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Sample records for swedish holstein calves

  1. Genome-wide Association Study for Calving Traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2011-01-01

    A total of 22 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected on 19 chromosomes for direct and maternal calving traits in cattle using a genome-wide association study. Calving performance is affected by the genotypes of both the calf (direct effect) and dam (maternal effect). To identify the QTL...... contributing these effects to calving characteristics, we performed a genome-wide association study using a mixed-model analysis in Danish and Swedish Holstein cattle. The analysis incorporated 2,062 progeny-tested bulls, and 36,387 single nucleotide polymorphism markers on 29 bovine autosomes were analyzed...... for association with 14 calving traits. Strong evidence for the presence of QTL that affect calving traits was observed on chromosomes 4, 6, 12, 18, 20, and 25. The QTL intervals were generally smaller than those described in earlier linkage studies. The identification of calving trait-associated single...

  2. Causes of Stillbirth and Time of Death in Swedish Holstein Calves Examined Post Mortem

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    Elvander M

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was initiated due to the observation of increasing and rather high levels of stillbirths, especially in first-calving Swedish Holstein cows (10.3%, 2002. Seventy-six Swedish Holstein calves born to heifers at 41 different farms were post mortem examined in order to investigate possible reasons for stillbirth and at what time in relation to full-term gestation they had occurred. The definition of a stillborn calf was dead at birth or within 24 h after birth after at least 260 days of gestation. Eight calves were considered as having died already in uterus. Slightly less than half of the examined calves (46.1% were classified as having died due to a difficult calving. Four calves (5.3% had different kinds of malformations (heart defects, enlarged thymus, urine bladder defect. Approximately one third of the calves (31.6% were clinically normal at full-term with no signs of malformation and born with no indication of difficulties at parturition or any other reason that could explain the stillbirth. The numbers of male and female calves were rather equally distributed within the groups. A wide variation in post mortem weights was seen in all groups, although a number of the calves in the group of clinically normal calves with unexplained reason of death were rather small and, compared with e.g. those calves categorised as having died due to a difficult calving, their average birth weight was 6 kg lower (39.9 ± 1.7 kg vs. 45.9 ± 1.5 kg, p ≤ 0.01. It was concluded that the cause of stillbirth with a non-infectious aetiology is likely to be multifactorial and difficult calving may explain only about half of the stillbirths. As much as one third of the calves seemed clinically normal with no obvious reason for death. This is a target group of calves that warrants a more thorough investigation in further studies.

  3. Endocrine Measurements and Calving Performance of Swedish Red and White and Swedish Holstein Dairy Cattle with Special Respect to Stillbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson H

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available During 3 consecutive calving seasons, calving performance, placental characteristics and endocrine profiles of total 98 pregnancies of late pregnant Swedish Red and White (SRB and Swedish Holstein (SLB dairy heifers and cows, were investigated. Ninety-four singleton pregnancies and 4 sets of twins were recorded. In animals with singleton pregnancy, 8 stillbirths, 7 weak calves, 3 premature parturitions and 1 abortion were registered. In the SLB heifers, 19% of stillbirth (5/26 were observed, while 5% (2/42 were noted for the SRB heifers. One stillborn calf derived from the SRB cows and none was found from the SLB cows. In the heifers and cows delivering a normal living calf with unassisted parturition, the placentome thickness monitored by ultrasonography was constant towards the end of pregnancy. The numbers of foetal cotyledons varied individually between animals but in total, fewer cotyledons were found in the foetal membranes of the SRB animals than in the SLB animals (69 ± 19 vs. (88 ± 29 (p 2α metabolite (PG-metabolite, cortisol, oestrone sulphate (E1SO4 and pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAGs were not different by breeds and parities. In animals carrying stillbirth, higher levels of E1SO4 were found in 3 SRB animals and 1 SLB heifer, whereas lower levels of E1SO4 were recorded in 3 SLB heifers during the last week of pregnancy, compared to the profiles found in animals with unassisted parturition. Additionally, the levels of PAGs remained low and constant in 1 SRB cow (delivering a stillborn calf, 1 SRB heifer (giving birth prematurely, 4 animals (carrying twins and 1 aborting SRB cow. Our results show a very high rate of stillbirth in especially SLB heifers and deviating profiles of E1SO4 and PAGs in animals with impaired parturition were recorded.

  4. Mycoplasma bovis associated with decubital abscesses in Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinde, H; Daft, B M; Walker, R L; Charlton, B R; Petty, R

    1993-04-01

    Between April of 1990 and March of 1992, calves on a Holstein calf ranch experienced subcutaneous decubital abscesses involving the brisket region, dorsal aspect of the carpus, and lateral aspect of the stifle joints. Fifty out of 2,500 (2%) Holstein calves between the ages of 3 and 12 weeks were affected. Needle aspirates of brisket abscesses from 8 calves and 6 live or dead calves with 1 or more decubital abscesses were submitted for examination. Two of the 6 calves in addition had bronchopneumonia. Mycoplasma bovis was isolated from all abscesses and 1 lung. Formalin fixed tissues taken from the affected areas also revealed M. bovis by immunoperoxidase staining. No evidence of joint involvement was apparent, and no mycoplasma was isolated from the joints adjacent to affected areas. Attempts to isolate mycoplasma from milk and environmental samples were unsuccessful.

  5. [Hyperextension of fetlock joints in German Holstein and German Holstein-Limousin crossbred calves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bähr, C; Baum, B; Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Scholz, H; Distl, O

    2005-01-01

    In two different dairy farms six calves exhibiting bilateral flexion of the fetlock joints in front or rear legs were born in 2000 to 2002. Four of the affected calves from the same farm were crossbred between German Holstein cows with red and white coat colour and a bull of the breed Limousin. The other two affected calves born on another farm were purebred German Holsteins with a black and white coat colour. The tests for BVD virus antigen and antibodies were negative in all affected calves. Three of the calves showed a lower selen and a higher glutamate dehydrogenase concentration in the analyses of blood metabolites. Two crossbred calves showed a degeneration of the liver with a progressive periportal fibrosis in a histological examination. In one calf an edema of astrocytes of the central nervous system was seen. The analysis of the pedigrees revealed for the four crossbred calves the Limousin bull as common ancestor and the mothers of the calves as relatives. For the affected purebred German Holstein calves also a sire was identified as a common ancestor. The pedigrees support inheritance through a monogenic autosomal recessive locus or more recessive gene loci with variable expressivity. However, the analysis could not clarify whether different gene loci are responsible for the congenital anomalies observed in the calves from the two farms and thus, the observed anomalies may be different genetic entities. Obvious environmental reasons were not found.

  6. Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Calving Traits in Danish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, J R; Guldbrandtsen, B; Sørensen, P

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting direct and maternal calving traits at first calving in the Danish Holstein population, 2) to distinguish between pleiotropic and linked QTL for chromosome regions affecting more than one trait, and 3) to detect...... QTL affecting stillbirth and calving difficulties but not calf size that could be used in selection to improve calving performance. Progeny-tested sons (2,297) were genotyped for 356 microsatellites in 34 grandsire families on all 29 autosomes. A total of 27 significant QTL on 17 chromosomes were...... detected using a between-families linear regression model. For the direct calving traits, 4 QTL significantly affected calving difficulty, 5 QTL affected stillbirth, and 7 QTL affected calf size subjectively assessed by the farmer as a categorical trait. When the maternal components of the same traits were...

  7. [Bovine neonatal pancytopenia in German Holstein calves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Bettina Constanze; Ulrich, Reiner; Kuiper, Heidi; Reinacher, Manfred; Peters, Martin; Heimberg, Peter; Holsteg, Mark; Puff, Christina; Haas, Ludwig; Ganter, Martin; Distl, Ottmar

    2011-01-01

    Profiles of blood cell counts were evaluated for 15 calves from three different farms. These calves showed petechia in the mucous membranes and in the skin and prolonged secondary bleeding after puncture. The clinical course of the disease could be observed in eleven calves. With exception of one case, the blood cell counts indicated a severe anaemia, leukocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. Out of these 15 calves, six calves survived and the other nine calves died or had to be euthanized due to the severity of the disease. Necropsy of these nine calves revealed petechia in the skin, subcutis, muscles, in inner organs and all serous membranes. Pathohistological examination showed a depletion of the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue in eight calves. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP) for eight of these nine calves. Bluetongue virus serotype 8 was tested negatively using PCR. Bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was negatively tested using immunofluorescence and cell culture and salmonella species were negatively tested in seven dissected calves. A cluster of toxins was negatively tested in one of the dissected calves. All 15 calves had high antibody titres for BVDV. The BVDV-antibody titres from twelve dams with affected calves were positive in six cases and not detectable in the other six cases. In three of the six dams with not detectable BVDV-antibody titres, calves were fed with colostrum of a further dam with high BVDV-antibody titres. In the further three dams without detectable BVDV-antibody titres, we could not ascertain which colostrum has been fed to the calves. BVDV-specific antigen could not be detected in any of the samples from the calves and dams tested. Using the activity of the gamma-glutamyl-transferase, we assumed a sufficient supply with colostrum for the examined calves.The cause for the occurrence of these BNP cases was due to bone marrow depletion.The reason for the bone marrow depletion remained unclear

  8. CLOSTAT alters the serum metabolome of Holstein Steer Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probiotics are gaining increased interest in calf feeding operations as some producers seek novel, non-antibiotic technologies to improve health and performance. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate changes in serum metabolomic compounds of Holstein steer calves supplemented with C...

  9. The motivation-based calving facility: Social and cognitive factors influence isolation seeking behaviour of Holstein dairy cows at calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2018-01-01

    . Danish Holstein cows (n = 66) were housed in groups of six in a group pen with access to six individual calving pens connected to the group area. Cows were trained to use one of two isolation opportunities i.e. individual calving pens with functional closing gates (n = 35) allowing only one cow access......In order to improve animal welfare it is recommended that dairy farmers move calving cows from the herd to individual pens when calving is imminent. However, the practicality of moving cows has proven a challenge and may lead to disturbance of the cows rather than easing the process of calving. One...... solution may be to allow the cow to seek isolation prior to calving. This study examined whether pre-parturient dairy cows will isolate in an individual calving pen placed in a group calving setting and whether a closing gate in this individual calving pen will cause more cows to isolate prior to calving...

  10. Genetic parameters for calving and conformation traits in Charolais x Montbéliard and Charolais x Holstein crossbred calves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallee, A.A.A.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2013-01-01

    Charolais sires can be mated to Montbéliard or Holstein dairy cows to produce crossbred calves sold for meat production. Heritabilities and correlations between traits can differ when they are calculated within Charolais × Montbéliard or within Charolais × Holstein population. Moreover, the genetic

  11. The pharmacokinetics of transdermal flunixin meglumine in Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, M D; Van Engen, N K; Gorden, P J; KuKanich, B; Rajewski, S M; Walsh, P; Coetzee, J F

    2016-12-01

    This study describes the pharmacokinetics of topical and intravenous (IV) flunixin meglumine in Holstein calves. Eight male Holsteins calves, aged 6 to 8 weeks, were administered flunixin at a dose of 2.2 mg/kg intravenously. Following a 10-day washout period, calves were dosed with flunixin at 3.33 mg/kg topically (transdermal). Blood samples were collected at predetermined times from 0 to 48 h for the intravenous portions and 0 to 72 h following topical dosing. Plasma drug concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography with mass spectroscopy. Pharmacokinetic analysis was completed using noncompartmental methods. The mean bioavailability of topical flunixin was calculated to be 48%. The mean AUC for flunixin was determined to be 13.9 h × ug/mL for IV administration and 10.1 h × ug/mL for topical administration. The mean half-life for topical flunixin was 6.42 h and 4.99 h for the intravenous route. The C max following topical application of flunixin was 1.17 μg/mL. The time to maximum concentration was 2.14 h. Mean residence time (MRT) following IV injection was 4.38 h and 8.36 h after topical administration. In conclusion, flunixin when administered as a topical preparation is rapidly absorbed and has longer half-life compared to IV administration. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The Effect of Age at First Calving and Calving Interval on Productive Life and Lifetime Profit in Korean Holsteins

    OpenAIRE

    Changhee Do; Nidarshani Wasana; Kwanghyun Cho; Yunho Choi; Taejeong Choi; Byungho Park; Donghee Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to estimate the effect of age at first calving and first two calving intervals on productive life and life time profit in Korean Holsteins. Reproduction data of Korean Holsteins born from 1998 to 2004 and lactation data from 276,573 cows with birth and last dry date that calved between 2000 and 2010 were used for the analysis. Lifetime profit increased with the days of life span. Regression of Life Span on Lifetime profit indicated that there was an increase of 3,800 ...

  13. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil; Munksgaard, Lene; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding...... previously housed in straw pens also stood up and suckled their dams sooner compared with Jersey calves of cows previously housed in freestalls. Holstein cows previously housed in straw pens tended to stand up sooner compared with Holstein cows previously housed in freestalls. These results suggest...... or into freestall housing 4 wk before the expected calving date. Individual straw-bedded maternity pens were placed adjacent to the straw-bedded group pens, and cows were moved to the maternity pens before calving. Cows that spent more than 12 h in the maternity pen before calving and calved unassisted were...

  14. The motivation-based calving facility: Social and cognitive factors influence isolation seeking behaviour of Holstein dairy cows at calving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve animal welfare it is recommended that dairy farmers move calving cows from the herd to individual pens when calving is imminent. However, the practicality of moving cows has proven a challenge and may lead to disturbance of the cows rather than easing the process of calving. One solution may be to allow the cow to seek isolation prior to calving. This study examined whether pre-parturient dairy cows will isolate in an individual calving pen placed in a group calving setting and whether a closing gate in this individual calving pen will cause more cows to isolate prior to calving. Danish Holstein cows (n = 66) were housed in groups of six in a group pen with access to six individual calving pens connected to the group area. Cows were trained to use one of two isolation opportunities i.e. individual calving pens with functional closing gates (n = 35) allowing only one cow access at a time, or individual calving pens with permanently open gates allowing free cow traffic between group area and individual pen (n = 31). The response variables were calving site, calving behaviour and social behaviour. Unexpectedly, a functional gate did not facilitate isolation seeking, perhaps because the cows were not able to combine a learnt response with the motivation to isolate. Dominant cows had the highest chance of calving in an individual calving pen. If an alien calf was present in the group pen or any of the individual pens, cows were less likely to calve in an individual calving pen. Future studies should allow cows easy access to an individual calving pen and explore what motivates pre-parturient cows to seek isolation in order to facilitate voluntary use of individual calving pens. PMID:29346399

  15. Growth Performances of Female and Male Holstein Calves Fed Milk and Milk Replacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir BAYRIL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare growth performances of male and female Holstein calves fed milk and milk replacers. A total of 60 Holstein calves were used in the study. Calves were divided into three equal groups. In each group, there were 10 female and 10 male calves. Calves were offered colostrum for 3 days after birth and were weighed at fourth day for the trial. Initial body weights of calves in dietary treatments were statistically similar. The first, second and third groups were fed milk, milk replacer-I (CP 21% and CF 16.5% and milk replacer-II (CP 24% and CF 18%, respectively. In addition to milk and milk replacers, calves were supplemented with ad libitum concentrate feed and alfalfa. Dietary treatment was significantly effective (P<0.05 on body weight of calves at 60 days of age. In conclusion, growth performances of calves increased with increasing protein content of milk replacer had better than those of calves fed milk replacer containing low-protein. Therefore, during the suckling period, in feeding of Holstein calves, milk or milk replacer containing high-protein should be preferred primarily.

  16. Pelvic Parameters in Holstein-Friesian and Jersey Heifers in Relation to Their Calving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenon Nogalski* and Władysław Mordas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare calving ease, pelvic structure and pelvic angle in 74 Holstein-Friesian and 45 Jersey heifers. The frequency of difficult calving was 15.2% in Holstein-Friesians and only 2.2% in Jersey heifers. Compared with Jersey cows, Holstein-Friesians were characterized by a higher calf weight to cow weight ratio, and higher ratios of pelvic area to cow weight and pelvic area to calf weight. The results of the study show that higher frequency of difficult calving recorded in Holstein-Friesians, in comparison with Jersey heifers, could be a consequence of relatively high calf weight and less preferable pelvic structure. Large variation in the internal dimensions of the pelvis in HF heifers encouraged reducing the occurrence of dystocia through selection of the dimensions of the pelvis.

  17. Some Environmental Factors Affecting Birth Weight, Weaning Weight and Daily Live Weight Gain of Holstein Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Yaylak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine some environmental factors affecting birth weight, weaning weight and daily live weight gain of Holstein calves of a livestock facility in Izmir, Turkey. The data on 2091 calves born between the years 2005-2010 were used to assess the relevant parameters. Effects of calving year, calving month, calf gender and the interaction between calving year and calving month on calves’ birth weights were highly significant. The overall mean of birth weights was 39.6±0.15 kg. In addition, effects of calving year, calving month, gender, birth weight, weaning age, calving year x calving month, calving year x gender and calving year x calving month x gender interactions on weaning weight (WW and daily live weight gain (DLWG were highly significant. The overall means of WW and DLWG were respectively found to be 79.7±0.20 kg and 525±2.5 g. A one kilogram increase in birth weight resulted in an increase of 0.89 kg in weaning weight and a decrease of 1.26 g in daily live weight gain. Prenatal temperature-humidity index (THI affected birth weight of calves (R2=0.67. Increasing THI from 50 to 80 resulted in 3.8 kg decrease in birth weight.

  18. Effect of energy balance profiles on metabolic and reproductive response in Holstein and Swedish Red cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntallaris, T; Humblot, P; Båge, R; Sjunnesson, Y; Dupont, J; Berglund, B

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the effect of two feeding levels during the antepartum and postpartum period on reproductive performance and blood metabolites (glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin) in primiparous Holstein and Swedish Red (SRB) cows, in order to identify possible differences in the way these breeds respond to negative energy balance after calving. A total of 44 cows (22 Holstein, 22 SRB) kept in a loose housing system were included in the study. The control group (HE, n = 23) was fed a diet for high-producing cows (target 35 kg/d energycorrected milk, ECM). A lower feeding intensity (LE, n = 21) was achieved by giving -50% concentrate to target 25 kg/d ECM. Diets were implemented 30 days before expected calving and the cows were monitored for 120 days postpartum. Milk yield and composition, dry matter intake (DMI), live body weight and body condition score (BCS) were assessed to calculate the weekly energy balance (residual feed intake). Blood sampling started before diet implementation and was repeated every 2 weeks until Day 60 postpartum and then once monthly until Day 120. Plasma was kept at -20 °C until analysis for glucose, insulin and NEFA concentrations. Mixed linear models were used to analyse data (SAS 9.3; PROC MIXED). Holstein cows had lower mean energy balance than SRB cows (-4.7 ± 1.4 and -0.9 ± 1.4 MJ, respectively; p = 0.05). SRB cows had higher (pmilk production to a larger extent than SRB cows, resulting in a less balanced metabolic profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of Age at First Calving and Calving Interval on Productive Life and Lifetime Profit in Korean Holsteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhee Do

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to estimate the effect of age at first calving and first two calving intervals on productive life and life time profit in Korean Holsteins. Reproduction data of Korean Holsteins born from 1998 to 2004 and lactation data from 276,573 cows with birth and last dry date that calved between 2000 and 2010 were used for the analysis. Lifetime profit increased with the days of life span. Regression of Life Span on Lifetime profit indicated that there was an increase of 3,800 Won (approximately $3.45 of lifetime profit per day increase in life span. This is evidence that care of each cow is necessary to improve net return and important for farms maintaining profitable cows. The estimates of heritability of age at first calving, first two calving intervals, days in milk for lifetime, lifespan, milk income and lifetime profit were 0.111, 0.088, 0.142, 0.140, 0.143, 0.123, and 0.102, respectively. The low heritabilities indicated that the productive life and economical traits include reproductive and productive characteristics. Age at first calving and interval between first and second calving had negative genetic correlation with lifetime profit (−0.080 and −0.265, respectively. Reducing age at first calving and first calving interval had a positive effect on lifetime profit. Lifetime profit increased to approximately 2,600,000 (2,363.6 from 800,000 Won ($727.3 when age at first calving decreased to (22.3 month from (32.8 month. Results suggested that reproductive traits such as age at first calving and calving interval might affect various economical traits and consequently influenced productive life and profitability of cows. In conclusion, regard of the age at first calving must be taken with the optimum age at first calving for maximum lifetime profit being 22.5 to 23.5 months. Moreover, considering the negative genetic correlation of first calving interval with lifetime profit, it should be reduced against the present

  20. The Effect of Age at First Calving and Calving Interval on Productive Life and Lifetime Profit in Korean Holsteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Changhee; Wasana, Nidarshani; Cho, Kwanghyun; Choi, Yunho; Choi, Taejeong; Park, Byungho; Lee, Donghee

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to estimate the effect of age at first calving and first two calving intervals on productive life and life time profit in Korean Holsteins. Reproduction data of Korean Holsteins born from 1998 to 2004 and lactation data from 276,573 cows with birth and last dry date that calved between 2000 and 2010 were used for the analysis. Lifetime profit increased with the days of life span. Regression of Life Span on Lifetime profit indicated that there was an increase of 3,800 Won (approximately $3.45) of lifetime profit per day increase in life span. This is evidence that care of each cow is necessary to improve net return and important for farms maintaining profitable cows. The estimates of heritability of age at first calving, first two calving intervals, days in milk for lifetime, lifespan, milk income and lifetime profit were 0.111, 0.088, 0.142, 0.140, 0.143, 0.123, and 0.102, respectively. The low heritabilities indicated that the productive life and economical traits include reproductive and productive characteristics. Age at first calving and interval between first and second calving had negative genetic correlation with lifetime profit (−0.080 and −0.265, respectively). Reducing age at first calving and first calving interval had a positive effect on lifetime profit. Lifetime profit increased to approximately 2,600,000 (2,363.6) from 800,000 Won ($727.3) when age at first calving decreased to (22.3 month) from (32.8 month). Results suggested that reproductive traits such as age at first calving and calving interval might affect various economical traits and consequently influenced productive life and profitability of cows. In conclusion, regard of the age at first calving must be taken with the optimum age at first calving for maximum lifetime profit being 22.5 to 23.5 months. Moreover, considering the negative genetic correlation of first calving interval with lifetime profit, it should be reduced against the present trend of increase

  1. Comparison of colostrum feeding by nipple bottle versus oroesophageal tubing in Holstein dairy bull calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigerwe, Munashe; Coons, David M; Hagey, Jill V

    2012-07-01

    To compare the apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG and failure of passive transfer of immunity rates between calves fed colostrum by nipple bottle (NB) and oroesophageal tubing (OET). Randomized controlled study. 26 Holstein bull calves (age, 4 to 8 hours). Calves were randomly assigned to receive colostrum by either NB or OET. Pooled colostrum was used for feeding each group of calves. Calves received either a maximum of 4 L of colostrum fed through an NB over a period of 20 minutes or an equivalent volume of colostrum fed by OET. Subsequently, a pair of similarly aged calves received similar volumes of colostrum with similar immunoglobulin concentrations. Colostrum was fed only once. Thereafter, calves were fed 2 L of milk replacer every 12 hours. All calves survived to at least 48 hours of age. Serum samples were collected prior to feeding colostrum and at 48 hours of age for determination of serum immunoglobulin concentrations. There were no differences in failure of passive transfer of immunity rates and apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG between calves fed by NB or OET. Volume of colostrum fed was the only significant variable in determining failure of passive transfer of immunity in calves at 48 hours. Reported advantages and disadvantages of either feeding method are likely to be of minimal practical relevance in achieving adequate passive transfer of immunity in calves when calves are fed a similar volume of colostrum with comparable immunoglobulin concentrations.

  2. Effect of hay on performance of Holstein calves at suckling and post-weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Kyoshi Ueno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of Holstein calves in suckling and post-weaning phases, intensively managed during suckling in the absence or presence of hay. Twenty-four male Holstein calves, at an average age of 15 days and initial weight of 43 kg were used in the experiment. The experimental design was completely randomized, consisting of two treatments and six replications. The treatments were as follows: 1 suckling with milk substitute + initial concentrate for calves, ad libitum + temperate grass hay (oat/ryegrass, ad libitum; 2 suckling with milk substitute + initial concentrate for calves, ad libitum. No significant difference was found between treatments for weight gain and feed conversion. However, the supply of hay caused an increase in daily dry matter intake (2.127 vs 1.894 kg. The intake of hay promoted greater stimulus to consumption of concentrate and greater weight at weaning.

  3. Technical note: Ruminal cannulation technique in young Holstein calves:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Engbæk, Marie; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    for effects on performance traits and gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract compared with a control group not undergoing surgery. Five calves were ruminally cannulated at approximately 10 d of age and 5 matching calves were used as controls. All calves were fed milk replacer and a diet based on clover......Ruminal cannulation techniques are frequently used to study fermentation in the ruminant forestomach. Unsatisfactory results with the traditionally applied procedure for cannulation of young calves stimulated the development of a simpler and more robust procedure; this procedure was tested...... grass silage and sodium hydroxide-treated wheat. Ruminal fluid was collected from cannulated calves once weekly for 3 consecutive weeks. All calves were euthanized at 43 ± 3 d of age. No apparent adverse effects of cannulation were observed. Feed intake, BW gain, and gross anatomy...

  4. Genome Scan Detects Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Female Fertility Traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, Johanna Karolina; Guldbrandtsen, B; Su, G

    2009-01-01

    microsatellite markers. Single trait breeding values were used for 12 traits relating to female fertility and female reproductive disorders. Data were analyzed by least squares regression analysis within and across families. Twenty-six QTL were detected on 17 different chromosomes. The best evidence was found......Data from the joint Nordic breeding value prediction for Danish and Swedish Holstein grandsire families were used to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) for female fertility traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein cattle. Up to 36 Holstein grandsires with over 2,000 sons were genotyped for 416...

  5. Passive transfer of immunoglobulin G and preweaning health in Holstein calves fed a commercial colostrum replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, H; Godden, S; Bey, R; Wells, S; Fetrow, J; Chester-Jones, H

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study was to describe passive transfer of IgG and preweaning health in newborn calves fed a commercially available plasma-derived colostrum replacement (CR) product or maternal colostrum (MC). Twelve commercial Holstein dairy farms enrolled singleton newborn heifer calves to be fed fresh MC (n = 239 calves) or one dose of CR containing 125 g of Ig (n = 218 calves) as the first colostrum feeding. For 7 of these farms that routinely provided a second feeding of 1.9 L of MC to their calves 8 to 12 h after the first colostrum feeding, calves assigned to the CR treatment group were offered a second feeding consisting of 1.9 L of commercial milk replacer supplemented with one dose of a commercially available plasma-derived colostrum supplement, containing 45 g of Ig per dose, 8 to 12 h after the first colostrum feeding. A blood sample was collected from all calves between 1 to 8 d of age for serum IgG and total protein (TP) determination, and records of all treatment and mortality events were collected until weaning. Serum IgG and TP concentrations were significantly higher in calves fed MC (IgG = 14.8 +/- 7.0 mg/mL; TP = 5.5 +/- 0.7 g/dL) compared with calves fed CR (IgG = 5.8 +/- 3.2 mg/mL; TP = 4.6 +/- 0.5 g/dL). The proportion of calves with failure of passive transfer (serum IgG protein concentration predictive of successful passive transfer (serum IgG = 10 mg/mL) was 5.0 g/dL in calves fed MC or CR. Long-term follow-up of these calves (to maturity) is ongoing to describe the effects of feeding CR on longevity, productivity, risk for Johne's disease, and economics.

  6. Environmental factors and dam characteristics associated with insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in newborn Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, M M; Van Eetvelde, M; Bogaert, H; Hostens, M; Vandaele, L; Shamsuddin, M; Opsomer, G

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the present retrospective cohort study was to evaluate potential associations between environmental factors and dam characteristics, including level of milk production during gestation, and insulin traits in newborn Holstein calves. Birth weight and gestational age of the calves at delivery were determined. On the next day, heart girth, wither height and diagonal length of both the calves and their dams were measured. Parity, body condition score and age at calving were recorded for all dams. For the cows, days open before last gestation, lactation length (LL), length of dry period (DP) and calving interval were also calculated. The magnitude and shape of the lactation curve both quantified using the MilkBot model based on monthly milk weights, were used to calculate the amount of milk produced during gestation. Using the same procedure, cumulative milk production from conception to drying off (MGEST) was calculated. A blood sample was collected from all calves (n=481; 169 born to heifers and 312 born to cows) at least 5 h after a milk meal on day 3 of life to measure basal glucose and insulin levels. In addition, an intravenous glucose-stimulated insulin secretion test was performed in a subset of the calves (n=316). After descriptive analysis, generalized linear mixed models were used to identify factors that were significantly associated with the major insulin traits (Insb, basal insulin level; QUICKI, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index; AIR, acute insulin response; DI, disposition index) of the newborn calves. The overall average birth weight of the calves was 42.7 ± 5.92 kg. The insulin traits were significantly associated with gender and season of birth when data of all calves were analyzed. In addition, the insulin traits in calves born to cows were significantly associated with MGEST, DP and LL. The Insb was estimated to be higher in calves born to the cows having passed a higher MGEST (P=0.076) and longer DP (P=0.034). The

  7. Performance of Holstein calves having free access to milk and dosed with Megasphaera elsdenii

    OpenAIRE

    Muya, Mukengela Claude; Erasmus, Lourens Johannes; Miller, Kevin; Aperce, Celine; Nherera, Florence Veronica; Moshidi, Portia Mamothaladi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Megasphaera elsdenii converts lactate and glucose into butyrate, the main volatile fatty acid responsible of papillae development and may benefit calf performance. Twenty-six Holstein calves (BW = 34.5 ± 1.65 kg) were randomly assigned at birth to a control group (Meg0) and a group that received an oral dose of M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125 at 14 d of age (Meg14). Calves received colostrum for the first 3 d followed by free choice access to whole milk until weaning at 56 d. From d 4 onward...

  8. Effect of wheat processing on rumen characteristics and rumen parameters in Holstein-Friesian calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirghaffari, S S; Karkoodi, K; Mirza-Aghazadeh, A; Maheri-Sis, N

    2013-10-01

    In this experiment, effect of wheat processing on rumen conditions and development were investigated. Fifty-six neonatal Holstein-Friesian calves (22 male and 34 female) were fed calf starters and post-weaning diets containing 35 (pre-weaning) and 21.90% (post-weaning) popped wheat (PW), steam-flaked wheat (SFW), dry-rolled wheat (DRW) or ground wheat (GW) till 12 weeks of age. Calves were weaned at the end of 9th week, and a post-weaning-specific starter diets were fed for 1 month. Rumen liquor was analysed in days 30, 60 and 90 of the experiment to determine volatile fatty acids (VFA), pH and ammonia nitrogen concentrations. Twelve male calves (three calves/treatment) were slaughtered, and digestive tract was emptied. Forestomach empty weight and rumen parameters were assessed. Results indicated that calves received PW had the highest total VFA, acetate, propionate, butyrate, ammonia nitrogen, rumen wall thickness, papilla width and density. Calves fed DRW experienced the lowest rumen pH throughout the experiment probably because high proportion of fine particles in GW. Calves consuming PW apparently had more functional rumen in comparison with other groups. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Relationships between age at first calving, herd management criteria and lifetime milk, fat, and protein production in holstein cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data from 69,145 Holstein cows that calved for the first time in 2005 were evaluated to determine the influence of age at first calving (AFC) on first lactation and lifetime production in commercial dairy herds. A DHI database was divided into four herd management criteria (HMC). The four HMC were: ...

  10. Genetic parameters of calving ease using sire-maternal grandsire model in Korean Holsteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboob Alam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Calving ease (CE is a complex reproductive trait of economic importance in dairy cattle. This study was aimed to investigate the genetic merits of CE for Holsteins in Korea. Methods A total of 297,614 field records of CE, from 2000 to 2015, from first parity Holstein heifers were recorded initially. After necessary data pruning such as age at first calving (18 to 42 mo, gestation length, and presence of sire information, final datasets for CE consisted of 147,526 and 132,080 records for service sire calving ease (SCE and daughter calving ease (DCE evaluations, respectively. The CE categories were ordered and scores ranged from CE1 to CE5 (CE1, easy; CE2, slight assistance; CE3, moderate assistance; CE4, difficult calving; CE5, extreme difficulty calving. A linear transformation of CE score was obtained on each category using Snell procedure, and a scaling factor was applied to attain the spread between 0 (CE5 and 100% (CE1. A sire-maternal grandsire model analysis was performed using ASREML 3.0 software package. Results The estimated direct heritability (h2 from SCE and DCE evaluations were 0.11±0.01 and 0.08±0.01, respectively. Maternal h2 estimates were 0.05±0.02 and 0.04±0.01 from SCE and DCE approaches, respectively. Estimates of genetic correlations between direct and maternal genetic components were −0.68±0.09 (SCE and −0.71±0.09 (DCE. The average direct genetic effect increased over time, whereas average maternal effect was low and consistent. The estimated direct predicted transmitting ability (PTA was desirable and increasing over time, but the maternal PTA was undesirable and decreasing. Conclusion The evidence on sufficient genetic variances in this study could reflect a possible selection improvement over time regarding ease of calving. It is expected that the estimated genetic parameters could be a valuable resource to formulate sire selection and breeding plans which would be directed towards the reduction of

  11. Variation of Blood Plasma Gamma-Glutamyltransferase and Total Protein Concentrations in Holstein Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Găvan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the changes of blood plasma Gamma-glutamiltranferase (GGT and total protein concentrations during the growth of Holstein calves. Blood samples were collected from 20 calves divided in two groups (group 1 from 1 to 3 month of age and group 2 from over 3 months to 5 months of age. Mean value of GGT in group 1 was 32.2 IU/L and 27.2 IU/L in group 2. Mean value of total protein was 7.14 g/dl in group 1 and 6.92 g/dl in group 2. The slight changes in concentrations of GGT and total protein may be related to maturity of organs initiation of specific enzymatic activities or simply physiological adaptation of calves to the new environment.

  12. Interaction between milk allowance and fat content of the starter feed on performance of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, G; Terré, M; Bach, A

    2014-10-01

    Sixty-six Holstein male calves [42 ± 6.0 kg of body weight (BW) and 12 ± 3.1 d of age] were housed individually and allocated to 1 of 4 treatments following a 2 × 2 factorial complete randomized design to assess the potential interaction between milk replacer (MR) allowance and fat content in the starter feed. Thus, 4 treatments were evaluated: a low-fat (4.1% fat; LF) starter feed offered along with 4 L/d of MR (4 LF), a high-fat (11.2% fat; HF) starter feed plus 4 L/d of MR (4 HF), a LF starter feed offered with 6 L/d of MR (6LF), and an HF starter feed offered with 6 L/d of MR (6 HF). Calves were fed either 4 or 6 L/d of MR (25% crude protein and 19.2% fat) in 2 offers (0800 and 1630 h) and had ad libitum access to either an LF or an HF starter feed (21.4 and 22.3% crude protein). Calves were weaned at wk 6 of study by halving the daily MR allowance for 1 wk. Individual MR and starter feed intakes were recorded daily and BW was determined weekly. A glucose tolerance test was performed on d 30 of study to evaluate the effects of increased energy provision on glucose metabolism. Apparent feed digestibility was measured for the last 5 d of study. Overall, fat content of starter feed had no effect on solid feed intake. However, during wk 8 of study (after weaning), calves in the LF treatment had greater starter feed intake than HF calves. Calves on 6 L/d of MR had greater BW than calves fed 4 L/d from the second week of study until weaning. After weaning, 6 LF calves had lesser BW than 6 HF calves. Calves on 6 L/d of MR had greater average daily gain than calves fed 4 L/d, and 6 HF calves tended to have the greatest average daily gain. Glucose clearance rate tended to be lesser for HF than for LF calves. In conclusion, offering 6 L/d of MR increased growth performance before weaning and, when offering 6 L/d of MR, feeding a high-fat starter feed resulted in the greatest BW after weaning. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier

  13. Effects of isolation of calves on growth, behavior, and first lactation milk yield of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arave, C W; Albright, J L; Armstrong, D V; Foster, W W; Larson, L L

    1992-12-01

    Holstein (n = 323) calves in the herds of four experiment stations were reared individually (control) or in isolation to 70 d of age to determine whether isolation affected growth, behavior, and first lactation yield. Treatment differences were not observed for average daily gain for BW at d 28, 56 or 70. Postweaning approach distance was measured in two herds (n = 122; n = 28). Detailed pre and post-weaning behaviors were reported in one herd (n = 26). Isolation did not affect subsequent milk yield or culling percentages. In a second experiment, seven pairs of monozygous twins and a set of identical triplet calves were obtained by transferring split embryos into recipients, one member of each pair was reared in a group, and the twin was reared in isolation. Early rearing previously had been found to affect growth, feed intake, dominance rank, and learning ability of calves, and, in our study, the subsequent milk yield of calves reared in isolation tended to average more than for calves in groups. Intraclass correlations between monozygous twin pairs for milk, fat, relative value milk, and relative value fat were lower than anticipated. These data indicate that preweaning isolation did not affect first lactation milk yield traits.

  14. Performance of Holstein calves having free access to milk and dosed with Megasphaera elsdenii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukengela Claude Muya

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Megasphaera elsdenii converts lactate and glucose into butyrate, the main volatile fatty acid responsible of papillae development and may benefit calf performance. Twenty-six Holstein calves (BW = 34.5 ± 1.65 kg were randomly assigned at birth to a control group (Meg0 and a group that received an oral dose of M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125 at 14 d of age (Meg14. Calves received colostrum for the first 3 d followed by free choice access to whole milk until weaning at 56 d. From d 4 onward, starter and water were offered ad libitum. Intakes were measured daily and body weights (BW weekly. Blood samples were collected on day 7, 21, 28, 42, and 56 for β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA analysis. Performance was measured for an additional 14 d post-weaning. Pre-weaning milk intake was lower (p = 0.010 and starter DMI (dry matter intake greater (p = 0.001 for Meg14 than Meg0 calves. Total DMI, metabolisable energy (ME intake and average daily gain (ADG were similar (p > 0.05 for both groups, but Meg14 calves had greater weaning BW (p = 0.012 and feed efficiency (p < 0.029. The average BHBA between d 21 and 56 was greater for Meg14 (p = 0.03 compared to Meg0 calves. After weaning, Meg14 calves had greater DMI (p = 0.027, ME intake (p = 0.023 and ADG (p = 0.002 and tended to have better feed efficiencies (p = 0.07 than Meg0 calves. Administering M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125 improved starter intake and feed efficiency, which was associated with high blood BHBA.

  15. Main causes of mortality in Holstein calves on rural properties in the Bragantina region

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    Daniela Moraes de Olivera

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on two dairy farms that breed Holstein cattle in the municipality of Bragança Paulista, São Paulo. The study included 11 female calves that were one to three months old. The animals were autopsied. Tissue samples of affected organs were collected for histopathological and microbiological examination and blood was collected for serological tests. The aim of this study was to identify the main causes of death in calves of dairy cattle from the Bragantina region. Among the causes, the frequency of dysentery and respiratory diseases was similar. The samples evalulated identified a higher frequency of macroscopic and microscopic lung lesions when compared to intestinal lesions. The etiological agents associated with the diseases found were Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Pasteurella spp., syncytial virus and coronavirus, which affect the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems and can lead to septicemia and death.

  16. Fine mapping of a calving QTL on Bos taurus autosome 18 in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, X; Kadri, N K; Thomasen, J R; De Koning, D J; Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B

    2016-06-01

    Decreased calving performance not only directly impacts the economic efficiency of dairy cattle farming but also influences public concern for animal welfare. Previous studies have revealed a QTL on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 18 that has a large effect on calving traits in Holstein cattle. In this study, fine mapping of this QTL was performed using imputed high-density SNP chip (HD) genotypes followed by imputed next-generation sequencing (NGS) variants. BTA18 was scanned for seven direct calving traits in 6113 bulls with imputed HD genotypes. SNP rs136283363 (BTA18: 57 548 213) was consistently the most significantly associated SNP across all seven traits [e.g. p-value = 2.04 × 10(-59) for birth index (BI)]. To finely map the QTL region and to explore pleiotropic effects, we studied NGS variants within the targeted region (BTA18: 57 321 450-57 625 355) for associations with direct calving traits and with three conformation traits. Significant variants were prioritized, and their biological relevance to the traits was interpreted. Considering their functional relationships with direct calving traits, SIGLEC12, CD33 and CEACAM18 were proposed as candidate genes. In addition, pleiotropic effects of this QTL region on direct calving traits and conformation traits were observed. However, the extent of linkage disequilibrium combined with the lack of complete annotation and potential errors in the Bos taurus genome assembly hampered our efforts to pinpoint the causal mutation. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Effects of Feeding Levels of Starter on Weaning Age, Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Health Parameters in Holstein Dairy Calves

    OpenAIRE

    J. Ghassemi Nejad; Hosseindoust, A.; Shoae, A.; Ghorbani, B.; Lee, B. H.; Oskoueian, E.; Hajilari, D.; A. Amouzmehr; Lohakare, J. D.; Sung, K. I.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of feeding four different levels of starter in male Holstein dairy calves, a completely randomized study was conducted, using 28 calves with initial body weight of 40.5±2.4 kg. The animals were fed iso-nitrogenous starter and were weaned when they consumed 350, 500, 650 and 800 g/d of starter for 3 d consecutively. Starter and water were available ad-libitum throughout the experiment. Body weight at pre-weaning (less than 5 wk) and post-weaning (8 wk) was lower in calv...

  18. Pre- and postweaning performance of holstein female calves fed milk through step-down and conventional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M A; Lee, H J; Lee, W S; Kim, H S; Kim, S B; Ki, K S; Ha, J K; Lee, H G; Choi, Y J

    2007-02-01

    Milk consumption, dry feed intake, body weight (BW) gain, occurrence of diarrhea, and selected blood metabolites were studied in female Holstein calves fed milk either through conventional or step-down (STEP) methods. In conventional method, the calves (n = 20) were fed colostrum and then milk at the rate of 10% of BW for the entire period of 45 d. In STEP method, the calves (n = 20) were given colostrum and then milk for 25 d at the rate of 20% of BW, which was reduced (between d 26 to 30) to 10% of BW for the remaining 15 d. The calves fed through conventional and STEP methods were weaned gradually by diluting milk with water between d 46 and 50. Feed intake and BW of the calves were monitored until 90 d of age. The STEP calves consumed 92.3, 19.4, and 62.4% more milk than conventionally fed calves during pre-STEP (d 1 to 30), post-STEP (d 31 to 50), and preweaning (d 1 to 50) periods, respectively. Consumption of starter and hay were greater during the pre-STEP period and lesser during the post-STEP and postweaning (d 51 to 90) periods in calves provided milk using conventional method compared with STEP-fed calves. Body weight gain, dry matter intake, and feed efficiency of calves were greater in those on the STEP method than on the conventional method. Lesser blood glucose and greater blood urea nitrogen at weaning (d 50) and postweaning (d 60) possibly indicated a better functioning rumen in calves fed milk through The STEP method than those fed conventionally. Occurrence of diarrhea was higher during wk 3 and 4 of age in calves fed milk through conventional method compared with STEP-fed calves. In conclusion, STEP milk feeding may prevent the problems of depressed solid feed intake associated with ad libitum milk feeding and of poor BW gain with conventional milk feeding in dairy calves.

  19. Reproduction traits, growth traits and age at first calving in Holstein heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Silva Marestone

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the reproductive efficiency expressed by traits, interval from first to second calving (IDP, number of services per conception to the first calving (NSC1, number of services per conception for the second calving (NSC2, service period from the first to the second calving (PS and gestation lenght (PG of Holstein heifers. Data from 377 heifers from two herds, one in Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, São Paulo and another in Rolândia, Paraná were analysed. The statistical model to analyze IDP, NSC1, NSC2, PS and PG included the fixed effect of Contemporary Group (CG. To analyze PG, it was also considered the effect of calf sex. To evaluate the growth performance and age at first calving (AFC, data from 360 Holstein heifers belonging to property in Rolândia were analysed. The model included the fixed effects of contemporary groups (CG and average daily gain from birth to 15 months (ADG. A similar model was used to analyze weigth at 458 dias (W458 and ADG, therefore considering only CG. The overall means of IDP, NSC1, NSC2, PS and PG, were 14.96 ± 3.94 months; 1.35 ± 0.71 services, 2.86 ± 2.37 services, 178.83 ± 118.73 days; 276.67± 5.65 days, respectively. Correlations were observed between the traits IDP and NSC2 of 72% (P<0.0001, between IDP and PS of 98% (P<0.0001 and between NCS2 and PS of 72% (P<0.0001. The gestation length of males and females showed estimated average of 277.53 ± 0.46 days and 276.33 ± 0.40 days, respectively, and the calf sex was source of variation on PG (P<0.05. Average daily gain was a significant source of variation on AFC and CG affected all traits studied. The estimated average for AFC was 24.18 ± 1.59 months, for W458 was 362.33 ± 36.24 kg and ADG was 0.704 ± 0.08 kg.

  20. Accuracy of predicted calving dates in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows based on fetal ages estimated using manual rectal palpation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, B J; Morton, J M

    2012-07-01

    To assess potential risk factors for differences between predicted and actual calving dates in Holstein-Friesian cows in seasonal calving dairy herds where predicted dates are based on fetal ages estimated using manual rectal palpation. Accuracy of predicted calving dates was assessed in 10,487 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows that were diagnosed as pregnant and that subsequently calved in 108 seasonal calving dairy herds in Victoria and Tasmania, Australia. Of these cows, 9,214 (88%) were between approximately 7 and 18 weeks of gestation when diagnosed as pregnant. Potential risk factors for differences >10 days between predicted and actual calving dates were analysed using a multinomial logistic regression model. For all 10,487 cows, 8,444 (80.5%) calved within 10 days of the predicted calving date, 1,329 (12.7%) calved >10 days earlier than predicted and 714 (6.8%) calved >10 days later than predicted. Estimation of fetal age was less accurate where cows had received no compared with one artificial insemination (AI), when cows were 14 weeks of gestation, and when cows were examined ≥15 compared with 10 days earlier than predicted was reduced in cows with an interval of ≥3 weeks, compared with 10 days from predicted dates based on manual rectal palpation assisted by AI dates. Risk factors for such differences include number of prior AI, fetal age at pregnancy diagnosis, and times from the cow's most recent AI to both pregnancy diagnosis and end of the herd's AI period. Herd managers should be made aware of likely proportions of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows that will calve >10 days from predicted dates. If accurate predictions of calving dates are required, manual rectal pregnancy diagnosis in seasonal calving dairy herds should be scheduled to ensure that most cows are examined within 15 weeks after their most recent AI. Accuracy of estimates is reduced for cows with no AI, and for cows most recently inseminated close to the end of the herd's AI period.

  1. Growth, ruminal measurements, and health characteristics of Holstein bull calves fed an Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohe, T T; O'Diam, K M; Daniels, K M

    2015-09-01

    A fermentation extract of the fungus Aspergillus oryzae can be used as a prebiotic. The objective was to determine if dietary inclusion of a fermentation extract of A. oryzae as well as calf age would alter growth, health, performance parameters, and the growth and development of the rumen in Holstein calves from birth thru 1 wk postweaning; it was hypothesized that it would. Purchased bull calves (n=52) that originated from 1 of 13 farms were used in this experiment. All calves had serum IgG greater than 10 mg/mL. Calves were randomly assigned to a slaughter age, 4 (n=16) or 8 wk (n=36), and treatment, control (n=27) or fermentation extract of A. oryzae (AMF; n=25). Calves were housed and fed individually; no bedding was used and no forage was fed. Calves assigned to AMF were fed 2 g of AMF daily. Liquid AMF was delivered in milk replacer for the first 4 wk of the study; solid AMF was top-dressed on texturized starter thereafter. Calves were fed nonmedicated milk replacer twice daily (22.0% crude protein, 20.0% fat, dry matter basis; 680 g/d) and were weaned upon consumption of 0.91 kg of starter (20% crude protein, 2.0% fat; medicated with decoquinate) for 3 consecutive days or on d 45 of the study, whichever came first. Calves had ad libitum access to starter and water throughout the study. Feed intake as well as fecal and respiratory scores were recorded daily; body weight, withers height, and hip height were recorded weekly. Gross rumen measurements and rumen samples for future gross and histological analyses were taken at 4 and 8 wk. All calves grew similarly; weaning age averaged 40.39±0.77 d. Lifetime average daily gain was 0.60±0.05 kg/d and lifetime gain-to-feed ratio was 0.56±0.05. Milk replacer, starter, total dry matter intake, gross and histological rumen measurements, rumen pH, fecal and respiratory scores, and total medical costs were not affected by treatment. Despite total medical costs not differing by treatment, a lower percentage of AMF

  2. Effects of subcutaneous calcium administration at calving on mineral status, health, and production of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanlou, H; Akbari, A P; Farsuni, N E; Silva-Del-Río, N

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine effects of subcutaneous (s.c.) infusions of Ca at calving day on serum concentrations of Ca, P, Mg, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), glucose, body condition score (BCS), milk yield, and health in fresh cows receiving a dietary cation-anion difference diet during the dry period. Three hundred seventy-five fresh Holstein cows were blocked based on parity (143 cows in first parity, 108 cows in second parity, and 124 cows in third or greater parity) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental treatments immediately after calving. Treatments were control group without infusion (control; n=190); 1 s.c. infusion of 250mL of 40% Ca borogluconate (1SC250; n=72) at calving; 1 s.c. infusion of 500mL of 40% Ca borogluconate (1SC500; n=63) at calving; 2 s.c. infusions of 250mL of 40% Ca borogluconate, one immediately after calving and the second 12 to 18h after first infusion (2SC250; n=50). Blood samples were collected immediately after parturition and at 1, 2, 4, and 7d in milk (DIM) for Ca, P, and Mg determination. Milk production, milk composition, and somatic cell count were recorded monthly up to 90 DIM. The evaluation of BCS was performed at calving and at 38 DIM. A subset of 9 cows per treatment group was randomly chosen to measure serum concentration of glucose and BHB at 2, 4, and 7 DIM. Total serum Ca in 1SC250 (8.95mg/dL), 1SC500 (9.27mg/dL), and 2SC250 (9.07mg/dL) was greater during the first week postpartum compared with control (8.45mg/dL). Serum concentrations of P, Mg, BHB, glucose, and milk yield were not affected by treatments. The dry matter intake during the first 24h after calving was higher for treatments 1SC250 (13.5kg), 1SC500 (15.0kg), and 2SC250 (15.6kg) relative to control (12.5kg). Milk somatic cell counts were lower for 1SC500 (90.5 cells/mL) and 2SC250 (82.2 cells/mL) than control (132.8 cells/mL). Risk ratio was >1 for development of metritis, and clinical and subclinical endometritis in control cows

  3. FABP4 is a leading candidate gene associated with residual feed intake in growing Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Zinder, Miri; Asher, Aviv; Lipkin, Ehud; Feingersch, Roi; Agmon, Rotem; Karasik, David; Brosh, Arieh; Shabtay, Ariel

    2016-05-01

    Ecological and economic concerns drive the need to improve feed utilization by domestic animals. Residual feed intake (RFI) is one of the most acceptable measures for feed efficiency (FE). However, phenotyping RFI-related traits is complex and expensive and requires special equipment. Advances in marker technology allow the development of various DNA-based selection tools. To assimilate these technologies for the benefit of RFI-based selection, reliable phenotypic measures are prerequisite. In the current study, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with RFI phenotypic consistency across different ages and diets (named RFI 1-3), using DNA samples of high or low RFI ranked Holstein calves. Using targeted sequencing of chromosomal regions associated with FE- and RFI-related traits, we identified 48 top SNPs significantly associated with at least one of three defined RFIs. Eleven of these SNPs were harbored by the fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4). While 10 significant SNPs found in FABP4 were common for RFI 1 and RFI 3, one SNP (FABP4_5; AHolstein breed, following a larger-scale validation. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Characterisation of haematological profiles and whole blood relative gene expression levels in Holstein-Friesian and Jersey bull calves undergoing gradual weaning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, D; Kenny, D A; Kelly, A K; McCabe, M S; McGee, M; Waters, S M; Earley, B

    2016-01-01

    .... The objectives of the study were to examine (i) the effect of breed and plane of nutrition, on haematological profiles of artificially reared Holstein-Friesian and Jersey bull calves in response to gradual weaning, and (ii...

  5. Milk production and economic measures in confinement or pasture systems using seasonally calved Holstein and Jersey cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S L; Benson, G A; Washburn, S P; Green, J T

    2002-01-01

    This 4-yr study examined total lactation performance of dairy cows in two feeding systems: pasture-based and confinement. Spring and fall calving herds were used and each seasonal herd had 36 cows on pasture and 36 cows in confinement with 282 Holstein and 222 Jersey cows included over seven seasonal replicates. Pasture-fed cows received variable amounts of grain and baled haylage depending upon pasture availability. Confinement cows received a total mixed ration with corn silage as the primary forage. Data were collected on milk production, feed costs, and other costs. Pasture-fed cows produced 11.1% less milk than confinement cows. Across treatments, Jerseys produced 23.3% less milk than Holsteins, but calving season and various interactions were not significant. Feed costs averaged $0.95/cow per day lower for pastured cows than confinement cows. Feed costs were lower for Jerseys than Holsteins and for cows calving in spring. Income over feed costs averaged $7.05 +/- 0.34 for confinement Holsteins, $6.89 +/- 0.34 for pastured Holsteins, $5.68 +/- 0.34 for confinement Jerseys, and $5.36 +/- 0.34 for pastured Jerseys; effects of breed were significant but treatment, season, and interactions were not. Economic factors such as labor for animal care, manure handling, forage management, and cow culling rates favored pastured cows. Higher fertility and lower mastitis among Jerseys partially offsets lower income over feed cost compared with Holsteins. Milk production was lower in this study for pasture-based systems but lower feed costs, lower culling costs, and other economic factors indicate that pasture-based systems can be competitive with confinement systems.

  6. Standard electrocardiographic values in Holstein calves Valores eletrocardiográficos normais para bezerros holandeses

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    L.C.N. Mendes

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents electrocardiographic values in 25 Holstein calves using the standard bipolar limbs leads (I, II and III, augmented unipolar limb leads (avL, avR and avF and a bipolar chest lead (V10. Two groups with different ages were compared (newborn - 18 to 72 hours and calves - 27 to 33 days old. It was concluded that no differences between age groups in P, Q, R, S and T waves, in the PR, QRS, QT and ST intervals and in axis orientation were observed.Este artigo apresenta valores eletrocardiográficos de 25 bezerros da raça Holandesesa, utilizando-se as derivações bipolares de membro (I, II, III, unipolares aumentadas de membro (avL, avR e avF e uma derivação bipolar de torax (V10. Dois grupos com animais de diferentes idades foram comparados (18 a 72 horas e 27 a 33 dias de idade. Conclui-se que não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos nas ondas P, Q, R, S e T, nos intervalos PR, QRS, QT e ST e no eixo cardíaco.

