases as proxies for confidence distributions associated with sampling from memory. Predictions are sustained for 34 of 41 participants but, nevertheless, are biased slightly low. Sequential sampling models improve the fit. The results have both theoretical and applied implications.

  14. On Directionality of Phrase Structure Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesi, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    Minimalism in grammatical theorizing (Chomsky in "The minimalist program." MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995) led to simpler linguistic devices and a better focalization of the core properties of the structure building engine: a lexicon and a free (recursive) phrase formation operation, dubbed Merge, are the basic components that serve in…

  15. PubMed Phrases, an open set of coherent phrases for searching biomedical literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun; Yeganova, Lana; Comeau, Donald C.; Wilbur, W. John; Lu, Zhiyong

    2018-01-01

    In biomedicine, key concepts are often expressed by multiple words (e.g., ‘zinc finger protein’). Previous work has shown treating a sequence of words as a meaningful unit, where applicable, is not only important for human understanding but also beneficial for automatic information seeking. Here we present a collection of PubMed® Phrases that are beneficial for information retrieval and human comprehension. We define these phrases as coherent chunks that are logically connected. To collect the phrase set, we apply the hypergeometric test to detect segments of consecutive terms that are likely to appear together in PubMed. These text segments are then filtered using the BM25 ranking function to ensure that they are beneficial from an information retrieval perspective. Thus, we obtain a set of 705,915 PubMed Phrases. We evaluate the quality of the set by investigating PubMed user click data and manually annotating a sample of 500 randomly selected noun phrases. We also analyze and discuss the usage of these PubMed Phrases in literature search. PMID:29893755

  16. Swedish projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunell, J.

    1993-01-01

    The main sources of the financing of Swedish research on gas technology are listed in addition to names of organizations which carry out this research. The titles and descriptions of the projects carried out are presented in addition to lists of reports published with information on prices. (AB)

  17. Phrase frequency effects in language production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Janssen

    Full Text Available A classic debate in the psychology of language concerns the question of the grain-size of the linguistic information that is stored in memory. One view is that only morphologically simple forms are stored (e.g., 'car', 'red', and that more complex forms of language such as multi-word phrases (e.g., 'red car' are generated on-line from the simple forms. In two experiments we tested this view. In Experiment 1, participants produced noun+adjective and noun+noun phrases that were elicited by experimental displays consisting of colored line drawings and two superimposed line drawings. In Experiment 2, participants produced noun+adjective and determiner+noun+adjective utterances elicited by colored line drawings. In both experiments, naming latencies decreased with increasing frequency of the multi-word phrase, and were unaffected by the frequency of the object name in the utterance. These results suggest that the language system is sensitive to the distribution of linguistic information at grain-sizes beyond individual words.

  18. Adjunction, Labeling, and Bare Phrase Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Hornstein

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim in this paper is to propose a phrase structure for adjunction that is compatible with the precepts of Bare Phrase Structure (BPS. Current accounts are at odds with the central vision of BPS and current practice leans more to descriptive eclecticism than to theoretical insight. A diagnosis for this conceptual disarray is suggested here: It stems from a deeply held though seldom formulated intuition; the tacit view that adjuncts are the abnormal case while arguments describe the grammatical norm. In actuality, it is argued, adjuncts are so well behaved that they require virtually no grammatical support to function properly. Arguments, in contrast, are refractory and require grammatical aid to allow them to make any propositional contribution. This last remark should come as no surprise to those with neo-Davidsonian semantic sympathies. Connoisseurs of this art form are well versed in the important role that grammatical (aka, thematic roles play in turning arguments into modifiers of events. Such fulcra are not required for meaningfully integrating adjuncts. into sentences. In what follows, we take this difference to be of the greatest significance and we ask ourselves what this might imply for the phrase structure of adjunction.

  19. The Noun Phrase in Functional Discourse Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    reintroduce Dik’s idea of Dynamic Term Construction and extend the current ontology of entities. The result would be a more cogent treatment of scope and NP syntax, which does not force the theory to abandon any of its fundamental methodological principles. Evelien Keizer (University of Amsterdam...... can account for NP-internal agreement phenomena, including speech errors, as attested in a large corpus of spoken German. Daniel García Velasco (University of Oviedo) examines the so-called Complex Noun Phrase Constraint within the context of FDG. The existence of restrictions on the displacement......, with regard to both form and content. Daniel García Velasco also wishes to acknowledge the financial support of the Dept. of Anglogermanic and French Studies and the Research Vice-Rectorate of the University of Oviedo....

  20. A Communication Style of Advertising Phrases : A Comparison of Advertising Phrases in Women's Magazines of Japan and Korea

    OpenAIRE

    具, 軟和

    2006-01-01

    Advertising phrases of women's magazines adopt various methods to achieve an effective communication with readers. Japanese advertising phrases show a tendency of providing readers firstly with background reasons of why they need a product and secondly with what kind of effects they can get if they buy it, trying to avoid to look too pushy. Korean advertising phrases show a tendency of making readers pay attentions on a product by providing product features directly. We can say in communicati...

  1. Swedish projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunell, J.

    1992-01-01

    A description is given of research activities, concerning heating systems, which were carried out in Sweden during 1991. The main subject areas dealt with under the gas technology group within the area of heating systems were catalytic combustion, polyethylene materials, and gas applications within the paper and pulp industries. A list is given of the titles of project reports published during 1991 and of those begun during that year. Under the Swedish Centre for Gas Technology (SGC), the main areas of research regarding gas applications were polyethylene materials, industrial applications and the reduction of pollutant emissions. A detailed list is given of research projects which were in progress or proposed by March 1992 under the heating system gas technology research group in Sweden. This list also presents the aims and descriptions of the methods, etc. (AB)

  2. Heavy noun phrase constructions in the Afrikaans novel 'n Ander ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy noun phrase constructions in the Afrikaans novel 'n Ander Land: a cognitive account of a stylistic feature. Luna Beard. Abstract. This article focusses on one grammatical construction, namely heavy noun phrase (NP) constructions in Afrikaans, and more specifically on those instances encountered in the Afrikaans ...

  3. The Dependency Structure of Coordinate Phrases: A Corpus Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperley, David

    2005-01-01

    Hudson (1990) proposes that each conjunct in a coordinate phrase forms dependency relations with heads or dependents outside the coordinate phrase (the "multi-head" view). This proposal is tested through corpus analysis of Wall Street Journal text. For right-branching constituents (such as direct-object NPs), a short-long preference for conjunct…

  4. Semantic and syntactic forces in noun phrase production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigliocco, G.; Lauer, M.; Damian, M.F.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Three experiments investigated semantic and syntactic effects in the production of phrases in Dutch. Bilingual participants were presented with English nouns and were asked to produce an adjective + noun phrase in Dutch including the translation of the noun. In 2 experiments, the authors blocked

  5. 20 CFR 300.1 - Words and phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Words and phrases. 300.1 Section 300.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DEFINITIONS § 300.1 Words and phrases. For the purposes of the regulations in this part, except where the...

  6. 20 CFR 201.1 - Words and phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Words and phrases. 201.1 Section 201.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DEFINITIONS § 201.1 Words and phrases. For the purposes of the regulations in this chapter, except where the...

  7. Implementation of the common phrase index method on the phrase query for information retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmawati, Triyah; Zaman, Badrus; Werdiningsih, Indah

    2017-08-01

    As the development of technology, the process of finding information on the news text is easy, because the text of the news is not only distributed in print media, such as newspapers, but also in electronic media that can be accessed using the search engine. In the process of finding relevant documents on the search engine, a phrase often used as a query. The number of words that make up the phrase query and their position obviously affect the relevance of the document produced. As a result, the accuracy of the information obtained will be affected. Based on the outlined problem, the purpose of this research was to analyze the implementation of the common phrase index method on information retrieval. This research will be conducted in English news text and implemented on a prototype to determine the relevance level of the documents produced. The system is built with the stages of pre-processing, indexing, term weighting calculation, and cosine similarity calculation. Then the system will display the document search results in a sequence, based on the cosine similarity. Furthermore, system testing will be conducted using 100 documents and 20 queries. That result is then used for the evaluation stage. First, determine the relevant documents using kappa statistic calculation. Second, determine the system success rate using precision, recall, and F-measure calculation. In this research, the result of kappa statistic calculation was 0.71, so that the relevant documents are eligible for the system evaluation. Then the calculation of precision, recall, and F-measure produces precision of 0.37, recall of 0.50, and F-measure of 0.43. From this result can be said that the success rate of the system to produce relevant documents is low.

  8. The Intonation of Noun Phrase Subjects and Clause- Modifying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Oladipupo, Rotimi O. - Centre for Foundation Education, Bells University of. Technology ... native Englishes, especially at the level of phonology, this study investigates ... Keywords: Intonation tunes, Nigerian English, Noun Phrase Subjects,.

  9. Nicht-referentielle Nominalphrasen (Non-Referential Noun Phrases)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, Odo

    1973-01-01

    Appeared as Working Report No. 21 of the Linguistic Institute of the University of Cologne; critical observations on S. Kuno's Some Properties of Non-Refential Noun Phrases,'' in Studies in General and Oriental Linguistics, 1970. (RS)

  10. Portmanteau constructions, phrase structure and linearization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Hok-Shing Chan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In bilingual code-switching which involves language-pairs with contrasting head-complement orders (i.e. head-initial vs head-final, a head may be lexicalized from both languages with its complement sandwiched in the middle. These so-called portmanteau sentences (Nishimura, 1985, 1986; Sankoff, Poplack, and Vanniarajan, 1990, etc. have been attested for decades, but they had never received a systematic, formal analysis in terms of current syntactic theory before a few recent attempts (Hicks, 2010, 2012. Notwithstanding this lack of attention, these structures are in fact highly relevant to theories of linearization and phrase structure. More specifically, they challenge binary-branching (Kayne, 1994, 2004, 2005 as well as the Antisymmetry hypothesis (ibid.. Not explained by current grammatical models of code-switching, including the Equivalence Constraint (Poplack, 1980, the Matrix Language Frame Model (Myers-Scotton, 1993, 2002, etc., and the Bilingual Speech Model (Muysken, 2000, 2013, the portmanteau construction indeed looks uncommon or abnormal, defying any systematic account. However, the recurrence of these structures in various datasets and constraints on them do call for an explanation. This paper suggests an account which lies with syntax and also with the psycholinguistics of bilingualism. Assuming that linearization is a process at the Sensori-Motor (SM interface (Chomsky, 2005; 2013, this paper sees that word order is not fixed in a syntactic tree but it is set in the production process, and much information of word order rests in the processor, for instance, outputting a head before its complement (i.e. head-initial word order or the reverse (i.e. head-final word order. As for the portmanteau construction, it is the output of bilingual speakers co-activating two sets of head-complement orders which summon the phonetic forms of the same word in both languages. Under this proposal, the underlying structure of a portmanteau

  11. Portmanteau Constructions, Phrase Structure, and Linearization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Brian Hok-Shing

    2015-01-01

    In bilingual code-switching which involves language-pairs with contrasting head-complement orders (i.e., head-initial vs. head-final), a head may be lexicalized from both languages with its complement sandwiched in the middle. These so-called "portmanteau" sentences (Nishimura, 1985, 1986; Sankoff et al., 1990, etc.) have been attested for decades, but they had never received a systematic, formal analysis in terms of current syntactic theory before a few recent attempts (Hicks, 2010, 2012). Notwithstanding this lack of attention, these structures are in fact highly relevant to theories of linearization and phrase structure. More specifically, they challenge binary-branching (Kayne, 1994, 2004, 2005) as well as the Antisymmetry hypothesis (ibid.). Not explained by current grammatical models of code-switching, including the Equivalence Constraint (Poplack, 1980), the Matrix Language Frame Model (Myers-Scotton, 1993, 2002, etc.), and the Bilingual Speech Model (Muysken, 2000, 2013), the portmanteau construction indeed looks uncommon or abnormal, defying any systematic account. However, the recurrence of these structures in various datasets and constraints on them do call for an explanation. This paper suggests an account which lies with syntax and also with the psycholinguistics of bilingualism. Assuming that linearization is a process at the Sensori-Motor (SM) interface (Chomsky, 2005, 2013), this paper sees that word order is not fixed in a syntactic tree but it is set in the production process, and much information of word order rests in the processor, for instance, outputting a head before its complement (i.e., head-initial word order) or the reverse (i.e., head-final word order). As for the portmanteau construction, it is the output of bilingual speakers co-activating two sets of head-complement orders which summon the phonetic forms of the same word in both languages. Under this proposal, the underlying structure of a portmanteau construction is as simple as an

  12. Verbal behavior in Alzheimer's disease patients: Analysis of phrase repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecato, Juliana Francisca; Martinellil, José Eduardo; Bartholomeu, Luana Luz; Basqueira, Ana Paula; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches; Aprahamian, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Language problems in the elderly with AD are due to the fact that deterioration occurs not only in semantic memory, but in a group of cognitive factors, evidenced by a deficiency in search strategies for linguistic information. To evaluate phrase repetition in two cognitive tests, the MMSE and MoCA, in a group of Alzheimer disease patients (AD) and normal controls. A Cross-sectional study was conducted involving 20 patients who sought medical assistance at a geriatric institute in Jundiaí, São Paulo. The subjects underwent a detailed clinical examination and neuropsychometric evaluation. All subjects with AD met DSM-IV and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Ten patients received a diagnosis of AD and 10 were healthy subjects, forming the control group (CG). All participants correctly answered the phrase from the MMSE (phrase 1). The MoCA phrases (phrases 2 and 3) were correct in 80% and 90%, respectively in the CG and in 40% and 50%, respectively in the AD group. The MoCA test proved more effective in evaluating the echoic behavior in AD patients compared to the MMSE. The simpler phrase repetition task in the MMSE was found to be less sensitive in detecting mild language decline in AD patients.

  13. Verbal behavior in Alzheimer disease patients: Analysis of phrase repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Francisca Cecato

    Full Text Available Abstract Language problems in the elderly with AD are due to the fact that deterioration occurs not only in semantic memory, but in a group of cognitive factors, evidenced by a deficiency in search strategies for linguistic information. Objectives: To evaluate phrase repetition in two cognitive tests, the MMSE and MoCA, in a group of Alzheimer disease patients (AD and normal controls. Methods: A Cross-sectional study was conducted involving 20 patients who sought medical assistance at a geriatric institute in Jundiaí, São Paulo. The subjects underwent a detailed clinical examination and neuropsychometric evaluation. All subjects with AD met DSM-IV and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Ten patients received a diagnosis of AD and 10 were healthy subjects, forming the control group (CG. Results: All participants correctly answered the phrase from the MMSE (phrase 1. The MoCA phrases (phrases 2 and 3 were correct in 80% and 90%, respectively in the CG and in 40% and 50%, respectively in the AD group. Conclusions: The MoCA test proved more effective in evaluating the echoic behavior in AD patients compared to the MMSE. The simpler phrase repetition task in the MMSE was found to be less sensitive in detecting mild language decline in AD patients.

  14. Phrasing in the speech and reading of the hearing impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, J F

    1986-08-01

    The study reported here explored a partial explanation for the fourth-grade "bottleneck" in literacy advancement by hearing-impaired students. Speech samples from 21 deaf subjects were rated for degree of evident phrasal quality. Likewise, reading comprehension scores for each student were obtained under four reading conditions: reading in whole sentences, in phrases, in fragmented word groups, and in single words. Degree of rated speech phrasality was found to relate significantly and positively to correct recall answers to questions based upon silent reading of passages typed in meaningful word groups (but not when the passages were typed in whole sentences, fragmented word groups, or in single words). The results were taken to suggest that--whereas staccato-speaking deaf students may lack a sense of the phrase altogether--phrasal-speaking deaf youngsters fail to independently apply their phrase sense in the normal reading situation. Thus, both types of deaf youngsters have difficulty affecting the transition to phrase reading that is common for hearing students at or about the fourth-grade level. Finally, I argue that this phrase sense can be instilled in hearing-impaired students and that they can be trained to use it in reading.

  15. Swedish Disarmament Policy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    NPIHP Partners Host Conference on Swedish Disarmament Policy Dec 05, 2012 The Nuclear Proliferation International History Project is pleased to announce a conference on Swedish nuclear disarmament policy, organized and hosted by Stockholm University on 26 november 2012. Organized by Stockholm University Professor Thomas Jonter, Emma Rosengren, Goran Rydeberg, and Stellan Andersson under the aegis of the Swedish Disarmament Resaerch Project, the conference featured keynote addresses by Hans Bl...

  16. Comparison of Word Intelligibility in Spoken and Sung Phrases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren B. Collister

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty listeners were exposed to spoken and sung passages in English produced by three trained vocalists. Passages included representative words extracted from a large database of vocal lyrics, including both popular and classical repertoires. Target words were set within spoken or sung carrier phrases. Sung carrier phrases were selected from classical vocal melodies. Roughly a quarter of all words sung by an unaccompanied soloist were misheard. Sung passages showed a seven-fold decrease in intelligibility compared with their spoken counterparts. The perceptual mistakes occurring with vowels replicate previous studies showing the centralization of vowels. Significant confusions are also evident for consonants, especially voiced stops and nasals.

  17. Investigating the Usefulness of Lexical Phrases in Contemporary Coursebooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Over the past decade, lexical theory, corpus statistics, and psycholinguistic research have pointed to the pedagogical value of lexical phrases. In response, commercial publishers have been quick to import these insights into their materials in a bid to accommodate consumers and to profit from the "lexical chunk" phenomenon. Contemporary British…

  18. Chinese-English Sourcebook of Classified Educational Phrases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Official translation from Chinese to English of words and phrases commonly used in education and library work. Classifications include sayings of Chairman Mao, revolutionary mass criticism, revolution in education, "May 7" cadre schools, teaching methods and materials, disciplines and curricula, school names and terms, and library…

  19. The determiner phrase in Etsako: A minimalist approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper seeks to analyse the Determiner Phrase in Etsako within the theoretical framework of the Minimalist Program, the most recent version of Chomsky's Generative Grammar. We shall argue that the functional category of Determiner is Head of all nominal projections in Etsako as against earlier accounts in favour of ...

  20. Relevance and Phrase Searching in Summon: looking under the hood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hodge

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly examines the mechanisms behind seemingly counter-intuitive phrase search results in Serials Solutions’ discovery platform Summon. The authors use the platform’s search API to explain why users sometimes encounter greater numbers of results when typically they would expect fewer. The article explores the reasons behind the search results and the implications for library instruction.

  1. Swedish Government Minister at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research recently visited CERN. The Swedish Minister was greeted by Swedish scientists working at CERN. Signing of the Swedish Computing Memorandum of Understanding. Pär Omling, Director-General of the Swedish Research Council (left), and Jos Engelen, CERN’s Chief Scientific Officer. Lars Leijonborg, the Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research, was welcomed to CERN by Director-General Robert Aymar on 10 March. After an introduction to the Laboratory’s activities, the Minister was given guided tours of the control room, the ATLAS surface hall and experiment cavern and the adjoining LHC tunnel. Mr Leijonborg was then greeted by Swedish scientists and given an overview of the Swedish research programme at CERN. Five Swedish university groups are taking part in LHC research. Swedish universities are notably involved in the manufacture of parts for the sub-detectors of AT...

  2. Swedish Energy Research 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Swedish Energy Research 2009 provides a brief, easily accessible overview of the Swedish energy research programme. The aims of the programme are to create knowledge and skills, as needed in order to commercialise the results and contribute to development of the energy system. Much of the work is carried out through about 40 research programmes in six thematic areas: energy system analysis, the building as an energy system, the transport sector, energy-intensive industries, biomass in energy systems and the power system. Swedish Energy Research 2009 describes the overall direction of research, with examples of current research, and results to date within various thematic areas and highlights

  3. Order in the noun phrase of the languages of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    1998-01-01

    The current investigation of the word order characteristics of the constituents of the noun phrase (NP) differs from other typological investigations of the issue in two major respects. First of all, it does not take for granted the existence of NPs or of the various NP-internal categories...... that it also has noun phrases: it may use a string of appositives rather than a proper, integral NP. The existence of NPs and the presence of various NP-internal categories is not an issue that has received considerable attention in typological word order studies. Yet how can we hope to establish the cross...... in a representative sample of European languages (Appendix 1), we first need to devote some attention to such basic questions as: Do all European languages have nouns? Do all European languages have proper NPs? Which NP-internal modifiers are attested in the European languages, and which are absent? These issues...

  4. A proposal of methodology for automatic indexation using noun phrases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Rocha Souza

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available It can be noticed that the indexing and representation strategies nowadays seems to be near the exhaustion, and it is worth to investigate new approaches to the indexing and information retrieving systems. Among these, a branch tries to consider the intrinsic semantics of the textual documents using noun phrases as descriptors instead of single keywords. We present in this article a methodology that was developed in the scope of a doctorate research.

  5. Integrating source-language context into phrase-based statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haque, R.; Kumar Naskar, S.; Bosch, A.P.J. van den; Way, A.

    2011-01-01

    The translation features typically used in Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation (PB-SMT) model dependencies between the source and target phrases, but not among the phrases in the source language themselves. A swathe of research has demonstrated that integrating source context modelling

  6. Key-phrase based classification of public health web pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolamic, Ljiljana; Boyer, Célia

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates the public health web pages classification model based on key phrase extraction and matching. Easily extendible both in terms of new classes as well as the new language this method proves to be a good solution for text classification faced with the total lack of training data. To evaluate the proposed solution we have used a small collection of public health related web pages created by a double blind manual classification. Our experiments have shown that by choosing the adequate threshold value the desired value for either precision or recall can be achieved.

  7. Swedish Cleantech Opportunities 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    A market overview from the Swedish Energy Agency. 'Cleantech (short for clean technologies) refers to energy and environmentally friendly related technologies. Global demand for this kind of products continues to grow and cleantech can thus generate new jobs, growth and tax revenues. The Swedish Energy Agency is active in the energy segment of cleantech and support companies in their early stages of development. This market overview outlines the current status of the sector, in Sweden and globally. It also presents business leaders and innovators in this field.'

  8. Swedish Cleantech Opportunities 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    A market overview from the Swedish Energy Agency. 'Cleantech (short for clean technologies) refers to energy and environmentally friendly related technologies. Global demand for this kind of products continues to grow and cleantech can thus generate new jobs, growth and tax revenues. The Swedish Energy Agency is active in the energy segment of cleantech and support companies in their early stages of development. This market overview outlines the current status of the sector, in Sweden and globally. It also presents business leaders and innovators in this field.'

  9. Stereotypic and complex phrase types provide structural evidence for a multi-message display in humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Anita; Dunlop, Rebecca A; Noad, Michael J; Goldizen, Anne W

    2018-02-01

    Male humpback whales produce a mating display called "song." Behavioral studies indicate song has inter- and/or intra-sexual functionality, suggesting song may be a multi-message display. Multi-message displays often include stereotypic components that convey group membership for mate attraction and/or male-male interactions, and complex components that convey individual quality for courtship. Humpback whale song contains sounds ("units") arranged into sequences ("phrases"). Repetitions of a specific phrase create a "theme." Within a theme, imperfect phrase repetitions ("phrase variants") create variability among phrases of the same type ("phrase type"). The hypothesis that song contains stereotypic and complex phrase types, structural characteristics consistent with a multi-message display, is investigated using recordings of 17 east Australian males (8:2004, 9:2011). Phrase types are categorized as stereotypic or complex using number of unit types, number of phrase variants, and the proportion of phrases that is unique to an individual versus shared amongst males. Unit types are determined using self-organizing maps. Phrase variants are determined by Levenshtein distances between phrases. Stereotypic phrase types have smaller numbers of unit types and shared phrase variants. Complex phrase types have larger numbers of unit types and unique phrase variants. This study supports the hypothesis that song could be a multi-message display.

  10. Neural Correlates of Phrase Rhythm: An EEG Study of Bipartite vs. Rondo Sonata Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fernández-Caballero

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the neural correlates of phrase rhythm. In short, phrase rhythm is the rhythmic aspect of phrase construction and the relationships between phrases. For the sake of establishing the neural correlates, a musical experiment has been designed to induce music-evoked stimuli related to phrase rhythm. Brain activity is monitored through electroencephalography (EEG by using a brain–computer interface. The power spectral value of each EEG channel is estimated to obtain how power variance distributes as a function of frequency. Our experiment shows statistical differences in theta and alpha bands in the phrase rhythm variations of two classical sonatas, one in bipartite form and the other in rondo form.

  11. Spanish comparative phrases of equality with a definite article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pablo Devís Márquez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the long-standing controversy over the so-called constructions with an emphatic or quantifying definite article in Spanish, a few authors have noticed the comparative import of constructions with a quantifying article or with article and a null quantifying modifier (No es lo inteligente que era su padre. The aim of this paper is to provide a descriptive analysis capable of drawing a grammatical distinction between constructions with a definite article and comparative value and non-comparative structures with an emphatic definite article. In the former case, the article is not an independent quantifier, but a discontinuous constituent in a phrase functioning as the quantifying modifier of the comparative head.

  12. The Swedish Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    2012-01-01

    The main characteristics of ‘the Swedish model’ are arguably related to the country's knowledge-intensive industry and its advanced welfare state. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the historical development of these two features of the Swedish economy. The first part looks at industrial...... development, highlighting both the reasons for the rapid industrialization in the late 19th century and the subsequent shift from raw materials to human capital and knowledge as the main competitive advantages. The second part turns to the development of welfare state, stressing the gradual increase...... in benefits and coverage as well as the emphasis on universal rather than means-tested benefits. The final part suggests some policy conclusions for today's developing countries and emerging economies....

  13. The swedish challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tregouet, R.

    2006-01-01

    Sweden decided to be the first country without petroleum for 2020. The author presents the major energy policy axis implemented by the swedish government to delete the part of the produced energy by the petroleum: development of the renewable energies, research programs of the transportation sector concerning the alternative fuels for the motors, energy efficiency and development of the biomass to replace the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  14. Distinct ERP Signatures of Word Frequency, Phrase Frequency, and Prototypicality in Speech Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Peter; Bolger, Patrick; Baayen, Harald

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have documented frequency effects for word n-grams, independently of word unigram frequency. Further studies have revealed constructional prototype effects, both at the word level as well as for phrases. The present speech production study investigates the time course of these effects for the production of prepositional phrases in…

  15. Planning in Sentence Production: Evidence for the Phrase as a Default Planning Scope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Randi C.; Crowther, Jason E.; Knight, Meredith; Tamborello, Franklin P., II; Yang, Chin-Lung

    2010-01-01

    Controversy remains as to the scope of advanced planning in language production. Smith and Wheeldon (1999) found significantly longer onset latencies when subjects described moving-picture displays by producing sentences beginning with a complex noun phrase than for matched sentences beginning with a simple noun phrase. While these findings are…

  16. Dealing with Phrase Level Co-Articulation (PLC) in speech recognition: a first approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; van Hessen, Adrianus J.; van Leeuwen, David A.; Robinson, Tony; Renals, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Whereas nowadays within-word co-articulation effects are usually sufficiently dealt with in automatic speech recognition, this is not always the case with phrase level co-articulation effects (PLC). This paper describes a first approach in dealing with phrase level co-articulation by applying these

  17. An "Alms-Basket" of "Bric-a-Brac": "Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development and history of "Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable," a reference source first published in 1870 that includes the etymology of phrases, allusions and words. Discusses reviews that reflected and shaped its status as a standard reference book, describes the current edition, and considers its enduring value.…

  18. 7 CFR 15f.4 - What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean? 15f.4 Section 15f.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADJUDICATIONS UNDER....4 What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean? Agency means the USDA agency, office...

  19. Interval Size and Phrase Position: A Comparison between German and Chinese Folksongs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Shanahan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the pitch of the voice tends to decline over the course of a spoken utterance. Ladd (2008 showed that there is also a tendency for the pitch range of spoken utterances to shrink as the pitch of the voice declines. Motivated by this work, two studies are reported that test for the existence of “late phrase compression” in music where the interval size tends to decline toward the end of a phrase. A study of 39,863 phrases from notated Germanic folksongs shows the predicted decline in interval size. However, a second study of 10,985 phrases from Chinese folksongs shows a reverse relationship. In fact, the interval behaviors in Chinese and Germanic folksongs provide marked contrasts: Chinese phrases are dominated by relatively large intervals, but begin with small intervals and end with medium-small intervals. Germanic phrases are dominated by relatively medium intervals, but begin with large intervals and end with small intervals. In short, late phrase interval compression is not evident cross-culturally.

  20. ClusType: Effective Entity Recognition and Typing by Relation Phrase-Based Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiang; El-Kishky, Ahmed; Wang, Chi; Tao, Fangbo; Voss, Clare R.; Ji, Heng; Han, Jiawei

    2015-01-01

    Entity recognition is an important but challenging research problem. In reality, many text collections are from specific, dynamic, or emerging domains, which poses significant new challenges for entity recognition with increase in name ambiguity and context sparsity, requiring entity detection without domain restriction. In this paper, we investigate entity recognition (ER) with distant-supervision and propose a novel relation phrase-based ER framework, called ClusType, that runs data-driven phrase mining to generate entity mention candidates and relation phrases, and enforces the principle that relation phrases should be softly clustered when propagating type information between their argument entities. Then we predict the type of each entity mention based on the type signatures of its co-occurring relation phrases and the type indicators of its surface name, as computed over the corpus. Specifically, we formulate a joint optimization problem for two tasks, type propagation with relation phrases and multi-view relation phrase clustering. Our experiments on multiple genres—news, Yelp reviews and tweets—demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of ClusType, with an average of 37% improvement in F1 score over the best compared method. PMID:26705503

  1. The phrase “information storage and retrieval” (IS&R)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2015-01-01

    Scholars have uncovered abundant data about the history of the term “information”, as well as some of its many combined phrases (e.g. “information science”, “information retrieval” and “information technology”). Many other compounds involving “information” seem, however, not to have a known origi...... yet. In this article, further information about the phrase “information storage and retrieval” is provided. To know the history of terms and their associated concepts is an important prescription against poor terminological phrasing and theoretical confusion....

  2. Descriptive and discourse-referential modifiers in a layered model of the noun phrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that adnominal modifiers in a layered model of the noun phrase can be divided into two major subcategories: descriptive modifiers and discourse-referential modifiers. Whereas descriptive modifiers can be subdivided into classifying, qualifying, quantifying and localizing...... modifiers (section 2), discourse-referential modifiers in the noun phrase are concerned with the status of entities as referents in the world of discourse (section 3). I will pay particular attention to three issues: (i) formal reflections of the layered, semantic structure of the noun phrase (section 4...

  3. Corporate Governance in the Swedish Banking Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Palmberg, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the corporate governance structure among Swedish banks. Who controls the Swedish banks and what characteristics does the Swedish banking sector have? Issues related to corporate governance such as ownership structure, board of directors and control-enhancing mechanisms will be studied. The Swedish banking law, how Swedish banks handled the financial crises and government measures to deal with the financial crisis is also analyzed.

  4. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981

  5. Incorporating Pass-Phrase Dependent Background Models for Text-Dependent Speaker verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkar, Achintya Kumar; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2018-01-01

    -dependent. We show that the proposed method significantly reduces the error rates of text-dependent speaker verification for the non-target types: target-wrong and impostor-wrong while it maintains comparable TD-SV performance when impostors speak a correct utterance with respect to the conventional system......In this paper, we propose pass-phrase dependent background models (PBMs) for text-dependent (TD) speaker verification (SV) to integrate the pass-phrase identification process into the conventional TD-SV system, where a PBM is derived from a text-independent background model through adaptation using...... the utterances of a particular pass-phrase. During training, pass-phrase specific target speaker models are derived from the particular PBM using the training data for the respective target model. While testing, the best PBM is first selected for the test utterance in the maximum likelihood (ML) sense...

  6. Increases in Individualistic Words and Phrases in American Books, 1960–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M.; Campbell, W. Keith; Gentile, Brittany

    2012-01-01

    Cultural products such as song lyrics, television shows, and books reveal cultural differences, including cultural change over time. Two studies examine changes in the use of individualistic words (Study 1) and phrases (Study 2) in the Google Books Ngram corpus of millions of books in American English. Current samples from the general population generated and rated lists of individualistic words and phrases (e.g., “unique,” “personalize,” “self,” “all about me,” “I am special,” “I’m the best”). Individualistic words and phrases increased in use between 1960 and 2008, even when controlling for changes in communal words and phrases. Language in American books has become increasingly focused on the self and uniqueness in the decades since 1960. PMID:22808113

  7. Increases in individualistic words and phrases in American books, 1960-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Campbell, W Keith; Gentile, Brittany

    2012-01-01

    Cultural products such as song lyrics, television shows, and books reveal cultural differences, including cultural change over time. Two studies examine changes in the use of individualistic words (Study 1) and phrases (Study 2) in the Google Books Ngram corpus of millions of books in American English. Current samples from the general population generated and rated lists of individualistic words and phrases (e.g., "unique," "personalize," "self," "all about me," "I am special," "I'm the best"). Individualistic words and phrases increased in use between 1960 and 2008, even when controlling for changes in communal words and phrases. Language in American books has become increasingly focused on the self and uniqueness in the decades since 1960.

  8. Installing the ARL Phrase Book Android Application and Configuring its Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    application contains several third - party applications, which add additional steps to the installation process. Due to these dependencies, the installation...military terms, additional Dari terms, etc.) were added to the Phrase Book app. In addition, third - party apps (e.g., Carnegie Mellon University’s...Phrase Book app uses 2 third - party apps from the Google Play Store, Google’s app store. The Google Play Store is accessible by clicking on the white

  9. The relationship between positive or negative phrasing and patients' coping with lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Oh; Gong, Hyun Sik; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Rhee, Seung Hwan; Lee, Young Ho; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2014-04-01

    Research suggests that phrases with negative content can affect patients' response to medical procedures and how they cope with medical illnesses. We hypothesized that patients with lateral epicondylitis who describe their condition in positive phrases cope better than those who do not. We prospectively followed up 91 patients with lateral epicondylitis for 12 months. The patients indicated their baseline coping status based on the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) and were discharged with a wait-and-see policy. During follow-up interviews, the patients described the nature of their condition in their own words and were then categorized into either positive or negative phrasing groups. We compared these two groups regarding current coping status and whether they had sought additional treatment. We also analyzed for the factors associated with these outcomes. There were no significant differences in baseline PCS scores between the two groups. At follow-up, patients in the positive phrasing group (n = 62) had significantly lower PCS scores and were less likely to seek additional treatment than those in the negative phrasing group (n = 29). Multivariable analyses showed that positive phrasing and low pain levels were independently associated with improvement in PCS scores and that negative phrasing and depression were independently associated with patients' seeking additional treatment. Patients' positive phrasing about their condition are associated with improvement in their coping status and with less use of medical resources in the case of lateral epicondylitis. This study suggests that patients with more positive attitudes toward their illness cope and comply better when a wait-and-see treatment is recommended by their physicians. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Role of Sustained Attention in the Production of Conjoined Noun Phrases: An Individual Differences Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongman, Suzanne R; Meyer, Antje S; Roelofs, Ardi

    2015-01-01

    It has previously been shown that language production, performed simultaneously with a nonlinguistic task, involves sustained attention. Sustained attention concerns the ability to maintain alertness over time. Here, we aimed to replicate the previous finding by showing that individuals call upon sustained attention when they plan single noun phrases (e.g., "the carrot") and perform a manual arrow categorization task. In addition, we investigated whether speakers also recruit sustained attention when they produce conjoined noun phrases (e.g., "the carrot and the bucket") describing two pictures, that is, when both the first and second task are linguistic. We found that sustained attention correlated with the proportion of abnormally slow phrase-production responses. Individuals with poor sustained attention displayed a greater number of very slow responses than individuals with better sustained attention. Importantly, this relationship was obtained both for the production of single phrases while performing a nonlinguistic manual task, and the production of noun phrase conjunctions in referring to two spatially separated objects. Inhibition and updating abilities were also measured. These scores did not correlate with our measure of sustained attention, suggesting that sustained attention and executive control are distinct. Overall, the results suggest that planning conjoined noun phrases involves sustained attention, and that language production happens less automatically than has often been assumed.

  11. Influencing feelings of cancer risk: direct and moderator effects of affectively laden phrases in risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Eva; van Osch, Liesbeth; Lechner, Lilian; de Vries, Hein

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating for the importance of feelings of risk in explaining cancer preventive behaviors, but best practices for influencing these feelings are limited. This study investigated the direct and moderational influence of affectively laden phrases in cancer risk messages. Two experimental studies were conducted in relation to different cancer-related behaviors--sunbed use (n = 112) and red meat consumption (n = 447)--among student and nonstudent samples. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (a) a cognitive message using cognitively laden phrases or (b) an affective message using affectively laden phrases. The results revealed that affective phrases did not directly influence feelings of risk in both studies. Evidence for a moderational influence was found in Study 2, suggesting that affective information strengthened the relation between feelings of risk and intention (i.e., participants relied more on their feelings in the decision-making process after exposure to affective information). These findings suggest that solely using affective phrases in risk communication may not be sufficient to directly influence feelings of risk and other methods need to be explored in future research. Moreover, research is needed to replicate our preliminary indications for a moderational influence of affective phrases to advance theory and practice.

  12. Innovation in Swedish Restaurant Franchises

    OpenAIRE

    Loikkanen, Jenny; Mazura, Jekaterina; Schrader, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Background – The franchising industry in Sweden has experienced a vast growth in the recent years, and it makes up a significant part of the Swedish economy. The restaurant industry accounts for a large amount of the Swedish franchises. Due to the dynamic business environment today, companies need to increasingly strive for improvement in order to sustain their competitive advantage and to enhance their performance. Innovation may be required, and franchises are no exceptions. However, due to...

  13. Swedish encapsulation station review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G.

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB's document 'Plan 1996'. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL's Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International's experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation

  14. Swedish encapsulation station review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G. [NAC International, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB`s document `Plan 1996`. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL`s Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International`s experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation 19 refs, 9 figs, 35 tabs

  15. The Swedish Energy Market 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-01

    The Swedish Energy Market, 2005 is an annual publication that presents information and statistics on the network based energy markets in Sweden, i.e. the markets for electricity, natural gas and district heating. It also provides an overview of the issues that have arisen on these markets during the second half of 2004 and the first half of 2005. Considerable work is being carried out in the EU on creating a single market for electricity and natural gas. This publication therefore describes expansion of the Swedish market towards a Nordic and a European market. The publication normally includes a theme chapter, describing some event of particular interest for the Swedish energy market during the year. This year, the theme chapter is devoted to the Storm Gudrun, which struck the south of the country at the beginning of January, and its effects on electricity supply throughout the country. The chapter is based on the report submitted to the Government by the Energy Markets Inspectorate in the spring of 2005, and also includes a summary of the Inspectorate's proposals for measures to improve the security of electricity transmission. Energy in Sweden, which is another of the Swedish Energy Agency's annual publications, provides information and statistics on the development of the entire Swedish energy system.

  16. The Swedish Energy Market 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    The Swedish Energy Market, 2005 is an annual publication that presents information and statistics on the network based energy markets in Sweden, i.e. the markets for electricity, natural gas and district heating. It also provides an overview of the issues that have arisen on these markets during the second half of 2004 and the first half of 2005. Considerable work is being carried out in the EU on creating a single market for electricity and natural gas. This publication therefore describes expansion of the Swedish market towards a Nordic and a European market. The publication normally includes a theme chapter, describing some event of particular interest for the Swedish energy market during the year. This year, the theme chapter is devoted to the Storm Gudrun, which struck the south of the country at the beginning of January, and its effects on electricity supply throughout the country. The chapter is based on the report submitted to the Government by the Energy Markets Inspectorate in the spring of 2005, and also includes a summary of the Inspectorate's proposals for measures to improve the security of electricity transmission. Energy in Sweden, which is another of the Swedish Energy Agency's annual publications, provides information and statistics on the development of the entire Swedish energy system

  17. Individual and combined effects of enactment and testing on memory for action phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Veit; Söderlund, Hedvig; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Jönsson, Fredrik U

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the individual and combined effects of enactment and testing on memory for action phrases to address whether both study techniques commonly promote item-specific processing. Participants (N = 112) were divided into four groups (n = 28). They either exclusively studied 36 action phrases (e.g., "lift the glass") or both studied and cued-recalled them in four trials. During study trials participants encoded the action phrases either by motorically performing them, or by reading them aloud, and they took final verb-cued recall tests over 18-min and 1-week retention intervals. A testing effect was demonstrated for action phrases, however, only when they were verbally encoded, and not when they were enacted. Similarly, enactive (relative to verbal) encoding reduced the rate of forgetting, but only when the action phrases were exclusively studied, and not when they were also tested. These less-than-additive effects of enactment and testing on the rate of forgetting, as well as on long-term retention, support the notion that both study techniques effectively promote item-specific processing that can only be marginally increased further by combining them.

  18. Obstetric Thromboprophylaxis: The Swedish Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelle G. Lindqvist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstetric thromboprophylaxis is difficult. Since 10 years Swedish obstetricians have used a combined risk estimation model and recommendations concerning to whom, at what dose, when, and for how long thromboprophylaxis is to be administrated based on a weighted risk score. In this paper we describe the background and validation of the Swedish guidelines for obstetric thromboprophylaxis in women with moderate-high risk of VTE, that is, at similar or higher risk as the antepartum risk among women with history of thrombosis. The risk score is based on major risk factors (i.e., 5-fold increased risk of thromboembolism. We present data on the efficacy of the model, the cost-effectiveness, and the lifestyle advice that is given. We believe that the Swedish guidelines for obstetric thromboprophylaxis aid clinicians in providing women at increased risk of VTE with effective and appropriate thromboprophylaxis, thus avoiding both over- and under-treatment.

  19. Young children pause on phrase boundaries in self-paced music listening: The role of harmonic cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragness, Haley E; Trainor, Laurel J

    2018-05-01

    Proper segmentation of auditory streams is essential for understanding music. Many cues, including meter, melodic contour, and harmony, influence adults' perception of musical phrase boundaries. To date, no studies have examined young children's musical grouping in a production task. We used a musical self-pacing method to investigate (1) whether dwell times index young children's musical phrase grouping and, if so, (2) whether children dwell longer on phrase boundaries defined by harmonic cues specifically. In Experiment 1, we asked 3-year-old children to self-pace through chord progressions from Bach chorales (sequences in which metrical, harmonic, and melodic contour grouping cues aligned) by pressing a computer key to present each chord in the sequence. Participants dwelled longer on chords in the 8th position, which corresponded to phrase endings. In Experiment 2, we tested 3-, 4-, and 7-year-old children's sensitivity to harmonic cues to phrase grouping when metrical regularity cues and melodic contour cues were misaligned with the harmonic phrase boundaries. In this case, 7 and 4 year olds but not 3 year olds dwelled longer on harmonic phrase boundaries, suggesting that the influence of harmonic cues on phrase boundary perception develops substantially between 3 and 4 years of age in Western children. Overall, we show that the musical dwell time method is child-friendly and can be used to investigate various aspects of young children's musical understanding, including phrase grouping and harmonic knowledge. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Environmental assessment of Swedish agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, Rebecka; Finnveden, Goeran; Wadeskog, Anders

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an environmental assessment of Swedish agriculture, including upstream and downstream effects. The analysis is based on environmentally extended input-output analysis, but it is also supplemented with data from other sources. The analysis shows that direct effects by the Swedish agriculture are the most important, while indirect effects from other sources including mobile and impacts abroad are also considerable. The most important impacts from Swedish agriculture according to the analysis are eutrophication, global warming and resource use. The agricultural sector produces a large share of the Swedish emissions causing both global warming and eutrophication. In addition, current agricultural practice causes problems with loss of biodiversity. The most important actors in the sector are agriculture itself, but also all actors using fossil fuels: primarily the transport sector and the energy sector. In addition, consumers are important since they can influence the composition of agricultural production. The analysis shows the importance of including upstream and downstream effects when analysing the environmental impacts from a sector. (author)

  1. Sulfur problems in Swedish agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, O

    1959-01-01

    The present paper deals with some aspects of the sulfur situation in Swedish agriculture with special emphasis on the importance of and relationships among various sources of sulfur supply. An inventory of the sulfur content of Swedish soils and hay crops includes 649 soil samples and a corresponding number of hay samples from 59 locations. In a special investigation the samples were found to be representative of normal Swedish farm land. It is concluded that the amount of sulfur compounds in the air is the primary factor which determines the amount of sulfur added to the soil from the atmosphere. Compared with values obtained in other countries, the amount of sulfur added by the precipitation in Sweden is very low. The distribution in air and precipitation of sulfur from an industrial source was studied in a special investigation. An initial reason for the present study was the damage to vegetation caused by smoke from an industrial source. It was concluded that the average conditions in the vicinity of the industrial source with respect to smoke constituents in the air and precipitation were unfavorable only to the plants directly within a very narrow region. Relationships among the sulfur contents of air, of precipitation, of soils and of plants have been subject to special investigations. In the final general discussion and conclusions it is pointed out that the results from these investigations indicate evident differences in the sulfur status of Swedish soils. The present trend toward the use of more highly concentrated fertilizers poor in sulfur may be expected to cause a considerable change in the sulfur situation in Swedish agriculture. 167 references, 40 figures, 44 tables.

  2. Early Acquisition of Gender Agreement in the Spanish Noun Phrase: Starting Small

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariscal, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Nativist and constructivist accounts differ in their characterization of children's knowledge of grammatical categories. In this paper we present research on the process of acquisition of a particular grammatical system, gender agreement in the Spanish noun phrase, in children under three years of age. The design of the longitudinal study employed…

  3. 20 CFR 345.302 - Definition of terms and phrases used in experience-rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for the current calendar year. This ratio is computed to four decimal places. (k) Pooled credit ratio... employer for the calendar year involved in the computation. This ratio is computed to four decimal places... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of terms and phrases used in...

  4. The Language of Energy: A Glossary of Words and Phrases Used in the Energy Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Petroleum Inst., Washington, DC.

    Provided is an alphabetical list or words and phrases commonly used in the energy industry. Entries range from such general terms as biomass, fossil fuels, and wetlands to such highly specific terms as Arab oil embargo of 1973-74 and Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) Process. (JN)

  5. Dvandvas, Blocking, and the Associative: The Bumpy Ride from Phrase to Word

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiparsky, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The oldest form of Sanskrit has a class of expressions that are in some respects like asyndetically coordinated syntactic phrases, in other respects like single compound words. I propose to resolve the conflicting evidence by drawing on prosodic phonology, stratal optimality theory, and the lexicalist approach to morphological blocking. I then…

  6. Dictogloss or Dicto-Phrase: Which Works Better for Listening Comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marashi, Hamid; Khaksar, Mojgan

    2013-01-01

    This research compared the effect of using dictogloss and dicto-phrase tasks on EFL learners' listening comprehension. To fulfill the purpose of the study, a piloted sample Key English Test (KET) was administered to a total number of 90 Iranian female teenage EFL learners at Kish Language School, Tehran, and then 60 were selected based on their…

  7. Machine translation of noun phrases from English to Igala using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the structural differences between English and Igala, noun phrases coupled with the non- availability of large amount of parallel aligned corpus for English and Igala language, the rule based technology was adopted to develop the model. The model was implemented using VB.net programming language as front ...

  8. The On-Line Processing of Verb-Phrase Ellipsis in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Josee; Shapiro, Lewis P.; Love, Tracy; Grodzinsky, Yosef

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the on-line processing of verb-phrase ellipsis (VPE) constructions in two brain injured populations: Broca's and Anomic aphasics. VPE constructions are built from two simple clauses; the first is the antecedent clause and the second is the ellipsis clause. The ellipsis clause is missing its verb and object (i.e., its verb phrase…

  9. [Stimuli phrases of adductor spasmodic dysphonia phonatory break in mandarin Chinese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Pingjiang; Ren, Qingyi; Chen, Zhipeng; Cheng, Qiuhui; Sheng, Xiaoli; Wang, Ling; Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Siyi

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the characteristics of adductor spasmodic dysphonia phonatory break in mandarin Chinese and select the stimuli phrases. Thirty-eight patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia were involved in this study. Standard phrase " fù mŭ xīn" and a speech corpus in mandarin Chinese with 229 syllables covering all vowel and constant of mandarin Chinese were selected. Every patient read the phrases above twice in normal speed and comfortable voice. Two auditory perpetual speech pathologists marked phonatory break syllables respectively. The frequency of phonatory break syllables and their located phrases were calculated, rated and described. The phrases including the most phonatory break syllables were selected as stimuli phrases, the phonatory break frequency of which was also higher than that of standard phrase "fù mŭ xīn". Phonatory break happened in the reading of all patients. The average number of phonatory break syllables was 14 (3-33). Phonatroy break occurred when saying 177 (77.3%) syllables in the speech corpus. The syllables "guŏ, rén, zāng, diàn, chē, gè, guăn, a, bā, ne, de" broke in 23.1%-41.0% patients. These syllables belonged to the phrases "pĭng guŏ, huŏ chē, shì de, nĭ shì gè hăo rén, wŏ mén shì yŏu zŏng shì bă qĭn shì nong dé hĕn zāng, wŏ mén nà biān yŏu wăng qiú yùn dong chăng, cān gŭan, jiŭ bā hé yī gè miàn bāo dìan, tā shì duō me kāng kăi a,wŏ yīng gāi zài xìn lĭ xiĕ yī xiē shén mē ne?". Thirty-seven patients (97.3%) had phonatory break in above mentioned words. Ratios of these words phonatory break also were more than "fù mŭ xīn". Adductor spasmodic dysphonic patients exhibited different degrees of phonatory break in mandarine Chinese. The phrases" shì de, pĭng guŏ, huŏ chē, nĭ shì gè hăo rén, wŏ mén nà biān yŏu wăng qiú yùn dong chăng, cān gŭan, jiŭ bā hé yī gè miàn bāo dìan, tā shì duō me kāng kăi a" were recommended as stimuli

  10. The Economy of Fluent Speaking: Phrase-Level Reduction in a Patient with Pure Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiger, Anja; Ruttenauer, Anna; Ziegler, Wolfram

    2010-01-01

    The term "phrase-level reduction" refers to transformations of the phonetic forms of words in connected speech. They are a characteristic property of fluent speech in normal speakers. Phrase-level reductions contribute to a reduction of articulatory-motor effort and constitute an important aspect of speech naturalness. So far, these phenomena have…

  11. Fully automatic multi-language translation with a catalogue of phrases – successful employment for the Swiss avalanche bulletin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, K.; Kuhn, T.