  7. Effects of Feeding Levels of Starter on Weaning Age, Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Health Parameters in Holstein Dairy Calves

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    J. Ghassemi Nejad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of feeding four different levels of starter in male Holstein dairy calves, a completely randomized study was conducted, using 28 calves with initial body weight of 40.5±2.4 kg. The animals were fed iso-nitrogenous starter and were weaned when they consumed 350, 500, 650 and 800 g/d of starter for 3 d consecutively. Starter and water were available ad-libitum throughout the experiment. Body weight at pre-weaning (less than 5 wk and post-weaning (8 wk was lower in calves that received 350 g/d of starter than in the other treatments (p0.05. Dry matter, organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were lower in calves that received 350 g/d of starter compared with other treatments (p0.05.Treatments had no significant effect on time of starting rumination, respiratory score, and days of drug administration for pneumonia. There were no meaningful differences in feces, fecal odor scores, body temperature, and days of drug administration for diarrhea among all treatments (p>0.05. Total dry matter intake at the end of experiment showed no significant difference among calves fed 600 and 800 g/d of starter, but calves fed 350 and 500 g/d of starter showed more dry matter (DM intake than calves in the 600 and 800 g/d groups (p<0.05.

  8. Effects of raw milk and starter feed on intake and body composition of Holstein x Gyr male calves up to 64 days of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, A.L.; Marcondes, M.I.; Detmann, E.; Machado, F.S.; Valadares Filho, S.C.; Trece, A.S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of supplying different levels of raw milk, alone or in combination, with access to a starter feed, on the intake, digestibility, daily gain, N balance, and body composition of Holstein × Gyr crossbred suckling calves until 64 d of age. Thirty-nine male calves

  9. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of age at first calving in Iranian Holstein dairy cows

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    Atefeh Seyeddokht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Age at first calving (AFC has an important effect on profitability and reproductive management of dairy cattle. Every month increase in AFC beyond 24 months increases the cost of production. The time between birth and first calving represents a period in which replacement heifers are not generating income. Instead this rearing period requires considerable capital expenditures including feed, housing, and veterinary expenses. These expenses constitute 15% to 20% of the total expenses related to milk production. A basic approach to reduce this cost is to decrease the time between birth and her first freshening. Worldwide recommendations for one particular AFC might be an incorrect management goal for all of the cattle on all of the farms, since the recommendation might not represent the management goals and/or capabilities of a particular production system or farm. We realize that each dairy has its own set of unique management and environmental conditions, which makes a universal AFC and BW after first calving, a difficult goal to achieve. The AFC has a profound influence on the total cost of raising dairy replacements in which older calving heifers are more expensive to raise than younger ones. Materials and methods: A total of 19499 calving records belonged to 96 herd from 1996 to 2008 were used to estimate genetic components and genetic trend for age at first calving in Holstein dairy cows of Iran. Data were analyzed using a univariate model and Wombat software. Linear regression of estimated breeding values on calving year was used to estimate genetic trend. Results and Discussion: Estimated genetic trend was positive for some years and was negative for others and showed that reducing age at first calving has not been considered in the selection strategies; however, the phenotypic trend was decreased. The age at first calving for Yazd, Markazi, and southern Khorasan provinces were the highest and for Kermanshah, East Azarbayjan

  10. Effects of forage offering method on performance, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility and nutritional behaviour in Holstein dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EbnAli, A; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Mahdavi, A H; Malekkhahi, M; Mirzaei, M; Pezeshki, A; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-10-01

    The potential effect of dietary forage supplementation on the performance and rumen development in dairy calves is well established. However, limited research has been directed to the comparative effects of forage offering methods on calf performance. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of forage provision methods (total mixed ration or free choice) on the performance, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and nutritional behaviour in newborn calves. Forty-five Holstein dairy calves (3 days of age and 41 ± 2 kg of body weight) were assigned to the following three groups (n = 15): (i) starter without forage provision (CON), (ii) starter supplemented with 10% alfalfa hay (AH) as a total mixed ration (AH-TMR) and (iii) starter and AH as a free-choice provision (AH-FC) for a period of 70 days. All the calves were offered 5 l of milk/day from day 3 to 50, and 2.5 l/day from day 50 until weaning on day 56. Dry matter intake (DMI) was greater (p pre- and post-weaning periods. Calves fed the AH-FC diet showed the highest post-weaning DMI among the treatments. The calves receiving ad libitum forage tended (p = 0.08) to increase crude protein digestibility and overall volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations in the rumen. No differences were observed among the treatments at the time spent on standing, lying, eating and performing non-nutritive oral behaviours. Compared to CON calves, animals in the AH-TMR treatment spent more time (p calves. Hence, there is no benefit in the free-choice provision of AH in dairy calves. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Effects of feeding levels of starter on weaning age, performance, nutrient digestibility and health parameters in holstein dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejad, J Ghassemi; Hosseindoust, A; Shoae, A; Ghorbani, B; Lee, B H; Oskoueian, E; Hajilari, D; Amouzmehr, A; Lohakare, J D; Sung, K I

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of feeding four different levels of starter in male Holstein dairy calves, a completely randomized study was conducted, using 28 calves with initial body weight of 40.5±2.4 kg. The animals were fed iso-nitrogenous starter and were weaned when they consumed 350, 500, 650 and 800 g/d of starter for 3 d consecutively. Starter and water were available ad-libitum throughout the experiment. Body weight at pre-weaning (less than 5 wk) and post-weaning (8 wk) was lower in calves that received 350 g/d of starter than in the other treatments (ppre-weaning period (pweaning and total DMI was higher in that calves received 800 g/d of starter compared with other treatments (pCalves fed 350 and 500 g/d of starter were weaned earlier (pcalves fed 350 and 500 g/d of starter (p>0.05). Dry matter, organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were lower in calves that received 350 g/d of starter compared with other treatments (p0.05).Treatments had no significant effect on time of starting rumination, respiratory score, and days of drug administration for pneumonia. There were no meaningful differences in feces, fecal odor scores, body temperature, and days of drug administration for diarrhea among all treatments (p>0.05). Total dry matter intake at the end of experiment showed no significant difference among calves fed 600 and 800 g/d of starter, but calves fed 350 and 500 g/d of starter showed more dry matter (DM) intake than calves in the 600 and 800 g/d groups (p<0.05).

  12. Determination of energy and protein requirements for crossbred Holstein × Gyr preweaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A L; Marcondes, M I; Detmann, E; Campos, M M; Machado, F S; Filho, S C Valadares; Castro, M M D; Dijkstra, J

    2017-02-01

    The objective was to quantify the energy and protein nutritional requirements of Holstein × Gyr crossbred preweaned dairy calves until 64 d of age. Thirty-nine Holstein × Gyr crossbred male calves with an average initial live weight (mean ± SEM; for all next values) of 36 ± 1.0 kg were used. Five calves were slaughtered at 4 d of life to estimate the animals' initial body composition (reference group). The remaining 34 calves were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of 3 levels of milk (2, 4, or 8 L/d) and 2 levels of starter feed (presence or absence in diet). At 15 and 45 d of life, 4 animals from each treatment were subjected to digestibility trials with total collection of feces (for 72 h) and urine (for 24 h). At 64 d of age, all animals were slaughtered, their gastro-intestinal tract was washed to determine the empty body weight (EBW; kg), and their body tissues were sampled for subsequent analyses. The net energy requirement for maintenance was estimated using an exponential regression between metabolizable energy intake and heat production (both in Mcal/EBW0.75 per d) and was 74.3 ± 5.7 kcal/EBW0.75 per d, and was not affected by inclusion of starter feed in the diet. The metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance was determined at the point of zero energy retention in the body and was 105.2 ± 5.8 kcal/EBW0.75 per d. The net energy for gain was estimated using the EBW and the empty body gain (EBG; kg/d) as 0.0882 ± 0.0028 × EBW0.75 × EBG0.9050±0.0706. The metabolizable energy efficiency for gain (kg) of the milk was 57.4 ± 3.45%, and the kg of the starter feed was 39.3 ± 2.09%. The metabolizable protein requirement for maintenance was 3.52 ± 0.34 g/BW0.75 per d. The net protein required for each kilogram gained was estimated as 119.1 ± 32.9 × EBW0.0663±0.059. The metabolizable protein efficiency for gain was 77 ± 8.5% and was not affected by inclusion of starter feed in the diet

  13. Effect of steam-flaked corn and soybeans on muscle and intramuscular fatty acid composition in Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y Q; He, D C; Meng, Q X; Wang, D C

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of steam-flaked corn grains and soybeans on muscle fatty acid composition. Thirty Holstein bull calves (21 ± 3 d) were divided into 3 groups according to birth date and BW and were randomly assigned to receive fresh milk and a commercial pelleted starter diet containing extruded corn and soybean (ECS), steam-flaked corn and soybean (SFCS), or ground corn and raw soybean (GCS). The calves were fed the designated diet from 3 to 13 wk of age, after which they were slaughtered. The supraspinatus (CTM), longissimus lumborum (RLM), and spinalis dorsi (ERM) were analyzed to determine the chemical and intramuscular fatty acid composition. The fatty acid composition of muscle and its deposition differed among calves fed different starter feeds. Medium-chain fatty acid levels of the RLM and CTM were greater in GCS-fed calves than in ECS- and SFCS-fed calves ( 0.05). The levels of -3 and -6 fatty acids were similar among the 3 groups; a lower -6:-3 PUFA ratio was observed in GCS-fed calves ( soybean in calf starter feeds had no effect on the chemical composition of the RLM, CTM, or ERM but had a significant effect on the intramuscular fatty acid composition.

  14. Age at calving in heifers and level of milk production during gestation in cows are associated with the birth size of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, M M; Van Eetvelde, M; Depreester, E; Hostens, M; Vandaele, L; Opsomer, G

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate environmental and dam factors associated with birth size of Holstein calves. Data of 1,594 births from dairy herds in Belgium and Germany were analyzed in a retrospective cross-sectional study. Immediately after birth, the birth weight of the calves was measured. On the next day, the heart girth (HG), withers height, and diagonal length of the dams and calves were measured. Parity, body condition score, gestation length (GL), and age at calving were recorded for all dams. For the cows, days open, lactation length, length of the dry period, and calving interval were also calculated. The magnitude and shape of the lactation that took place during gestation was quantified using the MilkBot model based on monthly milk weights. Using the same procedure, cumulative milk production from conception to drying off (MGEST) was calculated. After descriptive analyses, mixed models were used to identify factors that are significantly associated with the birth weight (most consistent measure of size at birth) of the calves born to both heifers and cows. Of the variables offered to the offspring birth weight model in heifers (n=540), calf sex, season of calving, GL, HG, withers height, diagonal length, and age at calving were significant. The mean birth weight of the calves born to heifers was estimated to be 41.3±1.01kg. In comparison to calves born to old (25.5 to 37.3mo; n=99) heifers, the birth weight was estimated to be 2.75, 3.29, and 2.35kg heavier when the calves were born to very young (20.3 to <22mo; n=98), young (22 to <23.5mo; n=145), and standard aged (23.5 to <25.5mo; n=198) heifers, respectively. Of the variables offered to the offspring birth weight model in cows (n=1,054), calf sex, season of calving, GL, parity, dry period, and MGEST were significant. The mean birth weight of the calves born to cows was estimated to be 44.1±0.99kg. For cows having an identical HG, the birth weight of the calves was estimated to

  15. Hemato-biochemical and Cortisol Profile of Holstein Growing-calves Supplemented with Vitamin C during Summer Season

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    Jong-Hyeong Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Effect of vitamin C (VC on biochemical, hematological and cortisol profile of growing Holstein calves during summer was investigated. Eighteen calves between 14 and 16 weeks of age were divided equally into two groups. One group received a diet supplemented with VC (20 g/d for 60 days, while other non-supplemented diet fed group served as a control (CON. The temperature humidity index (THI was recorded and computed during the experiment. From days 0 to 60, the THI exceeded 70. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of each calf at days 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60. Serum albumin and total protein decreased (p<0.05 in CON and VC calves with age. Serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase concentrations were not affected by treatments. Serum creatinine, albumin and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase concentrations were higher in calves in the VC group than the CON group. While red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit were lower (p<0.05 in VC calves, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, red blood cell distribution width and mean platelet volume were higher (p<0.05 in these VC supplemented calves. Leukocyte parameters including white blood cells and full term for lymphocytes were not affected by the treatments. Also, serum cortisol was not affected by treatments. At day 15, 30 and 45, the total VC in plasma was higher (p<0.05 in calves fed with VC. In conclusion, serum cortisols were not affected by plasma VC concentration, while some blood parameters were positively influenced in calves fed with VC.

  16. Short communication: Effect of calf starter on rumen pH of Holstein dairy calves at weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laarman, A H; Oba, M

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding calf starter on rumen pH of dairy calves during weaning transition. Twenty Holstein bull calves were paired into 10 blocks by starting date of the study and body weight, and fed either milk replacer and hay (MR) or MR, hay, and a commercial texturized calf starter (MR+S) in a randomized complete block design. All calves were fed 750 g/d of milk replacer as the basal diet. Calves on MR+S treatment were also fed a calf starter ad libitum to maintain similar energy intake between calves within blocks, and MR calves were fed additional milk replacer that was equivalent to energy from calf starter intake. When MR+S calves consumed a calf starter at 680 g/d for 3 consecutive d, rumen pH of a MR+S calf and his MR counterpart was measured continuously for 3 d using a small ruminant rumen pH measurement system. Treatment did not affect minimum pH, mean pH, maximum pH, standard deviation of mean pH, and duration or area under pH 5.8, indicating that calf starter consumption did not appear to affect rumen pH. However, hay intake was negatively correlated to area under pH 5.8, with a breakpoint at 0.080 kg/d intake, suggesting hay intake might play an important role in mitigating ruminal acidosis in dairy calves during weaning transition. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of fermented soybean meal on immunophysiological and stress-related parameters in Holstein calves after weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M H; Yun, C H; Lee, C H; Ha, J K

    2012-09-01

    The present experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of partial substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with fermented SBM (FSBM) on immunophysiological and stress-related parameters in Holstein calves after weaning. Eighteen Holstein calves were randomly assigned to receive either SBM or FSBM (5% of SBM was replaced with FSBM) calf starter and calves were weaned at 42 d of age. It was noted that FSBM contained a lower content of trypsin inhibitor but higher crude protein, amino acids, and small-sized peptides than those of SBM. The group fed FSBM calf starter significantly increased body weight gain and intakes of both feed and milk, when compared with those fed SBM calf starter at 4 wk of age. Calves fed the FSBM calf starter had significantly lower fecal scores than those fed the SBM calf starter during both pre- and postweaning periods. Calves also had better health scores when fed the FSBM calf starter than those fed SBM during the preweaning period. Weaning challenge significantly increased proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels at 1d postweaning (DPW). The TNF-α and IL-6 levels of the SBM group were significantly higher compared with those of the FSBM group at 3 DPW. Acute phase proteins (serum amyloid A and haptoglobin) in the serum were increased after weaning. Concentrations of serum amyloid A and haptoglobin in calves fed FSBM calf starter were significantly lower than those fed the SBM calf starter at 3 and 5 DPW, respectively. The concentration of cortisol was significantly lower in the FSBM group than that of the SBM group at 3 DPW. Weaning stress did not cause drastic changes in the total serum immunoglobulin levels and composition of peripheral lymphocytes. Our results indicate that FSBM may not only improve growth performance, feed intake, and health conditions during the preweaning period, but also alleviate stress responses, which was indicated by reduced induction of stress hormone, proinflammatory

  18. The evaluation of genetic parameters of the type of calving in the population of Holstein Friesian cows

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    Đedović Radica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic parameters (heritability coefficients and genetic correlations of the type of calving, number of stillbirths and birth weight have been evaluated in the population of Holstein Friesian cattle breed. Data sets have been analysed by means of the Mixed Least Square Model (LSMLMW. Besides a random effect of bull-sires, the model has also included the fixed effects of farm, season, sex, the evaluation of viability of calves and types of birth. Estimated heritability values and heritability errors for the type of calving (TC, number of stillbirths (SB and birth weight (BWT were low: 0.190 ± 0.062; 0.018 ± 0.006 and 0.149 ± 0.051, respectively. Heritabilities of the analysed traits were evaluated on the grounds of the calves` bull-sires additive value (direct heritability. The values of the genetic correlation coefficients between examined traits ranged from - 0.251 (correlation between the type of calving and number of stillbirths to 0.340 (correlation between the number of stillbirths and birth weight. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31086 i br. TR 46006

  19. Leucograma en novillas y becerros (Holstein infectados con una cepa venezolana de Trypanosoma vivax Leucogram in heifers and calves (Holstein infected with a venezuelan strain of Trypanosoma vivax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMIR ESPINOZA

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo la evaluación del leucograma en novillas y becerros Holstein infectados experimentalmente con una cepa venezolana de Trypanosoma vivax. Los datos fueron analizados a través de la prueba no paramétrica de U de Mann-Whitney. La comparación de las medias de los numeros totales de los leucocitos (NTL en las novillas, fue estadísticamente significativo (P This work had as objective the evaluation of the leucogram in Holstein heifers and calves experimentally infected with a Venezuelan strain of Trypanosoma vivax. The dates were analysed by the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test. The total means comparation of leucocytes in heifers was statistically significative (P < 0.05. The calves produced a neutrophilia when compared the total means for the infected and control groups (P < 0.05. The totals means of linphocytes and monocytes were statistically significative (P < 0.05.

  20. Transcriptome analysis and identification of significantly differentially expressed genes in Holstein calves subjected to severe thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Krishnamoorthy; Lee, Eunjin; Kwan, Anam; Lim, Youngjo; Lee, Junyep; Jang, Gulwon; Chung, Hoyoung

    2017-09-01

    RNA-Seq analysis was used to characterize transcriptome response of Holstein calves to thermal stress. A total of eight animals aged between 2 and 3 months were randomly selected and subjected to thermal stress corresponding to a temperature humidity index of 95 in an environmentally controlled house for 12 h consecutively for 3 days. A set of 15,787 unigenes were found to be expressed and after a threshold of threefold change, and a Q value genes were found to be differentially expressed on days 1, 2, and 3 out of which 343, 261 and 256 genes were upregulated and 159, 133, and 120 genes were downregulated. Only 356 genes out of these were expressed on all 3 days, and only they were considered as significantly differentially expressed. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that ten pathways were significantly enriched; the top two among them were protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum and MAPK signaling pathways. These results suggest that thermal stress triggered a complex response in Holstein calves and the animals adjusted their physiological and metabolic processes to survive. Many of the genes identified in this study have not been previously reported to be involved in thermal stress response. The results of this study extend our understanding of the animal's response to thermal stress and some of the identified genes may prove useful in the efforts to breed Holstein cattle with superior thermotolerance, which might help in minimizing production loss due to thermal stress.

  1. Transcriptome analysis and identification of significantly differentially expressed genes in Holstein calves subjected to severe thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Krishnamoorthy; Lee, Eunjin; Kwan, Anam; Lim, Youngjo; Lee, Junyep; Jang, Gulwon; Chung, Hoyoung

    2017-11-01

    RNA-Seq analysis was used to characterize transcriptome response of Holstein calves to thermal stress. A total of eight animals aged between 2 and 3 months were randomly selected and subjected to thermal stress corresponding to a temperature humidity index of 95 in an environmentally controlled house for 12 h consecutively for 3 days. A set of 15,787 unigenes were found to be expressed and after a threshold of threefold change, and a Q value protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum and MAPK signaling pathways. These results suggest that thermal stress triggered a complex response in Holstein calves and the animals adjusted their physiological and metabolic processes to survive. Many of the genes identified in this study have not been previously reported to be involved in thermal stress response. The results of this study extend our understanding of the animal's response to thermal stress and some of the identified genes may prove useful in the efforts to breed Holstein cattle with superior thermotolerance, which might help in minimizing production loss due to thermal stress.

  2. Performance and health of Holstein calves fed different levels of milk fortified with symbiotic complex containing pre- and probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcondes, M I; Pereira, T R; Chagas, J C C; Filgueiras, E A; Castro, M M D; Costa, G P; Sguizzato, A L L; Sainz, R D

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and health of Holstein calves fed low or high milk supply (MSP) with or without symbiotic complex (SYM) supplementation, consisting of prebiotics, probiotics, and fibrolytic enzymes. Thirty-two Holstein calves with body weight (BW) of 34 ± 7 kg were distributed in a randomized block design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of low and high MSP: 10 % of BW from 1st to 8th weeks after birth (low) and 20 % BW from 1st and 2nd weeks after birth, 15 % BW for the 3rd and 4th weeks after birth, and 10 % BW from 5th and 8th weeks after birth (high). Solid ration was supplied in addition to milk. Intake, ADG, diet digestibility, and fecal consistency index were evaluated. Low and high MSP groups tended (P post-weaning average weight gain (548 vs. 788 g/day), and final average weight gain (549 vs. 646 g/day) in low and high MSP calves, respectively. There was an interaction between MSP level and SYM on the digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) (P feeding level was an important factor in calf performance, while SYM supplementation improved diet digestibility and animal health.

  3. Effect of Peroral Administration of Chromium on Insulin Signaling Pathway in Skeletal Muscle Tissue of Holstein Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Ljubomir; Pantelić, Marija; Prodanović, Radiša; Vujanac, Ivan; Đurić, Miloje; Tepavčević, Snežana; Vranješ-Đurić, Sanja; Korićanac, Goran; Kirovski, Danijela

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of peroral administration of chromium-enriched yeast on glucose tolerance in Holstein calves, assessed by insulin signaling pathway molecule determination and intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). Twenty-four Holstein calves, aged 1 month, were chosen for the study and divided into two groups: the PoCr group (n = 12) that perorally received 0.04 mg of Cr/kg of body mass daily, for 70 days, and the NCr group (n = 12) that received no chromium supplementation. Skeletal tissue samples from each calf were obtained on day 0 and day 70 of the experiment. Chromium supplementation increased protein content of the insulin β-subunit receptor, phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 at Tyrosine 632, phosphorylation of Akt at Serine 473, glucose transporter-4, and AMP-activated protein kinase in skeletal muscle tissue, while phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 at Serine 307 was not affected by chromium treatment. Results obtained during IVGTT, which was conducted on days 0, 30, 50, and 70, suggested an increased insulin sensitivity and, consequently, a better utilization of glucose in the PoCr group. Lower basal concentrations of glucose and insulin in the PoCr group on days 30 and 70 were also obtained. Our results indicate that chromium supplementation improves glucose utilization in calves by enhancing insulin intracellular signaling in the skeletal muscle tissue.

  4. Plasma anti-Müllerian hormone as a predictive endocrine marker to select Bos taurus (Holstein) and Bos indicus (Nelore) calves for in vitro embryo production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, E O S; Guerreiro, B M; Freitas, B G; Silva, J C B; Vieira, L M; Ferreira, R M; Rezende, R G; Basso, A C; Lopes, R N V R; Rennó, F P; Souza, A H; Baruselli, P S

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the association between plasma anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations and in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus (Nelore; experiment 1) and Bos taurus (Holstein; experiment 2) calves superstimulated or not with 140 mg of porcine follicle-stimulating hormone (pFSH; 4 decreasing doses twice daily). Oocytes were recovered from calves aged 2 to 4 mo after receiving gonadotropin stimulation (Nelore, n = 15; Holstein, n = 12) or not (Nelore, n = 15; Holstein, n = 12). Cycling heifers formed a positive control group (n = 15 for Nelore [aged 18-24 mo], n = 10 for Holstein [aged 14-16 mo]). All the calves underwent laparoscopic ovum pickup, and cycling heifers underwent a regular transvaginal ultrasound-guided ovum pickup for oocyte recovery. Immediately before oocyte retrieval, blood samples were taken for subsequent AMH determination (ng/mL). Regardless of the genetic group, calves that received pFSH (3.6 ± 1.1 in Nelore and 4.6 ± 1.2 in Holstein) or did not receive pFSH (3.2 ± 1.0 in Nelore and 2.5 ± 0.8 in Holstein) had greater plasma AMH concentrations (P = 0.01 in Nelore and P = 0.003 in Holstein) than cycling heifers (1.1 ± 0.2 in Nelore and 0.6 ± 0.07 in Holstein). AMH concentrations in calves with or without pFSH were similar in both genetic groups (3.6 ± 1.1 vs 3.2 ± 1.0 in Nelore; 4.6 ± 1.2 vs 2.5 ± 0.8 in Holstein). In calves, positive correlations were observed between plasma AMH concentrations and the numbers of follicles >2 mm (r = 0.86, P taurus calves. Therefore, AMH is a promising tool for selecting oocyte donor calves to maximize results during in vitro embryo production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genome-wide association mapping for female fertility traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Bendixen, C

    2010-01-01

    A genome-wide association study was conducted using a mixed model analysis for QTL for fertility traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein cattle. The analysis incorporated 2,531 progeny tested bulls, and a total of 36 387 SNP markers on 29 bovine autosomes were used. Eleven fertility traits were...... analyzed for SNP association. Furthermore, mixed model analysis was used for association analyses where a polygenic effect was fitted as a random effect, and genotypes at single SNPs were successively included as a fixed effect in the model. The Bonferroni correction for multiple testing was applied...... to adjust the significance threshold. Seventy-four SNP-trait combinations showed chromosome-wide significance, and five of these were significant genome-wide. Twenty-four QTL regions on 14 chromosomes were detected. Strong evidence for the presence of QTL that affect fertility traits were observed...

  6. Characterisation of the Whole Blood mRNA Transcriptome in Holstein-Friesian and Jersey Calves in Response to Gradual Weaning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Johnston

    Full Text Available Weaning of dairy calves is an early life husbandry management practice which involves the changeover from a liquid to a solid feed based diet. The objectives of the study were to use RNA-seq technology to examine the effect of (i breed and (ii gradual weaning, on the whole blood mRNA transcriptome of artificially reared Holstein-Friesian and Jersey calves. The calves were gradually weaned over 14 days (day (d -13 to d 0 and mRNA transcription was examined one day before gradual weaning was initiated (d -14, one day after weaning (d 1, and 8 days after weaning (d 8. On d -14, 550 genes were differentially expressed between Holstein-Friesian and Jersey calves, while there were 490 differentially expressed genes (DEG identified on d 1, and 411 DEG detected eight days after weaning (P 0.05. The pathways, gene ontology terms, and biological functions consistently over-represented among the DEG between Holstein-Friesian and Jersey were associated with the immune response and immune cell signalling, specifically chemotaxis. Decreased transcription of several cytokines, chemokines, immunoglobulin-like genes, phagocytosis-promoting receptors and g-protein coupled receptors suggests decreased monocyte, natural killer cell, and T lymphocyte, chemotaxis and activation in Jersey compared to Holstein-Friesian calves. Knowledge of breed-specific immune responses could facilitate health management practices better tailored towards specific disease sensitivities of Holstein-Friesian and Jersey calves. Gradual weaning did not compromise the welfare of artificially-reared dairy calves, evidenced by the lack of alterations in the expression of any genes in response to gradual weaning.

  7. Efficacy of tildipirosin metaphylaxis for the prevention of respiratory disease, otitis and mortality in pre-weaned Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, A G V; McArt, J A A; Bicalho, R C

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two metaphylactic approaches (long acting antibiotic injected once at 10 days of life or twice at 10 and 35 days of life) on the prevention of bovine respiratory disease (BRD), otitis and mortality in high-risk group-housed pre-weaned Holstein heifer calves. The antibiotic of choice for the metaphylactic approach was a long acting macrolide (tildipirosin) administered subcutaneously at the base of the neck at a dose of 1 mL per 45 kg body weight. A clinical trial was carried out on one dairy farm with random allocation of newborn calves to one of three treatments: (1) control (CTR); (2) one injection at 10 days of life (M1); and (3) two injections at 10 and 35 days of life (M2). Study heifers (n = 795) were reared in group pens of 25 calves per pen and fed unrestricted acidified non-saleable milk from day 1 to day 65 of life. Cox proportional hazard and general linear mixed models were used to evaluate the effect of treatment on mortality, BRD and otitis, and average daily weight gain. The birth weights, proportions of calves with inadequate transfer of passive immunity, proportions of calves born from primiparous dams and proportions of calves born from assisted parturitions were not different among CTR, M1 and M2 treatments. A significantly lower hazard of being affected with BRD and/or otitis (but not for BRD or otitis alone) was observed for M1 (hazard ratio, HR = 0.70, P = 0.009) and M2 (HR = 0.72, P = 0.01) when compared to the CTR group. Metaphylactic treatments had no effect on mortality, otitis and average daily weight gain during the pre-weaning period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Growth performance, feeding behavior, and selected blood metabolites of Holstein dairy calves fed restricted amounts of milk: No interactions between sources of finely ground grain and forage provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Ghaffari, M H

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of grain sources and forage provision on growth performance, blood metabolites, and feeding behaviors of dairy calves. Sixty 3-d-old Holstein dairy calves (42.2 ± 2.5 kg of body weight) were used in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with the factors being grain sources (barley and corn) and forage provision (no forage, alfalfa hay, and corn silage). Individually housed calves were randomly assigned (n = 10 calves per treatment: 5 males and 5 females) to 6 treatments: (1) barley grain (BG) without forage supplement, (2) BG with alfalfa hay (AH) supplementation, (3) BG with corn silage (CS) supplementation, (4) corn grain (CG) without forage supplement, (5) CG with AH supplementation, and (6) CG with CS supplementation. All calves had ad libitum access to water and starter feed throughout the experiment. All calves were weaned on d 49 and remained in the study until d 63. Starter feed intake and average daily gain (ADG) was greater for calves fed barley than those fed corn during the preweaning and overall periods. Calves supplemented with CS had greater final body weight and postweaning as well as overall starter feed intake than AH and non-forage-supplemented calves. During the preweaning and overall periods, feeding of CS was found to increase ADG compared with feeding AH and nonforage diets. However, feed efficiency was not affected by dietary treatments. Calves supplemented with CS spent more time ruminating compared with AH and control groups; nonnutritive oral behaviors were the greatest in non-forage-supplemented calves. Regardless of the grain sources, the rumen pH value was greater for AH calves compared with CS and non-forage-supplemented calves. Blood concentration of BHB was greater for CS-supplemented calves compared with AH and non-forage-supplemented calves. Furthermore, body length and heart girth were greater for calves fed barley compared with those fed corn, and also in forage

  9. CEACAM18 as candidate for the Holstein calving QTL on BTA18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Xiaowei; Kadri, Naveen Kumar; de Koning, DirkJan

    utilized to precisely locate causative mutations. Results identified 21 QTL regions associated with one or more calving traits on 16 autosomes. These findings contribute to an improved understanding of the genetic architecture of the calving traits. They may help in improving calving performance in dairy...

  10. Genome-wide mapping of 10 calving and fertility traits in Holstein dairy cattle with special regard to chromosome 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M-P; Rothammer, S; Seichter, D; Russ, I; Hinrichs, D; Tetens, J; Thaller, G; Medugorac, I

    2017-03-01

    Over the last decades, a dramatic decrease in reproductive performance has been observed in Holstein cattle and fertility problems have become the most common reason for a cow to leave the herd. The premature removal of animals with high breeding values results in both economic and breeding losses. For efficient future Holstein breeding, the identification of loci associated with low fertility is of major interest and thus constitutes the aim of this study. To reach this aim, a genome-wide combined linkage disequilibrium and linkage analysis (cLDLA) was conducted using data on the following 10 calving and fertility traits in the form of estimated breeding values: days from first service to conception of heifers and cows, nonreturn rate on d 56 of heifers and cows, days from calving to first insemination, days open, paternal and maternal calving ease, paternal and maternal stillbirth. The animal data set contained 2,527 daughter-proven Holstein bulls from Germany that were genotyped with Illumina's BovineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). For the cLDLA, 41,635 sliding windows of 40 adjacent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were used. At each window midpoint, a variance component analysis was executed using ASReml. The underlying mixed linear model included random quantitative trait locus (QTL) and polygenic effects. We identified 50 genome-wide significant QTL. The most significant peak was detected for direct calving ease at 59,179,424 bp on chromosome 18 (BTA18). Next, a mixed-linear model association (MLMA) analysis was conducted. A comparison of the cLDLA and MLMA results with special regard to BTA18 showed that the genome-wide most significant SNP from the MLMA was associated with the same trait and located on the same chromosome at 57,589,121 bp (i.e., about 1.5 Mb apart from the cLDLA peak). The results of 5 different cLDLA and 2 MLMA models, which included the fixed effects of either SNP or haplotypes, suggested that the cLDLA method

  11. Genetic analysis of days from calving to first insemination and days open in Danish Holsteins using different models and censoring scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Y; Madsen, P; Labouriau, R

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters and evaluate models for genetic evaluation of days from calving to first insemination (ICF) and days open (DO). Data including 509,512 first-parity records of Danish Holstein cows were analyzed using 5 alternative sire models...

  12. Effects of fractionated colostrum replacer and vitamins A, D, and E on haptoglobin and clinical health in neonatal Holstein calves challenged with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty Holstein calves were obtained from two dairy farms in central Iowa at birth and randomly assigned to one of six treatment groups: 1) colostrum deprived (CD), no vitamins; 2) colostrum replacer (CR), no vitamins; 3) CR, vitamin A; 4) CR, vitamin D3; 5) CR, vitamin E; 6) CR, vitamins A, D3, E, ...

  13. Effects of fractionated colostrum replacer and vitamins A, D, and E on haptoglobin and clinical health in neonatal Holstein calves challenged with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, L A; Reinhardt, T A; Beitz, D C; Stuart, R L; Stabel, J R

    2016-04-01

    Thirty Holstein calves were obtained from 2 dairy farms in central Iowa at birth and randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatment groups: (1) colostrum deprived (CD), no vitamins; (2) colostrum replacer (CR), no vitamins; (3) CR, vitamin A; (4) CR, vitamin D3; (5) CR, vitamin E; and (6) CR, vitamins A, D3, E, with 5 calves per treatment in a 14-d study. Calves were fed pasteurized whole milk (CD) or fractionated colostrum replacer (CR) at birth (d 0) and injected with vitamins according to treatment group. From d 1 through d 14 of the study, all calves were fed pasteurized whole milk (PWM) supplemented with vitamins as assigned. All calves were inoculated with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis on d 1 and 3 of age. Calves fed CR acquired IgG1 and haptoglobin in serum within 24 h of birth, whereas CD calves did not. The CR-fed calves were 2.5 times less likely to develop scours, and CR calves supplemented with vitamins D3 and E also demonstrated a decreased incidence of scours. Serum vitamin levels of A, D, and E increased within treatment group by d 7 and 14 of the study. Interestingly, synergistic effects of supplemental vitamins A, D3, and E on serum 25-(OH)-vitamin D were observed at d 7, resulting in higher levels than in calves administered vitamin D only. Further, vitamin D3 deficiency was observed in CD and CR calves fed a basal diet of pasteurized whole milk and no supplemental vitamins. Colonization of tissues with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was negligible and was not affected by colostrum feeding or vitamin supplementation. Results demonstrated passive transfer of haptoglobin to neonatal calves, and potential health benefits of supplemental vitamins D3 and E to calves fed pasteurized whole milk. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of long period feeding pistachio by-product silage on chewing activity, nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation parameters of Holstein male calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, P; Riasi, A; Alikhani, M

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of pistachio by-product silage (PBPS) as a partial replacement for corn silage (CS) on chewing activity, nutrients digestibility and ruminal fermentation parameters in Holstein male calves over a 6-month assay. For this purpose, 24 Holstein male calves (4 to 5 months of age and 155.6±13.5 kg BW) were randomly assigned to one of the four dietary treatments (n=6). In these treatments, CS was substituted with different levels of PBPS (0%, 6%, 12% and 18% of dry matter (DM)). Nutrient digestibility was measured at the end of the experimental period (days 168 to 170). Ruminal fermentation parameters were determined on days 90 and 180 and chewing activity was determined on days 15 of the 3rd and 6th month of the experiment. Results showed that calves fed rations containing 6% PBPS spent more time ruminating (Pfermentation parameters.

  15. Milk production and fertility performance of Holstein, Friesian, and Jersey purebred cows and their respective crosses in seasonal-calving commercial farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, E L; Horan, B; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-07-01

    There is renewed interest in dairy cow crossbreeding in Ireland as a means to further augment productivity and profitability. The objective of the present study was to compare milk production and fertility performance for Holstein, Friesian, and Jersey purebred cows, and their respective crosses in 40 Irish spring-calving commercial dairy herds from the years 2008 to 2012. Data on 24,279 lactations from 11,808 cows were available. The relationship between breed proportion, as well as heterosis and recombination coefficients with performance, was quantified within a mixed model framework that also contained the fixed effects of parity; cow and contemporary group of herd-year-season of calving were both included as random effects in the mixed model. Breed proportion was associated with all milk production parameters investigated. Milk yield was greatest for Holstein (5,217kg), intermediate for Friesian (4,591kg), and least for Jersey (4,230kg), whereas milk constituents (i.e., fat and protein concentration) were greatest for Jersey (9.38%), intermediate for Friesian (7.91%), and least for Holstein (7.75%). Yield of milk solids in crossbred cows exceeded their respective parental average performance; greatest milk solids yield (i.e., fat kg + protein kg) was observed in the Holstein × Jersey first-cross, yielding 25kg more than the mid-parent mean. There was no consistent breed effect on the reproductive traits investigated. Relative to the mid-parent mean, Holstein × Jersey cows calved younger as heifers and had a shorter calving interval. Friesian × Jersey first-cross cows also had a shorter calving interval relative to their mid-parent mean. Results were consistent with findings from smaller-scale controlled experiments. Breed complementarity and heterosis attainable from crossbreeding resulted in superior animal performance and, consequently, greater expected profitability in crossbred cows compared with their respective purebreds. Copyright © 2016 American

  16. Estimation of ancestral inbreeding effects on stillbirth, calving ease and birthweight in German Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, D; Bennewitz, J; Wellmann, R; Thaller, G

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the effect of different measurements of ancestral inbreeding on birthweight, calving ease and stillbirth were analysed. Three models were used to estimate the effect of ancestral inbreeding, and the estimated regression coefficient of phenotypic data on different measurements of ancestral inbreeding was used to quantify the effect of ancestral inbreeding. The first model included only one measurement of inbreeding, whereas the second model included the classical inbreeding coefficients and one alternative inbreeding coefficient. The third model included the classical inbreeding coefficients, the interaction between classical inbreeding and ancestral inbreeding, and the classical inbreeding coefficients of the dam. Phenotypic data for this study were collected from February 1998 to December 2008 on three large commercial milk farms. During this time, 36,477 calving events were recorded. All calves were weighed after birth, and 8.08% of the calves died within 48 h after calving. Calving ease was recorded on a scale between 1 and 4 (1 = easy birth, 4 = surgery), and 69.95, 20.91, 8.92 and 0.21% of the calvings were scored with 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The average inbreeding coefficient of inbred animals was 0.03, and average ancestral inbreeding coefficients were 0.08 and 0.01, depending on how ancestral inbreeding was calculated. Approximately 26% of classically non-inbred animals showed ancestral inbreeding. Correlations between different inbreeding coefficients ranged between 0.46 and 0.99. No significant effect of ancestral inbreeding was found for calving ease, because the number of animals with reasonable high level of ancestral inbreeding was too low. Significant effects of ancestral inbreeding were estimated for birthweight and stillbirth. Unfavourable effects of ancestral inbreeding were observed for birthweight. However, favourable purging effects were estimated for stillbirth, indicating that purging could be partly beneficial for genetic

  17. Stress-related hormonal alterations, growth and pelleted starter intake in pre-weaning Holstein calves in response to thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, E.; Mellado, M.; Martínez, A. M.; Véliz, F. G.; García, J. E.; de Santiago, A.; Carrillo, E.

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of heat stress and month of birth on growth performance, pelleted starter intake, and stress-related hormones in Holstein calves. Birth weight and growth records, representing 4735 Holstein calves from a large commercial dairy herd in northern Mexico (25° N; 22.3 °C mean annual temperature) from 2013 to 2015, were analyzed. Temperature-humidity index (THI) at calving, season of birth, and month of birth were the independent variables, whereas growth traits were the dependent variables. Increased THI at birth from 85 units was associated with a decrease in birth weight from 39.3 to 38.7 kg. Calves subjected to high THI (> 75 units) at calving showed lesser (P < 0.01) pre-weaning gains (405 ± 97 g/calf/day), whereas those calves born with THI < 70 units presented the highest gains (466 ± 112 g/calf/day). Birth during the fall months reduced (P < 0.01) weaning weight by about 5 kg compared with winter months. Also, the pre-weaning average daily gain for calves born in the fall was about 70 g less (P < 0.01) than calves delivered in winter months. Plasma triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine levels were lower (1.02 ± 0.21 and 48 ± 7.9 ng/mL, respectively; P < 0.01) in summer and highest in winter (1.64 ± 0.48 and 66 ± 11 ng/mL, respectively). Mean plasma cortisol concentration was higher in heat-stressed calves born in summer (59 ± 40 ng/mL) than calves born in winter (20 ± 28 ng/mL). Pelleted starter intake 1 week before weaning was lowest (P < 0.01) in the fall (0.82 ± 0.26 kg/calf/day; mean ± SD) and highest in spring (1.26 ± 0.43 kg/calf/day). It was concluded that in this particular environment, heat stress affects birth weight and growth rate of Holstein calves. Thus, environmental management of the newborn calf during hot spring and summer months is warranted to optimize pelleted starter intake and calf growth rates.

  18. MILK REPLACER USE IN SUBSTITUTION OF WHOLE MILK ON THE PERFORMANCE OF HOLSTEIN CALVES DURING GROWING PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Boito

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological efficiency of the milk replacer in the substitution of whole milk for calves at the first months of age and at rearing fase. This study was conducted in Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná (UTFPR, Campus Dois Vizinhos, from May 2011 to April 2012. This research was carried out on 32 animals, assigned in a completely randomized design with four treatments (100% whole milk, 34% milk replacer + 66% whole milk, 66% milk replacer + 34% whole milk and 100% milk replacer and eight replications.The data were analyzed by analysis of variance and regression at 5% of significance. Regarding the morphometric measurements, only the gain of chest circumference presented significant difference. The use of milk replacer in the substitution of whole milk during pre-weaning phase showed negative linear response for levels 100%, 66%, 34% milk replacer, nevertheless during the post-weaning phase there was a compensatory gain for the animals fed with 34% and 66 % milk replacer. The use of 100% milkreplacer for Holstein calves at pre-weaning phase was not efficient during lactation, althoug, during post-weaning phase, partial replacement of milk by milk replacer (66% + 34% milk replacer was an efficient option because there was a favorable compensatory growth.

  19. The relationship between energy balance after calving and reproductive functions in Holstein dairy cows treated by the OVSYNCH system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Doležalová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the relationship between the course and the depth of negative energy balance (NEB rated by changes of the body condition after calving and subsequent recovery of reproductive abilities of Holstein dairy cows treated by OVSYNCH. The body condition was evaluated by the BCS system one week before calving and subsequently at 30-day intervals for the period of 6 months of lactation. Recovery of ovarian functions was evaluated by the results of ultrasound examination of all the dairy cows’ ovaries in two controls after calving. The first one was performed on an average of 67 days after calving, and the second at a 60-day interval. The occurrence of individual findings - the presence of corpus luteum, ovarian cysts or ovaries without findings was evaluated as an effect of NEB on the recovery of the ovarian cycle of dairy cows and their subsequent possibility of conception. The suitable cows were treated by the OVSYNCH system after the 1st and 2nd ultrasound examination. Therefore, the insemination interval was calculated and in the case of dairy cows, pregnancy detection, also the number of services per conception and the length of open days. Twice performed hormonal treatment of 73.6% of the animals delayed the period by 50.2 days. In all, 202 dairy cows calved in the period from 29th July 2011 to 7th February 2012 were included in this observation. Significant effects of the body condition change on the ovarian activity as documented by sonographic examination and reproductive indicators appeared primarily in the second month of lactation. The best reproductive indicators were found in cows with the lowest body condition change, thus with a small decline or even increase of body condition score (−0.0 to +0.75 points, P < 0.05. On the contrary, the worst level of indicators of recovery of the reproduction functions were documented in the dairy cows with the most marked decline of BCS (P < 0.05.

  20. Carcass physical composition and meat quality of holstein calves, terminated in different finishing systems and slaughter weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Vincenzi dos Santos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brazil sacrifices many dairy calves at birth, which can become a very serious problem merchandising. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the physical carcass composition and meat quality characteristics of Holstein calves in feedlot or pasture with supplementation, slaughtered at 140, 180, 220 or 260 kg body weight. In the early termination calves had on average 57 kg and 58 days of age. The confined animals were fed forage (corn and concentrated, in the ratio of 40:60 and concentrated pasture supplemented with 1% body weight. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 2 x 4 (two feeding systems x four slaughter weights. It was observed a significant interaction between slaughter weight and finishing system only for the texture of the meat. The finished animals on pasture showed improved texture with increased weight, whereas the confined animals did not affect the weight. Animals finished on pasture had higher muscle percentage (69.48% vs 66.57%, and lower fat percentage (9.58% and 9.75 kg vs 13.20% and 13.08 kg compared to confined animals. There was a linear increase in the total amount of muscle, bone and fat, muscle / bone ratio, compared edible portion / bone, palatability and juiciness when increased slaughter weight. The percentage of bone and meat coloring decreased linearly with the increase of slaughter weight. The proportion of muscle and fat, showed quadratic behavior. The animals of dairy breeds are excellent producers of lean meat, with good smoothness, flavor and juiciness.

  1. Effect of Two Different Levels of Fiber on Feed Intake, Average Daily Gain, Feed Efficiency and Ruminal Metabolites of Holstein Calves

    OpenAIRE

    A. Salary Neya; M. H. Fathi Nasri; H. Farhangfar; H. Naeemipour

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding alfalfa hay and starter fiber level on feed intake and performance of Holstein dairy calves, using thirty two male calves in a completely randomized design assigned to four diets in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. The experimental treatments were as follow: T1: starter with low fiber and without alfalfa hay, T2: starter with low fiber along with alfalfa hay, T3: starter with high fiber and without alfalfa hay and T4: starter with h...

  2. Pharmacokinetics and effect of intravenous meloxicam in weaned Holstein calves following scoop dehorning without local anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Dehorning is a common practice involving calves on dairy operations in the United States. However, less than 20% of producers report using analgesics or anesthetics during dehorning. Administration of a systemic analgesic drug at the time of dehorning may be attractive to dairy producers since cornual nerve blocks require 10 – 15 min to take effect and only provide pain relief for a few hours. The primary objectives of this trial were to (1) describe the compartmental pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in calves after IV administration at 0.5 mg/kg and (2) to determine the effect of meloxicam (n = 6) or placebo (n = 6) treatment on serum cortisol response, plasma substance P (SP) concentrations, heart rate (HR), activity and weight gain in calves after scoop dehorning and thermocautery without local anesthesia. Results Plasma meloxicam concentrations were detectable for 50 h post-administration and fit a 2-compartment model with a rapid distribution phase (mean T½α = 0.22 ± 0.087 h) and a slower elimination phase (mean T½β = 21.86 ± 3.03 h). Dehorning caused a significant increase in serum cortisol concentrations and HR (P meloxicam-treated calves compared with placebo-treated calves at 8 h (P = 0.039) and 10 h (P = 0.044) after dehorning. Mean plasma SP concentrations were lower in meloxicam treated calves (71.36 ± 20.84 pg/mL) compared with control calves (114.70 ± 20.84 pg/mL) (P = 0.038). Furthermore, the change in plasma SP from baseline was inversely proportional to corresponding plasma meloxicam concentrations (P = 0.008). The effect of dehorning on lying behavior was less significant in meloxicam-treated calves (p = 0.40) compared to the placebo-treated calves (P meloxicam prior to dehorning gained on average 1.05 ± 0.13 kg bodyweight/day over 10 days post-dehorning compared with 0.40 ± 0.25 kg bodyweight/day in the placebo-treated calves (p = 0

  3. Interactions between the physical form of starter (mashed versus textured) and corn silage provision on performance, rumen fermentation, and structural growth of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Riasi, A; Soltani, A; Moshiri, B; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-02-01

    Introducing forage in the young calf diet during the milk-feeding period stimulates rumen development. It was hypothesized that performance in dairy calves would depend on forage provision and starter physical form such that the textured starter (TS) feed with corn silage (CS) supplementation would benefit calf performance. This study evaluates the effects of the physical form of starter diets and CS supplementation on performance, rumen fermentation characteristics, and structural growth of dairy calves. Forty-eight 3-d-old Holstein dairy calves with a mean starting BW of 42.1 kg (SD 2.4) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors dietary CS level (0 or 15% on DM basis) and physical form of starter (mashed vs. textured). Individually housed calves were randomly assigned ( = 12 calves per treatment: 6 males and 6 females) to 4 treatments: 1) a mashed starter (MS) feed with no CS (MS-NCS), 2) a MS feed with CS (MS-CS), 3) a TS feed with no CS (TS-NCS), and 4) a TS feed with CS (TS-CS). The calves had ad libitum access to water and starter throughout the study. All calves were weaned on d 56 of age and remained in the study until d 66. The interaction of the physical form of the starter and CS provision was significant ( 0.05) was detected between the physical form of starter and CS provision with respect to the rumen fermentation parameters and body measurements. Total rumen VFA concentration and the molar proportion of propionate were greater ( < 0.01) in calves fed TS compared with MS-fed calves. In conclusion, independent of the physical form of starter, inclusion of 15% CS in starter diets improves the performance of dairy calves.

  4. Uterine bacterial flora in postpartum Danish Holstein dairy cows determined using DNA-based fingerprinting: Correlation to uterine condition and calving management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, K.; Ancker, M.-L.; Gustafsson, H.

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to describe uterine bacterial flora during the postpartum period in Danish Holstein cows using the Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) method. This method produces a pattern of nucleic acid fragments from the microorganisms present, reflect......The overall aim of this study was to describe uterine bacterial flora during the postpartum period in Danish Holstein cows using the Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) method. This method produces a pattern of nucleic acid fragments from the microorganisms present...... included, and for each cow calving management was recorded. Cows were clinically examined on average 8 (range 0–19) and 28 (range 22–38) days after calving, and a uterine sample was taken for bacterial identification using T-RFLP. Milk samples were taken weekly for progesterone analysis. Bacteria were...

  5. Heterogeneity of genetic parameters for calving difficulty in Holstein heifers in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hickey, J.M.; Keane, M.G.; Kenny, D.A.; Cromie, A.R.; Amer, P.R.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Calving difficulty is a trait that greatly affects animal welfare, herd profitability, and the amount of labor required by cattle farmers. It is influenced by direct and maternal genetic components. Selection and breeding strategies can optimize the accuracy of genetic evaluations and correctly

  6. Effects of breed and casein genetic variants on protein profile in milk from Swedish Red, Danish Holstein, and Danish Jersey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Frida; Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Johansson, M

    2014-01-01

    , and technological properties of milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between casein (CN) genetic variants and detailed protein composition in Swedish and Danish dairy milk. Milk and DNA samples were collected from approximately 400 individual cows each of 3 Scandinavian dairy breeds......In selecting cows for higher milk yields and milk quality, it is important to understand how these traits are affected by the bovine genome. The major milk proteins exhibit genetic polymorphism and these genetic variants can serve as markers for milk composition, milk production traits......: Swedish Red (SR), Danish Holstein (DH), and Danish Jersey (DJ). The protein profile with relative concentrations of α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and αS1-, αS2-, κ-, and β-CN was determined for each milk sample using capillary zone electrophoresis. The genetic variants of the αS1- (CSN1S1), β- (CSN2...

  7. Supplementing Holstein cows with low doses of bovine somatotropin prepartum and postpartum reduces calving-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulay, M S; Liboni, M; Hayen, M J; Head, H H

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether supplementing Holstein cows with bovine somatotropin (bST; 142.8 mg/14 d), beginning at 21 d (+/-3 d) before expected calving and continuing through 42 d in milk (+/-3 d), affected the incidence rates of retained fetal membranes (RFM), metritis (MET), clinical mastitis (MAS), digestive problems (DIG), ketosis (KET), milk fever (MF), displaced abomasum (DA, left or right), lameness (LAM), or number of sick cows during the first 60 d in milk. Data for multiparous Holstein cows from 3 separate trials were merged for analyses (n = 437). Cows in the bST-supplemented group (n = 162) received biweekly subcutaneous injections of Posilac, whereas control cows (n = 166) and a group of cohorts (n = 109) were not supplemented. Incidences of disease were collected from the herd health records. Across all treatment groups, the incidence rates (number of diseased cows divided by the total number of cows) for RFM, MET, MAS, DIG, KET, MF, DA, and LAM were 8.47, 18.31, 16.02, 4.35, 4.35, 3.66, 3.20, and 3.66%, respectively. The incidence rates of RFM, MET, MAS, DIG, KET, MF, DA, and LAM for cows in the bST-supplemented, control, and cohort groups were 6.79, 7.83, and 11.93%; 16.05, 7.47, and 22.94%; 10.49, 18.07, and 21.10%; 1.23, 5.42, and 7.34%; 1.23, 6.02, and 6.42%; 2.47, 4.22, and 4.59%; 2.47, 3.61, and 3.67%; and 3.70, 3.61, and 3.67%, respectively. The percentages of sick cows (number of cows having one or more cases of disease divided by the total number of cows) in the bST-supplemented, control, and cohort groups were 33.95, 43.37, and 49.54%, respectively. Significant chi-squared values were detected between the bST-supplemented and control groups for MAS, DIG, and KET, with a greater number of healthy cows in the bST-supplemented group. No differences in incidences of diseases or sick cows were detected between the control and cohort groups. Results indicated that a low dose of bST supplemented to Holstein cows for 3 wk

  8. Organs and carcass non-integrant components of Holstein calves, slaughtered at different weights, held in different finishing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Osorio Dias

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the weight of the empty body and non-integrant components of Holstein calves carcass, kept in confinement system or pasture, slaughtered at different weights. We used 43 Holstein calves, entire, age and initial body weight of approximately 58 days and 57 kg, distributed entirely at random in confinement or cultivated pasture. In feeding systems, it was pre-stipulated four slaughter weights (SW - 140, 180, 220 and 260 kg of live weight. In confinement, were provided corn silage and concentrate based on corn meal and soybean meal, in the ratio 40:60. The other animals in ryegrass pasture, followed by pearl millet, were fed based in supplementation of corn bran and soybean meal to 1% of live weight. The EBW showed linear growth with increasing slaughter weight (SW, as well as income from hot and cold carcass and there was no effect in relation EBW/ SW. The leather, the scraps, the head, the legs, as well as the sum of external components showed growth in its absolute weight as the weight increased at the slaughter of animals. In relative terms, the hot and cold carcass yields were inversely correlated with the relative weights, as well as external components (- 0.68 and - 0.81, the heart (- 0.35 and -0, 38 lungs (- 0.53 and - 0.53, the sum of the gastrointestinal tract (-0.75 and - 0.77, the sum of vital organs (- 0.71 to - 0.75 respectively in feedlot and pasture. This is due to the different ages that the animals were slaughtered (200; 237; 251 and 263 days of age, due to pre-stipulate weights. The absolute weights of heart, kidney, lungs, liver, spleen, gall bladder, reproductive tract and gastrointestinal tract accompanied the increase in weight at animal’s slaughter. However, when grouped, showed no difference related to the increase in weight at slaughter. The differences presented by the liver, trachea and spleen were sufficient to alter the absolute and relative weights of the set of internal

  9. Diurnal ingestive behavior of Holstein calves reared in different systems: feedlot or pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Rumpel Segabinazzi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ingestive behavior of Hostein calves kept in two husbandry systems: feedlot or pasture. We examined the ingestive behavior of 11 male non-castrated calves, with average initial age of 75 days, six of which were individually penned, consuming corn silage and concentrate-based diet at a ratio of 40:60 (on a DM basis, and the remainder, on pearl millet pasture (Pennisetum americanum receiving concentrate supplementation at 1.0% body weight. Evaluations were held from November to February, from 8:00 am to 6:00 pm. Feedlot calves stay longer (p < 0.05 in idle, both in lying and standing positions, while animals on pasture spent more time in eating and ruminating activities. Confined animals performed a higher number of daily meals, but of shorter duration each. In both production systems, rumination activity is preferably performed in lying position, however, rumination time in standing position is about 1.4 times longer for those kept on pasture. Animals kept on pasture show a lower efficiency of DM intake, greater number of ruminated boluses, which were ruminated for less time and with fewer cud chewings.