    2016-01-01

    The Swiss avalanche bulletin is produced twice a day in four languages. Due to the lack of time available for manual translation, a fully automated translation system is employed, based on a catalogue of predefined phrases and predetermined rules of how these phrases can be combined to produce

  12. Swedish mines. Underground exploitation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paucard, A.

    1960-01-01

    Between 1949 and 1957, 10 engineers of the Mining research and exploitation department of the CEA visited 17 Swedish mines during 5 field trips. This paper presents a compilation of the information gathered during these field trips concerning the different underground mining techniques used in Swedish iron mines: mining with backfilling (Central Sweden and Boliden mines); mining without backfilling (mines of the polar circle area). The following techniques are described successively: pillar drawing and backfilled slices (Ammeberg, Falun, Garpenberg, Boliden group), sub-level pillar drawing (Grangesberg, Bloettberget, Haeksberg), empty room and sub-level pillar drawing (Bodas, Haksberg, Stripa, Bastkarn), storage chamber pillar drawing (Bodas, Haeksberg, Bastkarn), and pillar drawing by block caving (ldkerberget). Reprint of a paper published in Revue de l'Industrie Minerale, vol. 41, no. 12, 1959 [fr

  13. Present-Day Influence of English on Swedish as Found in Swedish Job Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Ben E.

    1990-01-01

    A brief analysis of job advertisements in Swedish newspapers notes the increasing trend toward the use of English rather than Swedish words for certain terms, attributing such use to the wish to show an international labor perspective. (five references) (CB)

  14. The Swedish satellite project Viking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultqvist, B.

    1990-01-01

    The Swedish satellite project Viking is described and related to earlier missions. Some new operational characteristics are discussed, including the real-time data analysis campaigns that were an important part of the project. Some areas of important scientific impact of the project are also described. Viking was specially designed and equipped for investigation of plasma physical acceleration and other processes in the transition region between hot and cold plasma on auroral latitude magnetic field lines

  15. Swedish minister rebuilds scientists' trust

    CERN Multimedia

    Sylwan, P

    1999-01-01

    Thomas Ostros, Sweden's new science minister is aiming to improve links with the science community, severely strained during the tenure of Carl Tham. Significantly, he confirmed that he will not be making any further changes to the managment of the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research. He also announced a 5 per cent increase in government funding for science which will be used to strengthen basic research and education (1 page).

  16. Innovation Management in Swedish Municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Wihlman, Thomas; Hoppe, Magnus; Wihlman, Ulla; Sandmark, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Research on public sector innovation is still limited, and increased knowledge of innovation processes is needed. This article is a based on a study of the implementation of innovation policies in Swedish municipalities, and gives a first-hand, empirical view of some of the complexities of innovation in the public sector. The study took place in four municipalities in central Sweden. The municipalities varied in size and organisational forms. Interviews and policy documents were used for data...

  17. Swedish earthquakes and acceleration probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slunga, R.

    1979-03-01

    A method to assign probabilities to ground accelerations for Swedish sites is described. As hardly any nearfield instrumental data is available we are left with the problem of interpreting macroseismic data in terms of acceleration. By theoretical wave propagation computations the relation between seismic strength of the earthquake, focal depth, distance and ground accelerations are calculated. We found that most Swedish earthquake of the area, the 1904 earthquake 100 km south of Oslo, is an exception and probably had a focal depth exceeding 25 km. For the nuclear power plant sites an annual probability of 10 -5 has been proposed as interesting. This probability gives ground accelerations in the range 5-20 % for the sites. This acceleration is for a free bedrock site. For consistency all acceleration results in this study are given for bedrock sites. When applicating our model to the 1904 earthquake and assuming the focal zone to be in the lower crust we get the epicentral acceleration of this earthquake to be 5-15 % g. The results above are based on an analyses of macrosismic data as relevant instrumental data is lacking. However, the macroseismic acceleration model deduced in this study gives epicentral ground acceleration of small Swedish earthquakes in agreement with existent distant instrumental data. (author)

  18. Energy efficiency in Swedish industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shanshan; Lundgren, Tommy; Zhou, Wenchao

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses energy efficiency in Swedish industry. Using unique firm-level panel data covering the years 2001–2008, the efficiency estimates are obtained for firms in 14 industrial sectors by using data envelopment analysis (DEA). The analysis accounts for multi-output technologies where undesirable outputs are produced alongside with the desirable output. The results show that there was potential to improve energy efficiency in all the sectors and relatively large energy inefficiencies existed in small energy-use industries in the sample period. Also, we assess how the EU ETS, the carbon dioxide (CO_2) tax and the energy tax affect energy efficiency by conducting a second-stage regression analysis. To obtain consistent estimates for the regression model, we apply a modified, input-oriented version of the double bootstrap procedure of Simar and Wilson (2007). The results of the regression analysis reveal that the EU ETS and the CO_2 tax did not have significant influences on energy efficiency in the sample period. However, the energy tax had a positive relation with the energy efficiency. - Highlights: • We use DEA to estimate firm-level energy efficiency in Swedish industry. • We examine impacts of climate and energy policies on energy efficiency. • The analyzed policies are Swedish carbon and energy taxes and the EU ETS. • Carbon tax and EU ETS did not have significant influences on energy efficiency. • The energy tax had a positive relation with energy efficiency.

  19. New Swedish environmental and sustainable education research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Öhman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of Education & Democracy presents examples froma new generation of Swedish research on environmental and sustainability education and thereby complement the picture of the current Swedish environmental and sustainability education research outlined in the recent Danish-Swedish special issue of Environmental EducationResearch (Vol 16, No 1 and the anthology Democracy and Values inEducation for Sustainable Development – Contributions from Swedish Research (Öhman 2008. All the contributors to this issue are associatedwith the Graduate School in Education and Sustainable Development (GRESD, either as PhD students or as supervisors.

  20. The Effects of the Literal Meaning of Emotional Phrases on the Identification of Vocal Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeno, Sumi

    2018-02-01

    This study investigates the discrepancy between the literal emotional content of speech and emotional tone in the identification of speakers' vocal emotions in both the listeners' native language (Japanese), and in an unfamiliar language (random-spliced Japanese). Both experiments involve a "congruent condition," in which the emotion contained in the literal meaning of speech (words and phrases) was compatible with vocal emotion, and an "incongruent condition," in which these forms of emotional information were discordant. Results for Japanese indicated that performance in identifying emotions did not differ significantly between the congruent and incongruent conditions. However, the results for random-spliced Japanese indicated that vocal emotion was correctly identified more often in the congruent than in the incongruent condition. The different results for Japanese and random-spliced Japanese suggested that the literal meaning of emotional phrases influences the listener's perception of the speaker's emotion, and that Japanese participants could infer speakers' intended emotions in the incongruent condition.

  1. Mixed metaphors: Electrophysiological brain responses to (un)expected concrete and abstract prepositional phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, Emily; Shafer, Valerie

    2018-02-01

    Languages around the world use spatial terminology, like prepositions, to describe non-spatial, abstract concepts, including time (e.g., in the moment). The Metaphoric Mapping Theory explains this pattern by positing that a universal human cognitive process underlies it, whereby abstract concepts are conceptualized via the application of concrete, three-dimensional space onto abstract domains. The alternative view is that the use of spatial propositions in abstract phrases is idiomatic, and thus does not trigger metaphoric mapping. In the current study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to examine the time-course of neural processing of concrete and abstract phrases consisting of the prepositions in or on followed by congruent and incongruent nouns (e.g., in the bowl/plate and in the moment/mend). ERPs were recorded from the onset of reference nouns in 28 adult participants using a 128-channel electrode net. Results show that congruency has differential effects on neural measures, depending on whether the noun is concrete or abstract. Incongruent reference nouns in concrete phrases (e.g., on the bowl) elicited a significant central negativity (an N400 effect), while incongruent reference nouns in abstract phrases (e.g., on the moment) did not. These results suggest that spatially incongruent concrete nouns are semantically unexpected (N400 effect). A P600 effect, which might indicate rechecking, reanalysis and/or reconstruction, was predicted for incongruent abstract nouns, but was not observed, possibly due to the variability in abstract stimuli. Findings cast doubt on accounts claiming that abstract uses of prepositions are cognitively and metaphorically linked to their spatial sense during natural, on-line processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Process of Word Formation and Phrase Structure of Android Application Names

    OpenAIRE

    Handayani, Heny

    2013-01-01

    Android is an operating system for mobile device, such as smartphones and tablet computers that was developed by Google. In this era, android is a popular operating system that is searched by people because of necessary of information. The process and structure of android application names are interesting to be analyzed since they have different structure of words in general. The purpose research is to describe and explain which word formation processes and phrase structure that are commonly ...

  3. Technology-Enhanced L2 Reading: The Effects of Hierarchical Phrase Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Youngmin

    2016-01-01

    Sentence processing skills contribute to successful L2 reading, and require understanding and manipulation of the order and interdependence of words within a sentence. Acknowledging that this syntactic awareness is significant but challenging in language development, a small number of researchers have explored whether modified text format increases reading abilities by raising syntactic awareness. This mixed within- and between-subjects study aims to examine whether phrase-segmented format, s...

  4. Development and evaluation of fixed phrase registration function for disaster response management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takeyasu; Tsuda, Teppei

    2012-01-01

    It is important that three elements such as what happened, how it will advance, and how people should act are intelligibly transferred in disaster information from administrative organs to local residents. In this paper, authors developed the fixed phrase registration function and it was implemented in disaster response management system authors have previously developed. The system was applied to disaster response exercise in Mitsuke City, Niigata prefecture and the function was highly evaluated by employees of Mitsuke City. (author)

  5. Children with autism spectrum disorders who do not develop phrase speech in the preschool years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrelgen, Fritjof; Fernell, Elisabeth; Eriksson, Mats; Hedvall, Åsa; Persson, Clara; Sjölin, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher; Kjellmer, Liselotte

    2015-11-01

    There is uncertainty about the proportion of children with autism spectrum disorders who do not develop phrase speech during the preschool years. The main purpose of this study was to examine this ratio in a population-based community sample of children. The cohort consisted of 165 children (141 boys, 24 girls) with autism spectrum disorders aged 4-6 years followed longitudinally over 2 years during which time they had received intervention at a specialized autism center. In this study, data collected at the 2-year follow-up were used. Three categories of expressive language were defined: nonverbal, minimally verbal, and phrase speech. Data from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II were used to classify expressive language. A secondary objective of the study was to analyze factors that might be linked to verbal ability, namely, child age, cognitive level, autism subtype and severity of core autism symptoms, developmental regression, epilepsy or other medical conditions, and intensity of intervention. The proportion of children who met the criteria for nonverbal, minimally verbal, and phrase speech were 15%, 10%, and 75%, respectively. The single most important factor linked to expressive language was the child's cognitive level, and all children classified as being nonverbal or minimally verbal had intellectual disability. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. English Words and Phrases in Croatian: A Small-Scale Study of Language Awareness and Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Perić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on language attitudes towards English words and phrases in the Croatian language. In order to prevent loanwords, linguistic purism has arisen as a theory about what languages should be like. The tradition of linguistic purism in Croatia has been shaped by various socio-historical factors. English may be viewed as a language of opportunity, or as a threat to the survival of other, usually minority and endangered, languages. In order to provide an insight into the use of English words and phrases in the Croatian context, a questionnaire about language attitudes and awareness was conducted on 534 participants. The aim of the questionnaire was to determine participants’ language attitudes and familiarity with English words and phrases. The results show that although people in Croatia generally like English, many of them are not familiar with English words, especially older participants and those with little or no knowledge of the English language. Moreover, the results indicate that the younger generation is more inclined towards English than the older generation; however, they are not as familiar with Croatian equivalents as they claim.

  7. Commit* to change? A call to end the publication of the phrase 'commit* suicide'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Emma; Padmanathan, Prianka; Knipe, Duleeka

    2016-12-06

    Background. Countering stigma is a fundamental facet of suicide prevention efforts.  Integral to this is the promotion of accurate and sensitive language.  The phrase 'commit* suicide' has prompted marked opposition primarily due to the connotations of immorality and illegality.  Methods. The study investigated the frequency of the use of the wordstem 'commit', in relation to self-harm and suicidal behaviours, in the three leading suicide-specific academic journals between 2000 and 2015.  Results. One third (34%) of articles published since the year 2000 used the word 'commit*' when describing an act of self-harm or suicide. Over half of these articles (57%) used the phrase on more than one occasion, with 6% using it more than 10 times in the same manuscript. The percentage of papers utilising the word 'commit*' has fluctuated over time, but there is a promising downward trend in the use of this phrase from 33% in 2000 to 13% in 2015 ( p suicide. Whilst we call for collective responsibility amongst academics and clinicians, editors hold a unique position in ensuring that outdated, inaccurate and stigma-laden terms are expunged from the scientific literature.

  8. Commit* to change? A call to end the publication of the phrase ‘commit* suicide’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Emma; Padmanathan, Prianka; Knipe, Duleeka

    2016-01-01

    Background. Countering stigma is a fundamental facet of suicide prevention efforts.  Integral to this is the promotion of accurate and sensitive language.  The phrase ‘commit* suicide’ has prompted marked opposition primarily due to the connotations of immorality and illegality.  Methods. The study investigated the frequency of the use of the wordstem ‘commit’, in relation to self-harm and suicidal behaviours, in the three leading suicide-specific academic journals between 2000 and 2015.  Results. One third (34%) of articles published since the year 2000 used the word ‘commit*’ when describing an act of self-harm or suicide. Over half of these articles (57%) used the phrase on more than one occasion, with 6% using it more than 10 times in the same manuscript. The percentage of papers utilising the word ‘commit*’ has fluctuated over time, but there is a promising downward trend in the use of this phrase from 33% in 2000 to 13% in 2015 ( p suicide. Whilst we call for collective responsibility amongst academics and clinicians, editors hold a unique position in ensuring that outdated, inaccurate and stigma-laden terms are expunged from the scientific literature. PMID:28286872

  9. What Constitutes a Phrase in Sound-Based Music? A Mixed-Methods Investigation of Perception and Acoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Kirk N; Dean, Roger T; Leung, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Phrasing facilitates the organization of auditory information and is central to speech and music. Not surprisingly, aspects of changing intensity, rhythm, and pitch are key determinants of musical phrases and their boundaries in instrumental note-based music. Different kinds of speech (such as tone- vs. stress-languages) share these features in different proportions and form an instructive comparison. However, little is known about whether or how musical phrasing is perceived in sound-based music, where the basic musical unit from which a piece is created is commonly non-instrumental continuous sounds, rather than instrumental discontinuous notes. This issue forms the target of the present paper. Twenty participants (17 untrained in music) were presented with six stimuli derived from sound-based music, note-based music, and environmental sound. Their task was to indicate each occurrence of a perceived phrase and qualitatively describe key characteristics of the stimulus associated with each phrase response. It was hypothesized that sound-based music does elicit phrase perception, and that this is primarily associated with temporal changes in intensity and timbre, rather than rhythm and pitch. Results supported this hypothesis. Qualitative analysis of participant descriptions showed that for sound-based music, the majority of perceived phrases were associated with intensity or timbral change. For the note-based piano piece, rhythm was the main theme associated with perceived musical phrasing. We modeled the occurrence in time of perceived musical phrases with recurrent event 'hazard' analyses using time-series data representing acoustic predictors associated with intensity, spectral flatness, and rhythmic density. Acoustic intensity and timbre (represented here by spectral flatness) were strong predictors of perceived musical phrasing in sound-based music, and rhythm was only predictive for the piano piece. A further analysis including five additional spectral

  10. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  11. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  12. The Swedish sounding rocket programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, R.

    1980-01-01

    Within the Swedish Sounding Rocket Program the scientific groups perform experimental studies of magnetospheric and ionospheric physics, upper atmosphere physics, astrophysics, and material sciences in zero g. New projects are planned for studies of auroral electrodynamics using high altitude rockets, investigations of noctilucent clouds, and active release experiments. These will require increased technical capabilities with respect to payload design, rocket performance and ground support as compared with the current program. Coordination with EISCAT and the planned Viking satellite is essential for the future projects. (Auth.)

  13. Endoparasites in some Swedish Amphibians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1988-01-01

    A study was made of the endoparasites in specimens of Rana arvalis and R. temporaria collected on two occasions from a locality of southern Sweden. Some frogs were investigated directly after capture while other frogs were kept hibernating and the composition of the parasites as well...... as the behaviour of the parasites were studied after the termination of hibernation. Twelve species of parasites were found. Six of them, Polystoma integerrimum, Pleurogenes claviger (Trematoda), Rhabdias bufonis, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, Cosmocerca ornata and Oxysomatium brevicauda- tum (Nematoda), have...... not previously been reported from Sweden. The late Prof. O. Nybelin's unpublished records of parasites found in Swedish amphibians are also given....

  14. Swedish Opinion on Nuclear Power 1986 - 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Soeren

    2012-11-01

    This report contains the Swedish opinion on Nuclear Power and European Attitudes on Nuclear Power. It also includes European Attitudes Towards the Future of Three Energy Sources; Nuclear Energy, Wind Power and Solar Power - with a focus on the Swedish opinion. Results from measurements done by the SOM Inst. are presented.

  15. Is spoken Danish less intelligible than Swedish?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooskens, Charlotte; van Heuven, Vincent J.; van Bezooijen, Renee; Pacilly, Jos J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The most straightforward way to explain why Danes understand spoken Swedish relatively better than Swedes understand spoken Danish would be that spoken Danish is intrinsically a more difficult language to understand than spoken Swedish. We discuss circumstantial evidence suggesting that Danish is

  16. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  17. 77 FR 6138 - Draft Policy on Interpretation of the Phrase “Significant Portion of Its Range” in the Endangered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... Portion of Its Range'' in the Endangered Species Act's Definitions of ``Endangered Species'' and... interpreting the phrase ``significant portion of its range'' in the Endangered Species Act's (Act's...'' in the Act's definitions of ``endangered species'' and ``threatened species'' will consider...

  18. Index der Titelbestandteile zu Dilwyn Jones: An Index of Ancient Egyptian Titles, Epithets and Phrases of the Old Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Schweitzer, Simon D.

    2006-01-01

    Vorliegender Index erschließt die nicht-ersten Titelbestandteile der in Dilwyn Jones: An index of ancient Egyptian titles, epithets and phrases of the Old Kingdom. Oxford : Archaeopress, 2000, verzettelten Titel und Epitheta des Alten Reiches.

  19. What can children tell us about the fixedness of idiomatic phrases? The psycholinguistic relevance of a linguistic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleopatra Diakogiorgi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper contains two distinct yet intricately linked studies concerning idiomatic phrases in Greek: a linguistic study and a psycholinguistic study. The linguistic study aims at investigating the degree of fixedness of idiomatic phrases, through a semantic-lexical categorization of 470 phrases with fixed subject. Three phrase categories were distinguished: typical phrases characterized by a strong semantic-lexical articulation between their constituents, and non-typical phrases, in which the constituents have a certain semantic autonomy. Non-typical phrases were further categorized into a quasi-phrases and b conventionalized phrases, the constituents of which have the highest degree of semantic autonomy. Α linguistic model was developed named “graded fixedness model”, and the psycholinguistic relevance of the model assessed by examining idiom comprehension in Greek elementary school children, aged 7.5 and 9.5 years old. To achieve this, a psycholinguistic study was then carried out. Children were presented with 8 typical, 8 quasi and 8 conventionalized phrases. For each phrase, they were asked to choose the one they thought correct out of three interpretations proposed (idiomatic, literal and other. The research findings presented and discussed herein provide evidence supporting the psychological reality of the notion of semantic autonomy even for the younger children’s processing which was overall quite poor: thus, the greater the semantic autonomy of a phrase’s constituents, the easier the access to its idiomatic meaning.Le présent article comporte deux études distinctes mais étroitement liées concernant les phrases idomatiques en grec : une étude linguistique et une étude psycholinguistique. L’étude linguistique vise à examiner le degré de figement des phrases idiomatiques, à travers une catégorisation sémantico-lexicale de 470 phrases à sujet fixe. Trois catégories de phrases ont été distingu

  20. Generating descriptive visual words and visual phrases for large-scale image applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiliang; Tian, Qi; Hua, Gang; Huang, Qingming; Gao, Wen

    2011-09-01

    Bag-of-visual Words (BoWs) representation has been applied for various problems in the fields of multimedia and computer vision. The basic idea is to represent images as visual documents composed of repeatable and distinctive visual elements, which are comparable to the text words. Notwithstanding its great success and wide adoption, visual vocabulary created from single-image local descriptors is often shown to be not as effective as desired. In this paper, descriptive visual words (DVWs) and descriptive visual phrases (DVPs) are proposed as the visual correspondences to text words and phrases, where visual phrases refer to the frequently co-occurring visual word pairs. Since images are the carriers of visual objects and scenes, a descriptive visual element set can be composed by the visual words and their combinations which are effective in representing certain visual objects or scenes. Based on this idea, a general framework is proposed for generating DVWs and DVPs for image applications. In a large-scale image database containing 1506 object and scene categories, the visual words and visual word pairs descriptive to certain objects or scenes are identified and collected as the DVWs and DVPs. Experiments show that the DVWs and DVPs are informative and descriptive and, thus, are more comparable with the text words than the classic visual words. We apply the identified DVWs and DVPs in several applications including large-scale near-duplicated image retrieval, image search re-ranking, and object recognition. The combination of DVW and DVP performs better than the state of the art in large-scale near-duplicated image retrieval in terms of accuracy, efficiency and memory consumption. The proposed image search re-ranking algorithm: DWPRank outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithm by 12.4% in mean average precision and about 11 times faster in efficiency.

  1. Gender Integration and the Swedish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Daniel Marcus Sunil

    This paper discusses different gender aspects of the Swedish Armed Forces with specific references to sexual harassment and prostitution. By using the concept of Hegemonic Masculinity, sexual harassment of the women in the Swedish Armed Forces is explained in terms of a need of the men within...... the organisation to reinforce the notion of women as inferior and subordinate to men, whereby the external hegemony is believed to be restored. Likewise, male Swedish peacekeepers’ demand for prostitution during international peacekeeping missions is explained in terms of a need to confirm manhood and as homo...

  2. Cascaded lexicalised classifiers for second-person reference resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purver, M.; Fernández, R.; Frampton, M.; Peters, S.; Healey, P.; Pieraccini, R.; Byron, D.; Young, S.; Purver, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the resolution of the second person English pronoun you in multi-party dialogue. Following previous work, we attempt to classify instances as generic or referential, and in the latter case identify the singular or plural addressee. We show that accuracy and robustness can be

  3. The Swedish wood fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, Bengt

    1999-01-01

    In Sweden, wood fuels are traditionally used in the Swedish forest products industry and for heating of single-family houses. More recently they are also become established as an energy source for district heating and electricity production. Energy policy, especially the energy taxation system, has favoured wood fuels and other biofuels, mainly for environmental reasons. There is now an established commercial market for wood fuels in the district heating sector, which amounts to 45 PJ and is growing 20 per cent annually. Price levels have been stable in current prices for a decade, mainly because of good access to wood fuels. Price levels are dominated by production costs on a market that is largely governed by the buyer. It is expected that the use of wood fuels will increased in Sweden in the future, which will push a further development of this section on the market and bring about technological changes in the area. (Author)

  4. Calling computers names in Swedish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Johan

    2017-01-01

    I very much enjoyed reading Jim Fleming’s article on Carl-Gustaf Rossby and the seminal contributions Rossby made to meteorology. Furthermore, the otherwise excellent article has two errors. Something must have gotten lost in translation to cause Fleming to claim that “Rossby pursued numerical weather prediction in Sweden in an era in which there was no Swedish word for digital computer.” With applied mathematician Germund Dahlquist, Rossby developed a weather model for the Binär Elektronisk Sekvens Kalkylator (BESK; Binary Electronic Sequence Calculator). Designed and built in Sweden, BESK was the world’s fastest computer when it became operational in 1953. From September 1954, BESK weather simulations enabled routine 24-hour national forecasts.

  5. Studies in Swedish Energy Opinion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Soeren; Hedberg, Per

    2012-07-01

    the 1970s, energy production was politicized big time in the industrialized world. The birth of the environmental movement, the oil crises in 1973 - 74 and the beginning conflict surrounding civilian nuclear power, put energy issues center stage on the political agenda. Energy policies - especially related to the development of nuclear power - came to dominate election campaigns, like in Sweden in 1976 or be the subject of referendums, like in Austria in 1978 or in Sweden in 1980. Critical voices toward the peaceful use of nuclear power - having started in America before being exported to Europe - gained real strength and public support all over the Western world by the nuclear accident at the Three Mile Island plant in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania in 1979. The energy genie was out of the bottle and out to stay. Fueled by the nuclear meltdowns in Chernobyl in 1986 and in Fukushima in 2011 and supplemented by conflicts over how to reduce the use of oil and coal, how to sensibly exploit the waste gas reserves, and how to develop renewable energy sources based on sun, wind and waves – have made all kinds of energy issues the focal point of political contentions ever since the early 1970s. In Sweden, as in many other countries, energy policies - often with nuclear power in the center - have been one of the most fought-over policy areas during the last thirty-forty years. And the contentious character of energy policies is not limited to the elite level of politics - to politicians, to media pundits or to lobbyists. It is also manifest among ordinary citizens. Energy issues - nuclear power and wind power in particular - are highly polarizing among voters as well. Given this historic background, starting in the 1970s, it was rather natural that energy questions - featuring most prominently questions related to nuclear power - would be important parts of the voter surveys performed by the Swedish National Elections Studies (SNES) at the Univ. of Gothenburg. The first book

  6. Biomass and Swedish energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Bengt

    2001-01-01

    The use of biomass in Sweden has increased by 44% between 1990 and 1999. In 1999 it was 85 TWh, equivalent to 14% of the total Swedish energy supply. The existence of large forest industry and district heating systems has been an essential condition for this expansion. The tax reform in 1991 seems, however, to have been the most important factor responsible for the rapid bioenergy expansion. Through this reform, the taxation of fossil fuels in district heating systems increased by approximately 30-160%, depending on fuel, whereas bioenergy remained untaxed. Industry is exempted from the energy tax and pays reduced carbon tax. No tax is levied on fossil fuels used for electricity production. Investment grants have existed for biomass-based electricity production but these grants have not been large enough to make biomass-based electricity production economically competitive in a period of falling electricity prices. Despite this, the biomass-based electricity production has increased slightly between 1990 and 1999. A new taxation system aiming at a removal of the tax difference between the industry, district heating and electricity sectors has recently been analysed by the Swedish government. One risk with such a system is that it reduces the competitiveness for biomass in district heating systems as it seems unlikely that the taxes on fossil fuels in the industry and electricity sectors will increase to a level much higher than in other countries. A new system, based on green certificates, for supporting electricity from renewable energy sources has also been proposed by the government.

  7. Electrocorticographic language mapping with a listening task consisting of alternating speech and music phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Anne H; Huiskamp, Geertjan J M; Gosselaar, Peter H; Ferrier, Cyrille H

    2016-02-01

    Electrocorticographic (ECoG) mapping of high gamma activity induced by language tasks has been proposed as a more patient friendly alternative for electrocortical stimulation mapping (ESM), the gold standard in pre-surgical language mapping of epilepsy patients. However, ECoG mapping often reveals more language areas than considered critical with ESM. We investigated if critical language areas can be identified with a listening task consisting of speech and music phrases. Nine patients with implanted subdural grid electrodes listened to an audio fragment in which music and speech alternated. We analysed ECoG power in the 65-95 Hz band and obtained task-related activity patterns in electrodes over language areas. We compared the spatial distribution of sites that discriminated between listening to speech and music to ESM results using sensitivity and specificity calculations. Our listening task of alternating speech and music phrases had a low sensitivity (0.32) but a high specificity (0.95). The high specificity indicates that this test does indeed point to areas that are critical to language processing. Our test cannot replace ESM, but this short and simple task can give a reliable indication where to find critical language areas, better than ECoG mapping using language tasks alone. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Outline of Swedish activities on LWR fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grounes, M [Studsvik Nuclear, Nykoeping (Sweden); Roennberg, G [OKG AB (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    The presentation outlines the Swedish activities on LWR fuel and considers the following issues: electricity production; performance of operating nuclear power plants; nuclear fuel cycle and waste management; research and development in nuclear field. 4 refs, 4 tabs.

  9. Big problems for Swedish nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmstroem, Anton; Runesson, Linda

    2006-01-01

    A report of the problems for Swedish nuclear industry the summer of 2006. A detailed description of the 25th of July incident at Forsmark 1 is provided. The incident was classified as level two on the INIS scale. The other Swedish nuclear plants were subject to security evaluations in the aftermath, and at Forsmark 2 similar weaknesses were found in the security system (ml)

  10. Swedish High-End Apparel Online

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Christoffer; Grabe, Thomas; Thomander, Karolina

    2010-01-01

    The study aims to through a qualitative case study describe how six Swedish high-end apparel companies attributed as part of “the Swedish fashion wonder” with online distribution have been affected by six chosen factors. The six factors presented are extracted from previous studies and consist of customer relationships, intermediary relationships, pricing, costs and revenue, competitors and impact on the brand. The results show that customer relationships is an important factor that most comp...

  11. Factors for successful improvement of Swedish healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    The Swedish OCM, developed by an Integrative Group Process, was found to be a valid model able to distinguish successful from unsuccessful organizations in terms of improvement. A majority of healthcare organizations applied the Internal Collaborative strategy which lacks the patient centered task alignment characterizing those organizations predicted to be successful by their relatively superior Swedish OCM score. Managers tend to overestimate the prospects of organizationa...

  12. Estimating Swedish biomass energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, J.; Lundqvist, U.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass is suggested to supply an increasing amount of energy in Sweden. There have been several studies estimating the potential supply of biomass energy, including that of the Swedish Energy Commission in 1995. The Energy Commission based its estimates of biomass supply on five other analyses which presented a wide variation in estimated future supply, in large part due to differing assumptions regarding important factors. In this paper, these studies are assessed, and the estimated potential biomass energy supplies are discusses regarding prices, technical progress and energy policy. The supply of logging residues depends on the demand for wood products and is limited by ecological, technological, and economic restrictions. The supply of stemwood from early thinning for energy and of straw from cereal and oil seed production is mainly dependent upon economic considerations. One major factor for the supply of willow and reed canary grass is the size of arable land projected to be not needed for food and fodder production. Future supply of biomass energy depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities. Biomass energy has to compete with other energy sources as well as with alternative uses of biomass such as forest products and food production. Technical progress may decrease the costs of biomass energy and thus increase the competitiveness. Economic instruments, including carbon taxes and subsidies, and allocation of research and development resources, are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of biomass energy

  13. Comparison of single-word and adjective-noun phrase production using event-related brain potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Violaine Michel

    2015-01-01

    stimuli varying in complexity -black and white line drawings, coloured line drawings, and arrays of drawings-in participants producing single nouns. Whilst naming latencies were similar for single noun production between visual stimuli conditions, ERPs differed between drawing arrays and single drawings...... in a time-window extending beyond early visual analysis. In a second experiment, different participants were asked to produce either single noun or adjective-noun dual-word phrases to black-and-white and coloured line drawings, respectively. Adjective-noun phrase production (2W) resulted in naming latencies...

  14. Believing in God the Father: Interpreting a phrase from the Apostle’s Creed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Sarot

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In our days, the creedal phrase ‘I believe in God the Father almighty’ is interpreted primarilyalong Trinitarian lines: It is applied to God as the Father of Jesus Christ. Here I argue that ithas a dual background: in Jesus’ prayer practice, in which He consistently addressed God as‘Father’, and in the Hellenistic habit of referring to the Creator as ‘Father’. I discuss Jesus’ useof the term ‘Father’ against its Old Testament background, and argue that it primarily pointsto the intimacy of Jesus’ relationship with His father. Against the Hellenistic background,however, the metaphor ‘Father’ means ‘he who brings forth effortlessly’. Finally, I discusssome gender issues connected with the use of the term ‘Father’ for God.

  15. Safety Assessment - Swedish Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, B. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    After the reactor accident at Three Mile Island, the Swedish nuclear power plants were equipped with filtered venting of the containment. Several types of accidents can be identified where the filtered venting has no effect on the radioactive release. The probability for such accidents is hopefully very small. It is not possible however to estimate the probability accurately. Experiences gained in the last years, which have been documented in official reports from the Nuclear Power Inspectorate indicate that the probability for core melt accidents in Swedish reactors can be significantly larger than estimated earlier. A probability up to one in a thousand operating years can not be excluded. There are so far no indications that aging of the plants has contributed to an increased accident risk. Maintaining the safety level with aging nuclear power plants can however be expected to be increasingly difficult. It is concluded that the 12 Swedish plants remain a major threat for severe radioactive pollution of the Swedish environment despite measures taken since 1980 to improve their safety. Closing of the nuclear power plants is the only possibility to eliminate this threat. It is recommended that until this is done, quantitative safety goals, same for all Swedish plants, shall be defined and strictly enforced. It is also recommended that utilities distributing misleading information about nuclear power risks shall have their operating license withdrawn. 37 refs.

  16. Safety Assessment - Swedish Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellstroem, B.

    1996-01-01

    After the reactor accident at Three Mile Island, the Swedish nuclear power plants were equipped with filtered venting of the containment. Several types of accidents can be identified where the filtered venting has no effect on the radioactive release. The probability for such accidents is hopefully very small. It is not possible however to estimate the probability accurately. Experiences gained in the last years, which have been documented in official reports from the Nuclear Power Inspectorate indicate that the probability for core melt accidents in Swedish reactors can be significantly larger than estimated earlier. A probability up to one in a thousand operating years can not be excluded. There are so far no indications that aging of the plants has contributed to an increased accident risk. Maintaining the safety level with aging nuclear power plants can however be expected to be increasingly difficult. It is concluded that the 12 Swedish plants remain a major threat for severe radioactive pollution of the Swedish environment despite measures taken since 1980 to improve their safety. Closing of the nuclear power plants is the only possibility to eliminate this threat. It is recommended that until this is done, quantitative safety goals, same for all Swedish plants, shall be defined and strictly enforced. It is also recommended that utilities distributing misleading information about nuclear power risks shall have their operating license withdrawn. 37 refs

  17. Individual Differences in L2 Processing of Multi-word Phrases: Effects of Working Memory and Personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerz, E.; Wiechmann, D.; Mitkov, R.

    2017-01-01

    There is an accumulating body of evidence that knowledge of the statistics of multiword phrases (MWP) facilitates native language learning and processing both in children and adults. However, less is known about whether adult second language (L2) learners are able to develop native-like sensitivity

  18. The first Russian «Encyclopedic Dictionary of Biblical Phrases»: its objectives and ways of their achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Кира Николаевна Дубровина

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the aims and objectives of «Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Biblical Phrases» and establishes the base of its acute necessity. The article considers the ways of fulfilling these special tasks and cites examples of similarities and peculiarities of modern Russian biblical expressions and their prototypes found in the Bible.

  19. Bilinguals' Plausibility Judgments for Phrases with a Literal vs. Non-literal Meaning: The Influence of Language Brokering Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belem G. López

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that prior experience in language brokering (informal translation may facilitate the processing of meaning within and across language boundaries. The present investigation examined the influence of brokering on bilinguals' processing of two word collocations with either a literal or a figurative meaning in each language. Proficient Spanish-English bilinguals classified as brokers or non-brokers were asked to judge if adjective+noun phrases presented in each language made sense or not. Phrases with a literal meaning (e.g., stinging insect were interspersed with phrases with a figurative meaning (e.g., stinging insult and non-sensical phrases (e.g., stinging picnic. It was hypothesized that plausibility judgments would be facilitated for literal relative to figurative meanings in each language but that experience in language brokering would be associated with a more equivalent pattern of responding across languages. These predictions were confirmed. The findings add to the body of empirical work on individual differences in language processing in bilinguals associated with prior language brokering experience.

  20. Redistributive effects of Swedish health care finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdtham, U G; Sundberg, G

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the redistributive effects of the Swedish health care financing system in 1980 and 1990 for four different financial sources: county council taxes, payroll taxes, direct payments and state grants. The redistributive effects are decomposed into vertical, horizontal and 'reranking' segments for each of the four financial sources. The data used are based on probability samples of the Swedish population, from the Level of Living Survey (LNU) from 1981 and 1991. The paper concludes that the Swedish health care financing system is weakly progressive, although direct payments are regressive. There is some horizontal inequity and 'reranking', which mainly comes from the county council taxes, since those tax rates vary for each county council. The implication is that, to some extent, people with equal incomes are treated unequally.

  1. Tensions in Stakeholder Relations for a Swedish Football Club

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghagen, Sven

    2018-01-01

    Swedish football is an industry not yet being as commercial as the big leagues and is regulated in terms of ownership of clubs. This implies a need for management of stakeholder relations for a Swedish football club. This paper identifies important stakeholders in Swedish football and discusses...

  2. Risk management in Swedish hedge funds

    OpenAIRE

    Fri, Samuel; Nilsson, Joakim

    2011-01-01

    Background: Risk management has always been a complex topic, especially when it comes to hedge funds. Since hedge funds are able to utilize many kinds of financial instruments it is difficult to find a risk management strategy that goes well with them. Not much research regarding the Swedish hedge fund industry and its risk management has been done; hence we find it an interesting topic to focus this thesis on. Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to increase the knowledge of how Swedish he...

  3. Patient exposures in Swedish diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.; Blomgren, P.-G.; Bergman, K.; Aaberg, L.

    1977-05-01

    Doses to about 1000 Swedish patients in 13 hospitals and several photofluorographic and dental installations were measured. The measurements comprised radiation quality, exposure-area product and doses to a few parts of the body where dosimeters could be placed. Calculations yielded energy imparted as well as doses to the thyroid, mammae, lungs, bone marrow, ovaries and testes. The possibility of reducing patientdoses is discussed. The radiation risk to the Swedish population isestimated,based on mean annual collective dose per individual for different body organs.(K.K.)

  4. The potential of Swedish furniture companies in Vietnam : How Vietnamese consumers perceive the product values of Swedish furniture

    OpenAIRE

    Dinh, Thi Phuong Lan; Karlsson, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Swedish furniture companies have been quite successful in many parts of the world recently, with IKEA being a famous example of that. Meanwhile, Vietnam has one of the fastest-growing economies in South East Asia. However, there has not been any Swedish furniture company established on the Vietnamese market so far. Therefore, it would be useful to see if the Vietnamese furniture consumers would appreciate Swedish furniture, in order to analyze whether Swedish furniture companies...

  5. The Swedish Blood Pass project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, B; Ekblom, B; Ekblom, E; Berglund, L; Kallner, A; Reinebo, P; Lindeberg, S

    2007-06-01

    Manipulation of the blood's oxygen carrying capacity (CaO(2)) through reinfusion of red blood cells, injections of recombinant erythropoietin or by other means results in an increased maximal oxygen uptake and concomitantly enhanced endurance performance. Therefore, there is a need to establish a system--"A Blood Pass"--through which such illegal and unethical methods can be detected. Venous blood samples were taken under standardized conditions from 47 male and female Swedish national and international elite endurance athletes four times during the athletic year of the individual sport (beginning and end of the preparation period and at the beginning and during peak performance in the competition period). In these samples, different hematological values were determined. ON(hes) and OFF(hre) values were calculated according to the formula of Gore et al. A questionnaire regarding training at altitude, alcohol use and other important factors for hematological status was answered by the athletes. There were some individual variations comparing hematological values obtained at different times of the athletic year or at the same time in the athletic year but in different years. However, the median values of all individual hematological, ON(hes) and OFF(hre), values taken at the beginning and the end of the preparation or at the beginning and the end of the competition period, respectively, as well as median values for the preparation and competition periods in the respective sport, were all within the 95% confidence limit (CI) of each comparison. It must be mentioned that there was no gender difference in this respect. This study shows that even if there are some individual variations in different hematological values between different sampling times in the athletic year, median values of important hematological factors are stable over time. It must be emphasized that for each blood sample, the 95% CI in each athlete will be increasingly narrower. The conclusion is that

  6. Radiotracers in Swedish Steel Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, I.; Erwall, L. G. [Isotope Techniques Laboratory, Stockholm (Sweden); Nyquist, O. [Surahammars Bruks AB, Surahammar (Sweden)

    1967-06-15

    Recent tracer investigations in Swedish steel plants have mainly dealt with problems concerning uon-metallic inclusions, slag weight determination and - labelling of special steel qualities for identification. Suspected inclusion sources, such as furnace slag, ladle-bottom mortar and some brick materials as stopper, nozzle.and channel bricks have been labelled radioactively in different ways. The labelling technique has been studied for the different systems and a new method was developed for brick materials. This includes vacuum impregnation with an aqueous solution of the inactive tracer, reheating to 1300 Degree-Sign C and neutron-irradiation in a reactor. A sufficiently homogeneous labelling of the material was obtained in this way. The tracer used was terbium, which was added as the nitrate and then decomposed to oxide during the heating process. The oxide is strongly bound to the ceramic material. The number of radioactive inclusions was determined by.autoradiography, and related to the total number pf inclusions, obtained by visual slag-counting, to give the percentage of inclusions originating from the labelled object. Some investigations have been made using simultaneous labelling of two or more sources. It seems to be difficult, however, to measure separately more than two tracers: one short-lived (e.g. 140La) and one long-lived (e.g. {sup 160}Tb). The slag weight determinations were made using the isotope dilution technique with {sup 131}Ba and {sup 140}La as tracers. A difference in slag weight is sometimes obtained. An attempt is made to explain these deviations. The material transport through a blast furnace has been followed by using a piece of graphite, labelled with {sup 140}La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and measuring the radiation intensity outside the furnace walls and in the tuyere. Studies have been made to determine suitable radiotracers for labelling of steel for subsequent identification. Up to three different isotopes can be used simultaneously

  7. Language Mixing in the Nominal Phrase: Implications of a Distributed Morphology Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Burkholder

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a pattern found in Spanish–English mixed language corpora whereby it is common to switch from a Spanish determiner to an English noun (e.g., la house, ‘the house’, but rare to switch from an English determiner to a Spanish noun (e.g., the casa, ‘the house’. Unlike previous theoretical accounts of this asymmetry, that which is proposed here follows assumptions of the Distributed Morphology (DM framework, specifically those regarding the relationship between grammatical gender and nominal declension class in Spanish. Crucially, and again in contrast to previous accounts, it is demonstrated that this approach predicts no such asymmetry for French–English. This hypothesis is tested experimentally using an acceptability judgment task with self-paced reading, and as expected, no evidence is found for an asymmetry. This experiment is also used to test predictions regarding how English nominal roots in mixed nominal phrases are assigned grammatical gender, and the impact of language background factors such as age of acquisition. Evidence is found that bilinguals attempt to assign analogical gender if possible, but that late sequential bilinguals have a stronger preference for this option than do simultaneous bilinguals.

  8. Dealing with phraseology in business dictionaries: focus on dictionary functions – not phrases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leroyer, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The language of written business communication is characterised by the extensive use of phraseology, not only in terms of collocations and idiomatic expressions, but also of standard phrases in prototypical business genres. In any case, the phraseological information should be included in business dictionaries (in the following referred to as BDs in accordance with the planned dictionary functions. Hence, the selection and presentation of the phraseological information should be decided by the lexicographer on the basis of the user needs alone and not on the recommendations of the phraseological literature about lexicographical practice. In this paper, I will firstly explain why lexicography and phraseology, although closely associated in a large number of studies, are quite different disciplines, and how their shared interest for dictionary practice in general is based on radically different views. I will then discuss the dictionary functions of BDs and focus on a number of concepts featuring extensive phraseological solutions to show and argue that dealing with phraseology in BDs should always keep focus on dictionary functions.

  9. In a manner of speaking phrases, expressions, and proverbs and how we use and misuse them

    CERN Document Server

    McNairn, Colin

    2015-01-01

    What do “the whole kit and caboodle," “the whole shebang," “the whole megillah," “the whole enchilada," “the whole nine yards," “the whole box and dice," and “the full Monty" have in common? They're all expressions that mean “the entire quantity," and they're all examples of the breadth and depth of the English-speaking world's vocabulary. From the multitude of words and phrases in daily use, the author of this delightful exploration into what we say and why we say it zeroes in on those expressions and sayings and their variations that are funny, quirky, just plain folksy, or playfully dressed up in rhyme or alliteration. Some may have become clichés that, as it's said with “tongue in cheek," should be “avoided like the plague." Others have been distorted, deemed politically incorrect, or shrouded in mystery and must bear some explanation. Among the topics the author delves into are expressions that shouldn't be taken literally (“dressed to kill" and “kick the bucket"), foreign expressions that c...

  10. Left cytoarchitectonic BA 44 processes syntactic gender violations in determiner phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Stefan; van Ermingen, Muna; Huber, Walter; Amunts, Katrin

    2010-10-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies make contradictory predictions about the involvement of left Brodmann's area (BA) 44 in processing local syntactic violations in determiner phrases (DPs). Some studies suggest a role for BA 44 in detecting local syntactic violations, whereas others attribute this function to the left premotor cortex. Therefore, the present event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated whether left-cytoarchitectonic BA 44 was activated when German DPs involving syntactic gender violations were compared with correct DPs (correct: 'der Baum'-the[masculine] tree[masculine]; violated: 'das Baum'--the[neuter] tree[masculine]). Grammaticality judgements were made for both visual and auditory DPs to be able to generalize the results across modalities. Grammaticality judgements involved, among others, left BA 44 and left BA 6 in the premotor cortex for visual and auditory stimuli. Most importantly, activation in left BA 44 was consistently higher for violated than for correct DPs. This finding was behaviourally corroborated by longer reaction times for violated versus correct DPs. Additional brain regions, showing the same effect, included left premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, right middle and superior frontal cortex, and left cerebellum. Based on earlier findings from the literature, the results indicate the involvement of left BA 44 in processing local syntactic violations when these include morphological features, whereas left premotor cortex seems crucial for the detection of local word category violations. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Phrase Lengths and the Perceived Informativeness of Prosodic Cues in Turkish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinçtopal Deniz, Nazik; Fodor, Janet Dean

    2017-12-01

    It is known from previous studies that in many cases (though not all) the prosodic properties of a spoken utterance reflect aspects of its syntactic structure, and also that in many cases (though not all) listeners can benefit from these prosodic cues. A novel contribution to this literature is the Rational Speaker Hypothesis (RSH), proposed by Clifton, Carlson and Frazier. The RSH maintains that listeners are sensitive to possible reasons for why a speaker might introduce a prosodic break: "listeners treat a prosodic boundary as more informative about the syntax when it flanks short constituents than when it flanks longer constituents," because in the latter case the speaker might have been motivated solely by consideration of optimal phrase lengths. This would effectively reduce the cue value of an appropriately placed prosodic boundary. We present additional evidence for the RSH from Turkish, a language typologically different from English. In addition, our study shows for the first time that the RSH also applies to a prosodic break which conflicts with the syntactic structure, reducing its perceived cue strength if it might have been motivated by length considerations. In this case, the RSH effect is beneficial. Finally, the Turkish data show that prosody-based explanations for parsing preferences such as the RSH do not take the place of traditional syntax-sensitive parsing strategies such as Late Closure. The two sources of guidance co-exist; both are used when available.

  12. Amplitude modulation of sexy phrases is salient for song attractiveness in female canaries (Serinus canaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasteau, Magali; Ung, Davy; Kreutzer, Michel; Aubin, Thierry

    2012-07-01

    Song discrimination and recognition in songbird species have usually been studied by measuring responses to song playbacks. In female canaries, Serinus canaria, copulation solicitation displays (CSDs) are used as an index of female preferences, which are related to song recognition. Despite the fact that many studies underline the role of song syntax in this species, we observed that short segments of songs (a few seconds long) are enough for females to discriminate between conspecific and heterospecific songs, whereas such a short duration is not sufficient to identify the syntax rules. This suggests that other cues are salient for song recognition. In this experiment, we investigated the influence of amplitude modulation (AM) on the responses (CSDs) of female canaries to song playbacks. We used two groups of females: (1) raised in acoustic isolation and (2) raised in normal conditions. When adult, we tested their preferences for sexy phrases with different AMs. We broadcast three types of stimuli: (1) songs with natural canary AM, (2) songs with AM removed, or (3) song with wren Troglodytes troglodytes AM. Results indicate that female canaries prefer and have predispositions for a song type with the natural canary AM. Thus, this acoustic parameter is a salient cue for song attractiveness.

  13. Training Entrepreneurship at Universities: A Swedish Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klofsten, Magnus

    2000-01-01

    The Entrepreneurship and New Business Development Program trains Swedish individuals in the startup of technology- or knowledge-based enterprises. Built on the characteristics of entrepreneurial behavior, the program features a holistic outlook, a network of established entrepreneurs, mentoring, a mix of theory and practice, and focus on the…

  14. Are Boys Discriminated in Swedish High Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnerich, Bjorn Tyrefors; Hoglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading. We rigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind and non-blind grading. The non-blind test score is…

  15. Market reforms in Swedish health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the main characteristics of reforms in the Swedish health services, as exemplified by the "Stockholm Model" introduced in 1992 in Stockholm county. The author discusses the motives behind these reforms, the already-evident increases in costs that are occurring, and the effect...

  16. Strontium 90 in Swedish dairy milk 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillberg-Wickman, M.; Oestergren, I.

    1980-01-01

    The contamination of strontium-90 in Swedish milk during 1978 is practically the same as in 1977. The country-wide mean ratio of strontium-90 to calcium in milk is 0.12 Bq 90 Sr(gCa) -1 , based on monthly determinations of samples obtained from 8 dairy plants situated throughout the country. (author)

  17. Measuring Syntactic Complexity in Spontaneous Spoken Swedish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Mikael; Frid, Johan; Horne, Merle

    2007-01-01

    Hesitation disfluencies after phonetically prominent stranded function words are thought to reflect the cognitive coding of complex structures. Speech fragments following the Swedish function word "att" "that" were analyzed syntactically, and divided into two groups: one with "att" in disfluent contexts, and the other with "att" in fluent…

  18. Mathematics and Didactic Contract in Swedish Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacour, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study and analyse how a teacher implements an outdoor realistic problem situation for children aged 4-5 in a Swedish preschool. By an "outdoor realistic problem situation", I mean a situation initiated by a teacher in which children come into contact with mathematical concepts and in which the outside…

  19. Leisure, Government and Governance: A Swedish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    The leisure sector has witnessed a tremendous expansion since 1960. The purpose of this article is to analyse the decisions and goals of Swedish government policy during the period 1962 to 2005. The empirical analysis covers government Propositions and governmental investigations. The fields covered are sports, culture, exercise, tourism and…

  20. SWEDISH CRIME FICTION AS SOCIALLY INVOLVED LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Samsel-Chojnacka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Swedish crime novel has been transforming for many years to become more socially involved. The ambition of many writers is not only to entertain the readers but also to participating in the social debate, criticizing the political and economical system, focusing on important issues such as violence against women, exploitation of working class by the privileged ruling class, the problems of a modern family and the situation of immigrants. Since the moment when in the mid 60’s two journalists Maj Sjöwall and Per Wahlöö decided to use popular literature to spread social matters many other Swedish writers have decided to follow their way. Some of them are journalists – like Liza Marklund, Börge Hellström and Anders Roslund or Stieg Larsson. Their novels as well as the ones written by Henning Mannkel on Kurt Wallander have become crucial evidence of changes of Swedish society in the past twenty years. Modern Swedish crime fiction illustrates the population in the model fashion that is the reason why it can become one of the interests of the sociology of literature.

  1. Processing Relative Clause Extractions in Swedish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon Tutunjian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Relative clauses are considered strong islands for extraction across languages. Swedish comprises a well-known exception, allegedly allowing extraction from relative clauses (RCE, raising the possibility that island constraints may be subject to “deep variation” between languages. One alternative is that such exceptions are only illusory and represent “surface variation” attributable to independently motivated syntactic properties. Yet, to date, no surface account has proven tenable for Swedish RCEs. The present study uses eyetracking while reading to test whether the apparent acceptability of Swedish RCEs has any processing correlates at the point of filler integration compared to uncontroversial strong island violations. Experiment 1 tests RCE against licit that-clause extraction (TCE, illicit extraction from a non-restrictive relative clause (NRCE, and an intransitive control. For this, RCE was found to pattern similarly to TCE at the point of integration in early measures, but between TCE and NRCE in total durations. Experiment 2 uses RCE and extraction from a subject NP island (SRCE to test the hypothesis that only non-islands will show effects of implausible filler-verb dependencies. RCE showed sensitivity to the plausibility manipulation across measures at the first potential point of filler integration, whereas such effects were limited to late measures for SRCE. In addition, structural facilitation was seen across measures for RCE relative to SRCE. We propose that our results are compatible with RCEs being licit weak island extractions in Swedish, and that the overall picture speaks in favor of a surface rather than a deep variation approach to the lack of island effects in Swedish RCEs.

  2. Prevalence of footrot in Swedish slaughter lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyman Ann-Kristin J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Footrot is a world-wide contagious disease in sheep and goats. It is an infection of the epidermis of the interdigital skin, and the germinal layers of the horn tissue of the feet. The first case of footrot in Swedish sheep was diagnosed in 2004. Due to difficulties in distinguishing benign footrot from early cases of virulent footrot and because there is no possibility for virulence testing of strains of Dichelobacter nodosus in Sweden, the diagnosis is based of the presence or absence of clinical signs of footrot in sheep flocks. Ever since the first diagnosed case the Swedish Animal Health Service has worked intensively to stop the spread of infection and control the disease at flock level. However, to continue this work effectively it is important to have knowledge about the distribution of the disease both nationally and regionally. Therefore, the aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of footrot in Swedish lambs at abattoirs and to assess the geographical distribution of the disease. Methods A prevalence study on footrot in Swedish lambs was performed by visual examination of 2000 feet from 500 lambs submitted from six slaughter houses. Each foot was scored according to a 0 to 5 scoring system, where feet with score ≥2 were defined as having footrot. Moreover, samples from feet with footrot were examined for Dichelobacter nodosus by culture and PCR. Results The prevalence of footrot at the individual sheep level was 5.8%, and Dichelobacter nodosus was found by culture and PCR in 83% and 97% of the samples from feet with footrot, respectively. Some minor differences in geographical distribution of footrot were found in this study. Conclusions In a national context, the findings indicate that footrot is fairly common in Swedish slaughter lambs, and should be regarded seriously.

  3. Prepositional phrases with verba dicendi from Dalmatin's translation of the Bible (1584 in relation to foreign language translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Orel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In a diachronic perspective from the 16th century to the present, this article inves­ tigates translated interlinguistic agreement and difference in the use of the temporally marked Slovenian prepositional phrases that appeared in the semantic group of verba dicendi in the first two books of the Old Testament and the New Testament of the old­ est Slovenian translation of the Bible, from 1584, and that were replaced in the mod­ em literary language in the 19th century by the introduction of prepositionless or other prepositional patterns. A comparison is made on the basis of Internet publications of parallel sections of six foreign language translations (Latin, German, two English [17th century and modem], French and Russian, and the extent to which these preposition­ al phrases are covered by older or modem literary Slovenian syntactic patterns is deter­ mined .

  4. AHP 1:A RESPONSE TO WAYS AND THE SYNTAX OF NOUN PHRASES IN QĪNGHĂI CHINESE DIALECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Dede

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the course of offering a review of Zhāng Chéngcái's Ways, this paper describes the syntax of noun phrases in the Chinese dialect of Huángshuĭ, in Qīnghăi Province. Unlike other Chinese dialects, this dialect employs several postpositions for indicating syntactic nominal relationships. The origin of this phenomenon in contact with non-Sinitic languages in the region and its significance are also explored.

  5. The Morphosyntactic Structure of the Noun and Verb Phrases in Dholuo/Kiswahili Code Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jael Anyango Ojanga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Code switching, the use of any two or more languages or dialects interchangeably in a single communication context, is a common linguistic practice owing to the trend of multilingualism in the world today. In many situations of language in contact, constituents of one language can be found within the constituents of another language in a number of linguistic phenomenon namely lexical borrowing, transferring, interference, code switching and diffusion (Annamalai, 1989. Codeswitching is one of the linguistic phenomenon claimed to be the most prevalent and common mode of interaction among multilingual speakers. Brock and Eastman (1971 suggest that topic discussed influences the choice of the language. Nouns and verbs have been found to be the most code switched elements in bilingual exchange. The study took a qualitative approach with the descriptive research design. It was guided by the Matrix Language Frame Model which was formulated by Myers-Scotton in1993. This model expounds on the realization and structure of the major word classes as used in code switching. Data was collected in Nyangeta Zone, Winam Division of Kisumu East District. Winam Division is mostly inhabited by elite Dholuo L1 speakers. A sample of twenty four teachers was purposively selected to provide data needed for the study. Focus group discussion was used to collect a corpus of Dholuo/Kiswahili data which was recorded through audio taping. The recorded data was then analyzed morphosyntactaically using the Matrix Language Frame Model. The data revealed that the noun and verb phrases were realized under three categories: Matrix Language Island constituent (ML Island ML+EL and Embedded Language Island (EL Island. Keywords: Code switching, multilingualism, morphosyntactic

  6. Developmental relationships between speech and writing: is verb-phrase anaphora production a special case?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Morag L; Cooper, Lynn S M

    2013-09-01

    Young children's speech is typically more linguistically sophisticated than their writing. However, there are grounds for asking whether production of cohesive devices, such as verb-phrase anaphora (VPA), might represent an exception to this developmental pattern, as cohesive devices are generally more important in writing than in speech and so might be expected to be more frequent in children's writing than in their speech. The study reported herein aims to compare the frequency of children's production of VPA constructions (e.g., Mary is eating an apple and so is John) between a written and a spoken task. Forty-eight children participated from each of two age groups: 7-year-olds and 10-year-olds. All the children received both a spoken and a written sentence completion task designed to elicit production of VPA. Task order was counterbalanced. VPA production was significantly more frequent in speech than in writing and when the spoken task was presented first. Surprisingly, the 7-year-olds produced VPA constructions more frequently than the 10-year-olds. Despite the greater importance of cohesion in writing than in speech, children's production of VPA is similar to their production of most other aspects of language in that more sophisticated constructions are used more frequently in speech than in writing. Children's written production of cohesive devices could probably be enhanced by presenting spoken tasks immediately before written tasks. The lower frequency of VPA production in the older children may reflect syntactic priming effects or a belief that they should produce sentences that are as fully specified as possible. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Inter-subject variability modulates phonological advance planning in the production of adjective-noun phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel Lange, Violaine; Laganaro, Marina

    2014-01-01

    The literature on advance phonological planning in adjective-noun phrases (NPs) presents diverging results: while many experimental studies suggest that the entire NP is encoded before articulation, other results favor a span of encoding limited to the first word. Although cross-linguistic differences in the structure of adjective-NPs may account for some of these contrasting results, divergences have been reported even among similar languages and syntactic structures. Here we examined whether inter-individual differences account for variability in the span of phonological planning in the production of French NPs, where previous results indicated encoding limited to the first word. The span of phonological encoding is tested with the picture-word interference (PWI) paradigm using phonological distractors related to the noun or to the adjective of the NPs. In Experiment 1, phonological priming effects were limited to the first word in adjective NPs whichever the position of the adjective (pre-nominal or post-nominal). Crucially, phonological priming effects on the second word interacted with speakers' production speed suggesting different encoding strategies for participants. In Experiment 2, we tested this hypothesis further with a larger group of participants. Results clearly showed that slow and fast initializing participants presented different phonological priming patterns on the last element of adjective-NPs: while the first word was primed by a distractor for all speakers, only the slow speaker group presented a priming effect on the second element of the NP. These results show that the span of phonological encoding is modulated by inter-individual strategies: in experimental paradigms some speakers plan word by word whereas others encode beyond the initial word. We suggest that the diverging results reported in the literature on advance phonological planning may partly be reconciled in light of the present results.

  8. Phrase Mining of Textual Data to Analyze Extracellular Matrix Protein Patterns Across Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, David Alexandre; Murali, Sanjana; Sigdel, Dibakar; Shi, Yu; Wang, Xuan; Shen, Jiaming; Choi, Howard; Caufield, J Harry; Wang, Wei; Ping, Peipei; Han, Jiawei

    2018-05-18

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins have been shown to play important roles regulating multiple biological processes in an array of organ systems, including the cardiovascular system. By using a novel bioinformatics text-mining tool, we studied six categories of cardiovascular disease (CVD), namely ischemic heart disease (IHD), cardiomyopathies (CM), cerebrovascular accident (CVA), congenital heart disease (CHD), arrhythmias (ARR), and valve disease (VD), anticipating novel ECM protein-disease and protein-protein relationships hidden within vast quantities of textual data. We conducted a phrase-mining analysis, delineating the relationships of 709 ECM proteins with the six groups of CVDs reported in 1,099,254 abstracts. The technology pipeline known as Context-aware Semantic Online Analytical Processing (CaseOLAP) was applied to semantically rank the association of proteins to each and all six CVDs, performing analyses to quantify each protein-disease relationship. We performed principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering of the data, where each protein is visualized as a six dimensional vector. We found that ECM proteins display variable degrees of association with the six CVDs; certain CVDs share groups of associated proteins whereas others have divergent protein associations. We identified 82 ECM proteins sharing associations with all six CVDs. Our bioinformatics analysis ascribed distinct ECM pathways (via Reactome) from this subset of proteins, namely insulin-like growth factor regulation and interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 signaling, suggesting their contribution to the pathogenesis of all six CVDs. Finally, we performed hierarchical clustering analysis and identified protein clusters associated with a targeted CVD; analyses revealed unexpected insights underlying ECM-pathogenesis of CVDs.

  9. Ethnic Swedish parents' experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence in Swedish paediatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavallali, Azar G; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Jirwe, Maria

    2014-06-01

    Sweden has a population of a little more than 9.4 million. The rapid growth of immigration in Sweden has resulted in an increased number of minority ethnic patients and minority ethnic nurses in the Swedish healthcare system. This also applies to paediatric care. The purpose of this study was to explore how parents with ethnic Swedish backgrounds experience minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence and the care the nurses provide in a Swedish paediatric care context. This exploratory qualitative study is of 14 parents with an ethnic Swedish background whose child was in a ward at a children's hospital in Stockholm County Council. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews to identify parents' perceptions and experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence. The interviews were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The analyses of the interviews led to four main categories: influence of nurses' ethnicity; significance of cross-cultural communication; cross-cultural skills; and the importance of nursing education. Nurses' ethnicity did not have much impact on parents' satisfaction with their child's care. The parents attached importance to nurses' language skills and to their adaptation and awareness of Swedish culture. They also attached weight to nurses' professional knowledge and personal attributes. The role of nursing education to increase nurses' cultural awareness was highlighted too. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  10. Swedish nuclear dilemma: Energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordhaus, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    One of the things that makes life both very frustrating and also very interesting is that accomplishing one objective frequently means backpedaling on another. Since economics is the study of tradeoffs, this means that there is generally plenty for economists to do. William Nordhaus is one of the best economists anywhere, and he has written a wonderful book about the tradeoffs faced by one country--Sweden--if and as it acts on a decision its citizens made in 1980 to phase out the use of nuclear power there. The author adds that this decision has been reaffirmed by the Swedish Parliament on several occasions since the 1980 referendum, though with some elusive qualifications. What will be both the environmental and also the economic implications of a Swedish phaseout of the use of nuclear power to generate electricity there. These are the two issues Nordhaus addresses in this book

  11. Environmental monitoring around the Swedish Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondesson, A.; Luening, M.; Wallberg, L.; Wijk, H.

    1999-01-01

    The environmental monitoring programme for the nuclear facilities has shown that the radioactive discharges increase the concentrations of some radionuclides in the local marine environment around the Swedish nuclear facilities. Samples from the terrestrial environment rarely show increased radionuclide concentrations. From a radiological point of view the most important nuclide in the environmental samples usually is CS-137. However, the largest part of the present concentrations of Cs-137 in the Swedish environment originate from the Chernobyl accident. The concentrations of radionuclides that can be found in biota around the nuclear facilities are much lower than the concentration levels that are known to give acute damage to organisms. The total radiation doses from the discharges of radionuclides are small. (au)

  12. Swedish Taxation Since 1862: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Henrekson, Magnus; Stenkula, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the development of taxation in Sweden from 1862 to 2013. The examination covers six key aspects of the Swedish tax system: the taxation of labor income, capital income, consumption, inheritance and gift, wealth and real estate. The importance of these taxes varied greatly over time and Sweden increasingly relied on broad-based taxes (such as income taxes and general consumption taxes) and taxes that were less visible to the public (such as payroll taxes and social security...

  13. Processing Relative Clause Extractions in Swedish

    OpenAIRE

    Tutunjian, Damon; Heinat, Fredrik; Klingvall, Eva; Wiklund, Anna-Lena

    2017-01-01

    Relative clauses are considered strong islands for extraction across languages. Swedish comprises a well-known exception, allegedly allowing extraction from relative clauses (RCE), raising the possibility that island constraints may be subject to “deep variation” between languages. One alternative is that such exceptions are only illusory and represent “surface variation” attributable to independently motivated syntactic properties. Yet, to date, no surface account has proven tenable for Swed...

  14. The swedish challenge; Le pari Suedois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tregouet, R

    2006-07-01

    Sweden decided to be the first country without petroleum for 2020. The author presents the major energy policy axis implemented by the swedish government to delete the part of the produced energy by the petroleum: development of the renewable energies, research programs of the transportation sector concerning the alternative fuels for the motors, energy efficiency and development of the biomass to replace the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  15. Swedish subseabed store - phase 1 nears completion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daglish, James

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the storage of radioactive waste in the subseabed in Sweden. The wastes are low- and intermediate-level reactor wastes arising from the Swedish nuclear power programme. The repository is a cavern which has been excavated under the seabed in the Baltic Sea, about a kilometre out from shore. The specifications of the repository are given, along with the volume of the radioactive wastes to be stored in it. (UK)

  16. Swedish Listed Family Firms and Entrepreneurial Spirit

    OpenAIRE

    Bjuggren, Per-Olof; Palmberg, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the entrepreneurial spirit in Swedish listed family firms. We associate family firms with entrepreneurship in the sense that there is an identifiable person that takes the uninsurable risk in the sense of Knight. This paper analysis two questions: Do entrepreneurial family firms have a higher rate of growth and do they invest in a more profit maximizing fashion than other listed firms? The analysis shows that entrepreneurial family firms in general are smaller in terms...

  17. Swedish-Estonian energy forest research cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, J.; Kirt, E.; Koppel, A.; Kull, K.; Noormets, A.; Roostalu, H.; Ross, V.; Ross, M.

    1996-01-01

    The Organization of Estonian energetic economy is aimed at cutting the usage of oil, gas and coal and increasing the local resources firewood, oil-shale and peat for fuel. The resources of low-valued firewood-brushwood, fallen deadwood etc. are available during the following 10-15 years, but in the future the cultivation of energy forest (willow) plantations will be actual. During the last 20 years the Swedish scientists have been extensively studying the willow forest selection, cultivation and use in energetics and waste water purification systems. A Swedish-Estonian energy forest research project was started in 1993 between the Swedish Agricultural University on one hand and Toravere Observatory, Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonian Academy of Sciences and Estonian Potato Processing Association on the other hand. In spring 5 willow plantations were established with the help of Swedish colleagues and obtained from Sweden 36000 willow cuttings. The aim of the project: a) To study experimentally and by means of mathematical modelling the biogeophysical aspects of growth and productivity of willow plantations in Sweden and Estonian climatological conditions. b) To study the possibility of using the willow plantations in waste waters purification. c) To study the economical efficiency of energy forest as an energy resource under the economic and environmental conditions of Estonia. d) To study the economic efficiency of willow plantations as a raw material for the basket industry in Estonia. e) To select the most productive and least vulnerable willow clones for practical application in energy plantations. During 1993 in all five plantations detailed analysis of soil properties has been carried out. In the plantation at Toravere Observatory phytometrical measurements were carried out - the growth of plant biomass leaf and stem area, vertical distribution of dry matter content, biomass and phyto area separately for leaves and stems has been performed. Some

  18. Predictors of smoking among Swedish adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Joffer, Junia; Burell, Gunilla; Bergström, Erik; Stenlund, Hans; Sjörs, Linda; Jerdén, Lars

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking most often starts in adolescence, implying that understanding of predicting factors for smoking initiation during this time period is essential for successful smoking prevention. The aim of this study was to examine predicting factors in early adolescence for smoking in late adolescence. METHODS: Longitudinal cohort study, involving 649 Swedish adolescents from lower secondary school (12-13 years old) to upper secondary school (17-18 years old). Tobacco habits, behavioural...

  19. Global health education in Swedish medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, S; Agardh, A; Holmer, H; Krantz, G; Hagander, L

    2015-11-01

    Global health education is increasingly acknowledged as an opportunity for medical schools to prepare future practitioners for the broad health challenges of our time. The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of global health education in Swedish medical schools and to assess students' perceived needs for such education. Data on global health education were collected from all medical faculties in Sweden for the years 2000-2013. In addition, 76% (439/577) of all Swedish medical students in their final semester answered a structured questionnaire. Global health education is offered at four of Sweden's seven medical schools, and most medical students have had no global health education. Medical students in their final semester consider themselves to lack knowledge and skills in areas such as the global burden of disease (51%), social determinants of health (52%), culture and health (60%), climate and health (62%), health promotion and disease prevention (66%), strategies for equal access to health care (69%) and global health care systems (72%). A significant association was found between self-assessed competence and the amount of global health education received (pcurriculum. Most Swedish medical students have had no global health education as part of their medical school curriculum. Expanded education in global health is sought after by medical students and could strengthen the professional development of future medical doctors in a wide range of topics important for practitioners in the global world of the twenty-first century. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  20. Survival Words and Phrases for Professionals Who Work with Students Who Are Bilingual and Severely/Multiply Handicapped, and with Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Rosanne K.; Correa, Vivian I.

    1989-01-01

    The paper offers a rationale for bilingual special education, provides suggestions for developing bilingual lessons for severely/multiply handicapped students, and includes a list of Spanish words and phrases used most frequently by students and their parents. (JDD)

  1. Barriers to Business Model Innovation in Swedish Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Sivertsson, Olof; Tell, Joakim

    2015-01-01

    Swedish agricultural companies, especially small farms, are struggling to be profitable in difficult economic times. It is a challenge for Swedish farmers to compete with imported products on prices. The agricultural industry, however, supports the view that through business model innovation, farms can increase their competitive advantage. This paper identifies and describes some of the barriers Swedish small farms encounter when they consider business model innovation. A qualitative approach...

  2. The Transformation of Swedish Shipping, 1970-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Sjögren, Hans; Taro Lennerfors, Thomas; Taudal Poulsen, Rene

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, as shipping has undergone a period of structural change, Swedish shipping has rapidly declined from a position of global importance. The Swedish-controlled fleet has dwindled, and the structure of the industry itself has changed. This article explores the influence of shipping markets, shipping regulations, company strategies, maritime know-how, and financial resources on the development of Swedish shipping from 1970 to 2010. A comparison is made between, on the one han...

  3. Education for the nuclear power industry: Swedish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.

    2005-01-01

    In the Swedish nuclear power industry staff, very few newly employed have a deep education in reactor technology. To remedy this, a joint education company, Nuclear Training and Safety Center (KSU), has been formed. To ensure that nuclear competence will be available also in a long-term perspective, the Swedish nuclear power industry and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) have formed a joint center for support of universities, the Swedish Nuclear Technology Center (SKC). The activities of these organisations, their links to universities, and their impact on the competence development for the nuclear power industry will be outlined. (author)

  4. THE ANALYSIS OF SYNTACTICAL INTERFERENCE IN ENGLISH PHRASES IN STUDENTS’ WRITING (A Descriptive Study at the Second Grade Students of SMP 2 Kuta Baro, Aceh Besar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa Chaira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative-descriptive research attempts to describe Indonesian interference in building English phrases in writing. The research was undertaken to the second year students of SMP 2 Kuta Baro, Aceh Besar. This study aims to verify the Indonesian interference made by students in English phrases. The data were collected through document analysis which then the sample was selected to be analyzed. The sample of this study was twelve narrative texts composed by the students. The finding of data analysis reveals that there are some syntactical interference samples made by them as in scenery roads, voice strange, morning Sunday, water bath, garden flower, and advice future. These are resulted from Indonesian interference because they applied Indonesian structure in building English phrases. In conclusion, the research result shows that the students have lack of grammar knowledge in constructing English phrases. Therefore, they borrow Indonesian structure as a solution for their difficulties. For this reason, the teaching should focus more on how to build English phrases correctly by giving many samples of nounʸ + nounˣ (where nounˣ means head and nounʸ means modifier pattern all well as explaining the rule in English as the target language they are learning. It hopes that they will not transfer the Indonesian pattern when they are writing in English.Keywords: interference, syntactical, phrases

  5. Insurance cost of Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaellstrand, Aasa.

    1992-01-01

    What happens if a reactor accident occurs? Can victims of a nuclear accident be compensated for losses? The rights of a victim of a nuclear accident to be compensated for losses are governed by international conventions. These conventions make the licensee of a nuclear plant strictly liable. However, the maximum amount of compensation is limited. In Sweden the total liability of the plant-owner is maximized to 1.2 million Swedish Crowns, that is 0.02 oere/kWh. After the accidents of Harrisburg (1979) and Chernobyl (1986), it has become clear that the amounts of the various conventions are not at all sufficient to cover the damages caused by such an accident. In spite of these facts, there are a large number of reliable sources, who think that the insurance costs are negligible in the cost of production. A cost-benefit analysis based on a study performed by Ottinger et al. in 'Environmental costs of electricity' is therefore adopted to derive the costs of the external effects of nuclear plant operation and from releases to the environment during operation. The environmental externality costs of Swedish nuclear power plant operations are in this report estimated to 18.3 oere/kWh. This figure can be compared to the insurance cost, which for the present is 0.02 oere/kWh. The 'real' insurance cost including the external effects is calculated to approximately 1.12 billion Swedish Crowns] That is 900 times larger than the insurance premium, which the licensee of a nuclear plant faces] (au)

  6. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The total production of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 70.5 TWh during 1998, which is the second highest yearly production ever. Production losses due to low demand totaled 5.1 TWh combined for all twelve units and production losses due to coastdown operation totaled an additional 0.5 TWh. The reason for this low power demand was a very good supply of water to the hydropower system. Hydroelectric power production was 73.6 TWh, an increase by roughly 5 TWh since 1997. Hence, the hydroelectric power production substantially exceeded the 64 TWh expected during a normal year, i.e. a year with average rainfall. Remaining production sources, mainly fossil fuel electricity production combined with district heating, contributed with 10 TWh. The total electricity production was 154.2 TWh, the highest yearly production ever. The total electricity consumption including transmission losses was 143.5 TWh. This is also the highest consumption ever and an increase by one percent compared to 1997. The preliminary net result of the electric power trade shows a net export by 10.7 TWh. The figures above are calculated from the preliminary production results. A comprehensive report on electric power supply and consumption in Sweden is given in the 1998 Annual Report from the Swedish Power Association. Besides Oskarshamn 1, all plants have periodically been operated in load-following mode, mostly because of the abundant supply of hydropower. The energy availability for the three boiling water reactors at Forsmark averaged 93.3 % and for the three pressure water reactors at Ringhals 91.0 %, both figures are the highest ever noted. In the section `Special Reports` three events of importance to safety that occurred during 1998 are reported. The events were all rated as level 1 according to the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) Figs, tabs.; Also available in Swedish

  7. Movements and instability in the Swedish bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moerner, N.A.

    1977-01-01

    The report gives a geological evaluation of the Swedish bedrock and its movements during the last 20,000 years, which may serve as a base for further evaluations of the possibilities of storing nuclear waste in the bedrock. The Swedish bedrock is by no means stable. Like all other bedrocks it is unstable. The Swedish bedrock has an old and rich tectono-geodynamic inheritance. Irregularities in the uplift in the form of shoreline bends and isobase irregularities have been established with ancient shorelines and geodetic data. They are in general all related to major faultlines and bedrock seams. Bouldery end moraines and bouldery ground in general register paleopseismic activity -(these areas must hence be excluded as alternatives for storage of nuclear waste in the bedrock). The next ice age, is either on its way or it will, under the most favorable circumstances, have begun 20,000years from now (AP). At the next ice age, all the seismic and neotectonic effects from the deglaciation period will be repeated. During an ice age. Nuclear waste cannot bestored in the bedrock. If one succed in finding a Precambrain bedrock unit within an area of smooth uplift, absence of recent earthquakes, the bedrock surface of which shows few fractures and no faultlines, and where the surroundings exhibit normal moraine features and normal till composition, this area must still be evaluated with respect to that which will happen and may happen in connection with the next ice age and in connection with the cyclic gravitational changes in the present linear uplift. (author)

  8. GENIUS & the Swedish Fast Reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallenius, Janne

    2012-01-01

    Concluding remarks: Sweden’s growing fast reactor programme focuses on LFR technology, but we also participate in ASTRID. • An innovative facility for UN fabrication, an LBE thermal hydraulics loop and a lead corrosion facility are operational. • A plutonium fuel fabrication lab is is under installation (this week!) • The government is assessing the construction of ELECTRA-FCC, a centre for Gen IV-system R&D, at a tentative cost of ~ 140±20 M€. • Location: Oskarshamn (adjacent to intermediate repository) • Date of criticality: 2023 (best case) • Swedish participation in IAEA TWG-FR should intensify

  9. Alpine ski sport injuries in Swedish Lapland

    OpenAIRE

    Made, Curt

    2009-01-01

    Downhill skiing is associated with recreation, youth, speed, aerials and crowded courses which carry increased risk of injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate downhill sport injuries in a Swedish ski resort. Material and methodsIn a case-control study ongoing 1989/90–2006/07, 3,696 injured skiers were registered. After informed consent the injured were assessed by a physician and asked to answer a questionnaire concerning skier, skiing and injury. ResultsAfter three years 481 injured ...

  10. Teachers' Pedagogical Mathematical Awareness in Swedish Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Camilla; Barendregt, Wolmet

    2016-01-01

    Revised guidelines for Swedish early childhood education that emphasize mathematics content and competencies in more detail than before raise the question of the status of pedagogical mathematical awareness among Swedish early childhood teachers. The purpose of this study is to give an overview of teachers' current pedagogical mathematical…

  11. Irradiated fuel storage and transport: A Swedish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennerdahl, D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives the views of the author and may not correspond to the views of the Swedish industry or the licensing authority. The views are based on experience from consultation to the Swedish licensing authority and from participation in international cooperation, in particular in the OECD/NEA NSC Working Group on Burnup Credit. (author)

  12. Imperatives for "Right" Educational Choices in Swedish Educational Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puaca, Goran

    2014-01-01

    The present article is based on a critical semiotic investigation of the Swedish Long-Term Survey on economic development. It aims to examine how recent Swedish policy trends bring specific economic, political and social processes together to form a system of meaning for both motivation and regulation over individuals' educational choices. What is…

  13. The nuclear waste issue in Swedish mass media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedberg, P.

    1991-04-01

    This is an investigation of the representation given in the Swedish mass media of questions concerning the nuclear waste. The investigation covers the period from 1979 to 1989 of 8 newspapers of different political colours and the Swedish radio and television. (KAE)

  14. Parental Expectations of the Swedish Municipal School of Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilliedahl, Jonathan; Georgii-Hemming, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This article draws on a study designed to analyse parental expectations of the Swedish municipal school of arts (hereafter MSA) (in Swedish: kommunal musik- och kulturskola). The study is based on in-depth interviews conducted and informed by grounded theory. Although parental expectations are scarcely uniform, the study reveals a hope that the…

  15. The Swedish programme for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjurstroem, S.; Forsstroem, H.

    1986-10-01

    The following systems and facilities are currently in operation and under implementation: a sea transportation system for all kinds of nuclear waste, a central facility for interim storage of spent fuel (CLAB) and a central underground repository for final disposal of low and medium level reactor waste (SFR). For the remaining steps - final disposal of highly active and longlived radioactive residues - a concept, based on encapsulation of the fuel elements in copper canisters and final storage of the canisters in a repository situated 500 m down in crystalline rock (KBS-3), has been developed and approved by the government in accordance with the Swedish nuclear legislation. Although a feasible method for final disposal of the highly active residues has been shown, the Swedish legislation requires that research be carried out to reach the best possible base for the final decision around the year 2000. In parallel with this a geological investigation programme is carried out to find a suitable site for a final repository. The final site selection is foreseen at the end of the 1990's. All costs for the management of radioactive waste from the nuclear power plants are carried by a fee determined annually. The fee is 0.019 SEK/kWh for 1986

  16. A Swedish perspective on research ethics review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Thulesius, M.D., G.P., Ph.D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available I have participated in writing ethical approval applications for research projects in Sweden a dozen times. I am also since some years a member of the local ethics advisory board in a mostly rural area serving 180.000 people. From that position I advise on what types of local project applications will have to be sent further to the regional ethics committee, REPN in Sweden. With that background I will try to give a brief Swedish perspective on research ethics reviews in general and regarding CGT (classic grounded theory studies using qualitative data in particular.The most famous Swedish example of unethical research is the 1947-1951 Vipeholm sugar trial (Krasse, 2001. Several hundred intellectually and mentally challenged persons at the Vipeholm institution were for years given an excess amount of sugar, mostly in the shape of candy. This resulted in caries that totally ruined the teeth of 50 persons. Of course participants did not give informed consent. Yet, at the time the research was not considered unethical. At least there was no debate about it.

  17. Recent Swedish experiences in 222Rn control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.; Maekitalo, A.

    1990-01-01

    Swedish local authorities are responsible for decreasing 222 Rn progeny concentrations in homes in their municipalities. To obtain an overall view of their experiences, concerned national authorities sent a questionnaire in 1986 to local authorities. The results were intended to form one basis for decisions by the government regarding revised statements on financial contributions, limits, etc. The results were also intended to be of use to national authorities in determining limits and recommendations and to local authorities in their field work. One result of the survey was an enhanced interest in the Rn problem among Swedish politicians and the mass media. This increased attention resulted in new plans for continued work to decrease Rn levels indoors during 1987-1989, on both a national and a local level. The experiences of the local authorities show that Rn progeny concentrations decreased to below the design level in 95% of newly built houses investigated. It was also found that Rn progeny concentrations were below the limit for reconstruction in 53% of existing homes that previously had levels exceeding the limit

  18. Women's existential experiences within Swedish abortion care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålhandske, Maria L; Ekstrand, Maria; Tydén, Tanja

    2011-03-01

    To explore Swedish women's experiences of clinical abortion care in relation to their need for existential support. Individual in-depth interviews with 24 women with previous experience of unwanted pregnancy and abortion. Participants were recruited between 2006 and 2009. Interviews were analysed by latent content analysis. Although the women had similar experiences of the abortion care offered, the needs they expressed differed. Swedish abortion care was described as rational and neutral, with physical issues dominating over existential ones. For some women, the medical procedures triggered existential experiences of life, meaning, and morality. While some women abstained from any form of existential support, others expressed a need to reflect upon the existential aspects and/or to reconcile their decision emotionally. As women's needs for existential support in relation to abortion vary, women can be disappointed with the personnel's ability to respond to their thoughts and feelings related to the abortion. To ensure abortion care personnel meet the physical, psychological and existential needs of each patient, better resources and new lines of education are needed to ensure abortion personnel are equipped to deal with the existential aspects of abortion care.

  19. The Swedish National Defence Research Establishment and the plans for Swedish nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonter, Thomas

    2001-03-01

    This study analyses the Swedish nuclear weapons research since 1945 carried out by the Swedish National Defence Research Establishment (FOA). The most important aspect of this research was dealing with protection in broad terms against nuclear weapons attacks. However, another aspect was also important from early on - to conduct research aiming at a possible production of nuclear weapons. FOA performed an extended research up to 1968, when the Swedish Government signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which meant the end of these production plans. Up to this date, five main investigations about the technical conditions were made, 1948, 1953, 1955, 1957 and 1965, which all together expanded the Swedish know-how to produce a bomb. The Swedish plans to procure nuclear weapons were not an issue in the debate until the mid 50's. The reason for this was simple, prior to 1954 the plans were secretly held within a small group of involved politicians, military and researchers. The change of this procedure did take place when the Swedish Supreme Commander in a public defence report in 1954 favoured a Swedish Nuclear weapons option. In 1958 FOA had reached a technical level that allowed the Parliament to make a decision. Two programs were proposed - the L-programme (the Loading Programme), to be used if the parliament would say yes to a production of nuclear weapons, and the S-programme (the Protection Programme), if the Parliament would say no. The debate on the issue had now created problems for the Social Democratic Government. The Prime Minister, Tage Erlander, who had earlier defended a procurement of nuclear weapons, was now forced to reach a compromise. The compromise was presented to the parliament in a creative manner that meant that only the S-programme would be allowed. The Government argued that the technical level did allow a 'freedom of action' up to at least the beginning of the 60's when Sweden was mature to make a decision on the issue. During this period

  20. Stakeholder involvement in Swedish nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran

    2006-09-01

    This report concerning Swedish nuclear waste management has been produced as part of a cross national research project: CARL - A Social Science Research Project into the Effects of Stakeholder involvement on Decision-Making in Radioactive Waste Management. Besides Sweden, the participating countries are Belgium, Canada, Finland, Slovenia and United Kingdom. A social science research team, working for three years, is in the first phase conducting research in their own countries in order to produce 6 country reports. During the next years the focus will shift to comparisons of stakeholder involvement practices in the participating countries. The report addresses current practices of Swedish nuclear waste management and their historical development. The main focus is on past, current and emerging patterns of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a deep repository for the final disposal of Sweden's spent nuclear fuel. The general questions attended to in the report are: Who are the main stakeholders, and how have they emerged and gained recognition as such? What are the issues currently subject to stakeholder involvement and how have these been decided upon? How is stakeholder involvement organized locally and nationally and how has this changed over time? How has stakeholder involvement gained acceptance as an activity of value in the siting of major waste facilities? The report have attempted to show the development of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a final repository for Sweden's spent nuclear fuel as resembling something other than a straightforward linear process of improvement and refinement. Stakeholder involvement has developed, over the past 15 years or so, into something more like a patchwork of different shapes and forms. Some of the forces that may well contribute to the further elaboration of the patchwork of stakeholder involvement have been pointed out, contingently modifying once more its overall colour and orientation. Questions have been

  1. Stakeholder involvement in Swedish nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Section for Science and Technology Studies

    2006-09-15

    This report concerning Swedish nuclear waste management has been produced as part of a cross national research project: CARL - A Social Science Research Project into the Effects of Stakeholder involvement on Decision-Making in Radioactive Waste Management. Besides Sweden, the participating countries are Belgium, Canada, Finland, Slovenia and United Kingdom. A social science research team, working for three years, is in the first phase conducting research in their own countries in order to produce 6 country reports. During the next years the focus will shift to comparisons of stakeholder involvement practices in the participating countries. The report addresses current practices of Swedish nuclear waste management and their historical development. The main focus is on past, current and emerging patterns of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a deep repository for the final disposal of Sweden's spent nuclear fuel. The general questions attended to in the report are: Who are the main stakeholders, and how have they emerged and gained recognition as such? What are the issues currently subject to stakeholder involvement and how have these been decided upon? How is stakeholder involvement organized locally and nationally and how has this changed over time? How has stakeholder involvement gained acceptance as an activity of value in the siting of major waste facilities? The report have attempted to show the development of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a final repository for Sweden's spent nuclear fuel as resembling something other than a straightforward linear process of improvement and refinement. Stakeholder involvement has developed, over the past 15 years or so, into something more like a patchwork of different shapes and forms. Some of the forces that may well contribute to the further elaboration of the patchwork of stakeholder involvement have been pointed out, contingently modifying once more its overall colour and orientation. Questions

  2. Psychosocial working conditions and depressive symptoms among Swedish employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Theorell, Töres; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    Survey 2003. Work demands, decision authority, support and conflicts at work were measured in 2003. Depressive symptoms were recorded in 2006 by a short version of the depression subscale of the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90). Linear regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: After adjusting......PURPOSE: To investigate prospective associations between working conditions and depressive symptoms in Swedish men and women. METHODS: The study was based on SLOSH (N = 5,985), a follow-up of a representative sample of gainfully employed Swedes 16-64 years of age from the Swedish Work Environment...... authority, support and conflicts at work are predictive of depressive symptoms in the general Swedish working population....

  3. Swedish Taxation in a 150-year Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenkula Mikael

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the development of taxation in Sweden from 1862 to 2010. The examination includes six key aspects of the Swedish tax system, namely the taxation of labor income, capital income, wealth, inheritances and gifts, consumption and real estate. The importance of these taxes varied greatly over time and Sweden increasingly relied on broad-based taxes (such as income taxes and general consumption taxes and taxes that were less visible to the public (such as payroll taxes and social security contributions. The tax-to-GDP ratio was initially low and relatively stable, but from the 1930s, the ratio increased sharply for nearly 50 years. Towards the end of the period, the tax-to-GDP ratio declined significantly.

  4. Genetic anticipation in Swedish Lynch syndrome families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Salomé, Jenny; Boonstra, Philip S; Karimi, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    Among hereditary colorectal cancer predisposing syndromes, Lynch syndrome (LS) caused by mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 is the most common. Patients with LS have an increased risk of early onset colon and endometrial cancer, but also other tumors that generally have......-2013. We analyzed a homogenous group of mutation carriers, utilizing information from both affected and non-affected family members. In total, 239 families with a mismatch repair gene mutation (96 MLH1 families, 90 MSH2 families including one family with an EPCAM-MSH2 deletion, 39 MSH6 families, 12 PMS2...... families, and 2 MLH1+PMS2 families) comprising 1028 at-risk carriers were identified among the Swedish LS families, of which 1003 mutation carriers had available follow-up information and could be included in the study. Using a normal random effects model (NREM) we estimate a 2.1 year decrease in age...

  5. Wood flow problems in the Swedish forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Dick [Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Roennqvist, M. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematics

    1998-12-31

    In this paper we give an overview of the wood-flow in Sweden including a description of organization and planning. Based on that, we will describe a number of applications or problem areas in the wood-flow chain that are currently considered by the Swedish forest companies to be important and potential in order to improve overall operations. We have focused on applications which are short term planning or operative planning. We do not give any final results as much of the development is currently ongoing or is still in a planning phase. Instead we describe what kind of models and decision support systems that could be applied in order to improve co-operation within and integration of the wood-flow chain 13 refs, 20 figs, 1 tab

  6. Are boys discriminated in Swedish high schools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinnerich, Bjørn Tyrefors; Höglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading.Werigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind...... and non-blind grading. The non-blind test score is on average 15% lower for boys than for girls. Blind grading lowers the average grades with 13%, indicating that personal ties and/or grade inflation are important in non-blind grading. But we find no evidence of discrimination against boys in grading....... The point estimate of the discrimination effect is close to zero with a 95% confidence interval of±4.5% of the average non-blind grade....

  7. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    During 1997 the PWRs in Ringhals performed extremely well (capability factors 85-90%), the unit Ringhals 2 reached the best capability factor since commercial operation started in 1976. The BWRs made an average 76% capability, which is somewhat less than in 1996. The slightly reduced capability derives from ongoing modernization projects at several units. At the youngest plants, Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3, capability and utilization were very high. Events and data for 1997 are given for each reactor, together with operational statistics for the years 1990-1997. A number of safety-related events are reported, which occurred st the Swedish plants during 1997. These events are classified as level 1 or higher on the international nuclear event scale (INES).

  8. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    During 1997 the PWRs in Ringhals performed extremely well (capability factors 85-90%), the unit Ringhals 2 reached the best capability factor since commercial operation started in 1976. The BWRs made an average 76% capability, which is somewhat less than in 1996. The slightly reduced capability derives from ongoing modernization projects at several units. At the youngest plants, Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3, capability and utilization were very high. Events and data for 1997 are given for each reactor, together with operational statistics for the years 1990-1997. A number of safety-related events are reported, which occurred st the Swedish plants during 1997. These events are classified as level 1 or higher on the international nuclear event scale (INES)

  9. Gendered portraits of depression in Swedish newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengs, Carita; Johansson, Eva; Danielsson, Ulla; Lehti, Arja; Hammarström, Anne

    2008-07-01

    Mass media are influential mediators of information, knowledge, and narratives of health and illness. In this article, we report on an examination of personal accounts of illness as presented in three Swedish newspapers, focusing on the gendered representation of laypersons' experiences of depression. A database search identified all articles mentioning depression during the year 2002. Twenty six articles focusing on personal experiences of depression were then subjected to a qualitative content analysis. We identified four themes: displaying a successful facade, experiencing a cracking facade, losing and regaining control, and explaining the illness. We found both similarities and differences with regard to gendered experiences. The mediated accounts of depression both upheld and challenged traditional gender stereotypes. The women's stories were more detailed, relational, emotionally oriented, and embodied. The portrayal of men was less emotional and expressive, and described a more dramatic onset of depression, reflecting hegemonic patterns of masculinity.

  10. Decommissioning planning of Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedin, Gunnar; Bergh, Niklas [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraes (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    The technologies required for the decommissioning work are for the most part readily proven. Taken into account that there will be many more years before the studied reactor units will undergo decommissioning, the techniques could even be called conventional at that time. This will help bring the decommissioning projects to a successful closure. A national waste fund is already established in Sweden to finance amongst others all dismantling and decommissioning work. This will assure that funding for the decommissioning projects is at hand when needed. All necessary plant data are readily available and this will, combined with a reliable management system, expedite the decommissioning projects considerably. Final repositories for both long- and short-lived LILW respectively is planned and will be constructed and dimensioned to receive the decommissioning waste from the Swedish NPP:s. Since the strategy is set and well thought-through, this will help facilitate a smooth disposal of the radioactive decommissioning waste. (orig.)

  11. Fostering Perspectives on Swedish and Indian Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harveen Kaur

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection of cultural differences recorded by the author during her research visit to Sweden in the year 2017 (February-March month. The objectives of the research visit included understanding official dialects of both countries, existing education system and work environments, variant food habits, family structure and associations, available transport systems, sustainable living options and cultural exchange within India and Sweden. The information was first collected through existing literature and was supported by information collected through observation method, informal discussions and interactions with the Swedish people. It can be concluded that both countries are culturally very different and different parts of each country further exhibit alteration in cultural practices, languages and food preferences. Some variations are also due to population size in both countries. For instance, transportation is very well developed in developed countries due to the availability of advanced technology and less population.

  12. Offshoring practices of Danish and Swedish SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Johansen, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how small and medium enterprises (SMEs) configure their operations on the global scale and how this affects their home bases in terms of operations requirements and priorities. In order to relate SMEs’ offshoring initiatives with their operations configuration attributes, we...... draw on the operations networks literature and survey responses from 675 Danish and 410 Swedish companies. On the basis of the survey results, we find that although the SMEs are less experienced and less advanced in their offshoring ventures than large companies, they are building dispersed operations...... networks. Although still in their infancy, these networks are, as expected, creating new demands for their home bases in terms of demands for formalisation of work processes, systems development and managerial capability related to orchestrating operations across national borders, but more fundamentally...

  13. Swedish district heating - owners, prices and profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sofie; Werner, S.

    2001-01-01

    Owners, prices and profitability are examined in this report for 152 Swedish district heating companies during 1999. Only public information available has been used: Prices from a national annual consumer study, energy supplied, lengths of district heating pipes installed, and average prices for energy supplied. These companies are responsible for 96 % of all district heat supplied in Sweden. District heating systems owned by municipalities were responsible for 65 % of all district heat supply, while the share of power companies was 34 %. Other private owners accounted for 1 %. Only 12 % of the board members are women and more than 40 % of the companies have no woman in the board. The prices gathered by the annual consumer study are good estimates of the price level of district heating in Sweden. The average revenues are only 4,1 % lower than the effective average of prices gathered. Price of district heating decrease with size and market share. Use of combined heat and power plants decrease prices slightly. Lower prices with size can mainly be explained by lower energy supply costs. Calculated rates of return in relation to calculated replacement values increase slightly by size and are almost independent of age and market share. The purport of these conclusions is that the district heating companies share the cost reduction from size with their customers, while the whole benefit from high market shares is repaid to the customers. Calculated rates of return vary among the owner groups examined. Lower rates are accepted by municipalities, while power companies have higher rates at the average costs used. Total replacement costs for the 152 companies has been estimated to 89 billion Swedish crowns or 10 billion Euro. Only correlation analyses using one dimension have been used in this study. A higher degree of quality can be obtained by using multi-dimensional analyses

  14. Digital Components in Swedish NPP Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Mattias; Eriksson, Tage

    2015-01-01

    Swedish nuclear power plants have over the last 20 years of operation modernised or exchanged several systems and components of the electrical power system. Within these works, new components based on digital technology have been employed in order to realize functionality that was previously achieved by using electro-mechanical or analogue technology. Components and systems such as relay protection, rectifiers, inverters, variable speed drives and diesel-generator sets are today equipped with digital components. Several of the systems and components fulfil functions with a safety-role in the NPP. Recently, however, a number of incidents have occurred which highlight deficiencies in the design or HMI of the equipment, which warrants questions whether there are generic problems with some applications of digital components that needs to be addressed. The use of digital components has presented cost effective solutions, or even the only available solution on the market enabling a modernisation. The vast majority of systems using digital components have been operating without problems and often contribute to improved safety but the challenge of non-detectable, or non-identifiable, failure modes remain. In this paper, the extent to which digital components are used in Swedish NPP power systems will be presented including a description of typical applications. Based on data from maintenance records and fault reports, as well as interviews with designers and maintenance personnel, the main areas where problems have been encountered and where possible risks have been identified will be described. The paper intends to investigate any 'tell-tales' that could give signals of unwanted behaviour. Furthermore, particular benefits experienced by using digital components will be highlighted. The paper will also discuss the safety relevance of these findings and suggest measures to improve safety in the application of digital components in power systems. (authors)

  15. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The total production of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 70.5 TWh during 1998, which is the second highest yearly production ever. Production losses due to low demand totaled 5.1 TWh combined for all twelve units and production losses due to coastdown operation totaled an additional 0.5 TWh. The reason for this low power demand was a very good supply of water to the hydropower system. Hydroelectric power production was 73.6 TWh, an increase by roughly 5 TWh since 1997. Hence, the hydroelectric power production substantially exceeded the 64 TWh expected during a normal year, i.e. a year with average rainfall. Remaining production sources, mainly fossil fuel electricity production combined with district heating, contributed with 10 TWh. The total electricity production was 154.2 TWh, the highest yearly production ever. The total electricity consumption including transmission losses was 143.5 TWh. This is also the highest consumption ever and an increase by one percent compared to 1997. The preliminary net result of the electric power trade shows a net export by 10.7 TWh. The figures above are calculated from the preliminary production results. A comprehensive report on electric power supply and consumption in Sweden is given in the 1998 Annual Report from the Swedish Power Association. Besides Oskarshamn 1, all plants have periodically been operated in load-following mode, mostly because of the abundant supply of hydropower. The energy availability for the three boiling water reactors at Forsmark averaged 93.3 % and for the three pressure water reactors at Ringhals 91.0 %, both figures are the highest ever noted. In the section 'Special Reports' three events of importance to safety that occurred during 1998 are reported. The events were all rated as level 1 according to the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES)

  16. Identification of vowel length, word stress and compound words and phrases by postlingually-deafened cochlear implant listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, David Jackson; Magnusson, Lennart; Faulkner, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background: The accurate perception of prosody assists a listener in deriving meaning from natural speech. Few studies have addressed the ability of cochlear implant (CI) listeners to perceive the brief duration prosodic cues involved in contrastive vowel length, word stress, and compound word...... word stress, vowel length, and compound words or phrases all of which were presented with minimal-pair response choices. Tests were performed in quiet and in speech-spectrum shaped noise at a 10 dB signal- to-noise ratio. Also, discrimination thresholds for four acoustic properties of a synthetic vowel...... recipients’ ability to perceive brief prosodic cues. This is of interest in the preparation of rehabilitation materials used in training and in developing realistic expectations for potential CI candidates. Key Words: Cochlear implants, speech acoustics, speech intelligibility...