  10. Phenotypic effects of calving ease on the subsequent fertility and milk production of dam and calf in UK Holstein-Friesian heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaglen, S A E; Coffey, M P; Woolliams, J A; Mrode, R; Wall, E

    2011-11-01

    The effect of calving ease on the fertility and production performance of both dam and calf was studied in approximately 50,000 and 10,000 UK Holstein-Friesian heifers and heifer calves, respectively. The first objective of this study was to estimate the effect of a difficult calving on the subsequent first-lactation milk production by estimating lactation curves using cubic splines. This methodology allows the estimation of daily milk, protein, and fat yields following calvings of differing degrees of difficulty. Losses in milk yield after a difficult calving have been quantified previously; however, estimates are generally restricted to the accumulated yields at specific days in lactation. By fitting cubic splines, gaps (in which the shape of the lactation curve can be merely guessed) between estimations were avoided. The second objective of this study was to estimate the effect of a difficult birth on the subsequent performance of the calf as an adult animal. Even though the calving process is known to involve cooperation between dam and calf, the effect of a difficult calving has, until now, only been estimated for the subsequent performance of the dam. Addressing the effects of a difficult birth on the adult calf strengthens the importance of calving ease as a selection trait because it suggests that the benefit of genetic improvement may currently be underestimated. The effect of calving ease on the subsequent reproductive performance of dam and calf was analyzed using linear regression and with calving ease score fitted as a fixed effect. Dams with veterinary-assisted calvings required 0.7 more services to conception and 8 more days to first service and experienced a 28-d longer calving interval in first lactation compared with dams that were not assisted at calving. Effects of calving ease on the reproductive performance of the adult calf in first lactation were not detected. Losses in milk yield of the dam were significant between d 9 to 90 in milk

  11. Partial replacement of triticale for corn grain in starter diet and its effects on performance, structural growth and blood metabolites of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeinoddini, H R; Alikhani, M; Ahmadi, F; Ghorbani, G R; Rezamand, P

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the effects of different inclusion rates of dietary triticale replacing corn grain in starter rations of dairy calves on feed intake, average daily gain (ADG), feed efficiency, skeletal growth, fecal score, and selected blood and ruminal parameters. In all, 30 4-day-old Holstein calves (15 female and 15 male) were blocked by gender and birth weight, and then randomly allotted to three treatment groups (n=10 calves/treatment) and received either a corn-based diet without triticale (T0), or a diet containing 16% (T16) or 32% (T32) triticale (25% and 50% corn replaced by triticale, respectively) for 10 weeks. Calves were weaned on day 43 of study and remained on the study until day 70. During post-weaning period, calves fed T32 had the lowest starter intake (1.78 kg/day; P=0.02). In contrast, ADG was not affected in pre-weaning and overall periods, but calves fed T32 had a lower ADG (P=0.04) as compared with calves fed T0 in post-weaning period. No dietary effect was detected for feed efficiency. Dietary treatment did not affect heart girth and body length; however, height at wither and hip at weaning increased in calves fed triticale compared with T0. No detectable effects were observed in serum glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate. No difference was detected in blood urea nitrogen on day 35 either but on day 50 and day 70 the greatest concentration was recorded for calves fed T16. Compared with the control, ruminal ammonia concentration was increased for calves fed T32 (4.34 v. 7.50 mmol/l) and T16 (4.01 v. 8.12 mmol/l) on day 35 and day 50. No difference was detected in ruminal pH on day 35 or day 50; however, calves fed T32 had the lowest pH (6.11) at 70 days. No significant effect was detected in days scoured, respiratory score and general appearance. Under our experimental conditions, it appears that triticale at 16% dry matter (i.e. replacing corn grain up to 25%) in the starter diet does not have adverse effects on

  12. Associations between strain, herd size, age at first calving, culling reason and lifetime performance characteristics in Holstein-Friesian cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, K; Makulska, J; Jagusiak, W; Węglarz, A

    2017-02-01

    Cow longevity and lifetime performance traits are good indicators of breeding effectiveness and animal welfare. They are also interrelated with the economics of dairy herd. Unfortunately, a high milk yield is often associated with deteriorated cow health and fertility and, consequently, with an increased culling rate. This situation, observed also in the Polish population of Holstein-Friesian cattle, inspired us to undertake a study on the associations between some factors and lifetime performance characteristics. The data set consisted of the records on 135 496 cows, including 131 526 of the Black and White strain (BW), and 3970 of the Red and White strain (RW) covered by performance recording and culled in 2012. It was found that cows of the BW strain and those from the largest herds (>100 cows) reached higher lifetime and mean daily energy-corrected milk (ECM) yields than cows of the RW strain and those from smaller herds culled at a similar age. Cows youngest at first calving (cow culling. Cow longevity and lifetime productivity were considerably affected by the interactions between the studied factors.

  13. Genetic Evaluation of Age at First Calving, Open Days and Milk Production of Holstein Cattle in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bitaraf Sani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters coupled with genetic and phonotypic trends for age at first calving (AFC, open days(OD and milk yield(MY of first lactation in Iranian Holstein cows. Records of reproduction and production for genetic evaluation from 1984 to 2005 for AFC, OD and MY were 71736, 20126 and 20126, respectively. Single and two-variable animal models were used to estimate genetic parameters by restricted maximum likelihood procedures and WOMBAT software. heritability of AFC, OD and MY was estimated 0.20±0.02 , 0.04±0.01 , 0.47±0.9 respectively. Genetic and phonotypic trends of AFC were negative so that phenotype and breeding value average had decreased from 1984 to 2005. Genetic and phonotypic trends of OD and MY were positive. The genetic and phonotypic correlations between OD and MY were +0.23 and +0.07 respectively.

  14. Effects of a bacteria-based probiotic on ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids and bacterial flora of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadis, Abdul Qadir; Goya, Satoru; Ikuta, Kentaro; Yatsu, Minoru; Kimura, Atsushi; Nakanishi, Shusuke; Sato, Shigeru

    2014-06-01

    Twelve ruminally cannulated Holstein calves (age, 12 ± 3 weeks) were used to identify the effect of a probiotic comprised of Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecium and Clostridium butyricum on ruminal components. The calves were adapted to a diet containing a 50% high-concentrate (standard diet) for 1 week, and then, the probiotic was given once daily for 5 days (day 1-5) at 1.5 or 3.0 g/100 kg body weight to groups of four calves each. Four additional calves fed the standard diet without probiotic served as the corresponding control. Ruminal pH was measured continuously throughout the 15-day experimental period. Ruminal fluid was collected via a fistula at a defined time predose and on days 7 and 14 to assess volatile fatty acid (VFA), lactic acid and ammonia-nitrogen concentrations, as well as the bacterial community. The probiotic at either dose improved the reduced 24-hr mean ruminal pH in calves. The circadian patterns of the 1 hr mean ruminal pH were identical between the probiotic doses. In both probiotic groups, ruminal lactic acid concentrations remained significantly lower than that of the control. Probiotic did not affect ruminal VFA concentrations. L. plantarum and C. butyricum were not detected in the rumen of calves given the high-dose probiotic, whereas Enterococcus spp. remained unchanged. These results suggest that calves given a probiotic had stable ruminal pH levels (6.6-6.8), presumably due to the effects of the probiotic on stabilizing rumen-predominant bacteria, which consume greater lactate in the rumen.

  15. Structural growth, rumen development, and metabolic and immune responses of Holstein male calves fed milk through step-down and conventional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M A; Lee, H J; Lee, W S; Kim, H S; Ki, K S; Hur, T Y; Suh, G H; Kang, S J; Choi, Y J

    2007-07-01

    Structural growth, feed consumption, rumen development, metabolic response, and immune response were studied in Holstein calves fed milk through either a conventional method or a step-down (STEP) method. In the conventional method, calves (n = 20) were fed colostrum and then milk at a rate of 10% of their BW for the entire period of 44 d. In the STEP method, calves (n = 20) were given colostrum and then milk at a rate of 20% of their BW for 23 d, which was reduced (between d 24 to 28) to 10% of their BW for the remaining 16 d. The calves on both methods were weaned gradually by diluting milk with water between d 45 and 49. After weaning, feed consumption, structural growth, and body weight gain were monitored until calves were 63 d of age. At d 63, twelve calves (6/treatment) were euthanized and rumen papillae length, papillae width, rumen wall thickness, and emptied forestomach weight were recorded. At wk 4, 7, and 9, ruminal contents were collected to enumerate rumen metabolites. The STEP-fed calves consumed a greater amount of milk than conventionally fed calves during the pre-STEP (d 1 to 28), post-STEP (d 29 to 49), and preweaning (d 1 to 49) periods. Consumption of starter and hay was greater during the pre-STEP period and lesser during the post-STEP and postweaning (d 50 to 63) periods in calves on the conventional method than on the STEP method. Body weight gain and structural growth measurements of calves were greater on the STEP method than on the conventional method. A hypophagic condition caused by greater milk consumption depressed solid feed intake of STEP-fed calves during the pre-STEP period, and a hyperphagic response caused by a reduced nutrient supply from milk triggered their consumption of solid feed during the post-STEP and postweaning periods. Ruminal pH and concentrations of ammonia, total volatile fatty acids, acetate, propionate, butyrate, and plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate were higher in calves on the STEP method and at weaning and

  16. Good sensory quality and cheesemaking properties in milk from Holstein cows managed for an 18-month calving interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, G M; Poulsen, N A; Larsen, M K; Kidmose, U; Gaillard, C; Sehested, J; Larsen, L B

    2016-11-01

    Extended calving interval (CInt) for high-yielding dairy cows beyond the traditional 12mo has been suggested as a profitable, environmentally and welfare-friendly production strategy. However, concerns exist on whether extending cow CInt, and consequently prolonging lactation length, impairs milk quality. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of milk produced during the extended lactation period to mid lactation. In particular, milk indicators related to udder integrity and cheesemaking properties when cows were fed low- or high-energy diets in early lactation mobilization period. Forty-seven healthy Danish Holstein cows (15 primi- and 32 multiparous) were fed 2 distinct weight-adjusted diets in early lactation: either a high-density diet for approximately 42d in milk (DIM) followed by a low-density diet (n=22), or a low-density diet throughout the whole experiment (n=25). Milk quality was explored at 3 lactation periods: 140 to 175 DIM (P1), 280 to 315 DIM (P2), and 385 to 420 DIM (P3). Lactation period was found to be the main factor affecting milk yield, quality, and cheesemaking properties. Primiparous cows kept the same daily milk yield throughout the studied periods, whereas multiparous cows produced, on average, 10.2kg/d less in P3 compared with P1. Fat, protein, and casein concentrations increased, respectively, by 18, 16, and 16%, from P1 to P3. Cheesemaking properties, such as curd-firming rate, gel strength, and wet and dry curd yield, got an improvement from P1 to P3 and were strongly correlated with milk concentrations of protein and casein. The udder integrity indicators, somatic cells count, level of free amino terminals as an index of proteolysis, and milk pH, remained unchanged throughout the studied lactation periods. Feeding cows either high- or low-density diets during the early lactation mobilization period did not exert any relevant carryover effect on milk composition, and thus had no effect on cheesemaking properties in extended

  17. The effect of restricted milk feeding through conventional or step-down methods with or without forage provision in starter feed on performance of Holstein bull calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar, D; Khorvash, M; Ghasemi, E; Mahdavi, A H; Moshiri, B; Mirzaei, M; Pezeshki, A; Ghaffari, M H

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine whether step-down (STP) milk feeding method together with forage provision would improve performance, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, blood metabolites, and structural growth of calves. Holstein bull calves ( = 40) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments were 1) conventional (COV) milk feeding without forage provision (COV-NF), 2) COV milk feeding with forage provision, 3) STP milk feeding without forage provision, and 4) STP milk feeding with forage provision. Calves in the COV method ( = 20) received 5.5 L/d milk until d 56 of age followed by 2 L/d milk from d 56 to 59 of age. Calves in the STP method ( = 20) received 7 L/d milk until d 35, 4 L/d milk from d 35 to 48, and 2 L/d milk from d 50 to 59 of age. All the calves received the starter ration from d 3 of the study until d 74 of age. Forage-supplemented calves ( = 10/milk feeding method) received 15% alfalfa hay mixed with finely ground starter as a total mixed ration. All calves were weaned on d 60 of age and remained in the study until d 74. Regardless of the milk feeding method, the final BW (92.54 vs. 83.14 kg/d), starter intake (0.90 vs. 0.65 kg/d), total DMI (1.43 vs. 1.17 kg/d), and ADG (0.73 vs. 0.60 kg/d) were greater ( forage-supplemented calves than those that received no forage during the preweaning, postweaning, and overall periods. Milk feeding method had no effect on ruminal pH, total VFA, acetate, or acetate:propionate ratio as well as body measurements. Ruminal pH and the molar proportions of acetate were greater ( forage-supplemented calves than those that received no forage during the pre- and postweaning periods. Regardless of forage provision, STP methods increased ( forage provision with respect to BW, DMI, G:F, apparent nutrient digestibility (DM, OM, and CP), and body measurements. The interaction of milk feeding method and forage

  18. Physico-chemical Meat Qualities of Loin and Top Round Beef from Holstein Calves with Different Slaughtering Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soohyun; Kang, Sun Moon; Seong, Pilnam; Kang, Geunho; Choi, Sunho; Kwon, Engki; Moon, Sungsil; Kim, Donghun; Park, Beomyoung

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the physico-chemical and sensory properties of loin (m. longissimus dorsi) and top round (m. semimembranosus) beef from 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12 mon-old Holstein calves. For both loin and top round muscles, the moisture contents were decreased, whereas the protein and fat contents were increased, as the slaughtering age increased. In terms of meat color, for both muscle types, CIE L* values were decreased, whereas CIE a* values and myoglobin content increased as the slaughtering age increased. pH values were significantly higher in the 3 mon-old group than in the other groups. The Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values were lowest for loin muscles from the 12 mon-old group; however, there was no significant difference for top round muscle among the 4 age groups. Cooking loss for both loin and top round muscles were significantly higher for the 3 mon-old group than for the other groups. The water holding capacity (WHC) of both muscles were highest for the 12 mon-old groups (pcomposition of the 12 mon-old groups, loin muscles had significantly higher levels of C14:0, C16:1n7, C18:1n9, and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and top round muscles had significantly higher levels of C16:1n7, C18:1n7, C18:1n9, MUFA, MUFA/SFA. Loin muscle from the 3- and 12 mon-old groups had significantly higher scores for tenderness and overall likeness. Top round muscle from the 9- and 12 mon-old groups had significantly higher scores for overall likeness than those from the other age groups.

  19. Influence of barley grain particle size and treatment with citric acid on digestibility, ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Salem, A Z M; López, S

    2017-08-01

    Chemical and physical treatments of barley grain increase ruminally resistant starch and can improve the rumen fermentation pattern. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of chemical (addition of citric acid, CA) and physical (grinding to two different particle sizes, PS) treatment of barley grain on performance, rumen fermentation, microbial protein yield in the rumen and selected blood metabolites in growing calves. In all, 28 male Holstein calves (172±5.1 kg initial BW) were used in a complete randomised design with a factorial arrangement of 2 barley grain particle sizes×2 levels of citric acid. The diets were as follows: (i) small PS (average 1200 µm) barley grain soaked in water (no CA addition); (ii) small PS barley grain soaked in a CA solution (adding 20 g CA/kg barley); (iii) large PS (average 2400 µm) barley grain soaked in water (no citric acid addition) and (iv) large PS barley grain soaked in a citric acid solution (adding 20 g CA/kg barley). Barley grain was then incorporated at 35% in a total mixed ration and fed to the calves for 11 weeks. Feeding small PS barley decreased feed intake (P=0.02) and average daily weight gain (P=0.01). The addition of CA to barley grain did not affect intake but increased weight gain (P0.05). However, the molar proportion of propionate was increased (P=0.03) when barley was more finely ground, and that of acetate was increased (P=0.04) when CA was added to barley grain. The ruminal concentration of ammonia nitrogen was increased (Pcitric acid increased fibre digestibility of total mixed rations, attenuated the decrease in ruminal pH, and improved weight gain and feed efficiency in male Holstein growing calves fed a high-cereal diet (550 g cereal grain/kg diet).

  20. Transfer of passive immunity and serum proteinogram in the first six months of life of Criollo Lageano and black and white holstein calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Timboni Teixeira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the transfer of passive immunity and the proteinogram in Criollo Lageano (CL and Black and White Holstein (BWH calves. Two groups were utilized with 13 Criollo Lageano and 10 BWH calves. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of total serum protein, electrophoresis of serum proteins, activity of the gamma glutamyl transferase, and concentration of IgG by the method of the zinc sulfate turbidity in periods between 24 and 36 hours of life, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA and Tukey test at 5% significance level, and correlations between variables were calculated. Variations of serum proteins followed a pattern of physiological behavior over the first six months of life and production of immunoglobulins was active earlier in BWH calves and slower in the Criollo Lageano, without causing any impact on their health. Gamma globulin in the first days of life (24-36h was correlated with IgG (r=0.87 for CL and r=0.89 for BWH, PTS (r=0.91 for CL and r=0.92 for BWH, Glob (r=0.99 for CL and r=0.98 for BWH and GGT (r=0.14 for CL and r=0.83 for BWH. It was concluded that there was no failure in the transfer of passive immunity in Criollo Lageano calves but this failure occurred in the BWH calves. IgG values estimated by the zinc sulfate turbidity and serum proteins were considered good indicators of the transfer of passive immunity in calves between 24 and 36 hours of life.

  1. Effects of Dietary Forage and Calf Starter Diet on Ruminal pH and Bacteria in Holstein Calves during Weaning Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yo-Han; Nagata, Rie; Ohtani, Natsuki; Ichijo, Toshihiro; Ikuta, Kentaro; Sato, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between ruminal pH and bacteria in calves fed calf starter with and without forage during weaning transition. First, 16 Holstein bull calves were obtained from dairy farms and equipped with rumen cannulas by cannulation surgery. Then, calves (73.5 ± 4.2 kg; mean ± SE) were assigned to groups fed calf starter either with forage (HAY, n = 8) or without forage (CON, n = 8), and all calves were weaned at 8 weeks of age. Ruminal pH was measured continuously, and rumen fluid samples were collected at 7, 8, 9, and 11 weeks of age, namely -1, 0, 1, and 3 weeks after weaning, respectively, to assess volatile fatty acid concentrations and bacterial DNA. The 24-h mean ruminal pH was significantly (P forage alleviates subacute ruminal acidosis due to diurnal changes in ruminal pH. Furthermore, changes in ruminal pH affect the ruminal bacterial diversity and relative abundance, and these changes might have influenced the establishment of fermentative ruminal functions during weaning transition.

  2. Effect of Two Different Levels of Fiber on Feed Intake, Average Daily Gain, Feed Efficiency and Ruminal Metabolites of Holstein Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salary Neya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding alfalfa hay and starter fiber level on feed intake and performance of Holstein dairy calves, using thirty two male calves in a completely randomized design assigned to four diets in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. The experimental treatments were as follow: T1: starter with low fiber and without alfalfa hay, T2: starter with low fiber along with alfalfa hay, T3: starter with high fiber and without alfalfa hay and T4: starter with high fiber along with alfalfa hay. Results showed feed intake was not significantly different in pre-weaning and throughout the study but after weaning there was significant difference among treatments. Average daily gain of calves was not significantly different during pre-weaning period but during post-weaning and throughout the study there was significant difference among treatments for this trait. Feed efficiency was not significantly different among treatments in pre-weaning and post-weaning periods but it was significantly different during throughout the study. The results of this experiment showed adding fiber to dairy calves ration through both starter concentrate and alfalfa hay may reduce their performance.

  3. Effect of a mixture of steam-flaked corn and soybeans on health, growth, and selected blood metabolism of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y Q; He, D Ch; Meng, Q X

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the effects of steam-flaked corn grains and soybeans on calf health, growth, and selected blood parameters. Holstein bull calves (n=30, approximately 7+/-3 d of age) were purchased from local dairy farms and offered milk, starter diets, and hay, and were then assigned to the experiment at 21+/-3 d of age. Calves were blocked into 3 treatments by birth date and body weight and randomly assigned to receive fresh milk and a commercial pelleted starter containing extruded corn and soybeans (ECS), steam-flaked corn and soybeans (SFCS), or ground corn and soybeans (GCS). The experiment was conducted with calves from 3 to 13 wk of age. Body weight, calf starter intake, milk intake, total dry matter intake, and body structural growth were not significantly influenced by corn and soybean processing during the study; however, feed efficiency was significantly improved by the SFCS treatment. Average daily gain generally decreased during the weaning week for all treatments, but did not differ significantly among treatments. Health incidences for calves fed the SFCS starter were lower than those fed the other 2 treatments. The blood hematocrit was higher for calves fed the SFCS starter than for those fed the GCS and ECS starters during wk 6 to 11. The concentration of plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate was higher for the calves fed the GCS and SFCS treatments than for those fed the ECS treatment during wk 6 to 13, but lower during wk 4 and 5. Plasma glucose concentrations decreased remarkably with increasing calf age but were not affected by corn and soybean processing. Plasma nonesterified fatty acids were influenced by calf age, and higher NEFA concentration was observed in the SFCS treatment than in the other 2 treatments during wk 5 to 9. Calves consuming the SFCS starter had similar average daily gain, milk intake, starter intake, total dry matter intake, and body structure, but had improved feed efficiency when compared with

  4. Effect of serum calcium status at calving on survival, health, and performance of postpartum Holstein cows and calves under certified organic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, A L; Maquivar, M G; Bas, S; Brick, T A; Weiss, W P; Bothe, H; Velez, J S; Schuenemann, G M

    2017-04-01

    The study objective was to assess the effect of hypocalcemia (HYPO; ≤2.0 mmol/L) of the dam at calving on survival, health, and performance of lactating dairy cows and their calves under certified organic management. Prepartum dairy cows (primiparous, n = 445; multiparous, n = 328) from 1 dairy herd were monitored (prepartum pen) for imminent signs of parturition (appearance of amniotic sac outside the vulva) until birth. All calves were subject to the same newborn care, colostrum management, and failure of passive transfer assessment (serum total protein ≤5.5 mg/dL). Serum total calcium of cows was determined in samples taken within 2 h after calving. To define HYPO cows after calving, a cut-point of total serum Ca concentration with optimal sensitivity and specificity to predict metritis or calf diarrhea was established by using the receiver operator characteristic. The effect of HYPO on survival (died or culled within 60 DIM), health status, and pregnancy per artificial insemination (PAI) for first services of lactating cows were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Additionally, the effect of HYPO at calving on days in milk (DIM) at first service (DIMFS), milk yield (kg), milk components (percent fat and protein), and somatic cell count were analyzed for the first 3 Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) tests using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The effect of parity (primiparous and multiparous), body condition score at calving, and manure hygiene score at calving were also included in the statistical models. The effect of HYPO at calving on calf survival, serum total protein, and diarrhea within 10 d of age were assessed using GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. The overall prevalence of HYPO was 14.6% (2.7% for primiparous and 30.8% for multiparous cows). Cows experiencing HYPO at calving had greater proportion of metritis (25.1 vs. 14.7%) and culling within 60 DIM (15.9 vs. 6.8%) compared with non-HYPO cows, respectively

  5. Weaning age affects growth, feed intake, gastrointestinal development, and behavior in Holstein calves fed an elevated plane of nutrition during the preweaning stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, E; Brown, H E; Leslie, K E; DeVries, T J; Steele, M A

    2015-09-01

    Recent research has revealed potential advantages of feeding an elevated plane of nutrition to calves during the preweaning period. However, calves fed more nutrients preweaning may be more susceptible to depressed growth and weaning stress during the transition from liquid to solid feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the age of weaning and feed intake, and its influence on growth, gastrointestinal development, and behavioral indicators in dairy calves fed an elevated plane of nutrition during the preweaning period. To meet this objective, 20 female Holstein calves were randomly assigned at birth to be weaned at 6 or 8 wk. Milk replacer (mixed at 150 g/L) was offered at 1.2 kg/calf per day in 2 meals until a 1-wk step-down, when meals were reduced by 50% 1 wk before weaning. Daily starter, chopped oat straw, water intake, and weekly body weights were measured until d 70 of life. To assess digestive tract development, rumen fluid, fecal, and blood samples were taken before and after weaning (d 35, 49, and 63) and analyzed for ruminal short-chain fatty acids, blood β-hydroxybutyrate, and fecal starch, respectively. Behavioral indicators of weaning stress, including vocalizing and non-nutritive oral behavior, were measured by visual observation for 1 h, 3 times per week, before the second feeding of the day during the period from 2 wk before weaning to 2 wk after weaning. The calves weaned at 8 wk compared with 6 wk had higher average daily gain for the week preweaning (0.79±0.09 vs. 0.34±0.10 kg/d) and postweaning (1.05±0.09 vs. 0.35±0.11 kg/d), and were heavier at d 70 (99.9±1.81 vs. 91.0±2.26 kg). From 5 to 8 wk of age, starter and water intakes were lower in calves weaned at 8 wk of age. However, overall starter intake did not differ during the last week of the experiment. Furthermore, calves weaned at 8 wk compared with 6 wk had higher starter intake for 1 wk preweaning (1.36±0.13 vs. 0.40±0.08 kg/d) and

  6. Influence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products, SmartCare in milk replacer and Original XPC in calf starter, on the performance and health of preweaned Holstein calves challenged with Salmonella enterica serotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of supplementing SmartCare™ (SC) in milk replacer and Original XPC™(XPC) in calf starter on performance and health of preweaned calves following an oral challenge with Salmonella enterica. The study was performed in two 35-d periods with 30 Holstein...

  7. Preliminary investigation on reliability of genomic estimated breeding values in the Danish and Swedish Holstein Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Gregersen, V R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the reliability of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) in the Danish Holstein population. The data in the analysis included 3,330 bulls with both published conventional EBV and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. After data editing, 38,134 SNP markers...... were available. In the analysis, all SNP were fitted simultaneously as random effects in a Bayesian variable selection model, which allows heterogeneous variances for different SNP markers. The response variables were the official EBV. Direct GEBV were calculated as the sum of individual SNP effects...... for all 18 index traits. Reliability of GEBV was assessed by squared correlation between GEBV and conventional EBV (r2GEBV, EBV), and expected reliability was obtained from prediction error variance using a 5-fold cross validation. Squared correlations between GEBV and published EBV (without any...

  8. /sup 203/Hg excretion and tissue distribution in Holstein calves following single tracer intravenous doses of methyl mercury chloride or mercuric chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stake, P.E.; Neathery, M.W.; Miller, W.J.; Gentry, R.P.

    1975-01-01

    Eight male Holstein calves were given a single tracer intravenous dose of /sup 203/Hg as mercuric chloride or methyl mercury chloride 7 days before sacrifice. Total 7-day fecal and urinary Hg excretions were much higher from mercuric chloride dosing than from methyl mercury chloride. Retention of Hg from mercuric chloride was greater in kidney, liver, spleen, lung, testicle, rib shaft, tibia joint, tibia shaft, abomasum, small intestine, cecum, large intestine and pancreas and less in brain cerebellum and cerebrum, supraspinatus muscle and heart, and substantially lower in psoas and semitendinosus muscles. Fifteen minutes after dosing, whole blood Hg was lower from mercuric chloride followed by a similar rapid clearance for both Hg forms. Throughout the 7-day period, plasma Hg was greater from mercuric chloride. In red blood cells, Hg from methyl mercury chloride was higher during the first 2 hr after dosing, with no significant differences thereafter. 5 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  9. Genetic variation of metabolite and hormone concentration in UK Holstein-Frisian calves and the genetic relationship with economically important traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayhurst, C; Flint, A P F; Løvendahl, P

    2009-01-01

    of free fatty acids (FFA), glucose, growth hormone (GH), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in male and female UK Holstein-Friesian dairy calves (average age ± SD; 126 ± 12.7 d) were analyzed during 2 studies: data set 1 (n = 496 females; 1996-2001; 7 commercial dairy herds) and data set 2......The decline of dairy cattle fertility worldwide remains a major concern, with conception rates to first service commonly below 40%. The length and severity of negative energy balance postpartum are unfavorably correlated with fertility, suggesting that the length and severity of negative energy...... balance and fertility are linked via several hormones or metabolites. These compounds therefore have the potential to predict fertility at a genetic level. The addition of a predictor trait for fertility into present fertility indices would accelerate genetic gain, particularly if it was expressed before...

  10. Effect of Milk Allowance on Concentrate Intake, Ruminal Environment, and Ruminal Development in Milk-Fed Holstein Calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Sehested, Jakob; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that a barley-based concentrate would induce an acidic ruminal environment in young calves and that increased milk allowance would alleviate this condition.......The aim of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that a barley-based concentrate would induce an acidic ruminal environment in young calves and that increased milk allowance would alleviate this condition....

  11. Effects of dietary forage and calf starter on ruminal pH and transcriptomic adaptation of the rumen epithelium in Holstein calves during the weaning transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yo-Han; Toji, Noriyuki; Kizaki, Keiichiro; Kushibiki, Shiro; Ichijo, Toshihiro; Sato, Shigeru

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the relationship between ruminal pH and transcriptomic adaptation of the rumen epithelium (RE) of calves fed calf starter with and without forage during the weaning transition. Holstein calves were assigned to groups fed calf starter either with forage (HAY group, n = 3) or without forage (CON group, n = 4). Ruminal pH was measured continuously, and rumen fluid and epithelium were collected 3 wk after weaning. mRNA expression profiles of the RE were examined by one-color microarray. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were investigated using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Mean and maximum ruminal pH were significantly (P forage alleviates ruminal acidosis, and the decrease in ruminal pH may damage the RE, leading to changes in gene expression to repair the damage. Furthermore, rumen development may be regulated by growth factor (TGFB1) and signaling pathways (EGF and IGFBP) for adaptation to feeding on calf starter with and without forage during the weaning transition. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. In vivo relevance of polymorphic Interleukin 8 promoter haplotype for the systemic immune response to LPS in Holstein-Friesian calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojkovic, Bojan; McLoughlin, Rachel M; Meade, Kieran G

    2016-12-01

    Interleukin 8, also known as CXC chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8), is a critical chemokine in the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of infection and is a potent mediator of inflammation. We previously discovered 29 polymorphic sites in the promoter region of the bovine Interleukin 8 gene, which segregate into two distinct haplotypes, denoted IL8-h1 and IL8-h2. Population genetic analysis of these two haplotypes showed significant inter-breed differences in haplotype frequency, which is suggestive of selection acting at this locus. Furthermore functional characterisation identified that IL8-h2 was more active in mammary epithelial cells stimulated with the bacterial endotoxin, LPS. However, the in vivo relevance of these functional differences in the IL8 gene has not been ascertained. Therefore, in the current study, we tested the hypothesis that IL8 haplotype would result in variation in the systemic immune response to LPS challenge in Holstein-Friesian (HF) calves. A Taqman assay was designed to genotype both Jersey and HF calves, from which 20 healthy HF calves (representing IL8-h1 and IL8-h2) from the same farm were subjected to LPS stimulation via jugular venepuncture (100ng/kg). Systemic immune profiling was subsequently performed up to 216h post-challenge. Haematological analysis showed perturbations in leukocyte populations of cells but only the lymphocyte response was significantly different between IL8-h1 and IL8-h2. IL8 expression levels were significantly different between haplogroups, at both the gene expression and protein levels (P<0.05). Circulating neutrophils were subsequently purified from each haplogroup to measure potential haplotype specific effects on neutrophil migration and bacterial killing but no significant differences were detected, which is likely due to the low circulating levels of IL8. We conclude that IL8 haplotype significantly affects IL8 expression profile in response to bacterial endotoxin in vivo, and the significant increase in IL8

  13. The Effects of Thyme and Cinnamon Essential Oils on Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Blood Metabolites in Holstein Calves Consuming High Concentrate Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Vakili

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils have been shown to favorably effect in vitro ruminal fermentation, but there are few in vivo studies that have examined animal responses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of thyme (THY and cinnamon (CIN essential oils on feed intake, growth performance, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites in feedlot calves fed high-concentrate diets. Twelve growing Holstein calves (213±17 kg initial BW were used in a completely randomized design and received their respective dietary treatments for 45 d. Treatments were: 1-control (no additive, 2-THY (5 g/d/calf and 3-CIN (5 g/d/calf. Calves were fed ad libitum diets consisting of 15% forage and 85% concentrate, and adapted to the finishing diet by gradually increasing the concentrate ratio with feeding a series of transition diets 5 wk before the experiment started. Supplementation of THY or CIN did not affect DMI and ADG, and feed efficiency was similar between treatment groups. There were no effects of additives on ruminal pH and rumen concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and total VFA; whereas molar proportion of acetate and ratio of acetate to propionate decreased, and the molar proportion of propionate increased with THY and CIN supplementation. Rumen molar concentration of butyrate was significantly increased by adding CIN compared to control; but no change was observed with THY compared with control group. No effects of THY, or CIN were observed on valerate, isobutyrate or isovalerate proportions. Plasma concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea-N, β-hydroxybutyrate, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not changed by feeding THY or CIN. Results from this study suggest that supplementing a feedlot finishing diet with THY or CIN essential oil might be useful as ruminal fermentation modifiers in beef production systems, but has minor impacts on blood metabolites.

  14. Effect of supplementing essential fatty acids to pregnant nonlactating Holstein cows and their preweaned calves on calf performance, immune response, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M; Greco, L F; Favoreto, M G; Marsola, R S; Wang, D; Shin, J H; Block, E; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Staples, C R

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of supplementing saturated or unsaturated fatty acids (FA) during late gestation of cows and during the preweaning period of calves on growth, health, and immune responses of calves. During the last 8wk of pregnancy, Holstein cattle (n=96) were fed no fat supplement (control), a saturated FA (SFA) supplement enriched in C18:0, or an unsaturated FA supplement enriched in the essential FA linoleic acid. Newborn calves were fed a milk replacer (MR) with either low linoleic acid (LLA; coconut oil) or high linoleic acid (HLA; coconut oil and porcine lard) concentration as the sole feedstuff during the first 30d. A grain mix with minimal linoleic acid was offered between 31 and 60d of life. At 30 and 60d of life, concentrations of linoleic acid in plasma were increased in calves born from dams supplemented with essential FA compared with SFA (44.0 vs. 42.5% of total FA) and in calves consuming HLA compared with LLA MR (46.3 vs. 40.8% of total FA). Total n-3 FA concentration was increased in plasma of calves fed HLA compared with LLA MR (1.44 vs. 1.32%) primarily due to increased α-linolenic acid. Prepartum supplementation with SFA tended to improve dry matter intake (48.8 vs. 46.7kg) and improved average daily gain (0.50 vs. 0.46kg/d) by calves without affecting efficiency of gain or circulating concentrations of anabolic metabolites or hormones. Increasing mean intake of linoleic acid from approximately 4.6 to 11.0g/d during the first 60d of life increased average daily gain (0.50 vs. 0.45kg/d) without a change in dry matter intake, thus improving feed efficiency (0.63 vs. 0.59kg of gain/kg of dry matter intake). Improved weight gain in calves fed HLA MR was accompanied by increased or tendency to increase plasma concentrations of glucose (92.7 vs. 89.9g/dL) and insulin-like growth factor I (59.5 vs. 53.2g/dL), increased hematocrit (36.0 vs. 34.4%) and concentration of blood lymphocytes (4.61 vs. 4.21×10(3)/μL), lowered plasma

  15. Converting to organic dairy farming: Consequences for production, somatic cell scores and calving interval of first parity Holstein cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.; Baars, T.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the changes prompted by conversion to organic farming for milk production and fertility of first parity Holstein cows. Data was collected for Dutch organic farms, with a distinction made between long-standing-organic farms, converted organic farms and a reference group of

  16. Gamma delta T cells are early responders to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in colostrum-replete Holstein calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peripheral blood mononuclear and mesenteric lymph node cells (PBMC and MNL, respectively) were obtained from 30 calves that were assigned randomly at birth to one of six treatment groups: 1) colostrum deprived (CD), no vitamins; 2) colostrum replacer (CR), no vitamins; 3) CR, vitamin A; 4) CR, vitam...

  17. Effects of dietary forage and calf starter diet on ruminal pH and bacteria in Holstein calves during weaning transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo-Han KIM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between ruminal pH and bacteria in calves fed calf starter with and without forage during weaning transition. First, 16 Holstein bull calves were obtained from dairy farms and equipped with rumen cannulas by cannulation surgery. Then, calves (73.5 ± 4.2 kg; mean ± SE were assigned to groups fed calf starter either with forage (HAY, n = 8 or without forage (CON, n = 8, and all calves were weaned at 8 weeks of age. Ruminal pH was measured continuously, and rumen fluid samples were collected at 7, 8, 9, and 11 weeks of age, namely 1, 0, 1, and 3 weeks after weaning, respectively, to assess volatile fatty acid concentrations and bacterial DNA. The 24-h mean ruminal pH was significantly (P < 0.05 different between the two groups. Diurnal changes in the 1-h mean ruminal pH were observed throughout the study in the HAY group; however, they were not observed at 0 and 1 weeks after weaning in the CON group. Moreover, the HAY group had significantly (P < 0.05 higher proportions of acetate and butyrate and lower proportion of propionate, and significantly (P < 0.05 lower ruminal acetate-to-propionate ratios were observed in the CON group. The ruminal bacterial diversity indices decreased after -1 week in both groups and increased at 0 and 1 weeks after weaning in the HAY and CON groups, respectively. From the 454 pyrosequencing analysis, significant differences (P < 0.05 were observed in the relative abundance of several phyla (Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Tenericutes and one genus (Prevotella between the two groups. From quantitative real-time PCR analysis, the HAY group had the higher copy numbers of cellulolytic bacteria (Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Ruminococcus albus compared with the CON group. This study demonstrated that feeding of dietary forage alleviates subacute ruminal acidosis due to diurnal changes in ruminal pH. Furthermore, changes in ruminal pH affect the ruminal bacterial diversity and relative

  18. Holstein-Friesian calves selected for divergence in residual feed intake during growth exhibited significant but reduced residual feed intake divergence in their first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, K A; Pryce, J E; Spelman, R J; Davis, S R; Wales, W J; Waghorn, G C; Williams, Y J; Marett, L C; Hayes, B J

    2014-03-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), as a measure of feed conversion during growth, was estimated for around 2,000 growing Holstein-Friesian heifer calves aged 6 to 9 mo in New Zealand and Australia, and individuals from the most and least efficient deciles (low and high RFI phenotypes) were retained. These animals (78 New Zealand cows, 105 Australian cows) were reevaluated during their first lactation to determine if divergence for RFI observed during growth was maintained during lactation. Mean daily body weight (BW) gain during assessment as calves had been 0.86 and 1.15 kg for the respective countries, and the divergence in RFI between most and least efficient deciles for growth was 21% (1.39 and 1.42 kg of dry matter, for New Zealand and Australia, respectively). At the commencement of evaluation during lactation, the cows were aged 26 to 29 mo. All were fed alfalfa and grass cubes; it was the sole diet in New Zealand, whereas 6 kg of crushed wheat/d was also fed in Australia. Measurements of RFI during lactation occurred for 34 to 37 d with measurements of milk production (daily), milk composition (2 to 3 times per week), BW and BW change (1 to 3 times per week), as well as body condition score (BCS). Daily milk production averaged 13.8 kg for New Zealand cows and 20.0 kg in Australia. No statistically significant differences were observed between calf RFI decile groups for dry matter intake, milk production, BW change, or BCS; however a significant difference was noted between groups for lactating RFI. Residual feed intake was about 3% lower for lactating cows identified as most efficient as growing calves, and no negative effects on production were observed. These results support the hypothesis that calves divergent for RFI during growth are also divergent for RFI when lactating. The causes for this reduced divergence need to be investigated to ensure that genetic selection programs based on low RFI (better efficiency) are robust. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy

  19. Effect of prepubertal and postpubertal growth and age at first calving on production and reproduction traits during the first 3 lactations in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Vacek, M; Stípková, M; Stádník, L; Crump, P

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), average daily weight gain (ADG), and age at first calving (AFC) of Holstein heifers on production and reproduction parameters in the 3 subsequent lactations. The data set consisted of 780 Holstein heifers calved at 2 dairy farms in the Czech Republic from 2007 to 2011. Their BW and BCS were measured at monthly intervals during the rearing period (5 to 18 mo of age), and the milk production and reproduction data of the first 3 lactations were collected over an 8-yr period (2005 to 2012). The highest milk yield in the first lactation was found in the group with medium ADG (5 to 14 mo of age; 0.949 to 0.850 kg of ADG). The highest average milk yield over lifetime performance was detected in heifers with the highest total ADG (≥ 0.950 kg/d). The difference in milk yield between the evaluated groups of highest ADG (in total and postpubertal growth ≥ 0.950 kg/d and in prepubertal growth ≥ 0.970 kg/d) and the lowest ADG (≤ 0.849 kg/d) was approximately 1,000 kg/305 d per cow. The highest milk yield in the first lactation was found in the group with the highest AFC ≥ 751 d, for which fat and protein content in the milk was not reduced. Postpubertal growth (11 to 14 mo of age) had the greatest effect on AFC. The group with lowest AFC ≤ 699 d showed a negative effect on milk yield but only in the first 100 d of the first parity. The highest ADG was detrimental to reproduction parameters in the first lactation. The highest BW at 14 mo (≥ 420 kg) led to lower AFC. Groups according to BCS at 14 mo showed no differences in AFC or milk yield in the first lactation or lifetime average production per lactation. We concluded that low AFC ≤ 699 d did not show a negative effect on subsequent production and reproduction parameters. Therefore, a shorter rearing period is recommended for dairy herds with suitable management. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science

  20. Idade ao primeiro parto e intervalo de partos de cinco grupos genéticos Holandês x Gir no Brasil Age at first calving and calving interval of five Holstein x Gir genetic groups in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivardo Facó

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Tendo em vista a grande importância dos bovinos mestiços Holandês x Gir (H x G nos sistemas de produção de leite no Brasil e a íntima relação entre a reprodução e a produtividade destes sistemas, foram obtidos registros de partos e datas de nascimento junto à Associação Brasileira dos Criadores de Girolando, no intuito de avaliar o desempenho reprodutivo de vários grupos genéticos HxG. Os dados, num total de 2.600 registros de idade ao primeiro parto (IPP e 3.763 de intervalos de partos (IDP, foram analisados por meio do procedimento GLM do pacote estatístico SAS (1999. As comparações do desempenho dos grupos genéticos foram feitas por meio de modelos classificatórios incluindo o efeito de grupo genético. Foram feitas estimativas dos efeitos genéticos, isto é, da diferença aditiva entre Holandês e Gir, do efeito de dominância e do efeito epistático aditivo x aditivo, utilizando-se modelos de regressão. O grupo meio-sangue apresentou desempenho superior, ou seja, menores IPP e IDP. Foi observada tendência de elevação do IDP com o aumento da proporção de genes da raça Holandesa. O efeito de dominância influenciou significativamente as duas características estudadas, enquanto o efeito de interação epistática do tipo aditivo x aditivo influenciou significativamente apenas a IPP. Os resultados indicaram que a perda de interações epistáticas favoráveis contribuiu para a alta IPP no grupo 5/8 Holandês.Reproduction efficiency of Holstein x Gir crossbred animals in Brazilian dairy farms were evaluated using data provided by the Brazilian Association of Girolando. A total of 2,600 records of age at first calving (IPP and 3,763 records of calving intervals (IDP were analyzed using the SAS® GLM procedure. Estimates of genetics effects: additive difference between Holstein and Gir breeds, dominance and additive x additive epistatic effects were obtained by regression models including genetic groups to model the

  1. The effect of concentrate feeding amount and feeding strategy on milk production, dry matter intake, and energy partitioning of autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, D C; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the milk production, dry matter intake, and energy partitioning of autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows offered a high or low amount of concentrate using 1 of 2 feeding strategies. One hundred and eight autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows were blocked based on milk production data from wk 3 and 4 of lactation, and were divided into low-, medium-, and high-milk yield subgroups. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (n=27) in a 2×2 factorial design. Treatment factors were concentrate feeding amount, high concentrate=7.0 (Hi) or low concentrate=4.0kg of DM/cow per day (Lo), and concentrate feeding strategy, flat rate (FR) or group-fed to yield (GFY). In the GFY treatments, cows were allocated concentrate based on their milk yield in the third and fourth weeks of lactation. The lowest-yielding cows (n=9) received 5.3 and 2.3kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments respectively, the highest-yielding cows (n=9) received 8.7 and 5.7kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments respectively, and the average yield cows received the same amount of concentrate as the corresponding FR group (i.e., 7.0 and 4.0kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments, respectively). The proportion of forage in the diet was 63% of total dry matter intake (TDMI) for the Hi treatment and 75% of TDMI for the Lo treatment. No significant interaction was noted between concentrate feeding amount and concentrate feeding strategy for dry matter intake or milk yield. Cows on the Hi treatment had a higher TDMI (18.7±0.36kg/cow per day) compared with cows on the Lo treatment (15.8±0.36kg/cow per day). The milk yield of cows offered the Hi treatment was 1.3kg/cow per day higher than the milk yield of cows on the Lo treatment (23.8±0.31kg/cow per day). Milk solids yield was 0.10kg/cow per day higher on the Hi treatment than on the Lo treatment (1.83±0.03kg of DM/cow per day). Cows on the Hi treatment had an estimated net

  2. Effect of adding herbs (Ziziphora clinopodioides, Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium in milk on performance, blood metabolites and fecal microbial population on Holstein calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    narges ghahhari

    2016-08-01

    chemical composition of plants used for food such as dry matter, crude protein and ether extracts, from conventional laboratory methods AOAC (2005 were used. sixteen Holstein calves with mean of 42.18± 0.71 Kg birth weight, aged 5± 3 day allocated to treats: 1 control (milk without additive, 2 milk contains powder Ziziphora clinipodioides, 3 milk contains powder Mentha spicata, 4 milk contains powder Mentha pulegium. The herbs added to milk in each treatment was 20 g daily. Duration the experimental period was 25 days. Dry matter intake, water intake and fecal score measured daily. Body weight monitored every 5 days, and blood sampling conducted twice, once one day before the start of the period (day zero and once final day. Samples for culture prepared in three phases beginning, middle and end of the period. Results and Discussion The major component in Ziziphora clinopodioies was pulegone (38.34%, major component in Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium was carvone (61.93% and piperitone oxide (43.09%, respectively. The dry matter of three plant, Ziziphora clinopodioies, Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium were 92.70, 93.25 and 94.01, crude protein were 8.57, 20.47 and 17.32, and also ether extracts were 3.20, 2.15 and 2.50 percent, respectively. Based on the obtained results, adding of Mentha pulegium to milk reduces dry matter intake during starter period and total dry matter intake in treatment Ziziphora clinopodioides was significantly higher than treatment control. Calves treated with Ziziphora clinopodioides, Mentha pulegium and Mentha spicata consumed statistically more water than control group. Dry matter digestibility significantly decreased in treatments Ziziphora clinopodioides and Menthe spicata compared to control. Daily gain, feed conversion ratio, blood parameter and immune respones were not affected by treatment trials. There were no significant differences between treatments for fecal score and day of diarrhea. Ziziphora clinopodioies, Mentha spicata and

  3. Produção de vitelos a partir de bezerros leiteiros mestiços e da raça Holandesa Veal production from crossbred and Holstein dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Roma Júnior

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi avaliado o desempenho produtivo de nove animais jovens Zebu × Holandês em comparação a nove animais da raça Holandesa para produção de vitelos. Todos os animais foram mantidos em condições idênticas de ambiente, manejo e alimentação, com acompanhamento individual da ingestão de matéria seca. As medidas de avaliação do desenvolvimento animal, conversão e eficiência alimentar possibilitaram comparações entre os tratamentos, a partir de delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os bezerros Zebu × Holandês apresentaram maior ganho de perímetro torácico (23,3 cm e ganho de peso diário (1,45 kg, além de conversão alimentar (2,77 kg de MS/kg de peso corporal, se comparados aos bezerros da raça Holandesa, com, respectivamente, 18,5 cm de perímetro torácico, 1,16 kg de ganho de peso diário e conversão alimentar de 3,48 kg de MS/kg de peso corporal. Não houve diferença na ingestão de matéria seca entre os animais avaliados. Quanto ao estudo econômico da produção de carne de vitelo, os animais mestiços apresentaram o menor custo de produção por quilo de carne produzida e, conseqüentemente, o melhor potencial de produção de vitelos a partir de animais Zebu × Holandês, como atividade complementar à produção de leite.In this study, it was evaluated the productive performance of nine Zebu × Holstein crossbred calves in comparison with nine Holsteins calves for veal production. All animals were maintained in the similar environmental conditions, management and feeding, with individual measurement of dry matter intake. The evaluation measurements of the development of animal, as feed conversion ratio make possible to compare between the treatments, using a completely randomized design. The Zebu × Holstein calves showed higher values of hearth girth growth (23.3 cm and average weight gain (1.45 kg, and also better feed conversion ratio (2.77 kg DM/kg BW, as compared to Holstein calves with 18

  4. A small scale study on the effects of oral administration of the β-glucan produced by Aureobasidium pullulans on milk quality and cytokine expressions of Holstein cows, and on bacterial flora in the intestines of Japanese black calves

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    Uchiyama Hirofumi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The β–(1 → 3,(1 → 6-D-glucan extracellularly produced by Aureobasidium pullulans exhibits immunomodulatory activity, and is used for health supplements. To examine the effects of oral administration of the β–(1 → 3,(1 → 6-D-glucan to domestic animals, a small scale study was conducted using Holstein cows and newborn Japanese Black calves. Findings Holstein cows of which somatic cell count was less than 3 x 105/ml were orally administered with or without the β-(1 → 3,(1 → 6-D-glucan-enriched A. pullulans cultured fluid (AP-CF for 3 months, and the properties of milk and serum cytokine expression were monitored. Somatic cell counts were not significantly changed by oral administration of AP-CF, whereas the concentration of solid non fat in the milk tended to increase in the AP-CF administered cows. The results of cytokine expression analysis in the serum using ELISA indicate that the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-6 in all cows which were orally administered with AP-CF became slightly lower than that of control cows after the two-month treatment. On the other hand, IL-8 expression tended to indicate a moderately higher level in all treated cows after the three-month administration of AP-CF in comparison with that of the control cows. Peripartum Japanese Black beef cows and their newborn calves were orally administered with AP-CF, and bacterial flora in the intestines of the calves were analyzed by T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. The results suggest that bacterial flora are tendentiously changed by oral administration of AP-CF. Conclusions Our data indicated the possibility that oral administration of the β–(1 → 3,(1 → 6-D- glucan produced by A. pullulans affects cytokine expressions in the serum of Holstein cows, and influences bacterial flora in the intestines of Japanese Black calves. The findings may be

  5. A small scale study on the effects of oral administration of the β-glucan produced by Aureobasidium pullulans on milk quality and cytokine expressions of Holstein cows, and on bacterial flora in the intestines of Japanese black calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Hirofumi; Iwai, Atsushi; Asada, Yukoh; Muramatsu, Daisuke; Aoki, Shiho; Kawata, Koji; Kusano, Kisato; Nagashima, Koji; Yasokawa, Daisuke; Okabe, Mitsuyasu; Miyazaki, Tadaaki

    2012-06-19

    The β-(1 → 3),(1 → 6)-D-glucan extracellularly produced by Aureobasidium pullulans exhibits immunomodulatory activity, and is used for health supplements. To examine the effects of oral administration of the β-(1 → 3),(1 → 6)-D-glucan to domestic animals, a small scale study was conducted using Holstein cows and newborn Japanese Black calves. Holstein cows of which somatic cell count was less than 3 x 10⁵/ml were orally administered with or without the β-(1 → 3),(1 → 6)-D-glucan-enriched A. pullulans cultured fluid (AP-CF) for 3 months, and the properties of milk and serum cytokine expression were monitored. Somatic cell counts were not significantly changed by oral administration of AP-CF, whereas the concentration of solid non fat in the milk tended to increase in the AP-CF administered cows. The results of cytokine expression analysis in the serum using ELISA indicate that the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6 in all cows which were orally administered with AP-CF became slightly lower than that of control cows after the two-month treatment. On the other hand, IL-8 expression tended to indicate a moderately higher level in all treated cows after the three-month administration of AP-CF in comparison with that of the control cows. Peripartum Japanese Black beef cows and their newborn calves were orally administered with AP-CF, and bacterial flora in the intestines of the calves were analyzed by T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism). The results suggest that bacterial flora are tendentiously changed by oral administration of AP-CF. Our data indicated the possibility that oral administration of the β-(1 → 3),(1 → 6)-D- glucan produced by A. pullulans affects cytokine expressions in the serum of Holstein cows, and influences bacterial flora in the intestines of Japanese Black calves. The findings may be helpful for further study on the efficacies of oral

  6. Avaliação ecocardiográfica em bezerros da raça Holandesa Echocardiographic evaluation in Holstein calves

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    Lilian E.S. Michima

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estabelecer valores de medidas ecocardiográficas em bezerros da raça Holandesa, utilizaram-se 25 animais, com idade entre 8 e 28 dias e peso entre 27 e 57 kg. Procedeu-se o exame ecocardiográfico em modo-B e modo-M para a obtenção dos valores médios dos seguintes parâmetros, em diástole e sístole, respectivamente: diâmetros internos dos ventrículos direito (2,05±0,13cm e 1,59±0,13cm e esquerdo (3,91±0,09cm e 2,52±0,13cm, espessuras do septo interventricular (1,24±0,04cm e 1,62±0,06cm e da parede livre do ventrículo esquerdo (0,92±0,04cm e 1,50±0,05cm. Obtiveram-se ainda valores do diâmetro dos átrios direito e esquerdo em sístole (2,97±0,12cm e 4,11±0,21cm, respectivamente, dos volumes diastólico (67,90±3,65ml, sistólico (25,32±3,05ml e de ejeção (42,58±2,46ml do ventrículo esquerdo, do débito cardíaco (3857±339ml/min, do diâmetro aórtico (2,52±0,05cm, da distância entre o ponto de maior abertura do folheto anterior da valva atrioventricular esquerda até o septo interventricular (0,65±0,08cm e tempo de ejeção (0,39±0,02s, das frações de encurtamento (36,27±2,40% e de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (64,67±3,22%. Houve média correlação linear positiva (66,4%, PWith the purpose of establishing echocardiographic measurements in Holstein calves, 25 calves, 8 to 28 days of age and body weight ranging from 27 to 57 kg, were used. The echocardiographic examination was proceeded in B and M-modes to obtain the following parameters, in diastole and systole: right ventricle (2.05±0.13cm and 1.59±0.13cm and left ventricle internal diameter (3.91±0.09cm and 2.52±0.13cm, and interventricular septum (1.24±0.04cm and 1.62±0.06cm and left ventricle free wall thickness (0.92±0.04cm and 1.50±0.05cm. The values for both left and right atria in systole were 2.97±0.12cm and 4.110.21cm, respectively. The left diastolic (67.90±3.65ml, systolic (25.32±3.05ml and ejection (42.58±2.46ml

  7. Improving genetic evaluation using a multitrait single-step genomic model for ability to resume cycling after calving, measured by activity tags in Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismael, Ahmed; Løvendahl, Peter; Fogh, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the improvement of the accuracy of estimated breeding values for ability to recycle after calving by using information of genomic markers and phenotypic information of correlated traits. The traits in this study were the interval from calving to first...... insemination (CFI), based on artificial insemination data, and the interval from calving to first high activity (CFHA), recorded from activity tags, which could better measure ability to recycle after caving. The phenotypic data set included 1,472,313 records from 820,218 cows for CFI, and 36,504 records from...... 25,733 cows for CFHA. The genomic information was available for 3,159 progeny-tested sires, which were genotyped using Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (Illumina, San Diego, CA). Heritability estimates were 0.06 for the interval from calving to first insemination and 0.14 for the interval from calving...