  17. Improving patients' understanding of terms and phrases commonly used in self-reported measures of sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Angel M; Flynn, Kathryn E; Hahn, Elizabeth A; Jeffery, Diana D; Keefe, Francis J; Reeve, Bryce B; Schultz, Wesley; Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Shelby, Rebecca A; Weinfurt, Kevin P

    2014-08-01

    There is a significant gap in research regarding the readability and comprehension of existing sexual function measures. Patient-reported outcome measures may use terms not well understood by respondents with low literacy. This study aims to test comprehension of words and phrases typically used in sexual function measures to improve validity for all individuals, including those with low literacy. We recruited 20 men and 28 women for cognitive interviews on version 2.0 of the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System(®) (PROMIS(®) ) Sexual Function and Satisfaction measures. We assessed participants' reading level using the word reading subtest of the Wide Range Achievement Test. Sixteen participants were classified as having low literacy. In the first round of cognitive interviews, each survey item was reviewed by five or more people, at least two of whom had lower than a ninth-grade reading level (low literacy). Patient feedback was incorporated into a revised version of the items. In the second round of interviews, an additional three or more people (at least one with low literacy) reviewed each revised item. Participants with low literacy had difficulty comprehending terms such as aroused, orgasm, erection, ejaculation, incontinence, and vaginal penetration. Women across a range of literacy levels had difficulty with clinical terms like labia and clitoris. We modified unclear terms to include parenthetical descriptors or slang equivalents, which generally improved comprehension. Common words and phrases used across measures of self-reported sexual function are not universally understood. Researchers should appreciate these misunderstandings as a potential source of error in studies using self-reported measures of sexual function. This study also provides evidence for the importance of including individuals with low literacy in cognitive pretesting during the measure development. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Using noun phrases for navigating biomedical literature on Pubmed: how many updates are we losing track of?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikrishna, Devabhaktuni; Coram, Marc A

    2011-01-01

    Author-supplied citations are a fraction of the related literature for a paper. The "related citations" on PubMed is typically dozens or hundreds of results long, and does not offer hints why these results are related. Using noun phrases derived from the sentences of the paper, we show it is possible to more transparently navigate to PubMed updates through search terms that can associate a paper with its citations. The algorithm to generate these search terms involved automatically extracting noun phrases from the paper using natural language processing tools, and ranking them by the number of occurrences in the paper compared to the number of occurrences on the web. We define search queries having at least one instance of overlap between the author-supplied citations of the paper and the top 20 search results as citation validated (CV). When the overlapping citations were written by same authors as the paper itself, we define it as CV-S and different authors is defined as CV-D. For a systematic sample of 883 papers on PubMed Central, at least one of the search terms for 86% of the papers is CV-D versus 65% for the top 20 PubMed "related citations." We hypothesize these quantities computed for the 20 million papers on PubMed to differ within 5% of these percentages. Averaged across all 883 papers, 5 search terms are CV-D, and 10 search terms are CV-S, and 6 unique citations validate these searches. Potentially related literature uncovered by citation-validated searches (either CV-S or CV-D) are on the order of ten per paper--many more if the remaining searches that are not citation-validated are taken into account. The significance and relationship of each search result to the paper can only be vetted and explained by a researcher with knowledge of or interest in that paper.

  19. Politics, pleasure, violence: Swedish defence propaganda in social media

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Ferrada Stoehrel

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the Swedish Armed Forces have produced and distributed highly edited video clips on YouTube that show moving images of military activity. Alongside this development, mobile phone apps have emerged as an important channel through which the user can experience and take an interactive part in the staging of contemporary armed conflict. This article examines the way in which the aesthetic and affective experience of Swedish defence and security policy is socially and (media-)cult...

  20. Work environment and health among Swedish livestock workers

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstrup, Christina

    2008-01-01

    During the last decades, Swedish livestock farming has undergone considerable structural changes and technical development, which have influenced the work environment and health of the workers in several ways. The general aim of the studies was to investigate the work environment and health among Swedish livestock workers on large modern dairy and pig farms. The studies were mainly based on questionnaires. The results showed that the livestock workers reported high frequencies of musculoskele...

  1. Doing gender (in) equality in Swedish family farming

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Economic and social conditions on Swedish farms have altered in recent decades, restructuring the sector, but the family farm is still the primary production unit. Sweden is often described as a role model in gender equality, but a gender-unequal situation in farming has been identified, posing a political challenge. This thesis critically assessed how gender inequalities are reproduced within Swedish family farming by analysing how the 'doing' of family farming, in terms of labour and ma...

  2. Analysis of Swedish consumers’ attitude to Chinese food

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research is to find out what’s attitude Swedish consumers have to Chinese food. The questionnaires based on the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) are handed out to 100 Swedish respondents in order to investigate their motivation on Chinese food choice. 78 questionnaires which were filled completely were selected for this study. Eleven factors involved in the questionnaire are labeled health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, price, weight control, familiarity, ...

  3. Subcontractors and Component Suppliers in the Swedish Wind Power Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Linn

    2003-05-01

    This paper studies the Swedish component suppliers in the wind power industry. This group has not received much attention so far, and today very little is known. This study addresses the fact that the Swedish component suppliers have not been able to penetrate the wind power market despite the Swedish industry's strength in mechanical and electrical engineering. The aims of this paper were to gather information regarding the existing production and to identify factors that affect the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. To date, although Sweden has spent considerable amounts of money on projects involving wind turbines, there is no series production of large wind turbines in Sweden. The historical development of the wind turbine industry suggests this alone would have inhibited the development of component production in Sweden. Yet, the country's proximity and good access to large wind turbine producing countries should be an advantage. Various factors and issues are identified and discussed in this paper that are relevant for the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. These include market and product development, buyer-supplier relationships, export and sourcing behaviors, and time of market entry. This is a first step towards increasing the knowledge of Swedish component production and it is recognized that more studies are required. Various areas where relevant knowledge is largely missing or scarce are identified and discussed as well, and should serve as relevant starting points for continued research

  4. External review and validation of the Swedish national inpatient register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jeong-Lim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Swedish National Inpatient Register (IPR, also called the Hospital Discharge Register, is a principal source of data for numerous research projects. The IPR is part of the National Patient Register. The Swedish IPR was launched in 1964 (psychiatric diagnoses from 1973 but complete coverage did not begin until 1987. Currently, more than 99% of all somatic (including surgery and psychiatric hospital discharges are registered in the IPR. A previous validation of the IPR by the National Board of Health and Welfare showed that 85-95% of all diagnoses in the IPR are valid. The current paper describes the history, structure, coverage and quality of the Swedish IPR. Methods and results In January 2010, we searched the medical databases, Medline and HighWire, using the search algorithm "validat* (inpatient or hospital discharge Sweden". We also contacted 218 members of the Swedish Society of Epidemiology and an additional 201 medical researchers to identify papers that had validated the IPR. In total, 132 papers were reviewed. The positive predictive value (PPV was found to differ between diagnoses in the IPR, but is generally 85-95%. Conclusions In conclusion, the validity of the Swedish IPR is high for many but not all diagnoses. The long follow-up makes the register particularly suitable for large-scale population-based research, but for certain research areas the use of other health registers, such as the Swedish Cancer Register, may be more suitable.

  5. Subcontractors and Component Suppliers in the Swedish Wind Power Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Linn

    2003-05-01

    This paper studies the Swedish component suppliers in the wind power industry. This group has not received much attention so far, and today very little is known. This study addresses the fact that the Swedish component suppliers have not been able to penetrate the wind power market despite the Swedish industry's strength in mechanical and electrical engineering. The aims of this paper were to gather information regarding the existing production and to identify factors that affect the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. To date, although Sweden has spent considerable amounts of money on projects involving wind turbines, there is no series production of large wind turbines in Sweden. The historical development of the wind turbine industry suggests this alone would have inhibited the development of component production in Sweden. Yet, the country's proximity and good access to large wind turbine producing countries should be an advantage. Various factors and issues are identified and discussed in this paper that are relevant for the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. These include market and product development, buyer-supplier relationships, export and sourcing behaviors, and time of market entry. This is a first step towards increasing the knowledge of Swedish component production and it is recognized that more studies are required. Various areas where relevant knowledge is largely missing or scarce are identified and discussed as well, and should serve as relevant starting points for continued research.

  6. Functional categories in the noun phrase: on jacks-of-all-trades and one-trick-ponies in Danish, Dutch and German

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with functionally defined modifier categories of the noun phrase in some Germanic languages, in particular Danish, Dutch and German. It is argued that functional categories, unlike semantic or form-based categories, are the only categories that can be applied within and across...... in German: attitudinal arm (e.g. Der arme Junge! ‘The poor boy!’)....

  7. Tracking the time course of multi-word noun phrase production with ERPs or on when (and why) cat is faster than the big cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürki, Audrey; Laganaro, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Words are rarely produced in isolation. Yet, our understanding of multi-word production, and especially its time course, is still rather poor. In this research, we use event-related potentials to examine the production of multi-word noun phrases in the context of overt picture naming. We track the processing costs associated with the production of these noun phrases as compared with the production of bare nouns, from picture onset to articulation. Behavioral results revealed longer naming latencies for French noun phrases with determiners and pre-nominal adjectives (D-A-N, the big cat) than for noun phrases with a determiner (D-N, the cat), or bare nouns (N, cat). The spatio-temporal analysis of the ERPs revealed differences in the duration of stable global electrophysiological patterns as a function of utterance format in two time windows, from ~190 to 300 ms after picture onset, and from ~530 ms after picture onset to 100 ms before articulation. These findings can be accommodated in the following model. During grammatical encoding (here from ~190 to 300 ms), the noun and adjective lemmas are accessed in parallel, followed by the selection of the gender-agreeing determiner. Phonological encoding (after ~530 ms) operates sequentially. As a consequence, the phonological encoding process is longer for longer utterances. In addition, when determiners are repeated across trials, their phonological encoding can be anticipated or primed, resulting in a shortened encoding process.

  8. Tracking the time course of multi-word noun phrase production with ERPs or on when (and why cat is faster than the big cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey eBürki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Words are rarely produced in isolation. Yet, our understanding of multi-word production, and especially its time course, is still rather poor. In this research, we use event-related potentials to examine the production of multi-word noun phrases in the context of overt picture naming. We track the processing costs associated with the production of these noun phrases as compared with the production of bare nouns, from picture onset to articulation. Behavioral results revealed longer naming latencies for French noun phrases with determiners and pre-nominal adjectives (D-A-N, the big cat than for noun phrases with a determiner (D-N, the cat or bare nouns (N, cat. The spatio-temporal analysis of the ERPs revealed differences in the duration of stable global electrophysiological patterns as a function of utterance format in two time windows, from ~190 ms to 300 ms after picture onset, and from ~530 ms after picture onset to 100 ms before articulation. These findings can be accommodated in the following model. During grammatical encoding (here from ~190 ms to 300 ms, the noun and adjective lemmas are accessed in parallel, followed by the selection of the gender-agreeing determiner. Phonological encoding (after ~530 ms operates sequentially. As a consequence, the phonological encoding process is longer for longer utterances. In addition, when determiners are repeated across trials, their phonological encoding can be anticipated or primed, resulting in a shortened encoding process.

  9. Structural Packaging in the Input to Language Learning: Contributions of Prosodic and Morphological Marking of Phrases to the Acquisition of Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, James L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The role of cues in language acquisition was examined in three experiments. When the cue marked the phrase structure of sentences, adult subjects successfully learned syntax. When input was identical but lacked that cue, subjects failed to learn significant portions of syntax. (Author/GDC)

  10. Genetic anticipation in Swedish Lynch syndrome families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny von Salomé

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Among hereditary colorectal cancer predisposing syndromes, Lynch syndrome (LS caused by mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 is the most common. Patients with LS have an increased risk of early onset colon and endometrial cancer, but also other tumors that generally have an earlier onset compared to the general population. However, age at first primary cancer varies within families and genetic anticipation, i.e. decreasing age at onset in successive generations, has been suggested in LS. Anticipation is a well-known phenomenon in e.g neurodegenerative diseases and several reports have studied anticipation in heritable cancer. The purpose of this study is to determine whether anticipation can be shown in a nationwide cohort of Swedish LS families referred to the regional departments of clinical genetics in Lund, Stockholm, Linköping, Uppsala and Umeå between the years 1990-2013. We analyzed a homogenous group of mutation carriers, utilizing information from both affected and non-affected family members. In total, 239 families with a mismatch repair gene mutation (96 MLH1 families, 90 MSH2 families including one family with an EPCAM-MSH2 deletion, 39 MSH6 families, 12 PMS2 families, and 2 MLH1+PMS2 families comprising 1028 at-risk carriers were identified among the Swedish LS families, of which 1003 mutation carriers had available follow-up information and could be included in the study. Using a normal random effects model (NREM we estimate a 2.1 year decrease in age of diagnosis per generation. An alternative analysis using a mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards model (COX-R estimates a hazard ratio of exp(0.171, or about 1.19, for age of diagnosis between consecutive generations. LS-associated gene-specific anticipation effects are evident for MSH2 (2.6 years/generation for NREM and hazard ratio of 1.33 for COX-R and PMS2 (7.3 years/generation and hazard ratio of 1.86. The estimated anticipation effects for MLH1

  11. Genetic anticipation in Swedish Lynch syndrome families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Salomé, Jenny; Boonstra, Philip S; Karimi, Masoud; Silander, Gustav; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Gebre-Medhin, Samuel; Aravidis, Christos; Nilbert, Mef; Lindblom, Annika; Lagerstedt-Robinson, Kristina

    2017-10-01

    Among hereditary colorectal cancer predisposing syndromes, Lynch syndrome (LS) caused by mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 is the most common. Patients with LS have an increased risk of early onset colon and endometrial cancer, but also other tumors that generally have an earlier onset compared to the general population. However, age at first primary cancer varies within families and genetic anticipation, i.e. decreasing age at onset in successive generations, has been suggested in LS. Anticipation is a well-known phenomenon in e.g neurodegenerative diseases and several reports have studied anticipation in heritable cancer. The purpose of this study is to determine whether anticipation can be shown in a nationwide cohort of Swedish LS families referred to the regional departments of clinical genetics in Lund, Stockholm, Linköping, Uppsala and Umeå between the years 1990-2013. We analyzed a homogenous group of mutation carriers, utilizing information from both affected and non-affected family members. In total, 239 families with a mismatch repair gene mutation (96 MLH1 families, 90 MSH2 families including one family with an EPCAM-MSH2 deletion, 39 MSH6 families, 12 PMS2 families, and 2 MLH1+PMS2 families) comprising 1028 at-risk carriers were identified among the Swedish LS families, of which 1003 mutation carriers had available follow-up information and could be included in the study. Using a normal random effects model (NREM) we estimate a 2.1 year decrease in age of diagnosis per generation. An alternative analysis using a mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards model (COX-R) estimates a hazard ratio of exp(0.171), or about 1.19, for age of diagnosis between consecutive generations. LS-associated gene-specific anticipation effects are evident for MSH2 (2.6 years/generation for NREM and hazard ratio of 1.33 for COX-R) and PMS2 (7.3 years/generation and hazard ratio of 1.86). The estimated anticipation effects for MLH1 and MSH6 are

  12. P.R. Subramanian (Chief Editor). Tarkalat Tamil Maraputtotar Akarati (Tamil-Tamil-Ankilam) (Dictionary of Idioms and Phrases in Contemporary Tamil (Tamil-Tamil-English)

    OpenAIRE

    G. Murugan

    2012-01-01

    Review of P.R. Subramanian (Chief Editor). Tarkalat Tamil Maraputtotar Akarati (Tamil-Tamil-Ankilam) (Dictionary of Idioms and Phrases in Contemporary Tamil (Tamil-Tamil-English)

    Resensie van P.R. Subramanian (Chief Editor). Tarkalat Tamil Maraputtotar Akarati (Tamil-Tamil-Ankilam) (Dictionary of Idioms and Phrases in Contemporary Tamil (Tamil-Tamil-...

  13. Swedish Radiation Protection Institute: information activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Lars

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of SSI's Information and PR Service is to broaden public awareness of radiation and radiation risks as well as to fulfill other performance goals. SSI achieves this through its advisory, educational and informative activities. SSI publishes two external magazines, Stralskyddsnytt and SSI News. Stralskyddsnytt - which is available in Swedish only - has a circulation of 2,000 and is published four times a year. SSI News - which is in English - is published twice a year and has a circulation of about 1,800. Another important channel of communication is the web site (www.ssi.se). Taking advantage of PUSH technology, SSI also distributes, by e-mail, press releases and other important information on radiation to radiation protection professionals in Sweden. SSI continuously monitors news by subscribing to a press clipping service. SSI Training is a commercial unit within the Information and PR Service. A policy for mass media contacts exists as well as a policy for internal communication. SSI has a graphic profile. SSI has a specialized research library. (author)

  14. Swedish radiation protection institute. Information activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Lars

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of SSI's information and PR Service is to broaden public awareness of radiation and radiation risks as well as to fulfil other performance goals. SSI achieves this through its advisory, educational and informative activities. SSI publishes two external magazines, Straalskyddsnytt and SSI News. Straalskyddsnytt - which is available in Swedish only - has a circulation of 2,400 and is published four times a year. SSI News - which is in English - is published twice a year and has a circulation of about 1,500. Another important channel of communication is the web site (www.ssi.se). Taking advantage of PUSH technology, SSi also distributes, by e-mail, press releases and other important information of radiation to radiation protection professionals in Sweden. SSI continuously monitors news by subscribing to a press clipping service. SSI Training is a commercial unit within the Information and PR Service. A policy for mass media contacts exists as well as a policy for internal communication. SSI has a graphic profile. SSI has a specialised research library. (au)

  15. Choice and privatisation in Swedish primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anell, Anders

    2011-10-01

    In 2007, a new wave of local reforms involving choice for the population and privatisation of providers was initiated in Swedish primary care. Important objectives behind reforms were to strengthen the role of primary care and to improve performance in terms of access and responsiveness. The purpose of this article was to compare the characteristics of the new models and to discuss changes in financial incentives for providers and challenges regarding governance from the part of county councils. A majority of the models being introduced across the 21 county councils can best be described as innovative combinations between a comprehensive responsibility for providers and significant degrees of freedom regarding choice for the population. Key financial characteristics of fixed payment and comprehensive financial responsibility for providers may create financial incentives to under-provide care. Informed choices by the population, in combination with reasonably low barriers for providers to enter the primary care market, should theoretically counterbalance such incentives. To facilitate such competition is indeed a challenge, not only because of difficulties in implementing informed choices but also because the new models favour large and/or horizontally integrated providers. To prevent monopolistic behaviour, county councils may have to accept more competition as well as more governance over clinical practice than initially intended.

  16. Workplace Incivility in a Swedish Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Torkelson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated workplace incivility in a Swedish context. The first aim was to assess how common the phenomenon is and the second was to study which groups (gender, age, ethnicity, and power position are most targeted by workplace incivility and are more prone to act in an uncivil way. Additionally, the relationships between experienced and witnessed incivility and wellbeing as well as instigated incivility were investigated. An online survey was administered by SIFO (the national public opinion poll agency. The collected data consist of a stratified sample whose composition is identical to the working population in Sweden (N = 3001. The results show that almost three quarters of the respondents had been the target of coworker incivility and 52% of supervisor incivility at least one to two times in the past year. Of the respondents, 75% had witnessed coworkers and 58% witnessed a supervisor treating others in an uncivil way. Furthermore, 66% had instigated uncivil acts toward others. The results also show that female and younger employees are slightly more targeted by incivility from coworkers and younger employees and supervisors are slightly more prone to instigate incivility. Moreover, it was found that that experienced incivility was the strongest predictor of low well-being and that witnessed incivility was the strongest predictor of instigated incivility.

  17. Price formation on the Swedish woodfuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.

    1999-01-01

    The Swedish woodfuel market has grown rapidly in the past ten years. Government policy has strongly supported this development and environmental taxes on fossil fuels have been introduced. This has favoured untaxed biofuels, i.e. woodfuels, in the district heating sector where the market has grown very rapidly. This study on price formation is based on the earlier knowledge of the market and shows that the woodfuel market has seen a dramatic increase combined with falling prices. Unrefined wood fuels demonstrate an annual volume increase of 13% while real prices have fallen at an annual rate of 5% during the first half of the 1990s. Total taxes paid by the district heating sector have increased during the period studied and of which taxes for fossil fuels have increased dramatically during the past ten years. However, tax as a share of the total fuelmix supplying the district heating sector has been stabilised over time. The primary reason for this development is the replacement of the highly taxed fossil fuels in the supplied fuels with untaxed biofuels. Companies have reacted very quickly and rationally from an economic point of view to the rising costs of fossil fuels, substituting an increasing share with biofuels. For the future, many utilities have the capacity to adapt to new changes in costs resulting from either changes in fuel prices, changes in fuel taxes or changes in prices on heating or electricity markets. (author)

  18. Uranium production from low grade Swedish shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, O.

    1977-01-01

    In view of the present nuclear programmes a steep increase in uranium demand is foreseen which will pose serious problems for the uranium industry. The annual additions to uranium ore reserves must almost triple within the next 15 years in order to support the required production rates. Although there are good prospects for the discovery of further conventional deposits of uranium there is a growing interest in low grade uranium deposits. Large quantities of uranium exist in black shales, phosphates, granites, sea water and other unconventional sources. There are however factors which limit the utilization of these low grade materials. These factors include the extraction costs, the environmental constrains on mining and milling of huge amounts of ore, the development of technologies for the beneficiation of uranium and, in the case of very low grade materials, the energy balance. The availability of by-product uranium is limited by the production rate of the main product. The limitations differ very much according to types of ores, mining and milling methods and the surroundings. As an illustration a description is given of the Swedish Ranstad uranium shale project, its potential, constraints and technical solutions

  19. Phasing out nuclear power, the swedish experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredriksson, Y.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents the chronological steps in the phasing-out of nuclear energy in Sweden. In 1980 a consultative referendum was held and it was decided that: i) no further expansion of nuclear capacity beyond the 12 reactors in operation or already under construction, ii) all nuclear power plants should be decommissioned by the year 2010. In 1988, as a consequence of the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the Swedish parliament decided that one reactor should be closed down in 1995 and a second in 1996. In 1991 the parliament proposed a new energy program for a 5 year period. The main measure was a huge financial support for increasing energy efficiency and for developing environmental sound technologies. At the same time the parliament repealed the 1991 decision of closing 1 reactor in 1995 and made the phase-out process dependent on the results of the new energy policy. In 1994 a parliamentary Commission was appointed to estimate the results of 1991 energy policy. The results were meager and disappointing so the Commission considered that a number of objectives (the climate issue, employment, welfare and competitiveness) remained unresolved if all nuclear power generation should be phased out by 2010. However, the Commission also considered it important to start the phasing-out process at an early stage and stated that one reactor could be closed down without noticeably affecting the power balance. The Barsebaeck reactor is to be closed before the end of november 1999. (A.C.)

  20. The in vitro toxicology of Swedish snus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, Christopher R. E.; Ballantyne, Mark; Curvall, Margareta; Rutqvist, Lars-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Three commercial brands of Swedish snus (SWS), an experimental SWS, and the 2S3 reference moist snuff were each tested in four in vitro toxicology assays. These assays were: Salmonella reverse mutation, mouse lymphoma, in vitro micronucleus, and cytotoxicity. Water extractions of each of the 5 products were tested using several different concentrations; the experimental SWS was also extracted using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Extraction procedures were verified by nicotine determinations. Results for SWS in the mutagenicity assays were broadly negative: there were occasional positive responses, but these were effectively at the highest concentration only (concentrations well above those suggested by regulatory guidelines), and were often associated with cytotoxicity. The 2S3 reference was unequivocally positive in one of the three conditions of the micronucleus assay (MNA), at the highest concentration only. Positive controls produced the expected responses in each assay. The SWS data are contrasted with data reported for combusted tobacco in the form of cigarettes, where strongly positive responses have been routinely reported for mutagenicity and cytotoxicity. These negative findings in a laboratory setting concur with the large amount of epidemiological data from Sweden, data showing that SWS are associated with considerably lower carcinogenic potential when compared with cigarettes. PMID:22400986

  1. Lyssavirus-reactive antibodies in Swedish bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lena Hammarin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To study the presence of European bat lyssavirus (EBLV infections in bat reservoirs in Sweden, active surveillance was performed during the summers from 2008 to 2013. Material and methods: Bat specimens were collected at >20 bat colonies in the central, southeastern, and southern parts of Sweden. In total, blood and saliva of 452 bats were examined by a virus neutralization test and by reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs. Results and discussion: EBLV neutralizing antibodies were detected in 14 Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii, all trapped in Skåne or Småland (south and southeast of Sweden. The result was not unexpected since EBLV has been shown to be present in many neighboring countries, for example, Denmark, Finland, Germany, and Norway. However, Sweden has been regarded free of rabies in terrestrial mammals since 1896. Although very rare, spillover of EBLV into other animals and humans have occurred, and the risk of EBLV infection to other species including humans should not be ignored. This is the first report of lyssavirus infection in Swedish bats.

  2. The use of plutonium in Swedish reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsstroem, H.

    1982-09-01

    The report deals with the utilization of plutonium in Swedish nuclear power plants. The plutonium content of the mixed oxide fuel will normally be 3-7 per cent. The processing of spent nuclear fuel will produce about 6 ton plutonium. The use of mixed oxide fuel in Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3 is discussed. The fuel cycle will start with the manufacturing of the fuel elements abroad and proceeds with transport and utilization, storing of spent fuel about 40 years in Sweden followed by direct disposal. The manufacture and use of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is based on well-known techniques. Approximately 20 000 MOX fuel rods have been irradiated and the fuel is essentially equivalent to uranium oxide fuel. 30-50 per cent of the core may be composed of MOX-fuel without any effect on the operation and safety of the reactor which has been originally designed for uranium fuel. The evaluation of international fuel cycle (INFCE) states that the proliferation risks are very small. The recycling of plutonium will reduce demand for enriched uranium and the calculations show that 6.3 ton plutonium will replace the enrichment of 600 ton natural uranium. (G.B.)

  3. Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Johanna; Holmqvist Gattario, Kristina; Frisén, Ann

    2017-06-01

    The relatively high gender equality in the Swedish society is likely to exert an influence on gender role construction. Hence, the present research aimed to investigate Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms. A mixed methods approach with two studies was used. In Study 1, young Swedish women's gender role conformity, as measured by the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory 45 (CFNI-45), was compared to the results from previously published studies in Canada, the United States, and Slovakia. Overall, Swedish women displayed less conformity than their foreign counterparts, with the largest difference on the subscale Sexual fidelity. In Study 2, focus group interviews with young Swedish women added a more complex picture of feminine norms in the Swedish society. For instance the results indicated that Swedish women, while living in a society with a strong gender equality discourse, are torn between the perceived need to invest in their appearances and the risk of being viewed as non-equal when doing so. In sum, despite the fact that traditional gender roles are less pronounced in Sweden, gender role conformity is still a pressing issue. Since attending to the potential roles of feminine norms in women's lives previously has been proposed to be useful in counseling and therapeutic work, the present research also offers valuable information for both researchers and practitioners. [Correction added on 5 May 2017, after first online publication in April 2017: An incorrect Abstract was inadvertently captured in the published article and has been corrected in this current version.]. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Développement de la mémoire de travail et traitement des phrases complexes : Quelle relation ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauenfelder Ulrich

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La complexité syntaxique d’une phrase en langage oral peut se caractériser par le nombre et la nature des opérations syntaxiques nécessaires à son élaboration, et notamment par la profondeur de son enchâssement. Cette complexité influence l’âge d’acquisition des différentes structures syntaxiques, les énoncés les plus complexes étant maîtrisés plus tardivement par l’enfant. Certains auteurs attribuent cette acquisition de la syntaxe complexe à des contraintes développementales externes au système linguistique lui-même et notamment à des limitations dans les capacités de mémoire de travail (Jakubowicz, 2007. Ainsi, le traitement d’une phrase complexe engendrerait un coût cognitif important et constituerait une surcharge pour des capacités de mémoire de travail davantage limitées chez le jeune enfant. La maturation normale de ce système mnémonique permettrait ensuite à l’enfant de comprendre et de produire des énoncés de plus en plus complexes. La présente recherche a pour objectif d’éclaircir les liens entre le développement de la mémoire de travail et le traitement des phrases complexes chez l’enfant tout-venant âgé de 5 à 12 ans. Suivant le modèle de la mémoire de travail de Baddeley & Hitch (1986 et les travaux de Barrouillet & Camos (2001, 2007, nous avons appréhendé les compétences de la boucle phonologique via des épreuves d’empans simples (empan direct de chiffres, répétition de mots et de pseudo-mots et la mémoire de travail verbale via des tâches d’empans complexes (empan indirect de chiffres, counting span et running span. Les habiletés syntaxiques des enfants ont été évaluées en compréhension et en répétition d’énoncés complexes. Une analyse d’échantillons de langage spontané a enfin permis de récolter les données liées à l’utilisation de la syntaxe complexe en contexte écologique (LME, taux de subordination et taux d’enchâssement profond. Les

  5. Content and Phrasing in Titles of Original Research and Review Articles in 2015: Range of Practice in Four Clinical Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ellen Kerans

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Reporting guidelines for clinical research designs emerged in the mid-1990s and have influenced various aspects of research articles, including titles, which have also been subject to changing uses with the growth of electronic database searching and efforts to reduce bias in literature searches. We aimed (1 to learn more about titles in clinical medicine today and (2 to develop an efficient, reliable way to study titles over time and on the fly—for quick application by authors, manuscript editors, translators and instructors. We compared content and form in titles from two general medical journals—the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM and the British Medical Journal—and two anesthesiology journals (the European Journal of Anaesthesiology and Anesthesiology; we also analyzed the inter-rater reliability of our coding. Significant content differences were found in the frequencies of mentions of methods, results (between general and subspecialty titles, and geographic setting; phrasing differences were found in the prevalence of full-sentence and compound titles (and their punctuation. NEJM titles were significantly shorter, and this journal differed consistently on several features. We conclude that authors must learn to efficiently survey titles for form and content patterns when preparing manuscripts to submit to unfamiliar journals or on resubmitting to a new journal after rejection.

  6. Deregulation and internationalisation - impact on the Swedish nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haukeland, Sverre R.

    2010-01-01

    The deregulation of the Swedish electricity market in 1996 was well known in advance, and the nuclear power plants in Sweden, as well as their main suppliers, made early preparations for a this new situation. In a study - performed by the author at Malardalen University in Sweden - it is concluded that the electricity industry, including the nuclear power plants, was fundamentally transformed in conjunction with market liberalisation. Two large foreign companies, E-on and Fortum, entered the Swedish market and became part-owners of the nuclear plants. After deregulation, the electricity market in Sweden is dominated by these two companies and the large national company Vattenfall. Similarly, Vattenfall has recently grown into an international energy company, acquiring generation capacity in Northern Europe outside of Sweden, including nuclear power plants in Germany. Restructuring of the nuclear industry on the supplier side started in the 1980's, when the Swedish company ASEA and BBC of Switzerland merged to become ABB. Several years later the Swedish nuclear plant supplier ABB-Atom became part of Westinghouse Electric Company, today owned by Toshiba. The Swedish experience thus confirms an international trend of mergers and consolidation in the nuclear industry. (authors)

  7. Demonstration and Dialogue: Mediation in Swedish Nuclear Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, Mark; Lidberg, Maria; Soneryd, Linda; Sundqvist, Goeran

    2009-01-01

    This report analyses mediation and mediators in Swedish nuclear waste management. Mediation is about establishing agreement and building common knowledge. It is argued that demonstrations and dialogue are the two prominent approaches to mediation in Swedish nuclear waste management. Mediation through demonstration is about showing, displaying, and pointing out a path to safe disposal for inspection. It implies a strict division between demonstrator and audience. Mediation through dialogue on the other hand, is about collective acknowledgements of uncertainty and suspensions of judgement creating room for broader discussion. In Sweden, it is the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) that is tasked with finding a method and a site for the final disposal of the nation's nuclear waste. Two different legislative frameworks cover this process. In accordance with the Act on Nuclear Activities, SKB is required to demonstrate the safety of its planned nuclear waste management system to the government, while in respect of the Swedish Environmental Code, they are obliged to organize consultations with the public. How SKB combines these requirements is the main question under investigation in this report in relation to materials deriving from three empirical settings: 1) SKB's safety analyses, 2) SKB's public consultation activities and 3) the 'dialogue projects', initiated by other actors than SKB broadening the public arena for discussion. In conclusion, an attempt is made to characterise the long- term interplay of demonstration and dialogue in Swedish nuclear waste management

  8. Comparison of U.S. and Swedish calculation economic transition points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, P.S.; Parker, M.B.; Omberg, R.P.

    1979-03-01

    This paper was prepared in response to the view of the Swedish delegation that the U.S. calculation of the economic transitions was in error. The report analyzed the principle differences between the U.S. approach and Swedish approach and concluded that the Swedish results can be reproduced using the U.S. method and Swedish data. Conversely, the U.S. results should be reproducible by Sweden

  9. A Dip into the World of Particles for Swedish Teachers

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    For three full days, forty-one Swedish secondary school physics teachers were introduced to the rudiments of the particle physics. This series of courses is celebrating its tenth anniversary. The Swedish teachers followed lectures, visited CERN experiments... ... and analysed the latest DELPHI data. 'I am sure that, as in previous years, many of these teachers will return to CERN with their students. It is an excellent way of encouraging young people to orient themselves towards physics.' Staffan Hörnberg, Vice President of the International Centre for Education and Development, is enthusiastic about the repercussions of the teaching programme for Swedish teachers that he organises with CERN physicist, Richard Jacobsson. For the tenth consecutive year, this series of introductory courses to particle physics was a success. Forty-one teachers came from schools all over Sweden to take part in lectures and visits on the theme of particle physics, its methods of investigation, and its applications. San...

  10. Comparing Danish and Swedish versions of PISA scientific literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serder, Malmø University, Margareta; Sørensen, Helene

    This paper presents a comparison between the Swedish, Danish, English, and French versions of three scientific literacy test-units from the released PISA items 2006. More specifically it compares how different words and concepts have been translated in the Swedish and Danish tests, compared...... to the English and French original versions. Differences that occur as a result of the translation process concerning words’ meaning are demonstrated. The possible consequences of such differences are exemplified by an excerpt from a situation in which Swedish 15-year-old students collaboratively worked...... with these three PISA units. In the paper we claim that in spite of detailed and strongly controlled methods for achieving translations of high standard used by the PISA, important and perhaps even decisive, differences between the four versions exist....

  11. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The total production of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 65.6 TWh during 2002, which is a decrease compared to 2001. The energy capability factor for the 11 Swedish reactors averaged 80.8%. The PWRs at Ringhals averaged 87.6%, while the BWRs, not counting Oskarshamn 1, reached 89.2%. No events, which in accordance to conventions should be reported to IAEA, have occurred during 2002. Operational statistics are presented for each Swedish reactor. The hydroelectric power was 66 TWh, 16% lower than 2000. Wind power contributed 0.5 TWh, and remaining production sources, mainly from solid fuel plants combined with district heating, contributed 10.9 TWh. The electricity generation totalled 143 TWh, considerably less than the record high 2001 figure of 158.7 TWh. The preliminary figures for export were 14.8 TWh and and for import 20.1 TWh.

  12. Swedish Art Song: A Singer's Handbook to Diction and Repertoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, Anna Christine

    2012-01-01

    This essay is a guide to Swedish lyric diction for American singers. An overview of the linguistic traits and basic grammar of the Swedish language prepares the reader for a detailed description of Swedish phonemes and their occurrence in the language. Differences in pronunciation conventions as they pertain to classical singing, particularly the…

  13. Pengaruh Swedish Massage Therapy terhadap Tingkat Kualitas Hidup Penderita Leukemia Usia Sekolah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Umu Kulsum

    2017-08-01

    Hasil penelitian menggambarkan terdapat perbedaan kualitas hidup pada kelompok intervensi sebelum dan sesudah dilakukan swedish massage therapy (p = 0,000 pada α = 5. Hasil penelitian merekomendasikan bahwa swedish massage therapy bisa dipakai sebagai metode alternatif dalam meningkatkan kualitas hidup penderita leukemia usia sekolah. Kata kunci: Kualitas hidup, leukemia, swedish massage therapy.

  14. Radiocaesium in Swedish reindeer after the Chernobyl accident. Progress report to the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aahman, B.

    1997-09-01

    The level of 137 CS in freely grazing reindeer, and thus in reindeer pasture, continue to decrease, with an average T ef at 3.9 years from 1986/87 (the first year after the Chernobyl fallout) to 1996/97. The decline was more rapid during the first five years after the fallout than during the following five years. This, together with a tendency to a relatively slow decline in areas with mainly old fallout (from the nuclear weapon tests) indicate that radiocesium become more fixed in reindeer pasture with time. As a combined effect of the general decline and of different countermeasures, the transfer of radiocaesium via reindeer meat and the corresponding radiation dose to humans has been reduced with time. By different countermeasures, the total collective dose to the Swedish population, over a 10-year period following the Chernobyl accident, has been reduced with 676 manSv at a cost of 489 million SEK

  15. AN OVERVIEW OF SWEDISH RESEARCH ON IMPACT ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    CHARLOTTA FAITH-ELL

    2015-01-01

    This statement aims at giving an overview of the research on impact assessment in Sweden. It takes a point of departure at the introduction of impact assessment in 1991 describing the Swedish research until today. Since the introduction of EIA in the Swedish legislation in the 1990s, a large number of PhD dissertations have been dealing with various aspects of impact assessment. An estimation based on the literature search is that about 20 PhD theses, in which the core of the research is rela...

  16. The Medieval Swedish Horror Ballad in the Romantic Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhr, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    In the late 18th century the Horror Ballad became popular in Sweden. The rediscovery of medieval tales and ballads inspired the Romantic authors. Clas Livijn uses the medieval folksong of "Hafsfrun" in his dramatic play of the same title (1806). In Livijn’s own library we also find many......” by Baggesen, in turn based on German and English sources. Anna Maria Lenngren followed with several ballads, often based on Danish sources. One more purely Swedish medieval ballad is “Varulven”. From 1810 unto 1971 thirteen versions of this Swedish ballad was discovered and printed. I place the focus...

  17. Acid-base status and changes in Swedish forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karltun, Erik; Stendahl, Johan; Lundin, Lars

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we use data from the Swedish National Survey of Forest Soils and Vegetation (NSFSV) to evaluate the present acid-base status of forest soils to try to answer the following questions. Which role do anthropogenic and biological acidification play for the present acid-base status of the soil profile? What is the present acid-base status of Swedish forest soils and how large areas may be considered as severely acidified? Do the current tendencies in soil acid-base status correspond with the positive development in surface waters?

  18. Classification Technique of Interviewer-Bot Result using Naïve Bayes and Phrase Reinforcement Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moechammad Sarosa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Students with hectic college schedules tend not to have enough time repeating the course material. Meanwhile, after they graduated, to be accepted in a foreign company with a higher salary, they must be ready for the English-based interview. To meet these needs, they try to practice conversing with someone who is proficient in English. On the other hand, it is not easy to have someone who is not only proficient in English, but also understand about a job interview related topics. This paper presents the development of a machine which is able to provide practice on English-based interviews, specifically on job interviews. Interviewer machine (interviewer bot is expected to help students practice on speaking English in particular issue of finding suitable job. The interviewer machine design uses words from a chat bot database named ALICE to mimic human intelligence that can be applied to a search engine using AIML. Naïve Bayes algorithm is used to classify the interview results into three categories: POTENTIAL, TALENT and INTEREST students. Furthermore, based on the classification result, the summary is made at the end of the interview session by using phrase reinforcement algorithms. By using this bot, students are expected to practice their listening and speaking skills, also to be familiar with the questions often asked in job interviews so that they can prepare the proper answers. In addition, the bot’ users could know their potential, talent and interest in finding a job, so they could apply to the appropriate companies. Based on the validation results of 50 respondents, the accuracy degree of interviewer chat-bot (interviewer engine response obtained 86.93%.

  19. The Noun Phrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    of modifier categories. He introduces the notion of Seinsart or ‘mode of being’ as the nominal counterpart of Aktionsart or ‘mode of action’ in lexical verb semantics. He furthermore proposes a new grammatical category of nominal aspect (cf. verbal aspect) and an implicational universal concerning...

  20. Barriers to Business Model Innovation in Swedish Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Sivertsson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Swedish agricultural companies, especially small farms, are struggling to be profitable in difficult economic times. It is a challenge for Swedish farmers to compete with imported products on prices. The agricultural industry, however, supports the view that through business model innovation, farms can increase their competitive advantage. This paper identifies and describes some of the barriers Swedish small farms encounter when they consider business model innovation. A qualitative approach is used in the study. Agriculture business consultants were interviewed. In a focus group led by the researchers, farmers discussed business model innovation, including the exogenous and endogenous barriers to such innovation. The paper concludes many barriers exist when farmers consider innovation of agricultural business models. Some barriers are caused by human factors, such as individuals’ attitudes, histories, and traditions. Other barriers are more contextual in nature and relate to a particular industry or company setting. Still other barriers, such as government regulations, value chain position, and weather, are more abstract. All barriers, however, merit attention when Swedish agricultural companies develop new business models.

  1. Politics, pleasure, violence: Swedish defence propaganda in social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferrada Stoehrel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Swedish Armed Forces have produced and distributed highly edited video clips on YouTube that show moving images of military activity. Alongside this development, mobile phone apps have emerged as an important channel through which the user can experience and take an interactive part in the staging of contemporary armed conflict. This article examines the way in which the aesthetic and affective experience of Swedish defence and security policy is socially and (media-culturally (co-constructed and how the official representation of Swedish military intervention (reproduces political and economic effects when these activities are distributed through traditional and social media such as YouTube and digital apps. Based on Isabela and Norman Fairclough’s thoughts on political discourse, Michel Foucault’s dialectic idea of power/knowledge, and Sara Ahmed’s concept of the affective, I discuss how the Swedish digital military aesthetic is part of a broader political and economic practice which has consequences beyond the digital, the semiotic and what might at first glance appear to be pure entertainment. 

  2. Politics, pleasure, violence: Swedish defence propaganda in social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferrada Stoehrel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Swedish Armed Forces have produced and distributed highly edited video clips on YouTube that show moving images of military activity. Along- side this development, mobile phone apps have emerged as an important channel through which the user can experience and take an interactive part in the staging of contemporary armed conflict. This article examines the way in which the aes- thetic and affective experience of Swedish defence and security policy is socially and (media-culturally (co-constructed and how the official representation of Swedish military intervention (reproduces political and economic effects when these activi- ties are distributed through traditional and social media such as YouTube and digital apps. Based on Isabela and Norman Fairclough’s thoughts on political discourse, Michel Foucault’s dialectic idea of power/knowledge, and Sara Ahmed’s concept of the affective, I discuss how the Swedish digital military aesthetic is part of a broader political and economic practice that has consequences beyond the digital, the semi- otic, and what might at first glance appear to be pure entertainment.

  3. The Nigerian, Swedish and Chilean Pension Systems: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    the concern for the long-term financial viability of existing government operated pension ... Thus, this study comparatively evaluates the Nigerian, Swedish and Chilean pension ... Keywords: Demographic crisis, Pension reform, Public policy .... care which employers owe their employees on retirement or in case of death.

  4. Saving Swedish energy policy: the intelligence of public participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefstedt, R.E.

    1992-04-01

    Problems of future Swedish energy are considered in relation to the nuclear power phase-out, the 1988 Toronto carbon dioxide agreement, environmental issues of hydroelectricity, energy conservations, renewable sources and imports from abroad. Particular emphasis is on public opinion. (Quittner)

  5. Focal F0 peak shape and sentence mode in Swedish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert; Buanzur, Tuarik C.; Niebuhr, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Shape characteristics of rising-falling accentual F0 peaks of Stockholm Swedish Accent I words in narrow focus are studied in a corpus of 287 read sentences. The corpus includes statements and three types of polar questions. Results reveal a clear effect of sentence mode on the shape of the accen...

  6. Classification of Swedish Learner Essays by CEFR Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodina, Elena; Pilán, Ildikó; Alfter, David

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes initial efforts on creating a system for the automatic assessment of Swedish second language (L2) learner essays from two points of view: holistic evaluation of the reached level according to the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR), and the lexical analysis of texts for receptive and productive vocabulary per CEFR…

  7. Burnout and physical and mental health among Swedish healthcare workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterson, U.; Demerouti, E.; Bergström, G.; Samuelsson, M.; Asberg, M.; Nygren, A.

    2008-01-01

    Title. Burnout and physical and mental health among Swedish healthcare workers Aim. This paper is a report of a study to investigate how burnout relates to self-reported physical and mental health, sleep disturbance, memory and lifestyle factors. Background. Previous research on the possible

  8. Perception of Parental Acceptance and Rejection among Swedish University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Michio

    1987-01-01

    Results of administering the Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Personality Assessment Questionnaires to 71 Swedish university students showed significant relationships between various forms of parental rejection in childhood and negative personality assessment of the self as an adult. Females showed more dependence and emotional instability than…

  9. A Perspective on Diversity, Equality and Equity in Swedish Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Olof; Davis, Anna; Geijer, Luule

    2007-01-01

    This study presents policy and theory as they apply to diversity, equality and equity in Swedish social and educational policy. All education in Sweden should, according to the curriculum (Lpo 94, 1994, p. 5) be of equivalent value, irrespective of where in the country it is provided and education should be adapted to each pupil's circumstances…

  10. Silencing of Voices in a Swedish Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos de Robles, S. Lizette

    2018-01-01

    From a sociocultural perspective, I discuss data from a Swedish science classroom presented in María Gómez's article "Student Explanations of their Science Teachers' Assessments, Grading Practices, and How they learn Science". In this discussion, I focus on the need to change existing conceptions of assessment in the teaching and…

  11. Quarterly report of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The inspectorate is reporting on the departures of the nuclear power plants from normal operations. No safety incidents of importance occurred during the 4th quarter 1983. There have been 12 reactor trips for the 10 power units, 9 of those occurred on Dec. 27th, when the Southern Swedish power grid tripped.(P.Aa.)

  12. The perception of aquaculture on the Swedish West Coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste E.; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Risén, Emma

    2018-01-01

    Efforts are on the way on the Swedish West Coast to develop the capacity for cultivation of marine resources, notably of kelps. Given that this is a region of great natural and national heritage, public opposition to marine developments has been identified as a possible risk factor. This survey...

  13. The Nigerian, Swedish and Chilean Pension Systems: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian, Swedish and Chilean Pension Systems: A Comparative Analysis of Schemes and Reforms. ... Ethiopian Journal of Economics ... While Chile and Nigeria completely moved from a defined benefit system to a defined contribution system, Sweden chose a “hybrid”, a model which has received wide acclaim by ...

  14. Effective Mathematics Teaching in Finnish and Swedish Teacher Education Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmi, Kirsti; Ryve, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article explores effective mathematics teaching as constructed in Finnish and Swedish teacher educators' discourses. Based on interview data from teacher educators as well as data from feedback discussions between teacher educators and prospective teachers in Sweden and Finland, the analysis shows that several aspects of the recent…

  15. Self-medication with antibiotics in a Swedish general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, E; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM; Lundborg, CS

    To assess the extent of antibiotic self-medication in a Swedish population, a postal questionnaire was distributed to 1000 randomly selected subjects. The antibiotics used were in all but 3 cases reported to have been obtained with a prescription. Thus, prescribers are the primary target for

  16. Working with Gender Pedagogics at 14 Swedish Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Margareta; Stier, Jonas; Sandberg, Anette

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, gender pedagogics has been on the political agenda the last decade. Consequently, gender matters have been given much attention in Swedish preschools, and specialized pedagogues have also been trained to counteract socially constructed gender distinctions. Therefore, we have explored the enactment of gender pedagogics. We asked 17…

  17. Swedish Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (SAAQ): a psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Tobias; Parling, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Psychological inflexibility and experiential avoidance are equivalent (with somewhat different connotations) concepts and refer to an unwillingness to remain in contact with particular private events. This concept is most often measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II) and is strongly related to psychopathology and behavioral effectiveness. In this study, the preliminary psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the AAQ-II (Swedish Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-SAAQ) are presented. The study is done in two steps. In the first step, the 10-item version of the AAQ-II is investigated through principal component analysis (n = 147). Secondly, due to problems with the component structure, the instrument is reduced to a six-item version and its validity and internal consistency are investigated (n = 154). The six-item version shows good concurrent and convergent validity as well as satisfying internal consistency (α = .85). Furthermore, the Swedish six-item version of the AAQ-II showed one strong component. Test-retest reliability was satisfactory (r = .80; n = 228). In future research, predictive and external validity would be important to investigate in order to further ensure that the SAAQ is a useful measure for clinical research. In conclusion, the SAAQ has satisfactory psychometric properties, but more data need to be gathered to further explore the possibilities for the instruments in Swedish contexts.

  18. The perception of aquaculture on the Swedish West Coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste E.; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Risén, Emma

    2017-01-01

    neutral responses. On the whole, respondents were favourable to the depicted scenario. Finally, it was found that the high-awareness group tended to be more supportive than the low or medium-awareness groups, hinting at the benefits of increasing awareness to reduce public aversion and to support...... a sustainable development of aquaculture on the Swedish West Coast....