  8. Danish holsteins favor bull offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model and contr......In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model...... and contrary to the findings in the US, we found that cows produced higher volumes of milk if they had a bull calf compared to a heifer calf. We found a significantly higher milk production of 0.28% in the first lactation period for cows giving birth to a bull calf, compared to a heifer calf. This difference...... was even higher when cows gave birth to another bull calf, so having two bull calves resulted in a difference of 0.52% in milk production compared to any other combination of sex of the offspring. Furthermore, we found that farmer assisted calvings were associated with a higher milk yield. Cows...

  9. Influência da forma de administração e da quantidade fornecida de colostro sobre a concentração de proteína total e de suas frações eletroforéticas no soro sangüíneo de bezerros da raça Holandesa Influence of volume and method of administration of colostrum on total protein and eletrophoretic serum fractions in Holstein calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Borges

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the amount of colostrum (two and four liters and methods of colostrum feeding (direct suckling from the cow, feeding colostrum using nipple bottle, and no feeding colostrum on different blood traits. Thirty two Holstein calves (four groups of eight animals each were randomly allotted to four treatments: treatment 1 - calves were hand fed four liters of colostrum; treatment 2 - calves were hand fed two liters of colostrum; treatment 3 - calves were fed colostrum directly from the cow, and treatment 4 - calves were not fed colostrum. Higher values of total serum protein, betaglobulins and gamaglobulins were observed in the calves after 24 hours of colostrum feeding. No differences among animals fed colostrum directly from the cow and hand fed two or four liters of colostrum were observed for total protein and eletrophoretic fractions. However lower values of total and eletrophoretic fractions were observed for calves that were not fed colostrum.

  10. Feeding of waste milk to Holstein calves affects antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli and Pasteurella multocida isolated from fecal and nasal swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynou, G; Bach, A; Terré, M

    2017-04-01

    The use of milk containing antimicrobial residues in calf feeding programs has been shown to select for resistant fecal Escherichia coli in dairy calves. However, information is scarce about the effects of feeding calves waste milk (WM) on the prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of fecal E. coli and nasal Pasteurella multocida isolates from calves fed either milk replacer (MR) or WM in 8 commercial dairy farms (4 farms per feeding program). Fecal and nasal swabs were collected from 20 ± 5 dairy calves at 42 ± 3.2 d of age, and from 10 of these at approximately 1 yr of age in each study farm to isolate the targeted bacteria. Furthermore, resistance of E. coli isolates from calf-environment and from 5 calves at birth and their dams was also evaluated in each study farm. Resistances were tested against the following antimicrobial agents: amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, colistin, doxycycline (DO), enrofloxacin (ENR), erythromycin, florfenicol, imipenem, and streptomycin. A greater number of fecal E. coli resistant to ENR, florfenicol, and streptomycin and more multidrug-resistant E. coli phenotypes were isolated in feces of calves fed WM than in those fed MR. However, the prevalence of fecal-resistant E. coli was also influenced by calf age, as it increased from birth to 6 wk of age for ENR and DO and decreased from 6 wk to 1 yr of age for DO regardless of the feeding program. From nasal samples, an increase in the prevalence of colistin-resistant P. multocida was observed in calves fed WM compared with those fed MR. The resistance patterns of E. coli isolates from calves and their dams tended to differ, whereas similar resistance profiles among E. coli isolates from farm environment and calves were observed. The findings of this study suggest that feeding calves WM fosters the presence of resistant bacteria in the lower gut and respiratory tracts of dairy calves

  11. Effects of different forage sources as a free-choice provision on the performance, nutrient digestibility, selected blood metabolites and structural growth of Holstein dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, B; Foroozandeh, A D; Shakeri, P

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different forage sources on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood metabolites of dairy calves. Individually housed calves (n = 40; body weight = 41.2 ± 3.5 kg) were randomly allocated (n = 10 calves per treatment: five males and five females) to one of the following four treatments: (i) starter without forage provision (CON), (ii) starter plus chopped alfalfa hay (AH), (iii) starter plus chopped wheat straw (WS) and 4) starter plus dried sugar beet pulp (BP) flakes. Calves fed AH diets had lowest (p Forage intake was greatest (p forage treatments. Final body weight was greatest (p forage-offered calves than CON one. Body measurements (with the exception of body barrel) did not differ across treatments. It was concluded that BP improves final body weight, ADG and nutrient digestibility of calves than starter without forage provision during weaning transition. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Whole-milk feeding duration, calf growth, and profitability of group-fed calves in an organic production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, E A; Heins, B J; Chester-Jones, H

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of early-life feeding duration on growth and economics of group-fed organic dairy calves. Heifer calves born during the spring of 2011 (n = 67) and the spring of 2012 (n = 57) were used to evaluate the effect of weaning age, growth, and profitability of group-fed calves fed once per day in an organic dairy production system. Calves were assigned to replicate feeding groups of 10 in super hutches by birth order, and were born at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center, Morris organic dairy. Breed groups were Holsteins (n = 15) selected for high production, Holsteins (n = 23) maintained at 1964 breed-average level, crossbreds (n = 54) including combinations of Holstein, Montbéliarde, and Swedish Red, and crossbreds (n = 32) including combinations of Holstein, New Zealand Friesian, Jersey, and Swedish Red. Groups of calves were weaned at 30 (EW, early weaning), 60 (MW, mid weaning), or 90 (LW, late weaning) d of age, and groups were fed 1.5% of birth weight of 13% total solids organic whole milk once daily and weaned when the group of 10 calves consumed an average of 0.91 kg of organic calf starter per calf per day for 4 consecutive days. Body measurements were recorded at birth, weekly during the preweaning period, at weaning, and monthly thereafter. Profitability was estimated as a function of the total cost for organic milk and organic calf starter for weaning groups to weaning and to the first 90 d of age. Preweaning group performance was weaning age, EW: 47.6d, MW: 64.5d, LW: 93.7d; weaning weight, EW: 61.8 kg, MW: 79.2 kg, LW: 108.1 kg; and gain per day, EW: 0.51 kg/d, MW: 0.63 kg/d, LW: 0.75 kg/d. Body weight (BW) did not differ among weaning groups at 90 d of age; however, MW calves had lower 120-d BW than did LW calves. The EW calves did not differ from either MW or LW calves for 120-d BW. Total feed costs to weaning for groups were $1,092.97 for EW calves, $1,871.24 for MW

  13. Effects of a perennial ryegrass diet or total mixed ration diet offered to spring-calving Holstein-Friesian dairy cows on methane emissions, dry matter intake, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, B F; Deighton, M H; O'Loughlin, B M; Mulligan, F J; Boland, T M; O'Donovan, M; Lewis, E

    2011-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the enteric methane (CH4) emissions and milk production of spring-calving Holstein-Friesian cows offered either a grazed perennial ryegrass diet or a total mixed ration (TMR) diet for 10 wk in early lactation. Forty-eight spring-calving Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 nutritional treatments for 10 wk: 1) grass or 2) TMR. The grass group received an allocation of 17 kg of dry matter (DM) of grass per cow per day with a pre-grazing herbage mass of 1,492 kg of DM/ha. The TMR offered per cow per day was composed of maize silage (7.5 kg of DM), concentrate blend (8.6 kg of DM), grass silage (3.5 kg of DM), molasses (0.7 kg of DM), and straw (0.5 kg of DM). Daily CH4 emissions were determined via the emissions from ruminants using a calibrated tracer technique for 5 consecutive days during wk 4 and 10 of the study. Simultaneously, herbage dry matter intake (DMI) for the grass group was estimated using the n-alkane technique, whereas DMI for the TMR group was recorded using the Griffith Elder feeding system. Cows offered TMR had higher milk yield (29.5 vs. 21.1 kg/d), solids-corrected milk yield (27.7 vs. 20.1 kg/d), fat and protein (FP) yield (2.09 vs. 1.54 kg/d), bodyweight change (0.54 kg of gain/d vs. 0.37 kg of loss/d), and body condition score change (0.36 unit gain vs. 0.33 unit loss) than did the grass group over the course of the 10-wk study. Methane emissions were higher for the TMR group than the grass group (397 vs. 251 g/cow per day). The TMR group also emitted more CH4 per kg of FP (200 vs. 174 g/kg of FP) than did the grass group. They also emitted more CH4 per kg of DMI (20.28 vs. 18.06 g/kg of DMI) than did the grass group. In this study, spring-calving cows, consuming a high quality perennial ryegrass diet in the spring, produced less enteric CH4 emissions per cow, per unit of intake, and per unit of FP than did cows offered a standard TMR diet. Copyright © 2011 American

  14. Proteinograma sérico de bezerros recém-nascidos da raça Holandesa obtido por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida Serum protein concentration in newborn Holstein calves determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Fagliari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The serum protein concentration of newborn Holstein calves determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide (SDS-PAGE was studied. Blood samples from 40 healthy newborn calves were obtained 48 hours after birth. Calves had been given 3 liters of colostrum within 2 hours after birth, following by dose corresponding by 15% of animal weight each 24 hours. The results showed three different proteinograms: 19 calves had 14 proteins with molecular weights (MW ranging from 28,000 D to 170,000D (proteinogram 1; 11 calves had 14 proteins with MW ranging from 18,000 to 170,000 D (proteinogram 1; and 10 calves had 12 proteins with MW ranging from 28,000 D to 170,000 D (proteinogram 3. The three groups presented similar IgG levels. The highest serum concentration of ceruloplasmin were verified in proteinogram 3, which had the lowest serum level of protein with MW 58,000D. It was verified a1-antitrypsin only in proteinogram 2, which had no proteins with MW of 42,000 D and 37,000D. The highest serum concentrations of IgA and protein with MW 58,000 D, and the lowest serum levels of transferrin, haptoglobin, and acid glycoprotein were verified in proteinogram 3. Measurement of serum protein concentrations by SDS-PAGE may be useful in monitoring the occurrence of hypogammaglobulinemia and the neonatal disease in calves.

  15. Survival, lifetime production, and profitability of Normande × Holstein, Montbéliarde × Holstein, and Scandinavian Red × Holstein crossbreds versus pure Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heins, B J; Hansen, L B; De Vries, A

    2012-02-01

    Pure Holstein (HO) cows (n=416) were compared with Normande (NO) × HO (n=251), Montbéliarde (MO) × HO (n=503), and Scandinavian Red (SR) × HO (n=321) crossbred cows for survival, lifetime production, and profitability in 6 commercial herds in California. The SR crossbred cows were sired by both Swedish Red and Norwegian Red bulls. Cows calved from June 2002 to January 2009. For analysis of survival to subsequent calvings, lifetime production, and profitability, data were restricted to 3 of 6 herds because they had at least 20 cows in each of the breed groups. All cows had the opportunity to calve at least 4 times. Best prediction, which is used by USDA for national genetic evaluations in the United States, was used to determine lifetime production to 4 yr (1,461 d) in the herd after first calving from test-day observations. Production and survival were estimated after 4 yr to calculate lifetime profit. A profit function was defined to include revenues and expenses for milk, fat, protein, and other solids production; somatic cell count; reproduction; feed intake; calf value; salvage value; dead cow disposal; and fixed cost. The NO × HO (1.2%), MO × HO (2.0%), and SR × HO cows (1.6%) had significantly fewer deaths than did pure HO cows (5.3%) during the first 305 d of first lactation. All crossbred groups had significantly more cows that calved a second, third, and fourth time, and had mean survival that was 300 to 400 d longer than did pure HO cows. The NO × HO, MO × HO, and SR × HO cows had significantly higher lifetime fat plus protein production than did pure HO cows up to 1,461 d after first calving. For profitability (ignoring possible differences in health costs), NO × HO cows had 26% greater projected lifetime profit per cow, but 6.7% less profit per cow-day, than did pure HO cows. On the other hand, MO × HO and SR × HO cows had 50 to 44%, respectively, more projected lifetime profit per cow and 5.3 to 3.6%, respectively, more projected profit

  16. Effect of castration and slaughter age on performance, carcass, and meat quality traits of Holstein calves fed a high-concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, S; Realini, C E; Bach, A; Pérez-Juan, M; Devant, M

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of castration and slaughter age on performance and meat quality of Holstein bulls fed a high-concentrate diet. A total of 132 animals (116 ± 3.7 kg of BW and 97 ± 2.4 d of age) were randomly allocated in 6 pens using a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Three castration ages [bulls, animals castrated at 3 mo (CAS3), and animals castrated at 8 mo of age (CAS8)] and 3 slaughter ages (10, 12, and 14 mo of age) were evaluated. Feed intake was recorded daily using a computerized concentrate feeder, and BW was recorded every 14 d. The 9th to 11th rib section was removed at 24 h postmortem and dissected into lean, fat, and bone, and meat quality was evaluated on the LM. Castration, at 3 or 8 mo of age, reduced (P slaughter age increased, concentrate consumption increased linearly (P Slaughter age also affected (P slaughter ages were also observed in carcass conformation (P slaughter age, and slaughter age affects performance and meat pH independently of castration. However, in Holstein animals, castration affects several characteristics related to fat deposition differently depending on slaughter age, such as carcass fat cover and intramuscular, intermuscular, and subcutaneous fat.

  17. Effects of human handling during early rearing on the behaviour of dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schütz, K.E.; Hawke, M.L.; Waas, J.R.; McLeay, L.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Reenen, van C.G.; Webster, J.R.; Stewart, M.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of daily positive or negative human handling on the behaviour of Holstein-Friesian dairy calves (n = 20 calves per treatment, five calves per group). The response to humans and indicators of positive emotions were examined at four weeks of age. Calves that received positive

  18. Decoquinate, lasalocid and monensin for starter feeds and the performance of holstein calves to 20 weeks of age Decoquinato, lasalocida e monensina em concentrado inicial e desempenho de bezerros holandeses até 20 semanas de idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maris Bittar Nussio

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The large utilization of coccidiostats in dairy herds has raised the question regards the best product to use, based on better animal performance. Sixty-four Holstein calves were randomly assigned to four treatments at 10 (±4 d of age to evaluate calf performance when fed approved coccidiostats available on the market in Arizona, USA. Calves received a dry calf starter without (control or with one of the following coccidiostats: lasalocid, 30 mg kg-1; decoquinate, 19 mg kg-1; and monensin, 30 mg kg-1. Calves received 3.6 kg d-1 of a commercial 22% CP:20% fat milk replacer until 6 wk of age. Calves were offered starter "ad libitum" up to 2 kg d-1, and calves had free access to water throughout the trial. Alfalfa hay was offered "ad libitum" after weaning. Performance and dry matter intake (DMI were monitored for 20 weeks and broken down in different periods of measurement (0-6, 7-12 and 13-20 weeks, respectively. Despite the lower dry matter intake and weight gain for females on monensin treatment during the whole period, differences among coccidiostats were seldom observed under the conditions of this study. Good calf management and the dry, hot climate of Arizona perhaps diminished the chances for subclinical and chronic disease appearance which negated potential differences and differences in calf performances.A larga utilização de coccidiostaticos em rebanhos leiteiros tem levantado questões relacionadas à escolha do melhor produto baseada no suposto melhor desempenho de bezerros leiteiros. Este trabalho avaliou o desempenho de bezerros leiteiros recebendo 3 diferentes coccidiostaticos em fazenda no estado do Arizona, EUA. Sessenta e quatro bezerros holandêses foram distribuidos ao acaso em quatro tratamentos com 10 ± 4 dias de vida. Os bezerros receberam concentrado inicial sem (controle ou com a adição de um dos seguintes coccidiostáticos: lasalocida, 30 mg kg-1; decoquinato, 19 mg kg-1; e monensina, 30 mg kg-1. Os bezerros

  19. Serum proteins variation in Nelore and Holstein calves from birth to six monthsVariação de proteínas séricas em bezerros das raças nelore e holandesa do nascimento até os seis meses de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilon Vidotto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that Nelore calves’ active production of immunoglobulins is delayed compared to Canchim and Limousin calves, characterizing a possible physiologic difference between taurine and Zebu calves. In this study we compared serum proteins of Nelore and Holstein calves from birth to six months old. Blood samples were taken from 50 healthy calves (30 Nelore and 20 Holstein in the following ages: 24 to 36 hours of life, and 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days. Serum total protein concentrations were measured by colorimetry; albumin, alfa, beta and gammaglobulin concentrations were measured by agarose gel electrophoresis; and IgG concentrations were estimated by the zinc sulphate turbidity test. A repeated measure ANOVA was used to test age effect. The passive transfer of immunity was successful in both breeds and the variation of serum proteins followed the normal pattern throughout the first six months of life. There were breed differences in serum gammaglobulin concentrations. The levels of gammaglobulin were higher at the end of the first day of life, and decreased to the lowest levels at 60 days in Nelore calves and 30 days in Holstein calves. The increase due to the active production of antibodies was precocious in Holstein calves (beginning at 60 days and slower in Nelore calves (beginning at 90 days, demonstrating that Zebu calves can, in fact, develop active immunity capability later than taurine calves.Estudos anteriores comprovaram que a produção ativa de imunoglobulinas é mais tardia em bezerros Nelore do que nos das raças Canchim ou Limousin, caracterizando possível diferença fisiológica entre zebuínos e taurinos. Esse trabalho tem o objetivo de comparar o proteinograma sérico de bezerros Nelore e Holandeses até os seis meses de vida. Amostras de sangue foram colhidas de 50 bezerros aparentemente sadios, 30 da raça Nelore e 20 da raça Holandesa, entre 24 e 36 horas de vida e aos 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150

  20. Importance of calving diseases and risk factors on milk production of Holsteins cowsImportância das desordens do periparto e seus fatores de risco sobre a produção de leite de vacas Holandesas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Dagher Cassoli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This correlational study investigated the effects of the peripartum health disorders and your respective risk factors about the milk production, in the peak and to the 305 days in lactation. Holsteins cows (n = 522 of a commercial herd of the State of São Paulo, had your health and nutritional status accompanied since the beginning of the period pre-calving to the end of the lactation. Occurrence of diseases, score of body condition (at the dry off and calving, daily milk productions and milk compositions, were recorded. For statistical analysis of the data, the logistics regression and the analysis of multiple regression were used. The obtained results demonstrated that the diseases of the peripartum and your risk factors affected the milk production with different effects in function of the lactation numbers, demanding this way, larger care with the prophylactic measures to avoid the diseases, and to maximize the production of milk and the reproduction of the animals.Este estudo correlacional investigou os efeitos das ocorrências sanitárias do periparto e seus respectivos fatores de risco sobre a produção de leite, no pico e aos 305 dias em lactação. Vacas Holandesas (n = 522 de um rebanho comercial do Estado de São Paulo tiveram seu desempenho sanitário e nutricional acompanhados desde o início do período pré-parto até o final da lactação. A ocorrência de doenças, os escores de condição corporal (no pré-parto e parto, as produções de leite e as composições do leite foram registradas. Para análise estatística dos dados, foram utilizadas a regressão logística e a análise de regressão múltipla. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que as doenças do periparto e seus fatores de risco afetaram a produção de leite com efeitos diferentes em função do número de lactações, exigindo desta maneira maior cuidado com adoção de medidas profiláticas para se evitar as doenças e maximizar a produção de leite dos

  1. Calving Interval Covariance Structures for dairy breeds in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OlivierR

    Calving interval genetic parameters and trends for dairy breeds in South Africa ... negative effects that selection for production have on fertility. CI can be ..... health disorders and measures of fertility in Holstein Friesian dairy cattle. Anim. Sci.

  2. Short communication: Calving site selection of multiparous, group-housed dairy cows is influenced by site of a previous calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Nielsen, B.L.; Herskin, Mette S.

    2017-01-01

    A calving cow and her newborn calf appear to have an attracting effect on periparturient cows, which may potentially influence the functionality of future motivation-based calving pen designs. In this pilot study we examined whether calving site selection of group-housed Holstein dairy cows...... was affected by the site of a previous calving. Ten multiparous cows moved to 1 of 2 group pens 11 (range = 4–27) d before calving were included. Each pen consisted of an open area (9 × 9 m) connected to 6 secluded areas (4.5 × 3 m each), where cows could move freely between all areas. Time of calving......, location of the breaking of the amniotic sac, as well as the place of birth were recorded. In all but 1 case cows calved within a distance of 1 cow length from where the previous calving took place, suggesting that the cows did not select calving site at random. These preliminary observations indicate...

  3. Clinical mastitis from calving to next conception negatively affected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of clinical mastitis between calving and next conception on reproductive performance in Chinese Holstein cows. Six hundred and three multiparous Holstein cows from a commercial dairy farm were divided into three groups respectively: cows with first clinical mastitis ...

  4. Gastrointestinal development of dairy calves fed low- or high-starch concentrate at two milk allowances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiorowska, Anna Katarzyna; Puggaard, Liselotte; Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to study the effect of type of concentrate with varying starch and fibre content on growth and gastrointestinal development in preweaned dairy calves. Thirty-two newborn Danish Holstein male calves were allocated to four treatment groups in eight blocks of four calves. An experi...

  5. Early inflammation disorder in neonatal calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present study, 30 Holstein calves were acquired at birth and were randomly subjected to one of six treatments. One treatment group was colostrum deprived (CD) and five other treatment groups were fed colostrum replacer (CR). Of the five CR groups, one group was not further supplemented (CR), ...

  6. Genetic analysis of calf and heifer losses in Danish Holstein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuerst-Walti, B; Sørensen, Morten Kargo

    2010-01-01

    calving was higher than the stillbirth rate. Genetic and phenotypic variation seemed to be sufficiently high to genetically improve the trait calf and heifer mortality. Hence, a routine genetic evaluation would be valuable for monitoring and for selecting fitter animals in the Danish Holstein cattle......Mortality in dairy cattle is not only relevant with regard to economic losses but also to animal health and welfare. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to explore the genetic background of postnatal mortality in calves and replacement heifers in different age groups until first calving...... first calving or a maximum age of 1,200 d if no calving was reported, and the full period P5=d 1 until the day before first calving or a maximum age of 1,200 d if no calving was reported. Records of animals slaughtered or exported within a defined period were set to missing for this and following...

  7. Does temperament affect learning in calves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Laura E.; van Reenen, Cornelis G.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how temperament affects learning ability in calves. Nine two-month-old Holstein-Friesian bull calves were subjected to four challenge tests: novel object (NOT), novel environment (NET), social isolation (SIT), and social isolation with a novel environmental...... challenge tests, may affect learning an operant conditioning task in calves. Understanding how temperament affects learning in calves can help with the training of calves on novel automated feeding apparatuses or on novel feed components, and can thus help improve calf health and welfare....... cue (SI/E). During these tests, hypothesised temperament variables were recorded. Hypothesised learning variables were recorded during training on an operant task. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on temperament variables and learning variables separately. Principal components (PCs...

  8. Importance of calving diseases and risk factors on milk production of Holsteins cowsImportância das desordens do periparto e seus fatores de risco sobre a produção de leite de vacas Holandesas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laerte Dagher Cassoli; Arlei Coldebella; Paulo Fernando Machado; Carlos Humberto Corassin; Sergio Soriano

    2011-01-01

    This correlational study investigated the effects of the peripartum health disorders and your respective risk factors about the milk production, in the peak and to the 305 days in lactation. Holsteins cows (n = 522...

  9. Swedish Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borgvall, Jonathan; Lif, Patrik

    2005-01-01

    .... The military research work presented here includes the three military administrations, FOI -- Swedish Defence Research Agency, FMV -- Swedish Defence Materiel Administration, and SNDC -- Swedish...

  10. Short communication: Flooring preferences of dairy cows at calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the flooring preference during the 30 h before parturition in Holstein dairy cows housed individually in a maternity pen. Seventeen multiparous cows were moved, on average, 2 d before expected calving date into an individual maternity pen with 3 different flooring surfaces: 10 cm of sand, pebble-top rubber mats, or concrete flooring, each covered with 15 cm of straw. Calving location, lying time, and total time and number of lying bouts on each of the floor types were recorded during 2 periods: precalving (24 to 29 h before calving) and at calving (0 to 5h before calving). Ten cows calved on sand, 6 on concrete, and 1 on the rubber mat. Lying bouts increased during the hours closest to calving, regardless of flooring. The number of lying bouts did not differ between flooring types precalving but cows had more lying bouts on sand and concrete compared with rubber at calving. Cows spent more time lying down on sand and concrete compared with rubber precalving, but lying times did not differ between treatments at calving. Cows that calved on sand spent more time lying on sand at calving compared with the other 2 flooring types. Cows that calved on concrete did not show a flooring preference at calving. These results indicate that rubber mats are the least preferred by dairy cows in the maternity pens, even when covered with a deep layer of straw. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Monospecific nematode infections of donor calves with Cooperia punctata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, S E

    1995-11-01

    During a 25 year period, 48 calves from three states were raised helminth-free from birth and inoculated with Cooperia punctata. These calves served sequentially as donors of the parasite. The following aspects of the monospecific infection were of value in successful donor management and contributed to understanding the host-parasite relationship. Calves with no previous experience with C. punctata were the best hosts for establishing initial infections. Male Holstein calves were satisfactory donors of the parasite. Inoculation of calves 6-24 weeks of age with 10,000-11,200 infective third-stage larvae (L3) over a 2 day period produced the desired donors. Occasional over-feeding of calves appeared to reduce the patent period. Superimposed infection was more likely when calves were still patent from previous infection, whereas reinfection was less likely after patency of the earlier infection had ended. Strong immunity eventually developed following oral administration of L3.

  12. Seroprevalence fo Anaplasma marginale in dairy cattle and, studies on the dynamics of natural infection of Holstein calves in Southern Brazil/ Soroprevalência de Anaplasma marginale em bovinos leiteiros e estudos sobre a dinâmica da infecção natural em bezerros holandeses no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora S. Kano

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Sera of 708 animals (cows, heifers and calves from 13 dairy herds in the Londrina region of Paraná, Brazil, were tested for antibodies to Anaplasma marginale by a competitive ELISA assay (cELISA. Ten 2 to 20 days old Holstein calves, from one of the 13 herds studied, were monitored during one year. Blood samples from each calf were collected monthly and tick burden counting was performed every fortnight. Percentage of infected erythrocytes was established by Giemsa-stained smears, and sera samples were examined by cELISA to detect antibodies against A. marginale. In the 13 herds, 92.94% of the animals were seropositive to A. marginale, which indicates that Londrina is an area of enzootic stability. Among the three animal categories (cows, heifers and calves, the rates were 98.29%, 96.64% and 81.25%, respectively. Passive transfer of maternal antibodies to calves was demonstrated by cELISA. From ten calves, nine (90% were seropositive at the first sampling, revealing colostral antibodies anti-A . marginale. These antibodies remained in calves for 2 to 3 months. After this period the calves were infected with ticks, and then all of them were seropositive to Anaplasma. Five 4 to 7 months old calves showed rickettsemia ranging from 0.1% to 3.8%. Two of them were treated with tetracycline. The rickettsemia and clinical signs of anaplasmosis of these calves were coincident with tick burden increase.Soros de 708 animais (vacas, novilhas e bezerros oriundos de 13 propriedades leiteiras da região de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, foram testados para a presença de anticorpos contra Anaplasma marginale pelo teste ELISA competitivo (cELISA. Dez bezerros recém nascidos, pertencentes a um dos 13 rebanhos utilizados no levantamento sorológico, foram monitorados durante um ano. De cada bezerro foram colhidas amostras de sangue mensalmente e a cada quinze dias foi realizada a contagem de carrapatos. A porcentagem de eritrócitos parasitados foi

  13. Comparison of pure Holsteins to crossbred Holsteins with Norwegian Red cattle in first and second generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezra, E; Van Straten, M; Weller, J I

    2016-08-01

    A total of 1922 first generation crossbred cows born between 2005 and 2012 produced by inseminating purebred Israeli Holstein cows with Norwegian Red semen, and 7487 purebred Israeli Holstein cows of the same age in the same 50 herds were analyzed for production, calving traits, fertility, calving diseases, body condition score, abortion rate and survival under intensive commercial management conditions. Holstein cows were higher than crossbreds for 305-day milk, fat and protein production. Differences were 764, 1244, 1231 for kg milk; 23.4, 37.4, 35.6 for kg fat, and 16.7, 29.8, 29.8 for kg protein; for parities 1 through 3. Differences for fat concentration were not significant; while crossbred cows were higher for protein concentration by 0.06% to 0.08%. Differences for somatic cells counts were not significant. Milk production persistency was higher for Holstein cows by 5, 8.3 and 8% in parities 1 through 3. Crossbred cows were higher for conception status by 3.1, 3.6 and 4.7% in parities 1 through 3. Rates of metritis for Holsteins were higher than the crossbred cows by 7.8, 4.6 and 3.4% in parities 1 to 3. Differences for incidence of abortion, dystocia, ketosis and milk fever were not significant. Holstein cows were lower than crossbred cows for body condition score for all three parities, with differences of 0.2 to 0.4 units. Contrary to comparisons in other countries, herd-life was higher for Holsteins by 79 days. A total of 6321 Holstein cows born between 2007 and 2011 were higher than 765 progeny of crossbred cows backcrossed to Israeli Holsteins of the same ages for milk, fat and protein production. Differences were 279, 537, 542 kg milk; 10.5, 17.7, 17.0 kg fat and 6.2, 12.9, 13.2 kg protein for parities 1 through 3. Differences for fat concentration were not significant, while backcross cows were higher for protein percentage by 0.02% to 0.04%. The differences for somatic cell score, conception rate, and calving diseases other than metritis, were not

  14. Fermentação ruminal e eficiência microbiana em bezerros holandeses alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de concentrado Ruminal fermentation and microbial efficiency in Holstein calves fed diets with different concentrate levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Johann Bürger

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de concentrado sobre os parâmetros da fermentação ruminal, as digestibilidades aparente, total, ruminal e intestinal de N, a eficiência microbiana e o balanço de N. Cinco bezerros holandeses, inteiros, fistulados no rúmen e abomaso, com idade média inicial de 5,8±0,7 meses e 107,4±11,0 kg PV médio inicial, foram distribuídos em quadrado latino 5x5 (tratamento x período. Os animais foram alojados em baias individuais e alimentados à vontade com dietas contendo 30,0; 45,0; 60;0; 75,0; e 90,0% de concentrado, com base na MS, em rações contendo como volumoso, o feno de capim coast-cross e no concentrado, o farelo de soja, fubá de milho. Os valores de pH foram influenciados pelos níveis de concentrado das rações, e , 11,3 horas após a alimentação, foram estimandos os valores mínimos de 6,10; 5,89; 5,67; 5,46; e 5,24, para as rações com níveis de 30,0; 45,0; 60,0; 75,0; e 90,0%de concentrado nas rações, respectivamente. A concentração de amônia ruminal reduziu linearmente, em função dos tempos pós-alimentação, apresentando comportamento quadrático, com valores mínimos de 6,84; 7,14; 7,63; 7,82; 8,09; e 8,00 mg/dL, para 86,31; 84,86; 83,41; 81,95; 77,59; e 68,86% de concentrado nas rações. O numero de protozoários ruminais reduziu linearmente com o aumento dos níveis de concentrado nas rações. A eficiência de síntese de compostos nitrogenados microbianos aumentou linearmente com os níveis de concentrado nas rações.ABSTRACT - This work was conducted to evaluate the effects of different concentrate levels on the parameters of at ruminal fermentation, the apparent, total, ruminal and intestinal N digestibilities, the microbial efficiency and the N balance. Five rumen and abomasum fistulated bull Holstein calves, with an initial average age of 5.8±0.7 months and initial average of 107.4±11.0 kg LW were allotted to a 5x5

  15. Interacting Holstein and extended-Holstein bipolarons

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Monodeep; Tezuka, Masaki; Min, B. I.

    2013-01-01

    Employing the recently developed self-consistent variational basis generation scheme, we have investigated the bipolaron-bipolaron interaction within the purview of Holstein-Hubbard and the extended-Holstein-Hubbard (F2H) model on a discrete one-dimensional lattice. The density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method has also been used for the Holstein-Hubbard model. We have shown that there exists no bipolaron-bipolaron attraction in the Holstein-Hubbard model. In contrast, we have obtain...

  16. Evaluation of the transfer of passive immunity by the analysis of immunoglobulin and serum proteins of Holstein calvesAvaliação da transferência de imunidade passiva através da análise de imunoglobulinas e proteínas séricas em bezerras da raça holandês

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Augusto Naylor Lisbôa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This present study evaluated the serum concentrations of the fractional and total proteins, the immunoglobulin concentrations, and the dynamics of passive immune transfer in 25 female Holstein calves. All calves were maintained with their respective dams for 24 hours during which the ingestion of colostrum was done ad libitum. The determinations were done within 24 hours after suckling and at 30 days of age. The gamma fraction of proteins was the predominant immunoglobulin observed 24 hrs after the suckling of colostrum, followed by beta, alpha 2, and alpha1. 30 days later, the beta fraction was more elevated, followed by gamma, and the alpha fractions. The concentrations of serum albumin increased proportionally with age, but the concentrations of total proteins remained unaltered. Most calves (56%; 14/25 demonstrated effective passive immune transfer of immunoglobulins; transfer was within acceptable limits for 36% (9/25 but was inadequate in 8% (2/25 of the calves evaluated. Este presente estudo avaliou as concentrações séricas da proteína total, suas frações, as concentrações de imunoglobulinas e a dinâmica de transferência da imunidade passiva em 25 bezerras da raça Holandês variedade preto e branco. Todas as bezerras permaneceram com suas respectivas mães até 24 horas após o nascimento, durante este período a ingestão de colostro foi realizada ad libitum. As determinações foram feitas após a ingestão do colostro às 24 horas após o nascimento e aos 30 dias de idade. As gamaglobulinas foram predominantes às 24 horas após a ingestão de colostro, seguida pelas frações beta e alfa. Aos 30 dias a fração beta foi a mais elevada, seguida pela gama e as frações alfa. A concentração de albumina sérica aumentou proporcionalmente com a idade, mas a concentração de proteína total manteve-se inalterada. A maior parte das bezerras (56%; 14/25 demonstrou transferência passiva imune eficaz de imunoglobulinas; a

  17. Prediction of calving time in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Fadul; Christopher, Bogdahn; Maher, Alsaaod; Jürg, Hüsler; Alexander, Starke; Adrian, Steiner; Gaby, Hirsbrunner

    2017-12-01

    This prospective study was carried out to predict the calving time in primiparous (n=11) and multiparous (n=22) Holstein-Friesian cows using the combination of data obtained from the RumiWatch noseband-sensor and 3D-accelerometer. The animals included in the study were fitted with the RumiWatch noseband-sensor and 3D-accelerometer at least 10days before the expected calving day. The calving event was defined as the time of the first appearance of the calves' feet outside the vulva, and this moment was determined by farm staff and/or confirmed by video monitor. As primiparous and multiparous cows behaved differently, two models including data of noseband-sensors and 3D-accelerometers were used to predict the calving time in each group. Lying bouts (LB) increased and rumination chews (RC) decreased similarly in both groups; besides that, boluses (B) decreased and other activities (OA) increased significantly in multiparous and primiparous cows, respectively. The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) for prediction of the onset of calving within the next 3h were determined with the logistic regression and ROC analysis (Se=88.9%, 85% and Sp=93.3%, 74% for multiparous and primiparous cows, respectively). This pilot study revealed that the RumiWatch system is a useful tool to predict calving time under farm conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The benzodiazepine brotizolam reduces fear in calves exposed to a novel object test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reenen, van C.G.; Hopster, H.; Werf, van der J.T.N.; Engel, B.; Buist, W.G.; Jones, R.B.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Korte, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of the intravenous administration of the anxiolytic drug brotizolam on the behavioral and physiological responsiveness of calves to novelty in a dose response fashion. Holstein Friesian heifer calves (39¿41 weeks of age; body weight 200¿300 kg) received an

  19. The addition of cottonseed hulls to the starter and supplementation of live yeast or mannanoligosaccharide in the milk for young calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, S R; Hopkins, B A; Davidson, S; Bolt, S M; Diaz, D E; Brownie, C; Brown, T; Huntington, G B; Whitlow, L W

    2009-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of the addition of cottonseed hulls (CSH) to the starter and the supplementation of live yeast product (YST) or mannanoligosaccharide product (MOS) to milk, on growth, intake, rumen development, and health parameters in young calves. Holstein (n = 116) and Jersey (n = 46) bull (n = 74) and heifer (n = 88) calves were assigned randomly within sex at birth to treatments. All calves were fed 3.8 L of colostrum daily for the first 2 d. Holstein calves were fed 3.8 L of whole milk, and Jersey calves were fed 2.8 L of whole milk through weaning at 42 d. Calves continued on trial through 63 d. Six treatments were arranged as a 2 x 3 factorial. Calves received either a corn-soybean meal-based starter (21% crude protein and 6% acid detergent fiber; -CSH) or a blend of 85% corn-soybean meal-based starter and 15% CSH (18% crude protein and 14% acid detergent fiber; +CSH) ad libitum. In addition, calves received whole milk with either no supplement (NONE) or supplemented with 3 g/d of mannanoligosaccharide product (MOS) or 4 g/d of live yeast product (YST) through weaning at 42 d. Twelve Holstein steers [n = 6 (per starter type); n = 4 (per supplement type)] were euthanized for collection and examination of rumen tissue samples. Dry matter intake (DMI) was greater for Holstein calves fed +CSH (0.90 kg/d) than -CSH (0.76 kg/d). Final body weight at 63 d of Holstein calves fed +CSH (75.8 kg) was greater than that of those fed -CSH (71.0 kg). Average daily gain (ADG) was greater for Holstein calves fed +CSH (0.58 kg/d) than -CSH (0.52 kg/d). However, Holstein calves fed -CSH had a greater feed efficiency (FE; 0.71 kg of ADG/kg of DMI) than those fed +CSH (0.65 kg of ADG/kg of DMI). Also, Holstein calves fed +CSH had narrower rumen papillae (0.32 mm) compared with those fed -CSH (0.41 mm). There were no significant effects of CSH on DMI, ADG, or FE in Jersey calves. There were no significant effects of YST or MOS on DMI

  20. Social housing improves dairy calves' performance in two cognitive tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Gaillard

    Full Text Available Early social housing is known to benefit cognitive development in laboratory animals. Pre-weaned dairy calves are typically separated from their dam immediately after birth and housed alone, but no work to date has addressed the effect of individual housing on cognitive performance of these animals. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of individual versus social housing on two measures of cognitive performance: reversal learning and novel object recognition. Holstein calves were either housed individually in a standard calf pen (n = 8 or kept in pairs using a double pen (n = 10. Calves were tested twice daily in a Y-maze starting at 3 weeks of age. Calves were initially trained to discriminate two colours (black and white until they reached a learning criterion of 80% correct over three consecutive sessions. Training stimuli were then reversed (i.e. the previously rewarded colour was now unrewarded, and vice-versa. Calves from the two treatments showed similar rates of learning in the initial discrimination task, but the individually housed calves showed poorer performance in the reversal task. At 7 weeks of age, calves were tested for their response to a novel object in eight tests over a two-day period. Pair-housed calves showed declining exploration with repeated testing but individually reared calves did not. The results of these experiments provide the first direct evidence that individual housing impairs cognitive performance in dairy calves.

  1. Social housing improves dairy calves' performance in two cognitive tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Meagher, Rebecca K; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Weary, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    Early social housing is known to benefit cognitive development in laboratory animals. Pre-weaned dairy calves are typically separated from their dam immediately after birth and housed alone, but no work to date has addressed the effect of individual housing on cognitive performance of these animals. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of individual versus social housing on two measures of cognitive performance: reversal learning and novel object recognition. Holstein calves were either housed individually in a standard calf pen (n = 8) or kept in pairs using a double pen (n = 10). Calves were tested twice daily in a Y-maze starting at 3 weeks of age. Calves were initially trained to discriminate two colours (black and white) until they reached a learning criterion of 80% correct over three consecutive sessions. Training stimuli were then reversed (i.e. the previously rewarded colour was now unrewarded, and vice-versa). Calves from the two treatments showed similar rates of learning in the initial discrimination task, but the individually housed calves showed poorer performance in the reversal task. At 7 weeks of age, calves were tested for their response to a novel object in eight tests over a two-day period. Pair-housed calves showed declining exploration with repeated testing but individually reared calves did not. The results of these experiments provide the first direct evidence that individual housing impairs cognitive performance in dairy calves.

  2. Dynamic of the natural infection by Anaplasma marginale in Holstein cows and calves in the Londrina region, North of Paraná State, Brazil/ Dinâmica da infecção natural pelo Anaplasma marginale em vacas e bezerros da raça Holandesa, na região de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Luz Pereira

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic of the infection by Anaplasma marginale in Holstein cows and calves was studied in two dairy farms (A and B in the Londrina region, North of Paraná. In the farm A the cows were maintained in the tie-stall system and, the calves in collective stall; in the farm B, the cows stayed in freestall system and the calves in individual cages. Every 15 days, blood samples were collected from the dams 45 days before parturition until 60 days post partum, and from their calves at birth until 240 days of age. Tick burden counting was also performed on dams and calves twice a month. Percentage of infected erythrocytes was established by Giemsa-stained smears. Blood and sera samples were examined by Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR and competitive Enzime-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (cELISA, respectively. In the cows, the anti-A. marginale antibody levels decreased close to the parturition, showing an adverse behavior among the farms. In the farm A the levels of antibodies increased between 30 and 60 days after the parturition and, in farm B the antibodies stayed in low levels during the accompaniment period of the cows. The anti-A. marginale antibody levels of the calves of the farm A, that were not high in the day of the birth, decreased more until 45 days post parturition and it increased again starting from 60 days, with maximum pick to the 105 days. In the farm B, where the calves presented higher levels of antibodies at the birth day, there was a slower decrease of the antibody levels, reaching the lowest point to the 75 days post parturition and it increased again more tardily, to the 165 days of age. The dams and calves in both farms were exposure to cattle tick Boophilus microplus during almost all period of accompaniment and they showed rickettsemia ranging from 0 to 1%. In conclusion, A. marginale infection after birth was more influenced by maternal antibody levels than tick burden; the differences between animals handling influenced the

  3. Desempenho pós-desaleitamento de bezerros holandeses que receberam sucedâneo ou leite integral e milho floculado no concentrado inicial Postweaning performance of Holstein calves fed milk replacer or whole milk and steam flaked corn in starters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Regina Bagaldo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de 72 bezerros (machos e fêmeas da raça Holandesa alimentados com sucedâneo de leite ou leite integral e ração inicial contendo milho floculado em três densidades: 283, 360 ou 437 g/L. Os animais foram distribuídos em blocos de acordo com o nascimento e o sexo, em um arranjo fatorial 2 x 3. A taxa de hidrólise in vitro do amido de milho floculado diminuiu com o aumento da densidade dos grãos. No período da desmama até os 120 dias de vida, não foi observado efeito da densidade do milho floculado e do tipo de dieta líquida sobre o consumo de matéria seca, o ganho de peso médio diário, a conversão alimentar e a idade ao início do consumo de silagem (quando consumo de concentrado atingia 2.500 g/dia. Entretanto, os animais que receberam sucedâneo durante a fase de aleitamento apresentaram menor peso aos 120 dias de idade (108,9 vs 118,5 kg.Growth performance was evaluated in 72 Holstein calves fed milk replacer or whole milk diet and a starter containing steam-flaked corn at: 283, 360 or 437 g/L. The animals were blocked by birth and sex in a 2 x 3 factorial design. Enzymatic in vitro starch availability of the steam-flaked corn decreased as grain densities increased. During the post-weaning period, there was no effect of the processed corn at the different densities and type of the liquid diet on dry matter intake, daily body gain, feed conversion and age when calves started eating corn silage (when the starter intake reached 2500 g/day. Calves fed milk replacer during pre-weaning period showed the lowest body weight at 120 days old (108.9 vs. 118.5 kg.

  4. Consequences of Selection for Yield Traits on Calving Ease Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez de Maturana, E.; Ugarte, E.; Komen, J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of different breeding goals on the genetic response for calving ease (CE) and yield traits was studied in the Basque Holstein cattle population. The economic value for CE was estimated with a bioeconomic model, using Basque production and market circumstances and taking into account the

  5. Performance and physiological responses of milk-fed calves to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CCB) on calf performance and some blood parameters. Sixteen female Holstein calves with a mean age of 3 ± 1 d were divided into two equal groups and fed a milk replacer supplemented with 3 g of coated calcium butyrate (CCB)/day or with no ...

  6. Influence of environment on passive immunity in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, G H; Wiersma, F; Menefee, B E; Radwanski, F R

    1976-07-01

    Passive immunity in neonatal calves is influenced by environment. Placing newly born Holstein calves (108 head) in three different housing environments (shade, cooled shade, hutch) during hot weather produced differences in body temperature, serum cortocosteroids, immunoglobulin IgG1 concentrations, and mortality. Experimental design permitted examination of effects due to treatments, time, differences in colostrum, and climatic environment in an analysis of variance. Calves exposed to the hotter, less desirable environment responded by having a higher mortality, higher serum corticosteroid concentration, and lower serum immunoglobulin IgG1 at 2 and 10 days after birth. All of these were correlated. Calves that died had serum immunoglobulin IgG1 falling below the mean for all experimental calves.

  7. Hetastarch and Hetastarch + 7.2% NaCl solution in the treatment of hypovolemic diarrheic calves

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Çağrı Karakurum; Metin Koray Albay; Şima Şahinduran; Kenan Sezer; Ramazan Yıldız; Necmettin Sarp Sevgisunar

    2016-01-01

    Objective. In this study, it was aimed to compare the effectiveness of Hydroxyethyl Starch (HTS), HTS +7.2% NaCl combination and Ringer Lactate solutions in the treatment of hypovolemic calves with diarrhea. Materials and methods. A total of 21 holstein calves (12 female, 9 male, weighted 28-52 kg), at the age of 0-30 days, were enrolled in the present study. The calves were randomly divided into 3 groups. Calves in the first group received HTS (10 mL / kg), calves in the second group receive...

  8. The early behaviour of cow and calf in an individual calving pen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the early behaviour in dairy cows and their calves. Thirty-eight multiparous Danish Holstein Frisian cows and their calves were housed in individual calving pens during the first twelve days post-partum and their behaviour was observed during 24 h on days 3, 7 and 11....... Cows gradually reduced the time spent sniffing and licking their calves from 59 to 49 min over the days studied (P days 3 and 7 to 1 min on day 11 (P ... increased the time spent sniffing and licking their dams’ head from 2 to 8 min over the days studied (P days...

  9. Endocrine Profiles, Haematology and Pregnancy Outcomes of Late Pregnant Holstein Dairy Heifers Sired by Bulls Giving a High or Low Incidence of Stillbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindahl H

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The high incidence of stillbirth in Swedish Holstein heifers has increased continuously during the last 15 years to an average of 11% today. The pathological reasons behind the increased incidence of stillbirth are unknown. The present experiment was undertaken to investigate possible causes of stillbirth and to study possible physiological markers for predicting stillbirth. Twenty Swedish Holstein dairy heifers sired by bulls with breeding values for a high risk of stillbirth (n = 12 (experimental group and a low risk of stillbirth (n = 8 (control group, group B were selected based on information in the Swedish AI-data base. The experimental group consisted of 2 subgroups of heifers (groups A1 and A2 inseminated with 2 different bulls with 3.5% and 9% higher stillbirth rates than the average, and the control group consisted of heifers pregnant with 5 different bulls with 0%–6% lower stillbirth rates than the average. The bull used for group A1 had also calving difficulties due to large calves as compared to the bull in group A2 showing no calving difficulties. The heifers were supervised from 6–7 months of pregnancy up to birth, and the pregnancies and parturitions were compared between groups regarding hormonal levels, haematology, placental characteristics and calf viability. In group A1, 1 stillborn, 1 weak and 4 normal calves were recorded. In group A2, 2 stillborn and 4 normal calves were registered. All animals in the control group gave birth to a normal living calf without any assistance. The weak calf showed deviating profiles of body temperature, saturated oxygen and heart rates, compared with the normal living calves. No differences of the placentome thickness, measured in vivo by ultrasonography were seen between the groups. The number of leukocytes and differential cell counts in groups A1 and A2 followed the profiles found in the control group. In group A1, a slight decrease of oestrone sulphate (E1SO4 levels was found in the

  10. Fatores de ajustamento da produção de leite e de gordura na raça Holandesa para idade e núcleo de controle leiteiro Age of calving and region adjustment factors for milk and fat yields for graded and purebred Holstein in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Durães

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram estimados fatores de ajustamento para produção de leite e de gordura em rebanhos da raça Holandesa do Estado de Minas Gerais, segundo a idade da vaca ao parto, a composição racial e o núcleo de controle leiteiro onde ocorreu o parto. Utilizou-se a metodologia dos modelos mistos, usando-se a máxima verossimilhança restrita em um modelo animal com os efeitos fixos de rebanho-ano, época do parto e classes idade-composição racial-núcleo de controle leiteiro, e os efeitos aleatórios de animal e resíduo. Utilizaram-se 46.971 lactações de 26.822 vacas, sendo 17.354 vacas puras por cruzamento (PC e 9.468 puras de origem (PO. Nos cinco núcleos regionais, denominados 1545, 2585, 5565, 35 e 75, formaram-se 21 classes de idade, sendo a menor constituída de vacas que pariram com menos de 24 meses e a maior pelas vacas com mais de 99 meses de idade. Para as vacas PO, os fatores para ajustamento da produção de leite e de gordura tenderam a ser menores do que os correspondentes valores estimados para as vacas PC; todavia, a variabilidade foi maior nas vacas PO em relação às PC nos núcleos 75, 2585 e 5565. Os fatores para vacas jovens foram maiores do que para vacas de maior idade. Os fatores de ajustamento para produção de gordura foram maiores que os correspondentes para produção de leite. É recomendável utilizar fatores específicos para o ajustamento da produção de leite e de gordura em cada núcleo e grupo racial.Adjustment factors were estimated for milk and fat yields for Holstein herds according to age of cow at calving, genetic group (purebred or graded cows and region of recorded milk yield (nucleus in Minas Gerais State. Statistical analyses used mixed model methodologies by restricted maximum likelihood using animal model. Herd-year, season of calving, age of cow classes, genetic group, and region of recorded milk records were used as fixed effects, and cows and residuals as random effects. Analyses used 46

  11. Desempenho de bezerros da raça Holandesa alimentados com proteína de soja sólida ou líquida Performance of Holstein calves fed soybean meal protein in solid or liquid form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de Sousa Lucci

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da substituição de metade do total de proteína da dieta na forma sólida (farelo de soja por proteína na forma líquida (leite de soja, com relações sólidos:líquidos de 100,0:0%; 87,5:12,5%; e 75,0:25,0%. Utilizaram-se 24 bezerros machos da raça Holandesa com 60 dias de idade, distribuídos em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três dietas à base de concentrado (80% e feno de capim coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon (20%, balanceadas para nitrogênio e energia. Nas dietas com partes líquidas, o intuito foi manter o reflexo de formação da goteira esofagiana no período experimental de 10 meses, no qual os animais foram mantidos em confinamento, sendo abatidos ao atingirem pesos corporais superiores a 400 kg. Em alguns dos animais, dotados de cânulas de rúmen, foi possível detectar neste órgão apenas pequenas quantidades do leite de soja ingerido, confirmando sucesso na formação da goteira esofagiana. Os ganhos de peso diários apresentaram redução linear (1,399; 1,341; e 1,191 kg à medida que foram fornecidas maiores quantidades de leite de soja. As conversões de matéria seca e proteína bruta em ganhos de peso, durante os últimos 60 dias experimentais, pioraram conforme aumentaram as quantidades de proteína na forma líquida. O fornecimento de proteína na forma líquida na dieta não altera os rendimentos de carcaça em bezerros holandeses.The effects were assessed of substituting half the total diet protein in solid form (soybean meal with liquid form (soybean milk at solid:liquid ratios of: 100.0:0% L; 87.5:12.5% L; 75.0:25.0% L. Twenty-four Holstein breed 60-d male calf steers were assigned to a randomized block design, with three concentrate (80% diets and 20% coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon hay, balanced for nitrogen and energy. In the diets with liquid parts, the intention was to keep the functional reflex of the esophageal groove throughout the 10 months of the experimental period, in which

  12. Desenvolvimento alométrico do trato gastrintestinal de bezerros da raça holandesa alimentados com diferentes dietas líquidas durante o aleitamento - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1729 Alometric growth of gastrointestinal tract of holstein calves fed with diferent liquid diets during milking period - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1729

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Martines Baraldi Artoni

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foram utilizados 12 bezerros da raça Holandesa distribuídos em três tratamentos, em delineamento inteiramente casualisado com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos leite integral e dois tipos de sucedâneos comerciais Lactal® e Destetor®, avaliaram o desenvolvimento alométrico do sistema digestório, altura da papila do rúmen e do retículo, e altura e comprimento das cristas do omaso. O aleitamento dos animais transcorreu por um período de 60 dias, e, ao serem abatidos, todos os órgãos do trato digestório foram pesados e comparados, com destaque para o estômago (rúmen, retículo, omaso e abomaso. Não foram observadas diferenças (p>0,05 nas proporções dos diferentes compartimentos do estômago dos bezerros submetidos aos tratamentos. No entanto, verificou-se diferença (pIn this work 12 Holstein calves were used distributed in three treatment, on a completely randomized desing with four replicatin. The treatments were used, integral milk and two types of comercial milk replacer Lactal® and Destetor® to evaluate the digestive system alometric growthof the including, rumen and reticulum papillae heigth and omasum rigde growth. The animals were milking for 60 days and after slaughtring, their digest system organs were weighed and stomach complex compared (rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum. No difference (P>0.05 due to treatments were obseved for the proportions among the diferent stomach compartiments of the calves. However, differences (P<0.05 for the papillae height of rumen and for the rigde lenght of omasum were observed. The milk replacers in this work resulted in a good calve growth being an alternative source of feed during mlking period.