  19. Swedish Preschool Leadership--Supportive of Music or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This study uses observations and interviews to investigate how the leadership at three Swedish preschools in Sweden has impacted the didactic choices made. Two of these preschools use music as a tool for stimulating language and social development, while the third preschool serves as a comparison. The inspiration that the leadership has brought to…

  20. Swedish experiences in implementing national and international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, A.; Elborn, M.; Grahn, P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that international safeguards have been applied in Sweden since the early 70s. Experiences have been achieved from exclusive bilateral and trilateral control followed by NPT safeguards in 1975. The Swedish State System for accountancy and Control (SSAC) includes all regulations that follows from prevailing obligations regarding the peaceful uses of nuclear material. The system has been developed in cooperation between the national authority, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and the Swedish nuclear industry. The paper presents experiences from the practical implementation of the SSAC and the IAEA safeguards system, gained by the SKI and the nuclear industry, respectively. Joint approaches and solutions to some significant safeguards issues are presented. The cooperation between the nuclear industry and the authority in R and D activities, in particular with respect to the Swedish Support Program is highlighted, e.g. the use of nuclear facilities in development or training tasks. some of the difficulties encountered with the system are also touched upon

  1. Mentally disordered criminal offenders in the Swedish criminal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svennerlind, Christer; Nilsson, Thomas; Kerekes, Nóra; Andiné, Peter; Lagerkvist, Margareta; Forsman, Anders; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Malmgren, Helge

    2010-01-01

    Historically, the Swedish criminal justice system conformed to other Western penal law systems, exempting severely mentally disordered offenders considered to be unaccountable. However, in 1965 Sweden enforced a radical penal law abolishing exceptions based on unaccountability. Mentally disordered offenders have since then been subjected to various forms of sanctions motivated by the offender's need for care and aimed at general prevention. Until 2008, a prison sentence was not allowed for offenders found to have committed a crime under the influence of a severe mental disorder, leaving forensic psychiatric care the most common sanction in this group. Such offenders are nevertheless held criminally responsible, liable for damages, and encumbered with a criminal record. In most cases, such offenders must not be discharged without the approval of an administrative court. Two essentially modern principles may be discerned behind the "Swedish model": first, an attempted abolishment of moral responsibility, omitting concepts such as guilt, accountability, atonement, and retribution, and, second, the integration of psychiatric care into the societal reaction and control systems. The model has been much criticized, and several governmental committees have suggested a re-introduction of a system involving the concept of accountability. This review describes the Swedish special criminal justice provisions on mentally disordered offenders including the legislative changes in 1965 along with current proposals to return to a pre-1965 system, presents current Swedish forensic psychiatric practice and research, and discusses some of the ethical, political, and metaphysical presumptions that underlie the current system. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing Mathematical Competencies: An Analysis of Swedish National Mathematics Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesen, Jesper; Lithner, Johan; Palm, Torulf

    2018-01-01

    Internationally, education reform has been directed towards describing educational goals that go beyond topic and content descriptions. The idea of mathematical competencies describes such goals. National tests have been seen as one way of communicating these goals and influence teaching. The present study analyses Swedish national tests in…

  3. A Swedish Mutual Support Society of Problem Gamblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binde, Per

    2012-01-01

    Mutual support societies for problem gamblers have existed in Sweden for 20 years. They have helped more people with gambling problems than any other institution inside or outside the Swedish health care system. This paper outlines the background of these societies and describes the meetings of one of them. Data come from interviews with members…

  4. Swedish Schools and Gender Equality in the 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, as in many countries before Sweden, boys' academic achievements are getting considerable attention as the big gender issue. The Swedish gender equality policy that was put on the agenda in the 1970s is now associated with extreme discussions. This study aims to explore how gender equality was discussed in the 1970s, in connection with…

  5. Management by Objectives: The Swedish Experience in Upper Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Erik; Wilson, Timothy L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore how managing by objectives (MBO) has been adopted in Swedish schools and to reflect on some of the consequences in a longitudinal study. Results relate to whether introduction has increased student performance and whether it works as a tool for the principals to create more effective schools.…

  6. Syllable reduction and articulation rates in Danish, Norwegian and Swedish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilton, N.H.; Schüppert, Anja; Gooskens, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation compares articulation rates of phonological and phonetic syllables in Norwegian, Swedish and Danish to investigate differences in degrees of syllable deletion (reduction) among these three languages. For the investigation two sets of data are used: one consisting of recorded

  7. The Discovery of the Social Life of Swedish Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This article demonstrates the "discovery of the social life of schoolchildren" by showing how an interest for children's peer relations emerged in a Swedish educational and medial context. Drawing on historical and sociological childhood studies, the article analyses the concept of schoolchildren's social life in the 1950s, 1960s and…

  8. Breaking bad habits by education - smoking dynamics among Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellsson, Gustav; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus

    2011-07-01

    In a dynamic Two-Part Model (2 PM), we find the effect of previous smoking on the participation decision to be decreasing with education among Swedish women, i.e. more educated are less state dependent. However, we do not find an analogous effect of education on the conditional intensity of consumption. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. galenicals in modern medicine: focus on swedish bitters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Galenicals were very popular in clinical medicine till late 1960s at which time the pharmaceutical industry revolutionized drug research and production. Almost four decades later, old but useful galenicals such as SWEDISH BITTERS® have been rediscovered and registered in conformity with Food and Drug Administration ...

  10. Exploring the Phenomenology of Whiteness in a Swedish Preschool Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Eva; Lindqvist, Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    This article explores how constructions of identity, race and difference permeate and are challenged in a Swedish preschool class. The study is informed by theories of phenomenology and critical whiteness. Data are drawn from a larger ethnographic study conducted in an ethnically diverse preschool. The purpose of the study was to explore how…

  11. Releases of radioactive substances from Swedish nuclear power plants (RAKU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingemansson, T.; Bergstroem, C. [ALARA Engineering AB, Skultuna (Sweden)

    1997-04-01

    Releases of radioactivity to air and water from Swedish nuclear power plants have been studied and compared with those from foreign reactors. Averaged over the years from commissioning of the reactors to the last year data are available, the release of radioactive noble gas from the Swedish BWRs has been about the same as from comparable foreign reactors. The oldest Swedish BWRs, Oskarshamn 1 and 2 (O1 and O2) and Ringhals 1 (R1), have simple off-gas systems with only one delay volume. All BWRs in US, Germany, Japan and Switzerland are equipped with more sophisticated off-gas systems. It can be expected that O1, O2 and R1 therefore will have the highest release of noble gas activity at an international comparison if they do not modernize their off-gas system. BWRs in US, Germany and Japan are today equipped with recombiners and with one exception also charcoal columns. Japanese BWRs report zero releases to air. Releases of radioactivity to water after commissioning was about the same for most of the studied reactors. Some of the newest German plants have had low annual releases already at commissioning. Improvements of the treatment systems at old German, Swiss and US reactors have significantly lowered the releases. For most of the Swedish plants the annual releases to water have remained at the initial level. Forsmark 3 has succeeded in decreasing the release of radionuclides to water by a factor of almost one hundred compared to other Swedish reactors. Also O3 has managed to decrease the liquid effluents. Japanese plants have zero release of radioactivity excluding tritium to water. The release of tritium is about the same for all reactors of the same type in the world. 35 refs, 31 figs, 24 tabs.

  12. Swedish snus and the GothiaTek® standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ringberger Tommy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Some smokeless tobacco products, such as Swedish snus, are today considered to be associated with substantially fewer health hazards than cigarettes. This risk differential has contributed to the scientific debate about the possibilities of harm reduction within the tobacco area. Although current manufacturing methods for snus build on those that were introduced more than a century ago, the low levels of unwanted substances in modern Swedish snus are largely due to improvements in production techniques and selection of raw materials in combination with several programs for quality assurance and quality control. These measures have been successively introduced during the past 30-40 years. In the late 1990s they formed the basis for a voluntary quality standard for Swedish snus named GothiaTek®. In recent years the standard has been accepted by the members of the trade organization European Smokeless Tobacco Council (ESTOC so it has now evolved into an industrial standard for all smokeless tobacco products in Europe. The initial impetus for the mentioned changes of the production was quality problems related to microbial activity and formation of ammonia and nitrite in the finished products. Other contributing factors were that snus came under the jurisdiction of the Swedish Food Act in 1971, and concerns that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s about health effects of tobacco, and the significance of agrochemical residues and other potential toxicants in food stuffs. This paper summarizes the historical development of the manufacture of Swedish snus, describes the chemical composition of modern snus, and gives the background and rationale for the GothiaTek® standard, including the selection of constituents for which the standard sets limits. The paper also discusses the potential future of this voluntary standard in relation to current discussions about tobacco harm reduction and regulatory science in tobacco control.

  13. Stakeholder Involvement in Swedish Nuclear Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran

    2006-01-01

    investigations may change. A different understanding of what should be subject to stakeholder involvement is now on the table, but how exactly this will influence the process is still too early to say. The group most visible so far, the Swedish NGO Office for Nuclear Waste Review (MKG), has published, however, a thorough review of SKB's RandD programme from 2004. In this it is obvious that the Group wants to focus on a more strict assessment of a proposed final repository in relation to the requirements stated in the Environmental Code, that the suitability of a site should be determined by its ability to protect human health and the environment, which places substantial demands upon the site chosen. Moreover, according the Code the best available technology should be used and alternative technology presented. According to MKG, SKB are not fulfilling these requirements in respect of the Environmental Code. The KBS method as well as the two sites in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar are not chosen in relation to these requirements (MKG 2005). MKG, therefore, seems unwilling to proceed on the assumption that a final repository should be sited in either Oesthammar or Oskarshamn, without detailed comparisons with other sites being carried out. In this paper we have tried to show the changing patterns of stakeholder involvement, and also that the current pattern, often mentioned as stable, is not naturally given. Many uncertainties could be listed, but what we know for sure is that the nature of stakeholder involvement at any moment in time always remains contingent and fluid. Who the major and minor stakeholders are; which opportunities they have to act, and on what issues are continually shifting matters. While things can appear to be proceeding in a relatively orderly step-by-step fashion, the reality of stakeholder involvement is that things are continually on the verge of turning out otherwise

  14. Phrases sans parole : à propos d'une histoire d'amour du XXe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patron Sylvie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article porte sur les relations entre récit (plus précisément narration et fiction dans une nouvelle de Mario Benedetti, "Cinq ans de vie", extraite des Histoires de Paris. Son cadre de référence théorique est la théorie non communicationnelle ou théorie poétique de la narration de S.-Y. Kuroda et Ann Banfield. Dans la première partie, je présente brièvement la théorie pour pouvoir déterminer ensuite ses modalités d"application à la nouvelle de Benedetti (nouvelle "fantastique", selon le terme de l'auteur, "transfictionnelle" selon la terminologie contemporaine. La théorie peut se résumer dans les huit propositions suivantes: (1 Les théories communicationnelles du récit, basées sur les concepts de narrateur et de narrataire, réels ou fictionnels, ne peuvent rendre compte que d’une sous-catégorie de récits de fiction ; (2 Il existe des récits de fiction avec narrateur (sous-entendu fictionnel et des récits de fiction sans narrateur. (3 Le narrateur omniscient est, dans la plupart des cas, une explication ad hoc. (4 Il convient de distinguer clairement ce qui relève du contenu de la représentation fictionnelle et ce qui relève des moyens mobilisés au service de la construction de cette représentation ; (5 Le récit de fiction moderne à la troisième personne peut être considéré comme une collection structurée d’informations, les unes sans origine assignable dans le monde de la fiction, les autres provenant d’un ou de plusieurs sujets de conscience appartenant au monde de la fiction ; (6 La lecture d’un récit de fiction moderne à la troisième personne implique que l’on reconnaisse les intentions de l’auteur relativement au caractère objectif ou subjectif des phrases ou des contextes. La deuxième partie propose une approche du dénouement de "Cinq ans de vie" selon le protocole défini par Kuroda et Banfield. Après avoir montré que la théorie pouvait prétendre à l'adéquation descriptive

  15. Electricity consumption and electricity saving in the Swedish households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstroem, B M; Eklund, Y; Sjoeberg, L

    1997-03-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine which factors influence electricity consumption behavior of Swedish households, the level of knowledge about electricity use and the willingness to pay for the use of electricity. In Sweden, as in many other developed countries, the need for electric power is constantly increasing. The major reason for this increase in electricity consumption is the lifestyle of a modern society. A feature in the nuclear power discussion is that the government in Sweden is having a hard time to establish how to phase-out all nuclear power plants by 2010. An additional major change in Swedish energy policy is the deregulation of the electricity market, which started in the beginning of 1996. There is an increased demand for strategies to save electricity among households. The results of this study stress the difficulties in reducing electricity consumption and to develop new electricity saving strategies in Sweden 125 refs, 6 figs, 21 tabs

  16. Challenges in Swedish hydropower – politics, economics and rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Ek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Two systems working in parallel have contributed to implementation difficulties in Swedish water governance. While the old system is designed to be predictable and stable over time, the new system is intended to be transparent and holistic, guided by the principles of Integrated Water Resource Management. The paper disentangles the challenges in Swedish water governance and proposes a blueprint for future research. The proposed research project is unique in the sense that it explores the imbalances between the new and the old water governance systems from a multi-disciplinary perspective, elaborating upon the clashes between the traditional, nationally based regulatory system and the new holistic water governance system from legal, political and economic perspectives.

  17. Swedish spent fuel management systems, facilities and operating experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, J.

    1998-01-01

    About 50% of the electricity in Sweden is generated by means of nuclear power from 12 LWR reactors located at four sites and with a total capacity of 10,000 MW. The four utilities have jointly created SKB, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, which has been given the mandate to manage the spent fuel and radioactive waste from its origin at the reactors to the final disposal. SKB has developed a system for the safe handling of all kinds of radioactive waste from the Swedish nuclear power plants. The keystones now in operation of this system are a transport system, a central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel (CLAB), a final repository for short-lived, low and intermediate level waste (SFR). The remaining, system components being planned are an encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and a deep repository for encapsulated spent fuel and other long-lived radioactive wastes. (author)

  18. Delegated Democracy. The Siting of Swedish Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Hanna Sofia (Stockholm Univ., SCORE, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-12-15

    This paper aims to characterise Swedish democracy in connection with the disposal of Swedish nuclear waste. To this end, an analysis is performed to discern which democratic ideals that can be found within the nuclear waste issue. The study analyses various actors' views on democracy and expertise as well as their definitions of the nuclear waste issue, and discusses this from the perspective of democracy theory. Which definitions that become influential has democratic implications. In addition, various actors' possible attempts to help or hinder other actors from gaining influence over the nuclear waste issue in the four municipalities are studied. In connection with the case studies the aim of the paper can be narrowed to comprise the following questions: Which democratic ideals can be found within SKB's siting process during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process during the site investigations? Which democratic ideals were influential during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process?

  19. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The total production of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 69.2 TWh during 2001, which is an increase of more than 25% compared to 2000. The hydroelectric power production increased to 78.3 TWh, 22% more than during a normal year, i.e. a year with average rainfall. Wind power contributed 0.5 TWh, and remaining production sources, mainly from solid fuel plants combined with district heating, contributed 9.6 TWh. The electricity generation totalled 157.6 TWh, the highest annual production to date. The preliminary figures for export were 18.5 TWh and and for import 11.1 TWh. Operational statistics are presented for each Swedish reactor. Two events, given INES level 1 rating, are reported from Barsebaeck 2 and Ringhals 2.

  20. How to interpret Swedish energy policy - Facts and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rising, Agneta; Bohl, Torsten; Wikdahl, Carl-Erik

    1998-01-01

    The Swedish parliament decided on June 10, 1997 that one of the two reactors at the Barsebaeck nuclear power plant shall be closed before mid 1998 and the other until three years later. Some weeks before the 1998 PIME Conference (on December 18) the same parliament is planning to accept a new act, which will make it possible for the government to close any reactor in the future without ay reference to the level of safety. Sweden is known 'internationally to have a successful nuclear power programme and to be in the front line to develop safe nuclear waste methods. The decision in the Swedish parliament therefore came as a surprise not only in Sweden but to a large part of the nuclear power industry, all over the world. Nuclear power accounts for half the power generated in Sweden. here are twelve nuclear power units with a net output of 10 000 MW and an annual energy generation capacity of more than 70 TWh. Nuclear production in Sweden has proved to be technically, economically and environmentally highly successful. ne capacity factors have normally been high, the production costs are low and so are the releases of radioactivity and doses to the personnel. All twelve nuclear units are still highly competitive generators on the deregulated Nordic electricity market and a fe time of at least 40 years is expected for a the nuclear units, as they are being modernised continuously. The estimated safety standard of all twelve units is among the highest in the world. A dynamic nuclear waste programme has been launched. Swedish waste management techniques have achieved world leadership in several important areas. The main part of the explanation can be found in the skilful political strategy of one or two political parties which have been advocating the premature phase-out of the nuclear power programme since the mid 70's. The anti- nuclear policy was introduced in the Swedish parliament already in the 1976 general election, when the Centre Party with a strong antinuclear

  1. The Swedish approach to spent fuel disposal - stepwise implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustaffson, B.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation describes the stepwise implementation of direct disposal of spent fuel in Sweden. The present status regarding the technical development of the Swedish concept will be discussed as well the local site work made in co-operation with the affected and concerned municipalities. In this respect it should be noted that the siting work in some cases has caused heavy opposition and negative opinions. A brief review will also be given regarding the Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory. The objectives of this laboratory as well as the ongoing demo-project will be discussed. In order to give the symposium organizer a more broad view of the Swedish programme a number of recent papers has been compiled. Theses papers will be summarized in the presentation. (author). 4 tabs., 22 figs

  2. The impact of children on divorce risks of Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, G

    1997-06-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of children on divorce risks in 1971-1994 for first-married Swedish women. This impact is examined using two measures of family composition, namely the number of children and the age of the youngest child, and we find an independent effect from each of these factors on the propensity to divorce. There is an additional impact of births prior to marriage on the subsequent divorce risk.... The general picture of Swedish divorce-risk trends shows a strong increase in 1974, mostly among childless women, in response to a reform of the divorce legislation. Since the beginning of the 1980s, the risks have increased steadily, mostly among mothers." (EXCERPT)

  3. Cancer risks in Swedish Lapps who breed reindeer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiklund, K.; Holm, L.E.; Eklund, G.

    1990-01-01

    Cancer risks during the period 1961-1984 were studied in a cohort of 2,034 Swedish reindeer-breeding Lapps, a unique group whose culture and life-style differ considerably from those in the rest of the Swedish population. A total of 100 cases of cancer were observed versus 163 expected. Statistically significantly decreased risks were found for cancers of the colon, respiratory organs, female breast, male genital organs, and kidneys, and for malignant lymphomas. The stomach was the only site with a significantly increased risk. Reindeer-breeding Lapps have ingested fallout products via the lichen-reindeer-man food chain since the 1950s. However, no increased risk was found for the cancer sites considered to be most sensitive to radiation

  4. Swedish REGULATORY APPROACH TO SAFETY Assessment AND SEVERE ACCIDENT MANAGEMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, W.; Sandervaag, O.

    1997-01-01

    The Swedish regulatory approach to safety assessment and severe accident management is briefly described. The safety assessment program, which focuses on prevention of incidents and accidents, has three main components: periodic safety reviews, probabilistic safety analysis, and analysis of postulated disturbances and accident progression sequences. Management and man-technology-organisation issues, as well as inspections, play a key role in safety assessment. Basis for severe accident management were established by the Government decisions in 1981 and 1986. By the end of 1988, the severe accident mitigation systems and emergency operating procedures were implemented at all Swedish reactors. The severe accident research has continued after 1988 for further verification of the protection provided by the systems and reduction of remaining uncertainties in risk dominant phenomena

  5. On genocide and the Holocaust in Swedish History teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Ammert

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Teaching about the Holocaust and other genocides is emphasized in Swedish History teaching. In Sweden there is a public authority commisioned to work with issues related to tolerance, democracy and human rights. It is this context and under these conditions, that Swedish History teachers select a variety of topics for their students to learn, as part of the History curriculum. In addition to the Holocaust, they teach about crimes against humanity committed under communist regimes, the genocide of Tutsies in Rwanda, and mass murder and ethnic cleansing in former Yugoslavia. Teachers use a multiplicity of uses of history and teaching methods. They conduct a scientific use of history when focusing on the historical contexts and explaining the background, motives and consequences of genocide. Teachers also stress the students’ personal reflections and standpoints in a moral use of history. The teaching aims at developing understanding and empathy among students.

  6. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The total production of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 69.2 TWh during 2001, which is an increase of more than 25% compared to 2000. The hydroelectric power production increased to 78.3 TWh, 22% more than during a normal year, i.e. a year with average rainfall. Wind power contributed 0.5 TWh, and remaining production sources, mainly from solid fuel plants combined with district heating, contributed 9.6 TWh. The electricity generation totalled 157.6 TWh, the highest annual production to date. The preliminary figures for export were 18.5 TWh and and for import 11.1 TWh. Operational statistics are presented for each Swedish reactor. Two events, given INES level 1 rating, are reported from Barsebaeck 2 and Ringhals 2

  7. Approaching safety in the Swedish and Danish construction industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grill, Martin; Grytnes, Regine; Törner, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    in accidents rates, especially in construction, and as such offer an opportunity to explore organizational and managerial issues related to safety outcomes. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with five construction managers and four construction workers in Danish and Swedish construction...... industry. The transcripts were analysed using semantic thematic analysis. Results: Seven safety related themes were distinguished, conveying safety culture differences between Swedish and Danish construction industry concerning: participatory or directive management; challenge or obey; compliance or non...... identifies seven factors perceived by the professionals as related to lower occupational accident rates in the construction industry. Engaging in participatory management, promoting long-term planning and long-term tenures, encouraging cooperation, cautiousness and compliance to rules as well as challenging...

  8. Site characterization activities at Stripa and other Swedish projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstroehm, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    The Swedish research programme concerning spent nuclear fuel disposal aims for submitting a siting license application around the year 2000. An important step towards that goal will be the detailed characterization of at least two potential sites in late 1990s. In preparation for such characterization several research projects are conducted. One is the international Stripa Project that includes a site characterization and validation project for a small size granite rock body. The Stripa work also includes further development of instrumentation and measurement techniques. Another project is the Finnsjoen Fracture Zone Project, which is characterizing a subhorizontal zone at depths from 100 to 350 meters. The third project is the new Swedish Hard Rock Laboratory planned at the site of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant. The preinvestigations and construction of this laboratory include major efforts in development, application and validation of site characterization methodology. (author) 6 figs., 9 refs

  9. Swedish CO2-emissions 1900-2010: an exploratory note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristroem, Bengt; Lundgren, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    This paper projects Swedish CO 2 -emissions during the period 2000-2010 based on data covering 1900-1999. Swedish climate policy is currently based on the assumption that carbon emissions will increase, ceteris paribus, by 5-15% relative to the 1990 level. This forecast has motivated a number of policy measures, including carbon taxes, subsidies and an 'information package'. We find, however, that CO 2 -emissions may well be lower in the future. This outcome is broadly consistent with the literature on the Environmental Kuznets Curve, which portrays the relationship between emissions and GDP. The key contribution of this paper is that our analysis is based on a long time series. Current literature is invariably based on 'short' panel data sets, while we study a single country through several phases of development. Our analysis also sheds some light on the key importance played by nuclear power for carbon emission projections

  10. Renovating the Commons: Swedish health care reforms in perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltman, Richard B; Bergman, Sven-Eric

    2005-01-01

    Recent reform experience in Sweden supports the premise that key dimensions of a country's health care system reflect the core social norms and values held by its citizenry. The fundamental structure of the Swedish health system has remained notably consistent over the past half century, that is, tax-based financing and publicly operated hospitals. Yet on other, nearly as important, parameters, there has been substantial change, for example, the persistent pursuit for thirty years of a stronger primary care framework and the effort to allow patient choice of doctor, health center, and hospital within the publicly operated system. This particular combination of continuity and change has occurred as traditional Swedish values of jamlikhet (equality) and trygghet (security) have been challenged in an environment shaped by an aging population, changing medical technology, and Sweden's integration into the European Single Market. This article explores the ongoing process of health system development in Sweden in the context of the country's broader social and cultural characteristics.

  11. Radon levels in the 1988 Swedish housing stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.; Mellander, H.; Mjoenes, L.

    1993-01-01

    Radon levels have been measured in about 1300 randomly selected Swedish dwellings as part of a nation-wide energy and indoor climate study, ELIB. The measurements were performed in the heating season 1991-92 with alpha track detectors using an integration time of three months. In single-family houses the weighted mean was 141 Bq/m 3 (78 Bq/m 3 geometric) for the living area; for multi-family houses the corresponding values were 75 and 40 Bq/m 3 . More than 5% of the single-family houses and 1% of the dwellings in multi-family houses had levels above the action level for existing houses - 400 Bq/m 3 . Since 1981 Swedish building regulations have included limits on radon in new houses. The investigation shows that radon levels in houses built after 1981 are significantly lower than those in houses built before 1981. (orig.). (6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.)

  12. Delegated Democracy. The Siting of Swedish Nuclear Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Hanna Sofia

    2009-12-01

    This paper aims to characterise Swedish democracy in connection with the disposal of Swedish nuclear waste. To this end, an analysis is performed to discern which democratic ideals that can be found within the nuclear waste issue. The study analyses various actors' views on democracy and expertise as well as their definitions of the nuclear waste issue, and discusses this from the perspective of democracy theory. Which definitions that become influential has democratic implications. In addition, various actors' possible attempts to help or hinder other actors from gaining influence over the nuclear waste issue in the four municipalities are studied. In connection with the case studies the aim of the paper can be narrowed to comprise the following questions: Which democratic ideals can be found within SKB's siting process during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process during the site investigations? Which democratic ideals were influential during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process?

  13. The stubborn peasant and the Frenchmen of the North : Swedish and Finnish ethnicity and national historical writing in Swedish and Finland-Swedish textbooks 1866-1939

    OpenAIRE

    Spjut, Lina

    2014-01-01

    Sweden and Finland were one country for more than 600 years and there are many remaining links between the two countries. Throughout the period, but even today there are Swedish and Finnish populations on both sides of the Gulf of Bothnia. When Russia conquered the Finnish part of the country in 1809, the state and its population were separated and the situations for the language groups changed and developed differently in Sweden and Finland. During the period studied in this thesis, 1866-193...

  14. Public Procurement and the Development of the Swedish Telecommunications Market

    OpenAIRE

    Lindskog, Helena

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes and analyses public procurement and its processes in general against the framework of industrial marketing and purchasing. In particular, it focuses on the public procurement of telecommunications (“telecom”) and its effects on the de-monopolization and development of the Swedish telecom market based on empirical material from three case studies, interviews and publicly available written sources. Public procurement is a significant part of any country’s economy. There is...

  15. Gendered small-business assistance : lessons from a Swedish project

    OpenAIRE

    Tillmar, Malin

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to deal with the design of small-business training programs and focuses on women business owners, their real needs and the supply of adequate training. How and to what extent are client selection and support needs influenced by the gender system? Design/methodology/approach – An in-depth study of an ambitious Swedish project is reported. Interviews with the participating business-owners and advisors, combined with observations during lectures and coachin...

  16. Evaluation of a Swedish version of the Strengthening Families Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skärstrand, Eva; Sundell, Knut; Andréasson, Sven

    2014-08-01

    Adolescents' alcohol consumption is a public health concern in Sweden as well as in many other countries. Underage drinking is associated with increased risks of alcohol-related injuries, risky sexual behaviours and dependence later in life. Different strategies have been used in the effort to prevent this behaviour, and to postpone the onset of alcohol. The Strengthening Families Programme 10-14 (SFP 10-14) from the USA has been highlighted as one of the more effective prevention programmes. The aim of the present article was to evaluate the effectiveness of a culturally adapted Swedish version of the SFP 10-14. This was a cluster randomized controlled trial including 587 sixth-grade students (age 12) and their parents in 19 elementary schools in Stockholm. Schools were randomly assigned to either control (9 schools, 216 students) or to the family skills training intervention (10 schools, 371 students). The SFP Swedish version consisted of two parts with seven and five sessions, respectively, held separately for youths and parents except two joint family sessions. Measures of students' self-reported episodes of drunkenness, smoking, illicit drug use and other norm-breaking behaviours were collected at baseline (March 2003) and at three subsequent yearly surveys. Data were analysed using multilevel models with an intention-to-treat approach. No preventive effects were found for smoking, alcohol and illicit drug use and other norm-breaking behaviours, nor did moderators affect the outcome. The Swedish version of the SFP 10-14 was not effective in preventing youths' substance use in a Swedish context. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  17. How Swedish communities organised themselves in reviewing a safety case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderblom, Anna-Lena

    2014-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In 2009 the Swedish nuclear waste management company, SKB, choose Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar as the best place for a repository for spent nuclear fuel. In 2011, as a natural follow-up, SKB presented applications to two Swedish authorities, the Land and Environmental Court and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority. The municipality of Oesthammar has together with the municipality of Oskarshamn been an active part in the process since 1994, with different local organisations financed by the Swedish nuclear fund. Three leading themes form the basis for our participation - voluntarism, complete openness of plans and results and participation with the possibility to influence. Site investigations for a repository started in 2002 and were finished when SKB selected Oesthammar municipality in the middle of 2009. To follow and scrutinise both site investigations as well as the applications, the organisation within the municipality has changed over time. As the site selection process got underway, the municipality extended its organisation to three committees (EIA, long-term safety and consultation). The committees have respective objectives: reviewing the health and environmental impact, reviewing the long-term safety and communication about the work that is going on within and around the municipality. These are primarily political committees to which a unit of civil servants is attached. The main goal for the organisation is to build up knowledge skills and prepare both the existing as well as the future municipality council for the decision of whether or not the municipality of Oesthammar will accept a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in our municipality. The absolutely most important issue for the municipality is long term-safety and as the process has progressed the municipality has made several statements to the authorities. (authors)

  18. Final report on the Swedish participation in PISC II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegberg, K.; Zettewall, T.

    1986-08-01

    The aim of the project is to evaluate the reliability of test methods for reactor pressure vessels and to identify the proper methods for defect control and to inform about the results. Four test plates planted defect have been investigated by 50 testing teams from 13 countries. Swedish testing has shown acceptable data for the detection of defects when using high sensitivity tests. (G.B.)

  19. Technology and costs for decommissioning of Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    The decommissioning study for the Swedish nuclear power plants has been carried out during 1992 to 1994 and the work has been led by a steering group consisting of people from the nuclear utilities and SKB. The study has been focused on two reference plants, Oskarshamn 3 and Ringhals 2. Oskarshamn 3 is a boiling water reactor (BWR) and Ringhals 2 is a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Subsequently, the result from these plants have been translated to the other Swedish plants. The study gives an account of the procedures, costs, waste quantities and occupational doses associated with decommissioning of the Swedish nuclear power plants. Dismantling is assumed to start immediately after removal of the spent fuel. No attempts at optimization, in terms of technology or costs, have been made. The nuclear power plant site is restored after decommissioning so that it can be released for use without restriction for other industrial activities. The study shows that a reactor can be dismantled in about five years, with an average labour force of about 150 persons. The maximum labour force required for Oskarshamn 3 has been estimated to about 300 persons. This peak load occurred the first years but is reduced to about 50 persons during the demolishing of the buildings. The cost of decommissioning Oskarshamn 3 has been estimated to be about MSEK 940 in January 1994 prices. The decommissioning of Ringhals 2 has been estimated to be MSEK 640. The costs for the other Swedish nuclear power plants lie in the range MSEK 590-960. 17 refs, 21 figs, 15 tabs.

  20. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    2004 was somewhat of a record year for the Swedish nuclear power stations. No serious faults occurred, and production exceeded previous record outputs. Total output from the eleven nuclear power units during the year amounted to 75 TWh, which is the largest amount of power ever produced by nuclear power in Sweden. Corresponding figures for earlier years are 59 TWh (2003), 65 TWh (2002) and 69 TWh (2001). An important reason for this excellent result was the very high energy availability. Forsmark 1, for example, exceeded 97 % availability, while Forsmark 2 just reached 97 %. For all the Swedish nuclear power stations as a whole, availability in 2004 amounted to 91 %. In addition to the connection between production and energy availability, there is also a connection with safety. During the year, safety in the Swedish power stations has been high, not only in absolute terms but also in an international perspective. One measure of safety is to be found in the number of accidents, incidents, anomalies or deviations reported to the IAEA on a scale known as the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). Sweden has undertaken to report all events in accordance with this international system. Three reports were submitted by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, which is responsible for national reporting, during the year. None of them had any significance for reactor safety: all were categorised as incidents or minor deviations from the regulations. Summarising, 2004 has been an excellent year for nuclear power safety, which is also reflected by the record electricity production during the year.

  1. Operational Experience from Swedish nuclear power plants 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A summary of two pages is given for each Swedish reactor with data on availability, scrams, radiation doses and important events during 1996. Special reports are presented on the following issues: Reactor core spray system inoperable at OKG-2, Containment pressure relief system incorrectly closed at Forsmark-1, Isolation condenser blocked for residual heat and continued operation with defective isolation valve at OKG-1; and Degraded pressure suppression function of the containment at Barsebaeck-2

  2. Identification of the Halloween Effect in Swedish Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, Oskar; Uddin, Md Rayhan

    2013-01-01

    Our thesis researches the Halloween effects in the Swedish stock market from a sector perspective. The notion Halloween effect refers to higher returns during the period November until April than the period May until October. The anomaly has been confirmed by previous researchers in Sweden among other countries. There has not been any definite explanation for this anomaly. The majority of explanations base on the assumption that the anomaly is a market wide and induced by changes in investmen...

  3. Phonaesthemes and sound symbolism in Swedish brand names

    OpenAIRE

    Abelin, Åsa

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of sound symbolism in Swedish brand names. A general principle of brand name design is that effective names should be distinctive, recognizable, easy to pronounce and meaningful. Much money is invested in designing powerful brand names, where the emotional impact of the names on consumers is also relevant and it is important to avoid negative connotations. Customers prefer brand names, which say something about the product, as this reduces product uncertaint...

  4. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    2004 was somewhat of a record year for the Swedish nuclear power stations. No serious faults occurred, and production exceeded previous record outputs. Total output from the eleven nuclear power units during the year amounted to 75 TWh, which is the largest amount of power ever produced by nuclear power in Sweden. Corresponding figures for earlier years are 59 TWh (2003), 65 TWh (2002) and 69 TWh (2001). An important reason for this excellent result was the very high energy availability. Forsmark 1, for example, exceeded 97 % availability, while Forsmark 2 just reached 97 %. For all the Swedish nuclear power stations as a whole, availability in 2004 amounted to 91 %. In addition to the connection between production and energy availability, there is also a connection with safety. During the year, safety in the Swedish power stations has been high, not only in absolute terms but also in an international perspective. One measure of safety is to be found in the number of accidents, incidents, anomalies or deviations reported to the IAEA on a scale known as the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). Sweden has undertaken to report all events in accordance with this international system. Three reports were submitted by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, which is responsible for national reporting, during the year. None of them had any significance for reactor safety: all were categorised as incidents or minor deviations from the regulations. Summarising, 2004 has been an excellent year for nuclear power safety, which is also reflected by the record electricity production during the year

  5. The impact of labour productivity on the Swedish construction industries

    OpenAIRE

    Forsberg, Azam

    2007-01-01

    There have been debates concerning what can be done about the current low labour productivity in the Swedish construction industries. High production cost in the construction industries has been a burning issue for a long time. On the other hand, process industries and organisations have taken the advantage of labour productivity measurement to reduce their production cost and eliminate non value-added activities. The purpose of this paper is to examine, why and how the process industries and...

  6. Summary of operational experience in Swedish nuclear power plants 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A summary of two pages for each Swedish reactor is given with availability, number of scrams, collective radiation doses and events for 1995. Special reports are presented on some specific issues: Bowed fuel assemblies at Ringhals, Incorrect opening pressure of the main safety valves at Ringhals, Measures to restore and upgrade safety at Oskarshamn 1, and the Decontamination of the reactor vessel at Oskarshamn 1. Figs

  7. Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstrand, S; Landner, L [Swedish Environmental Research Group (MFG)

    1998-03-01

    The aim of this report is to review available information on the fluxes of cadmium (Cd) to agricultural soils and crops in Sweden from phosphorus fertilizers (P-fertilizer) and other sources, and to discuss how the content of Cd in soil, crops and human food may be influenced by the specific environmental conditions in Sweden, as well as by the agricultural practices used in the country 62 refs, 15 figs, 18 tabs. With 5 page summary in Swedish

  8. Technology and costs for decommissioning of Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The decommissioning study for the Swedish nuclear power plants has been carried out during 1992 to 1994 and the work has been led by a steering group consisting of people from the nuclear utilities and SKB. The study has been focused on two reference plants, Oskarshamn 3 and Ringhals 2. Oskarshamn 3 is a boiling water reactor (BWR) and Ringhals 2 is a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Subsequently, the result from these plants have been translated to the other Swedish plants. The study gives an account of the procedures, costs, waste quantities and occupational doses associated with decommissioning of the Swedish nuclear power plants. Dismantling is assumed to start immediately after removal of the spent fuel. No attempts at optimization, in terms of technology or costs, have been made. The nuclear power plant site is restored after decommissioning so that it can be released for use without restriction for other industrial activities. The study shows that a reactor can be dismantled in about five years, with an average labour force of about 150 persons. The maximum labour force required for Oskarshamn 3 has been estimated to about 300 persons. This peak load occurred the first years but is reduced to about 50 persons during the demolishing of the buildings. The cost of decommissioning Oskarshamn 3 has been estimated to be about MSEK 940 in January 1994 prices. The decommissioning of Ringhals 2 has been estimated to be MSEK 640. The costs for the other Swedish nuclear power plants lie in the range MSEK 590-960. 17 refs, 21 figs, 15 tabs

  9. Pharmacist-patient communication in Swedish community pharmacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Erika; Ingman, Pontus; Ahmed, Ban

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is important that pharmacists counsel patients about their prescribed medicines, as it leads to improved therapeutic outcome, increases compliance, and decreases confusion and insecurity. Studies have shown that the number of patients getting any pharmaceutical counseling varies...... greatly. Swedish pharmacists claim that the focus of the dialog with the patient has switched from pharmaceutical counseling to economy and regulations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the content and time disposition of the patient-pharmacist communication during dispensing...

  10. Impacts of foreign direct investment on efficiency in Swedish manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedin, Dick; Stage, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have found that foreign direct investment (FDI) can have positive impacts on productivity. However, while FDI has clearly positive impacts on technology transfers, its effects on resource use within firms is less clear and, in principle, efficiency losses might offset some of the productivity gains associated with improved technologies. In this paper, we study the impacts of FDI on efficiency in Swedish manufacturing. We find that foreign ownership has positive impacts on efficiency, supporting the earlier findings on productivity.

  11. Swedish medical students' expectations of their future life.

    OpenAIRE

    Diderichsen, S.; Andersson, J.; Johansson, E.E.; Verdonk, P.; Lagro-Janssen, T.; Hamberg, K.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate future life expectations among male and female medical students in their first and final year. Methods: The study was cross-sectional and conducted at a Swedish medical school. Out of 600 invited students, 507 (85%) answered an open-ended question about their future life, 298 (59%) first-year students and 209 (41%) last-year students. Women constituted 60% of the respondents. A mixed model design was applied; qualitative content analysis was utilized to create stati...

  12. The Swedish Inheritance and Gift Taxation, 1885–2004

    OpenAIRE

    Henrekson, Magnus; Du Rietz, Gunnar; Waldenström, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the evolution of the modern Swedish inheritance taxation from its introduction in 1885 to its abolishment in 2004. A thorough description is offered of the basic principles of the tax, including underlying ideas and ambitions, tax schedules, and rules concerning valuation of assets, liability matters and deduction opportunities. Using these rules, we calculate inheritance tax rates for the whole period for a number of differently endowed family firms and individuals. The ov...

  13. Swedish Inheritance and Gift Taxation (1885–2004)

    OpenAIRE

    Henrekson, Magnus; Du Rietz, Gunnar; Waldenström, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the evolution of the modern Swedish inheritance taxation from its introduction in 1885 to its abolishment in 2004. A thorough description is offered of the basic principles of the tax, including underlying ideas and ambitions, tax schedules, and rules concerning valuation of assets, liability matters and deduction opportunities. Using these rules, we calculate inheritance tax rates for the whole period for a number of differently endowed family firms and individuals. The ov...

  14. Swedish Climate Strategy. A basis for the evaluation of Swedish climate work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    The assignment of producing a basis for the evaluation of Sweden's climate policy is mainly focused on the national interim target for the 2008-2012 period. An assessment is to be made of the possibility of achieving the national interim target using current policy instruments and measures. Proposals for new or extended policy instruments, the consequences of which have been assessed, are to be submitted where necessary. The assignment also includes a study of the consequences of integrating the flexible mechanisms into the interim target. Our proposals for how the Swedish climate strategy could be reinforced have their roots in the above assignment, but we also wish to stress the following important points. Solving the climate problem requires a high degree of international collaboration. It is, for example, of great importance that the EU countries find joint ways of reducing emissions, thus enabling them to drive global developments forward. In the Swedish national strategy, there should be a stronger link to international and joint EU policy instruments. The proposals must also have a long-term perspective and not simply be based on the short-term achievement of targets in Sweden. We propose the following changes to policy instruments for sectors outside the trading sector (assuming an allocation of emissions allowances somewhat below the current forecast): introduction of CO 2 -differentiated vehicle taxes for light vehicles; that the free-fuel benefit for company cars be valued at a factor of x1.8 market price, instead of the present 1.2; introduction of kilometre tax for trucks from 2008; continued and increased national funding support to local climate investment programmes during the period 2006-2008. The programmes should primarily give grants to long-term strategic measures; continued climate information campaign for 2006-2008; The EC Directive on the energy performance of buildings is implemented in a way that utilises the potential for greater energy

  15. Work environment and safety climate in the Swedish merchant fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsell, Karl; Eriksson, Helena; Järvholm, Bengt; Lundh, Monica; Andersson, Eva; Nilsson, Ralph

    2017-02-01

    To get knowledge of the work environment for seafarers sailing under the Swedish flag, in terms of safety climate, ergonomical, chemical and psychosocial exposures, and the seafarers self-rated health and work ability. A Web-based questionnaire was sent to all seafarers with a personal e-mail address in the Swedish Maritime Registry (N = 5608). Comparisons were made mainly within the study population, using Student's t test, prevalence odds ratios and logistic regressions with 95% confidence intervals. The response rate was 35% (N = 1972; 10% women, 90% men), with 61% of the respondents working on deck, 31% in the engine room and 7% in the catering/service department (1% not classifiable). Strain on neck, arm or back and heavy lifting were associated with female gender (p = 0.0001) and younger age (below or above 30 years of age, p harassment or bullying during last year of service. Noise, risk of accidents, hand/arm and whole-body vibrations and psychosocial factors such as harassment were commonly reported work environment problems among seafarers within the Swedish merchant fleet.

  16. Emergy Evaluation of a Swedish Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindberg, Anna

    2007-03-01

    Today it is common to evaluate and compare energy systems in terms of emission of greenhouse gases. However, energy systems should not only reduce their pollution but also give a large energy return. One method used to measure energy efficiency is emergy (embodied energy, energy memory) evaluation, which was developed by the system ecologist Howard T. Odum. Odum defines emergy as the available energy of one kind previously used up directly and indirectly to make a service or product. Both work of nature and work of human economy in generating products and services are calculated in terms of emergy. Work of nature takes the form of natural resources and work of human economy includes labour, services and products used to transform natural resources into something of value to the economy. The quotient between work of nature and work of human economy gives the emergy return on investment of the investigated product. With this in mind the present work is an attempt to make an emergy evaluation of a Swedish nuclear power plant to estimate its emergy return on investment. The emergy return on investment ratio of a Swedish nuclear power plant is calculated to approximately 11 in this diploma thesis. This means that for all emergy the Swedish economy has invested in the nuclear power plant it gets 11 times more emergy in return in the form of electricity generated by nuclear power. The method used in this work may facilitate future emergy evaluations of other energy systems

  17. Solidarity in Swedish welfare--standing the test of time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmark, A

    2000-01-01

    Swedish welfare has for decades served as a role model for universalistic welfare. When the economic recession hit Swedish economy in the beginning of the 1990s, a period of more than 50 years of continuous expansion and reforms in the welfare sector came to an end. Summing up the past decade, we can see that the economic downturn enforced rationing measures in most parts of the welfare state, although most of this took place in the beginning of the decade. Today, most of the retrenchment has stopped and in some areas we can see tendencies of restoration--but more so in financial benefits than in the caring sectors. In the article this process is discussed as a process of reallocation where general principles of solidarity become manifest. Various levels of decision making are discussed within the context of socio-political action. Current transitions in Swedish health care are described with respect to coverage rates, content, marketization and distribution. Basic principles of distribution are highlighted in order to analyse the meaning of social solidarity in a concrete allocative setting. The significance of popular opinion--it's shifts and determinants--is also considered. The article concludes with a discussion of how the (once salient) features of universalism in welfare and health care provision have been affected by the developments in the past decade in Sweden.

  18. Trip report: a visit to the Swedish reindeer industry, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dau, J.; Dieterich, R.A.; Thomas, W.C.; Davis, L.T.

    1987-01-01

    The State of Alaska indicated recently that it will become more strict in enforcing inspection requirements for reindeer meat that is mixed with meat from domestic animals (e.g., In sausage production). Therefore. we wanted to observe how reindeer are slaughtered to meet Swedish meat inspection requirements. Additionally, by following the processing and marketing of reindeer in Sweden, we hoped to discover alternative products that do not require blending reindeer with beef or pork. The Chernobyl tragedy further affected our decision to visit Sweden in two ways It gave us the opportunity to review the Impacts of widespread, Intense radioactive contamination on reindeer and the reindeer industry: and it created a shortage or reindeer for human consumption in Sweden which In turn appeared to open a market for Alaska reindeer products. Between 13 and 23 November 1986, we traveled to Sweden to meet suppliers and processors in the Swedish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) industry. Wholesale and retail marketing of reindeer were reviewed in Stockholm; corralling, slaughter, and processing of reindeer were observed in Swedish Lapland. The specific objectives of this trip were as follows: 1) to observe reindeer slaughter facilities and techniques used in Sweden; 2) to trace the marketing of reindeer from Sami herders to retail outlets; 3) to assess radioactive contamination of reindeer and their ranges and observe how the problem is being handled; 4) to observe as many reindeer husbandry techniques as possible; and 5) to explore the possibility of establishing a market for Alaskan reindeer meat in Sweden

  19. The prosody of Swedish underived nouns: No lexical tones required

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Morén-Duolljá

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a detailed representational analysis of the morpho-prosodic system of underived nouns in a dialect of Swedish.  It shows that the morphology, stress and tonal patterns are not as complex as they first appear once the data are looked at in sufficient detail.  Further, it shows that the renowned Swedish "lexical pitch accent" is not the result of lexical tones/tonemes.  Rather, Swedish is like all other languages and uses tones to mark the edges of prosodic constituents on the surface. "Accent 2" occurs when tones mark the edge of a structural uneven trochee (i.e. recursive foot and "accent 1" occurs elsewhere. This analysis is counter all other treatments of North Germanic tones and denies the almost unquestioned assumption that there is an underlying tone specification on roots and/or affixes in many North Germanic varieties. At the same time, it unifies the intuitions behind the three previous approaches found in the literature.

  20. Barriers to Sustainable Business Model Innovation in Swedish Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Cederholm Björklund

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweden’s agriculture industry has faced many challenges in recent years. Among the most severe challenges are the decrease in the number of small and medium-sized farms, the decrease in the number of people employed in agricultural actvites, and the increase in governmental regulatons and legislaton governing such actvites. At the same tme, the demand that agriculture contributes to sustainable social and ecological development has increased. Although research shows that sustainable business model innovaton (SBMI contributes to the creaton of sustainable businesses and to the development of a sustainable society, Swedish agriculture has not been at the forefront in the use of SBMI. The purpose of this paper is to examine the barriers to SBMI in Swedish agriculture in order to understand why farmers seldom engage in SBMI. This qualitatve study follows the Gioia methodology and data for the analysis were acquired in semi-structured interviews with entrepreneurs at six family farms in Sweden. The paper makes a theoretcal contributon to the research on SBMI with its focus on sustainable entrepreneurship in the Swedish agricultural industry. The paper concludes that the barriers to SBMI are external, internal, and contextual.

  1. Knowledge and attitudes of Swedish politicians concerning induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydsjö, Adam; Josefsson, Ann; Bladh, Marie; Muhrbeck, Måns; Sydsjö, Gunilla

    2012-12-01

    Induced abortion is more frequent in Sweden than in many other Western countries. We wanted to investigate attitudes and knowledge about induced abortion among politicians responsible for healthcare in three Swedish counties. A study-specific questionnaire was sent to all 375 elected politicians in three counties; 192 (51%) responded. The politicians stated that they were knowledgeable about the Swedish abortion law. More than half did not consider themselves, in their capacity as politicians, sufficiently informed about abortion-related matters. Most politicians (72%) considered induced abortion to be primarily a 'women's rights issue' rather than an ethical one, and 54% considered 12 weeks' gestational age an adequate upper limit for induced abortion. Only about a third of the respondents were correctly informed about the number of induced abortions annually carried out in Sweden. Information and knowledge on induced abortion among Swedish county politicians seem not to be optimal. Changes aimed at reducing the current high abortion rates will probably not be easy to achieve as politicians seem to be reluctant to commit themselves on ethical issues and consider induced abortion mainly a women's rights issue.

  2. The Swedish Dilemma: Nuclear Energy v. the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordhaus, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    A phaseout of nuclear power in Sweden is supposed to be accomplished by year 2010. This study is an economic analysis of the questions that are parts of the Swedish nuclear dilemma. Even though the economic questions are in focus, the important environmental, health and safety questions are also treated. The basic argument is that Sweden should choose an energy system that allows its citizens to maximize their consumption in a long-term perspective. Consumption is here given a meaning that includes elements outside the market, such as environmental, health and safety aspects valued in a reasonable way. Considerations must also be given to international aspects like global environment, a free and open system of trade and the value of a stable set of rules and proprietary rights. The study compares the economic pros and cons of different energy systems within this general frame. A detailed model of the Swedish energy and power sectors was developed for the study, called the Swedish Energy and Environment Policy (SEEP) model. The SEEP model is built on modern economic theory and includes energy and environmental factors in a uniform way. 51 refs, 36 tabs, 6 figs

  3. Emergy Evaluation of a Swedish Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindberg, Anna

    2007-03-15

    Today it is common to evaluate and compare energy systems in terms of emission of greenhouse gases. However, energy systems should not only reduce their pollution but also give a large energy return. One method used to measure energy efficiency is emergy (embodied energy, energy memory) evaluation, which was developed by the system ecologist Howard T. Odum. Odum defines emergy as the available energy of one kind previously used up directly and indirectly to make a service or product. Both work of nature and work of human economy in generating products and services are calculated in terms of emergy. Work of nature takes the form of natural resources and work of human economy includes labour, services and products used to transform natural resources into something of value to the economy. The quotient between work of nature and work of human economy gives the emergy return on investment of the investigated product. With this in mind the present work is an attempt to make an emergy evaluation of a Swedish nuclear power plant to estimate its emergy return on investment. The emergy return on investment ratio of a Swedish nuclear power plant is calculated to approximately 11 in this diploma thesis. This means that for all emergy the Swedish economy has invested in the nuclear power plant it gets 11 times more emergy in return in the form of electricity generated by nuclear power. The method used in this work may facilitate future emergy evaluations of other energy systems.

  4. Creating a medical English-Swedish dictionary using interactive word alignment.

    OpenAIRE

    Nyström , Mikael; Merkel , Magnus; Ahrenberg , Lars; Zweigenbaum , Pierre; Petersson , Håkan; Ahlfeldt , Hans

    2006-01-01

    Background: This paper reports on a parallel collection of rubrics from the medical terminology systems ICD-10, ICF, MeSH, NCSP and KSH97-P and its use for semi-automatic creation of an English-Swedish dictionary of medical terminology. The methods presented are relevant for many other West European language pairs than English-Swedish. Methods: The medical terminology systems were collected in electronic format in both English and Swedish and the rubrics were extracted in parallel language pa...

  5. Swedish political attitudes towards Baltic independence in the short 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Kuldkepp, M.

    2016-01-01

    This article considers the history of Swedish attitudes towards Baltic independence in the period in the so-called short 20th century (1914-1991), focusing primarily on the years when Baltic independence was gained (1918-1920) and regained (1989-1991). The former period was characterized by Swedish skepticism towards the ability of the Baltic states to retain their independence long-term, explainable by the Swedish political elites’ conviction that the weakening of Russia in the First World W...

  6. The Swedish Utilities joint approach to form common basis for design requirements for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, B.

    1998-01-01

    The Owners of the Swedish Nuclear Power Plants have decided to form a document that should state the design principals and requirement for cost-effective and continuous development of the reactor safety in the future. The development of this document will be a part of the modernization and development of the Swedish Nuclear Power Plants. The basis for this document is an evaluation of Swedish and International standards and regulations as IAEA/INSAG, US-regulations, EUR etc. (author)

  7. The role of emigration and migration in Swedish industrialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlstrom, U

    1982-10-01

    It is possible, within a general equilibrium framework, to reveal some of the important mechansims in the rather complicated interplay among the variables causing demoeconomic development. The model for this study is a computable general equilibrium model within the tradition of multisectoral growth models and is designed to fit Swedish prewar development and to enable counterfactual analysis. The model is reviewed briefly followed by comments on the database, estimation procedure and validation; displays of some comparative static experiments; and an evaluation of the capability of the model in replicating Swedish demoeconomic development between 1871-90 before examining the counterfactual simulations which address the role of external and internal migration in Swedish industrialization. There are at least 2 reasons for carrying out comparative static experiments: by undertaking parameter changes and exploring the equilibrium effect on the model, further insights will be realized concerning the behavior of the model and its validity; and some of the comparative static experiments are interesting from the point of view of policy analysis because they reveal the static, total effect on the economy of changes in some variables discussed by 19th century Swedish politicians. The experiments are organized into 2 groups: rural and population experiments. The base run simulation from 1871-90 indicates that the model captures the essential factors of the demoeconomic development of Sweden. The model's ability to replicate historical trends in some of the crucial variables permits use of the base simulation as a reference point when undertaking counterfactual simulations. The 1st simulation evaluates the effects of emigration on the Swedish economy; the remaining 2 simulations assess the importance of rural to urban migration. The model indicates that without emigration real rural wages would have been 1.8% lower in 1880 and 10.0% lower in 1890. Urban wages would have been

  8. The beneficial effect of a speaker's gestures on the listener's memory for action phrases: The pivotal role of the listener's premotor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianì, Francesco; Burin, Dalila; Salatino, Adriana; Pia, Lorenzo; Ricci, Raffaella; Bucciarelli, Monica

    2018-04-10

    Memory for action phrases improves in the listeners when the speaker accompanies them with gestures compared to when the speaker stays still. Since behavioral studies revealed a pivotal role of the listeners' motor system, we aimed to disentangle the role of primary motor and premotor cortices. Participants had to recall phrases uttered by a speaker in two conditions: in the gesture condition, the speaker performed gestures congruent with the action; in the no-gesture condition, the speaker stayed still. In Experiment 1, half of the participants underwent inhibitory rTMS over the hand/arm region of the left premotor cortex (PMC) and the other half over the hand/arm region of the left primary motor cortex (M1). The enactment effect disappeared only following rTMS over PMC. In Experiment 2, we detected the usual enactment effect after rTMS over vertex, thereby excluding possible nonspecific rTMS effects. These findings suggest that the information encoded in the premotor cortex is a crucial part of the memory trace. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Swedish skiers knowledge, experience and attitudes towards off-piste skiing and avalanches

    OpenAIRE

    Mårtensson, Stefan; Wikberg, Per-Olov; Palmgren, Petter

    2013-01-01

    The winter of 2012/2013 was the most accident-prone season in the Swedish avalanche history with a total of seven dead Swedes. In April 2013 the Swedish Mountain Safety Council initiated a web-based survey aimed towards Swedish skiers. The aim was to identify the target group's knowledge, experience and attitudes towards off-piste skiing and avalanches. Respondents were asked to answer a total of 28 questions. 1047 Swedish off-piste skiers answered, and we analysed them in more detail. The Sw...

  10. Waste to Energy in Urban Infrastructure. Experiences from Indo-Swedish collaboration 2009-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-15

    This report provides an illustration of the progress that has been made in Indo-Swedish biogas collaboration since the delegation Biogas for Urban Infrastructure initiated action in 2009. A number of Swedish government organisations and private sector organisations have worked together with Indian counterparts to develop the Indo-Swedish Waste-to-Energy cooperation. A mere two years later, we can now state that this has been a very fruitful venture. The Swedish-Indian cooperation that was formed in conjunction with the biogas delegation has already resulted in new knowledge, new methods, opportunities for new strategies and new business models.

  11. Supervision of Waste Management and Environmental Protection at the Swedish Nuclear Facilities 2001

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, M

    2003-01-01

    The report summarizes the supervision of waste management and environmental protection at the nuclear facilities that was carried out by the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority in 2001. A summary of the inspections and a description of important issues connected with the supervision of the nuclear facilities are given.The inspections during 2001 have focused on theme inspections of waste management, environmental inspections considering the environmental monitoring at the Swedish nuclear facilities and review safety analysis and research programs from the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority finds that the operations are mainly performed according to current regulations

  12. Air quality in Swedish cities; Luftkvalitet i taetorter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, Karin; Persson, Karin; Lagerstroem, Malin [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Brodin, Yngve [Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-02-01

    Air quality in Swedish cities has improved considerably over the last decades as a result of reduced emissions from traffic, industrial activity and households. The situation is however far from acceptable, and no further improvement is seen during recent years. Urban air pollution is considered to contribute to the death of more than a thousand people in Sweden each year. Measurements of air quality in Swedish cities are carried out since many years. The measurements have shown that concentrations of all serious air pollutants but ozone have decreased strongly since the 1980s. The improvement is attributed to reduced emissions from motor traffic by means of catalytic converters and cleaner fuels as well as decreased emissions from industrial activity and energy production in Sweden and neighbouring countries. The present report does however show no further downward trend for concentrations of air pollutants in Swedish cities since the late 1990s, and the concentrations of the winter 2002/2003 were higher than several previous winters. This information is gained from measurements done by around forty municipalities and gathered within the so called URBAN-measurement-net managed by the IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, and additional information from around ten municipalities which perform own measurements. Climatic variability may play an important role for the increase seen in the winter of 2002/2003, but it is also probable that continuously increasing traffic have counteracted some of the ameliorative environmental effects of improved exhaust emission control and cleaner petrol and diesel fuels. Measurements of the winter 2002/2003 show that air quality conditions are unacceptable in perhaps half of the Swedish cities, and that they run the risk of not being able to attain environmental quality standards for one or more substances. The standards for particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide are those most difficult to manage within the time limits set

  13. Swedish Climate Strategy. A basis for the evaluation of Swedish climate work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    The assignment of producing a basis for the evaluation of Sweden's climate policy is mainly focused on the national interim target for the 2008-2012 period. An assessment is to be made of the possibility of achieving the national interim target using current policy instruments and measures. Proposals for new or extended policy instruments, the consequences of which have been assessed, are to be submitted where necessary. The assignment also includes a study of the consequences of integrating the flexible mechanisms into the interim target. Our proposals for how the Swedish climate strategy could be reinforced have their roots in the above assignment, but we also wish to stress the following important points. Solving the climate problem requires a high degree of international collaboration. It is, for example, of great importance that the EU countries find joint ways of reducing emissions, thus enabling them to drive global developments forward. In the Swedish national strategy, there should be a stronger link to international and joint EU policy instruments. The proposals must also have a long-term perspective and not simply be based on the short-term achievement of targets in Sweden. We propose the following changes to policy instruments for sectors outside the trading sector (assuming an allocation of emissions allowances somewhat below the current forecast): introduction of CO{sub 2}-differentiated vehicle taxes for light vehicles; that the free-fuel benefit for company cars be valued at a factor of x1.8 market price, instead of the present 1.2; introduction of kilometre tax for trucks from 2008; continued and increased national funding support to local climate investment programmes during the period 2006-2008. The programmes should primarily give grants to long-term strategic measures; continued climate information campaign for 2006-2008; The EC Directive on the energy performance of buildings is implemented in a way that utilises the potential for greater

  14. Swedish Match valutab pead rohkem aktsiisi kui erisoodustusmaksu pärast / Raigo Roosve ; interv. Imbi E. Kaljuste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roosve, Raigo

    1999-01-01

    Intervjuus vastab tubakafirma AS-i Swedish Match peadirektor Raigo Roosve küsimustele, miks ja mille alusel maksab AS Swedish Match erisoodustusmaksu ja kas firmal on olnud arusaamatusi maksuameti või maksudega

  15. Disposal of radioactive waste in Swedish crystalline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greis Dahlberg, Christina; Wikberg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    SKB, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is tasked with managing Swedish nuclear and radioactive waste. Crystalline rock is the obvious alternative for deep geological disposal in Sweden. SKB is, since 1988, operating a near surface repository for short-lived low and intermediate-level waste, SFR. The waste in SFR comprises operational and decommissioning waste from nuclear plants, industrial waste, research-related waste and medical waste. Spent nuclear fuel is currently stored in an interim facility while waiting for a license to construct a deep geological repository. The Swedish long-lived low and intermediate-level waste consists mainly of BWR control rods, reactor internals and legacy waste from early research in the Swedish nuclear programs. The current plan is to dispose of this waste in a separate deep geological repository, SFL, sometimes after 2045. Understanding of the rock properties is the basis for the design of the repository concepts. Swedish crystalline rock is mechanical stable and suitable for underground constructions. The Spent Fuel Repository is planned at approximately 500 meters depth in the rock at the Forsmark site. The host rock will keep the spent fuel isolated from human and near-surface environment. The rock will also provide the stable chemical and hydraulic conditions that make it possible to select suitable technical barriers to support the containment provided by the rock. A very long lasting canister is necessary to avoid release and transport of radionuclides through water conducting fractures in the rock. A canister designed for the Swedish rock, consists of a tight, 5 cm thick corrosion barrier of copper and a load-bearing insert of cast iron. To restrict the water flow around the canister and by that prevent fast corrosion, a bentonite buffer will surround the canister. Secondary, the bentonite buffer will retard a potential release by its strong sorption of radionuclides. The SFR repository is situated in

  16. Disposal of radioactive waste in Swedish crystalline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greis Dahlberg, Christina; Wikberg, Peter [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    SKB, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is tasked with managing Swedish nuclear and radioactive waste. Crystalline rock is the obvious alternative for deep geological disposal in Sweden. SKB is, since 1988, operating a near surface repository for short-lived low and intermediate-level waste, SFR. The waste in SFR comprises operational and decommissioning waste from nuclear plants, industrial waste, research-related waste and medical waste. Spent nuclear fuel is currently stored in an interim facility while waiting for a license to construct a deep geological repository. The Swedish long-lived low and intermediate-level waste consists mainly of BWR control rods, reactor internals and legacy waste from early research in the Swedish nuclear programs. The current plan is to dispose of this waste in a separate deep geological repository, SFL, sometimes after 2045. Understanding of the rock properties is the basis for the design of the repository concepts. Swedish crystalline rock is mechanical stable and suitable for underground constructions. The Spent Fuel Repository is planned at approximately 500 meters depth in the rock at the Forsmark site. The host rock will keep the spent fuel isolated from human and near-surface environment. The rock will also provide the stable chemical and hydraulic conditions that make it possible to select suitable technical barriers to support the containment provided by the rock. A very long lasting canister is necessary to avoid release and transport of radionuclides through water conducting fractures in the rock. A canister designed for the Swedish rock, consists of a tight, 5 cm thick corrosion barrier of copper and a load-bearing insert of cast iron. To restrict the water flow around the canister and by that prevent fast corrosion, a bentonite buffer will surround the canister. Secondary, the bentonite buffer will retard a potential release by its strong sorption of radionuclides. The SFR repository is situated in

  17. IRT analyses of the Swedish Dark Triad Dirty Dozen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Dark Triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy can be captured quickly with 12 items using the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen (Jonason and Webster, 2010. Previous Item Response Theory (IRT analyses of the original English Dark Triad Dirty Dozen have shown that all three subscales adequately tap into the dark domains of personality. The aim of the present study was to analyze the Swedish version of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen using IRT. Method: 570 individuals (nmales = 326, nfemales = 242, and 2 unreported, including university students and white-collar workers with an age range between 19 and 65 years, responded to the Swedish version of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen (Garcia et al., 2017a,b. Results: Contrary to previous research, we found that the narcissism scale provided most information, followed by psychopathy, and finally Machiavellianism. Moreover, the psychopathy scale required a higher level of the latent trait for endorsement of its items than the narcissism and Machiavellianism scales. Overall, all items provided reasonable amounts of information and are thus effective for discriminating between individuals. The mean item discriminations (alphas were 1.92 for Machiavellianism, 2.31 for narcissism, and 1.99 for psychopathy. Conclusion: This is the first study to provide IRT analyses of the Swedish version of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen. Our findings add to a growing literature on the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen scale in different cultures and highlight psychometric characteristics, which can be used for comparative studies. Items tapping into psychopathy showed higher thresholds for endorsement than the other two scales. Importantly, the narcissism scale seems to provide more information about a lack of narcissism, perhaps mirroring cultural conditions. Keywords: Psychology, Psychiatry, Clinical psychology

  18. Failure data collection from a Swedish nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Hilding, S.

    1975-01-01

    The Swedish nuclear utilities have formed a joint working group in the field of reliability data of thermal power plants, nuclear and fossil fuelled. The primary task of the working group is to create a standard procedure of collecting failure data from the Swedish nuclear power plants in operation. The failure data will be stored in a joint data bank. A first test collection of such data has been implemented on Oskarshamn I, and the experience with this work is discussed in this report. Reliability analysis of an engineering system is based on the availability of pertinent information on the system components. Right from the beginning within the Swedish nuclear industry the consensus has been that such data can be suitably obtained by monitoring the operating power stations. This has led to a co-operative arrangement between the vendor, ASEA-ATOM and a utility, Oskarshamnsverkets Kraftgrupp AB (OKG) to utilize information from component malfunctions in the reliability analysis. The utility prepares component failure reports which are sent to the vendor for further treatment. Experience gathered to date indicates that this arrangement is effective although many persons are involved in this process of information transmittal. The present set-up is flexible enough to accommodate necessary changes in view of problems which arise now and then in monitoring a complex system like a nuclear power station. This report briefly describes the structure of the failure data collection system. The way in which the raw data collection is done in the station by the owner and the subsequent data processing by the vendor is discussed. A brief status report of the information collected since 1971 is given. It can be concluded that valuable reliability data can be obtained by monitoring component failure reports from an operating power plant. Two requirements are, however, that all the parties involved in the arrangement follow given instructions carefully and that the assumed

  19. Evaluating a questionnaire to measure improvement initiatives in Swedish healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Ann-Christine

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality improvement initiatives have expanded recently within the healthcare sector. Studies have shown that less than 40% of these initiatives are successful, indicating the need for an instrument that can measure the progress and results of quality improvement initiatives and answer questions about how quality initiatives are conducted. The aim of the present study was to develop and test an instrument to measure improvement process and outcome in Swedish healthcare. Methods A questionnaire, founded on the Minnesota Innovation Survey (MIS, was developed in several steps. Items were merged and answer alternatives were revised. Employees participating in a county council improvement program received the web-based questionnaire. Data was analysed by descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. The questionnaire psychometric properties were investigated and an exploratory factor analysis was conducted. Results The Swedish Improvement Measurement Questionnaire consists of 27 items. The Improvement Effectiveness Outcome dimension consists of three items and has a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.67. The Internal Improvement Processes dimension consists of eight sub-dimensions with a total of 24 items. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the complete dimension was 0.72. Three significant item correlations were found. A large involvement in the improvement initiative was shown and the majority of the respondents were satisfied with their work. Conclusions The psychometric property tests suggest initial support for the questionnaire to study and evaluate quality improvement initiatives in Swedish healthcare settings. The overall satisfaction with the quality improvement initiative correlates positively to the awareness of individual responsibilities.

  20. International biofuel trade - A study of the Swedish import

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, K.; Nilsson, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    Following the development of large-scale use of biomass energy in the EU, international biofuel trade is a plausible scenario and something that is already taking place in Northern Europe. This paper focuses on Swedish biofuel imports, both direct and indirect imports, the latter which derive from the fact that part of the imported pulpwood and timber end up as fuel. The objective is to describe the biomass import flows, the actors involved and analyse the fundamental drivers for the trade flows. The rapid expansion of biomass energy, that has taken place in district heating since the early 1990s in Sweden, has been met partly by imports. The direct biofuel import was estimated to 18 PJ for 2000, which corresponded to 26% of the biofuel supply in district heating. The total indirect biofuel import was estimated to 9 PJ of which 5.5 PJ is consumed in the district heating sector. Sawmill wood chips, decay-damaged stemwood and pellets are imported from Estonia and Latvia, whereas used wood and solid recovered fuels are imported from Germany and the Netherlands. Tall oil and pellets are imported from North America. Key factors related to the Swedish biofuel import are analysed, both from the view of Swedish demand and from the view of supply in the Baltic countries as well as supply from Germany or the Netherlands. National differences in energy policy are perhaps the most important driving force behind the seemingly strange trade flows. Structures in the different national energy systems are also discussed as well as the transformation process that has taken place in the forest sector in the Baltic countries. (author)

  1. Towards a model for integrative medicine in Swedish primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falkenberg Torkel

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collaboration between providers of conventional care and complementary therapies (CTs has gained in popularity but there is a lack of conceptualised models for delivering such care, i.e. integrative medicine (IM. The aim of this paper is to describe some key findings relevant to the development and implementation of a proposed model for IM adapted to Swedish primary care. Methods Investigative procedures involved research group and key informant meetings with multiple stakeholders including general practitioners, CT providers, medical specialists, primary care administrators and county council representatives. Data collection included meeting notes which were fed back within the research group and used as ongoing working documents. Data analysis was made by immersion/crystallisation and research group consensus. Results were categorised within a public health systems framework of structures, processes and outcomes. Results The outcome was an IM model that aimed for a patient-centered, interdisciplinary, non-hierarchical mix of conventional and complementary medical solutions to individual case management of patients with pain in the lower back and/or neck. The IM model case management adhered to standard clinical practice including active partnership between a gate-keeping general practitioner, collaborating with a team of CT providers in a consensus case conference model of care. CTs with an emerging evidence base included Swedish massage therapy, manual therapy/naprapathy, shiatsu, acupuncture and qigong. Conclusion Despite identified barriers such as no formal recognition of CT professions in Sweden, it was possible to develop a model for IM adapted to Swedish primary care. The IM model calls for testing and refinement in a pragmatic randomised controlled trial to explore its clinical effectiveness.

  2. Technical description of the Swedish natural gas distribution system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Ronny [KM Miljoeteknik AB (Sweden)

    1997-06-01

    This description of the Swedish distribution network has been produced to provide information for distribution companies, trade organisations, etc., who have an interest in getting a clear understanding of the technical design and standards, technical directives, etc., which have served as guidance in the development. The technical description covers the piping system from a measuring and regulating station (MR station) up to the consumer`s substation, however, only sections with a maximum operating pressure of 4 bar. By way of introduction, the description contains introductory information on supply channels, consumption patterns and the principal design of the high pressure network in Sweden 10 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  3. Online Sexual Behaviours Among Swedish Youth : Characteristics, Associations and Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Linda S.

    2015-01-01

    Online sexual behaviours refer to sexual activities where the Internet and/or mobile phone are used. The aims of this thesis were to investigate young people and their experiences of different online sexual behaviours with regard to characteristics, associations and consequences, by using data from a representative sample of 3,503 Swedish youth (m= 18.3 years). In addition 16 interviews were made with young women who had sold sex online before the age of 18. Focus in these interviews were in ...

  4. Factors influencing energy efficiency investments in existing Swedish residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif; Mahapatra, Krushna

    2010-01-01

    We used the data from a survey conducted in 2008 of 3,000 owners of detached houses to analyse the factors that influence the adoption of investment measures to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings. For the majority of Swedish homeowners, it was important to reduce their household energy use, and most of them undertook no-cost measures as compared to investment measures. Personal attributes such as income, education, age and contextual factors, including age of the house, thermal discomfort, past investment, and perceived energy cost, influence homeowners' preference for a particular type of energy efficiency measure. The implications for promoting the implementation of energy efficiency investment measures are discussed.

  5. Validation of Online Versions of Tinnitus Questionnaires Translated into Swedish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Karolina; Edvall, Niklas K.; Idrizbegovic, Esma; Huhn, Robert; Cima, Rilana; Persson, Viktor; Leineweber, Constanze; Westerlund, Hugo; Langguth, Berthold; Schlee, Winfried; Canlon, Barbara; Cederroth, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to the lack of objective measures for assessing tinnitus, its clinical evaluation largely relies on the use of questionnaires and psychoacoustic tests. A global assessment of tinnitus burden would largely benefit from holistic approaches that not only incorporate measures of tinnitus but also take into account associated fears, emotional aspects (stress, anxiety, and depression), and quality of life. In Sweden, only a few instruments are available for assessing tinnitus, and the existing tools lack validation. Therefore, we translated a set of questionnaires into Swedish and evaluated their reliability and validity in a group of tinnitus subjects. Methods: We translated the English versions of the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI), the Fear of Tinnitus Questionnaire (FTQ), the Tinnitus Catastrophizing Scale (TCS), the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-30), and the Tinnitus Sample Case History Questionnaire (TSCHQ) into Swedish. These translations were delivered via the internet with the already existing Swedish versions of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Hyperacusis Questionnaire (HQ), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQoL-BREF). Psychometric properties were evaluated by means of internal consistency [Cronbach's alpha (α)] and test–retest reliability across a 9-week interval [Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC), Cohen's kappa] in order to establish construct as well as clinical validity using a sample of 260 subjects from a population-based cohort. Results: Internal consistency was acceptable for all questionnaires (α > 0.7) with the exception of the “social relationships” subscale of the WHOQoL-BREF. Test–retest reliability was generally acceptable (ICC > 0.70, Cohens kappa > 0.60) for the tinnitus-related questionnaires, except for the TFI “sense of control” subscale and 15 items of the TSCHQ. Spearmen rank correlations showed that

  6. The Swedish Regional Climate Modelling Programme, SWECLIM: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummukainen, Markku; Bergström, Sten; Persson, Gunn; Rodhe, Johan; Tjernström, Michael

    2004-06-01

    The Swedish Regional Climate Modelling Programme, SWECLIM, was a 6.5-year national research network for regional climate modeling, regional climate change projections and hydrological impact assessment and information to a wide range of stakeholders. Most of the program activities focussed on the regional climate system of Northern Europe. This led to the establishment of an advanced, coupled atmosphere-ocean-hydrology regional climate model system, a suite of regional climate change projections and progress on relevant data and process studies. These were, in turn, used for information and educational purposes, as a starting point for impact analyses on different societal sectors and provided contributions also to international climate research.

  7. A list of abnormal occurences at Swedish nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, B.

    1974-08-01

    This report consists of a list of extracts from documents belonging to Statens Kaernkraftinspektion (SKI) in Sweden. It deals with non-routine occurrences at the Swedish nuclear power stations which are in operation or where test operations of components and systems have started. The investigation has included matter about the following nuclear power plants: Barsebaeck-1, Oskarshamn-1, Oskarshamn-2, Ringhals-1, Ringhals-2, Aagesta. In all cases from the start of the test operations up to latest the 1st of June 1974. (M.S.)

  8. Experience in plant transients. The Swedish RKS program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bento, J.P.

    1983-09-01

    A data-base for reactor operation experience is presented. The input comes from utilities in 14 countries. From experience with the Swedish reactors, trends have been extracted. Using the number of operational scrams as a measure of reactor management, there seem to be a maximum at early reactor life, followed by a decreasing trend after 2 years. This seems to be true for all reactors in the programme. There is even a decrease in the number of scrams with further reactor generations. Causes for events and for scrams are evaluated. (Aa)

  9. Summary of Swedish activities in the framework of the IWGATWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, T.

    1991-01-01

    This summary starts with a brief review of the situation and outlook for nuclear power in Sweden from the political and industrial points of view, and to some extent from the public acceptance point of view. Then the Swedish activities in the field of advanced technologies for water-cooled reactors are outlined, the activities fall into three basic categories: activities related to operating plants, i.e. implementation of modern technology into these plants; development work on evolutionary type nuclear plants; and development work on more revolutionary or developmental type of reactors. Activities in the frameworks of the BWR 90 and PIUS projects are described. 3 figs, 1 tab

  10. Institutions improving fiscal performance: Evidence from Swedish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrichson, Jens; Ellegård, Lina Maria

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts of interest within hierarchic government organizations regarding the importance of fiscal discipline create the need for institutions that curb the bargaining power of units in charge of implementing policy and align their incentives to the interests of the whole organization. We examine...... this general public sector problem by collecting unique data on budget institutions and conflicts of interest within the Swedish municipalities. Our estimations suggest that institutions pertaining to both the planning stage and the implementation stage of the budget process are important for fiscal...

  11. Finnish and Swedish business cycles in a global context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates the decisions made by the Finnish government to join EMU and the Swedish government not to join EMU in the early 1990s. Focusing on the characteristics of business cycles during the postwar period, we find that output fluctuations in Sweden and Finland are correlated to two...... measures of the international business cycle, a European and a non-European cycle. The Finnish cycle has become more synchronized to the European cycle but less synchronized to the non-EU cycle after 1999. For Sweden we find the opposite result. The decision by the Finnish government to join EMU...

  12. The civic integrationist turn in Danish and Swedish school politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, Christian; Jensen, Kristian Kriegbaum

    2017-01-01

    , yet with different styles and content. Citizenship education in Denmark concentrates on reproducing a historically derived core of cultural values and knowledge to which minorities are expected to assimilate, while the Swedish model subscribes to a pluralist view that stresses mutual adaptation...... it follow the pattern of residence and citizenship? This article addresses these questions through a comparative study of the EU’s allegedly strictest and most liberal immigration regimes, Denmark and Sweden, respectively. The analysis shows a growing concern with citizenship education in both countries...... and intercultural tolerance. Despite claims to the contrary, the analysis shows that Sweden too has experienced a civic turn....

  13. The Swedish Research Councils' Laboratory progress report for 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudstam, G.

    1976-01-01

    The Swedish Research Councils' Laboratory herewith presents its progress report for 1975. The report summarizes the current projects carried out by the research groups working at the laboratory. The very efficient assistance of the staff of the laboratory is greatfully acknowledged. The laboratory has been financially supported by the Atomic Research Council, the Medical Research Council, the Natural Science Research Council, and the Board of Technical Development. Valuable support in various ways has also been given by the Atomic Energy Company (AB Atomenergi). (author)

  14. Mitigation of severe accidents in Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederman, E.

    1987-01-01

    Sweden is the first country to build filtered venting systems, the first one became operable at Barsebaeck nuclear power plant in 1985. In new concepts, now being installed in Sweden, an enhanced containment spray system is the basic element and the filtered venting is only the secondary mitigating system. The filter is a new design, a submerged multi venturi scrubber. The Swedish strategy has been built on three basics: improved knowledge through research; containment integrity through mitigating systems; and accident management to prevent severe accidents. 2 figs

  15. Validation of online versions of tinnitus questionnaires translated into Swedish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Müller

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDue to the lack of objective measures for assessing tinnitus, its clinical evaluation largely relies on the use of questionnaires and psychoacoustic tests. A global assessment of tinnitus burden would largely benefit from holistic approaches that not only incorporate measures of tinnitus but also take into account associated fears, emotional aspects (stress, anxiety, and depression, and quality of life. In Sweden, only a few instruments are available for assessing tinnitus, and the existing tools lack validation. Therefore, we translated a set of questionnaires into Swedish and evaluated their reliability and validity in a group of tinnitus subjects. MethodsWe translated the English versions of the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI, the Fear of Tinnitus Questionnaire (FTQ, the Tinnitus Catastrophizing Scale (TCS, the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-30, and the Tinnitus Sample Case History Questionnaire (TSCHQ into Swedish. These translations were delivered via the internet with the already existing Swedish versions of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, the Hyperacusis Questionnaire (HQ, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQoL-BREF. Psychometric properties were evaluated by means of internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha α and test-retest reliability across a 9-week interval (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient ICC, Cohen’s kappa in order to establish construct as well as clinical validity using a sample of 260 subjects from a population-based cohort.ResultsInternal consistency was acceptable for all questionnaires (α >0.7 with the exception of the ‘social relationships’ subscale of the WHOQoL-BREF. Test-retest reliability was generally acceptable (ICC >.70, Cohens Kappa >.60 for the tinnitus-related questionnaires, except for the TFI ‘sense of control’ subscale and 15 items of the TSCHQ. Spearmen rank correlations showed that almost all

  16. The Stripa project in a Swedish waste management perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjurstroem, S.

    1994-01-01

    This publication deals with the Swedish nuclear waste management program till the 60s; it also consists of a presentation of the Stripa Project, that played a important role in the research development work in Sweden. This project was carried out in collaboration with the United States, and an international participation was organized. The primary goals of this project were to develop scientific techniques to characterize a granite rock. The issues of such studies were of common concern to many countries that had research and development programs on the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. (TEC)

  17. Plants for the Swedish change to SI units in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.

    1977-04-01

    In the years from about 1975 to 1985, a universal adjustment will be made to the international system of units, SI, at least concerning several units used in radiology (Liden 1976). The Swedish authorities have deemed it necessary that the change be coordinated within the country as much as possible, mainly on grounds relating to the safety of patients subjected to radiological procedures. The change will take place around 1 January, 1979. This report descibes briefly the administrative planning behind the change.(author)

  18. A dynamic analysis of interfuel substitution for Swedish heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braennlund, R.; Lundgren, T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper estimates a dynamic model of interfuel substitution for Swedish heating plants. We use the cost share linear logit model developed by Considine and Mount. All estimated own-price elasticities are negative and all cross-price elasticities are positive. The estimated dynamic adjustment rate parameter is small, however increasing with the size of the plant and time, indicating fast adjustments in the fuel mix when changing relative fuel prices. The estimated model is used to illustrate the effects of two different policy changes

  19. Environmental policy and profitability - Evidence from Swedish industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braennlund, Runar; Lundgren, Tommy. e-mail; runar.brannlund@econ.umu.se

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the existence of a 'Porter effect' using firm level data on output and inputs from Swedish industry between 1990 and 2004. By utilizing a factor demand modeling approach, and specifying a profit function which has a technology component dependent upon firm specific effective tax on CO{sub 2}, we are able to separate out the effect of regulatory pressure on technological progress. The results indicate that there is evidence of a reversed 'Porter effect' in most industrial sectors, specifically energy intensive industries

  20. A geographical analysis of the Swedish wood fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Anders; Bohlin, Folke; Hektor, Bo; Hillring, Bengt; Parikka, Matti

    2000-01-01

    The geographical variation in Swedish wood fuel market characteristics for the district heating sector has been studied using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and cross-sectional Tobit analysis. The results indicate that local availability and competition for wood fuels influence the wood fuel consumption at inland heating plants. The factors affecting the decision to use wood fuel at heating plants close to seaports, however, were not captured by the model, suggesting that coastal location reduces dependency on the local wood fuel market. The effects of changes in local wood fuel availability on wood fuel use by an inland heating plant are presented and discussed

  1. Changes in control room at Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kecklund, Lena

    2005-09-01

    The Swedish nuclear power plants were commissioned during a period between 1972 and 1985 and the instrumentation and control equipment are basically from that period. For several years there have been plans made for changes in all the nuclear power plants and to a certain extent the changes in control equipment and monitoring rooms have also been implemented. The object of this project was to make a comprehensive review of the changes in control room design implemented in the Swedish nuclear power plants and to describe how the MTO- (Man-Technology-Organisation) and (Man-Machine-Interface) -issues have been integrated in the process. The survey is intended to give an overall picture of the changes in control room design and man-machine-interface made in the Swedish control rooms, in order to get a deeper knowledge of the change management process and its results as well as of the management of MTO-issues in these projects. The units included in this survey are: Oskarhamn reactor 2 and 3; Ringhals reactor 2, 3 and 4; Forsmark reactor 1, 2 and 3. The Oskarshamn 1 unit has not been included in this report as it has recently undergone an extensive modernisation program as well as a detailed inspection by the SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate). At Ringhals 2 the modernisation work is carried out at present and the unit is also subjected to extensive inspection activities carried out by SKI and is therefore not part of this survey. This report also includes a short description of relevant standards and requirements. Then follows a presentation of the results of the plant survey, presented as case studies for three companies OKG, Ringhals and FKA. Control room changes are summarized as well as the results on specific MTO issues which has been surveyed. In all the power companies there is a joint way of working with projects concerning plant modifications. This process is described for each company separately. In the concluding of the report the strengths and

  2. Swedish or English? Migrants' Experiences of the Exchangeability of Language Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Alastair

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of transmigration emerging as a consequence of globalization are creating new and complex markets for communicative resources in which languages and language varieties are differently valued. In a Swedish context, where lingua franca English can facilitate communication but where monolingual norms prevail and Swedish is positioned as the…

  3. International Education and Reflection: Transition of Swedish and American Nursing Students to Authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepp, Margret; Zorn, CeCelia R.; Duffy, Patricia R.; Dickson, Rana J.

    2003-01-01

    A nursing course connected U.S. and Swedish sites via interactive videoconferencing and used reflective methods (journaling, drama, photo language) and off-air group discussion. Evaluation by five Swedish and seven U.S. students suggested how reflection moved students toward greater authenticity and professionalism in nursing practice. (Contains…

  4. Simulating conditions for combined heat and power in the Swedish district heating sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutsson, David

    2005-01-01

    The most important issues in the European energy sector today are how to increase competitiveness on the energy markets, reduce both CO2 emissions and dependence on imported fuels. These issues are also important aspects of Swedish energy policy. In Sweden, the district heating (DH) sector has commonly been used to achieve Swedish energy policy goals. However, the ongoing integration and deregulation of the energy markets in Europe now means that the Swedish DH sector can also play an important role in achieving international targets. This thesis investigates the extent to which the Swedish DH sector can contribute to compliance with current energy policy targets, both international and Swedish. The study consisted of simulations of the Swedish DH sector response to various policy instruments in a model that takes the local features of virtually all Swedish DH systems into account. The findings show, for example, that there is great potential for combined heat and power (CHP) generation in the Swedish DH sector. By exporting this CHP electricity to other European countries with less effective and fossil dependent power generation plants, the CO2 emissions from the European energy sector could be substantially reduced. This would also result in increased security of supply and competitiveness in the EU, since fuel use would be more effective. In Sweden, increased CHP generation would also be a way of maintaining an effective national security of supply of power

  5. Integration of Refugee Children and Their Families in the Swedish Preschool: Strategies, Objectives and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunneblad, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    This article is from a study about the integration of refugee children (aged one to five) and their families in Sweden. Refugee children and parents who have received a residence permit are entitled to be introduced into the Swedish society. One of the first encounters refugee children and families have with Swedish society is with the preschool.…

  6. The Swedish Radiation Protection Institute's protection criteria for disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    In this document the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute reports the preliminary protection criteria for personnel and public concerned with, or in other ways affected by, the disposal of high level radioactive waste. The document will be submitted for consideration by the parties concerned and also serve as a basis for preparing a Swedish viewpoint which can be asserted in future international discussions

  7. Survival of Root-filled Teeth in the Swedish Adult Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Helena; Dawson, Victoria S; Frisk, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim was to assess survival in the Swedish population of teeth treated by nonsurgical root canal treatment during 2009. METHODS: Data from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier analysis to assess cumulative tooth survival during a period of 5-6 years o...

  8. Gender and Technology in Free Play in Swedish Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallström, Jonas; Elvstrand, Helene; Hellberg, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    In the new Swedish curriculum for the preschool (2010) technology education is emphasized as one of the most significant pedagogical areas to work with. The aim of this article is to investigate how girls and boys explore and learn technology as well as how their teachers frame this in free play in two Swedish preschools. The study is inspired by…

  9. The Swedish Principal: Leadership Style, Decision-Making Style, and Motivation Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Per H.; Andersen, Jon Aarum

    2007-01-01

    The Swedish schools have been under pressure for change for several decades. How leaders behave can be of vital importance in times of change. The principal is responsible for both the educational program and for the school budget. Two hundred Swedish principals (male and female) responded to questionnaires concerning their leadership style,…

  10. The Swedish Radiation Protection Institute`s protection criteria for disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    In this document the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute reports the preliminary protection criteria for personnel and public concerned with, or in other ways affected by, the disposal of high level radioactive waste. The document will be submitted for consideration by the parties concerned and also serve as a basis for preparing a Swedish viewpoint which can be asserted in future international discussions.

  11. The Swedish Version of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO-10). Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Gudrun; Hagberg, Bibbi; Billstedt, Eva; Skoglund, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Johansson, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders schedule (DISCO) have only been studied in the UK. The authorised Swedish translation of the tenth version of the DISCO (DISCO-10) was used in interviews with close relatives of 91 Swedish patients referred for neuropsychiatrical assessment. Validity…

  12. Gender and Prestige in Swedish Academia: Exploring Senior Management in Universities and University Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Helen

    2017-01-01

    This article highlights the multifaceted character of the Swedish higher education sector and investigates senior academic management positions from a gender perspective using theories about an academic prestige economy and academic capitalism. The focus is on an aspect often overseen in research on Swedish academia: the distinction between…

  13. The Changing Nature of Autonomy: Transformations of the Late Swedish Teaching Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermke, Wieland; Forsberg, Eva

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses teacher autonomy in the case of the Swedish teaching profession since the 1980s. It is argued that deregulation, decentralization, and marketization reforms of the 1990s have indeed increased teacher autonomy, but in some respects also led to a increase of complexity in the Swedish school system. In order to handle this…

  14. From National Policy-Making to Global Edu-Business: Swedish Edu-Preneurs on the Move

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnberg, Linda

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the movements of some Swedish former education policy-makers that are currently active as commercial edu-business actors with the ambition to expand in the Global Education Industry (GEI). The aim is to map and analyze how a selection of Swedish edu-preneurs affiliated with a particular Swedish school chain enter the GEI and…

  15. 1,001 words and phrases you never knew you didn't know hopperdozer, hoecake, ear trumpet, dort, and other nearly forgotten terms and expressions

    CERN Document Server

    Runyan, W R

    2010-01-01

    As times change so do the things we use and what we call them. W.R. Runyan has compiled a fascinating collection of words and phrases that, once common everywhere in America, are little known today. This book is a celebration of our linguistic past that will be a treat from word lovers everywhere. Do you know any of these: Snaffle, Steelie, Gully Washer, Cabriolet, Calk, Hardpan, Carbuncle, Pie Bird, Fid, or Hame? Did you know that a "Horse Apple" is actually an orange? Or that "Rolley Holley" is a marble game? With over one hundred illustrations, this is a book that will take you on a walk back in time and give you a chance to hear from generations past-in their own voice, with their own words.

  16. Phrase-Final Words in Greek Storytelling Speech: A Study on the Effect of a Culturally-Specific Prosodic Feature on Short-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutrari, Ariadne; Tselekidou, Freideriki; Proios, Hariklia

    2018-02-27

    Prosodic patterns of speech appear to make a critical contribution to memory-related processing. We considered the case of a previously unexplored prosodic feature of Greek storytelling and its effect on free recall in thirty typically developing children between the ages of 10 and 12 years, using short ecologically valid auditory stimuli. The combination of a falling pitch contour and, more notably, extensive final-syllable vowel lengthening, which gives rise to the prosodic feature in question, led to statistically significantly higher performance in comparison to neutral phrase-final prosody. Number of syllables in target words did not reveal substantial difference in performance. The current study presents a previously undocumented culturally-specific prosodic pattern and its effect on short-term memory.

  17. Phenotypic variation in a large Swedish pedigree due to SNCA duplication and triplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, J; Nilsson, C; Kachergus, J

    2007-01-01

    complex. The genetic basis for familial parkinsonism is an SNCA-MMRN11 multiplication, but whereas SNCA-MMRN1 duplication in the Swedish proband (Branch J) leads to late-onset autonomic dysfunction and parkinsonism, SNCA-MMRN1 triplication in the Swedish American family (Branch I) leads to early......BACKGROUND: The "Lister family complex," an extensive Swedish family with autosomal dominant Parkinson disease, was first described by Henry Mjönes in 1949. On the basis of clinical, molecular, and genealogic findings on a Swedish and an American family branch, we provide genetic evidence...... that explains the parkinsonism in this extended pedigree. METHODS: Clinical methods included a detailed neurologic exam of the proband of the Swedish family branch, MRI, and ([123]I)-beta-CIT SPECT imaging. Genomic analysis included alpha-synuclein sequencing, SNCA real-time PCR dosage, chromosome 4q21...

  18. [Predictive value of early phrase echocardiography and cardiac biological markers in patients with severe sepsis: a five-year single-center retrospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xuefeng; Chen, Wei; Sheng, Bo; Zhao, Lei; Gu, Xuyun; Zhen, Jie; Liu, Ping

    2018-04-01

    To assess the predictive value of early phrase echocardiography and cardiac biomarkers in patients with severe sepsis. A retrospective analysis of severe septic patients (patients with acute coronary syndrome and end stage renal disease were excluded) in department of intensive care unit of Capital Medical University Affiliated Beijing Shijitan Hospital from January 2013 to December 2017 was conducted. The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), myoglobin (MYO), creatine kinase (CK), MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB) within 6 hours after admission, and bedside echocardiography indexes [left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), the ratio of the peak blood flow velocity in the early stage of the mitral valve and the peak blood flow rate of the mitral valve (E/A ratio)] within 6 hours after diagnosis were recorded. The differences of indexes between patients with decreased contractile function (LVEF value in severe sepsis patients. (1) A total of 316 patients were enrolled in the survey period. Decreased cardiac systolic function (LVEF value for prognosis in severe sepsis patient, among which NT-proBNP and cTnI had higher predictive value [the area under ROC curve (AUC) were 0.920 and 0.901 respectively, both P values measured by echocardiography in early phrase were unrelated to 28-day prognosis. APACHE II score, E/A ratio, NT-proBNP, cTnI, MYO, CK and CK-MB were related to 28-day prognosis. APACHE II scores and NT-proBNP were independent prognostic factors in severe sepsis patient.

  19. Summary of operating experience at Swedish nuclear power plants in 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The four owners on nuclear power plants in Sweden - The Swedish State Power Board, Forsmarks Kraftgrupp AB, Sydkraft AB and OKG AKTIEBOLAG - formed in 1980 the Nuclear Safety Board of the Swedish Utilities as a joint body for collaboration in safety matters. The Board participates in coordination of the safety work of the utilities and conducts its own safety projects, whereever this is more efficient than the utilities' working independently. The work of the Board shall contribute to optimizing safety in the operation of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The most important function of the Board is to collect, process and evaluate information on operational disturbances and incidents at Swedish and foreign nuclear power plants and then use the knowledge thus gained to improve the safety of the operation of the Swedish nuclear power plants (experience feedback). The work with Experience Feedback proceeds in three stages: Event follow-up, Fault analysis and Feedback of results. The Board runs a system for experience feedback (ERF). ERF is a computer-based information and communication system. ERF provides the Board with a daily update of operating experience in both Swedish and foreign nuclear power plants. Each Swedish nuclear power station supplies the ERF system with data on, among other things, operation and operational distrubances. Important experiences are thereby fed back to plant operation. Experience from foreign nuclear power stations can be of interest to the Swedish nuclear power plants. This information comes to RKS and is reviewed daily. The information that is considered relevant to Swedish plants is fed after analysis into the ERF system. Conversely, foreign nuclear power stations can obtain information from the operation of the Swedish plants. (author)

  20. 10 March 2008 - Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research L. Leijonborg signing the guest book with CERN Chef Scientific Officer J. Engelen, followed by the signature of the Swedish Computing Memorandum of Understanding by the Director General of the Swedish Research Council P. Ömling.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2008-01-01

    10 March 2008 - Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research L. Leijonborg signing the guest book with CERN Chef Scientific Officer J. Engelen, followed by the signature of the Swedish Computing Memorandum of Understanding by the Director General of the Swedish Research Council P. Ömling.

  1. Who formulates renewable-energy policy? A Swedish example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uba, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    A broad participation by stakeholders and an extensive reliance on expert advice are often seen as preconditions for a legitimate and successfully implemented renewable energy policy. However, we have lacked systematic data for testing this argument. This article's contribution is to examine the actors who take part in the making of Swedish energy policy with the help of data on the composition of various committees of inquiry over the last twenty years (1988-2009). Swedish renewable energy policy is often characterised with words like 'pioneering' and 'forerunner', suggesting that the policy-making process in this area engages many different experts and stakeholders. Our data give only some support to this argument. Results point to a noteworthy predominance of politicians, civil servants, and representatives of state agencies within the policy-process. Producers of uranium and fossils based energy have been engaged more often than producers of renewable energy. Experts have played a prominent role, but this is mostly due to the participation of expert bureaucrats rather than of scientists. The study suggests that a better understanding of the making of energy policy, both in Sweden and elsewhere, requires greater attention to the networks and role of various state employees.

  2. Risk Gambling and Personality: Results from a Representative Swedish Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Kristina; Wennberg, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The association between personality and gambling has been explored previously. However, few studies are based on representative populations. This study aimed at examining the association between risk gambling and personality in a representative Swedish population. A random Swedish sample (N = 19,530) was screened for risk gambling using the Lie/Bet questionnaire. The study sample (N = 257) consisted of those screening positive on Lie/Bet and completing a postal questionnaire about gambling and personality (measured with the NODS-PERC and the HP5i respectively). Risk gambling was positively correlated with Negative Affectivity (a facet of Neuroticism) and Impulsivity (an inversely related facet of Conscientiousness), but all associations were weak. When taking age and gender into account, there were no differences in personality across game preference groups, though preferred game correlated with level of risk gambling. Risk gamblers scored lower than the population norm data with respect to Negative Affectivity, but risk gambling men scored higher on Impulsivity. The association between risk gambling and personality found in previous studies was corroborated in this study using a representative sample. We conclude that risk and problem gamblers should not be treated as a homogeneous group, and prevention and treatment interventions should be adapted according to differences in personality, preferred type of game and the risk potential of the games.

  3. Influencing Swedish homeowners to adopt district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, Akademigatan 1, 831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2009-02-15

    Improved energy efficiency and greenhouse gas mitigation could be achieved by replacing resistance heaters with district heating system. In 2005, only about 8% of the Swedish detached houses had district heating system. The expansion of such systems largely depends on homeowners' adoption decisions. And, to motivate homeowners to adopt district heating, it is essential to understand their decision-making process. In this context, in June 2005 we carried out a questionnaire survey of about 700 homeowners who lived in the city of Oestersund in houses with resistance heaters (baseline survey). About 84% of the respondents did not intend to install a new heating system. Since then these homeowners were influenced by (a) an investment subsidy by the Swedish government to replace resistance heaters with district heating, a brine/water-based heat pump, or a biomass-based heating system and (b) a marketing campaign by the municipality-owned district heating company. This paper analyses how these two measures influenced about 78% of the homeowners to adopt the district heating system. For this purpose we carried out a follow-up survey of the same homeowners in December 2006 (resurvey). Results showed that the investment subsidy and the marketing campaign created a need among the homeowners to adopt a new heating system. The marketing campaign was successful in motivating them to adopt the district heating system. The marketing strategy by the district heating company corresponds to the results obtained in the baseline survey. (author)

  4. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In safety terms, operations of the Swedish nuclear power plants in 2003 can be summarized as having ben good, with a few exceptions: The thermal mixer problem at Barsebaeck-2; The Highest Permissible Limit Value excursion at OKG-3, which subjected the reactor pressure vessel to a too rapid temperature change; and An INES class 1 incident at Ringhals-1. The Barsebaeck and Ringhals events were not of such seriousness as to represent a threat to reactor safety, but they both had the effect of causing the Nuclear Power Inspectorate to question safety cultures at the plants. The mixer event resulted in a considerable production loss, with the reactor being shut down twice, making a total of five months. OKG-3 was shut down for almost two months during the autumn. Despite the above, production from Swedish NPPs was much the same as during 2002. Total electricity production amounted to 65 TWh (65.2 TWh in 2002). On the average the energy availability of the eleven reactors was 79%. The PWRs at Ringhals had an average energy availability of 89%, while the BWRs reached 76%

  5. Regional prices in the Swedish wood-fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, Bengt

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses, through a statistical survey, the regional distribution of prices on the commercial wood-fuel market for district heating plants and the pellets market for single family houses. The existing market watch of the national Swedish wood-fuel market has been developed for both refined and unrefined wood-fuels. The last five years the trend for wood-fuel prices on the district heating market has been stable, with a slight increase in the price of refined wood-fuels. However, on the young and fast-growing household market for pellets, prices have increased 12% during the last three years. The distribution of prices for northern, middle and southern Sweden indicates differences within 5% between the regions. The limited price difference between Swedish regions are a product of a large domestic supply and an increasing trade among regions in Europe, putting pressure on prices. Regional differences, mirrored as transportation distances and local production costs are key factors that could explain this regional price variation. However, the development of a commercial market with less regulation tends to level out prices. Consumers on the household market purchase small quantities and do not have the same possibility as district heating companies to take advantage of the oversupply opportunity and thus face a faster price development. The weaker market position of the consumers also tends to give homogeneous prices between regions of the residential sector. (Author)

  6. A swedish dose passport - contractors point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, M.; Holmqvist, A.; Moller, J.