  13. Effect of calf sex on some productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chegini, A.; Hossein-Zadeh, N.G.; Hosseini-Moghadam, H.

    2015-07-01

    Records of Holstein cows from March 1992 to April 2008 from 194 large herds and comprising from 402,716 records for productive traits to 178,344 records of somatic cell count were used to study the effect of calf sex in different parities and calving season on the subsequent productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows. T-test procedure of SAS software was used to investigate the effect of calf sex and season of calving on aforementioned traits. Cows with female calves had higher milk and fat yield, persistency of milk and fat yield and longer lactation length, while cows that gave birth to male calves had shorter calving interval and longer productive life. Also, cows with female calves had higher milk yield per day of lactation in the first two parities, but there was no difference in milk yield per day of lactation for parities ≥ 3. There was no relationship among mean somatic cell count and sex of born calf. Fall calves had the highest adjusted milk yield and milk yield per day of lactation, however, winter calves had the longest lactation lengthand productive life and the highest somatic cell count. Results from this study demonstrate that it seems necessary to consider the effect of calf sex on aforementioned traits when making decision to use sexed semen or conventional semen. (Author)

  14. Efeito de sementes oleaginosas inteiras e óleo de soja sobre a digestibilidade in vitro e os padrões ruminais de bezerros holandeses Effect of oleaginous whole seeds and soybean oil on the in vitro digestibility and ruminal pattern in holstein calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Villaça

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado para comparar os efeitos da adição de sementes inteiras de soja e algodão e de óleo de soja sobre os padrões ruminais e a digestibilidade in vitro, em bezerros Holandeses fistulados. Dois bezerros fistulados no rúmen foram alimentados com dieta basal com 2,5% de extrato etéreo (EE, o qual foi comparado com dietas com 5,0% de EE, em que as sementes de soja e algodão inteira ou o óleo de soja foram fontes de EE adicional. A adição de sementes de soja e de algodão resultou em decréscimo na digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca e da fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, porém não houve alterações na digestibilidade in vitro da fibra em detergente ácido (FDA em relação à dieta controle. A adição de semente algodão provocou decréscimo na digestibilidade in vitro da proteína bruta em comparação à dieta controle. A concentração de ácido propiônico nas dietas com adição de óleo de soja foi 16% mais elevada que a proporcionada pelas demais dietas. O uso de óleo de soja pareceu ser a mais adequada em relação à digestibilidade da matéria seca, FDA e FDN e à manutenção de pH, quando comparado a outros tipos de adição lipídica, porém menos eficiente que a semente de soja em relação à digestibilidade in vitro da proteína bruta. O número de protozoários apresentou grande variação entre dietas, mas nenhum efeito com adição de óleo foi observado. A maior concentração de N-NH3 ruminal foi obtida na dieta com óleo de soja, quando comparada às outras dietas.This work was conducted to compare the effects of whole soybean and cotton seeds and soybean oil on the ruminal pattern and in vitro disappearance, in fistulated Holstein calves. Two calves fitted with rumen cannula were fed a basal diet with 2.5% of ether extract (EE, which was compared with 5.0% EE, where whole soybean, whole cotton seeds or soybean oil were the source of additional EE. The addition of whole soybean and

  15. Large-scale study on effects of metritis on reproduction in Danish Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Karina; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Ancker, Marie-Louise

    2013-01-01

    A total of 398,237 lactations of Danish Holstein dairy cows were studied with the main objective to investigate the effects of metritis on 2 fertility variables: interval from calving to first insemination (CFI) and nonreturn rate at 56d after first insemination (NR56), adjusting for milk product...

  16. Complex social housing reduces food neophobia in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J H C; Daros, R R; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2014-12-01

    Animals are often reluctant to consume novel feeds. Research suggests that social housing can reduce fearfulness in animals. The aim of this study was to test the prediction that social housing reduces food neophobia in dairy calves. Beginning immediately at birth, Holstein bull calves were either reared individually (n=18) or in a complex social group with other calves and cows (n=18). In food neophobia tests, calves were exposed to 2 identical buckets, one empty and the other filled with a novel food (chopped hay in trial 1 and chopped carrots in trial 2). Calves were tested for 30 min/d on 3 consecutive days starting at 70 d of age. Regardless of the type of food, socially housed calves consumed more of the novel feed compared with individually housed calves. In trial 1, intake of hay as fed averaged 35 ± 6 versus 18 ± 6 g/d for socially versus individually housed calves. In trial 2, intake of chopped carrots as fed averaged 27 ± 6 versus 6 ± 6 g/d for socially versus individually housed calves, respectively. Social rearing decreased the latency to eat the novel feed. Calves housed in a complex social group began eating the hay after 1:23 ± 1:13 versus 3:58 ± 1:10 min:s for individually housed calves. Latency to begin eating the chopped carrots averaged 3:09 ± 1:17 versus 6:38 ± 1:13 min:s for socially versus individually housed calves. Treatment had no effect on time spent eating, latency to approach the food bucket or the empty bucket in either trial, or on time spent manipulating the empty bucket. These results indicate that housing dairy calves in a complex social group reduces food neophobia. More generally, this study contributes to a series of studies showing that calves raised in more complex social environments may be better able to transition to other changes in their environment. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Serum protein concentrations in calves with experimentally induced pneumonic pasteurellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagliari J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten healthy 2 to 4-week-old Holstein calves were randomly allotted into control and infected groups. Control calves (n=5 were inoculated intrabronchially with 5ml of Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline solution (DPBSS. Infected calves (n=5 were inoculated intrabronchially with 5x10(9 log-phase Mannheimia haemolytica organisms suspended in 5ml of DPBSS. Blood samples were obtained 15 minutes before and one, two, four and six hours after inoculation. Serum protein concentrations were determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Serum concentrations of proteins with molecular weights of 125,000 D (ceruloplasmin, 60,000 D (a 1-antitrypsin, 45,000 D (haptoglobin, and 40,000 D (acid glycoprotein were significantly increased in calves with pneumonic pasteurellosis, compared with concentrations in control calves. Results indicate that acute phase proteins increase more rapidly after the onset of inflammation than previously thought. Measurement of serum protein concentrations may be useful in monitoring the progression of the induced pneumonic pasteurellosis in calves.

  18. Demonstration of systemic infection of BVDV Vaccine virus after vaccination in presence of PI calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was detected during routine necropsy of calves, from a well vaccinated, large Jersey/Holstein dairy herd (n=10,000) in California, that succumbed to ill thrift. According to herd management, BVDV has not been considered a problem in the past. The herd had been exte...

  19. Effects of hunger level and tube diameter on thefeeding behavior of teat-fed dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Mette S; Skjøth, Flemming; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2010-01-01

    a 40-min period after morning milk feeding on d 7, 9, and 11 of testing is reported. No significant interactions between tube diameter and hunger level on behavior were found. Reduced tube diameter led to increased latency to empty the teat bucket, increased duration of nutritive sucking, and decreased......Behavioral changes caused by variation in hunger have a great potential in health monitoring in dairy cattle. The present experiment used 48 Danish Holstein bull calves with a median age of 33 d. We examined the effect of different levels of hunger (reduced, in which calves were fed 1.5 L of milk...... via esophageal tube before feeding; increased, in which calves were fed half milk ration at the previous feeding, or control, in which calves were fed normal ration at the previous feeding) on feeding behavior of calves fed via different tube diameters (6.0, 3.0, or 1.5 mm). Behavior observed during...

  20. Neonatal morbidity and mortality of 31 calves derived from somatic cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisville, A-C; Fecteau, G; Boysen, S; Desrochers, A; Dorval, P; Buczinski, S; Lefebvre, R; Hélie, P; Blondin, P; Smith, L C

    2013-01-01

    The neonatal period is associated with high morbidity and mortality in cloned calves. To describe morbidity and mortality in cloned calves from birth to 2 years of age. Thirty-one somatic cell-derived Holstein calves delivered at a veterinary teaching hospital. Medical files were retrospectively analyzed. Four calves were stillborn. Five calves born alive had physical congenital defects. Twenty-three calves had an enlarged umbilical cord. Laboratory abnormalities included acidemia, respiratory acidosis, hyperlactatemia, anemia, stress leukogram, decreased total protein, albumin and globulins, and increased creatinine. Twenty-five calves survived the 1st hour of life. Among them, 11 stood without assistance within 6 hours of birth, 10 calves took longer than 6 hours to stand, and 4 never stood. Twenty-two calves suffered from anorexia. Twelve calves had complications arising from umbilical cord infections. Three calves developed idiopathic hyperthermia (>40°C). Eight calves suffered from gastrointestinal problems, including ruminal distension, abomasal ulcers, neonatal enteritis, intussusception, and abomasal displacement. Mortality between birth and 3 weeks of age was 32% (10/31). Causes of death and reasons for euthanasia included stillbirths, respiratory failure, and limb deformities. Mortality between 3 weeks and 2 years of age was 19% (4/21), with deaths in this group attributed to generalized peritonitis and complications arising from umbilical infections. Overall, mortality rate within 2 years of age was 14/31 (45%). Respiratory problems, limb deformities, and umbilical infections were the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in these cloned calves. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  1. FULL SCIENTIFIC REPORTS - Complex vertebral malformation in Holstein calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Jørgen S.; Bendixen, Christian; Andersen, Ole

    2001-01-01

    was characterized by shortening of the cervical and thoracic parts of the vertebral column due to multiple hemivertebrae, fused and misshaped vertebrae, and scoliosis. Symmetrical flexures of the carpal joints and the metacarpophalangeal joint in combination with a slight lateral rotation of the phalanges also were...

  2. Clinical disease and lung lesions in calves experimentally inoculated with Histophilus somni five days after metaphylactic administration of tildipirosin or tulathromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confer, Anthony W; Snider, Timothy A; Taylor, Jared D; Montelongo, Marie; Sorensen, Nicholas J

    2016-04-01

    To compare clinical disease and lung lesions in calves experimentally inoculated with Histophilus somni 5 days after metaphylactic administration of tildipirosin or tulathromycin. ANIMALS Twenty-four 3-month-old Holstein and Holstein-crossbreed steers. Calves were randomly allocated to 3 groups of 8 calves. On day 0, calves in group 1 received tildipirosin (4 mg/kg, SC), calves in group 2 received tulathromycin (2.5 mg/kg, SC), and calves in group 3 received isotonic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (1 mL/45 kg, SC; control). On day 5, calves were inoculated with 10 mL of a solution containing H somni strain 7735 (1.6 × 10(9) CFUs/mL, intrabronchially; challenge). Calves were clinically evaluated on days 5 through 8 and euthanized on day 8. The lungs were grossly evaluated for evidence of pneumonia, and bronchial secretion samples underwent bacteriologic culture. The mean clinical score for each group was significantly increased 12 hours after challenge, compared with that immediately before challenge, and was significantly lower for tildipirosin-treated calves on days 6, 7, and 8, compared with those for tulathromycin-treated and control calves. The mean percentage of lung consolidation for tildipirosin-treated calves was significantly lower than those for tulathromycin-treated and control calves. Histophilus somni was isolated from the bronchial secretions of some tulathromycin-treated and control calves but was not isolated from tildipirosin-treated calves. Results indicated that metaphylactic administration of tildipirosin to calves 5 days prior to H somni challenge prevented subsequent culture of the pathogen from bronchial secretions and was more effective in minimizing clinical disease and lung lesions than was metaphylactic administration of tulathromycin.

  3. Productive and reproductive performance of crossbred Holstein x Gir cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Balancin Júnior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the productive and reproductive performance of Holtein-Frisian x Gir crossbred cows. The traits evaluated were: milk production up to 305 days (P305, total milk production (PTL, production per day of calving interval (PIP, age at first calving (IPP, calving interval (IDP, service period (PS and gestation length (PG, which were analyzed using mixed linear models. The Incomplete gamma function was used to estimate the parameters of lactation curves for each genetic group. The animals of genetic groups (GG 3/4H, 7/8H and pure by crosses (PC achieved higher performances for productive traits, and animals from the GG 1/2H achieved better performance for reproductive traits. The Holstein-Frisian PC animals presented the lactation curves with higher production levels and higher productions at the peak of the lactation but with less persistence. The 1/2H animals had slightly lower persistence in comparison to genetic groups 3/4H and 7/8H. Milk production in function of gestation length varied according to each group and Holstein-Frisian (PC presented greater decrease in milk yield after conception.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for stillbirths in Holstein cows in a hot environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mellado

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Risk factors for stillbirth were studied in a dairy operation in northern Mexico (25°N. Data set consisted of 29406 full term calving records. Factors affecting stillbirths were analyzed using a step-wise multivariable logistic regression models. The predictive indicators of stillbirth risk were: temperature-humidity index (THI during pregnancy and at calving, season of calving, calf birth weight, gestation length, semen characteristics (conventional or sexed, gender of calves, hour of calving and type of parturition (normal or dystocic. Throughout the study period, 7.3 (95%, confidence interval= 7.0–7.6 of every 100 calving events had a stillborn calf. Stillborns were higher with severe dystocia compared with non-assisted births (29.0% vs. 6.2%, p278 d compared with calves with shorter gestation periods (2.8% vs. 30.0%, p83 units had 1.3 higher risk of stillbirths than cows suffering reduced heat stress (p<0.0001. Evidence for a greater (p<0.001 stillbirth rates in cows with parturitions between 18:00 and 19:00 h compared with cows calving during other hours of the day was found (9.1% vs. 7.1%. Together, these results demonstrate that ameliorating heat stress during the peripartum period is an important management practice to reduce stillbirths in Holstein cows in this warm climate. Additionally, a greater attention of parturition around sunset can lower the current stillbirth rates.

  5. Manure nutrient excretion by Jersey and Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, K F; Wilkerson, V A; Casper, D P; Mertens, D R

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate feces, urine, and N excretion by Jersey and Holstein cows. Sixteen multiparous cows (n=8 per breed) were fed 2 experimental rations at calving in a switchback experimental design. Diets were 50% forage and based on corn meal (control) or whole cottonseed. Half the cows in each breed started on the control diet and half started on the whole cottonseed diet. Cows were switched to the other diet at 60 d in milk and switched back to their original diet at 165 d in milk. Pairs of cows were moved into open-circuit respiration chambers on d 49, 154, and 271 of lactation for 7-d measurement periods. While in the chambers, total collection of feed refusals, milk, recovered hair, feces, and urine was conducted. No effect of the interaction of diet and breed was observed for measures of nutrient digestibility and manure excretion. Total daily manure excretion was lower in Jersey cows than in Holstein cows, with reductions generally proportional to changes in feed intake. Jersey cows consumed 29% less feed and excreted 33% less wet feces and 28% less urine than Holstein cows. Intake, fecal, and urinary N were reduced by 29, 33, and 24%, respectively, in Jersey cows compared with Holstein cows. Equations from American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers underpredicted observed values for all manure measures evaluated (urine, manure solids, N, wet manure), and breed bias was observed in equations predicting excretion of urine, N, and wet manure. Although these equations include animal and dietary factors, intercepts of regression of observed values on predicted values differed between Holsteins and Jerseys for those 3 measures. No breed bias was observed in the prediction of manure solids excretion, however, making that equation equally appropriate for Jerseys and Holsteins. The effect of breed on manure and nutrient excretion has significant nutrient management implications. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science

  6. Effect of postpartum propylene glycol allocation to over-conditioned Holstein cows on concentrations of milk metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke; Storm, Adam Christian; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of propylene glycol (PG) allocation on concentrations of milk metabolites with potential use as indicators of glucogenic status in high yielding postpartum dairy cows. At time of calving, nine ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were randomly...

  7. Tissue mobilisation in Holstein-Friesian cattle selected for divergence in efficiency, defined as residual feed intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waghorn, G.C.; MacDonald, K.A.; Verwoerd, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed (energy) requirements of individuals, relative to the population mean. Two groups, of ~120 Holstein-Friesian heifer calves (aged 6–9 months), which differed in efficiency by ~20%, were reared and mated. Liveweight and body condition score (BCS) were

  8. Genotype × environment interaction for fertility and milk yield traits in Canadian, Mexican and US Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo H. Montaldo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate genotype × environment  interaction (G×E between Canada, the United States and Mexico for fertility and milk yield traits using genetic correlations between countries estimated from genetic evaluations of sires. Genetic correlation between Mexican and Canadian Holsteins for age at first calving was ≤ 0.48 and lower than the simulated value obtained accounting for data structure and selection effects. For calving interval, genetic correlation between Mexico and Canada ranged from 0.48 to 0.69. Genetic correlation between calving interval in Mexico (multiplied by -1 and daughter pregnancy rate in the United States ranged from 0.64 to 0.73, and was lower than simulated and actual Canada-United States values. Genetic correlations between Mexico and Canada and the United States for milk yield traits were ≥ 0.83, similar to simulated genetic correlations, but lower than Canada-United States values (≥ 0.93. Heritability estimates for age at first calving, calving interval, milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat content, and protein content for the Mexican Holstein population were 0.06, 0.03, 0.18, 0.20, 0.19, 0.46, and 0.49, respectively. G×E interaction effects between Canada and Mexico for age at first calving were high, whereas G×E interaction effects between Canada and Mexico for calving interval and between daughter pregnancy rate in the United States and calving interval in Mexico were moderate. G×E interaction effects for milk yield traits between Canada or the United States with Mexico in registered Holsteins were low.

  9. VIDA PRODUCTIVA Y PRINCIPALES CAUSAS DE DESCARTE DE VACAS HOLSTEIN EN LA CUENCA DE LIMA

    OpenAIRE

    Orrego A., Jorge; Práctica privada; Delgado C., Alfredo; Clínica de Animales Mayores, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Echevarría C., Luisa; Laboratorio de Reproducción y Obstetricia Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima Perú.

    2013-01-01

    Records of 3,100 culled Holstein cows from 10 dairy herds in the Lima valley during the period of 1990 till 1996 were analyzed to determine the age at first calving, number of lactations and length of the productive life as well as the main reasons for culling. In the analysis was considered herd size (>500 cows, 100-500 and <100 cows) and type of farm (private and cooperative). Culling reasons were grouped in problems relating to fertility, udder, feet, calving, emergency, and others. ...

  10. Effect of supplementation of Agaricus mushroom meal extracts on enzyme activities in peripheral leukocytes of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, N; Fujino, E; Urabe, S; Mizutani, H; Sako, T; Imai, S; Toyoda, Y; Arai, T

    2007-02-01

    To investigate the effect of Agaricus mushroom meal on the energy metabolism in animal tissues; plasma glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and immunoreactive insulin (IRI) concentrations and activities of enzymes related to energy metabolism in plasma and peripheral leukocytes were measured in Japanese Black WagyuxHolstein F1 calves supplemented with Agaricus blazei Murill (A. blazei) extract in milk-replacer at the dose of 60g/head/day for 4 weeks. Activities of malate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase in cytosol and glutamate dehydrogenase in mitochondria, and the malate dehydrogenase/lactate dehydrogenase ratio in cytosol in peripheral leukocytes of calves with A. blazei were significantly higher than those in control calves without A. blazei. It was concluded that supplementation of Agaricus mushroom meal extract was effective in activation of enzymes related to energy metabolism in peripheral leukocytes of calves.

  11. Effect of Roughage Source and Roughage to Concentrate Ratio on Animal Performance and Rumen Development in Veal Calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suárez, B.J.; Reenen, van C.G.; Stockhofe, N.; Dijkstra, J.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Sixty-four male Holstein-Friesian x Dutch Friesian veal calves (46 ± 3.0 kg) were used to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of different levels and sources of dietary roughage on animal performance and rumen development. Treatments consisted of 1) C100 = concentrate only; 2) C70-S30 = concentrate

  12. Effects of human visitation on calf growth and performance of calves fed different milk replacer feeding levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guindon, N E; Antaya, N T; Cabral, R G; Whitehouse, N L; Earleywine, T J; Erickson, P S

    2015-12-01

    Twenty-eight newborn Holstein heifer calves from the university herd and 8 newborn Holstein heifer calves from a commercial herd were blocked by birth and herd into 1 of 4 treatments: conventional [20% crude protein (CP), 20% fat] milk replacer (MR; treatment C) with (1) or without (0) human visitation, or a higher plane of MR nutrition (28% CP, 20% fat) regimen (treatment A) with (1) or (0) without human visitation. Calves on C MR treatments received 454g of MR from d 2 to 41. Calves on A MR received 916g of MR from d 2 to 8 and 1134g of MR from d 9 to 41. Visitation with calves occurred at 1030 and 1430h daily from d 1 to 56 and comprised verbal stimulation and stirring of starter grain. An opaque curtain divided the calf nursery, with calves in the front half assigned to visitation treatments and those in the rear half not assigned to visitation treatments. Calves were fed their MR treatment until d 43 (preweaning), after which all calves received half of their allotment of MR until d 49 (weaning). Calves were tracked for the next week until d 56 (postweaning). Starter grain and MR intakes were measured daily along with weekly body weight and skeletal measurements. One half of the calves on each treatment had blood samples taken via jugular venipuncture on d 41 (preweaning), 43, 45, 47, 49, and 51 (postweaning) to evaluate blood glucose, urea, nonesterified fatty acids, and cortisol concentrations. During the preweaning and weaning phases, calves on A0 and A1 treatments consumed more MR, less starter, and weighed more than the C0 and C1 calves. Calves on A0 and A1 had greater average daily gain (ADG), hip and withers gain, were taller at the hip, and had larger girths during the preweaning phase. Overall, body weight, withers and hip heights, and heart girths were greater in A0 andA1 calves during the weaning week. Efficiency of utilization of estimated metabolizable energy (ME) intake (ADG/ME) were similar. Glucose and nonesterified fatty acids concentrations

  13. Holstein light quantum polarons

    OpenAIRE

    Barisic, O. S.

    2006-01-01

    The polaron formation is investigated in the intermediate regime of the Holstein model by using an exact diagonalization technique for the one-dimensional infinite lattice. The numerical results for the electron and phonon propagators are compared with the nonadiabatic weak- and strong-coupling perturbation theories, as well as with the harmonic adiabatic approximation. A qualitative explanation of the crossover regime between the self-trapped and free-particle-like behaviors, not well-unders...

  14. The Holstein Polaron

    OpenAIRE

    Bonca, J.; Trugman, S. A.; Batistic, I.

    1998-01-01

    We describe a variational method to solve the Holstein model for an electron coupled to dynamical, quantum phonons on an infinite lattice. The variational space can be systematically expanded to achieve high accuracy with modest computational resources (12-digit accuracy for the 1d polaron energy at intermediate coupling). We compute ground and low-lying excited state properties of the model at continuous values of the wavevector $k$ in essentially all parameter regimes. Our results for the p...

  15. Enhanced early-life nutrition promotes hormone production and reproductive development in Holstein bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dance, Alysha; Thundathil, Jacob; Wilde, Randy; Blondin, Patrick; Kastelic, John

    2015-02-01

    Holstein bull calves often reach artificial insemination centers in suboptimal body condition. Early-life nutrition is reported to increase reproductive performance in beef bulls. The objective was to determine whether early-life nutrition in Holstein bulls had effects similar to those reported in beef bulls. Twenty-six Holstein bull calves were randomly allocated into 3 groups at approximately 1 wk of age to receive a low-, medium-, or high-nutrition diet, based on levels of energy and protein, from 2 to 31 wk of age. Calves were on their respective diets until 31 wk of age, after which they were all fed a medium-nutrition diet. To evaluate secretion profiles and concentrations of blood hormones, a subset of bulls was subjected to intensive blood sampling every 4 wk from 11 to 31 wk of age. Testes of all bulls were measured once a month; once scrotal circumference reached 26cm, semen collection was attempted (by electroejaculation) every 2 wk to confirm puberty. Bulls were maintained until approximately 72 wk of age and then slaughtered at a local abattoir. Testes were recovered and weighed. Bulls fed the high-nutrition diet were younger at puberty (high=324.3 d, low=369.3 d) and had larger testes for the entire experimental period than bulls fed the low-nutrition diet. Bulls fed the high-nutrition diet also had an earlier and more substantial early rise in LH than those fed the low-nutrition diet and had increased concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) earlier than the bulls fed the low-nutrition diet. Furthermore, we detected a temporal association between increased IGF-I concentrations and an early LH rise in bulls fed the high-nutrition diet. Therefore, we inferred that IGF-I had a role in regulating the early gonadotropin rise (in particular, LH) and thus reproductive development of Holstein bulls. Overall, these results support our hypothesis that Holstein bull calves fed a high-nutrition diet reach puberty earlier and have larger testes than

  16. Association of bovine respiratory disease or vaccination with serologic response in dairy heifer calves up to three months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windeyer, M Claire; Leslie, Ken E; Godden, Sandra M; Hodgins, Douglas C; Lissemore, Kerry D; LeBlanc, Stephen J

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the association of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) or vaccination with serologic response in calves. 94 Holstein calves. To assess the association between BRD and antibody titers, 38 calves bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2, bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV1), and parainfluenza virus type 3 at 2 weeks of age (n = 6), 5 weeks of age (6), and both 2 and 5 weeks of age (6) or were assigned to be unvaccinated controls (6). Blood samples were obtained at I, 2, 5, and 12 weeks for determination of serum neutralization antibody titers against the vaccine viruses, bovine coronavirus, and Mannheimia haemolytica. Antibody rates of decay were calculated. Calves with initial antibody titers against BRSV < 1:64 that were treated for BRD had a slower rate of anti-BRSV antibody decay than did similar calves that were not treated for BRD. Calves with high initial antibody titers against BRSV and BHV1 had lower odds of BRD than did calves with low initial antibody titers against those 2 pathogens. Vaccination at 2 or 5 weeks of age had no effect on the rate of antibody decay. Clinical BRD and the serologic response of dairy calves were associated with initial antibody titers against BRSV and BHV1. Serologic or clinical responses to viral exposure may differ in calves with low passive immunity.

  17. Pharmacokinetics and tissue elimination of flunixin in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissell, Lindsey W; Brinson, Patrick D; Gehring, Ronette; Tell, Lisa A; Wetzlich, Scott E; Baynes, Ronald E; Riviere, Jim E; Smith, Geof W

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe plasma pharmacokinetic parameters and tissue elimination of flunixin in veal calves. ANIMALS 20 unweaned Holstein calves between 3 and 6 weeks old. PROCEDURES Each calf received flunixin (2.2 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h) for 3 days. Blood samples were collected from all calves before the first dose and at predetermined times after the first and last doses. Beginning 24 hours after injection of the last dose, 4 calves were euthanized each day for 5 days. Plasma and tissue samples were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by compartmental and noncompartmental methods. RESULTS Mean ± SD plasma flunixin elimination half-life, residence time, and clearance were 1.32 ± 0.94 hours, 12.54 ± 10.96 hours, and 64.6 ± 40.7 mL/h/kg, respectively. Mean hepatic and muscle flunixin concentrations decreased to below FDA-established tolerance limits (0.125 and 0.025 μg/mL, respectively) for adult cattle by 3 and 2 days, respectively, after injection of the last dose of flunixin. Detectable flunixin concentrations were present in both the liver and muscle for at least 5 days after injection of the last dose. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The labeled slaughter withdrawal interval for flunixin in adult cattle is 4 days. Because administration of flunixin to veal calves represents extralabel drug use, any detectable flunixin concentrations in edible tissues are considered a violation. Results indicated that a slaughter withdrawal interval of several weeks may be necessary to ensure that violative tissue residues of flunixin are not detected in veal calves treated with that drug.

  18. The effect of yeast culture addition on utility of calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Doležal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, examined was the effect of a yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Strain 47 on performance (especially on daily gains, feed conversion and condition in an experiment with a group of Holstein calves within the period of plant nutrition. Animals received a diet consisting of 3 kg of good maize silage, 5.5 kg of grass haylage, 1 kg of meadow hay and 1.6 kg of supplementary starter feed mixture ČOT B. The yeast culture was added to the starter in the dose of 1 g.kg–1. This means that each experimental calf received 1.6 g of yeast culture per day. The supplement of yeast culture showed a positive effect on daily gains and on the final body weight of calves; however, the differences were statistically not significant (P>0.05. In control and experimental groups, the mean conversion rates of concentrate were 2.19 kg and 2.13 kg, respectively. There was no difference in feed intake and feed conversion efficiency. The difference in final live body weights of calves in the control and experimental groups was also not significant. However, the condition of calves in the experimental group was much better and the scours were in general less frequent.

  19. Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001264.htm Legg-Calve-Perthes disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Legg-Calve-Perthes disease occurs when the ball of the thigh ...

  20. Influence of high dietary lead on selenium metabolism in dairy calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neathery, M.W.; Miller, W.J.; Gentry, R.P.; Crowe, C.T.; Alfaro, E.; Fielding, A.S.; Pugh, D.G.; Blackmon, D.M.

    1987-03-01

    Metabolism of orally dosed /sup 75/Se was studied in 10 intact male Holstein calves that were fed ad libitum a control diet containing no added Pb or supplemented with 1000 ppm Pb as PbSO/sub 4/ for 4 wk. Lead-supplemented calves did not exhibit any clinical signs of Pb toxicity. Voluntary feed intake was reduced by 9.5% and average daily gain by 23%. Lead content of rib, liver, and kidney increased. Serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase activity was increased during the last 2 wk of the experiment in calves fed Pb. In calves receiving supplemental Pb, /sup 75/Se absorption, blood concentration, and urine concentration were reduced by 26, 21, and 42%, respectively. Tissue /sup 75/Se concentrations were significantly lower in kidney, liver, testicle, pancreas, small intestine, heart, spinal cord, and muscle in calves fed Pb. There was a significant negative correlation (r = -.78) between /sup 75/Se and stable Pb concentrations in the liver. It is not clear whether the ingestion of subclinical amounts of Pb could affect the absorption and utilization of Se in dairy calves to the extent of Se deficiency when dairy calves are kept in areas known to be low in Se.

  1. Phosphorus kinetics in calves experimentally submitted to a trickle infection with Cooperia punctata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louvandini, H; Rodrigues, R R; Gennari, S M; McManus, C M; Vitti, D M S S

    2009-07-07

    Ten male Holstein calves (74.3+/-3.2 kg LW) were used for a trial with trickle infection with Cooperia punctata to evaluate phosphorus (P) kinetics. Five calves were inoculated with 10,000 L(3) stage larvae per week during 35 days, while the other group of five calves was kept as a control. On the 29th day each calf was intravenously injected with 29.6 MBq of a (32)P solution. Blood samples were taken at 24 h periods for 7 days, after which all calves were slaughtered and worms burdens. Faeces, urine and tissue samples were taken for analysis using isotopic dilution and modeling techniques. The number of eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) was 1920+/-168 on 28th day and the total number of worms burdens was 11,131+/-1500. Infected calves showed lower feed intake and live weight gain, as well as lower P intake, absorption and retention than control calves. The P flows between body compartments were lower for blood to gastrointestinal tract (TGI), TGI to blood, blood to soft tissues, bone balance and soft tissue balance in infected calves when compared to the control. The trickle infection of C. punctata affected P metabolism due to the decrease in P retained and live weight due to fall in feed intake.

  2. Clinical study of the disease of calves associated with Mycoplasma bovis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipkovits, L; Ripley, P; Varga, J; Pálfi, V

    2000-01-01

    Clinical, bacteriological and serological examination of 35 calves from the age of 5 to 26 days was performed in a Holstein-Friesian dairy herd endemically infected with Mycoplasma bovis. M. bovis was isolated from 48.6% of nasal swabs taken from the calves at the age of 5 days, and from 91.4% of the same calves at the age of 26 days, indicating the gradual spread of infection. The isolation rate of Pasteurella multocida did not change much, and varied from 28.6 to 25.7%. No P. haemolytica could be detected. In addition to M. bovis and P. multocida, the herd was also infected with different viruses (including bovine viral diarrhoea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine adenoviruses, parainfluenza-3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus) as a large proportion of the sera of newborn calves contained colostral antibodies against these viruses. In most of the newborn calves severe clinical signs (fever, depression, inappetence, hyperventilation, dyspnoea, nasal discharge and coughing) due to M. bovis infection developed. The clinical signs appeared already on the fifth day of life, and their incidence was the highest at the age of 10 to 15 days. Three calves (8.6%) died as a result of severe serofibrinous pneumonia. The surviving calves showed very poor weight gain (ranging from 1.5 to 3.5 kg) during the first two weeks of life.

  3. Effect of group size on behavior, health, production, and welfare of veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, E M; Schutz, M M; Lay, D C; Marchant-Forde, J N; Eicher, S D

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of group size on behavior, growth, health, and welfare of veal calves. Holstein-Friesian bull calves (n=168; 44±3 d of age) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments of group housing with 2, 4, or 8 calves per pen. The pens used for housing were 3 by 1.20 m (2 calves per pen), 3 by 2.40 m (4 calves per pen), and 3 by 4.80 m (8 calves per pen), supplying a total pen space allowance of 1.82 m2/calf, regardless of pen size. Behavior was recorded from video data throughout the day from 0700 to 1900 h during a single day each month for 5 mo using scan sampling every 5 min within 30-min observation sessions. On d 0, 1, 5, 14, 42, and 70 after grouping, continuous focal sampling around feeding time (30-min intervals before, during, and after feeding) focused on oral and aggressive behaviors. Calves housed in large groups (4 or 8 calves per pen) showed more (P≤0.001) conspecific contact, walking, and standing and less (P0.23) affected by treatment. Group size treatments were similar for hip height change (P=0.41) and heart girth change (P=0.18) over the duration of the experiment; however, both hip height and heart girth increased (P=0.001) with calf age. During mo 1, calves in groups of 8 or 4 coughed more than calves in groups of 2 whereas calves in groups of 8 coughed more than calves in groups of 4 or 2 in mo 2 (treatment×month, P=0.03). Furthermore, during mo 4, calves in groups of 8 had less nasal discharge than calves in groups of 2 or 4 (treatment×month, P=0.02). Ocular discharge, ears, and fecal scores did not differ (P≥0.05) among treatments. Plasma cortisol was not (P≥0.37) affected by group size. The number of veal calves in a group when given the same space did not affect production and physiological indicators of welfare but had a transient effect on health during the 5-mo finishing period. If increased play and social contact and decreased aggression are considered as primary indicators of

  4. Methods for early prediction of lactation flow in Holstein heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Gantner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to define methods for early prediction (based on I. milk control record of lactation flow in Holstein heifers as well as to choose optimal one in terms of prediction fit and application simplicity. Total of 304,569 daily yield records automatically recorded on a 1,136 first lactation Holstein cows, from March 2003 till August 2008., were included in analysis. According to the test date, calving date, the age at first calving, lactation stage when I. milk control occurred and to the average milk yield in first 25th, T1 (and 25th-45th, T2 lactation days, measuring monthcalving month-age-production-time-period subgroups were formed. The parameters of analysed nonlinear and linear methods were estimated for each defined subgroup. As models evaluation measures,adjusted coefficient of determination, and average and standard deviation of error were used. Considering obtained results, in terms of total variance explanation (R2 adj, the nonlinear Wood’s method showed superiority above the linear ones (Wilmink’s, Ali-Schaeffer’s and Guo-Swalve’s method in both time-period subgroups (T1 - 97.5 % of explained variability; T2 - 98.1 % of explained variability. Regarding the evaluation measures based on prediction error amount (eavg±eSD, the lowest average error of daily milk yield prediction (less than 0.005 kg/day, as well as of lactation milk yield prediction (less than 50 kg/lactation (T1 time-period subgroup and less than 30 kg/lactation (T2 time-period subgroup; were determined when Wood’s nonlinear prediction method were applied. Obtained results indicate that estimated Wood’s regression parameters could be used in routine work for early prediction of Holstein heifer’s lactation flow.

  5. Evaluation of milk yield traits of Holstein x Jersey crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Corrêa da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The crossbreeding practice between specialized dairy breeds is an usual method for dairy producers and recently the Holstein x Jersey crosses has continuously increased in some regions of Brazil. Motivating factors of this practice include an interest in improving the milk solids content, somatic cell count (SCC, fertility, longevity and calving ease, in addition to reduce the problems of consanguinity. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the milk components and milk yield of Holstein x Jersey crosses. Data set comprised 59,331 monthly records of 6,429 pure Holstein (H and Jersey (J and ½ H x ½ J crossed cows calving from 1992 to 2010. The traits analyzed were test-day milk yields (MT, somatic cell score (SCS and percentages of fat (%F and protein (%P. Since the SCC is not normal distributed it was converted to a logarithmic scale in SCS, using the following equation, SCS = log2 (SCC/100 + 3. The variables MT, SCS, %F and %P were analyzed as dependent variables by least square method using GLM procedure. There were considered linear models containing the effects of breed (H, J and ½ H x ½ J or F1, herd, year and month of test as classificatory variables. Age at calving (AC and days in milk (DM were included as covariates (linear and quadratic effects for all traits. The test-day milk yield was included as covariate for SCS model, %F and %P. All variables included in the model showed significant effects for MT, SCS, %F and %P. The estimated least square means for milk yield (19.13 H; 16.27 JH and 13.39 J showed statistically significant differences for the different genetic groups. The Holstein breed had higher test-day milk yields in comparison to Jersey breed that was an expected result since the frame of Holstein breed is greater and the selection has been practiced more intensively for production in this breed. When compared to F1 cows and Jersey, the mean of crossbreed animals was higher due to heterosis and due to difference of

  6. MILKABILITY IN HOLSTEIN COWS

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Strapák; Zuzana Súkeníková; Peter Antalík

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was evaluation of milkability in Holstein cows. We collected a total 63 milk flow curves, using electronic mobile milk flow meter – lactocorder. The measuring was carried out in cows from 5 to 305 days in milk. The average milk yield per milking was 15.63 kg, with average milk flow rate 2.84 kg.min-1 and average maximum milk flow rate of 4.49 kg.min-1. The average duration of incline phase was 1.09 min., duration of plateau phase was 1.82. min, and duration of decline pha...

  7. Effects of d-α-tocopherol and dietary energy on growth and health of preruminant dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, L A; Beitz, D C; Onda, K; Osman, M; O'Neil, M R; Lei, S; Wattoo, F H; Stuart, R L; Tyler, H D; Nonnecke, B

    2014-01-01

    To observe the effects of supplemental dietary d-α-tocopherol in relation to dietary energy on growth and immune status in dairy calves, 32 newborn Holstein bull calves were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments for 5 wk in a 2 × 2 factorial, randomized complete block, split-plot design. Calves received moderate growth (MG) or low growth (LG) all-milk dietary treatments, formulated to support daily gains of 0.5 or 0.25 kg/d, respectively, per the dietary energy recommendation for milk-fed calves according to the National Research Council's Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. Calves in both groups were either injected i.m. with Vital E-A+D (injectable solution of vitamins E, A, and D) on d 1 and supplemented with Emcelle Tocopherol (micellized vitamin E) via milk daily (MG-S and LG-S), or were not supplemented (MG-C and LG-C) during the study period. Total weight gain of MG calves was greater than that of LG calves and tended to be greater in MG-S calves than in MG-C calves. Calves receiving vitamin supplementation demonstrated greater concentrations of plasma α-tocopherol, retinol, and 25-(OH)-vitamin D than did control calves, whereas MG calves demonstrated a lower concentration of plasma α-tocopherol than did LG calves. The apparent increased utilization of α-tocopherol by MG calves was accompanied by a rise in serum haptoglobin, a positive acute-phase protein and indicator of inflammation, especially in MG-C calves. Serum amyloid A, also a positive acute-phase protein, was not different among groups, but was elevated from baseline in all groups during wk 1 through 3. Plasma IgG1 concentrations were higher in MG-S and LG-S calves than in their nonsupplemented dietary counterparts, whereas plasma IgG2, IgA, and IgM concentrations were not different among groups. In summary, dietary supplementation of d-α-tocopherol improved plasma α-tocopherol status and tended to increase growth in calves fed for 0.5 kg of average daily gain. Vitamin supplementation ameliorated

  8. Genetic associations between reproductive and linear-type traits of Holstein cows in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Prestes Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to estimate heritability, genetic, and residual correlations between reproductive traits such as age at first calving, calving interval, dry period, and first service period and linear type traits measured in Holstein cows born between the years 1990 and 2008 in Brazil. The (covariance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood, using the MTDFREML software. The heritability for reproductive traits and linear-type traits ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 and from 0.07 to 0.40, respectively. Estimates of genetic correlations between reproductive and linear-type traits ranged from -0.23 (top line to 0.28 (angularity to age at first calving, from -0.54 (final score to 0.34 (foot angle to calving interval, from -0.23 (angularity to 0.56 (stature to dry period, and from -0.52 (final score to 0.36 (height udder to first service period. Direct selection for any of the reproductive traits implies low genetic gains by virtue of their low heritabilities. Among the linear-type traits, the final score, chest width, top line, angularity, teat length, udder attachment, rear teat placement were highlighted as good auxiliary traits to improve reproductive efficiency of Holstein cows in Brazil. The simultaneous selection for reproductive and linear-type traits can lead a higher genetic progress in the reproductive traits.

  9. Detection of faecal Cryptosporidium parvum antigen in diarrheic Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiei, K; Pourjafar, M; Ghane, M

    2011-08-01

    Over a one-year period, based on a random cluster sampling design, 661 faecal samples from natural cases of diarrheic calves were taken in Fars province of Iran. The samples were taken from the 267 diarrheic calves of high and 394 diarrheic calves of average producing Holstein dairy cows. Faecal samples were collected directly from the rectum. Herd selection was based on geographical location and density of cattle in the region. Samples were collected based on 5 percent of herd population in 4 geographical regions: North, West, East and South of Fars province. The herds were stratified into small, medium and large size. Laboratory investigation consisted of a direct identification test for antigen of Cryptosporidium parvum. All herds had HPDC and APDC Cryptosporidium-infected diarrheic calves in their population. Diarrheic Cryptosporidium infected HPDC calves in southern region of Fars province were at much lower risk (P2 to 3years) showed a higher rate of infection when compared to diarrheic HPDC Cryptosporidium infected ones. There were no differences among the occurrence of Cryptosporidium infection in diarrheic HPDC and APDC calves of different herd size groups.

  10. Composição físico-química de carcaças de bezerros holandeses alimentados após o desaleitamento com silagem de grãos úmidos ou grãos secos de milho ou sorgo Physical and chemical carcasses composition of Holstein calves fed after weaning with high moisture grains silage or dry ground grains of corn or sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gercílio Alves de Almeida Júnior

    2008-01-01

    was evaluated, for production of pink meat veal. Thirty Holstein calves were alloted to a complete randomized blocks experimental design with five blocks and six concentrate rations with similar contents of protein (18.5% CP and energy (3.2 Mcal ME/kg DM, formulated with dry ground corn (GC, high moisture corn silage (HMCS, dry ground sorghum with tannin (GSWT, high moisture whole sorghum with tannin silage (HMWSWTS, dry ground sorghum without tannin (GSWTT or high moisture whole sorghum without tannin silage (HMWSWTTS. After cooling, the H&H sections of left half-carcasses were selected to estimate the tissue of carcass composition and the cuts in the Longissimus dorsi at 12th and 13th ribs to determine the rib eye area (REA, subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT, shear force (SF and chemical composition. No treatment effects were observed on physical composition and relation among the tissues of H&H section and as for REA, SFT and SF. The concentrate ration HMCS showed higher content of EE in the Longissimus dorsi, but did not differ from GSWT and GSWTT. The concentrate ration HMCS promoted higher muscular fat deposition as compared to GC, but the concentrate rations HMWSWTS and HMWSWTTS did not show the same result as compared to the dry ground grains fed. All diets can be used in veal feedlot calves without effect on their carcasses tissue composition and meat tenderness. All evaluated feeds could be used in the concentrate rations for calves after weaning, because they do not impair physical and chemical carcass composition and confer similar results.

  11. Restricting access time at pasture and time of grazing allocation for Holstein dairy cows: Ingestive behaviour, dry matter intake and milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattiauda, D.A.; Tamminga, S.; Gibb, M.J.; Soca, P.; Bentancur, O.; Chilibroste, P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of restricting access time to pasture and time of grazing allocation on grazing behaviour, daily dry matter intake (DMI), rumen fermentation, milk production and composition in dairy cows. Twenty-one autumn-calving Holstein cows were assigned to

  12. Influence of a Saccharomyces cerevisia fermentation product on the pathophysiological response to a combined intranasal bovine herpesvirus-1 and intratracheal Mannheimia haemolytica challenge in Holstein steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplementing a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product prototype (Prototype) on the pathophysiological response during a combined viral-bacterial respiratory challenge. Holstein steer calves (126.5±6.11kg; N=16) were completely rando...

  13. Supplemental fat for dairy calves during mild cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litherland, N B; Da Silva, D N L; LaBerge, R J; Schefers, J; Kertz, A

    2014-05-01

    Eighty-one Holstein and Holstein-cross dairy calves fed calf milk replacer (CMR) were used to determine response to increasing amounts of supplemental fat during mild cold stress. Calves (n=27) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) low fat [LF; 28% crude protein:15% fat milk replacer (28:15 MR)]; (2) medium fat [MF; 28:15 MR+113 g/d of commercial fat supplement (FS)]; (3) high fat (HF; 28:15 MR+227 g/d of FS). The MF and HF calves received FS from d 2 to 21, and all calves were fed LF from d 22 to 49. The CMR was fed at 1.4% of birth body weight (BBW) from d 1 to 10, at 1.8% of BBW from d 11 to 42, and at 0.9% of BBW from d 43 to 49. Calves were weaned on d 49 and remained in hutches until d 56. The CMR was reconstituted to 13% solids. Calves were fed a commercial starter grain (19.2% crude protein on a dry matter basis) ad libitum and offered warm water after CMR feeding. Calves were fed CMR twice daily at 0630 and 1730 h in hutches bedded with straw. Starter intake, CMR intake, and ambient temperature were measured daily, and body weight (BW), hip height, and body length were measured weekly. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) as a randomized design with linear and quadratic contrasts. Calf BBW averaged 42.0 ± 1.0 kg, total serum protein averaged 5.8 ± 0.1mg/dL, and birth ambient temperature averaged 5.0 ± 1.1°C. Feeding FS increased metabolizable energy intake (MEI) over maintenance but decreased efficiency of conversion of BW gain:MEI. Starter intake by LF calves was greatest until the beginning of weaning, after which starter intake was similar among treatments. Because of higher starter intake, total MEI was similar among treatments. Feed efficiency through d 49 was greater for calves fed MF and HF. Average daily gain during fat supplementation was greater for MF and HF than for LF. Lack of increase in BW gain and feed efficiency between MF and HF treatments indicated that HF did not result in advantages

  14. Interacting-Holstein and extended-Holstein bipolarons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Monodeep; Tezuka, Masaki; Min, B. I.

    2014-01-01

    Employing the recently developed self-consistent variational basis generation scheme, we have investigated the bipolaron-bipolaron interaction within the purview of the Holstein-Hubbard and the extended-Holstein-Hubbard (F2H) models on a discrete one-dimensional lattice. The density-matrix renormalization group method has also been used for the Holstein-Hubbard model. We have shown that there exists no bipolaron-bipolaron attraction in the Holstein-Hubbard model. In contrast, we have obtained clear-cut bipolaron-bipolaron attraction in the F2H model. Composite bipolarons are formed above a critical electron-phonon coupling strength, which can survive the finite Hubbard U effect. We have constructed the phase diagram of F2H polarons and bipolarons, and discussed the phase separation in terms of the formation of composite bipolarons.

  15. The effect of timing of oral meloxicam administration on physiological responses in calves after cautery dehorning with local anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, K A; Coetzee, J F; Edwards-Callaway, L N; Glynn, H; Dockweiler, J; KuKanich, B; Lin, H; Wang, C; Fraccaro, E; Jones, M; Bergamasco, L

    2013-08-01

    Dehorning is a painful husbandry procedure that is commonly performed in dairy calves. Parenteral meloxicam combined with local anesthesia mitigates the physiological and behavioral effects of dehorning in calves. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of timing of oral meloxicam administration on physiological responses in calves after dehorning. Thirty Holstein bull calves, 8 to 10 wk of age (28-70 kg), were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: placebo-treated control group (n=10), calves receiving meloxicam administered orally (1 mg/kg) in powdered milk replacer 12h before cautery dehorning (MEL-PRE; n=10), and calves receiving meloxicam administered as an oral bolus (1 mg/kg) at the time of dehorning (MEL-POST; n=10). Following cautery dehorning, blood samples were collected to measure cortisol, substance P (SP), haptoglobin, ex vivo prostaglandin E2 (PgE2) production after lipopolysaccharide stimulation and meloxicam concentrations. Maximum ocular temperature and mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) were also assessed. Data were analyzed using noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis and repeated measures ANOVA models. Mean peak meloxicam concentrations were 3.61±0 0.21 and 3.27±0.14 μg/mL with average elimination half-lives of 38.62±5.87 and 35.81±6.26 h for MEL-PRE and MEL-POST, respectively. Serum cortisol concentrations were lower in meloxicam-treated calves compared with control calves at 4 h postdehorning. Substance P concentrations were significantly higher in control calves compared with meloxicam-treated calves at 120 h after dehorning. Prostaglandin E2 concentrations were lower in meloxicam-treated calves compared with control calves. Mechanical nociceptive threshold was higher in control calves at 1h after dehorning, but meloxicam-treated calves tended to have a higher MNT at 6h after dehorning. No effect of timing of meloxicam administration on serum cortisol concentrations, SP concentrations, haptoglobin

  16. Effect of infrared lamps to ameliorate cold stress in Vrindavani calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Showkat A; Bhushan, Bharat; Sheikh, Sajad A; Chandrasekar, T; Godara, Asu Singh; Bharti, Pranay; Japheth, K Puhle

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of infrared lamps to ameliorate cold stress in Vrindavani (Holstein Friesian × Brown Swiss × Jersey × Hariana) calves. For the present investigation, ten newborn Vrindavani calves were randomly divided into two groups (G1 and G2) of five each. The experiment was conducted from 2(nd) November to 8(th) February when the environmental temperature was at the lowest. The calves of G1 were provided with no additional protection while the calves of G2 were protected against the cold weather by providing heat using the infrared lamps. The body weight (kg) of the calves was recorded at weekly interval. The blood samples collected within 6 h of birth and then at fortnightly interval were analyzed for packed cell volume (PCV, %), hemoglobin (Hb, g/dl). Besides, the serum biochemical parameters, viz., Total serum protein (TSP, g/l), albumin (g/l), globulin (g/l), albumin globulin ratio (A:G) and important stress parameters, viz., triiodothyronine (T3, ng/ml), thyroxine (T4, ng/ml) and cortisol (ng/ml) were also estimated. The calves of G2 showed higher body weight gain as compared to G1. The differences were found to be highly significant (pcortisol and T4 were observed on 15 and 45(th) day in calves of G1 as compared to G2. The T3 levels were also found higher in calves of G1 than G2 and the differences were significant (p<0.05) on 15 and 30(th) day and highly significant (p<0.01) on 45(th) day of the study. Based on the results, it could be concluded that the infrared lamps are efficient in providing favorable microclimate and hence can be effectively used in calf shed to protect newborn calves from adverse conditions of winter and to improve their body growth performance.

  17. Factors Affecting SSR in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heravi Mosavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Secondary sex ratio (SSR is the proportion of males to females at birth. It has been shown in many different mammalian species, many factors are associated with SSR. Changes in secondary sex ratio in dairy cows is considered economically important and the ability to change it could affect the revenues and profitability of a dairy farm. Thus, sperm or embryo sexing techniques in recent years has attracted more attention. Most breed of dairy cattle are more likely to have female calf is born to use them as replacement heifers and in order to maintain their productive herd number. On the contrary, when the goal is the production of meat, bull calves due to higher growth rates and production efficiency, are more convenient and more economically efficient. The aim of present study was to investigate some key factors affecting SSR in Iranian Holstein cows. According to Fisher, the sex ratio in the population under the control of natural selection is not always the same. There is overwhelming evidence to support the theory that shows Fisher Primary and secondary sex ratio sex ratio can deviate from this balance and natural selection caused a change in this ratio can be in certain circumstances. For example, the secondary sex ratio of 52:48 has been reported in dairy cows. Studies on mammalian species suggest that several factors, including latitude of the location, the dominant regional climate model, time and frequency of mating to ovulation, diet, age of parents, physical score, breed and produced eggs from ovarian left or right can have a significant effect on the secondary sex ratio. Weather conditions may modify the internal environment and the effect on physiological mechanisms or through the impact on the frequency and type of foods available to parents, the secondary sex ratio is impressive. The impact on the quantity and quality of parent's access to food sources in many species of mammals, the sex ratio has been fixed. Previous

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF AGE AT FIRST CALVING IN KARAN FRIES CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K.Panja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on 571 Karan Fries (crossing Tharparkar and Sahiwal cows with American Holstein Friesian sires at NDRI, Karnal was studied for determination of optimum age at first calving (AFC. Least squares analysis (Harvey, 1975 was used to see the effect of sire, period and season of calving and was corrected for significant effect of non-genetic factors. The genetic and phenotypic parameters was estimated for the sires which had five or more progenies. The relationship between age at first calving with other traits were studied by using regression analysis and class interval method. The least squaqres means of age at first calving (AFC, first lactation 305 days or less milk yield (FL305Y, first lactation total milk yield (FLTMY, milk yield per day of first lactation length (MY/FLL and milk yield per day of first calving interval (MY/FCI was estimated as 940.98 ± 44.24 days, 3199+ 44.24 kgs, 3599.06 ± 54.96 kgs, 10.50 ± 0.14 kgs and 7.52 ± 0.26 kgs , respectively. The heritability estimates of these traits were moderate. The AFC had significant and positive phenotypic correlation with FL305Y, FLTMY, MY/FLL and MY/FCI. The genetic correlation of AFC with FLTMY was positive. Relationship between AFC and first lactation production traits could not be explained through regression analysis therefore class interval method was used to find at the relationship. Eight classes of AFC was used to find out the relationship. Optimum AFC was identified based on higher milk production and numbers of animals in various classes as 26-36 months. To determine the optimum range of AFC, much emphasis should be given as maximum profit rather than maximizing milk production.

  19. Economic evaluation and efficacy of strategic-selective treatment of gastrointestinal parasites in dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuly Andrea Caicedo Blanco

    Full Text Available Abstract In the Experimental Farm of the Universidade Federal de Lavras (EF-UFLA, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, on their day of birth, female Holstein calves were randomly selected and placed into two groups containing fifteen animals each: Strategic-Selective Treatment (S-ST or Conventional Treatment (CT. In the S-ST, calves were treated after coproparasitological examinations according to criteria established previously by the researchers. Calves in the CT were treated according to the opinion of the veterinarian of EF-UFLA. For statistical analysis, the frequency (% of fecal samples with count of eggs per gram of feces (EPG ≥300, count of oocysts per gram of feces (OoPG ≥500 and fecal samples with count of cysts of Giardia spp. ≥1 were conducted. The overall average frequency of fecal samples with EPG ≥300, OoPG ≥500 and Giardia spp. cysts ≥1, respectively, was similar (p >0.05 between S-ST (20.3%; 17.3%; and 31.5% and CT (26.4%; 23.9%; and 37.3%. The effective operational cost, per animal, in 12 months, was of R$ 784.58 (US$ 241.41 and R$ 83.90 (US$ 25.81 in S-ST and CT, respectively. The S-ST requires adjustments to be used as a technically efficient and economically viable alternative for the control of gastrointestinal parasitosis in female Holstein calves.

  20. Separation from the dam causes negative judgement bias in dairy calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolnei R Daros

    Full Text Available Negative emotional states in humans are associated with a negative (pessimistic response bias towards ambiguous cues in judgement tasks. Every mammalian young is eventually weaned; this period of increasing nutritional and social independence from the dam is associated with a pronounced behavioural response, especially when weaning is abrupt as commonly occurs in farm animals. The aim of the current study was to test the effect of separation from the cow on the responses of dairy calves in a judgement task. Thirteen Holstein calves were reared with their dams and trained to discriminate between red and white colours displayed on a computer monitor. These colours predicted reward or punishment outcomes using a go/no-go task. A reward was provided when calves approached the white screen and calves were punished with a timeout when they approached the red screen. Calves were then tested with non-reinforced ambiguous probes (screen colours intermediate to the two training colours. "GO" responses to these probes averaged (± SE 72±3.6% before separation but declined to 62±3.6% after separation from the dam. This bias was similar to that shown by calves experiencing pain in the hours after hot-iron dehorning. These results provide the first evidence of a pessimistic judgement bias in animals following maternal separation and are indicative of low mood.

  1. Pair housing and enhanced milk allowance increase play behavior and improve performance in dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Duve, Linda Rosager; Weary, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    -housed calves could perform social play behavior (play fighting), and the duration of this was greater on d 15 and 29 than on d 43 [8.3, 10.7 and 3.5 (±1.3) corresponding to 69, 115 and 12 s/24 h for d 15, 29, and 43]. Among calves on enhanced milk, pair-housed animals had a greater concentrate intake than...... observed no effect of pair versus individual housing [810 and 840 (±40) g/d]. In conclusion, greater durations of play behavior in enhanced-fed calves suggest an animal welfare benefit of this feeding method. Enhanced-fed calves consumed less concentrate, but pair housing stimulated concentrate intake......To investigate the effects of social housing and milk feeding on play behavior and performance, 48 Holstein-Friesian male and female calves were either individually or pair housed in straw-bedded pens (3.0 m × 4.5 m). Half of the calves in each housing treatment were fed a standard milk allowance...

  2. Deciphering upper respiratory tract microbiota complexity in healthy calves and calves that develop respiratory disease using shotgun metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta, Natália C; Lima, Svetlana F; Teixeira, Andre G; Ganda, Erika K; Oikonomou, Georgios; Gregory, Lilian; Bicalho, Rodrigo C

    2017-02-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a multifactorial disorder responsible for severe economic losses in dairy and feedlot herds. Advances in next-generation sequencing mean that microbial communities in clinical samples, including non-culturable bacteria, can be characterized. Our aim was to evaluate the microbiota of the upper respiratory tract of healthy calves and calves with BRD using whole-genome sequencing (shotgun metagenomics). We performed deep nasopharyngeal swabs on 16 Holstein heifer calves (10 healthy and 6 diagnosed with BRD during the study) at 14 and 28 d of life in 1 dairy herd near Ithaca, New York. Total DNA was extracted, and whole-genome sequencing was performed using the MiSeq Illumina platform (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Samples included 5 predominant phyla: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Tenericutes. At the genus level, we observed differences between groups for Pseudomonas spp. At the species level, Mannheimia haemolytica was the most abundant bacterium detected. We detected significant differences between groups of calves in the relative abundance of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Pasteurella multocida was among the 20 most abundant species, and Moraxella catarrhalis, commonly associated with pneumonia in humans, was detected in all groups. Analysis of resistance to antibiotics and compounds profiling revealed differences in cobalt-zinc-cadmium resistance. Further research to elucidate the role of Moraxella catarrhalis in BRD is warranted. Genes that were resistant to cobalt-zinc-cadmium, observed mostly in calves with BRD, might be associated with difficulties in antibiotic treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Low incidence of an altered endometrial epidermal growth factor (EGF) profile in repeat breeder Holstein heifers and differential effect of parity on the EGF profile between fertile Holstein (dairy) and Japanese Black (beef) cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Seiji; Moriyoshi, Masaharu; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2013-12-17

    A high incidence (about 70%) of alteration in endometrial epidermal growth factor (EGF) profile, i.e., loss of 2 peaks on days 2-4 and 13-14, has been linked to a reduced fertility in multiparous repeat breeder Holstein cows. However, the EGF profile in Holstein heifers and other breeds (types) of cattle has not been investigated. In study 1, EGF concentrations were determined using endometrial tissues obtained by biopsy on days 3, 7 and 14 from 84 fertile Holstein heifers to obtain a normal range and 53 repeat breeder Holstein heifers to estimate incidence of alterations in the EGF profile. In repeat breeder heifers, EGF concentrations were similar to fertile controls on 3 days and five animals (9.4%) had an altered EGF profile with EGF concentrations below the normal range on days 3 and 14. In study 2, EGF concentrations on day 3 were repeatedly examined from the nulliparous period to the third postpartum period in 28 Holstein (dairy) and 47 Japanese Black (beef) cattle. The effect of parity on EGF concentrations on day 3 was different between Holstein and Japanese Black cattle. In Japanese Black cows, the EGF concentrations were consistently high throughout the study period, while in Holstein cows, the EGF concentrations decreased after the second calving. In conclusion, unlike multiparous repeat breeder Holstein cows, an altered EGF profile may not be a major cause of repeat breeding in Holstein heifers, and the peak EGF concentrations around day 3 may decrease even in fertile populations of multiparous dairy cows, but not in beef cows.

  4. Effect of enhanced whole-milk feeding in calves on subsequent first-lactation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiezebrink, D J; Edwards, A M; Wright, T C; Cant, J P; Osborne, V R

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of enhanced whole-milk (WM) feeding systems in calves from birth to 8wk of age on subsequent first-lactation performance. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design consisting of 2 treatment groups. At birth, 152 Holstein heifer calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: (i) 4L of WM/d or (ii) 8L of WM/d. The calves were bucket fed 2 or 4L of WM twice daily at 0700 and 1600h. Each calf was housed individually in temperature-controlled nurseries and had ad libitum access to water and textured calf starter daily. Calves consumed greater volumes of textured calf starter when fed 4 versus 8L of WM/d. Water intakes mirrored starter intakes, leading to greater water consumption at weaning. Calves reared on 8L of WM/d were heavier at d 56 than calves reared on 4L of WM/d. The average daily gain of the calves offered 8L of WM/d from d 0 to 56 was greater than that of calves offered 4L of WM/d. Structural measurements were significantly greater for calves that consumed 8L of WM/d. The differences observed in withers height and live BW due to WM feeding level were not apparent by 3 and 12mo of age, respectively. Rumen pH was higher in calves that consumed 8L of WM/d than in calves that consumed 4L of WM/d. Whole-milk feeding level did not affect age at first calving or milk-production parameters. These results suggest that enhanced WM feeding improved growth performance until 3mo of age. However, first-lactation results indicated no lactation-performance benefits of increased nutrition and growth performance during the milk-fed period in dairy calves. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Efeito da composição genética e de fatores de meio sobre a produção de leite, a duração da lactação e a produção de leite por dia de intervalo de partos de vacas mestiças Holandês-Gir Effects of genetic composition and environmental factors on milk production, lactation length and milk production per day of calving interval in crossbred Holstein-Gyr cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Glória

    2006-12-01

    environmental factors on milk production (MP, lactation length (LL and milk yield per day of calving intervals (P/I (n=2,016 of 822 crossbred (1/2, 3/4 and 7/8 Holstein-Gyr cows, raised in the West of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, were evaluated using least squares methodology. The effect of predicted transmitting ability (PTA of the Holstein sires on MP of their daughters was also evaluated. The effect of genetic composition on the three traits was an important source of variation. MP, LL and P/I increased with the increase of Holstein contribution. Season of calving was an important source of variation for MP of 3/4 cows and for LL of 3/4 and 1/2 cows. The highest MP and LL were observed for lactations starting at the end of the rainy season. The effect of age at calving on MP was linear for 1//2 and 3/4 cows and curvilinear for 7/8 cows. For LL the effect of age at calving was curvilinear for 1/2 and 3/4 cows and linear for 7/8 cows. On P/I was linear for 3/4 and 7/8 cows and curvilinear for 1/2 cows. The effect of PTA on MP was not different from zero. Estimated repeatability for MP were .72, .69 and .63, respectively, for the 1/2, 3/4 and 7/8 Holstein-Gyr cows.

  6. Pair Housing of Dairy Calves and Age at Pairing: Effects on Weaning Stress, Health, Production and Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynski, David T.; James, Richard; Croft, Darren P.

    2017-01-01

    The early social environment can influence the health and behaviour of animals, with effects lasting into adulthood. In Europe, around 60% of dairy calves are reared individually during their first eight weeks of life, while others may be housed in pairs or small groups. This study assessed the effects of varying degrees of social contact on weaning stress, health and production during pen rearing, and on the social networks that calves later formed when grouped. Forty female Holstein-Friesian calves were allocated to one of three treatments: individually housed (I, n = 8), pair-housed from day five (P5, n = 8 pairs), and pair-housed from day 28 (P28, n = 8 pairs). From day 48, calves were weaned by gradual reduction of milk over three days, and vocalisations were recorded as a measure of stress for three days before, during and after weaning. Health and production (growth rate and concentrate intakes) were not affected by treatment during the weaning period or over the whole study. Vocalisations were highest post-weaning, and were significantly higher in I calves than pair-reared calves. Furthermore, P28 calves vocalised significantly more than P5 calves. The social network of calves was measured for one month after all calves were grouped in a barn, using association data from spatial proximity loggers. We tested for week-week stability, social differentiation and assortment in the calf network. Additionally, we tested for treatment differences in: coefficient of variation (CV) in association strength, percentage of time spent with ex-penmate (P5 and P28 calves only) and weighted degree centrality (the sum of the strength of an individual’s associations). The network was relatively stable from weeks one to four and was significantly differentiated, with individuals assorting based on prior familiarity. P5 calves had significantly higher CV in association strength than I calves in week one (indicating more heterogeneous social associations) but there were no

  7. Pair Housing of Dairy Calves and Age at Pairing: Effects on Weaning Stress, Health, Production and Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Sarah L; Boyland, Natasha K; Mlynski, David T; James, Richard; Croft, Darren P

    2017-01-01

    The early social environment can influence the health and behaviour of animals, with effects lasting into adulthood. In Europe, around 60% of dairy calves are reared individually during their first eight weeks of life, while others may be housed in pairs or small groups. This study assessed the effects of varying degrees of social contact on weaning stress, health and production during pen rearing, and on the social networks that calves later formed when grouped. Forty female Holstein-Friesian calves were allocated to one of three treatments: individually housed (I, n = 8), pair-housed from day five (P5, n = 8 pairs), and pair-housed from day 28 (P28, n = 8 pairs). From day 48, calves were weaned by gradual reduction of milk over three days, and vocalisations were recorded as a measure of stress for three days before, during and after weaning. Health and production (growth rate and concentrate intakes) were not affected by treatment during the weaning period or over the whole study. Vocalisations were highest post-weaning, and were significantly higher in I calves than pair-reared calves. Furthermore, P28 calves vocalised significantly more than P5 calves. The social network of calves was measured for one month after all calves were grouped in a barn, using association data from spatial proximity loggers. We tested for week-week stability, social differentiation and assortment in the calf network. Additionally, we tested for treatment differences in: coefficient of variation (CV) in association strength, percentage of time spent with ex-penmate (P5 and P28 calves only) and weighted degree centrality (the sum of the strength of an individual's associations). The network was relatively stable from weeks one to four and was significantly differentiated, with individuals assorting based on prior familiarity. P5 calves had significantly higher CV in association strength than I calves in week one (indicating more heterogeneous social associations) but there were no

  8. Feeding calves with hydrosoluble soybean extract. I. Performance and digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Novita Esteves

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to study the total replacement of powder milk protein (SL for hydrosoluble soybean extract (EHS in feeding 5-day-old Holstein male calves. The experiment was carried out using 3 treatment throughout the period of milk intake (5 to 90 days of life. In treatment I, SL was supplied from the 5th to 90th day of life. In treatment II, SL was supplied until the 29th day, and, from the 30th to 90th day, EHS was supplied. In treatment III, EHS was supplied from the 5th day of life. After this period the calves were weaned and received the same hay and concentrate feed as in the milk intake period, up to 180 days. During the milk intake period, the animals of treatment II, showed in average lower food intake, decreased daily weight gain and poorer digestibility of nutrients than animals from treatment I (P<0.05. In the post-weaning period food intake and average daily gain were similar. Calves of treatment III lost weight throughout the experiment, showed very weak body condition and were sacrified.

  9. Histopathological changes during experimental infections of calves with Cooperia punctata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, R R; Gennari, S M; Guerra, J L; Contieri, M B; Abdalla, A L; Vitti, D M S S

    2004-06-01

    Eleven male two-month-old Holstein calves were used to determine the pathological changes induced by a Cooperia punctata infection. After weaning, ten calves received a single oral dose of 45,000 C. punctata infective larvae. One calf remained as a non-infected control. Groups of two calves were killed on days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 post-infection (p.i.) for determination of worm burdens and histopathological evaluation. The small intestine was sub-divided into three sections of approximately equal length, and representative samples of mucosa were fixed in 10% formalin, cut, and stained with haematoxylin-eosin. Samples of intestinal contents and mucosal digests were taken and fixed in 10% formalin for an estimation of total worm burdens. An increase in the number of adult parasites and a decrease in the number of larvae were observed with time (P<0.001). A higher concentration of worms was found in the first segment of the small intestine during the five weeks of observation. Histology showed larvae in the intestinal mucosa on day 7 p.i., with a discrete increase in the cellular response. Adult worms and a marked cellular infiltrate with eosinophils and neutrophils were present on day 21 p.i., and these persisted until day 35 p.i. Microcysts resulting from worm destruction were observed from day 21 p.i.

  10. Effects of Supplemental Mannanoligosaccharides on Growth Performance, Faecal Characteristics and Health in Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagdas Kara

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Holstein calves were used to investigate the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS supplementation in the whole milk on growth performance, faecal score, faecal pH, selected faecal bacterial populations and health during the preweaning period. Healthy calves selected by clinical examination were allocated to one of the two groups (control [CG] and experimental [EG] at 5 days old. Each group consisted of 5 male and 5 female calves. Each calf in EG was supplemented with 7 g/d of a MOS product (Celmanax from 5 days to 56 days of age. MOS supplement was mixed with the whole milk once in the morning and administered to the calves in EG via nipple bottle, whereas the calves in CG were fed the whole milk without MOS. Calves were weaned at 56 days of age. The final body weight, average daily weight gain (ADG and average daily feed intake (ADFI were statistically similar (p>0.05 but were higher by 3.70%, 6.66%, and 10.97%, respectively, in MOS than in control calves. Feed efficiency (ADG/ADFI was also similar in two calves group. While faecal scores did not differ on day 5, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 49, and 56 between groups, EG had a higher faecal score (p = 0.05 than CG on day 35. Faecal concentration of Lactobacillus was lower (p0.05 in faecal concentrations of Bifidobacterium, Clostridium perfringens, and Escherichia coli were found between groups. Although there were no significant differences (p>0.05 in the incidence of diarrhoea, treatment days for diarrhoea and the costs associated with diarrhoea treatments between groups, collectively, the observed reductions in treatment days and the cost of diarrhoea treatments accompanying increases in final body weight, ADG and ADFI for EG may indicate potential benefit of MOS in treatment of diarrhoea.

  11. Survey of management practices related to bovine respiratory disease in preweaned calves on California dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, W J; Lehenbauer, T W; Karle, B M; Hulbert, Lindsey E; Anderson, Randall J; Van Eenennaam, A L; Farver, T B; Aly, S S

    2016-02-01

    In the spring of 2013, a survey of California (CA) dairies was performed to characterize management practices related to bovine respiratory disease in preweaned calves, compare these practices across geographic regions of the state, and determine the principal components that explain the variability in management between herds. The questionnaire consisted of 53 questions divided into 6 sections to assess management practices affecting dairy calves from precalving to weaning. The questionnaire was mailed to 1,523 grade A licensed dairies in CA and 224 responses (14.7%) were collected. Survey response rates were similar over the 3 defined regions of CA: northern CA, northern San Joaquin Valley, and the greater southern CA region. The mean size of respondent herds was 1,423 milking cows. Most dairies reported raising preweaned calves on-site (59.7%). In 93.3% of dairies, preweaned calves were raised in some form of individual housing. Nonsaleable milk was the most frequent liquid diet fed to preweaned heifers (75.2%). Several important differences were identified between calf-raising practices in CA and practices reported in recent nationwide studies, including herd sizes, housing practices, and sources of milk fed to heifers. The differences between the CA and nationwide studies may be explained by differences in herd size. Regional differences within CA were also identified. Compared with the 2 other regions, northern CA dairies were found to have smaller herds, less Holstein cattle, calves remained with dams for longer periods of time after calving, were more likely to be certified organic dairies, and raised their own calves more often. Principal component analysis was performed and identified 11 components composed of 28 variables (questions) that explained 66.5% of the variability in the data. The identified components and questions will contribute to developing a risk assessment tool for bovine respiratory disease in preweaned dairy calves. Copyright © 2016

  12. Performance and Health of Group-Housed Calves Kept in Igloo Calf Hutches and Calf Barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Wójcik*, Renata Pilarczyk, Anna Bilska, Ottfried Weiher1 and Peter Sanftleben1

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Group-reared calves are usually housed in common buildings, such as calf barns of all sorts; however, there are concerns about this practice due to problems such as an increased incidence of diseases and poor performance of the calves. Group calf rearing using igloo hutches may be a solution combining the benefits of individual and group housing systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate group-reared calves housed in Igloo-type hutches compared with those housed in common calf barns. The experiment was carried out on a large private dairy farm located in Vorpommern, Germany. A total of 90 Deutsche-Holstein bull calves were assigned to 2 treatment groups: the calf-barn group, with calves grouped in pens in a building, and the Igloo-hutch group, with calves housed in outdoor enclosures with an access to group igloo-style hutches. Calves entering the 84-day experiment were at an average age of about three weeks, with the mean initial body weight of about 50 kg. The calves housed in the group Igloo hutches attained higher daily weight gains compared to those housed in the calf barn (973 vs 721 g/day, consumed more solid feeds (concentrate, corn grain and maize silage: (1.79 vs 1.59 kg/day, and less milk replacer (5.51 vs 6.19 kg/day, had also a lower incidence of respiratory diseases (1.24 vs 3.57% with a shorter persistence of the illness.

  13. Genetic parameters for type traits in Holstein cows in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Viegas Campos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Data from 26,558 Holstein cows in 802 herds were used to estimate genetic, residual and phenotypic parameters for 22 type traits. The model included the fixed effects of herd-year, period of classification, classifier, stage of lactation and age of cows at calving (covariate and random genetic and residual effects. Heritability for type traits ranged from 0.10 to 0.39. The genetic variability in these traits suggested the possibility for moderate genetic gains through selection. The phenotypic correlations were moderated, mainly in the section conformation. Genetic correlations between type traits ranged from -0.44 to 0.85. High genetic correlations indicated that breeding programs could be successful without including all type traits. The selection for the final score at the expense of other traits must be performed with restraint, because in the long term, this may promote undesirable changes in some type traits.

  14. MILKABILITY IN HOLSTEIN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Strapák

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was evaluation of milkability in Holstein cows. We collected a total 63 milk flow curves, using electronic mobile milk flow meter – lactocorder. The measuring was carried out in cows from 5 to 305 days in milk. The average milk yield per milking was 15.63 kg, with average milk flow rate 2.84 kg.min-1 and average maximum milk flow rate of 4.49 kg.min-1. The average duration of incline phase was 1.09 min., duration of plateau phase was 1.82. min, and duration of decline phase was 2.26 min. Percentage of bimodal milk flow curves was 52 %, on average. The highest average milk flow rate (3.01 kg.min-1 and the highest average peak milk flow rate (4.96 kg.min-1 were found in cows in second lactation, in comparison with primiparous cows (2.87 kg.min-1, and 4.37 kg.min-1 and cows in another lactation (2.7 kg.min-1, and 4.3 kg.min-1.

  15. Suspected levamisole intoxication in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K R; Dwyer, C

    2016-07-01

    A group of 32 Friesian and four Hereford calves, 3-4 months old with body weights between 100-120 kg, were purchased from a weaner sale. On arrival at the property the Hereford calves were treated with a combination anthelmintic containing 2 g/L abamectin and 80 g/L levamisole hydrochloride. Shortly afterwards they developed tremors and frothing from the mouth, and two died overnight. The Friesian calves were treated with the same anthelmintic on the following day, when some showed hypersalivation and frothing from the mouth. Examination of the three most severely affected Friesian calves revealed severe nicotinic-type symptoms including hypersalivation, frothing from the mouth, muscle tremors, recumbency, rapid respiration, hyperaesthesia, and central nervous system depression. Other calves showed mild to moderate signs of intoxication including restlessness, tail switching, salivation, tremors, frequent defaecation, mild colic and jaw chomping. Two calves died shortly afterwards. An adverse drug event investigation revealed that the formulation and quality of the anthelmintic was within the correct specification, and that the drench gun was functioning correctly. Suspected levamisole intoxication due to a combination of possible overdosing, dehydration, and stress caused by transportation and prolonged yarding. Susceptibility to levamisole toxicity in New Zealand calves can be increased if factors like dehydration or stress are present. Levamisole has a narrow margin of safety, and overdosing in calves can easily occur if the dose rate is not based on their actual weight or health status.

  16. Evaluation of cytokine expression by blood monocytes of lactating Holstein cows with or without postpartum uterine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, K N; Felippe, M J B; Brittin, S B; Sper, R; Fraga, M; Galvão, J S; Caixeta, L; Guard, C L; Ricci, A; Gilbert, R O

    2012-01-15

    Whereas neutrophils are the main phagocytic leukocytes, monocytes and macrophages are actively involved in immunomodulation after infection. Recent studies have demonstrated that neutrophil function is impaired by the state of negative energy balance around parturition, and that cows that develop uterine disease have a greater degree of negative energy balance than healthy cows. The objectives of this study were to compare monocyte gene expression and protein secretion of selected cytokines from calving to 42 d after calving in Holstein cows that did or did not develop uterine disease. Real time quantitative RT-PCR (Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) and ELISA (TNFα, IL-1β and IL-8) were used to evaluate cytokine response following in vitro stimulation of blood-derived monocytes with irradiated E. coli. Relative to unstimulated cells, E. coli-stimulated monocytes from cows with metritis had lower gene expression of key pro-inflammatory cytokines than healthy cows from calving to 14 d after calving (TNFα at 0, 7, and 14 d after calving, IL-1β and IL-6 at 7 and 14 d after calving; P cows with metritis. Expression of mRNA in stimulated cells (relative to housekeeping genes) was lower for TNFα (7 and 14 d postpartum) and for IL-10 (7 and 14 d postpartum) in cows with metritis. Concentration of TNFα was lower in the culture medium of E. coli-stimulated monocytes from cows with metritis than healthy cows at calving and 7 and 21 d after calving (P cows and cows that developed endometritis, diagnosed cytologically at 42 d after calving. We concluded that altered levels of expression and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines postpartum could contribute to impaired inflammatory response and predispose cows to development of metritis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Short communication: Heritability of twinning rate in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, Beth M; Kirkpatrick, Brian W

    2018-02-14

    Multiple births or twinning in cattle is a naturally occurring reproductive phenomenon. For dairy cattle, twinning is considered a detrimental trait as it can be harmful to cow and calf as well as costly to the producer. The objective of this study was to examine recent US calving records for the Holstein breed to determine a current estimate of heritability for twinning rate along with effects of season and parity. Two models were used in this study: a linear sire model and a binary threshold-logit sire model. Both were mixed models considering fixed effects and random effects. Analyses were conducted using a restricted maximum likelihood method. Heritability estimates were 0.0192 ± 0.0009 and 0.1420 ± 0.0069 for the linear and threshold models, respectively. Repeatabilities from the linear and threshold-logit models were 0.0443 ± 0.0012 and 0.2310 ± 0.0072, respectively. The nonzero estimates of heritability indicate the potential to select against this trait for genetic improvement of Holstein cattle. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of a breeding objective for Estonian Holstein cattle

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    E. PÄRNA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic weights for milk carrier (water plus lactose, fat and protein yields, calving interval, age at first service, interval between the first service and conception of heifers and length of productive life of Estonian Holsteins were estimated under assumed milk production quota and for non-quota conditions. A bio-economic model of an integrated production system of a closed herd was used. Economic values of milk carrier yield and length of productive life differed between quota and non-quota conditions, but there were only minor differences between those marketing systems in economic values for functional traits. The standardised economic values of the most important traits varied in magnitude between18 to 81% of the economic value for milk yield. Discounting had a substantial impact on the economic value of length of productive life. When defining the breeding objective for Estonian Holstein, the interval between the first service and conception of heifers, and the length of productive life should be included in the breeding goal along with the traits with the highest economic value, milk, fat and protein yield. In the optimum breeding objective, relative weights of production vs. functional traits were 79 and 21%, respectively.;

  19. Performance and plasma metabolites of dairy calves fed starter containing sodium butyrate, calcium propionate or sodium monensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L S; Bittar, C M M

    2011-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine the influence of supplementation of sodium butyrate, sodium monensin or calcium propionate in a starter diet on the performance and selected plasma metabolites (plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate) of Holstein calves during pre- and post-weaning periods. Twenty-four newborn Holstein calves were housed in individual hutches until 10 weeks of life, receiving water free choice, and fed four liters of milk daily. Calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth, and allocated to one of the following treatments, according to the additive in the starter: (i) sodium butyrate (150 g/kg); (ii) sodium monensin (30 mg/kg); and (iii) calcium propionate (150 g/kg). During 10 weeks, calves received starter ad libitum, while coast cross hay (Cynodon dactylon (L.) pers.) was offered after weaning, which occurred at the 8th week of age. Weekly, calves were weighted and evaluated for body measurements. Blood samples were taken weekly after the fourth week of age, 2 hours after the morning feeding, for determination of plasma metabolites. No differences were observed among treatments for starter or hay intake, BW and daily gain of the animals. Mean concentrations of selected plasma metabolites were similar in calves fed a starter supplemented with sodium butyrate, sodium monensin and calcium propionate. There was significant reduction in the concentrations of plasma glucose as calves aged. The inclusion of sodium butyrate, calcium propionate or sodium monensin as additives in starter feeds resulted in equal animal performance, before and after weaning, suggesting that sodium monensin may be replaced by organic acid salts.

  20. Pair housing and enhanced milk allowance increase play behavior and improve performance in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, M B; Duve, L R; Weary, D M

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the effects of social housing and milk feeding on play behavior and performance, 48 Holstein-Friesian male and female calves were either individually or pair housed in straw-bedded pens (3.0 m × 4.5 m). Half of the calves in each housing treatment were fed a standard milk allowance (5 L/d from d 3 to 42); the other calves were fed an enhanced milk allowance (9 L/d from d 3 to 28 and 5 L/d from d 29 to 42). All calves were abruptly weaned on d 43. Play behavior was recorded for 48 h beginning on d 15, 29, and 43. Variables were square root-transformed before analysis, but back-transformed values are given. On d 15 the duration of locomotor play behavior was greater among enhanced- than standard-fed calves [15.2 vs. 10.8 (± 1.0) corresponding to 231 vs. 117 s/24 h]; this behavior decreased when milk allowance in the enhanced treatment was reduced on d 29. Across ages, the duration of locomotor play behavior was greater among individually housed than pair-housed calves [10.9 vs. 8.2 (± 0.6) corresponding to 119 vs. 67 s/24 h], but the total duration of play did not differ between individual and pair-housed calves [130 (45-295) s/24 h; median and interquartile range]. Only pair-housed calves could perform social play behavior (play fighting), and the duration of this was greater on d 15 and 29 than on d 43 [8.3, 10.7 and 3.5 (± 1.3) corresponding to 69, 115 and 12 s/24 h for d 15, 29, and 43]. Among calves on enhanced milk, pair-housed animals had a greater concentrate intake than individually housed calves (840 vs. 530 ± 110 g/d); for calves on standard milk, we detected no effect of housing [990 and 1,090 (± 110) g/d]. Among calves on enhanced milk, pair-housed calves had greater body weight gain than individually housed calves [990 vs. 850 (± 40) g/d]. For calves on standard milk, we observed no effect of pair versus individual housing [810 and 840 (± 40) g/d]. In conclusion, greater durations of play behavior in enhanced-fed calves suggest an

  1. The effects of maternal calving date and calving interval on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate the growth performance of calves born to dams with different calving dates and calving intervals. Early calving dams produced calves with the lowest birth weights, the highest actual weaning weights and the highest pre-breeding heifer weights. The higher weaning weights of early ...

  2. Enhanced bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli in calves fed Morinda citrifolia (Noni) puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, M; Sharp, P; Brooks, V J; Xu, J; Cai, J; Keuler, N S; Peek, S F; Godbee, R G; Schultz, R D; Darien, B J

    2008-01-01

    Although adequate colostrum intake and properly used antibiotics can provide much protection for the bovine neonate, increased antibiotic scrutiny and consumer demand for organic products have prompted investigations of natural immunomodulators for enhancing calf health. One plant-based immunomodulator, Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit, is a well-recognized natural product that has a broad range of immunomodulatory effects. Neonatal calves fed noni puree would demonstrate whole blood phagocytic capacity in Gram-negative and Gram-positive in vitro assays. Blood samples from 18 neonatal Holstein bull calves. Calves were divided into 2 groups: Group 1 comprised control calves, whereas Group 2 received 30 mL of noni puree twice a day in milk replacer. Day 0 blood samples were obtained between 36 and 48 hours of age before the first feeding of puree. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid anticoagulated blood was collected from each calf on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. Bactericidal assays were performed to estimate the percentage killing of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Blood samples from noni puree-fed calves displayed significantly more E. coli bacterial killing than did controls on day 14, and although differences were not significant on days 0, 3, and 7, bacterial killing progressively increased over time. There was no significant difference between the groups for S. epidermidis killing. The immunomodulatory effect of noni puree may prove valuable in the future as production animal antibiotic use becomes more restricted. Additional clinical trials are warranted to investigate the clinical application of noni puree in promoting calf health.

  3. Effect of infrared lamps to ameliorate cold stress in Vrindavani calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Showkat A. Bhat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to determine the effect of infrared lamps to ameliorate cold stress in Vrindavani (Holstein Friesian × Brown Swiss × Jersey × Hariana calves. Materials and Methods: For the present investigation, ten newborn Vrindavani calves were randomly divided into two groups (G1 and G2 of five each. The experiment was conducted from 2nd November to 8th February when the environmental temperature was at the lowest. The calves of G1 were provided with no additional protection while the calves of G2 were protected against the cold weather by providing heat using the infrared lamps. The body weight (kg of the calves was recorded at weekly interval. The blood samples collected within 6 h of birth and then at fortnightly interval were analyzed for packed cell volume (PCV, %, hemoglobin (Hb, g/dl. Besides, the serum biochemical parameters, viz., Total serum protein (TSP, g/l, albumin (g/l, globulin (g/l, albumin globulin ratio (A:G and important stress parameters, viz., triiodothyronine (T3, ng/ml, thyroxine (T4, ng/ml and cortisol (ng/ml were also estimated. Results: The calves of G2 showed higher body weight gain as compared to G1. The differences were found to be highly significant (p<0.01. The calves in G1 showed comparatively higher values of PCV and Hb and the differences were found to be significant (p<0.05 on 45th day for PCV and highly significant (p<0.01 on 60th day for PCV and on 45th day for Hb. The values of TSP and albumin were comparatively higher in calves of G1 as compared to G2 and the differences were highly significant (p<0.01 on 45th day for both TSP and albumin and significant (p<0.05 on 60th day for albumin. Significantly (p<0.01 higher values of cortisol and T4 were observed on 15 and 45th day in calves of G1 as compared to G2. The T3 levels were also found higher in calves of G1 than G2 and the differences were significant (p<0.05 on 15 and 30th day and highly significant (p<0.01 on 45th day of the study

  4. Consequences and economics of metritis in Iranian Holstein dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnani, A; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Cabrera, V E

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to describe the risk factors, incidence, and productive and reproductive consequences of metritis in dairy cows, and (2) to estimate the financial losses associated with metritis using data gathered from 4 Holstein dairy farms in Isfahan, Iran. Calving records from March 2008 to December 2013, comprising 43,488 calvings, were included in the data set. The effects of metritis on productive and reproductive performance were analyzed using a mixed linear model for primiparous and multiparous cows separately and in an overall data set (all cows combined), whereas risk factors on metritis incidence were examined using a multivariable logistical regression model for the overall data set. The incidence of metritis per cow per year was 13.2% on average and ranged from 9.0 to 15.8%. Results of logistic regression analysis demonstrated that calving year, parity number, calving season, twinning, dystocia, and retained placenta were significantly associated with the occurrence of metritis, whereas previous metritis incidence did not show an association. Greatest odds of metritis occurred in first-parity cows that calved in winter and had retained placenta, twinning, and dystocia in recent years. A case of metritis significantly reduced the 305-d milk yield in primiparous and multiparous cows and overall, but had no significant effects on 305-d fat and protein percentages in either primiparous or multiparous cows. Overall, a case of metritis reduced 305-d milk yield by 129.8±41.5kg/cow per lactation. The negative reproductive effects due to metritis were smaller and nonsignificant for primiparous cows compared with multiparous cows. Overall, a case of metritis increased days open and number of insemination per conception by 16.4±1.2 and 0.1±0.0 per cow per lactation, respectively. Among the individual farms, metritis costs ranged from $146.4 to $175.7 with a mean of $162.3/case. The model to calculate metritis costs proposed here could

  5. Differences between Angus and Holstein cattle in the Lupinus leucophyllus induced inhibition of fetal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benedict T; Panter, Kip E; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Davis, T Zane

    2015-11-01

    Calves with congenital defects born to cows that have grazed teratogenic Lupinus spp. during pregnancy can suffer from what is termed crooked calf syndrome. Crooked calf syndrome defects include cleft palate, spinal column defects and limb malformations formed by alkaloid-induced inhibition of fetal movement. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that there are differences in fetal activity of fetuses carried by Holstein verses Angus heifers orally dosed with 1.1 g/kg dried ground Lupinus leucophyllus. Fetal activity was monitored via transrectal ultrasonography and maternal serum was analyzed for specific lupine alkaloids. There were more (P Holstein heifers than those in Angus heifers at eight and 12 h after oral dosing. In addition to serum alkaloid toxicokinetic differences, the Holstein heifers had significantly lower serum concentrations of anagyrine at 2, 4, and 8 h after oral dosing than Angus heifers. Holstein heifers also had significantly greater serum concentrations of lupanine at 12, 18 and 24 h after dosing than the Angus heifers. These results suggest that there are breed differences in susceptibility to lupine-induced crooked calf syndrome. These differences may also be used to discover genetic markers that identify resistant animals, thus facilitating selective breeding of resistant herds. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Clinical study report on milk production in the offspring of a somatic cell cloned Holstein cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masahiro; Tsuchiya, Hideki; Hamano, Seizo; Inaba, Toshio; Kawate, Noritoshi; Tamada, Hiromichi

    2013-12-17

    This study examined two female offspring of a somatic cell cloned Holstein cow that had reproduction problems and milk production performance issues. The two offspring heifers, which showed healthy appearances and normal reproductive characteristics, calved on two separate occasions. The mean milk yields of the heifers in the first lactation period were 9,037 kg and 7,228 kg. The relative mean milk yields of these cows were 111.2% and 88.9%, respectively, when compared with that of the control group. No particular clinical abnormalities were revealed in milk yields and milk composition rate [e.g., fat, protein and solids-not-fat (SNF)], and reproductive characteristics of the offspring of the somatic cell cloned Holstein cow suggested that the cloned offspring had normal milk production.

  7. The SLICK hair locus derived from Senepol cattle confers thermotolerance to intensively managed lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, S; Khan, F A; Huson, H J; Sonstegard, T S; Moss, J I; Dahl, G E; Hansen, P J

    2014-09-01

    The SLICK haplotype (http://omia.angis.org.au/OMIA001372/9913/) in cattle confers animals with a short and sleek hair coat. Originally identified in Senepol cattle, the gene has been introduced into Holsteins. The objectives of the current study were to determine (1) whether lactating Holsteins with the slick hair phenotype have superior ability for thermoregulation compared with wild-type cows or relatives not inheriting the SLICK haplotype, and (2) whether seasonal depression in milk yield would be reduced in SLICK cows. In experiment 1, diurnal variation in vaginal temperature in the summer was monitored for cows housed in a freestall barn with fans and sprinklers. Vaginal temperatures were lower in slick-haired cows than in relatives and wild-type cows. In experiment 2, acute responses to heat stress were monitored after cows were moved to a dry lot in which the only heat abatement was shade cloth. The increases in rectal temperature and respiration rate caused by heat stress during the day were lower for slick cows than for relatives or wild-type cows. Moreover, sweating rate was higher for slick cows than for cows of the other 2 types. In experiment 3, effects of season of calving (summer vs. winter) on milk yield and composition were determined. Compared with milk yield of cows calving in winter, milk yield during the first 90 d in milk was lower for cows calving in the summer. However, this reduction was less pronounced for slick cows than for wild-type cows. In conclusion, Holsteins with slick hair have superior thermoregulatory ability compared with non-slick animals and experience a less drastic depression in milk yield during the summer. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Growth, behavior, and economics of group-fed dairy calves fed once or twice daily in an organic production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienitz, M J; Heins, B J; Chester-Jones, H

    2017-04-01

    Heifer calves (n = 102) were used to evaluate the effect of once- or twice-daily feeding on growth, behavior, and economics of calves in an organic group management system. Calves were assigned to replicate feeding groups of 10 in superhutches by birth order, during 2 seasons from September to December 2013 and March to May 2014 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center, Morris. Calves in groups were the experimental unit. Breed groups of calves were Holsteins (n = 26), crossbreds (n = 45) including combinations Holsteins, Montbéliarde, and Viking Red (selected for high production), and crossbreds (n = 31) including combinations of Holsteins, Jersey, Normande, and Viking Red (selected for robustness). Treatment groups were once-daily feeding (1×) or twice-daily feeding (2×). Calves in both groups were fed 6 L per calf/daily of organic milk with 13% total solids and then weaned at 60 d when the group consumption averaged 0.91 kg/d of starter per calf. Body weight and hip height were recorded at birth, once a week, at weaning, and at 90 and 120 d of age. Hobo Pendant G loggers (Onset Computer Corp., Bourne, MA) were applied to the right rear leg of calves to measure total lying and standing time. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Independent variables for analyses were the fixed effects of birth weight (co-variable), season of birth, and treatment group, along with replicate as a random effect. No significant differences were found between feeding groups for body weight, weight gain, average daily gain, hip height, or heart girth. For calves in 1× and 2× groups, respectively, weaning group performance was as follows: gain per day was 0.79 and 0.81 kg, weaning weight was 92.7 and 93.3 kg, and weaning hip height was 95.2 and 95.3 cm. Daily gain to 90 d was 0.85 and 0.85 kg, and daily gain to 120 d was 0.85 and 0.83 kg for 1× and 2× calves, respectively. For lying time, calves in groups 1

  9. [Cases of nacrobacillosis in calves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simov, I; Pavlov, N

    1978-01-01

    Necrobacillosis was established in 48 out of a total of 90 calves aged from 1 to 6 months, raised on a common premise. The disease affected only calves under the age of 3 months, running a more severe course with high mortality in the younger animals. Along with the clinical manifestations associated with the organs involved there was also bradicardia in most of the diseased calves. Nonreactive necroses were observed in the digestive organs, liver, spleen, lungs, and lymph nodes with adjacent resorptive foci of histiocytes, fibroblasts, and giant cells.

  10. Some indicators of welfare of crated veal calves on three dietary iron regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, J M; Morris, G L; Curtis, S E; Simon, J; McGlone, J J

    1988-02-01

    Holstein calves were managed from less than 1 wk of age as in the special-fed veal industry but subjected to three dietary regimens (n = 10/group): low dietary iron (LI = approximately 5 mg iron/kg dry milk replacer) throughout 16 wk; 2) high then low dietary iron (H-LI = 140 mg/kg through d 18, then approximately 5 mg/kg through wk 16; a typical industrial scheme) or 3) high dietary iron (HI = approximately 105 mg/kg throughout the study). Several physiologic, behavioral and health indicators of welfare were monitored at various times. From wk 7 on, blood hemoglobin concentration was higher in HI calves than in LI, whereas that in H-LI calves was intermediate. Blood red cell count was higher in HI calves than in LI from wk 11 to 16, and was higher in HI than in H-LI from wk 14 to 16. Ratio of blood segmented neutrophils to lymphocytes (an indicator of stress) did not differ due to dietary regimen. Between wk 2 and 16, lying time increased from 69.5 to 76.6% of total time. Oral behaviors (e.g., licking and gnawing) occupied less than 15% of total time. Dietary regimen did not affect time spent either lying or engaging in oral behaviors. Calves in all dietary-regimen and slaughter-age groups experienced high frequencies of pneumonia, digestive-tract maladies and trichobezoars, but neither disease nor medical-treatment frequency was related to dietary regimen. Live, hot-dressed carcass and liver weights of the five calves/group slaughtered at 16 wk were not affected by dietary regimens, but carcass grade was highest for LI calves and lowest for HI.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Environmental and animal factors associated with gestation length in Holstein cows and heifers in two herds in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasek, R; Rezac, P; Havlicek, Z

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to assess the effects of the month of conception, month of calving, sex of the calf, and twins on gestation length (GL) in Holstein cows and heifers in two dairy herds with different milk yields. The study was performed in northeast Czech Republic over a 6-year period on two commercial dairy herds with a mean annual milk production of 11,060 kg per cow in the higher milk-producing herd and 8854 kg per cow in the lower milk-producing herd. Gestation length in cows that conceived in different months of the year was longer in the higher milk-producing herd than that in the lower milk-producing herd throughout the year (P Gestation length in cows that conceived in different months of the year was longer than that in heifers through the whole year in both herds (P Gestation length in cows and heifers that conceived in the first months of the year was longer than in those that conceived in the last months of the year in both herds (P Gestation length in cows and heifers that calved in late fall and throughout winter was longer than in those that calved in spring and summer in both herds (P Gestation length in females carrying male calves was longer than in those carrying female calves (P Gestation length in cows (P < 0.0001) and heifers (P < 0.05) carrying singles was longer than in those carrying twins in both herds. In conclusion, results indicate that GL in Holstein cattle is associated with the month of conception, month of calving, herd, parity, sex of the calf, and twins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Prepartum Monensin Feeding on Energy Metabolism and Reproductive Performance of Postpartum High-Producing Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Changizi Mohammadi, Abbas Rowshan Ghasrodashti1, Amin Tamadon2,3 and Mohammad Amin Behzadi4*

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effects of monensin in preparturient diet on postpartum milk production, energy metabolism, and reproductive performance of Holstein dairy cows. Forty Holstein dairy cows on close-up period were randomly divided into monensin treated (300 mg/day in close-up ration, top dress and control groups. Body condition score (BCS was estimated three weeks before and three weeks after calving. Milk production and milk fat percentage were recorded in both groups within 3 weeks postpartum. Blood samples were collected from five randomly selected cows of each group three weeks after calving. Serum concentrations of insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I, insulin, glucose, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA were measured. Calving to the first observed estrus interval and calving to conception interval were compared between two groups. The results of the experiment showed that loss of BCS (P=0.3, increase of milk production (P=0.9, and milk fat percentage (P>0.05 were not significantly different between two groups during the period of study. In addition, mean serum glucose concentration (P=0.001 and serum insulin concentration (P=0.01 in monensin group were significantly higher than control cows in the first week postpartum. Moreover, serum BHBA concentration did not significantly change in monensin group. Serum IGF-I concentration in monensin group was significantly higher than control group in three weeks postpartum (P<0.01. The present study indicated that monensin treatment decreased calving to the first observed estrus interval (P=0.05 and calving to conception interval (P=0.002. In conclusion, supplementing the close-up ration can increase postpartum serum IGF-I concentration and prevent the increase of serum BHBA concentration. These may result in enhancement reproductive performance of high-producing dairy cows.

  13. Hetastarch and Hetastarch + 7.2% NaCl solution in the treatment of hypovolemic diarrheic calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Çağrı Karakurum

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In this study, it was aimed to compare the effectiveness of Hydroxyethyl Starch (HTS, HTS +7.2% NaCl combination and Ringer Lactate solutions in the treatment of hypovolemic calves with diarrhea. Materials and methods. A total of 21 holstein calves (12 female, 9 male, weighted 28-52 kg, at the age of 0-30 days, were enrolled in the present study. The calves were randomly divided into 3 groups. Calves in the first group received HTS (10 mL / kg, calves in the second group received Hydroxyethyl starch + 7.2% NaCl combination (4 mL/kg and calves in the third group were treated with lactated Ringer’s solution (32 mL/kg intravenously. Calves in each group were administered with oral rehydration solution immediately, and at 8th and 16th hours after intravenous applications. Clinical examinations and laboratory findings were obtained at 0 hour, 30th minutes, 1st, 2nd, 4th, 12th and 24th hours respectively. Results. Calves in all groups achieved clinical remission with a positive response to treatment and there was no statistically significant difference in the vast majority of the variables examined, although dehydration, capillary refill time, mental status and pulse quality were better in hydroxyethyl starch group and especially in hydroxyethyl starch + 7.2% NaCl group than those of Ringer’s lactate group (p<0.05. Conclusions. In the present study, treatment of hypovolemic calves with diarrhea especially with Hydroxyethyl starch and Hydroxyethyl starch + 7.2% NaCl combination along with oral fluid therapy with the electrolyte solution was considered to be practical and effective.

  14. The influence of sodium propionate on blood glucose, insulin and cortisol concentrations in calves of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Radojičić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of gluconeogenesis in ruminants is under the direct influence of insulin and glucocorticoid hormones. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of added Na-propionate on the neuroendocrine regulation of blood glucose in calves at three specific physiological periods: on exclusive milk nutrition; on mixed milk and forage nutrition; and with established ruminant digestion. The influence of Na-propionate on blood glucose, insulin and cortisol concentrations was examined in the same 20 female Holstein calves at different stages of forestomach development (15 days, 2 months, and 4 months of age of calves. Group 1 of calves (n = 10 received Na-propionate intravenously; group 2 (n = 10 received Na-propionate mixed in milk. Blood sampling was performed 1 and 3 h after Na-propionate administration. After i.v. administration of Na-propionate, a significant increase (P < 0.05 in blood glucose concentration was observed 1 h after administration only in calves aged 2 and 4 months; blood insulin concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.01 1 and 3 h after i.v. administration in 2-month-old calves; and cortisol concentration increased (P < 0.01 1 h after administration in each selected calf in all testing periods. Orally administered Na-propionate led to a significant increase (P < 0.01 of insulin concentration 1 and 3 h after administration in 15-day-old calves, and 3 h after administration in 2-month-old calves. Based on these results it could be assumed that i.v. and p.o. administration of Na-propionate affects the neuroendocrine regulation of glycaemia in calves of different age.

  15. The effect of Protexin on prevention of ileocecal infection by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiei, A; Moosakhani, F; Hamidi, A; Sami, M

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Protexin (Probiotics International Ltd., South Petherton, UK) in the prevention of ileocecal infection by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in dairy calves in the field situation. Forty Holstein bull calves whose dams were paratuberculosis negative (confirmed by serum ELISA test and fecal nested PCR) were randomly selected in 2 groups. All calves were fed raw milk collected from the bulk tank in a paratuberculosis-infected dairy farm, which was confirmed by PCR. The treatment group (20 calves) was given 2 g of Protexin from birth until weaning (90 d). The control group (20 calves) did not consume Protexin. The calves were culled at 12 mo of age and the ileocecal lymph nodes were sampled. The lymph nodes were tested by nested PCR to evaluate MAP infection. In the treatment group, 2 out of 20 calf (10%) ileoceca were infected by MAP, whereas in the control group, 8 out of 20 calf (40%) ileoceca were infected by MAP. A significant difference existed between ileocecal infection by MAP in treatment and control groups. Thus, Protexin showed a significant effect in decreasing the ileocecal infection by MAP. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Field evaluation of the efficacy of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin against bovine tuberculosis in neonatal calves in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameni, Gobena; Vordermeier, Martin; Aseffa, Abraham; Young, Douglas B; Hewinson, R Glyn

    2010-10-01

    In developing countries, the conventional test and slaughter strategy for the control of bovine tuberculosis is prohibitively expensive, and alternative control methods such as vaccination are urgently required. In this study, the efficacy of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) for protection against bovine tuberculosis (bTB) was evaluated in Holstein calves under field conditions in Ethiopia. Thirteen neonatally vaccinated and 14 control calves were exposed for 10 to 23 months to skin test reactor cows. Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) testing, comparative intradermal tuberculin testing, postmortem examination, and bacteriological culture were used for the evaluation of BCG efficacy. The overall mean pathology score was significantly (P control calves than in vaccinated calves. Culture positivity for Mycobacterium bovis was higher in the control calves than in the vaccinated calves, and significantly more BCG-vaccinated animals would have passed a standard meat inspection (P = 0.021). Overall, the protective efficacy of BCG was between 56% and 68%, depending on the parameters selected. Moreover, by measuring gamma interferon responses to the antigens ESAT-6 and CFP-10, which are present in M. bovis but absent from BCG, throughout the experiment, we were able to distinguish between vaccinated animals that were protected against bTB and those animals that were not protected. In conclusion, the present trial demonstrated an encouraging protective effect of BCG against bTB in a natural transmission setting in Ethiopia.

  17. Effects of Probiotic and Prebiotic on Average Daily Gain, Fecal Shedding of , and Immune System Status in Newborn Female Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezhman Mohamadi Roodposhti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty two Holstein female calves (initial body weight = 40±3.0 kg were used to investigate the effects of probiotic and prebiotic on average daily gain (ADG, fecal E. coli count, white blood cell count, plasma IgG1 level and cell-mediated immune response to injection of phytohemagglutinin in suckling female calves. Calves were assigned randomly to one of the four treatments, including whole milk without additives (control, whole milk containing probiotic, whole milk containing prebiotic and whole milk containing probiotic and prebiotic (synbiotic. Average daily gain was greater in calves fed probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic at weeks 6, 7 and 8 (p<0.05. E. coli count was significantly lower in calves fed probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic on d 56 (p<0.05. There was no significant difference between treatments in blood samples and cell-mediated response. This study showed that addition of probiotic, prebiotic and combination of these additives to milk enhanced ADG and reduced fecal E. coli count in preruminant calves.

  18. The Swedish Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    2012-01-01

    The main characteristics of ‘the Swedish model’ are arguably related to the country's knowledge-intensive industry and its advanced welfare state. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the historical development of these two features of the Swedish economy. The first part looks at industrial...