    2003-01-01

    Westinghouse Atom is situated in Vasteras approximately 100 km west from Stockholm. The company is owned by BNFL. The two largest divisions are the Nuclear Fuel Operations and The Global Reactor Services division. The Nuclear fuel operations manufacture fuel for BWR and PWR reactors. The raw material used is Uranium hexafluoride, which is converted to Uranium dioxide powder through wet AUC-process. The concession is 600 tonnes of UO 2 , per year. Last year the production. was approximately 900 fuel elements. There is also a control rod production line within the fuel factory. Last year the production of control rods was approximately 160. The Global Reactor Services Division performs tests on different types of equipments used in nuclear power plants. In addition there is also a well-established service structure that provides a wide range of field services, for instance sipping of fuel elements. The total amount of people working in Vasteras is currently around 800. The majority of those, work at the fuel factory. The purpose of this paper is to describe the somewhat awkward situation for our employees when working as external personnel on German nuclear installations. Our Swedish personnel are currently using German dose passports. Since Sweden joined the European Union in 1995 this is in contradiction to the EU-directives. Hence, Westinghouse Atom has applied for a license for the use of Swedish dose passports in Germany. The amount of people performing service jobs in Germany is approximately 80 persons. (authors)

  7. Diversion path analysis for the Swedish geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzell, Anni; Meer, Klaas Van Der

    2008-02-01

    The Swedish strategy to handle the spent fuel from the nuclear power plants is direct disposal in a geological repository. The safeguards regime covering all nuclear material in the state will be expanded to cover the new repository, which will require a novel safeguards approach due mainly to the inaccessibility of the fuel after disposal. The safeguards approach must be able to provide a high level of assurance that the fuel in the repository not diverted, but must also be resource efficient. An attractive approach with regards to use of resources is to monitor only the access points to the repository, i.e. the openings. The implementation of such an approach can only be allowed if it is shown to be sufficiently secure. With the purpose of determining the applicability of this 'black box' approach, a diversion path analysis for the Swedish geological repository has been carried out. The result from the analysis shows that all credible diversion paths could be covered by the black-box safeguards approach provided that the identified boundary conditions can be met

  8. Water scrubbers as new mitigating devices in Swedish reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espefaelt, R.

    1988-01-01

    Controlling the containment pressure is an important part of the Swedish severe accident mitigation strategy. As a final measure, venting of the containment atmosphere to the environment is feasible via a filtered venting system using a water scrubber as the filtering device. The comprehensive theoretical and experimental verification of the Multi Venturi Scrubber System has resulted in the following predicted scrubber performance: Both during the scrubber heat-up phase and in long periods of operation, where the water of the scrubber is heated to saturation, a decontamination factor of the order of several thousand is predicted. During no conditions foreseen in the safety analysis are decontamination factors below DF = 500 in the BWR scrubber and DF = 1500 in the PWR scrubber envisaged. These values are equivalent to a retention of 99.8 % and 99.9 % respectively and correspond to a case with only about 10-20 cm of water above the venturi tube outlets and unfavorable gas dynamic conditions. They can be compared to the design values (DF = 100 and 500, respectively) required to limit ground contamination to the very low level specified by Swedish authorities. 1 fig

  9. Diversion path analysis for the Swedish geological repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzell, Anni (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)); Meer, Klaas Van Der (Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK.CEN (BG))

    2008-02-15

    The Swedish strategy to handle the spent fuel from the nuclear power plants is direct disposal in a geological repository. The safeguards regime covering all nuclear material in the state will be expanded to cover the new repository, which will require a novel safeguards approach due mainly to the inaccessibility of the fuel after disposal. The safeguards approach must be able to provide a high level of assurance that the fuel in the repository not diverted, but must also be resource efficient. An attractive approach with regards to use of resources is to monitor only the access points to the repository, i.e. the openings. The implementation of such an approach can only be allowed if it is shown to be sufficiently secure. With the purpose of determining the applicability of this 'black box' approach, a diversion path analysis for the Swedish geological repository has been carried out. The result from the analysis shows that all credible diversion paths could be covered by the black-box safeguards approach provided that the identified boundary conditions can be met

  10. Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE in Swedish sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspan Anna

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat in veterinary medicine and human healthcare. Resistance genes can spread from animals, through the food-chain, and back to humans. Sewage sludge may act as the link back from humans to animals. The main aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE in treated sewage sludge, in a Swedish waste water treatment plant (WWTP, and to compare VRE isolates from sewage sludge with isolates from humans and chickens. Methods During a four month long study, sewage sludge was collected weekly and cultured for VRE. The VRE isolates from sewage sludge were analysed and compared to each other and to human and chicken VRE isolates by biochemical typing (PhenePlate, PFGE and antibiograms. Results Biochemical typing (PhenePlate-FS and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE revealed prevalence of specific VRE strains in sewage sludge for up to 16 weeks. No connection was found between the VRE strains isolated from sludge, chickens and humans, indicating that human VRE did not originate from Swedish chicken. Conclusion This study demonstrated widespread occurrence of VRE in sewage sludge in the studied WWTP. This implies a risk of antimicrobial resistance being spread to new farms and to the society via the environment if the sewage sludge is used on arable land.

  11. Norms and economic motivation in the Swedish green electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ek, Kristina; Soederholm, Patrik

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an econometric analysis of the most important determinants of Swedish households' choice to pay a price premium for 'green' electricity. We draw on recent developments in the literature on integrating norm-motivated behavior into neoclassical consumer theory, and assume that individuals have a preference for keeping a self-image as a morally responsible person. Consumer behavior in the 'green market place' will then be heavily determined by how purchases of different goods affect this self-image. The analysis is based on postal survey responses from 655 Swedish households, which are analyzed within a binary choice econometric framework. The results indicate that the impact of choosing 'green' on the household budget largely influences the choice between 'green' and 'brown' electricity, as does the degree of perceived personal responsibility for the issue and the felt ability to affect the outcome in a positive way. We find limited support for the notion that perceptions about others' behavior in general affect individual moral norms and ultimately expressed behavior, but this is also complemented by the influence of explicit social influence. The difficulty in observing others' purchases makes it however difficult to distinguish between social and moral norms in the case of 'green' electricity. (author)

  12. Norms and economic motivation in the Swedish green electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ek, Kristina; Soederholm, Patrik [Luleaa University of Technology, Economics Unit, 971 87 Luleaa (Sweden)

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an econometric analysis of the most important determinants of Swedish households' choice to pay a price premium for 'green' electricity. We draw on recent developments in the literature on integrating norm-motivated behavior into neoclassical consumer theory, and assume that individuals have a preference for keeping a self-image as a morally responsible person. Consumer behavior in the 'green market place' will then be heavily determined by how purchases of different goods affect this self-image. The analysis is based on postal survey responses from 655 Swedish households, which are analyzed within a binary choice econometric framework. The results indicate that the impact of choosing 'green' on the household budget largely influences the choice between 'green' and 'brown' electricity, as does the degree of perceived personal responsibility for the issue and the felt ability to affect the outcome in a positive way. We find limited support for the notion that perceptions about others' behavior in general affect individual moral norms and ultimately expressed behavior, but this is also complemented by the influence of explicit social influence. The difficulty in observing others' purchases makes it however difficult to distinguish between social and moral norms in the case of 'green' electricity. (author)

  13. Influencing Swedish homeowners to adopt district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, Akademigatan 1, 831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2009-02-15

    Improved energy efficiency and greenhouse gas mitigation could be achieved by replacing resistance heaters with district heating system. In 2005, only about 8% of the Swedish detached houses had district heating system. The expansion of such systems largely depends on homeowners' adoption decisions. And, to motivate homeowners to adopt district heating, it is essential to understand their decision-making process. In this context, in June 2005 we carried out a questionnaire survey of about 700 homeowners who lived in the city of Oestersund in houses with resistance heaters (baseline survey). About 84% of the respondents did not intend to install a new heating system. Since then these homeowners were influenced by (a) an investment subsidy by the Swedish government to replace resistance heaters with district heating, a brine/water-based heat pump, or a biomass-based heating system and (b) a marketing campaign by the municipality-owned district heating company. This paper analyses how these two measures influenced about 78% of the homeowners to adopt the district heating system. For this purpose we carried out a follow-up survey of the same homeowners in December 2006 (resurvey). Results showed that the investment subsidy and the marketing campaign created a need among the homeowners to adopt a new heating system. The marketing campaign was successful in motivating them to adopt the district heating system. The marketing strategy by the district heating company corresponds to the results obtained in the baseline survey. (author)

  14. Sleep characteristics and cardiovascular events in a large Swedish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, Anna; Bellocco, Rino; Sundström, Johan; Adami, Hans-Olov; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Trolle Lagerros, Ylva

    2013-06-01

    Limited evidence suggests that the association between sleep duration and cardiovascular events is strongest in individuals who also report sleep disturbances. We investigated sleep duration and insomnia symptoms in relation to incident cardiovascular events in the Swedish National March Cohort comprising 41,192 adults. Habitual sleep duration and difficulty falling asleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, early morning awakening, and nonrestorative sleep were self-reported in 1997. During 13.2 years of follow-up, we identified 4,031 events (myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, or death from cardiovascular disease) in the Swedish National Patient Register and the Cause of Death Register. After adjustment for potential confounders, short sleep duration (≤5 h) was associated with slightly increased risks of overall cardiovascular events and, specifically, myocardial infarction: hazard ratio, HR (95% confidence interval) 1.24 (1.06-1.44) and 1.42 (1.15-1.76), respectively. These HRs were attenuated as we included BMI, depressive symptoms and other relevant covariates in our analysis. Insomnia symptoms per se were unrelated to risk. However, in a joint analysis, there was some evidence that short sleepers who reported frequent insomnia symptoms had the highest HRs (1.26-1.39) of overall cardiovascular events. Short sleep or insomnia symptoms without the other conferred no increased risk. Our results suggest that symptoms of sleep disturbance should be taken into account when assessing the association between short sleep and cardiovascular disease.

  15. Energy Performance Indicators in the Swedish Building Procurement Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Allard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, all new buildings need to comply with the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning’s requirement on specific purchased energy (kWh/m2. Accordingly, this indicator is often used to set design criteria in the building procurement process. However, when energy use is measured in finished buildings, the measurements often deviate significantly from the design calculations. The measured specific purchased energy does not necessarily reflect the responsibility of the building contractor, as it is influenced by the building operation, user behavior and climate. Therefore, Swedish building practitioners may prefer other indicators for setting design criteria in the building procurement process. The aim of this study was twofold: (i to understand the Swedish building practitioners’ perspectives and opinions on seven building energy performance indicators (envelope air leakage, U-values for different building parts, average U-value, specific heat loss, heat loss coefficient, specific net energy, and specific purchased energy; and (ii to understand the consequences for the energy performance of multi-family buildings of using the studied indicators to set criteria in the procurement process. The study involved a Delphi approach and simulations of a multi-family case study building. The studied indicators were discussed in terms of how they may meet the needs of the building practitioners when used to set building energy performance criteria in the procurement process.

  16. Health information, an area for competition in Swedish pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson EC

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the views and expectations of a selected group of customers regarding health information in Swedish pharmacies. Methods: A repeated cross sectional, questionnaire study carried out in 2004 and 2005. Customers buying calcium products answered questions on osteoporosis and general questions on health promotion and information. Results: Respondents had a positive attitude towards receiving health information from the pharmacies and towards the pharmacies’ future role in health promotion. However, only 30% of the respondents expected to get information on general health issues from the pharmacy. In spite of this, 76% (2004 and 72% (2005 of the respondents believed that the pharmacies could influence people’s willingness to improve their health.Conclusion: There is a gap between the respondents’ positive attitudes towards the Swedish pharmacies and their low expectations as regards the pharmacies’ ability to provide health information. In the light of the upcoming change to the state monopoly on medicine sales, this gap could be an important area for competition between the actors in the new situation for medicine sales in Sweden.

  17. The Swedish dilemma - Nuclear energy v. the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordhaus, W D [Yale Univ. (United States)

    1995-11-01

    A phaseout of nuclear power in Sweden is supposed to be accomplished by year 2010. This study is an economic analysis of the questions that are parts of the nuclear dilemma. Even though the economic questions are in focus, the important environmental, health and safety questions are also treated. The basic argument is that Sweden should choose an energy system that allows its citizens to maximize their consumption in a long-term perspective. Consumption is here given a meaning that includes elements outside the market, such as environmental, health and safety aspects valued in a reasonable way. Considerations must also be given to international aspects like global environment, a free and open system of trade and the value of a stable set of rules and proprietary rights. The study compares the economic pros and cons of different energy systems within this general frame. A detailed model of the Swedish energy and power sectors was developed for the study, called the Swedish Energy and Environment Policy (SEEP) model. the SEEP model is built on modern economic theory and includes energy and environmental factors in a uniform way. 8 figs 16 tabs.

  18. Siting of the Swedish deep geological repository - experiences and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.; Backblom, G.; Thegerstrom, C.; Ahlbom, K.; Leijon, B.

    1996-01-01

    The paper provides a brief overview of the Swedish siting programme for a deep repository. A stepwise process is a key element in the planning and implementation of deep disposal of long-lived waste in Sweden. The local siting work is made in cooperation with the affected and concerned municipalities. The programs, decisions and results that so far have been reported and ongoing feasibility studies is a solid platform for the continuing siting work. It can be noted that the siting work in some cases has caused heavy opposition and negative opinions. Careful considerations on how to proceed to develop the necessary background material must therefore be made. The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process that has started in conjunction with feasibility studies are judged to play an important role in the future. In this process, with extensive local involvement, critical issues can be detected at an early stage and sound ideas on both the process itself and on technical issues can be incorporated. To facilitate information exchange and cooperation between the municipalities involved and to coordinate liaison between the municipalities and county administrative boards affected by the studies, the Swedish government has appointed a National Coordinator for nuclear waste disposal. The government also has decided to provide the concerned municipalities with funding for their participation in the process. (author)

  19. Influencing Swedish homeowners to adopt district heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif

    2009-01-01

    Improved energy efficiency and greenhouse gas mitigation could be achieved by replacing resistance heaters with district heating system. In 2005, only about 8% of the Swedish detached houses had district heating system. The expansion of such systems largely depends on homeowners' adoption decisions. And, to motivate homeowners to adopt district heating, it is essential to understand their decision-making process. In this context, in June 2005 we carried out a questionnaire survey of about 700 homeowners who lived in the city of Ostersund in houses with resistance heaters (baseline survey). About 84% of the respondents did not intend to install a new heating system. Since then these homeowners were influenced by (a) an investment subsidy by the Swedish government to replace resistance heaters with district heating, a brine/water-based heat pump, or a biomass-based heating system and (b) a marketing campaign by the municipality-owned district heating company. This paper analyses how these two measures influenced about 78% of the homeowners to adopt the district heating system. For this purpose we carried out a follow-up survey of the same homeowners in December 2006 (resurvey). Results showed that the investment subsidy and the marketing campaign created a need among the homeowners to adopt a new heating system. The marketing campaign was successful in motivating them to adopt the district heating system. The marketing strategy by the district heating company corresponds to the results obtained in the baseline survey

  20. The Swedish dilemma - Nuclear energy v. the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordhaus, W.D.

    1995-11-01

    A phaseout of nuclear power in Sweden is supposed to be accomplished by year 2010. This study is an economic analysis of the questions that are parts of the nuclear dilemma. Even though the economic questions are in focus, the important environmental, health and safety questions are also treated. The basic argument is that Sweden should choose an energy system that allows its citizens to maximize their consumption in a long-term perspective. Consumption is here given a meaning that includes elements outside the market, such as environmental, health and safety aspects valued in a reasonable way. Considerations must also be given to international aspects like global environment, a free and open system of trade and the value of a stable set of rules and proprietary rights. The study compares the economic pros and cons of different energy systems within this general frame. A detailed model of the Swedish energy and power sectors was developed for the study, called the Swedish Energy and Environment Policy (SEEP) model. the SEEP model is built on modern economic theory and includes energy and environmental factors in a uniform way. 8 figs 16 tabs

  1. Swedish Seafarers' Commitment to Work in Times of Flagging out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hult

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study takes its departure in the difficulties to recruit and retain qualified senior seafarers in the Swedish shipping sector. The study focus is on seafarers' motivation at work for the specific shipping company (organizational commitment, and seafarers' motivation towards their occupation (occupational commitment, in times of flagging out. It was hypothesized that the youngest seafarers and the oldest may be most sensitive to foreign registration of ships. Statistical analyses were employed, using a survey material of 1,309 Swedish seafarers randomly collected in 2010 from a national register of seafarers. The results of the analyses show that flagging-out imposes a significant decline in organizational commitment for all seafarers. This decline is related to the perception of the social composition of crew. In addition, the oldest seafarers (age 55+ demonstrate diminished occupational commitment under a foreign flag. This decline is related to the degree of satisfaction with the social security structure. Occupational commitment among the youngest seafarers (age 19-30 is not affected by the nationality of flag. However, this type of commitment is decreasing by the time served on the same ship. This effect is partly related to a decline in satisfaction with the work content. In the concluding discussion, the findings are discussed in more details and recommendations are put forward.

  2. Compensation in Swedish infrastructure projects and suggestions on policy improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Persson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental compensation includes a range of activities intended to counterbalance such negative impacts of development projects that remain in the environment after all preventive and corrective measures have been fully implemented. Sweden, being a member state of the European Union (EU, must implement environmental compensation under EU directives such as the Habitat Directive. However, like in other countries, implementation is not yet widespread in Sweden, and new practices and guidelines remain to be developed both nationally and at European level. This need is all the more urgent considering that the European Commission estimates that, within the EU, about 100,000 hectares of land is converted from its natural state each year. The aim of this paper is to describe current environmental-compensation practices in Swedish road and railway projects and to discuss issues of vital importance to the development of compensation policy, such as what to compensate for, how much, and how. A national inventory was performed, for the first time in Sweden, to identify compensation measures in road and railway projects. Data were collected from a national mailing list including 141 officials at county administrative boards (CABs, internal e-mail correspondence within the Swedish Transport Administration and databases of court decisions. The inventory focused on compensation measures ordered by virtue of the Swedish Environmental Code. In addition, two case studies were carried out to investigate the planning of compensation measures. The results showed that CABs and courts rarely order compensation in infrastructure projects, even though this is possible under Swedish law. Between 1999 and 2012, 37 cases (i.e. permits issued were found for which compensation was ordered. Of these cases, 76% concerned compensation for encroachments on minor habitats such as small ponds and cairns. No CAB ordered compensation for non-protected areas. Compensation ratios

  3. Margins in Swedish district heating systems; Marginaler i Fjaerrvaermesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selinder, Patrik; Zinko, Heimo [ZW Energiteknik AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2003-03-01

    It can be assumed on good reasons that the Swedish district heating nets are designed with relatively large margins concerning the transportable power. This is done historically to be able to transport the necessary power that can be called for on the coldest winter days but which occur rarely and also due to the former (until 2001) applied recommendations for the dimensioning of hot water flows. The aim of this project was to investigate the possibilities of reducing the connecting power to customers, both from a technical and from the customer point of view. The heating system of a building in Sweden is normally dimensioned according to a certain outdoor air temperature (DUT in Swedish). According to the Swedish Building Code, DUT20 is defined for a given location in such a way that if the heating system is designed for this temperature, the room temperature is allowed to decrease by 3 deg C in the average once in 20 years. That means that for economical reasons, a power deficiency is accounted for in the case of strong cold. The value of DUT is depending on the thermal inertia of the building. Buildings with high thermal inertia can have a higher DUT and vice versa. A reduced system size can in principle mean smaller size of pipes and consumer substations and more power available for additional customers to be connected. In principle, that means a more profitable district heating operation. Besides costs, another problem with oversized capacities are possible operational problems due to slow dynamic system responses, for instance at restarting occasions after a pump stop. A smaller valve size will result in a better system dynamic and may result in a more compliant system operation and increased delivery quality. By choosing just right DUT for every building and abandoning safety margins, it is shown in the report that the connecting power can be reduced in especially medium light to heavy buildings with larger time constants. However, this also means that the

  4. Swedish national plan for the management of all radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-01-15

    The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority has been assigned by the government to develop a national plan for the management of all radioactive waste. This report was presented to the government 30 June 2009. The report has been developed in coordination with representatives from other authorities, trade and industry organizations, operators and other parties interested, forming a joint action group. The action proposals in this report are focused on bringing waste management outside the nuclear field, where requirements are essentially regulated by the Act on Radiation Protection, to a level comparable with the management of nuclear waste (including the management of spent nuclear fuel). The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority believes that the objective of the national waste plan is that Sweden, by 2020, will have a comprehensive waste management system whereby all types of radioactive waste will be disposed of in a safe manner. The plan will make it easier to ensure that waste sub-systems for nuclear and non-nuclear waste - which could otherwise easily be regarded as being separated from each other - do not need to be distinguished to any great extent. To ensure continuity in the work in the future, with regard to the follow-up of plans for all radioactive waste, the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority propose that the national waste plan is updated every three years. The plan can then function as the strategy document or the action plan it is intended to be, ensuring that the focus remains on the various problems associated with waste management at different times, so that the set objective can be reached by 2020. A survey was carried out to identify the problems and shortcomings that were found in the waste-management system and what measures are required to resolve them within the near future. The joint action group has contributed by describing various problems as well as by offering points of view on the action proposals which the Swedish Radiation Safety

  5. Swedish national plan for the management of all radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority has been assigned by the government to develop a national plan for the management of all radioactive waste. This report was presented to the government 30 June 2009. The report has been developed in coordination with representatives from other authorities, trade and industry organizations, operators and other parties interested, forming a joint action group. The action proposals in this report are focused on bringing waste management outside the nuclear field, where requirements are essentially regulated by the Act on Radiation Protection, to a level comparable with the management of nuclear waste (including the management of spent nuclear fuel). The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority believes that the objective of the national waste plan is that Sweden, by 2020, will have a comprehensive waste management system whereby all types of radioactive waste will be disposed of in a safe manner. The plan will make it easier to ensure that waste sub-systems for nuclear and non-nuclear waste - which could otherwise easily be regarded as being separated from each other - do not need to be distinguished to any great extent. To ensure continuity in the work in the future, with regard to the follow-up of plans for all radioactive waste, the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority propose that the national waste plan is updated every three years. The plan can then function as the strategy document or the action plan it is intended to be, ensuring that the focus remains on the various problems associated with waste management at different times, so that the set objective can be reached by 2020. A survey was carried out to identify the problems and shortcomings that were found in the waste-management system and what measures are required to resolve them within the near future. The joint action group has contributed by describing various problems as well as by offering points of view on the action proposals which the Swedish Radiation Safety

  6. The Swedish National Defence Research Establishment and the plans for Swedish nuclear weapons; Foersvarets forskningsanstalt och planerna paa svenska kaernvapen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonter, Thomas [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of History

    2001-03-01

    This study analyses the Swedish nuclear weapons research since 1945 carried out by the Swedish National Defence Research Establishment (FOA). The most important aspect of this research was dealing with protection in broad terms against nuclear weapons attacks. However, another aspect was also important from early on - to conduct research aiming at a possible production of nuclear weapons. FOA performed an extended research up to 1968, when the Swedish Government signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which meant the end of these production plans. Up to this date, five main investigations about the technical conditions were made, 1948, 1953, 1955, 1957 and 1965, which all together expanded the Swedish know-how to produce a bomb. The Swedish plans to procure nuclear weapons were not an issue in the debate until the mid 50's. The reason for this was simple, prior to 1954 the plans were secretly held within a small group of involved politicians, military and researchers. The change of this procedure did take place when the Swedish Supreme Commander in a public defence report in 1954 favoured a Swedish Nuclear weapons option. In 1958 FOA had reached a technical level that allowed the Parliament to make a decision. Two programs were proposed - the L-programme (the Loading Programme), to be used if the parliament would say yes to a production of nuclear weapons, and the S-programme (the Protection Programme), if the Parliament would say no. The debate on the issue had now created problems for the Social Democratic Government. The Prime Minister, Tage Erlander, who had earlier defended a procurement of nuclear weapons, was now forced to reach a compromise. The compromise was presented to the parliament in a creative manner that meant that only the S-programme would be allowed. The Government argued that the technical level did allow a 'freedom of action' up to at least the beginning of the 60's when Sweden was mature to make a decision on the issue

  7. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The total generation of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 70.1 TWh during 1999, which is slightly more than the mean value for the last five years. The total electricity consumption decreased by one percent, compared with 1998, to a total of 142.3 TWh, due to an unusually warm summer and autumn. The abundant supply of hydroelectric power resulted in comparatively extensive load-following operation by the nuclear plants during the year. Production losses due to low demand totalled 3.0 TWh. The closure of Barsebaeck 1 will result in a capacity reduction exceeding 4 TWh per year. The hydroelectric power production was 70 TWh, which was 6 TWh more than during a normal year, i.e. a year with average rainfall. The remaining production sources, mainly from solid fuel plants combined with district heating contributed 9 TWh. Electricity generation by means of wind power is still increasing. There are now about 470 wind power stations, which produced 0.3 TWh during the year. The total electricity generation totalled 149.8 TWh, a three percent decrease compared with 1998. The preliminary figures for export were 15.9 TWh and for import 8.4 TWh. The figures above are calculated from the preliminary production result. A comprehensive report on electric power supply and consumption in Sweden is provided in the 1999 Annual Report from the Swedish Power Association. The unit capability factor for the PWRs at Ringhals averaged 91%, while the BWRs averaged 82% mainly due to the extended outages. The BWR reactors at Forsmark averaged as much as 93%. Forsmark 1 experienced the shortest refuelling outage ever in Sweden, only 9 days and 20 hours. In May, Oskarshamn 2 passed a historical milestone - the unit produced 100 TWh since connection to the grid in 1974. The final production day for Barsebaeck 1, which had been in commercial operation since 1975, was on November 30 when a decision by the Swedish Government revoked the operating licence. Three safety-related events

  8. Cumulative effects in Swedish EIA practice - difficulties and obstacles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waernbaeck, Antoienette; Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija

    2009-01-01

    The importance of considering cumulative effects (CE) in the context of environmental assessment is manifested in the EU regulations. The demands on the contents of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) documents explicitly ask for CE to be described. In Swedish environmental assessment documents CE are rarely described or included. The aim of this paper is to look into the reasons behind this fact in the Swedish context. The paper describes and analyse how actors implementing the EIA and SEA legislation in Sweden perceive the current situation in relation to the legislative demands and the inclusion of cumulative effects. Through semi-structured interviews the following questions have been explored: Is the phenomenon of CE discussed and included in the EIA/SEA process? What do the actors include in and what is their knowledge of the term and concept of CE? Which difficulties and obstacles do these actors experience and what possibilities for inclusion of CE do they see in the EIA/SEA process? A large number of obstacles and hindrances emerged from the interviews conducted. It can be concluded from the analysis that the will to act does seem to exist. A lack of knowledge in respect of how to include cumulative effects and a lack of clear regulations concerning how this should be done seem to be perceived as the main obstacles. The knowledge of the term and the phenomenon is furthermore quite narrow and not all encompassing. They experience that there is a lack of procedures in place. They also seem to lack knowledge of methods in relation to how to actually work, in practice, with CE and how to include CE in the EIA/SEA process. It can be stated that the existence of this poor picture in relation to practice concerning CE in the context of impact assessment mirrors the existing and so far rather vague demands in respect of the inclusion and assessment of CE in Swedish EIA and SEA legislation, regulations, guidelines and

  9. Methyl mercury exposure in Swedish women with high fish consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoernberg, Karolin Ask [Division of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77, Stockholm (Sweden); Vahter, Marie [Division of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77, Stockholm (Sweden); Grawe, Kierstin Petersson [Toxicology Division, National Food Administration, Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Berglund, Marika [Division of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77, Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: Marika.Berglund@imm.ki.se

    2005-04-01

    We studied the exposure to methyl mercury (MeHg) in 127 Swedish women of childbearing age with high consumption of various types of fish, using total mercury (T-Hg) in hair and MeHg in blood as biomarkers. Fish consumption was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), including detailed information about consumption of different fish species, reflecting average intake during 1 year. We also determined inorganic mercury (I-Hg) in blood, and selenium (Se) in serum. The average total fish consumption, as reported in the food frequency questionnaire, was approximately 4 times/week (range 1.6-19 times/week). Fish species potentially high in MeHg, included in the Swedish dietary advisories, was consumed by 79% of the women. About 10% consumed such species more than once a week, i.e., more than what is recommended. Other fish species potentially high in MeHg, not included in the Swedish dietary advisories, was consumed by 54% of the women. Eleven percent never consumed fish species potentially high in MeHg. T-Hg in hair (median 0.70 mg/kg; range 0.08-6.6 mg/kg) was associated with MeHg in blood (median 1.7 {mu}g/L; range 0.30-14 {mu}g/L; r {sub s}=0.78; p<0.001). Hair T-Hg, blood MeHg and serum Se (median 70 {mu}g/L; range 46-154 {mu}g/L) increased with increasing total fish consumption (r {sub s}=0.32; p<0.001, r {sub s}=0.37; p<0.001 and r {sub s}=0.35; p=0.002, respectively). I-Hg in blood (median 0.24 {mu}g/L; range 0.01-1.6 {mu}g/L) increased with increasing number of dental amalgam fillings. We found no statistical significant associations between the various mercury species measured and the Se concentration in serum. Hair mercury levels exceeded the levels corresponding to the EPA reference dose (RfD) of 0.1 {mu}g MeHg/kg b.w. per day in 20% of the women. Thus, there seems to be no margin of safety for neurodevelopmental effects in fetus, for women with high fish consumption unless they decrease their intake of certain fish species.

  10. Methyl mercury exposure in Swedish women with high fish consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernberg, Karolin Ask; Vahter, Marie; Grawe, Kierstin Petersson; Berglund, Marika

    2005-01-01

    We studied the exposure to methyl mercury (MeHg) in 127 Swedish women of childbearing age with high consumption of various types of fish, using total mercury (T-Hg) in hair and MeHg in blood as biomarkers. Fish consumption was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), including detailed information about consumption of different fish species, reflecting average intake during 1 year. We also determined inorganic mercury (I-Hg) in blood, and selenium (Se) in serum. The average total fish consumption, as reported in the food frequency questionnaire, was approximately 4 times/week (range 1.6-19 times/week). Fish species potentially high in MeHg, included in the Swedish dietary advisories, was consumed by 79% of the women. About 10% consumed such species more than once a week, i.e., more than what is recommended. Other fish species potentially high in MeHg, not included in the Swedish dietary advisories, was consumed by 54% of the women. Eleven percent never consumed fish species potentially high in MeHg. T-Hg in hair (median 0.70 mg/kg; range 0.08-6.6 mg/kg) was associated with MeHg in blood (median 1.7 μg/L; range 0.30-14 μg/L; r s =0.78; p s =0.32; p s =0.37; p s =0.35; p=0.002, respectively). I-Hg in blood (median 0.24 μg/L; range 0.01-1.6 μg/L) increased with increasing number of dental amalgam fillings. We found no statistical significant associations between the various mercury species measured and the Se concentration in serum. Hair mercury levels exceeded the levels corresponding to the EPA reference dose (RfD) of 0.1 μg MeHg/kg b.w. per day in 20% of the women. Thus, there seems to be no margin of safety for neurodevelopmental effects in fetus, for women with high fish consumption unless they decrease their intake of certain fish species

  11. Factors contributing to the differences in work related injury rates between Danish and Swedish construction workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangenberg, S.; Baarts, C.; Dyreborg, J.

    2002-01-01

    of injury risk factors at group and individual level for Danish and Swedish workers. LTI-rates and injury risk factors were compared for Danish and Swedish workers during the construction of the combined rail and road link across the 16-km wide sound, Oresund, between Denmark and Sweden. The comparison...... showed that the LTI-rate of the Danish construction workers was approximately fourfold the LTI-rate of the Swedish construction workers. Factors at the micro-level (group and individual level) e.g. differences in education and experience, training and learning, and attitude were important...

  12. Summary of personnel doses and discharge of radioactivity at Swedish nuclear power plants 1971-1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmqvist, L.; Persson, Aa.

    1977-01-01

    The report is a summary of personnel doses and activity discharges from Swedish nuclear power plants during the first five years of electric power production by nuclear plants. The personnel doses for the Sweedish plants are lower than the corresponding values for American plants. The highest Swedish value is o,13 manrem per MWE and year. The discharge of radioactivity to the atmosphere from the Swedish plants has been for below the maximum permissible limits. The discharge of radioactivity to the water recipients was less than 1 % of what is permissible

  13. Shadow Prices for Undesirables in Swedish Industry: Indication of Environmental Kuznets Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankarhem, Mattias (e-mail: mattias.ankarhem@econ.umu.se)

    2005-04-15

    In this note, we estimate time series of shadow prices for Swedish emissions of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} , and VOC for the period 1918 - 1994. The shadow prices are in the second step related to income to explain the environmental Kuznets curves previously found for Swedish data on the three emissions. A Shephard distance function approach is used to estimate a structural model of the industry's production process in order to calculate the opportunity costs of a reduction in the emissions. We conclude that the times series of the shadow prices obtained using this approach do not show support for EKCs for Swedish industry.

  14. Studies of transferin polymorphism in Swedish cattle using agarose gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberg, P.; Carlstroem, G.

    1976-01-01

    The polymorphic transferrin picture in the sera from 894 Swedish cattle was investigated with an agarose gel electrophoresis technique. The serum transferrin bands in the electrophoresis pattern were first identified by labelling with 59 Fe. Six existing phenotypes based on the alleles Tf(supA), Tf(supD) and Tf(supE) could be detected. The frequencies of transferrin types and transferrin alleles are presented, and it is concluded that there are great differences in the frequencis between the Swedish Red and White and the Swedish Friesian. (author)

  15. ECDS - a Swedish Research Infrastructure for the Open Sharing of Environment and Climate Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Klein

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Environment Climate Data Sweden (ECDS is a new Swedish research infrastructure, furthering the reuse of scientific data in the domains of environment and climate. ECDS consists of a technical infrastructure and a service organization, supporting the management, exchange, and re-use of scientific data. The technical components of ECDS include a portal and an underlying data catalogue with information on datasets. The datasets are described using a metadata profile compliant with international standards. The datasets accessible through ECDS can be hosted by universities, institutes, or research groups or at the new Swedish federated data storage facility Swestore of the Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC.

  16. A review of scope and costs for the swedish system for management of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    From a financial analysis of the swedish nuclear waste management program it is deduced that a 25 year long operation of the swedish reactors will not create funds large enough to finance the program at the present fee level (0.019 SEK/kWh). The real interest rate is of great importance for the return from the fees. The cost estimates for decommissioning are much lower than that for comparable reactors in other countries (e.g. Trojan, USA vs Ringhals 2), possibly totaling up to 20 GSEK for all twelve swedish reactors. 3 figs., 12 tabs

  17. Report on the status of instrumentation and control in Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroebeck, E.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power plants accounted for 46% of the total electric power production in Sweden in 1990. The availability of the Swedish reactors remains at a very high level. The oldest Swedish nuclear power plant has been in operation for nearly 20 years, and in the next 5 to 10 years a large portion of the NPP electrical equipment has to be replaced. The paper presents an overview of activities on control and instrumentation in the following: Future developments; implementation of computer-based systems; training simulators; nuclear safety research. The operating experience in Swedish nuclear power plants in 1991 is also presented. (author)

  18. Média dos valores da frase em diferentes gravidades do desvio fonológico evolutivo Average values of phrase in different severities of phonological disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile Konzen Albiero

    2012-01-01

    , through the research on the average values of phrase, in which they collected phrases from three different language modalities: describing a picture, telling a story, and answering questions. The five phrases the children first spoke were punctuated according to their complexity. Next, we accomplished the statistical analysis through the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test. The significant p value is considered p<0.05. RESULTS: there was no statistical significant difference among the different degrees of severity of the phonological disorder in the three evaluated language modalities, as related to the morphosyntax, semantics, total of construction, and total of length. CONCLUSION: we can conclude that the severity of the phonological disorder does not affect the children's performance regarding morphosyntax and semantic development, because there was no statistical significance among the results. Therefore, we may suggest that other studies should be carried out in order to confirm or not such results.

  19. Factors influencing energy efficiency investments in existing Swedish residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif; Mahapatra, Krushna [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-83125 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-06-15

    We used the data from a survey conducted in 2008 of 3,000 owners of detached houses to analyse the factors that influence the adoption of investment measures to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings. For the majority of Swedish homeowners, it was important to reduce their household energy use, and most of them undertook no-cost measures as compared to investment measures. Personal attributes such as income, education, age and contextual factors, including age of the house, thermal discomfort, past investment, and perceived energy cost, influence homeowners' preference for a particular type of energy efficiency measure. The implications for promoting the implementation of energy efficiency investment measures are discussed. (author)

  20. Swedish Homeowners' Attitude towards Water-Based Heating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, L; Mahapatra, K [Mid Sweden Univ., Ecotechnology, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2008-10-15

    In 2004 and 2007, we conducted questionnaire surveys of 1,500 randomly selected Swedish homeowners of detached houses to understand their attitude towards adopting an innovative heating system (IHS). The results showed that there was no substantial change in homeowners' attitude towards IHSs. More than 80% of the respondents did not intend to install a new heating system. Economic aspects and functional reliability were the most important factors in the respondents' choice of heating system while environmental factors were of less importance. Installers were the most frequently consulted source of information on heating systems. Respondents perceived the relative advantage of pellet boilers over oil or electricity-based heating systems, but bedrock heat pump system was ranked higher than pellet heating system in every aspect except for investment cost. Pellet heating system has advantages with respect to investment cost. District heating system was considered as most functionally reliable and automatic. Keywords: Heat sector, socio-economic aspects, market implementation

  1. Informing the Swedish public about radiation. A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waahlberg, A. af

    1997-09-01

    The two Swedish state agencies handling radiation protection and nuclear safety are studied as to their information policies and documents, with special attention to Chernobyl. The principal aim is an assessment of policies and documents. A quantitative coding is made of the printed document's key features. The study is a part of a larger CEC-project, and similar studies are made in three other countries, according to common guidelines. The general radiation situation in Sweden and its historical background is described, generating a picture of a rather safe, tightly controlled and thoroughly researched issue. The agencies are very active in their information work, using just about every conceivable channel to disseminate radiation information. The intellectual range of the printed documents is great, as very different groups are targeted, from the general public to researchers and other state agency employees

  2. Assessment of body perception among Swedish adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, E; Stenlund, H; Svedjehäll, B

    2000-01-01

    To assess body perception in adolescents and young adults without anorexia nervosa. Using a visual size estimation technique, perceived body size was estimated in four groups of Swedish adolescents and young adults without anorexia nervosa (86 males and 95 females). Perceived body size was estimated at nine different body sites comparing these estimations to real body size. The results show that 95% of males and 96% of females overestimated their body size (mean overestimation: males +22%, females +33%). The overestimations were greatest in females. The greatest overestimations were made of the waist (males +31%, females +46%), buttocks (males +22%, females +42%), and thighs (males +27%, females +41%). The results indicate that overestimation of body size may be a general phenomenon in adolescents and young adults in a country such as Sweden, implying a similar, but less pronounced distortion of body image as in individuals with anorexia nervosa.

  3. The Swedish Model in Employment. Post-Crisis Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Ionela ACELEANU

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish model in the field of employment is part of the Nordic countries model focused on labour market flexibility in terms of a generous welfare system. This paper presents the characteristics of this model and its application effects in Sweden before and after the current crisis. According to specialized studies and registered indicators, Sweden has very good results in terms of general well-being, quality of life, employment of labour resources, being among the top countries. Thus, since the experience of the developed countries should be a benchmark for the developing countries, the purpose of the paper is to identify some measures that can be applied in Romania to improve employment, economic and social policies.

  4. Delegated democracy. Siting selection for the Swedish nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Hanna Sofia

    2008-11-01

    The present study concerns the siting of the Swedish nuclear waste repository. Four cases are examined: the feasibility studies in Nykoeping and Tierp (cases 1 and 2), as well as three public consultation meetings with conservationist and environmental organisations, and two study visits to nuclear facilities in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar, which were held during what is called the site-investigation phase (cases 3 and 4). The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) began the search for a nuclear waste site in the 1970s. Since 1992 SKB has conducted feasibility studies in eight municipalities, including in the four municipalities mentioned above. At the present time more comprehensive site investigations are underway in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar, two municipalities that already host nuclear power plants as well as storages for nuclear waste. In addition to SKB and the municipalities involved in the site-selection process, politicians, opinion groups, concerned members of the public, and oversight bodies are important actors. The analysis of the cases employs the concepts of 'sub-politics', 'boundary work', and 'expertise', together with the four models of democracy 'representative democracy', participatory democracy', 'deliberative democracy', and 'technocracy'. The aim of the study is to describe the characteristics of Swedish democracy in relation to the disposal of Swedish nuclear waste. The main questions of the study are: Which democratic ideals can be found within SKB's siting process during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process during the site investigations? and Which democratic ideals were influential during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process? The study is based on qualitative methods, and the source materials consist of documents, interviews, and participant observations. In summary, the form of democracy that emerges in the four case studies can be described as delegated democracy. This means that a large

  5. Factors related to alcohol and drug consumption in Swedish widows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimby, Agneta; Johansson, Asa K

    2009-01-01

    The use of alcohol and medications among Swedish widows was analyzed in relation to various background variables. In Total, 1053 widows (640 widows younger than 65 years and 413 widows older than 65 years) answered the questionnaire. Many reported increased fatigue and sleeping problems. Around one-third of the widows reported drinking alcohol for relief of grief and inadequate support. Association existed between grief and increased intake of sedatives and sleeping pills, and between grief and drinking for relief of grief, as well as increase in intake of sedatives. In widows older than 65 years, perception of bad health, negative outlook for the future, and insufficient support seemed to increase the risk of more sedatives and sleeping pills. Negative outlook for the future also tended to lead to a heightened risk for increased intake of alcohol. There seems to be remaining health problems a long time after bereavement, and counseling may be needed especially when drugs and alcohol are extensively used.

  6. Ethnic differences in asthma treatment among Swedish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantarero-Arévalo, Lourdes; Perez Vicente, Raquel; Juarez, Sol Pia

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Adolescents with immigrant or ethnic minority background suffering from asthma receive on average less appropriate anti-asthmatic medication (AAM) than the majority population. However, those findings are based on analyses of differences between group averages which prevents our understanding...... of individual heterogeneity around the averages. Taking into account individual socioeconomic factors and medical needs, we performed multilevel analysis in order to evaluate if maternal country of birth (MCOB) accurately identifies adolescents with inappropriate AAM use. METHODS: Using the Swedish Medical...... Birth Register, we identified all singleton children born between 1988 and 1991 who were residing in the country until they turned 17 and had complete information on the study variables. We applied a two-level multilevel logistic regression analysis with 62 MCOBs at the second and 755,894 children...

  7. Development of detection techniques for the Swedish noble gas sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringbom, A.

    1998-11-01

    A short review on the radioactive properties of noble gas isotopes relevant for monitoring of nuclear activities is given, together with a brief discussion of the existing systems for detection of radioactive noble gases. A 4π detection system to be used in the automatic version of the Swedish noble gas sampling device is described. Monte Carlo calculations of the total gamma and beta efficiency for different detector designs have been performed, together with estimates of the resulting minimum detectable concentration (MDC). The estimated MDC values for detection of the 133g Xe 81 keV and the 135g Xe 250 keV gamma lines are around 0.3 mBq/m 3 in both cases. This is a factor of three lower than the detection limit required for a sampling station in the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty monitoring network. The possibility to modify the system to detect 85 Kr is also discussed

  8. Informing the Swedish public about radiation. A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waahlberg, A. af

    1997-09-01

    The two Swedish state agencies handling radiation protection and nuclear safety are studied as to their information policies and documents, with special attention to Chernobyl. The principal aim is an assessment of policies and documents. A quantitative coding is made of the printed document`s key features. The study is a part of a larger CEC-project, and similar studies are made in three other countries, according to common guidelines. The general radiation situation in Sweden and its historical background is described, generating a picture of a rather safe, tightly controlled and thoroughly researched issue. The agencies are very active in their information work, using just about every conceivable channel to disseminate radiation information. The intellectual range of the printed documents is great, as very different groups are targeted, from the general public to researchers and other state agency employees

  9. Silencing of voices in a Swedish science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos de Robles, S. Lizette

    2018-03-01

    From a sociocultural perspective, I discuss data from a Swedish science classroom presented in María Gómez's article "Student Explanations of their Science Teachers' Assessments, Grading Practices, and How they learn Science". In this discussion, I focus on the need to change existing conceptions of assessment in the teaching and learning of science. Next, I talk about the importance of taking into consideration the dialectic between agency and passivity as filters in order to understand what student silence may signify in science classes as well as in relation to their perceptions of assessment. I conclude with the importance of the teacher's role in developing formative assessment, along with the challenges in developing assessments which transform science education into a relevant field of knowledge for both students and society at large.

  10. Genetic susceptibility to bilateral tinnitus in a Swedish twin cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maas, Iris Lianne; Brüggemann, Petra; Requena, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Genetic contributions to tinnitus have been difficult to determine due to the heterogeneity of the condition and its broad etiology. Here, we evaluated the genetic and nongenetic influences on self-reported tinnitus from the Swedish Twin Registry (STR). METHODS: Cross-sectional data from...... the STR was obtained. Casewise concordance rates (the risk of one twin being affected given that his/her twin partner has tinnitus) were compared for monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs (N = 10,464 concordant and discordant twin pairs) and heritability coefficients (the proportion of the total...... variance attributable to genetic factors) were calculated using biometrical model fitting procedures. RESULTS: Stratification of tinnitus cases into subtypes according to laterality (unilateral versus bilateral) revealed that heritability of bilateral tinnitus was 0.56; however, it was 0.27 for unilateral...

  11. The Swedish sea transportation system for safety reasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybeck, P.

    1993-01-01

    Sweden began to design and build a sea transportation system. The ship M/S SIGYN is specially designed for transports of radioactive waste. It is a combined roll-on/roll-off and lift-on/lift-off vessel. It is built for world wide operation and with the highest requirements of two independent classification societies, Lloyds Register of Shipping and Bureau Veritas. The ship is also designed to conform to the Swedish/Finish ice class 1A. The transport cask for spent fuel, TN 17/2, and core component TN 17-CC are designed as type (B) casks and manufactured to comply with the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, 1973. (J.P.N.)

  12. A dynamic analysis of interfuel substitution for Swedish heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braennlund, Runar; Lundgren, Tommy

    2004-01-01

    This paper estimates a dynamic model of interfuel substitution for Swedish heating plants. We use the cost share linear logit model developed by Considine and Mount [Considine, T.J., Mount, T.D., 1984. The use of linear logit models for dynamic input demand systems. Review of Economics and Statistics 66, 434-443]. All estimated own-price elasticities are negative and all cross-price elasticities are positive. The estimated dynamic adjustment rate parameter is small, however, increasing with the size of the plant and time, indicating fast adjustments in the fuel mix when changing relative fuel prices. The estimated model is used to illustrate the effects of two different policy changes

  13. The present Swedish nuclear fuel and waste position in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svenke, E.