  19. Inclusion of psyllium in milk replacer for neonatal calves. 1. Effects on growth, digesta viscosity, rate of passage, nutrient digestibilities, and metabolites in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, S J; Fahey, G C; Murphy, M R; Dikeman, C L; Miller, B L; Drackley, J K

    2010-08-01

    Based on research in other species, inclusion of psyllium in milk replacer might improve nutrient utilization and gastrointestinal function in neonatal calves. Male Holstein calves were fed a milk replacer (22% crude protein, 20% fat) either without or with psyllium (1.1% of dry matter) from 2 d through 28 d of age. Milk replacer was reconstituted to 12.5% dry matter (DM) and fed at 12% of calf body weight (BW), adjusted weekly. Water was offered ad libitum but no starter was fed. Three calves per treatment were harvested weekly to sample digesta from the rumen, abomasum, jejunum, proximal colon, and distal colon. Mean daily intakes of water, DM, crude protein, and metabolizable energy did not differ between treatments. Average daily gain of BW did not differ between treatments. Digesta from the abomasum and colon of calves fed psyllium was more viscous than digesta from control calves. Mean retention time of digesta in the total digestive tract tended to be greater for calves supplemented with psyllium (9.7 vs. 8.4h). Feces and digesta from the proximal and distal colon of calves fed psyllium had lower DM content than feces and digesta from control calves. Total-tract apparent digestibility of DM (92.8 vs. 94.1%) was lower for psyllium-fed calves, likely as an effect of the addition of the more poorly digestible psyllium; digestibilities of energy and ash also tended to be lower. The prefeeding plasma glucose concentration (10h after previous feeding) tended to be greater for psyllium-fed calves but concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, cholesterol, urea N, and total protein did not differ between treatments. Blood components did not differ between treatments at 2h postfeeding. Inclusion of psyllium in the milk replacer of neonatal calves increased digesta viscosity and slowed passage of digesta through the gastrointestinal tract. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of isovalerate supplements on morphology and functional gene expression of rumen mucosa in pre- and post-weaning dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q; Wang, C; Guo, G; Huo, W J; Zhang, Y L; Pei, C X; Zhang, S L; Wang, H

    2017-08-02

    Isovalerate supplements could stimulate rumen development by improving morphology and function of rumen mucosa, and then promote the growth of calves. This study was done to evaluate the effects of isovalerate supplements on morphology and functional gene expression of rumen mucosa in dairy calves. In total, 48 Chinese Holstein male calves with 15 days of age and 45.1±0.36 kg of BW were randomly assigned to four groups. The treatments were: control, low-isovalerate, moderate-isovalerate and high-isovalerate with 0, 3, 6 and 9 g isovalerate per calf per day, respectively. Supplementary isovalerate was hand-mixed into milk in pre-weaning calves and into concentrate portion in post-weaning calves. The study consisted of a 15-day-adaptation period and a 60-day-sampling period. Calves were weaned at 60 days of age. Three calves were slaughtered from each of the four treatments at 30, 60 and 90 days of age. The weight of body and stomach were measured, samples of ruminal tissues and blood were analyzed. Total stomach weight, total stomach to BW ratio, rumen wall and keratinized layer thickness, serum growth hormone and IGF-1 for both pre- and post-weaning calves increased linearly with increasing isovalerate supplements. Rumen to total stomach weight ratio, the length and width of rumen papillae, and serum β-hydroxybutyrate increased linearly for post-weaning calves. However, abomasum weight to total stomach weight ratio decreased linearly for both pre- and post-weaning calves. The relative messenger RNA expression for growth hormone receptor, IGF-1 receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 1 in rumen mucosa increased linearly for post-weaning calves. Our results suggested that isovalerate supplements promoted rumen development in a dose-dependent manner. The optimum dose was 6.0 g isovalerate per calf per day.

  1. Secretion of glucagon-like peptide-2 responds to nutrient intake but not glucose provision in milk-fed calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, J.J.; Morrison, S.Y.; Hosseinni, A.

    2016-01-01

    concentrations in plasma and intestinal development in Holstein calves. In the first experiment, 48 newborn calves were assigned to 12 treatments (n = 4) corresponding to the factorial combination of 4 milk feeding amounts [1.75, 1.32, 0.88, and 0.44% of body weight (BW) as dry matter (DM)] and 3 oral...... supplementation treatments (nonsupplemented, glucose-supplemented, and 3-O-methyl glucose-supplemented). In the second experiment 30 newborn calves (n = 10) were fed milk at a fixed rate of 1.75% of BW as DM and assigned to the same glucose supplementation treatments used in experiment 1 to investigate effects...... fashion to milk intake but not to glucose supplementation, even at milk consumption levels of only 0.4% of BW as DM....

  2. Twinning in Iranian Holstein Dairy Cattle: A Study of Risk Factors and Production and Reproduction Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abolfazl mahnani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cattle are a monotocous species meaning that, under most circumstances, a successful pregnancy results in the birth of one calf. Twinning rate has been reported in dairy cows from 3 to 5 percent, which can be influenced by maternal age.The birth of twins is detrimental to the majority of beef and dairy cattle producer. Financial loss arising from any of twinning has been reported in Europe between 109 to 201 dollars in recent years. Because it is associated with undesirable consequences such as reduced survival, calf, cow increased removal rate and poor performance. This also reduces pregnancy rates and profitability herds. One of the effects of twinning severe is reduction of the number of calves for replacement fertility in dairy cows. This is a loss arising from an increase in infant mortality and a gender bias in bull calves homo zygote.Twinning rate increases significantly the incidence of reproductive abnormalities, including the retained placenta, dystocia, stillbirth and abortion. Many studies have been done on the effect of multiple pregnancies in cattle production and reproduction. Higher milk production for cows twin issue is controversial as some studies have shown that there is a positive correlation between the rate of twinning in dairy cattle and milk production. But in the next lactation, production for cows that have been the twin of the infected cow metabolic disease in the previous period was lower. In a study reported that cows spend fewer days in the twin peak production. The results of the study on the effect of twinning on reproductive traits of Holstein cows-Farzin showed that only half of the twin cows are prone to reproduce in the next period. It is also reported a greater number of insemination per conception in twin compared to single cows. In addition, it has been reported that the twin was more than 15 days from calving to first services. Average twin cows experiencing 1.7 times more death and removal

  3. Graphene susceptibility in Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousavi, Hamze, E-mail: hamze.mousavi@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nano Science and Nano Technology Research Center, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    We study the effects of the electron-phonon interaction on the temperature dependence of the orbital magnetic susceptibility of monolayer graphene. We use the linear response theory and Green's function formalism within the Holstein Hamiltonian model. The results show that the effects of the electron-phonon interaction on the susceptibility of graphene sheet have different behaviors in two temperature regions. In the low temperature region, susceptibility increases when the electron-phonon coupling strength increases. On the other hand, the susceptibility reduces with increasing the electron-phonon coupling strength in the high temperature region. - Highlights: Effect of electron-phonon interaction on the susceptibility of graphene is studied. Linear response theory and Green's function technique in Holstein model are used. Effect of electron-phonon on susceptibility has different behaviors in two temperature regions.

  4. Hofnachfolge in Schleswig-Holstein

    OpenAIRE

    Tietje, Hendrik

    2004-01-01

    Die große Mehrheit der Unternehmen im landwirtschaftlichen Sektor sind Familienbetriebe, bei denen Eigentum und Management innerhalb der Familie von einer Generation an die nächste weitergegeben werden. Die vorliegende Arbeit widmet sich der Analyse der Hofnachfolgeentscheidung in landwirtschaftlichen Familienbetrieben auf regionaler und einzelbetrieblicher Ebene. Datengrundlage der einzelbetrieblichen Analyse ist eine Befragung zur Hofnachfolge von Landwirten in Schleswig-Holstein, die um Bu...

  5. Swedish Government Minister at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research recently visited CERN. The Swedish Minister was greeted by Swedish scientists working at CERN. Signing of the Swedish Computing Memorandum of Understanding. Pär Omling, Director-General of the Swedish Research Council (left), and Jos Engelen, CERN’s Chief Scientific Officer. Lars Leijonborg, the Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research, was welcomed to CERN by Director-General Robert Aymar on 10 March. After an introduction to the Laboratory’s activities, the Minister was given guided tours of the control room, the ATLAS surface hall and experiment cavern and the adjoining LHC tunnel. Mr Leijonborg was then greeted by Swedish scientists and given an overview of the Swedish research programme at CERN. Five Swedish university groups are taking part in LHC research. Swedish universities are notably involved in the manufacture of parts for the sub-detectors of AT...

  6. Brix refractometry in serum as a measure of failure of passive transfer compared to measured immunoglobulin G and total protein by refractometry in serum from dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, D; Nydam, D V; Godden, S M; Bristol, L S; Kryzer, A; Ranum, J; Schaefer, D

    2016-05-01

    A series of trials were conducted to evaluate Brix refractometry (Brix %) for the assessment of failure of passive transfer (FPT) in dairy calves compared to: (1) serum IgG (reference standard) when measured by radial immunodiffusion (RID) or a turbidometric immunoassay (TIA), and (2) serum total protein refractometry (STP). For the serum samples tested with TIA, STP, and Brix % (n = 310; Holstein calves), the median concentrations were 21.3 g/L IgG, 58 g/L STP, and 9.2%, respectively. For the serum samples tested with RID, STP and Brix % (n = 112; Jersey calves), the mean concentrations were 38 g/L IgG, 68 g/L STP, and 10.2%, respectively. For samples tested with only Brix % and STP (n = 265; Holstein calves), median STP and Brix % were 50 g/L STP and 8.5%, respectively. Correlations between Brix % and RID, and between Brix % and TIA were equal (r = 0.79, respectively). Brix % and STP were positively correlated (r = 0.99). Brix % estimated serum IgG concentrations determined by TIA and RID (r(2) = 0.63, 0.62, respectively). When FPT was defined as serum IgG refractometry predicted successful transfer of passive immunity in dairy calves, but further evaluation as a diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of FPT is warranted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Forage and sugar in dairy calves' starter diet and their interaction on performance, weaning age and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M

    2014-06-01

    The effects of sugar and forage inclusion in calves' starter and their interaction on animal performance and rumen fermentation parameters were investigated. Twenty-eight neonatal Holstein male calves 3 days of age with average body weights of 42 ± 4 kg were allocated to four different treatments. All calves were fed a similar basal diet consisting of milk and concentrate. The experimental treatments were: (i) basal diet with no supplementation (Control, hereafter designated by C), (ii) basal diet plus 5% granular sugar cane (Sugar, designated by S), (iii) basal diet plus 5% forage (Forage, designated by F) and (iv) basal diet plus 5% forage with 5% granular sugar cane (F × S). Supplement ingredients were used on a dry matter (DM) basis. Rumen fluid parameters were measured twice on days 35 and 70 of the study period. The calves were weaned when they could consume 1 kg of starter for three consecutive days. The results show that starter intake was not affected by treatment; however, the lowest ADG was observed with calves in the sugar treatment. Weaning age was affected by treatments, and forage showed to reduce milk consumption period down to its shortest. Forage-sugar interaction was found to have no effects on animal performance. The structural body indices as well as the health status of the calves were similar in different treatments. Rumen pH did not differ among the treatment groups. Among the rumen parameters, total VFA concentration and molar proportions of butyrate and propionate did not exhibit any significant differences among the treatments. However, ruminal acetate concentration decreased in calves that fed sugar cane during the early weeks of the study period. Comparison of forage and sugar included in the starter diets revealed that forage reduced weaning age, while sugar cane had a negative effect on calves' performance. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Molasses as a possible cause of an ''endocrine disruptive syndrome'' in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Masgoret

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available During the mid 1990s a potentially serious, chronic syndrome was reported in well-managed beef and dairy herds from unrelated parts of South Africa. Farmers reported that it manifested as various combinations of decreased production, decreased weaning masses, apparent immune breakdown in previously immunocompetent animals, increased reproductive disorders, various mineral imbalances in non-deficient areas and goitre, noticeable as enlarged thyroid glands. The farmers associated this syndrome with certain batches of sugar cane molasses and molasses-based products. The syndrome was reminiscent of an ''endocrine disruptive syndrome''. The objective of this study was to evaluate the suspected endocrine disruptive effect of molasses included in cattle feed. Using existing in vitro assays, four batches of molasses syrup were screened for possible inclusion in a calf feeding trial. Two batches were selected for the trial. Thirty-two, 4- to 6-week-old, weaned Holstein bull calves were included in the single phase, three treatment, parallel design experiment. In two of the groups of calves, two different batches of molasses were included in their rations respectively. The control group was fed a ration to which no molasses was added, but which was balanced for energy and mineral content. The mass gain of the calves was recorded over the 6-month study period. The calves were clinically examined every week and clinical pathology parameters, immune responses and endocrine effects were regularly evaluated. Even though endocrine disrupting effects were detected with the in vitro screening assays, these could not be reproduced in the calves in the experiment. The two batches of molasses utilized in the calf feeding trial did not induce major differences in any of the parameters measured, with the exception of a lower mass gain in one of the molasses-fed groups (Group 1, which tended towards significance. The results of the study indicate that the two batches

  9. Dynamics of the humoral immune response of calves infected and re-infected with Cooperia punctata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsuda, A P; Vieira-Bressan, M C

    2000-02-01

    The dynamics of the humoral immune response of calves were analysed after primary infection and re-infection with the intestinal nematode Cooperia punctata. 12 male 5 month-old Holstein-Friesian calves were randomly divided into two groups A and B. At the beginning of the experiment Group A animals were each infected experimentally with a single oral dose of 130,000 infective third stage larvae (L3) of C. punctata. The animals of Group B were kept as non-infected controls. The two calves from Group A with the highest infections died of cooperiosis at 32 and 44 days after infection (DAI), respectively. On DAI 100 the calves were treated with the recommended dose of oxfendazole. On DAI 180 the remaining four calves of Group A and three animals of Group B (B1) were infected with 260,000 L3 of C. punctata, while the other three calves of Group B (B2) served as non-infected controls. Monitoring of the humoral immune response predominantly demonstrated an IgG1 response against both adult and L3 antigen of C. punctata. Moreover, re-infections increased the levels of these immunoglobulins. IgA levels were less increased than IgG1 and no significant increase was observed in IgG2 and IgM levels. Immunoblotting analysis showed that total IgG present in the serum of the primary infected animals mainly reacted against adult proteins of 12-14 and 17-20 kDa and against L3 proteins of 33 and 43 kDa. After re-infection total IgG reacted with the same adult proteins but also with an adult 29 kDa protein.

  10. The effect of calving season and age at calving on production traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    cows calving in mid-summer (December/January). Daily yields early in the lactation were more influenced by calving age than daily yields towards the end of the lactation. Cows that calved at younger ages in lactations 1 and 2 produced less milk compared to cows calving at older ages over the entire lactation. Second and ...

  11. The effects of maternal calving date and calving interval on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    kg for heifer pre-breeding weight. It is recommended that date of calving and actual weaning weight of calves should be considered when evaluating the reproductive and productive performance of breeding cows. Keywords: calving date, calving interval, growth rate, beef cows. *. Author to whom correspondence should be ...

  12. The effects of maternal calving date and calving interval on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Two models were developed. The following independent variables were used for model 1: year of birth, age of dam, sex of calf, previous calving group of the dam, calving group and birth weight of calf. Model 2 included the same variables as model 1, but calving group was replaced by calving interval. Birth weight of the calf.

  13. Cecal infarction in neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaska, John M; Moeller, Robert B; Blanchard, Patricia C; Aly, Sharif S

    2017-03-01

    Cecal infarction is an uncommon lesion in calves that results in localized peritonitis and, on occasion, perforation with secondary diffuse peritonitis and death. This lesion in calves has not been described previously. We reviewed the postmortem cases of cecal infarction in dairy calves ≤30 d of age that had been submitted over the course of 5 y to the Tulare branch of the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System. The area of cecal infarction and the associated lesion margins were examined histologically. Ischemic necrosis of the mucosal side of the cecal wall with various degrees of neutrophilic inflammation of subjacent tissues was found consistently, and thrombosis and vascular occlusion within the areas of necrosis and inflammation was found in 21 of 34 cases. Cecal infarction cases were then compared to controls using a retrospective matched case-control study design. Cases ( n = 34) and controls ( n = 86) were compared with respect to bacteremia (as defined by pure culture of a single bacterial agent from lung and/or liver), species of bacteria isolated, and for the presence of K99 Escherichia coli (calves ≤5 d), attaching and effacing E. coli, Cryptosporidium (calves ≥5 d of age), Salmonella isolation from the intestine, rotavirus, Bovine coronavirus, and Bovine viral diarrhea virus. In addition, the presence of rumenitis or abomasitis, and omphalitis were compared between cases and controls. There were no significant differences in ruminal, abomasal, or umbilical cord tissue inflammation, or pathogen test-positive status between cases and controls.

  14. Steroid hormone may modulate hepatic somatomedin C production in newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxam, V; Davicco, M J; Durand, D; Bauchart, D; Opmeer, F; Barlet, J P

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the possible influence of steroid hormones and a beta-agonist (clembuterol) on hepatic insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) production in young calves. For this purpose nine 20- to 40-day-old Holstein X Friesian male calves were fitted with chronically indwelling catheters in hepatic and portal veins and hepatic artery. Estradiol induced a simultaneous increase in plasma growth hormone (GH nmol/l) and IGF1 (nmol/l) levels (0.35 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.10 +/- 0.01 in control calves; 9.5 +/- 1.0 vs. 5.9 +/- 0.5 in controls, respectively). In the same way, 90 min after starting testosterone treatment, plasma GH levels increased from 0.21 +/- 0.08 to 1.30 +/- 0.40 while plasma IGF1 concentrations began to rise only 240 min after starting infusion (8.4 +/- 1.0) to reach maximal values at 300 min (10.7 +/- 1.1). Cortisol and clembuterol did not significantly modify either plasma GH levels or plasma IGF1 concentrations. Our results indicate that in young calves gonadal steroids exert their anabolic action through GH and IGF1.

  15. Effects of different levels of dietary lead on zinc metabolism in dairy calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, F.D.; Neathery, M.W.; Gentry, R.P.; Miller, W.J.; Logner, K.R.; Blackmon, D.M.

    1985-05-01

    The effects of feeding diets containing 500 or 1500 ppM added lead as lead sulfate on zinc and zinc-65 metabolism in Holstein bull calves were investigated. Zinc absorption was slightly (not significantly) reduced in the calves fed lead. Fecal zinc excretion was increased by the lead diets by day 24 of the experiment. Dietary lead had no significant effect on zinc in blood. Except for the tibia, muscle, and brain, stable zinc decreased in all tissues of calves fed the 1500 ppM lead diets, and differences were significant in pancreas, heart, and testicle. A significant decrease was noted in pancreatic zinc in pancreas of calves fed 500 ppM lead. Tissue zinc-65 concentrations were decreased significantly by lead in the tibia and muscle. Intestinal tissue zinc was not affected materially by lead. Dietary lead had very little effect on cellular distribution of zinc in the liver and kidney. In the mucosal cells of the small intestine, lead increased zinc-65 in the cytosol while decreasing it in the crude nuclear fraction. This effect occurred in a linear fashion in all three sections of the small intestine as dietary lead increased.

  16. Effects of high but nontoxic dietary manganese and iron on their metabolism by calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, S.Y.; Miller, W.J.; Gentry, R.P.; Neathery, M.W.; Blackmon, D.M.

    1984-07-01

    Sixteen male Holstein calves were fed one of four diets for 18 days in an experiment consisting of 0 and 1000 ppm supplemental manganese and 0 and 1000 ppm added iron as manganese carbonate and ferrous carbonate. The control diet contained 55 ppm manganese and 220 ppm iron. All calves were dosed orally 48 h prior to sacrifice with 500 ..mu..Ci of manganese-54. Small intestinal iron was less in calves fed a high manganese diet, a possible interaction of these two elements at the absorption site. Feeding a high manganese diet tended to decrease iron (total) concentrations in liver and pancreas. When the high manganese diet was supplemented with additional iron, antagonistic effects of manganese on iron were eliminated. Neither iron nor manganese concentrations in tissues were affected by an increase of dietary iron. Manganese-54 content of tissue was reduced by the high manganese diet but was not affected by dietary iron. Total manganese and iron in feces fairly closely reflected dietary intake of each element with no evidence of interaction. Calves fed the high iron diet excreted less manganese-54 in their feces over 2 days. Total iron in blood serum was not affected significantly by the dietary treatments. 22 references, 2 figures, 7 tables.

  17. Effect of crossbreeding on market value of calves from dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bittante

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Market values (¤/kg of calves obtained from six paternal breeds , Brown Swiss (BS, Holstein Friesian (HF, Simmental (SI, Alpine Grey (AG, Limousin (LI and Belgian Blue (BB, and four maternal breeds (BS, HF, SI, AG, were studied in order to estimate the crossbreeding effects. A total of 58,877 calves sold during 143 weekly auctions from 2003 to 2005 in Bolzano in Italy near the Austrian border, were analyzed using ANOVA procedure according to a linear model that included the effects of cross, sex and age of the calf, year and month of the auction. Coefficient of determination (R2 was 0.84; cross and sex effects resulted the most important. The BBxSI calves showed the highest commercial value (7.01 ¤/kg, while the BS purebreds the lowest one (2.74 ¤/kg. The LI and BB breeds used as sire breeds showed the greater commercial prices when crossbred with SI and AG respect to BS and HF. However, BB resulted the best sire breed. On average male calves showed greater commercial values than female ones (5.16 vs. 4.44 ¤/kg, but in HF and BS purebreds the commercial value of males and females was similar.

  18. Purging of inbreeding depression within the Irish Holstein-Friesian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mc Parland Sinéad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate whether inbreeding depression in milk production or fertility performance has been partially purged due to selection within the Irish Holstein-Friesian population. Classical, ancestral (i.e., the inbreeding of an individual's ancestors according to two different formulae and new inbreeding coefficients (i.e., part of the classical inbreeding coefficient that is not accounted for by ancestral inbreeding were computed for all animals. The effect of each coefficient on 305-day milk, fat and protein yield as well as calving interval, age at first calving and survival to second lactation was investigated. Ancestral inbreeding accounting for all common ancestors in the pedigree had a positive effect on 305-day milk and protein yield, increasing yields by 4.85 kg and 0.12 kg, respectively. However, ancestral inbreeding accounting only for those common ancestors, which contribute to the classical inbreeding coefficient had a negative effect on all milk production traits decreasing 305-day milk, fat and protein yields by -8.85 kg, -0.53 kg and -0.33 kg, respectively. Classical, ancestral and new inbreeding generally had a detrimental effect on fertility and survival traits. From this study, it appears that Irish Holstein-Friesians have purged some of their genetic load for milk production through many years of selection based on production alone, while fertility, which has been less intensely selected for in the population demonstrates no evidence of purging.

  19. Estimation of genetic parameters of fertility traits in Chinese Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Gang; Guo, Xiangyu; Wang, Yachun

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for fertility traits in Chinese Holstein heifers and cows. Data of 20169 animals with 42106 records over a period of 10 yr (2001–2010) were collected from Sanyuan Lvhe Dairy Cattle Center in Beijing, China. Traits included age at first...... service (AFS), number of services (NS), days from calving to first service (CTFS), days open (DO), and calving interval (CI). Genetic parameters were estimated with multiple-trait animal model using the DMU software. Heritability estimates for AFS, NS, CTFS, DO and CI were 0.100±0.012, 0.040±0.017, 0.......49–0.99), and DO showed strong correlation with NS and CTFS (0.49 and 0.58, respectively). The genetic correlation between CTFS and NS was negative moderate (−0.25). Results were in range with previous literature estimates and can be used in Chinese Holstein genetic evaluation for fertility traits...

  20. Machine-learning-based calving prediction from activity, lying, and ruminating behaviors in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, M R; Chang, Y M; Proudfoot, K L; Wadsworth, B A; Stone, A E; Bewley, J M

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to use automated activity, lying, and rumination monitors to characterize prepartum behavior and predict calving in dairy cattle. Data were collected from 20 primiparous and 33 multiparous Holstein dairy cattle from September 2011 to May 2013 at the University of Kentucky Coldstream Dairy. The HR Tag (SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel) automatically collected neck activity and rumination data in 2-h increments. The IceQube (IceRobotics Ltd., South Queensferry, United Kingdom) automatically collected number of steps, lying time, standing time, number of transitions from standing to lying (lying bouts), and total motion, summed in 15-min increments. IceQube data were summed in 2-h increments to match HR Tag data. All behavioral data were collected for 14 d before the predicted calving date. Retrospective data analysis was performed using mixed linear models to examine behavioral changes by day in the 14 d before calving. Bihourly behavioral differences from baseline values over the 14 d before calving were also evaluated using mixed linear models. Changes in daily rumination time, total motion, lying time, and lying bouts occurred in the 14 d before calving. In the bihourly analysis, extreme values for all behaviors occurred in the final 24 h, indicating that the monitored behaviors may be useful in calving prediction. To determine whether technologies were useful at predicting calving, random forest, linear discriminant analysis, and neural network machine-learning techniques were constructed and implemented using R version 3.1.0 (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria). These methods were used on variables from each technology and all combined variables from both technologies. A neural network analysis that combined variables from both technologies at the daily level yielded 100.0% sensitivity and 86.8% specificity. A neural network analysis that combined variables from both technologies in bihourly increments was

  1. An alkalinizing oral rehydration solution containing lecithin-coated citrus fiber is superior to a nonalkalinizing solution in treating 360 calves with naturally acquired diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, G M; Campbell, J; Hoejvang-Nielsen, L; Stansen, W; Constable, P D

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this field study was to compare the efficacy and cost of 2 commercially available oral rehydration therapy (ORT) solutions in treating dairy calves with naturally acquired diarrhea. A total of 1,349 newborn Holstein-Friesian calves were prospectively enrolled in the study. Calves were housed in individual hutches and fed a mixture of pasteurized hospital milk and an all-milk protein milk replacer twice per day. Calves were monitored twice each day from d 2 of life until 30 d of age for the presence or absence of diarrhea, and were assigned a fecal score and a hydration score at each examination. Calves that developed mild to severe diarrhea that did not need intravenous fluids and did not have clinical evidence of concurrent disease (n = 360) were assigned randomly to receive 1 of 2 commercial ORT solutions: a hypertonic alkalinizing ORT containing lecithin-coated citrus fibers (Diaque, group D, n = 180; Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim, Germany), and an isotonic nonalkalinizing ORT (RE-SORB, group R, n = 180; Pfizer Animal Health, New York, NY) for 2 to 8d; the duration of treatment depended on whether diarrhea was still present. No significant differences were observed in mortality rates or treatment failure rates between the 2 treatment groups. Fecal consistency returned to normal more quickly in group D calves than in group R calves; consequently, group D calves were treated for 1d less than were group R calves. The increase in body weight after 4d of treatment was larger in group D than in group R. The average daily gain from birth to weaning in calves that did not develop concurrent disease (such as pneumonia) during the study period tended to be higher in group D calves (0.53±0.11 kg/d) than in group R calves (0.51±0.09 kg/d). The smaller number of treatments at a lower cost per treatment produced a cost advantage of $4.82 per treated calf in group D calves compared with group R calves. Our findings support the concept that milk should continue

  2. Índices de conforto térmico e respostas fisiológicas de bezerros da raça holandesa em bezerreiros individuais com diferentes coberturas Thermal comfort indexes and physiological responses of holstein calves in individual houses with different roofings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Y. Kawabata

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou a eficiência de abrigos para bezerros, a partir de índices de conforto térmico (carga térmica radiante, índice de temperatura de globo e umidade e índice de globo negro, pela comparação entre abrigos cobertos por telha de cimento-amianto e telha de cimento- celulose. O experimento foi implantado num sistema de abrigos convencionais, tipo boxe, com cinco tratamentos: telhados de cimento-amianto, cimento-celulose, cimento-celulose pintado de branco e telhado duplo de cimento-celulose, todos expostos ao sol, e telhado de cimento-celulose em área sombreada. Foram realizadas cinco repetições (um bezerro por repetição, de setembro a novembro de 2002, em Pirassununga - SP. As variáveis fisiológicas registradas foram freqüência respiratória e temperatura retal. Os abrigos expostos ao sol e com telha de cimento-amianto apresentaram os índices menos satisfatórios quanto ao conforto térmico animal, em relação aos demais abrigos ao sol. Os abrigos com telhas de cimento-celulose e em área sombreada apresentaram os melhores índices de conforto térmico animal. Os resultados das variáveis fisiológicas foram melhores para o tratamento posicionado à sombra. Encontrou-se relação entre os resultados de conforto térmico e os fisiológicos, em especial para a freqüência respiratória.This work was focused in the efficiency of housing for calves, based on thermal comfort indexes (radiant thermal load, black globe humidity index and black globe index. It was compared animal housing covered with commercial corrugated sheets produced with asbestos cement and cellulose cement tiles. The experiment was carried out in a system of conventional housing, box type, with five treatments: roofs with asbestos cement tiles, cellulose cement tiles, cellulose cement painted tiles and double layer of cement cellulose tiles, all of them exposed to the sunlight and cement cellulose roof under shade. The experiment involved five

  3. Performance of Canadian Holstein-Friesian cattle in the humid forest zone of Ghana. I. Milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuga, J D; Agyemang, K

    1984-05-01

    One hundred and three calving records of 35 Canadian Holstein-Friesian cattle introduced in 1974 into Ashanti constituted the data for this study. Age, year, lactation number, season and age X season effects on 305-day yield, lactation length and components of the lactation curve were estimated from 84 complete lactation records. Analysis of variance by General Linear Models Procedure showed significant effect of age and year on all traits studied. Age, year, lactation number, season, concentrate fed and season X age accounted for 61.1, 64.6, 66.9, 68.5 and 38.1% of the variation in 305-day yield, 300-day yield, monthly peak yield, persistency index and lactation length respectively. Age and year significantly affected all traits except lactation length. Lactation number only significantly affected 305-day yield of the traits studied. Season was not an important factor affecting any of the traits. The productive life span of the animals was up to five calvings (eight years). The mean life time milk production was 16,186 kg. Unadjusted means of the 103 records were: 305-day yield 3,878 +/- 93.7 kg; actual 305-yield 4,451 +/- 102.7 kg; total yield 4,225 +/- 160.6 kg; lactation length 332 +/- 14.5 days; days dry 96 +/- 5.9 and total yield per day of calving interval 10.6 +/- 0.33 kg. Performance of Holsteins in Ashanti was better than in most tropical areas.

  4. The motivation-based calving facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    to use one of two isolation opportunities i.e. individual calving pens with functional gates (n=34) allowing only one cow access at a time, or pens with permanently open gates allowing free cow traffic (n=32). Response variables were location of calving, social and calving behaviour. Factors influencing...

  5. Effects of a mixture of steam-flaked corn and extruded soybeans on performance, ruminal development, ruminal fermentation, and intestinal absorptive capability in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, X X; Meng, Q X; Liu, P; Wu, H; Li, S R; Ren, L P; Li, X Z

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of a mixture of steam-flaked corn and extruded soybeans on performance, ruminal development, ruminal fermentation variables, and intestinal absorptive capability in Holstein male calves (n = 39). Calves were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments (13 calves per treatment): 1) milk replacer (MR), 2) one-half of the amount of MR in treatment 1, plus a mixture of 62.1% steam-flaked corn and 30.5% extruded soybeans provided ad libitum (HMCS), or 3) a mixture of 62.1% steam-flaked corn and 30.5% extruded soybeans provided ad libitum (CS). All the calves were started at 2 ± 1 d of age and studied for 150 d. Each 30 d was defined as 1 period. Dry matter intake and growth were measured daily and monthly, respectively. All calves were harvested at 150 d of age, after which rumen fluid was collected. Rumen and intestine samples were gathered. Calves fed MR exhibited greater BW (P = 0.001) and ADG (P < 0.001), compared with calves fed HMCS and CS from period 2 to 3; however, from period 4 to 5, CS calves had greater (P < 0.04) ADG than MR calves. The treatments did not differ in final BW (P = 0.72) and ADG (P = 0.20) from period 2 to 5. Compared with HMCS and MR calves, CS calves had the greatest DMI (P < 0.001) and the least feed efficiency (P < 0.001) from period 2 to 5. For ruminal fermentation parameters, CS calves had decreased (P = 0.04) rumen pH than MR calves. The NH3 concentrations were greater (P = 0.03) in calves fed HMCS than calves fed MR and CS. Total VFA concentrations were greatest in CS calves (P = 0.02). Calves fed CS had the greatest molar concentrations of propionate, butyrate, and valerate (P < 0.002), and calves fed HMCS had the greatest molar concentrations of isobutyrate (P = 0.001) and isovalerate (P = 0.001). The CS calves exhibited greater empty rumen weight (P = 0.001), papillae length (P < 0.001), papillae width (P < 0.001), rumen wall thickness (P = 0.012), and papillae density (P = 0.003). The greatest villus heights

  6. Genetic evaluation for persistency of lactation in Holstein cows using a random regression model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Araujo Cobuci

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A model for analyzing test day records including both fixed and random coefficients was applied to the genetic evaluation of first lactation data for Holstein cows. Data comprising 87045 test-day milk yield records from calving between 1997 and 2001 from Holstein herds in 10 regions of the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. Six persistency of lactation measures were evaluated using breeding values obtained by random regression analyses. The Wilmink function was used to model the additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Residual variance was constant throughout lactation. Ranking for animals did not change among criteria for persistency measurements, but ranking changes were observed when the estimated breeding value (EBV for persistency of lactation was contrasted with those estimated for 305-day milk yield (305MY. The rank correlation estimates for persistency of lactation and 305MY were practically the same for sire and cows, and ranged from -0.45 to 0.69. The EBVs for milk yield during lactation for sires producing daughters with superior 305MY indicate genetic differences between sires regarding their ability to transmit desirable persistency of lactation traits. This suggests that selection for total lactation milk yield does not identify sires or cows that are genetically superior in regard to persistency of lactation. Genetic evaluation for persistency of lactation is important for improving the efficiency of the milk production capacity of Holstein cows.

  7. Computed tomography of the abdomen of calves during the first 105 days of life: I. Reticulum, rumen, omasum and abomasum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, U; Schnetzler, C; Ohlerth, S; Hatz, L; Augsburger, H

    2014-05-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) images of the reticulum, rumen, omasum and abomasum of five healthy Holstein-Friesian bull calves were compared with anatomical transverse cadaver sections of the same calves. The calves were scanned in the transverse plane from the 5th thoracic vertebra to the sacrum six times three weeks apart from birth to 105 days of age. Multiplanar reconstruction was used to create images in sagittal and dorsal planes. After subjective assessment of various anatomical structures, the rumen, omasum and abomasum as well as the ruminal strata (gas cap, fibre mat and fluid phase) were measured. After the last CT scan, all calves were euthanised, and four were kept at -18 °C in sternal position for 14 days. Transverse sections 1.0 to 1.5 cm thick were made from two calves and dorsal and sagittal sections were made from one calf each using a band saw. The CT images and anatomical slices were compared and the structures on the CT images identified. Very clear CT images were obtained from the reticulum, rumen, omasum and abomasum and there was excellent agreement between images and anatomical slices.

  8. Economic weights of production and functional traits for Holstein-Friesian cattle in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komlósi, I; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Farkas, B; Szendrei, Z; Béri, B

    2010-04-01

    A bio-economic model was used to estimate economic values of 15 milk production, functional, growth and carcass traits for Hungarian Holstein-Friesian cattle. The calculations were carried out for the situation in Hungary from 2000 to 2007, assuming no production quotas. The marginal economic values were defined as partial derivatives of the profit function with respect to each trait in a production system with dairy cow herds and with sales of surplus male calves. The economic weights for maternal and direct components of traits were calculated multiplying the marginal economic values by the number of discounted expression summed over a 25-year investment period for 2-year-old bulls (candidates for selection). The standardized economic weight (economic weight x genetic standard deviation) of the trait or trait component expressed as percentage of the sum of the standardized economic weights for all traits and trait components represented the relative economic importance of this trait or trait component. The highest relative economic importance was obtained for milk yield (25%), followed by productive lifetime of cows (23%), protein yield and the direct component of a cow's total conception rate (9% each), the maternal effect of the total conception rate of cows and the somatic cell score (approximately 7% each), fat yield (5%) and mature weight of cows and daily gain in rearing of calves (approximately 4% each). Other functional traits (clinical mastitis incidence, calving difficulty score, total conception rate of heifers and calf mortality) reached a relative economic importance between 0.5% and 2%. Birth weight and dressing percentage were least important (productive lifetime and cow fertility in the breeding programme for Holstein-Friesian cattle in Hungary is advisable.

  9. Benchmarking passive transfer of immunity and growth in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, D J; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2017-05-01

    Poor health and growth in young dairy calves can have lasting effects on their development and future production. This study benchmarked calf-rearing outcomes in a cohort of Canadian dairy farms, reported these findings back to producers and their veterinarians, and documented the results. A total of 18 Holstein dairy farms were recruited, all in British Columbia. Blood samples were collected from calves aged 1 to 7 d. We estimated serum total protein levels using digital refractometry, and failure of passive transfer (FPT) was defined as values below 5.2 g/dL. We estimated average daily gain (ADG) for preweaned heifers (1 to 70 d old) using heart-girth tape measurements, and analyzed early (≤35 d) and late (>35 d) growth separately. At first assessment, the average farm FPT rate was 16%. Overall, ADG was 0.68 kg/d, with early and late growth rates of 0.51 and 0.90 kg/d, respectively. Following delivery of the benchmark reports, all participants volunteered to undergo a second assessment. The majority (83%) made at least 1 change in their colostrum-management or milk-feeding practices, including increased colostrum at first feeding, reduced time to first colostrum, and increased initial and maximum daily milk allowances. The farms that made these changes experienced improved outcomes. On the 11 farms that made changes to improve colostrum feeding, the rate of FPT declined from 21 ± 10% before benchmarking to 11 ± 10% after making the changes. On the 10 farms that made changes to improve calf growth, ADG improved from 0.66 ± 0.09 kg/d before benchmarking to 0.72 ± 0.08 kg/d after making the management changes. Increases in ADG were greatest in the early milk-feeding period, averaging 0.13 kg/d higher than pre-benchmarking values for calves ≤35 d of age. Benchmarking specific outcomes associated with calf rearing can motivate producer engagement in calf care, leading to improved outcomes for calves on farms that apply relevant management changes. Copyright

  10. Short communication: effect of difructose anhydride III on serum immunoglobulin G concentration in newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T; Hanada, M; Ohtani, M; Nakai, T; Teramura, M; Sadoya, H; Takahashi, T; Hongo, A

    2012-09-01

    Difructose anhydride (DFA) III is an indigestible disaccharide that promotes paracellular absorption of calcium, magnesium, and other minerals in the intestine by acting on epithelial tight junctions. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of DFA III on serum IgG concentration. One hundred and twenty Holstein and Holstein/Japanese Black crossbred calves were randomly divided into 4 groups of 30 to receive untreated colostrum (DFA0) or colostrum containing 3, 6, or 18 g of DFA III (DFA3, DFA6, or DFA18, respectively). At 24 h after birth, both serum IgG (ranging from 16.4 to 21.2 mg/mL) and apparent efficiency of absorption (26.0 to 37.2%) showed increases with the amount of DFA III intake. By multiple regression analysis, the standardized partial regression coefficient for DFA III was 0.25, the second highest following that for the colostrum IgG concentration (0.80), indicating a positive effect of DFA III on serum IgG. A positive linear regression was found between colostrum IgG and serum IgG concentrations at 24h of age. These results indicate that IgG absorption occurred as a nonsaturable process, which might be characteristic of gradient-dependent paracellular transport. Thus, it was concluded that DFA III improves not only minerals but IgG absorption in calves. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Holstein polaron problem revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi, Amin; Zelevinsky, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    The Holstein Hamiltonian was proposed half a century ago; since then, decades of research have come up empty handed in the pursuit of a closed-form solution. An exact solution to the two-site Holstein model is presented in this paper. The obtained results provide a clear image of the Hamiltonian structure and allow for the investigation of the symmetry, energy level crossings and polaronic characteristics of the system. The main mathematical tool is a three-term recurrence relation between the wave function amplitudes, which was obtained using the properties of a family of orthogonal functions, namely the Poisson-Charlier polynomials. It is shown that, with the appropriate choice of basis, the eigenfunctions of the problem naturally fall into two families (parities) associated with the discrete {{{Z}}}2 symmetry of the Hamiltonian. The asymptotic solution to the recurrence relation is found by using the Birkhoff expansion. The asymptotic sets the truncation criterion for the wave function, which ensures the accurate calculation of the energy levels for any strength of electron-phonon interaction. The level crossing of states with different parities is discussed and the exact points of broken symmetry are found analytically. The results are used as the building blocks for studying a four-site system. The inherited symmetries lead to the formation of a sparse matrix that is convenient for numerical calculations.

  12. Short communication: Large-scale study on effects of metritis on reproduction in Danish Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkjær, K; Labouriau, R; Ancker, M-L; Gustafsson, H; Callesen, H

    2013-01-01

    A total of 398,237 lactations of Danish Holstein dairy cows were studied with the main objective to investigate the effects of metritis on 2 fertility variables: interval from calving to first insemination (CFI) and nonreturn rate at 56 d after first insemination (NR56), adjusting for milk production and body condition score as confounders. Metritis was defined as a score of at least 5 (indicating purulent vaginal discharge with abnormal smell) on the Danish uterine score scale (from 0 to 9, used to evaluate vaginal discharge in the first 19 d postpartum on all fresh cows in herds participating in a national herd health program). Cows with metritis in early lactation presented a significant delay in first insemination (hazard ratio of 0.80) and a significantly reduced probability of success at first insemination. The effect of metritis was also present after adjusting for possible effects of body condition score, milk production in the first month of lactation, parity, herd, and year-season. Only a small part of the observed effect of metritis could be explained by variation in body condition score at calving and milk production in the first month after calving. The results from this large-scale study underscore the deleterious effects of metritis on the fertility variables CFI and NR56. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Peripartal rumination dynamics and health status in cows calving in hot and cool seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudyal, S; Maunsell, F; Richeson, J; Risco, C; Donovan, A; Pinedo, P

    2016-11-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effect of season of calving, associated with variable levels of heat stress, on the dynamics of rumination during the prepartum period and early lactation of cows that were healthy or affected by peripartal health disorders. Three weeks before the estimated due date, 210 multiparous Holstein cows at the University of Florida Dairy Unit were affixed with a neck collar containing rumination loggers, providing rumination time (RT) in 2-h periods. One blood sample was collected in a subpopulation of cows (n=76) at 12 to 48h postcalving to assess metabolic status by determining serum calcium, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. The occurrence of peripartal health disorders (dystocia, clinical ketosis, clinical hypocalcemia, metritis, and mastitis) was assessed by University of Florida veterinarians and trained farm personnel. We analyzed the dynamics of daily RT over ± 14d relative to parturition in cows that were healthy or affected by specific health disorders by season of calving [hot season, June to September (n=77); cool season, November to April (n=118)] using repeated measures analysis and comparison of least squares means at different time points relative to calving. Rumination was consistently reduced on the day of calving in both healthy and sick cows in both the hot and cool seasons. Only hot-season calvings had shorter average daily RT prepartum and postpartum in cows affected by severe negative energy balance and subclinical ketosis. Dystocia during the hot season was associated with shorter daily RT prepartum; for cool-season calvings, cows with dystocia had reduced RT postpartum. We also observed reduced RT in cows with ketosis prepartum and postpartum in both the hot and cool seasons. Daily RT was reduced postpartum in cows with hypocalcemia and mastitis that calved during the cool season, and it was shorter in cows with metritis in both the hot and cool seasons. Our results indicated that

  14. Fermentation in the small intestine contributes substantially to intestinal starch disappearance in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Myrthe S; Pantophlet, André J; Berends, Harma; Pluschke, Anton M; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Hendriks, Wouter H; Schols, Henk A; Gerrits, Walter J J

    2015-06-01

    The proportion of starch disappearing from the small intestinal lumen is generally lower in ruminants than in monogastric animals, and there are indications that the starch digestion capacity in ruminants is limited. Milk-fed calves were used to study the rate-limiting enzyme in starch hydrolysis and to quantify starch fermentation in ruminants. Forty male Holstein-Friesian calves were fed milk replacer containing either lactose (control) or 1 of 4 corn starch products. The following starch products differed in the enzyme ratios required for their complete hydrolysis to glucose: gelatinized starch [α-amylase and (iso)maltase], maltodextrin [(iso)maltase and α-amylase], maltodextrin with α-1,6-branching (isomaltase, maltase, and α-amylase), and maltose (maltase). In the adaptation period, calves were stepwise exposed to an increasing dose of the starch product for 14 wk to allow maximal adaptation of all enzyme systems involved. In the experimental period, apparent total tract and ileal starch product disappearance, total tract starch product fermentation, and α-amylase, maltase, and isomaltase activities were determined at 18% inclusion of the starch product. Maltase and isomaltase activities in the brush border did not increase for any of the starch product treatments. Luminal α-amylase activity was lower in the proximal (3.9 ± 3.2 and 2.7 ± 1.7 U/mg Co for control and starch product calves, respectively) but greater in the distal small intestine of starch-fed calves than in control calves (0.0 ± 0.0 and 6.4 ± 1.5 U/mg Co for control and starch product calves, respectively; means ± SEs for control and means ± pooled SEMs for starch product treatments). Apparent ileal (61.6% ± 6.3%) and total tract (99.1% ± 0.4%) starch product disappearance did not differ between starch product treatments, suggesting that maltase activity limits starch digestion in ruminants. Total tract starch product fermentation averaged 414 ± 43 g/d, corresponding to 89% of

  15. Relationships between early-life growth, intake, and birth season with first-lactation performance of Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester-Jones, H; Heins, B J; Ziegler, D; Schimek, D; Schuling, S; Ziegler, B; de Ondarza, M B; Sniffen, C J; Broadwater, N

    2017-05-01

    The objective was to determine the relationships between early-life parameters [including average daily gain (ADG), body weight (BW), milk replacer intake, starter intake, and birth season] and the first-lactation performance of Holstein cows. We collected data from birth years 2004 to 2012 for 2,880 Holstein animals. Calves were received from 3 commercial dairy farms and enrolled in 37 different calf research trials at the University of Minnesota Southern Research and Outreach Center from 3 to 195 d. Upon trial completion, calves were returned to their respective farms. Milk replacer options included varying protein levels and amounts fed, but in the majority of studies, calves were fed a milk replacer containing 20% crude protein and 20% fat at 0.57 kg/calf daily. Most calves (93%) were weaned at 6 wk. Milk replacer dry matter intake, starter intake, ADG, and BW at 6 wk were 21.5 ± 2.2 kg, 17.3 ± 7.3 kg, 0.53 ± 0.13 kg/d, and 62.4 ± 6.8 kg, respectively. Average age at first calving and first-lactation 305-d milk yield were 715 ± 46.5 d and 10,959 ± 1,527 kg, respectively. We conducted separate mixed-model analyses using the REML model-fitting protocol of JMP (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) to determine the effect of early-life BW or ADG, milk replacer and starter intake, and birth season on first-lactation 305-d milk, fat, and true protein yield. Greater BW and ADG at 6 wk resulted in increased first-lactation milk and milk component yields. Intake of calf starter at 8 wk had a significant positive relationship with first-lactation 305-d yield of milk and milk components. Milk replacer intake, which varied very little in this data set, had no effect on first-lactation 305-d yield of milk and milk components. Calves born in the fall and winter had greater starter intake, BW, and ADG at 8 wk. However, calves born in the summer had a higher 305-d milk yield during their first lactation than those born in the fall and winter. Improvements were modest, and

  16. The Swedish Academy Dictionary Project

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    (bo.wendt@svenskaakademien.se), Dictionary Staff of the Swedish Academy,. Lund, Sweden. Abstract: The Swedish Academy Dictionary is one of the world's largest dictionary projects. Work on it was started in 1884 and it will be completed by 2017. The dictionary describes the writ- ten standard language of Swedish from ...

  17. Genetic parameters for female fertility, locomotion, body condition score, and linear type traits in Czech Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zink, Vojtech; Stipkova, M; Lassen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    type traits ranged from 0.03 for locomotion to 0.39 for stature. Estimated genetic correlations between fertility traits and linear type traits were generally neutral or positive, whereas genetic correlations between body condition score and CF1, DO1, FL1, CF2 and DO2 were mostly negative......The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for fertility traits and linear type traits in the Czech Holstein dairy cattle population. Phenotypic data regarding 12 linear type traits, measured in first lactation, and 3 fertility traits, measured in each of first and second lactation......)variance components were estimated using AI-REML in a series of bivariate analyses, which were implemented via the DMU package. Fertility traits included days from calving to first service (CF1), days open (DO1), and days from first to last service (FL1) in first lactation, and days from calving to first service (CF2...

  18. Inflammatory biomarkers are associated with ketosis in periparturient Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuajamieh, Mohannad; Kvidera, Sara K; Fernandez, Maria V Sanz; Nayeri, Amir; Upah, Nathan C; Nolan, Erin A; Lei, Sam M; DeFrain, Jeffery M; Green, Howard B; Schoenberg, Katie M; Trout, William E; Baumgard, Lance H

    2016-12-01

    Ketosis is a prevalent periparturient metabolic disorder and we hypothesize that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infiltration may play a key role in its etiology. Study objectives were to characterize biomarkers of inflammation during the transition period in healthy and clinically diagnosed ketotic cows. Cows were retrospectively categorized into one of two groups: healthy and clinically diagnosed ketotic. Two data sets were utilized; the first dataset (Study A) was obtained as a subset of cows (n=16) enrolled in a larger experiment conducted at the Iowa State University Dairy utilizing Holstein cows (8 healthy; 8 ketotic), and the second dataset (Study B; 22 healthy; 22 ketotic) was obtained from a commercial farm. For both experiments, blood samples were collected prior to and following calving. Ketotic cows in both studies had reduced milk production compared to healthy cows (P6 fold and ~4 fold; P=0.04 and P=0.03), and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (66 and 45%; Pketosis in transition dairy cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors affecting the reproductive traits of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Flavia Vilas Boas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For dairy cattle breeds, mainly the taurine ones, the selection emphasized for many years the increase in milk yields and, as a consequence, the adaptive and reproductive traits were negatively affected. The aim of this study was to verify the influence of genetic and environmental effects on the reproductive traits in a dairy herd selected for high milk production levels. The data set comprised 1,737 first lactations Holsteins cows of Agrindus Farm, located at Southeastern region of Brazil. The records of the following reproductive traits: calving to first heat interval (CFHI, calving to conception interval (CCI and first to second calving interval (FCI were analyzed as dependent variables by least squares method using GLM procedure (SAS. Linear models were considered including two production levels (1= less than 9,500 kg and 2= more than 9,501 kg of total milk yield, contemporary group (year and months calving, management group, sire of cow, and the sire used to breeding cows, as classificatory variables. As covariates were included for all traits the peak milk yield in lactation (linear effect, age at calving only for CFHI (linear and quadratic effects since this effect was not significant for other traits, and CFHI (linear effect only for FCI. The coefficients of determination represented 24%, 74% and 75%, respectively for CFHI, FCI and CCI models. Production level, peak milk yield and sire effects were significant (P<0.05 for all traits. The average estimated for high and low milk production level were 73 and 79 days, 500 and 601 days, 227 and 330 days for CFHI, FCI and CCI, respectively, suggesting that cows with higher genetic potential for milk had worse reproductive performance. Similarly, lactation peak showed significant effect (P<0.05 for all traits, suggesting higher peaks cows showed also poorer reproductive rates. Sire effect also was a variable that showed significant effect (P<0.01 for all traits, which means that there was

  20. Clinical, blood gas and biochemical profile of diarrheic dairy calves fed starter concentrate containing citrus pulp as a replacement for corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cezar Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical signs, gas analysis, and metabolic effects of diarrhea in milk-fed calves consuming starter feed containing citrus pulp (CP as a replacement for corn. Twenty-four newborn Holstein male calves were distributed into treatments according to starter composition: (1 0% CP, (2 32% CP, (3 64% CP, on dry matter basis. The calves were housed in individual hutches, with free access to water and concentrate, and received 4 L/d of milk replacer. After diarrhea diagnosis, evaluations of fecal score, score of clinical signs and measurement of physiological parameters were performed three times a day during 3-d. Blood samples were collected for electrolytes, blood gases, and plasma biochemical analysis. Starter feed composition had no negative effect (P>0.05 on fecal score, characteristics of diarrheic stools and on the aggravation of diarrhea clinical signs. Biochemical, blood gases and electrolytes changes, as a function of starter composition, did not resulted (P>0.05 in dehydration, acidosis, or other metabolic disturbance animals. Total lactate and D-lactate plasma concentrations were higher for calves on control and 64% CP, and L-lactate was highest for the 64% CP; however, calves showed no signs of metabolic acidosis. Thermal comfort indexes influenced clinical and physiological parameters (P<0.05. Citrus pulp may replace corn in starter composition without prejudice to intestinal health or metabolism of young diarrheic calves.

  1. Effects of feeding pasteurized waste milk to dairy calves on phenotypes and genotypes of antimicrobial resistance in fecal Escherichia coli isolates before and after weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynou, G; Migura-Garcia, L; Chester-Jones, H; Ziegler, D; Bach, A; Terré, M

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding pasteurized waste milk (pWM) to calves on antimicrobial resistance of fecal Escherichia coli at both phenotypic and genotypic levels. Fifty-two Holstein female calves (3 ± 1.3 d of age) were fed 1 of the 2 different types of milk: milk replacer (MR) without antimicrobials or pWM with β-lactam residues until weaning at 49 d of age. Fecal swabs of all calves were obtained on d 0, 35, and 56 of the study and 3 E. coli isolates per sample were studied. Phenotypic resistance was tested by the disk diffusion method against a panel of 12 antimicrobials. A total of 13 resistance genes consisting of β-lactam, sulfonamide, tetracycline, and aminoglycoside families were examined by PCR. Feeding pWM to calves increased the presence of phenotypic resistance to ampicillin, cephalotin, ceftiofur, and florfenicol in fecal E. coli compared with MR-fed calves. However, the presence of resistance to sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and aminoglycosides was common in dairy calves independent of their milk-feeding source, suggesting other factors apart from the feeding source are involved in the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Divergence for residual feed intake of Holstein-Friesian cattle during growth did not affect production and reproduction during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, K A; Thomson, B P; Waghorn, G C

    2016-11-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between actual and predicted dry matter intake (DMI) of individual animals. Recent studies with Holstein-Friesian calves have identified an ~20% difference in RFI during growth (calf RFI) and these groups remained divergent in RFI during lactation. The objective of the experiment described here was to determine if cows selected for divergent RFI as calves differed in milk production, reproduction or in the profiles of BW and body condition score (BCS) change during lactation, when grazing pasture. The cows used in the experiment (n=126) had an RFI of -0.88 and +0.75 kg DM intake/day for growth as calves (efficient and inefficient calf RFI groups, respectively) and were intensively grazed at four stocking rates (SR) of 2.2, 2.6, 3.1 and 3.6 cows/ha on self-contained farmlets, over 3 years. Each SR treatment had equal number of cows identified as low and high calf RFI, with 24, 28, 34 and 40/11 ha farmlet. The cows divergent for calf RFI were randomly allocated to each SR. Although SR affected production, calf RFI group (low or high) did not affect milk production, reproduction, BW, BCS or changes in these parameters throughout lactation. The most efficient animals (low calf RFI) lost similar BW and BCS as the least efficient (high calf RFI) immediately post-calving, and regained similar BW and BCS before their next calving. These results indicate that selection for RFI as calves to increase efficiency of feed utilisation did not negatively affect farm productivity variables (milk production, BCS, BW and reproduction) as adults when managed under an intensive pastoral grazing system.