    1983-01-01

    In Sweden current efforts are focussed on research and development of the management of all types of radioactive residues and on industrial projects for the implementation of a complete programme for the back-end of the fuel cycle, where, in fact, international commercial services scarcely exist. Another reason for this priority is the need to allay public anxiety on the subject. The paper describes the policy, planning, and development of the Swedish nuclear back-end as well as its organization and financing. In Sweden the licensee of a nuclear power facility assumes direct responsibility, technically and financially, for the nuclear waste he generates. To cover future costs with respect to the back-end, the utilities pay to the State a fee related to their production of nuclear electricity. The fee is kept in a fund administered by the State through an authority, the 'National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel'. The technical implementation programme comprises a sea transportation system to be operational by the end of 1982 and a central facility for intermediate storage of spent reactor fuel to be operational by 1985. The third step in the Swedish waste programme is a central final storage facility for reactor wastes other than spent fuel (planned to be in operation by 1988). Broad research and development work is going on in a deep underground system for the isolation of highly active and long-lived wastes. A rock drilling programme is being carried out at several places and is planned to continue for a period of approximately ten years. Encapsulation of waste and the properties of buffer materials are being studied. The paper stresses the importance of achieving generally and multi-nationally accepted guidelines for waste isolation systems and also of proper demonstration of the performance of the various parts of such systems

  14. Characterisation of the Repeat Breeding Syndrome in Swedish Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuelson U

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Repeat breeding (RB, defined as cows failure to conceive from 3 or more regularly spaced services in the absence of detectable abnormalities, is a costly problem for the dairy producer. To elucidate the occurrence of RB in Swedish dairy herds and to identify risk factors of the syndrome totally 57,616 dairy cows in 1,541 herds were investigated based on data from the official Swedish production-, AI- and disease- recording schemes. The characteristics of the RB syndrome were studied on both herd and individual cow level. The effects of risk factors on the herd frequency of RB were studied by logistic regression. A generalised linear mixed model with logit link, and accounting for herd-level variation by including a random effect of herd, was used to study the individual animal risk for RB. The total percentage of RB animals was 10.1% and the median proportion of RB animals in the herds studied was 7.5%. The proportion of RB cows in herds increased with decreased herd sizes with decreased average days from calving to first AI, with increased herd incidence of clinical mastitis, with decreased reproductive disorders, and increased other diseases treated by a veterinarian. On animal level, the risk factors were milk yield, lactation number, difficult calving or dystocia, season at first service, days in milk at first service and veterinary treatment for reproductive disorders before the first service. Cows being an RB animal in the previous lactation had a higher risk of becoming an RB animal also in the present lactation. In conclusion our results show that the repeat breeding syndrome is a multifactorial problem involving a number of extrinsic factors as well as intrinsic factors coupled to the individual animal.

  15. Knut Lundmark, meteors and an early Swedish crowdsourcing experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärnfelt, Johan

    2014-10-01

    Mid twentieth century meteor astronomy demanded the long-term compilation of observations made by numerous individuals over an extensive geographical area. Such a massive undertaking obviously required the participation of more than just professional astronomers, who often sought to expand their ranks through the use of amateurs that had a basic grasp of astronomy as well as the night sky, and were thus capable of generating first-rate astronomical reports. When, in the 1920s, renowned Swedish astronomer Knut Lundmark turned his attention to meteor astronomy, he was unable to rely even upon this solution. In contrast to many other countries at the time, Sweden lacked an organized amateur astronomy and thus contained only a handful of competent amateurs. Given this situation, Lundmark had to develop ways of engaging the general public in assisting his efforts. To his advantage, he was already a well-established public figure who had published numerous popular science articles and held talks from time to time on the radio. During the 1930s, this prominence greatly facilitated his launching of a crowdsourcing initiative for the gathering of meteor observations. This paper consists of a detailed discussion concerning the means by which Lundmark's initiative disseminated astronomical knowledge to the general public and encouraged a response that might directly contribute to the advancement of science. More precisely, the article explores the manner in which he approached the Swedish public, the degree to which that public responded and the extent to which his efforts were successful. The primary aim of this exercise is to show that the apparently recent Internet phenomenon of 'crowdsourcing', especially as it relates to scientific research, actually has a pre-Internet history that is worth studying. Apart from the fact that this history is interesting in its own right, knowing it can provide us with a fresh vantage point from which to better comprehend and appreciate

  16. Phonaesthemes and sound symbolism in Swedish brand names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Abelin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the prevalence of sound symbolism in Swedish brand names. A general principle of brand name design is that effective names should be distinctive, recognizable, easy to pronounce and meaningful. Much money is invested in designing powerful brand names, where the emotional impact of the names on consumers is also relevant and it is important to avoid negative connotations. Customers prefer brand names, which say something about the product, as this reduces product uncertainty (Klink, 2001. Therefore, consumers might prefer sound symbolic names. It has been shown that people associate the sounds of the nonsense words maluma and takete with round and angular shapes, respectively. By extension, more complex shapes and textures might activate words containing certain sounds. This study focuses on semantic dimensions expected to be relevant to product names, such as mobility, consistency, texture and shape. These dimensions are related to the senses of sight, hearing and touch and are also interesting from a cognitive linguistic perspective. Cross-modal assessment and priming experiments with pictures and written words were performed and the results analysed in relation to brand name databases and to sound symbolic sound combinations in Swedish (Abelin, 1999. The results show that brand names virtually never contain pejorative, i.e. depreciatory, consonant clusters, and that certain sounds and sound combinations are overrepresented in certain content categories. Assessment tests show correlations between pictured objects and phoneme combinations in newly created words (non-words. The priming experiment shows that object images prime newly created words as expected, based on the presence of compatible consonant clusters.

  17. Food intake and gestational weight gain in Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärebring, Linnea; Brembeck, Petra; Löf, Marie; Brekke, Hilde K; Winkvist, Anna; Augustin, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if food intake (dairy, snacks, caloric beverages, bread, cheese, margarine/butter, potato/rice/pasta/grains, red meat, fish and fruit/berries/vegetables) is associated with gestational weight gain (GWG) in Swedish women. Four day food records from 95 pregnant Swedish women were collected in the last trimester. GWG was calculated as weighed body weight in the last trimester (median gestational week 36) minus self-reported pre-pregnancy body weight. Excessive GWG was defined according to the guidelines by the Institute of Medicine. Food groups tested for association with GWG were dairy (milk, yoghurt and sour milk), snacks (sweets, crisps, popcorn, ice cream and cookies, but not nuts and seeds), caloric beverages (soft drinks, juice, lemonade and non-alcoholic beer), bread, cheese, margarine/butter, potato/rice/pasta/grains, red meat, fish and fruit/berries/vegetables. Median (lower-upper quartiles) GWG was 12.1 kg (10.0-15.3). In total, 28 % had an excessive GWG. Excessive GWG was most common among pre-pregnancy overweight and obese women, where 69 % had an excessive GWG. Median daily intake of fruits and vegetables was 352 g (212-453), caloric beverages was 238 g (100-420) and snacks was 111 g (69-115). Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that intake of caloric beverages, snacks, fish, bread and dairy in the last trimester of pregnancy were positively related to GWG (R(2) = 0.32). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that intake of caloric beverages, snacks, fish, and bread was associated with higher odds ratios for excessive GWG. Intake of caloric beverages, snacks, fish and bread were positively related to excessive GWG. Thus, these results indicate that maternal dietary intake should be given higher attention in the antenatal care.

  18. Technology and costs for decommissioning the Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    The study shows that, from the viewpoint of radiological safety, a nuclear power plant can be dismantled immediately after it has been shut down and the fuel has been removed, which is estimated to take about one year. Most of the equipment that will be used in decommissioning is already available and is used routinely in maintenance and rebuilding work at the nuclear power plants. Special equipment need only be developed for dismantlement of the reactor vessel and for demolishing of heavy concrete structures. The dismantling of a nuclear power plant can be accomplished in about five years, with an average labour force of about 200 men. The maximum labour force required for Ringhals 1 has been estimated at about 500 men during the first years, when active systems are being dismantled in a number of fronts in the plant. During the last years when the buildings are being demolished, approximately 50 men are required. In order to limit the labour requirement and the dose burden to the personnel, the material is taken out in as large pieces as possible. The cost of decommissioning a boiling water reactor (BWR) of the size of Ringhals 1 has been estimated to be about MSEK 540 in January 1986 prices, and for a pressurized water reactor (PWR, Ringhals 2) about MSEK 460. The cost for the other Swedish nuclear power plants lie in the range of MSEK 410-760. These are the direct cost for the decommissioning work, to which must be added the costs of transportation and disposal of the decommissioning waste, about 100 000 m/sup3/. These costs have been estimated to be about MSEK 600 for the 12 Swedish reactors. (author)

  19. Swedish dairy farmers' perceptions of animal-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Cecilia; Lundqvist, Peter; Norberg, Annika Lindahl

    2012-01-01

    Animal-related injuries are among the most common occupational injuries in agriculture. Despite the large number of documented animal-related injuries in dairy farming, the issue has received relatively limited attention in the scientific literature. The farmers' own perspectives and views on risks and safety during livestock handling and what they think are effective ways of preventing injuries are valuable for the future design of effective interventions. This paper presents results from a qualitative study with the aim to investigate Swedish dairy farmers' own experience of animal-related occupational injuries, as well as their perceptions of and attitudes towards them, including risk and safety issues, and prevention measures. A total of 12 dairy farmers with loose housing systems participated in the study. Data collection was conducted by means of semistructured in-depth interviews. Three main themes with an impact on risks and safety when handling cattle were identified: the handler, the cattle, and the facilities. They all interact with each other, influencing the potential risks of any work task. Most of the farmers believed that a majority of the injuries can be prevented, but there are always some incidents that are impossible to foresee. In conclusion, this study indicates that Swedish dairy farmers are aware of the dangers from working with cattle. However, even though safety is acknowledged by the farmers as an important and relevant issue, in the end safety is often forgotten or not prioritized. One concern is that farmers are willing to take calculated risks to save money or time. In situations where they work alone with high stress levels and under economic distress, safety issues are easily given low priority.

  20. Swedish or American heterosexual college youth: who is more permissive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, M S; Lottes, I L; Shaver, F M

    1995-08-01

    Theories of human sexuality have proposed that two factors reduce the double standard of sexuality and lead to a convergence of male and female sexual behavior: the degree of social benefits and amount of power women have in basic societal institutions and the extent to which a society accepts permissive sexual norms. As these factors increase, the strength of the double standard will decrease and the convergence between male and female behaviors will increase. Compared to the United States, Sweden has instituted more policies to promote gender equality and has been thought to accept more permissive premarital sexual attitudes. The focus of the research reported here is to examine country and gender differences in sexual attitudes and sexual behavior for a sample of university students in the United States (N = 407) and Sweden (N = 570). Results indicate that Swedish students endorsed more similar sexual standards for women and men and reported more accepting attitudes than did American students. For sexual behavior, American men reported the most sexual experience, Swedish men the least, with the women of both countries generally in the middle category. Notwithstanding this more permissive behavior on the part of American men, gender convergence with respect to sexual behavior is stronger in Sweden on several of the dimensions examined: age of first engaging in partner-related sexual activities for those who were sexually experienced, relationship with first partner, number of partners both in the last year and in their lifetime, and affective reactions to first coitus. Gender convergence, however, is weaker in Sweden than in the United States with respect to the incidence and frequency of various sexual activities and the degree of satisfaction with current sex life. Findings are discussed with respect to the questions they raise about the current theories that framed this research and the differential amount of sex education provided in the two countries.

  1. Radiocaesium and polonium in seals from Swedish coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.A.B.; Leisvik, M.A.; Holm, E.A.B

    2004-01-01

    Radiocaesium, 137 Cs (T 1/2 = 30 a) and 210 Po (T 1/2 = 138 d) have been studied in tissues (muscle, liver, kidney and gonads/ovaries) from a large number of seals from the Baltic Sea and the Swedish west coast during 1995-2002. The Baltic Sea is a marginal sea with long residence time for dissolved compounds. Concentrations of radiocaesium increased 10 fold in the Baltic Sea following the Chernobyl accident, while concentrations of polonium can be supposed to be in equilibrium except for seasonal variations. The major food for seals in the Baltic proper is fish, while at the west coast other food stuff such as crustaceans play an important role. By supposing that the seals consume 5% of their body-weight per day and by using known data for caesium and polonium in fish the biological half-life in seals is estimated to 20 days for Caesium and 35 days for Polonium. Radiocaesium is evenly distributed in the organs of the seals and was about 100 Bq kg -1 in the Baltic Sea while at the west coast the concentrations were significantly lower, about 5-30 Bq kg -1 . Polonium shows the highest concentrations in kidney, about 100-200 Bq kg -1 d.w. in the Baltic sea and higher concentrations 100-1000 Bq kg -1 at the west coast. This reflects clearly the differences in food choice/availability in the different areas. The estimated maximal doses were 76 μSv per year to muscle from 137 Cs and 6.8 mSv from 210 Po to kidney. Seals constitute a good bio-marker for radioactivity in Swedish coastal waters. Concentration factors are higher for radiocaesium in the Baltic Sea due to lower salinity and consequently higher concentrations in fish compared to other areas, but lower for polonium than in areas where crustaceans also constitute an important foodstuff. (author)

  2. Losing ground--Swedish life expectancy in a comparative perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Drefahl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the beginning of the 1970s, Sweden was the country where both women and men enjoyed the world's longest life expectancy. While life expectancy continues to be high and increasing, Sweden has been losing ground in relation to other leading countries. METHODS: We look at life expectancy over the years 1970-2008 for men and women. To assess the relative contributions of age, causes of death, and smoking we decompose differences in life expectancy between Sweden and two leading countries, Japan and France. This study is the first to use this decomposition method to observe how smoking related deaths contribute to life expectancy differences between countries. RESULTS: Sweden has maintained very low mortality at young and working ages for both men and women compared to France and Japan. However, mortality at ages above 65 has become considerably higher in Sweden than in the other leading countries because the decrease has been faster in those countries. Different trends for circulatory diseases were the largest contributor to this development in both sexes but for women also cancer played a role. Mortality from neoplasms has been considerably low for Swedish men. Smoking attributable mortality plays a modest role for women, whereas it is substantially lower in Swedish men than in French and Japanese men. CONCLUSIONS: Sweden is losing ground in relation to other leading countries with respect to life expectancy because mortality at high ages improves more slowly than in the leading countries, especially due to trends in cardiovascular disease mortality. Trends in smoking rates may provide a partial explanation for the trends in women; however, it is not possible to isolate one single explanatory factor for why Sweden is losing ground.

  3. Prenatal Phthalate Exposures and Anogenital Distance in Swedish Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstedt, Fredrik; Jönsson, Bo AG.; Lindh, Christian H.; Jensen, Tina K.; Bodin, Anna; Jonsson, Carin; Janson, Staffan; Swan, Shanna H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Phthalates are used as plasticizers in soft polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and in a large number of consumer products. Because of reported health risks, diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) has been introduced as a replacement for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in soft PVC. This raises concerns because animal data suggest that DiNP may have antiandrogenic properties similar to those of DEHP. The anogenital distance (AGD)—the distance from the anus to the genitals—has been used to assess reproductive toxicity. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and AGD in Swedish infants. Methods: AGD was measured in 196 boys at 21 months of age, and first-trimester urine was analyzed for 10 phthalate metabolites of DEP (diethyl phthalate), DBP (dibutyl phthalate), DEHP, BBzP (benzylbutyl phthalate), as well as DiNP and creatinine. Data on covariates were collected by questionnaires. Results: The most significant associations were found between the shorter of two AGD measures (anoscrotal distance; AGDas) and DiNP metabolites and strongest for oh-MMeOP [mono-(4-methyl-7-hydroxyloctyl) phthalate] and oxo-MMeOP [mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate]. However, the AGDas reduction was small (4%) in relation to more than an interquartile range increase in DiNP exposure. Conclusions: These findings call into question the safety of substituting DiNP for DEHP in soft PVC, particularly because a shorter male AGD has been shown to relate to male genital birth defects in children and impaired reproductive function in adult males and the fact that human levels of DiNP are increasing globally. Citation: Bornehag CG, Carlstedt F, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Jensen TK, Bodin A, Jonsson C, Janson S, Swan SH. 2015. Prenatal phthalate exposures and anogenital distance in Swedish boys. Environ Health Perspect 123:101–107; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408163 PMID:25353625

  4. Safety and Radiation Protection at Swedish Nuclear Power Plants 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    In 2005, no severe events occurred which challenged the safety at the Swedish nuclear power plants. However, some events have been given a special focus. The 'Gudrun' storm, which occurred in January 2005, affected the operation of the reactors at Ringhals and Barsebaeck 2. At Ringhals, the switchyards were affected by salt deposits and, at Barsebaeck, the 400kV grid was subjected to interruptions. The long-term trend is that the total number of fuel defects in Swedish reactors is decreasing. The damage that occurs nowadays has mainly been caused by small objects entering the fuel via the coolant and fretting holes in the cladding. To reduce the number of defects of this type, fuel with filters is successively being introduced to prevent debris from entering the fuel assemblies and cyclone filters in the facility which cleans the coolant. Since the mid-nineties, the pressurised water reactors, Ringhals 2, 3 and 4, have had problems with fuel rod bowing in excess of the safety analysis calculations. Ringhals AB (RAB) has adopted measures to rectify the bowing. Follow-up work shows that the fuel rod bowing is decreasing. The followup in 2005 of damaged tubes in the Ringhals 4 steam generators indicates a continued slow damage propagation. Tubes with defects of such a limited extent that there are adequate margins to rupture and loosening have been kept in operation. Damaged tubes with insufficient margins have plugged. During the year, previously observed minor leakage from the reactor containment in Ringhals 2 was investigated in greater detail and repaired. The investigations showed extensive corrosion attack caused by deficiencies in connection with containment construction. The ageing of electrical cables and other equipment in the I-C systems has been examined by SKI. Regulatory supervision has so far shown that these issues are largely handled in a satisfactory manner by the licensees but that certain supplementary investigations and other measures need to be

  5. [The Swedish ambulance services 1935-1936 of Gunnar Agge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Pär; Nilsson, Peter M

    2006-01-01

    The fact that Sweden has been spared from war on its soil for almost 200 years, has not stopped Swedish citizens from participating in conflicts worldwide during this period. This has been described, especially from the soldiers perspective. The contribution of Swedish physicians has not been written about to the same extent. When Mussolini's Italy in October 1935 invaded the poor and underdeveloped country of Ethiopia (former Abyssinia) an ambulance was immediately organized by the Swedish Red Cross. To lead such an expedition, a great knowledge of Ethiopian culture och maybe most importantly, of the weather and geographical conditions, was undoubtedly demanded. Therefore, the Swedish Red Cross turned to two Ethiopian veterans. Doctor Fride Hylander, a missionary-son who had been working on a hospital project in the Ethiopian province of Harrar and his friend since school years, doctor Gunnar Agge, were assigned the leadership of the ambulance. Dr Agge had also participated in improving the Ethiopian health care both in Harrar and later as civilian and military doctor in the province of Ogaden, where he was medically responsible for the more than 9 000 men strong army that the Ethiopian emperor had stationed there after Italian provocations. Most of the other members of the ambulance were handpicked by these two leaders and many of them had, just like themselves, a stong religious belief. A money-raise was immediately initiated and in less than six weeks 700 000 Swedish crowns had been collected, more then twice the sum the ambulance was calculated to cost. In early november 1935 the ambulance was clear to go. Their primary objective was to travel through British Somaliland and establish a field-hospital in the province of Harrar. However, the Ethiopian emperor had other things in mind. He wanted to reorganize the ambulance and divide it in two and place it closer to the front line. The ambulance decided to go along with his wish. Both groups started eventually

  6. Safety and Radiation Protection at Swedish Nuclear Power Plants 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    In 2005, no severe events occurred which challenged the safety at the Swedish nuclear power plants. However, some events have been given a special focus. The 'Gudrun' storm, which occurred in January 2005, affected the operation of the reactors at Ringhals and Barsebaeck 2. At Ringhals, the switchyards were affected by salt deposits and, at Barsebaeck, the 400kV grid was subjected to interruptions. The long-term trend is that the total number of fuel defects in Swedish reactors is decreasing. The damage that occurs nowadays has mainly been caused by small objects entering the fuel via the coolant and fretting holes in the cladding. To reduce the number of defects of this type, fuel with filters is successively being introduced to prevent debris from entering the fuel assemblies and cyclone filters in the facility which cleans the coolant. Since the mid-nineties, the pressurised water reactors, Ringhals 2, 3 and 4, have had problems with fuel rod bowing in excess of the safety analysis calculations. Ringhals AB (RAB) has adopted measures to rectify the bowing. Follow-up work shows that the fuel rod bowing is decreasing. The followup in 2005 of damaged tubes in the Ringhals 4 steam generators indicates a continued slow damage propagation. Tubes with defects of such a limited extent that there are adequate margins to rupture and loosening have been kept in operation. Damaged tubes with insufficient margins have plugged. During the year, previously observed minor leakage from the reactor containment in Ringhals 2 was investigated in greater detail and repaired. The investigations showed extensive corrosion attack caused by deficiencies in connection with containment construction. The ageing of electrical cables and other equipment in the I-C systems has been examined by SKI. Regulatory supervision has so far shown that these issues are largely handled in a satisfactory manner by the licensees but that certain supplementary investigations and other measures

  7. New Swedish regulations in the area of plant inspection and in-service inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, B.

    1998-01-01

    History and present status od Swedish regulations in the field of NPP inspection and in-service inspection are described. The presentation focuses on the development of regulations and establishing new ones. A description of different organisations involved is included

  8. A review of the scope and the cost of the Swedish nuclear waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    A Swedish translation of this report appears as an appendix in SOU 1004:108 (ISBN 91-38-13755-0). The report is prepared for the Nuclear Fond Commission and Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources

  9. Occupational stress among Swedish audiologists in clinical practice: Reasons for being stressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännström, K Jonas; Holm, Lucas; Larsson, Josefina; Lood, Sofie; Notsten, Margareta; Turunen Taheri, Satu

    2016-08-01

    The present study reports on the application of a Swedish translation of the audiologist occupational stress questionnaire (AOSQ) on audiologists working in Sweden. The relations between AOSQ scores and perceived effort, perceived rewards, coping strategies at work, demographic variables such as salary, education length, practise length, and practice type were tested. A cross-sectional e-mail survey using the AOSQ, effort-reward imbalance questionnaire, and demographic questions. Four-hundred and four Swedish licensed audiologists working with clients. The Swedish AOSQ translation demonstrated high inter-item correlations and high internal consistency. Several stress factors were identified: time spent at work, accountability, leadership at the workplace, paperwork and practice demands, equipment and clinical protocols, own health concerns, and job control. The outcome on the complete AOSQ questionnaire was related to perceived effort, perceived rewards, coping strategies at work, and age. The Swedish AOSQ translation seems to provide a valid measure of occupational stress among audiologists.

  10. THE ACQUISITION OF E-BOOKS IN THE LIBRARIES OF THE SWEDISH HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Franciso Javier Martínez Méndez

    2015-01-01

    Our aim is to compare the advantages and problems of e-book acquisition identified in research literature to those experienced by two Swedish university libraries. A literature review was used to identify the main issues related to acquisition of e-books by academic libraries. The data for comparison were collected through case studies in two Swedish universities. Document analysis, interviews and personal experience were used for data collection. The main drivers of e-book acquisition by Swe...

  11. Psychometric evaluation of the Danish and Swedish Satisfaction with Life Scale in first episode psychosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hochwälder, Jacek; Mattsson, Maria; Holmqvist, Ragnhild

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To psychometrically evaluate the Satisfaction with Life Scale in two cohorts of first-episode psychosis patients in the Danish National Schizophrenia Project and in the Swedish Parachute Project. METHOD: Four properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale were examined in the Danish cohort....... The dimensions were confirmed in the Swedish sample. CONCLUSION: The Satisfaction with Life Scale shows satisfactory psychometric properties and seems valid and useful among first-episode psychosis patients....

  12. The Cutter incident and the development of a Swedish polio vaccine, 1952-1957

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsson, Per

    2012-01-01

    The creation of two different vaccines to eradicate polio stands out as one of modern science most important accomplishments. The current article examines Swedish polio vaccine research, the vaccination campaign and especially how the Cutter incident came to affect Swedish Science, scientists and society in the 1950s. Sweden is one of the few countries that came to produce its own inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) in the 1950s, a type of vaccine they never abandoned. This article highlights the...

  13. Vocabulary and Receptive Knowledge of English Collocations among Swedish Upper Secondary School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Bergström, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the vocabulary and receptive collocation knowledge in English among Swedish upper secondary school students. The primary material consists of two vocabulary tests, one collocation test, and a background questionnaire. The first research question concerns whether the students who receive a major part of their education in English have a higher level of vocabulary and receptive collocation knowledge in English than those who are taught primarily in Swedish. T...

  14. The Staffing Policies of Swedish Companies at their Chinese Production Units

    OpenAIRE

    Dolinska, Nina; Hrlovic, Dzenita; Swane, Katarina

    2006-01-01

    Increasing production costs and high pressure from the consumers are leading Swedish companies towards an expansion to China. Since more and more companies are moving their production, we found it interesting to study the problems they might encounter while employing personnel. The purpose of this dissertation is to analyse what staffing policies companies choose and variables that influence the decision at Swedish production plants in China. Ethnocentric, polycentric and geocentric polic...

  15. Natural versus anthropogenic climate change: Swedish farmers joint construction of climate perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Asplund, Therese

    2016-01-01

    While previous research into understandings of climate change has usually examined general public perceptions, this study offers an audience-specific departure point. This article analyses how Swedish farmers perceive climate change and how they jointly shape their understandings. The agricultural sector is of special interest because it both contributes to and is directly affected by climate change. Through focus group discussions with Swedish farmers, this study finds that (1) farmers relat...

  16. Views of Swedish commissioning parents relating to the exploitation discourse in using transnational surrogacy

    OpenAIRE

    Arvidsson, Anna; Johnsdotter, Sara; Essén, Birgitta

    2015-01-01

    Transnational surrogacy, when people travel abroad for reproduction with the help of a surrogate mother, is a heavily debated phenomenon. One of the most salient discourses on surrogacy is the one affirming that Westerners, in their quest for having a child, exploit poor women in countries such as India. As surrogacy within the Swedish health care system is not permitted, Swedish commissioning parents have used transnational surrogacy, and the majority has turned to India. This interview stud...

  17. Swedish industrial and energy supply measures in a European system perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Trygg, Louise

    2006-01-01

    A common electricity market in Europe will in all probability lead to a levelling out of the electricity price, which implies that Swedish consumers will face higher electricity prices with a European structure. This new market situation will force industry and energy suppliers to take new essential measures as actors in a deregulated European electricity market. In this thesis it is shown how over 30 Swedish small and medium-sized industries can reduce their use of electricity by about 50%. ...

  18. Developing an entry strategy for Swedish markets : Study for the case company

    OpenAIRE

    Vuoti, Saana

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is made for an international hangar door manufacturer. The purpose of the thesis is to help the managers of the company with creating an entry strategy to Swedish markets. Even the company has experience in international business each market area is different and the marketing research has to be done carefully before starting to develop promotion mix and practices to apply when dealing with Swedish customers. The outcome of the thesis will be an entry strategy that will help to fi...

  19. Socioeconomic consequences of obesity : Population-based longitudinal studies of Swedish men

    OpenAIRE

    Karnehed, Nina

    2008-01-01

    The overall aim of the thesis was to study if Swedish obese male adolescents become socioeconomicly disadvantaged in later life. Among Swedish men born 1951-79, who went through military conscription examination at age 18-20 years, the associations between obesity and attained education, occupation, income, and disability pension have been studied. The target populations were identified in the Multi-Generation Register. A record linkage was made between this register and...

  20. Factors driving and restraining adoption of Automation technologies in Swedish wood product industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Mapulanga, Mwanza; Saladi, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Swedish wood product industry contributes significantly to the economy of the country. This industry adds more value to the sawn timber produced in order to manufacture different wooden products. Companies in Swedish wood product industry are presently seen as underdeveloped in terms of investments and developments in automation technologies. Automation technologies are seen by companies as a solution for improving productivity, product quality, manufacturing cost reduction and ultimately imp...

  1. Mobile phones, cordless phones and rates of brain tumors in different age groups in the Swedish National Inpatient Register and the Swedish Cancer Register during 1998-2015

    OpenAIRE

    Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We used the Swedish Inpatient Register (IPR) to analyze rates of brain tumors of unknown type (D43) during 1998-2015. Average Annual Percentage Change (AAPC) per 100,000 increased with +2.06%, 95% confidence interval (CI) +1.27, +2.86% in both genders combined. A joinpoint was found in 2007 with Annual Percentage Change (APC) 1998-2007 of +0.16%, 95% CI -0.94, +1.28%, and 2007-2015 of +4.24%, 95% CI +2.87, +5.63%. Highest AAPC was found in the age group 20-39 years. In the Swedish Cancer Regi...

  2. The Study of the Effect of Syntactic Complexity of Noun and Verb Phrase Structure on the Occurrence of Stuttering in 4-6 Year Pre-School Stuttering Persian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Ahangar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present research was to investigate the effect of syntactic complexity of noun phrase and verb phrase on the occurrence of stuttering in 4-6 year Persian speaking children with stuttering. Materials & Methods: This descriptive-analytic research was done on 15 stuttering children, consisting of 12 boys and 3 girls, 4 to 6 years old monolingual Persian speaking who referred to Javad-Ol-Aemmeh speech therapy clinic in Mashhad city. The sampling approach was simple (available sampling method. To do this research, sampling was carried out in a quiet home of speech therapy where there were just the speech therapist, the parent, the child and the researcher. While speaking, the speech of the children was recorded by an MP3 with Creative brand. Finally, a 30-minute spontaneous speech sample was gathered from each of the given stuttering children. The children produced around 60 utterances during a verbal interaction with the speech therapist, parents (mother or father or the researcher. Then the produced spontaneous speech sample by any of these stuttering children was transcribed on paper. The data were analyzed only as groups and not individually. The data were analyzed using SPSS software and Paired T-test method. Results: The group analyses showed significant differences between fluent and stuttered utterances in terms of syntactic complexity of noun and verb phrase structures. Also, the results confirm that at phrasal level, in noun phrases, based on their three functions as subject, direct object and object of preposition, there is a meaningful relationship between the number of subject (P<0.001 and object of preposition (P=0.050 with the stuttering frequency. In verb phrases, based on the presence of the auxiliary verb, copula verb, and negative prefix, just there is a meaningful relationship between the presence of the auxiliary verb and the stuttering frequency (P=0.010. Conclusion: The research findings indicate

  3. Food, energy and the environment from a Swedish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, Rebecka

    2006-10-01

    National sector responsibility legislation places specific obligations on Swedish sector authorities to handle environmental issues within their sector. Because of this responsibility, there is a need to map environmental impacts from sectors and to identify key problems and strategies to reduce impacts in each sector. Agriculture and energy are two sectors causing severe environmental impacts, and these are therefore interesting as case studies. Employing a systems perspective when exploring impacts and options for their reduction ensures that problems are not simply shifted in time or space or between problems, but are considered in a holistic manner. Using this perspective, indirect effects such as changes upstream or downstream of the production chain, as well as among consumers, can be considered when seeking strategies to reduce environmental impacts in a sector. A method to investigate environmental impacts from a sector was developed and tested in the cases of agriculture and energy (Papers I and II). The method was based on environmentally extended Input-Output Analysis (IOA) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). IOA-data from Swedish Environmental Accounts were used as the starting point for the inventory. Such data provide information on direct and indirect impacts from the sector. To capture those aspects not included in the Environmental Accounts, the Swedish Environmental Quality Objectives were subsequently used as a checklist, and information on the missing aspects was obtained from literature. For further processing of the data, characterisation and weighting methods from LCA methodology were used to identify hotspots, i.e. the most important problems. The results showed that biodiversity, greenhouse effect, eutrophication, use of non-renewable resources and toxicity were potential hotspots in the agriculture sector. In the energy sector, the hotspots were air quality, greenhouse effect, use of non-renewable resources and toxicity. Analysis of sector

  4. Perspectives on implementing energy efficiency in existing Swedish detached houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joelsson, Anna; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2008-01-15

    In this study, we first analyse energy-efficiency measures in existing electrically heated houses in Sweden from a societal economic perspective. Measures to a house envelopes and to energy supply chains are evaluated through a system analysis approach and we include the external costs of climate change and the effect of different Swedish climatic zones. We find that in a typical house from the 1970s, conversion from electric heating is highly motivated since the mitigation cost of conversion is lower than the estimated external costs of emitted CO{sub 2}. Both conversions and house envelope measures are more motivated in the northern part of the country, where there is a higher heat demand. A successful implementation of changes requires them to be attractive for consumers to adopt. We therefore secondly analyse the economic conditions for Swedish house owners to implement societal economic cost-efficient measures. We include the economic influence of an investment subsidy for heating system conversion, an income tax deduction for changing windows, customer electricity tax, real estate tax and of the cost of purchased energy from different energy suppliers. Apart from the economics, several other factors affect a house owner's decision to change heating systems. We therefore thirdly analyse house owners' perceptions of different heating supply alternatives based on the results of two comprehensive questionnaires. These different perspectives are combined in a discussion whether the studied policy instruments encourage house owners to implement changes in accordance with the energy-efficiency goals of decision makers. We find that the investment subsidy could be useful to break the lock-in effect of resistance heaters, which house owners seemed to experience. The electricity tax makes heating systems in line with national goals more competitive and efficiency measures to the house envelope more profitable. The reduction of the electricity tax in the northern part

  5. Swedish child health care in a changing society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, Ann-Christine; Lindbladh, Eva; Petersson, Kerstin; Råstam, Lennart; Håkansson, Anders

    2005-09-01

    Staff in Swedish child health care today feel a gap between policy and practice. By revealing the main lines in the development of child health care, we hoped to achieve a better understanding of the current trends and problems in today's Swedish child health care. A selection of official documents about the development of child health care during the period 1930-2000 was studied with the aid of discourse analysis. Four discourses were identified, which serve as a foundation for a periodization of the development of child health care. In the first period the main task of child health care, alongside checking on the development of the child, was to inform and educate the mothers. During the second period health supervision became the crucial task, to identify risks and discover abnormalities and disabilities. The third period focused on the discussion concerning the identification of health-related and social 'risk groups', and the work of child health care was increasingly geared to supervision of the parents' care of their children. Parents were to be given support so that they could cope with their difficulties by themselves. During the current period child health care is increasingly expected to direct its work towards the child's surroundings and the family as a whole and is now explicitly defined as an institution that should strengthen parents' self-esteem and competence. The level of responsibility for the child's health changed gradually during the different periods, from public responsibility to parental responsibility. The focus of efforts in child health care was changed from being general in the first and second periods to general and selective in period three, and then gradually becoming selective again in period four. While control of the child's physical health was central during the first two periods, psychosocial health came into focus in the last two, along with the importance of supporting the parents to enable them to handle their difficulties

  6. The Swedish Bohus granite - a stone with a fascinating history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouenborg, Björn; Eliasson, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    One of the most well-known and well spread Swedish stone types used as building stones is the Bonus granite. It outcrops in an area north of Gothenburgh (SW Sweden), along the coastline, approximately 35 km wide and 85 km long. The granite continues into Norway as the Iddefjord granite. The Bohus granite is one of Sweden's youngest granites. Isotopic dating shows that the magma cooled at about 920 M years ago and thus marking the end of the Sveconorwegian orogoney. It is a composite granite massif area with several granitic intrusions but with rather homogeneous mineralogy. However, colour and texture varies quite a lot and the colour ranges from red to reddish grey although some pure grey varieties occur sparsely. The grain size ranges from medium grained to coarse grained and even with some porphyric parts. Quarrying in an industrial scale started 1842. The merchant A C Kullgren opened the first quarry and produced stones for the construction of the 86 km long Trollhättan channel connecting lake Vänern and the Atlantic ocean in the SW Sweden The stone was used for constructing harbors and wharves along the channel. Several quarries opened in the late 1800 around 1870 - 1890 and the export increased steadily with deliveries to Germany, Denmark, Holland, England and even to South America. The stone industries in Bohuslän (Bohus county), at its peak in 1929, engaged around 7 000 employees. During the depression in 1930 almost all of them became unemployed. However, as a curiosity, production and export continued to Germany for construction of Germania, the future World capital city ("Welthauptstadt Germania"), planned by Adolf Hitler and Albert Speer. About 500 stone workers were kept employed for this project during the late thirties. Today several varieties are still produced: Evja/Ävja, Tossene, Brastad, Näsinge, Broberg, Nolby, Allemarken and Skarstad. However, the number of stone workers is far from that of the early 1900. The Swedish production is mainly

  7. Perspectives on implementing energy efficiency in existing Swedish detached houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joelsson, Anna; Gustavsson, Leif

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we first analyse energy-efficiency measures in existing electrically heated houses in Sweden from a societal economic perspective. Measures to a house envelopes and to energy supply chains are evaluated through a system analysis approach and we include the external costs of climate change and the effect of different Swedish climatic zones. We find that in a typical house from the 1970s, conversion from electric heating is highly motivated since the mitigation cost of conversion is lower than the estimated external costs of emitted CO 2 . Both conversions and house envelope measures are more motivated in the northern part of the country, where there is a higher heat demand. A successful implementation of changes requires them to be attractive for consumers to adopt. We therefore secondly analyse the economic conditions for Swedish house owners to implement societal economic cost-efficient measures. We include the economic influence of an investment subsidy for heating system conversion, an income tax deduction for changing windows, customer electricity tax, real estate tax and of the cost of purchased energy from different energy suppliers. Apart from the economics, several other factors affect a house owner's decision to change heating systems. We therefore thirdly analyse house owners' perceptions of different heating supply alternatives based on the results of two comprehensive questionnaires. These different perspectives are combined in a discussion whether the studied policy instruments encourage house owners to implement changes in accordance with the energy-efficiency goals of decision makers. We find that the investment subsidy could be useful to break the lock-in effect of resistance heaters, which house owners seemed to experience. The electricity tax makes heating systems in line with national goals more competitive and efficiency measures to the house envelope more profitable. The reduction of the electricity tax in the northern part of

  8. Assessment of the Swedish EQ-5D experience-based value sets in a total hip replacement population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes, Szilárd; Burström, Kristina; Zethraeus, Niklas; Eneqvist, Ted; Garellick, Göran; Rolfson, Ola

    2015-12-01

    All patients undergoing elective total hip replacement (THR) in Sweden are asked to complete a survey, including the EQ-5D. Thus far, EQ-5D values have been presented using the UK TTO value set based on hypothetical values. Shift to the use of the recently introduced Swedish experience-based value set, derived from a representative Swedish population, is an appealing alternative. To investigate how accurate the Swedish experience-based VAS value set predicts observed EQ VAS values and to compare correlations between Swedish and UK value sets including two provisional value sets derived from the THR population. Pre- and one-year postoperative data from 56,062 THR patients from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register were used. Agreement between the observed and the predicted EQ VAS values was assessed with correlation. Based on pre- and postoperative data, we constructed two provisional VAS value sets. Correlations between observed and calculated values using the Swedish VAS value set were moderate (r = 0.46) in preoperative data and high (r = 0.72) in postoperative data. Correlations between UK and register-based value sets were constantly lower compared to Swedish value sets. Register-based values and Swedish values were highly correlated. The Swedish value sets are more accurate in terms of representation of the Swedish THR patients than the currently used UK TTO value set. We find it feasible to use the experience-based Swedish value sets for further presentation of EQ-5D values in the Swedish THR population.

  9. The Swedish Automotive Cluster : How will it be affected by foreign acquisitions at the end of the value chain?

    OpenAIRE

    Sundqvist, Helena

    2011-01-01

    In this master thesis it is analyzed how the Swedish automotive cluster will be affected by foreign acquisitions at the end of the value chain. This is a relevant topic as the Swedish automotive industry is a very important industry in Sweden. It is of interest to evaluate how the recent shifts of ownership for the Swedish automotive manufacturers will affect the Swedish automotive cluster as a whole. It is also relevant from a theoretical point of view and this thesis draws on the extensive ...

  10. Modelling the radioecological transfer of radiocaesium to three Swedish populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeaef, C.L.

    2005-01-01

    UNSCEAR has presented a terrestrial transfer model for predicting the annual average concentrations of radionuclides in important diet components and in humans based on the annual ground deposition from atmospheric fallout. The model is composed of three components, the principal component representing the direct contamination of fodder and crops, and the two remaining ones reflecting delayed transfer from previous fallout accumulated in soils. The model is intended to be used for protracted deposition of radionuclides and has been applied to observed time-patterns of 137 Cs body burdens in three different Swedish populations subjected to transfer from continuous nuclear weapons fallout during the 1960s and 1970s. The results show that the best agreement with observed body burden data is obtained by applying an effective ecological half-time, T eco,eff , for nuclear weapons fallout 137 Cs of 0.8 years for urban individuals in the South of Sweden, 2 years for urbans living in the Stockholm area and 4 years for reindeer herders in the middle of Sweden. When compared with the ecological half-times observed in the urban population after the Chernobyl fallout these values appear to be shorter

  11. Intellectual Capital and Predefined Headings in Swedish Health Care Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terner Annika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The heavily decentralized Swedish health care sector is facing massive challenges, e.g. to even out differences in health care performance. Intellectual Capital can partly be used to explain these differences. In the research field it is difficult to find contributions regarding the study of intellectual capital management in the health care sector and there is also a lack of studies on semantic interoperability. It is semantic interoperability which allows the right information to be available to the right people at the right time across products and organizations. Structured and standardized headings can be a tool to enable semantic interoperability. The aim of this article is to argue for predefined headings as intellectual capital and as base for a national shared and standardized terminology in the health care sector. The study shows that there is a lack of national management of predefined headings deployed in both electronic health records and national quality registries. This lack causes multiple documentation which is time-consuming, impacts health professionals’ workloads, data quality and partly the performance of health care. We argue that predefined headings can be a base for semantic interoperability and that there is a need for the management of predefined headings on a national level.

  12. Swedish programme for disposal of radioactive waste - geological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeckblom, G.; Karlsson, Fred

    1990-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes of different types are generated in the course of electrical production. These wastes, which already exist and will continue to exist irrespective of the future for nuclear power in Sweden, are potential hazards if not properly managed. SKB in close co-operation with Swedish and international scientists and engineers have demonstrated the need to construct and operate a waste management system that will ensure very high safety for a long period of time. SKB has further demonstrated that with presently available technology it is possible to construct a final repository for long-lived wastes in Sweden that meets very high standards with respect to safety and radiation protection. SKB has also presented a programme for the research, development and other measures that are required to achieve an optimized disposal site system in Sweden. This programme is comprehensive and the strong support of national and international experts. Examples of research projects discussed in the present paper are: (a) efforts to describe the major zones in the rock mass, (b) characterization of low-conductive rock masses, (c) studies of post-glacial faulting and (d) the importance of natural analogues. The rationale for one of the most important projects in progress - the Hard Rock Laboratory - is also presented. (authors)

  13. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    From a safety point of view, 2000 was - as were previous years - satisfactory. Total electricity production from the Swedish nuclear power stations amounted to 54.2 TWh, which was over 20% less than the 70.2 TWh produced in 1999. The two main reasons for the reduction were the closure of Barsebaeck 1 on 1st December 1999, and the cutback in output from all reactors due to the particularly good availability of hydro power in 2000. Some reactors were even shut down completely as a result of the low power demand, which has not happened previously. The quantity of unutilised production capacity as a result of these reductions amounted to 11.6 TWh. Costdown operation prior to the annual overhaul shutdowns, which makes better use of the fuel, represented a further 2.1 TWh of unutilised capacity. The average energy availability of the three PWRs at Ringhals was 82.0%, while that of the eight BWRs was 84.2%. Forsmark 3, Ringhals 3 and Oskarshamn 3 all had average availabilities of over 90%. Of five events with safety implications that occurred in the plants during the year, three are described under Special Reporting. One of them relates to the crack indications in welds that were found in an American PWR in the autumn, and which were subsequently also found in Ringhals 4.

  14. Swedish Nuclear Waste Management from Theory to Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmqvist, Magnus

    2008-01-01

    The programme has evolved from a project of a few experts drawing up the outline of what today is a comprehensive programme of research, development, demonstration, design, construction and operation of facilities for radioactive waste management. The Swedish programme was greatly influenced at an early stage by political actions, which included placing the responsibility with the reactor owners to demonstrate safe disposal of spent nuclear fuel and also to fund a disposal programme. The response of the reactor owners was to immediately start the KBS project. Its third report in 1983 described the KBS-3 concept, which is still the basis for SKB's deep geological repository system. Thus, this year is the 25th anniversary of the creation of the well-known KBS-3 concept. The SKB programme for nuclear waste management is today divided in two sub programmes; LILW Programme and the Nuclear Fuel Programme. The LILW Programme is entering into a new phase with the imminent site investigations for the expansion of the SFR LILW repository, which is in operation since 1988, to accept also decommissioning waste. The expansion of SFR is driven by a government decision urging SKB to investigate when a licensing of a repository for decommissioning waste can be made

  15. Integrating health promotion with quality improvement in a Swedish hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astnell, Sandra; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Hasson, Henna; Augustsson, Hanna; Stenfors-Hayes, Terese

    2016-09-01

    Integration of workplace employee health promotion (HP) and occupational health and safety (OHS) work into organizational quality improvement systems is suggested as a way to strengthen HP and OHS activities in an organization. The aim of this article was to study what consequences integration of HP, OHS and a quality improvement system called kaizen has on the frequency and type of HP and OHS activities. A quasi-experimental study design was used where an integration of the three systems for HP, OHS respectively kaizen, was performed at six intervention units at a Swedish hospital. The remaining six units served as controls. Document analysis of all employees' written improvement suggestions (kaizen notes) during 2013 was conducted. The findings show that the intervention group had more suggestions concerning HP and OHS (n = 114) when compared with the control group (n = 78) and a greater variety of HP and OHS suggestions. In addition, only the intervention group had included HP aspects. In both groups, most kaizen notes with health consideration had a preventive focus rather than rehabilitative. The intervention, i.e. the integration of HP, OHS and kaizen work, had a favourable effect on HP and OHS work when compared with the controls. The results of the study support that this system can work in practice at hospitals. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The rise, decline, and future of the Swedish left.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Ingemar; Agren, Gunnar; Hogstedt, Christer

    2011-01-01

    Swedish voters' support for the labor movement has decreased from about 50 percent to less than 40 percent in recent decades, with a resulting loss of the majority in parliament. Over the same period, capitalism has undergone profound changes--transfer of production across borders, the huge growth and ultra-rapid movement of financial capital, and subordination of social welfare to the interests of profit. A new phase in the development of capitalism can be detected: from welfare capitalism to financial capitalism. Large parts of the public sector have been privatized by both conservative and labor governments, even while retaining public funding. The social gaps grow, and a new line of conflict is emerging in the values and interests that should govern care-taking, schools, and living conditions. The labor movement's ideological and scientific analyses have taken a backseat to liberal-conservative think tanks. An effective response to financial capitalism, transnational production chains, and European integration will require trade union and political actions across national borders to strengthen the power resources in the hands of the majority of the population, so as to counter the increasingly destructive powers of capitalism.

  17. Fiber Access Networks: Reliability Analysis and Swedish Broadband Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosinska, Lena; Chen, Jiajia; Larsen, Claus Popp

    Fiber access network architectures such as active optical networks (AONs) and passive optical networks (PONs) have been developed to support the growing bandwidth demand. Whereas particularly Swedish operators prefer AON, this may not be the case for operators in other countries. The choice depends on a combination of technical requirements, practical constraints, business models, and cost. Due to the increasing importance of reliable access to the network services, connection availability is becoming one of the most crucial issues for access networks, which should be reflected in the network owner's architecture decision. In many cases protection against failures is realized by adding backup resources. However, there is a trade off between the cost of protection and the level of service reliability since improving reliability performance by duplication of network resources (and capital expenditures CAPEX) may be too expensive. In this paper we present the evolution of fiber access networks and compare reliability performance in relation to investment and management cost for some representative cases. We consider both standard and novel architectures for deployment in both sparsely and densely populated areas. While some recent works focused on PON protection schemes with reduced CAPEX the current and future effort should be put on minimizing the operational expenditures (OPEX) during the access network lifetime.

  18. 137Cs in the fungal compartment of Swedish forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinichuk, Mykhaylo M.; Johanson, Karl J.; Taylor, Andy F.S.

    2004-01-01

    The 137 Cs activities in soil profiles and in the mycelia of four ectomycorrhizal fungi were studied in a Swedish forest in an attempt to understand the mechanisms governing the transfer and retention of 137 Cs in forest soil. The biomass of four species of fungi was determined and estimated to be 16 g m -2 in a peat soil and 47-189 g m -2 in non-peat soil to the depth of 10 cm. The vertical distribution was rather homogeneous for two species (Tylospora spp. and Piloderma fallax) and very superficial for Hydnellum peckii. Most of the 137 Cs activity in mycelium of non-peat soils was found in the upper 5 cm. Transfer factors were quite high even for those species producing resupinate sporocarps. In the peat soil only approximately 0.3% of the total 137 Cs inventory in soil was found in the fungal mycelium. The corresponding values for non-peat soil were 1.3, 1.8 and 1.9%

  19. Impact after three years of the Swedish energy audit program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backlund, Sandra; Thollander, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    The Swedish energy audit program is a publicly financed program, mainly targeting small and medium-sized firms to help them finance energy audits. By examining suggested and implemented energy efficiency measures from the energy audits conducted in 241 firms in the program, the aim of this paper is to examine the energy efficiency implementation gap and the cost efficiency of the program. The audits show that the firms' average annual energy efficiency improvement potential is between 860 and 1270 MWh/year which corresponds to a total energy efficiency improvement potential of between 6980 and 11,130 MWh/firm. The implementation rate of the suggested energy efficiency improvement measures in the SEAP is 53%. The program has resulted in investments in energy efficiency improvements between €74,100and €113,000/firm. - Highlights: • Auditors find an energy efficiency improvement potential of 460–660 MWh/year/firm. • The implementation rate of the suggested measures is 53%. • The total cost per MWh lie between €87 and €114/MWh. • Public costs in the SEAP are €0.7–€1.3/MWh

  20. Linguatula serrata in Swedish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Rehbinder

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available A high prevalence (24,2% of the tongue-worm Lingutula serrata was found in reindeer yearlings. Apparently the high incidence found in this material indicates that the parasite is well adapted to reindeer; the reaction of the nasal mucosa is very mild. The abscence of clinical manifestations and the hidden localization in sinuses which are rarely inspected at slaughter or autopsy is most probably the reason why L. serrata is seldom observed.Tungmask (Linguatula serrata hos svensk skogsren.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: En hög frekvens(24,2% av tungmask (Linguatula serrata påvisades hos årskalv av skogsren. Den ringa våvnadsreaktion som forelag antyder att L serrata troligen ar val anpassad till ren. Att endast ett fåtal rapporter om forekomst av L serrata hos ren foreligger torde bero på att parasiten inte ger några kliniska symptom samt dess i huvudsak gomda lokalisation i overkåkshåligheterna vilka sållan inspekteras vid slakt eller obduktion. L serrata år dårfor sannolikt vanligare hos svenska renar ån man tidigare antagit.