  3. Effects of feeding unlimited amounts of milk replacer for the first 5 weeks of age on rumen and small intestinal growth and development in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäff, C T; Gruse, J; Maciej, J; Pfuhl, R; Zitnan, R; Rajsky, M; Hammon, H M

    2018-01-01

    The development of the gastrointestinal tract in newborn calves is essential for sufficient nutrient uptake. An intensive milk feeding during the neonatal period may impair the rumen development in calves. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of milk replacer (MR) feeding in unlimited amounts for the first 5 wk of age on the gastrointestinal growth and development in preruminant calves at wk 9 of age. Twenty-eight newborn Holstein and Holstein × Charolais crossbred calves (19 male and 9 female) were fed MR ad libitum (ADLIB) or in restricted amounts (6 L per day; RES) until wk 5 of age. Thereafter, the MR intake of ADLIB was gradually reduced at wk 6 and 7, and all calves received 6 L of MR per day until wk 9 of age. In wk 9, calves were slaughtered and carcass and organ weight as well as rumen papilla size in the atrium, ventral sac, and ventral blind sac, and villus size of the mucosa in the small intestine (duodenum; proximal, mid, and distal jejunum; and ileum) were determined. The expression of mRNA associated with the local insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system was measured in the rumen epithelium. Ad libitum MR feeding increased MR intake and growth in ADLIB without influencing concentrate intake compared with RES. Carcass weight in wk 9 was greater in ADLIB than in RES. The density of the rumen papillae in the atrium and ventral blind sac was greater in RES than in ADLIB calves, but surface area of the epithelium was not different between groups in the investigated regions of the rumen. The mRNA abundance of IGF1 in the atrium tended to be greater and the IGFR1 mRNA abundance in the ventral sac tended to be lower in the ADLIB than in the RES feeding group. The rumen pH and volatile fatty acid concentrations were not affected by MR feeding intensity. In mid-jejunum, villus circumference was greater in ADLIB than in RES calves. In the distal jejunum, villus surface area and the villus height/crypt depth ratio were greater and the villus

  4. Predictive value of prepartum serum metabolites for incidence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in grazing primiparous Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwegler, Elizabeth; Schneider, Augusto; Montagner, Paula; Acosta, Diego Andres Velasco; Pfeifer, Luiz Francisco Machado; Schmitt, Eduardo; Rabassa, Viviane Rohrig; Del Pino, Francisco Augusto Burkert; de Lima Gonzalez, Helenice; Timm, Cláudio Dias; Corrêa, Marcio Nunes

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to measure changes in biochemical markers in the peripartum period of primiparous Holstein cows diagnosed with subclinical and clinical mastitis. In this study, 37 dairy cows were monitored daily during milking until 60 days postpartum and were categorized according to the occurrence of clinical mastitis (group mastitis (GM), n = 9) or subclinical mastitis (group subclinical mastitis (GSUB), n = 10) or absence of symptoms (control group (CG), n = 18). Blood samples were collected weekly from -30 to 60 days from calving. Samples were grouped for prepartum (-30 to 0 days from calving), early postpartum (0 to 30 days from calving), and late postpartum (30 to 60 days from calving) periods. Prepartum serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration was higher in GM than in CG (P mastitis in the early postpartum, probably due to low immune function associated to a more negative energy balance. In sum, increased prepartum serum NEFA concentration and decreased glucose in primiparous cows were associated with clinical mastitis incidence in the postpartum period.

  5. The effect of replacing lactose by starch on protein and fat digestion in milk-fed veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluschke, A M; Gilbert, M S; Williams, B A; van den Borne, J J G C; Schols, H A; Gerrits, W J J

    2016-08-01

    Replacing dairy components from milk replacer (MR) with vegetable products has been previously associated with decreased protein and fat digestibility in milk-fed calves resulting in lower live weight gain. In this experiment, the major carbohydrate source in MR, lactose, was partly replaced with gelatinized corn starch (GCS) to determine the effect on protein and fat digestibility in milk-fed calves. In total, 16 male Holstein-Friesian calves received either MR with lactose as the carbohydrate source (control) or 18% GCS at the expense of lactose. In the adaptation period, calves were exposed to an increasing dose of GCS for 14 weeks. The indigestible marker cobalt ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was incorporated into the MR for calculating apparent nutrient digestibility, whereas a pulse dose of chromium (Cr) chloride was fed with the last MR meal 4 h before slaughter as an indicator of passage rates. The calves were anesthetized and exsanguinated at 30 weeks of age. The small intestine was divided in three; small intestine 1 and 2 (SI1 and SI2, respectively) and the terminal ileum (last ~100 cm of small intestine) and samples of digesta were collected. Small intestinal digesta was analysed for α-amylase, lipase and trypsin activity. Digestibility of protein was determined for SI1, SI2, ileum and total tract, whereas digestibility of fat was determined for SI1, SI2 and total tract. Apparent protein digestibility in the small intestine did not differ between treatments but was higher in control calves at total tract level. Apparent crude fat digestibility tended to be increased in SI1 and SI2 for GCS calves, but no difference was found at total tract level. Activity of α-amylase in SI2 and lipase in both SI1 and SI2 was higher in GCS calves. Activity of trypsin tended to be higher in control calves and was higher in SI1 compared with SI2. A lower recovery of Cr in SI2 and a higher recovery of Cr in the large intestine suggest an increased rate of passage for GCS

  6. Effect of natural zeolite on biochemical and hematological parameters in blood, body mass and growth of calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šamanc Horea

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the results of investigations of the effect of natural zeolite (clinoptilolite type on the degree of resumption of cloistral immunoglobulin, the value of hematological parameters and enzyme activity in blood serum (AST, ALT, and LDH, body mass, and daily growth of calves in the first three months of life. Investigations were carried out on three groups of 10 male and female calves each, with a 1:1 ratio of sexes, (control, K, and two experimental groups, I and II, of the black-and-white breed, Holstein type. All three groups of calves were fed with the usual rations (colostrum, collective cows' milk, fodder mix with 18% total proteins, and Lucerne hay.The experimental groups of calves, as opposed to the controls, received colostrums and collective cows' milk with the addition of a preparation based on natural zeolite in quantities of 5 and 10 g/l milk. The concentration of immunoglobulin G in blood serum of experimental groups of calves was significantly higher than the values of the control group (35.9±6.43 g/l in Group I; 32.5±7.39 g/l in Group II; 20.8±6.88 g/l in control group K. The results of the investigations of the values of hematological parameters (number of erythrocytes, hemoglobin concentration, and hematocrit value do not show any digressions from the physiological values and are approximately the same in the experimental and the control groups of calves, which indicates that the examined quality of the zeolite-based preparation did not affect the degree of the resumption of iron and other oligoelements significant for erythropoietin. The data on the enzyme activity in blood serum indicate that the examined preparation does not cause any significant functional or morphological changes in the tissue of parenchymatous organs or muscles. There were no significant disorders in the health of calves of the experimental groups, while 3 calves of the control group had gastrointestinal disorders (diarrhea. Calves of

  7. Evaluation of Weaning Stress in Beef Calves

    OpenAIRE

    Landa, Chelsea E

    2011-01-01

    Conventional techniques within the beef cattle industry involve weaning the calf from the dam when the calf is about 205 days of age. Weaning induces a stress-response that is implicated in reducing the health and productivity of newly weaned calves. Our goal was to evaluate the impact of weaning on the stress immune responses of beef calves. To that end, we 1) evaluated novel methods to quantify physiological markers of stress, 2) compared immune function and growth of calves grazing legum...

  8. Association between uterine disease and indicators of neutrophil and systemic energy status in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, K N; Flaminio, M J B F; Brittin, S B; Sper, R; Fraga, M; Caixeta, L; Ricci, A; Guard, C L; Butler, W R; Gilbert, R O

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between uterine disease and indicators of neutrophil (PMN) and systemic energy status in dairy cows. Peripheral blood (120 mL) was collected weekly from 84 Holstein cows for PMN isolation and plasma collection from calving until 42 d in milk (DIM). The final analysis included 80 cows. Of those, 20 cows were classified as having metritis (fetid uterine discharge and fever), 15 as having subclinical endometritis (SCE; >or=10% PMN on uterine cytology), and 45 as healthy controls. Plasma haptoglobin concentration was increased only in cows that developed metritis. Neutrophil glycogen content was reduced in cows developing metritis compared with healthy cows on the day of calving and at 7 and 42 DIM. Cows with SCE had lower PMN glycogen content than healthy cows at 7, 28, and 42 DIM. Blood glucose was affected by disease status within parity. Primiparous metritis cows had greater blood glucose concentrations than healthy primiparous cows. Multiparous metritis cows tended to have lower blood glucose concentration than multiparous SCE cows. Cows that developed metritis and SCE had or tended to have greater NEFA and BHBA than healthy cows, mainly around calving. At calving, cows that developed metritis had higher plasma estradiol concentration than healthy cows and greater plasma cortisol than cows that had SCE. Plasma insulin was not affected. Plasma glucagon was increased for SCE cows. Cows that developed uterine disease experienced a greater degree of negative energy balance and had decreased lower intracellular PMN glycogen levels, which could be a major predisposing factor for disease because of decreased availability of oxidative fuels. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Kefir as a Probiotic Source on the Performance and Health of Young Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Satık

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of kefir as a probiotic on the performance and health status of calves. Thirty Holstein female calves with 3-day-old were randomly allocated to three treatment groups: Control (without any probiotic, probiotic (a commercial probiotic mixture-3 g/d/calf bacteria-based and 2 g/d/calf yeast-based and kefir (20 ml/d/calf. The calves were weaned at 56 days of age. The experiment was performed in 70 days. Treatment had no effect (P>0.05 on weaning and final body weight and starter intake. Although differences in weight gain were not significant (P>0.05, there were trend to increase by probiotic treatments during 0-14 days. Probiotic treatments tended to have a positive effect on the population of the fecal lactic acid bacteria at 14 days. The results of the study indicated that kefir as a natural probiotic in calf nutrition may be beneficial during the first weeks of life.

  10. Effects of parenteral supply of iron on RBC parameters, performance, and health in neonatal dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohri, Mehrdad; Poorsina, Shahrokh; Sedaghat, Reza

    2010-07-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of parenteral iron on red blood cell parameters, performance, and health in dairy Holstein calves. Twenty neonatal calves were equally divided at random into two groups, one of which served as controls. Care was taken to ensure homogeneity of sex, age, and general health status of the animals. The controls received a normal diet and water ad libitum, while the study animals were injected with 1 g iron as Fe-dextran 2 days after birth. A daily record was kept of the calves' weight and growth parameters. At periods of 24-48 h after birth and at 14, 28, and 42 days of age, jugular blood was drawn from all the experimental and control animals to measure the packed cell volume, red blood count, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and iron levels. At the start of the experiments, there were no significant differences between these parameters between the two study groups (p > 0.05). With time, significant differences were seen between most of the values measured (p iron level. Significant differences were seen for total weight gain and mean daily weight gain, which were higher in the iron-supplemented group (p < 0.05).

  11. Effect of high dietary zinc upon zinc metabolism and intracellular distribution in cows and calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kincaid, R.L.; Miller, W.J.; Fowler, P.R.; Gentry, R.P.; Hampton, D.L.; Neathery, M.W.

    1976-09-01

    Changes in the metabolism of zinc were investigated in mature nonlactating Holstein cows and 4-mo old calves fed high but nontoxic amounts of dietary zinc. Increasing dietary zinc of calves from 42 to 642 ppm elevated the zinc content of liver and pancreas 600% and 1400%, respectively. The elevated zinc in liver and pancreas involved a substantial increase in all intracellular fractions, with by far the largest amount associated with a 10,000 molecular-weight protein in the soluble cell fraction. This zinc-binding protein may protect the cell against damage from increased zinc. A comparable increase in dietary zinc of mature cows did not affect zinc content of liver or kidney nor alter the intracellular distribution of zinc in the liver. In mature cows, homeostatic control mechanisms which regulate the zinc content of tissue are much more effective than in calves. Accordingly, mature cows probably are able to tolerate higher concentrations of dietary zinc. 16 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  12. Passive seismology reveals biannual calving periodicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaus, T. C.; Larsen, C. F.; West, M. E.; Oneel, S.

    2013-12-01

    Iceberg calving is a large and variable component of the total mass loss from marine-terminating glaciers worldwide. However, the processes that control the size and variability of calving fluxes are poorly understood. Even more basic descriptions of iceberg calving, such as its seasonality, are uncertain. Here, we present nearly two years of automatically-estimated calving fluxes at Yahtse Glacier, a tidewater glacier whose terminus flows at ~7 km/yr towards the Gulf of Alaska. At the terminus, ice losses to calving and submarine melt total approximately 1.5 km^3/yr. In order to identify temporal variability in this mean rate, we develop a statistical model of calving size based on characteristics of calving-generated icequakes. These characteristics include 4 amplitude-based variables and 5 variables related to the shape of the icequake envelope. We build our model by combining automatically-detected icequakes (O'Neel et al., 2007) located at the terminus of Yahtse Glacier (Jones et al., 2013) with a training set of 1400 icequakes produced by visually-observed calving events (Bartholomaus et al., 2012). In each of the models tested (regression trees, multinomial logistic regression and multiple linear regession), icequake duration emerges as the single best predictor of iceberg size, consistent with past studies (Qamar, 1988; O'Neel et al., 2007). Additional predictors, such as the mean icequake amplitude and the kurtosis of the icequake envelope improve the predictive capability of the model and reduce the mean squared error to well-within the error of the in-person classification. Once validated, we apply our model to ~ 400,000 icequakes produced by calving events at Yahtse Glacier between June 2009 and September 2011. These results reveal fluctuations in calving rate at a range of timescales, including twice per year. We suggest that the roughly 50%, biannual variation in calving rate is the result of the trade-off between two competing processes at the

  13. Intake of specific fatty acids and fat alters growth, health, and titers following vaccination in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselburn, K M; O'Diam, K M; Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Aldrich, J M; Schlotterbeck, R L; Daniels, K M

    2013-09-01

    Typical fatty acid profiles of milk and milk replacer (MR) differ. Calf MR in the United States are made from animal fat, which are low in short- and medium-chain fatty acids and linolenic acid. Two 56-d trials compared a control MR containing 27% crude protein and formulated with 3 fat and fatty acid compositions. The 3 MR treatments were (1) only animal fat totaling 17% fat (CON), (2) animal fat supplemented with butyrate, medium-chain fatty acids, and linolenic acid using a commercial product (1.25% NeoTec4 MR; Provimi North America, Brookville, OH) totaling 17% fat (fatty acid-supplemented; FA-S), and (3) milk fat totaling 33% fat (MF). The MR were fed at 660 g of dry matter from d 0 to 42 and weaned. Starter (20% crude protein) and water were fed ad libitum for 56 d. Trial 1 utilized Holstein calves (24 female, 24 male) during summer months and trial 2 utilized Holstein calves (48 male) during fall months. Calves (41±1 kg of initial body weight; 2 to 3d of age) were sourced from a single farm and housed in a naturally ventilated nursery without added heat. Calves were in individual pens with straw bedding. Calf was the experimental unit. Data for each trial were analyzed as a completely randomized design with a 3 (MR treatment) × 2 (sex) factorial arrangement of treatments in trial 1 with repeated measures and as a completely randomized design with 3 MR treatments in trial 2 with repeated measures. Preplanned contrast statements of treatments CON versus FA-S and CON versus MF were used to separate means. We found no interactions of MR treatment by sex. Calf average daily gain, hip width change, and feed efficiency differed (CONFA-S). Titers to bovine respiratory parainfluenza-3 and bovine virus diarrhea type 1 (vaccinations to these pathogens were on d 7 and 28) in serum samples taken on d 49 and 56 differed (CONFA-S; CONFA-S; CON>MF). Calves fed FA-S and MF had improved growth and feed efficiency compared with calves fed CON, whereas calves fed FA-S also

  14. Effect of supplementing pasteurized milk balancer products to heat-treated whole milk on the growth and health of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glosson, K M; Hopkins, B A; Washburn, S P; Davidson, S; Smith, G; Earleywine, T; Ma, C

    2015-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the growth and health effects of supplementing heat-treated whole milk with pasteurized milk balancer products in calf-feeding programs. All calves were removed from their dams at birth (d 0), fed 3.8L of heat-treated colostrum, and received assigned treatments from d 1 until weaning at d 56. Calves were weighed and skeletal measurements taken every 7 d from d 0 until 56. Average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency (FE) were calculated. In experiment 1, 80 Holstein heifer calves were used to investigate the effects of supplementing 2 levels of heat-treated whole milk with or without a pasteurized all-milk balancer. Four dietary treatments (n=20) were used. Calves receiving milk (M) and milk plus balancer (M+B) were fed 3.8L of milk divided into 2 equal feedings daily. Calves fed increased milk (IM) and increased milk plus balancer (IM+B) received 3.8L of milk divided into 2 equal feedings from d 1 to 14, 5.7L from d 15 to 42, and 2.85L fed once daily from d 43 to 56. Treatments M+B and IM+B included pasteurized all-milk balancer fed at a rate of 0.23kg per 3.8L of milk. In experiment 2, 72 Holstein heifer calves were used to investigate the effects of supplementing either a pasteurized all-milk balancer or a pasteurized protein-blend milk balancer. Three dietary treatments (n=24) were used. Calves were fed 3.8L of milk divided into 2 equal feedings from d 1 to 14 and 5.7L from d 15 to 56. Treatment IM did not include any supplements. Balancer was added to IM+B and increased milk plus protein-blend balancer (IM+PB). Balancer was supplemented at a rate of 0.23kg per 3.8L of milk. In experiment 1, calves fed IM+B had greater average body weight (BW) and average daily gain compared with calves given other treatments. Calves fed 5.7L of milk had greater FE than those fed 3.8L regardless of balancer added. In experiment 2, calves fed IM+B and IM+PB had greater BW when compared with calves given M. Calves fed IM+PB had

  15. The influence of postnatal nutrition on reproductive tract and endometrial gland development in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Meghan L; McCoski, Sarah R; Geiger, Adam J; Akers, R Michael; Johnson, Sally E; Ealy, Alan D

    2017-04-01

    Uterine gland development occurs after birth in cattle and other mammals. The timeline of gland development has been described in various species, but little is known about how postnatal diet influences uterine gland development. This is especially concerning in dairy heifers, where a variety of milk replacer and whole milk nutrition options exist. Little work also exists in cattle to describe how early exposure to steroids influences reproductive tract and uterine gland development. The objective of this work was to determine the effects of early postnatal plane of nutrition and estrogen supplementation on uterine gland development in calves. In both studies, Holstein heifer calves were assigned to restricted milk replacer (R-MR) or enhanced milk replacer (EH-MR) diets. In study 1, calves (R-MR, n = 6; EH-MR, n = 5) were euthanized at 8 wk. In study 2, calves were weaned at 8 wk and administered estradiol (R-MR, n = 6; EH-MR, n = 6) or placebo (R-MR, n = 6; EH-MR, n = 5) for an additional 14 d before euthanasia. Average daily gain and final body weight was greater in both studies in heifers fed the enhanced diet. At 8 wk, EH-MR calves had a greater number of glands and a smaller average gland size, but total gland area was not different from the R-MR group. At 10 wk, uterine gland number and size were not affected by diet or estrogen. Expression profiles of several paracrine mediators of gland development were examined. Increases in transcript abundance for IGF1 and IGFBP3 and a decrease in abundance of WNT7A were detected in calves fed the enhanced diet at 8 wk of age. Plane of nutrition did not affect transcript profiles at 10 wk of age, but estradiol supplementation decreased MET and WNT7A transcript abundance. To conclude, heifer calves on a restricted diet exhibited a uterine morphology and transcript profile suggestive of delayed uterine gland development. These changes appear to be corrected by wk 10 of life. Also, this work provides evidence supporting the

  16. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases small intestinal blood flow and mucosal growth in ruminating calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor-Edwards, C C; Burrin, D G; Holst, Jens Juul

    2011-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases small intestinal mass and blood flow in nonruminants but its effect in ruminants is unknown. Eight Holstein calves with an ultrasonic flow probe around the superior mesenteric artery and catheters in the carotid artery and mesenteric vein were paired by age...... of BSA or 1,000 pmol of GLP-2/kg of body weight per h), and recovery (saline infusion). On d 11, calves were killed 2h after injection of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Gastrointestinal tissues were weighed and epithelial samples were obtained to determine villus height, crypt depth, and BrdU staining....... Infusion of GLP-2 increased superior mesenteric artery blood flow to 175% of baseline on d 0 but to only 137% of baseline after chronic treatment. Compared with that of the control, GLP-2 increased small intestinal mass by 24% by increasing epithelial mass in the jejunum and ileum. Additionally, GLP-2...

  17. Offshore wind power systems in Schleswig-Holstein; Offshore in Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, W. [Ministerium fuer Finanzen und Energie des Landes Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    At a Rotarian meeting on Helgoland, Secretary of State Wilfried Voigt of the Schleswig-Holstein Energy Ministry held a much-discussed plea in favour of offshore wind power. [German] Anlaesslich einer Veranstaltung der Rotarier auf der Insel Helgoland hat Staatssekretaer Wilfried Voigt, Energieministerium Schleswig-Holstein, ein vielbeachtetes Plaedoyer fuer den Offshore Einsatz der Windenergie gehalten. (orig.)

  18. 150 years of petroleum production in Schleswig-Holstein; 150 Jahre Oelfoerderung in Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangerin, G. [OeKM-Wangerin, Weddingstedt (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    The contribution describes the geological history of Schleswig-Holstein, the oil fields north of the Elbe river, land reclamation measures after termination of petroleulm production, and future perspectives of petroleum production in Germany. Es wird berichtet ueber: geologische Entwicklung Schleswig-Holsteins; die Oelfelder noerdlich der Elbe; Rueckbaumassnahmen nach Einstellung der Oelfoerderung; Zukunftsperspektiven der Oelfoerderung in Deutschland.

  19. Comparison of interferon and bovine herpesvirus-1-specific IgA levels in nasal secretions of dairy cattle administered an intranasal modified live viral vaccine prior to calving or on the day of calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Victor S; Woolums, Amelia; Hurley, David J; Berghaus, Roy; Bernard, John K; Short, Thomas H

    2017-05-01

    Thirty-two Holstein cows were allocated to receive intranasal vaccination with modified live bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI3V) vaccine either two weeks prior to their projected calving date, or within 24h after calving. Nasal secretions were collected twice at a 12-h interval on the day prior to vaccination (day 0) and at 2, 4, 7, 10 and 14days post vaccination to measure interferon (IFN) alpha, IFN-beta, IFN-gamma, and BHV-1-specific IgA by ELISA. Serum neutralizing antibody titers to BHV-1 and BRSV were measured on days 0, 7, and 14. There was a significant treatment effect (p<0.0004) and interaction (p<0.05) on nasal BHV-1 IgA levels, with higher IgA levels in cows vaccinated within 24h after calving. There was a significant treatment effect on nasal IFN-gamma concentration (p<0.05) and on nasal total IFN concentration (p<0.05), with higher IFN-gamma and total IFN concentrations seen in cows vaccinated within 24h after calving. There was no significant treatment or interaction effect on nasal IFN-alpha or IFN-beta concentrations, or on serum neutralizing titers to BRSV. In spite of prior viral vaccination during the previous lactation, cows vaccinated on the day of calving responded to an intranasal viral vaccination with increased concentrations of IFN-gamma and increased titers of IgA following vaccination which was significantly higher than cows vaccinated precalving. This study is the first to examine respiratory mucosal responses in immunologically mature dairy cattle vaccinated intranasally before and after calving. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Variation in residual feed intake in Holstein-Friesian dairy heifers in southern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Y J; Pryce, J E; Grainger, C; Wales, W J; Linden, N; Porker, M; Hayes, B J

    2011-09-01

    Feed conversion efficiency of dairy cattle is an important component of the profitability of dairying, given that the cost of feed accounts for much of total farm expenses. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a useful measure of feed conversion efficiency, as it can be used to compare individuals with the same or differing levels of production during the period of measurement. If genetic variation exists in RFI among dairy cattle, selection for lower RFI could improve profitability. In this experiment, RFI was defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake, which was determined by regression of dry matter (DM) intake against mean body weight (BW) and growth rate. Nine hundred and three Holstein-Friesian heifer calves, aged between 5 and 7 mo, were measured for RFI in 3 cohorts of approximately 300 animals. Calves were housed under feedlot style conditions in groups of 15 to 20 for 85 to 95 d and had ad libitum access to a cubed alfalfa hay. Intakes of individual animals were recorded via an electronic feed recording system and BW gain was determined by weighing animals once or twice weekly, over a period of 60 to 70 d. Calves had DM intake (mean ± SD) of 8.3±1.37 kg of DM/d over the measurement period with BW gains of 1.1±0.17 kg/d. In terms of converting feed energy for maintenance and growth, the 10% most efficient calves (lowest RFI) ate 1.7 kg of DM less each day than the 10% least efficient calves (highest RFI) for the same rate of growth. Low-RFI heifers also had a significantly lower rate of intake (g/min) than high-RFI heifers. The heritability estimate of RFI (mean ± SE) was 0.27 (±0.12). These results indicate that substantial genetic variation in RFI exists, and that the magnitude of this variation is large enough to enable this trait to be considered as a candidate trait for future dairy breeding goals. A primary focus of future research should be to ensure that calves that are efficient at converting feed

  1. Comparison of passive transfer of immunity in neonatal dairy calves fed colostrum or bovine serum-based colostrum replacement and colostrum supplement products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Keith P; Foley, Andrea L; Collins, Michael T; McGuirk, Sheila M

    2010-10-15

    To compare serum total protein (sTP) and serum IgG (sIgG) concentrations In neonatal calves administered colostrum or a bovine serum-based colostrum replacement (CR) product followed by a bovine serum-based colostrum supplement (CS) product. Randomized controlled clinical trial. 18 Jersey and 269 Holstein neonatal heifer calves. 141 calves were given 4 L of colostrum in 1 or 2 feedings (first or only feeding was provided≤2 hours after birth; when applicable, a second feeding was provided between 2 and 12 hours after birth). Other calves (n=146) were fed 2 L of a CR product≤2 hours after birth and then 2 L of a CS product between 2 and 12 hours after birth. Concentrations of sTP and sIgG were measured 1 to 7 days after birth. Data from cohorts on individual farms and for all farms were analyzed. Mean sTP and sIgG concentrations differed significantly between feeding groups. In calves fed colostrum and calves fed CR and CS products, mean±SD sTP concentration was 5.58±0.67 g/dL and 5.26±0.54 g/dL, respectively, and mean sIgG concentration was 1,868±854 mg/dL and 1,320±620 mg/dL, respectively. The percentage of calves that had failure of passive transfer of immunity (ie, sIgG concentrationsproducts to neonatal calves is an alternative to feeding colostrum for achieving passive transfer of immunity.

  2. Clinical efficacy of diclofenac sodium and flunixin meglumine as adjuncts to antibacterial treatment of respiratory disease of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzel, M; Karakurum, M C; Durgut, R; Mamak, N

    2010-06-01

    To compare the efficacy of the non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, diclofenac sodium and flunixin meglumine as adjuncts to the antibiotic treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). We randomly allocated 80 Holstein calves with BRD to three groups. All the calves received a dose of 2.5 mg/kg tulathromycin by single subcutaneous injection and two of the groups received, in addition, either 2.5 mg/kg diclofenac sodium as a single intramuscular injection (diclofenac group, n = 30) or 2.2 mg/kg flunixin meglumine as an intravenous injection on the first three consecutive days after tulathromycin administration (flunixin group, n = 30). All calves were given a clinical score prior to initial treatment (day 0) and after treatment (days 1, 2, 3, 7 and 14) by observing appetite, demeanour, rectal temperature, the rate and type of respiration, presence or absence of coughing, and nasal discharge. During the first 48 h, improvement of adverse signs of respiratory disease, such as pyrexia and elevated respiratory rate, and of a high clinical index score was significant in the two adjunct groups compared with the calves receiving antibiotic alone. The reduction in pyrexia was greatest in the diclofenac group. There were no statically significant differences between treatment groups with regard to eventual perceived recovery from respiratory disease in 14 days. In this trial, a single intramuscular dose of diclofenac sodium was equally effective as three intravenous injections of flunixin meglumine given on consecutive days as adjunctive therapy for BRD.

  3. The pharmacokinetics and effects of meloxicam, gabapentin, and flunixin in postweaning dairy calves following dehorning with local anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, H D; Coetzee, J F; Edwards-Callaway, L N; Dockweiler, J C; Allen, K A; Lubbers, B; Jones, M; Fraccaro, E; Bergamasco, L L; KuKanich, B

    2013-12-01

    Approved analgesic compounds in cattle are not currently available in the United States due to the lack of validated pain assessment methods and marker residue depletion studies. In this study, we compared the pharmacokinetic parameters and effect of preemptive analgesics administered to calves subjected to dehorning with local anesthesia. Holstein steers were randomly assigned to receive one of the following treatments per os (PO) or intravenously (IV) (n = 8/group): meloxicam (1 mg/kg PO), gabapentin (15 mg/kg PO), meloxicam (1 mg/kg), and gabapentin (15 mg/kg) PO, flunixin (2.2 mg/kg IV), or a placebo. Plasma drug, haptoglobin, substance P (SP) concentrations, serum cortisol concentrations, ocular thermography, mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT), and average daily gain (ADG) were evaluated. Data were analyzed using mixed-effects models and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. Meloxicam, gabapentin, and meloxicam with gabapentin at the present doses did not reduce cortisol concentrations. Analgesic-treated calves had significantly lower plasma SP concentrations and improved ADG compared with controls. Flunixin calves had reduced circulating cortisol compared with controls. Meloxicam-treated calves showed an increase in MNT at two horn bud sites compared with the other treatments. Analgesics improved ADG and reduced biomarkers of pain, but effects differed by compound and route of administration. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Metabolic changes in ruminant calves fed cation-anion diets with different proportions of roughage and concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Saladini Vieira Salles

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out with twenty-four male weaned Holstein calves to verify the influence of different dietary cation-anion concentrate and roughage proportions on calves metabolism. In the first experiment, calves were fed rations with -100, +200 and +400 mEq cation-anion balance/kg of dry matter, containing 60% of roughage and 40% of concentrate. In the second experiment, calves (117.6±20.8 kg average weight received rations with similar dietary cation-anion balance but in diets of 40% roughage and 60% concentrate. As the dietary cation-anion balance became more positive, there was a quadratic response of blood pH in both diets with 60 and 40% roughage. A linear increase following increased dietary cation-anion balance was observed on bicarbonate concentration, carbon dioxide tension, carbon dioxide partial pressure and urine pH on both experiments, while anion gap decreased linearly. Blood urea nitrogen and base excess increased quadratically according to increased dietary cation-anion balance on 60% roughage, whereas those same parameters showed a linear increase on 40% roughage. Growing ruminant metabolism both in cationic and anionic diets was modified when the roughage:concentrate ratio was altered.

  5. Reducing gut effects from Cryptosporidium parvum infection in dairy calves through prophylactic glucagon-like peptide 2 therapy or feeding of an artificial sweetener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, E E; Wall, E H; Bravo, D M; Evock-Clover, C M; Elsasser, T H; Baldwin, R L; Santín, M; Vinyard, B T; Kahl, S; Walker, M P

    2017-04-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) therapy was shown previously to reduce inflammation-related gut damage from coccidiosis in dairy calves, and feeding of artificial sweetener stimulates GLP-2 secretion from intestinal L cells. The purpose of this study was to determine whether GLP-2 treatment or artificial sweetener feeding beginning 1 wk before an experimental inoculation with the coccidian parasite Cryptosporidium parvum can reduce infection-related intestinal damage in Holstein bull calves. Newborn calves were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups of 6 calves each, including noninfected control calves injected s.c. every 12 h with control buffer (CON), infected control calves injected s.c. every 12 h with control buffer (INF), infected calves injected s.c. every 12 h with 50 µg/kg of body weight of GLP-2 (GLP2), and infected calves injected s.c. every 12 h with control buffer and supplemented in the diet with Sucram (Pancosma, Geneva, Switzerland) at 400 mg/kg of dry matter of milk replacer (SUC). Treatments were initiated on d 1, and calves in INF, GLP2, and SUC were orally dosed on d 8 with 12,500 C. parvum oocysts. Fecal scores were recorded daily, plasma was collected on d 1, 8, 12, 15, and 18 to evaluate markers of inflammation, and fecal samples were collected on d 1, 8, and every other day thereafter to determine the presence of oocysts. Calves were euthanized on d 18 for collection of intestinal tissues and histological and gene expression analyses. Relative to CON, calves in INF exhibited an increase in diarrhea severity, increased plasma serum amyloid A concentration on d 15 and 18, reduced intestinal villus height, increased villus apoptosis and crypt cell proliferation, and increased intestinal mRNA expression of MARVELD2 and GPX2. However, calves in SUC and GLP2 had reduced diarrhea severity and fecal C. parvum oocyst shedding, reduced plasma serum amyloid A concentration on d 15 and 18, and, depending on the intestinal segment, increased villus height

  6. Substantial replacement of lactose with fat in a high-lactose milk replacer diet increases liver fat accumulation but does not affect insulin sensitivity in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantophlet, A J; Gerrits, W J J; Vonk, R J; van den Borne, J J G C

    2016-12-01

    In veal calves, the major portion of digestible energy intake originates from milk replacer (MR), with lactose and fat contributing approximately 45 and 35%, respectively. In veal calves older than 4 mo, prolonged high intakes of MR may lead to problems with glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, ultimately resulting in sustained insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and impaired animal performance. The contribution of each of the dietary energy sources (lactose and fat) to deteriorated glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance is currently unknown. Therefore, an experiment was designed to compare the effects of a high-lactose and a high-fat MR on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in veal calves. Sixteen male Holstein-Friesian calves (120±2.8kg of BW) were assigned to either a high-lactose (HL) or a high-fat (HF) MR for 13 consecutive weeks. After at least 7 wk of adaptation, whole-body insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were assessed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic clamps, respectively. Postprandial blood samples were collected to assess glucose, insulin, and triglyceride responses to feeding, and 24-h urine was collected to quantify urinary glucose excretion. At the end of the trial, liver and muscle biopsies were taken to assess triglyceride contents in these tissues. Long-term exposure of calves to HF or HL MR did not affect whole-body insulin sensitivity (averaging 4.2±0.5×10(-2) [(mg/kg∙min)/(μU/mL)]) and insulin secretion. Responses to feeding were greater for plasma glucose and tended to be greater for plasma insulin in HL calves than in HF calves. Urinary glucose excretion was substantially higher in HL calves (75±13g/d) than in HF calves (21±6g/d). Muscle triglyceride content was not affected by treatment and averaged 4.5±0.6g/kg, but liver triglyceride content was higher in HF calves (16.4±0.9g/kg) than in HL calves (11.2±0.7g/kg), indicating increased hepatic fat accumulation. We conclude that

  7. Effects of milk replacer feeding strategies on performance, ruminal development, and metabolism of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silper, B F; Lana, A M Q; Carvalho, A U; Ferreira, C S; Franzoni, A P S; Lima, J A M; Saturnino, H M; Reis, R B; Coelho, S G

    2014-02-01

    Performance, rumen development, and metabolism of male Holstein calves (n=54) were evaluated according to 1 of 3 liquid feeding strategies: 4 L of milk replacer (MR)/d until 60 d old (4 L-60 d), 6L of MR/d until 29 d old and 4 L/d from 30 to 60 d (6L-29 d/4 L-60 d), or 6L of MR/day until 60 d old (60 d-6L). Water and starter were provided ad libitum. Intakes of MR and starter were monitored daily and body weight (BW) weekly. Blood samples for glucose and insulin concentrations and ruminal content samples for volatile fatty acids and ruminal ammonia concentrations were collected at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 d of age. Six calves on each treatment were euthanized at 30, 60, and 90 d of age. Empty weights of forestomach and abomasum, papillae length, and mitotic index were measured. Average MR intake/d (expressed as a percent of BW) was greater for calves receiving 6L/d than for those receiving 4 L/d until 30 d of age. Calves on the 6 L-29 d/4 L-60 d had the smallest MR intake from 30 to 60 d old, followed by the 4 L-60 d and 6L-60 d treatments. Starter intake (kg of dry matter/day) did not differ between groups. It increased from 0.065 kg/d in the first month to 0.386 kg/d in the second month, and to 2.065 kg/d after weaning. Weight gain was greater for calves fed more MR in the first month, but no difference was observed during the second month. After weaning, 6L-60 d calves had greater rate of weight gain than others and were heavier at 30, 60, and 90 d of age. Weight of empty forestomachs, ruminal pH, and ammoniac nitrogen concentration were not different among groups. Propionate concentration was lower for 6 L-60 d calves, but acetate and butyrate concentrations were not influenced by MR feeding strategy. Calves fed more MR until d 30 had greater ruminal epithelium mitotic index. The different MR feeding strategies did not influence papillae length or ruminal epithelium thickness. Lesions such as ruminal parakeratosis or hyperkeratosis were not observed. The MR

  8. Pelvic Parameters in Holstein-Friesian and Jersey Heifers in Relation to Their Calving

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zenon Nogalski and Władysław Mordas

    2012-01-01

    ... and less preferable pelvic structure. Large variation in the internal dimensions of the pelvis in HF heifers encouraged reducing the occurrence of dystocia through selection of the dimensions of the pelvis.

  9. Effects of health disorders on milk yield and calving interval in Italian Holstein cows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    L. Gallo; G. Bittante; B. Contiero; E. Sturaro; F. Cesarini

    2011-01-01

    ...) increased the interest towards health traits. Recording diseases of economic significance helps in containing veterinary costs, milk losses and early replacement of cows, and is needed for developing management strategies able to promote health...

  10. Quantitative carcass traits of Holstein calves, finished in different systems and slaughter weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Paris

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar as características da carcaça de bezerros holandeses terminados em confinamento ou em pastagem com suplementação e abatidos com diferentes pesos de abate. Os animais confinados foram alimentados com volumoso e concentrado comercial, na proporção de 40:60, sendo a silagem de milho utilizada como volumoso. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 2x4 (dois sistemas de terminação x quatro pesos de abate. Os animais foram abatidos à medida que atingiam os pesos de abate pré-determinados (140, 180, 220 e 260kg. O sistema de acabamento não teve influência sobre o peso e rendimento de carcaça quente e fria e as perdas de carcaça, mas os animais confinados apresentaram maior espessura de gordura. Animais confinados apresentaram melhor conformação, comparados com os terminados em pastagem. À medida que aumentou o peso de abate, houve crescimento linear para peso de carcaça quente e fria, rendimento de carcaça quente e fria, conformação, medidas métricas e peso dos cortes comerciais da carcaça. O percentual do corte traseiro decresceu com o aumento do peso de abate, enquanto que a espessura de gordura apresentou resposta quadrática. Os sistemas de abate apresentaram rendimento de carcaça semelhante. As características da carcaça melhoram com o aumento do peso de abate, mas, em percentagem, são semelhantes

  11. Bayesian estimation of the accuracy of the calf respiratory scoring chart and ultrasonography for the diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease in pre-weaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczinski, Sébastien; L Ollivett, Terri; Dendukuri, Nandini

    2015-05-01

    There is currently no gold standard method for the diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex in Holstein pre-weaned dairy calves. Systematic thoracic ultrasonography (TUS) has been used as a proxy for BRD, but cannot be directly used by producers. The Wisconsin calf respiratory scoring chart (CRSC) is a simpler alternative, but with unknown accuracy. Our objective was to estimate the accuracy of CRSC, while adjusting for the lack of a gold standard. Two cross sectional study populations with a high BRD prevalence (n=106 pre-weaned Holstein calves) and an average BRD prevalence (n=85 pre-weaned Holstein calves) from North America were studied. All calves were simultaneously assessed using CRSC (cutoff used ≥ 5) and TUS (cutoff used ≥ 1cm of lung consolidation). Bayesian latent class models allowing for conditional dependence were used with informative priors for BRD prevalence and TUS accuracy (sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp)) and non-informative priors for CRSC accuracies. Robustness of the model was tested by relaxing priors for prevalence or TUS accuracy. The SeCRSC (95% credible interval (CI)) and SpCRSC were 62.4% (47.9-75.8) and 74.1% (64.9-82.8) respectively. The SeTUS was 79.4% (66.4-90.9) and SpTUS was 93.9% (88.0-97.6). The imperfect accuracy of CRSC and TUS should be taken into account when using those tools to assess BRD status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dairy cows with prolonged calving seek additional isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2017-01-01

    In modern calving facilities, dairy cows either calve in a group pen or are moved to a separate individual pen when calving is imminent. In practice, cows are often moved too close to calving, which poses a health risk to cow and calf. Thus, a need exists for new calving facility designs and mana......In modern calving facilities, dairy cows either calve in a group pen or are moved to a separate individual pen when calving is imminent. In practice, cows are often moved too close to calving, which poses a health risk to cow and calf. Thus, a need exists for new calving facility designs...... that interactions between motivation for isolation seeking and calving behavior exist....

  13. Novel harmful recessive haplotypes identified for fertility traits in Nordic Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Nielsen, Ulrik Sander; Aamand, Gert Pedersen

    2013-01-01

    . A total of 7,937 Nordic Holstein animals were genotyped with BovineSNP50 BeadChip and haplotypes including 25 consecutive markers were constructed and tested for absence of homozygotes states. We have identified 17 homozygote deficient haplotypes which could be loosely clustered into eight genomic regions...... harboring possible recessive lethal alleles. Effects of the identified haplotypes were estimated on two fertility traits: non-return rates and calving interval. Out of the eight identified genomic regions, six regions were confirmed as having an effect on fertility. The information can be used to avoid...... carrier-by-carrier mattings in practical animal breeding. Further, identification of causative genes/polymorphisms responsible for lethal effects will lead to accurate testing of the individuals carrying a lethal allele...

  14. Salmonella in Swedish cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ågren, Estelle

    2017-01-01

    In Sweden, all herds detected with salmonella are put under restrictions and measures aiming at eradication are required. The purpose of these studies was to provide a basis for decisions on how surveillance and control of salmonella in Swedish cattle can be made more cost-efficient. Results from a bulk milk screening were used to investigate seroprevalence of salmonella and to study associations between salmonella status and geographical location, local animal density, number of test pos...

  15. Swedish electricity market 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The organization of the Swedish electricity market has been in a state of continual change since the electricity market reform was started in the early 1990s. The conditions for the development of the electricity market have changed since the new Electricity Act came into force on 1 January 1996. The purpose of the reform is to introduce greater competition on the electricity market and provide the consumers with greater freedom of choice and, by open trade in electricity, to create the conditions for more efficient pricing. Being the central energy authority, the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development, NUTEK, was entrusted by the Government with the task of following developments on the Swedish electricity market. The Network Authority, which has the supervisory function for the new electricity market, were entrusted by the Government with the task of following developments on the Swedish electricity market and regularly compiling and reporting current market information. The new electricity market has now been operative for ten months. The Network Authority has submitted to the Government a detailed report entitled `Developments on the electricity market`, dealing with the experience gained from the electricity market reform. The purpose of the publication is to provide the players on the electricity market - the decision makers, the media and the general public - with comprehensive and easily accessible information on the market conditions. The publication includes summaries of information on electricity production and use in recent years, the structure of the electricity market from the perspective of a player, electricity trade in Sweden and in northern Europe, electricity prices in Sweden and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment

  16. Swedish Family Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrstrom, Staffan

    1986-01-01

    Family policy remains one of the leading issues of Swedish domestic politics. All parties are agreed that families with children must be given a better deal in the wake of the economic crisis. But how is this to be done and how quickly can it be achieved? Is the expansion of day nursery facilities to be speeded up, or are parents to be given a…

  17. Underwater acoustic signatures of glacier calving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, O.; Deane, G. B.; Moskalik, M.; Blondel, Ph.; Tegowski, J.; Blaszczyk, M.

    2015-02-01

    Climate-driven ice-water interactions in the contact zone between marine-terminating glaciers and the ocean surface show a dynamic and complex nature. Tidewater glaciers lose volume through the poorly understood process of calving. A detailed description of the mechanisms controlling the course of calving is essential for the reliable estimation and prediction of mass loss from glaciers. Here we present the potential of hydroacoustic methods to investigate different modes of ice detachments. High-frequency underwater ambient noise recordings are combined with synchronized, high-resolution, time-lapse photography of the Hans Glacier cliff in Hornsund Fjord, Spitsbergen, to identify three types of calving events: typical subaerial, sliding subaerial, and submarine. A quantitative analysis of the data reveals a robust correlation between ice impact energy and acoustic emission at frequencies below 200 Hz for subaerial calving. We suggest that relatively inexpensive acoustic methods can be successfully used to provide quantitative descriptions of the various calving types.

  18. Surface wave generation due to glacier calving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław R. Massel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Coastal glaciers reach the ocean in a spectacular process called "calving". Immediately after calving, the impulsive surface waves are generated, sometimes of large height. These waves are particularly dangerous for vessels sailing close to the glacier fronts. The paper presents a theoretical model of surface wave generation due to glacier calving. To explain the wave generation process, four case studies of ice blocks falling into water are discussed: a cylindrical ice block of small thickness impacting on water, an ice column sliding into water without impact, a large ice block falling on to water with a pressure impulse, and an ice column becoming detached from the glacier wall and falling on to the sea surface. These case studies encompass simplified, selected modes of the glacier calving, which can be treated in a theoretical way. Example calculations illustrate the predicted time series of surface elevations for each mode of glacier calving.

  19. Parallel distribution of sexes within left and right uterine horns in Holstein dairy cows: evidence that the effect of side of pregnancy on sex ratio could be breed-specific in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharagozlou, F; Vojgani, M; Akbarinejad, V; Niasari-Naslaji, A; Hemmati, M; Youssefi, R

    2013-11-30

    Dissimilar distribution of male and female calves within left and right uterine horns has been observed in beef cows. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the effect of side of pregnancy on secondary sex ratio in Holstein dairy cows. Data associated with sex of calves, side of pregnancy, sire, dam, parity number of dam, AI technician, season and year were retrieved from the database of a Holstein dairy farm. In total, data consisted of 6515 birth records from 3155 dams and 244 sires across years 2001-2010. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. There was no difference in proportion of male and female calves between left (52.9% and 47.1%, respectively) and right (53.2% and 46.8%, respectively) uterine horns (P>0.05). AI technician, year, season and parity of dam did not affect secondary sex ratio (P>0.05). Secondary sex ratio of left and right uterine horns, and consequently, overall secondary sex ratio (53.1%) were skewed toward males as compared with hypothetical secondary sex ratio of 50% (Phorns in Holstein dairy cows. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The production performance of Holstein Friesian dairy cattle in West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mahyudin

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The production performance of Holstein-Friesian cows in West Java was evaluated in two areas, Cisarua district (Bogor and Tanjungsari district (Sumedang. In Cisarua the evaluation was made on 175 cows with different stage of lactation (2 - 11 months. Feed offered, both forage and concentrate, milk production and chess girth were measured from each animal for 24 h only. Date of calving, date of service and stage of pregnancy were recorded by interviewing the farmers . In Tanjungsari the study was conducted on 102 postpartum cows . Milk production and chess girth were measured at the beginning of the study and then once a month (morning and afternoon milking for 3 months. Milk production was 3,700 1 and 3,400 1 per lactation with declining rate of 0 .03 and 0 .05 1/d for Cisarua and Tanjungsari area respectively. The ratio of concentrate : forage consumption was 1 and 1 .4 in Cisarua and in Tanjungsari respectively, and the ratio was reduced as milk production declined . The efficiency of conversion of feed ME to milk yield was approximately the same (0.12 1/MJ in both location . The proportion of cows lost weight in Cisarua during the first three months was lower (46 % as compared to that in Sumedang (77 %. Approximately 68 % of the population have conception rate (CR > 50 % , the remaining should be culled, 24 % have low CR and 8 % have days open > 150 days . From 61 cows observed, 71 % and 21% have a projected calving interval of 12 months and 13 - 14 months respectively . It can be concluded that milk production and reproduction efficiency of Holstein'cows in West Java are considered low.

  1. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Rahimi

    Full Text Available Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus to 76 h (P. aviculare. Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; P<0.05. This study shows that management programs aiming to minimize weed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure.

  2. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Salman; Mashhadi, Hamid Rahimian; Banadaky, Mehdi Dehghan; Mesgaran, Mohsen Beheshtian

    2016-01-01

    Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus) to 76 h (P. aviculare). Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; Pweed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure.

  3. Pain and sickness behavior associated with corneal lesions in dairy calves [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon J. Woods

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK is a common corneal disease of calves that adversely affects animal welfare by causing pain and weight loss. Identifying behavioral indicators of pain and sickness in calves with IBK is necessary for designing studies that aim to identify effective means of pain mitigation. Consistent with principles of the 3Rs for animal use in research, data from a randomized blinded challenge study was used to identify and describe variation of behaviors that could serve as reliable indicators of pain and sickness in calves with corneal injuries. Behavioral observations were collected from 29 Holstein calves 8 to 12 weeks of age randomly allocated to one of three treatments: (1 corneal scarification only, (2 corneal scarification with inoculation with Moraxella bovoculi and (3 corneal scarification with inoculation with Moraxella bovis. Behavior was continuously observed between time 1230 - 1730 h on day -1 (baseline time period and day 0 (scarification time period. Corneal scarification and inoculation occurred between 0800 - 1000 h on day 0. Frequency of head-directed behaviors (head shaking, head rubbing, head scratching and durations of head rubbing, feeding, standing with head lifted, lying with head lifted and sleeping were compared between study days and groups. Following scarification, the frequency of head-directed behavior significantly increased (p = 0.0001, as did duration of head rubbing (p=0.02. There was no significant effect of trial, trial day, treatment or treatment-day interaction on other behaviors studied. Our study demonstrated that head-directed behavior, such as head shaking, rubbing and scratching, was associated with scarification of eyes using an IBK challenge model, but sickness behavior was not observed.

  4. 33 CFR 147.831 - Holstein Truss Spar safety zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holstein Truss Spar safety zone. 147.831 Section 147.831 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.831 Holstein Truss Spar safety zone. (a) Description. Holstein, Green Canyon 645 ...

  5. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie R. Valgaeren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin.

  6. Evaluation of the effects of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus Licheni formis promix on blood metabolites and elements and weight gain in rearing calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh Moghaddam

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are beneficial microorganisms which are colonized in the digestive system of livestock and influence some of the blood parameters through special mechanisms. For this purpose, an experiment was conducted to clarify the influence of promix containing living spores of the two bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis on body weight gain, blood metabolites and elements of calves. Twenty male Holstein calves were divided into two groups of ten calves and kept at separate bans. The control group were fed with a standard ration and the treatment group were fed with the same ration plus promix (1.6 × 109 cfu/g feed or 500 g/T feed for 45 days. Calves were weighed in the 1st, 15th, 30th and 45th days and blood samples were collected for measurement of some metabolites and blood elements. The obtained means were compared using the T- test. The results indicated that the average daily weight gain using promix had a non-significant improvement of 4.8% (p>0.05. Also the average daily weight gain showed a non significant improvement in each of the 3 experimental periods (p>0.05. Blood phosphorus and calcium of calves increased significantly influenced by promix with the increase being non significant in the first experimental period and significant in the second and third periods (p

  7. Fertility, survival, and conformation of Montbéliarde × Holstein and Viking Red × Holstein crossbred cows compared with pure Holstein cows during first lactation in 8 commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, A R; Heins, B J; Hansen, L B

    2017-11-01

    Montbéliarde (MO) × Holstein (HO) and Viking Red (VR) × HO crossbred cows were compared with pure HO cows in 8 large, high-performance dairy herds in Minnesota. All cows calved for the first time from December 2010 to April 2014. Fertility and survival traits were calculated from records of insemination, pregnancy diagnosis, calving, and disposal that were recorded via management software. Body condition score and conformation were subjectively scored once during early lactation by trained evaluators. The analysis of survival to 60 d in milk included 536 MO × HO, 560 VR × HO, and 1,033 HO cows during first lactation. Cows analyzed for other fertility, survival, and conformation traits had up to 13% fewer cows available for analysis. The first service conception rate of the crossbred cows (both types combined) increased 7%, as did the conception rate across the first 5 inseminations, compared with the HO cows during first lactation. Furthermore, the combined crossbred cows (2.11 ± 0.05) had fewer times bred than HO cows (2.30 ± 0.05) and 10 fewer d open compared with their HO herdmates. Across the 8 herds, breed groups did not differ for survival to 60 d in milk; however, the superior fertility of the crossbred cows allowed an increased proportion of the combined crossbreds (71 ± 1.5%) to calve a second time within 14 mo compared with the HO cows (63 ± 1.5%). For survival to second calving, the combined crossbred cows had 4% superior survival compared with the HO cows. The MO × HO and VR × HO crossbred cows both had increased body condition score (+0.50 ± 0.02 and +0.25 ± 0.02, respectively) but shorter stature and less body depth than HO cows. The MO × HO cows had less set to the hock and a steeper foot angle than the HO cows, and the VR × HO cows had more set to the hock with a similar foot angle to the HO cows. The combined crossbred cows had less udder clearance from the hock than HO cows, more width between both front and rear teats, and longer

  8. Genetic parameters for test day somatic cell score in Brazilian Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, C N; Santos, G G; Cobuci, J A; Thompson, G; Carvalheira, J G V

    2015-12-29

    Selection for lower somatic cell count has been included in the breeding objectives of several countries in order to increase resistance to mastitis. Genetic parameters of somatic cell scores (SCS) were estimated from the first lactation test day records of Brazilian Holstein cows using random-regression models with Legendre polynomials (LP) of the order 3-5. Data consisted of 87,711 TD produced by 10,084 cows, sired by 619 bulls calved from 1993 to 2007. Heritability estimates varied from 0.06 to 0.14 and decreased from the beginning of the lactation up to 60 days in milk (DIM) and increased thereafter to the end of lactation. Genetic correlations between adjacent DIM were very high (>0.83) but decreased to negative values, obtained with LP of order four, between DIM in the extremes of lactation. Despite the favorable trend, genetic changes in SCS were not significant and did not differ among LP. There was little benefit of fitting an LP of an order >3 to model animal genetic and permanent environment effects for SCS. Estimates of variance components found in this study may be used for breeding value estimation for SCS and selection for mastitis resistance in Holstein cattle in Brazil.

  9. A Preliminary Study on Artificial Nursing of Young Calves | Talabi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calves fed by their respective lactating dams had a faster growth rate than calves fed on skimmed milk and corn starch. Over the 18 weeks of this study, the weight gains of the calves fed with skimmed milk and corn starch were significantly lower (P<0.05) than the calves fed by their respective dams. This study concluded ...

  10. The Holstein polaron: beyond the standard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Carl J.; Marsiglio, Frank

    2014-03-01

    The paradigm for describing the polaron is the Holstein model, where only local interactions between the electron and optical phonon modes are considered. We present several variants of this model and discuss the impact on various observables, such as the effective mass. Possible variations include further than nearest neighbour hopping, longer range interactions, and even models that go beyond the Holstein/Frohlich coupling, i.e. the BLF/SSH (Barisic-Labbe-Friedel/Su-Schrieffer-Heeger) model. Recent progress on these models will be described.

  11. Only 7% of the variation in feed efficiency in veal calves can be predicted from variation in feeding motivation, digestion, metabolism, immunology, and behavioral traits in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M S; van den Borne, J J G C; van Reenen, C G; Gerrits, W J J

    2017-10-01

    High interindividual variation in growth performance is commonly observed in veal calf production and appears to depend on milk replacer (MR) composition. Our first objective was to examine whether variation in growth performance in healthy veal calves can be predicted from early life characterization of these calves. Our second objective was to determine whether these predictions differ between calves that are fed a high- or low-lactose MR in later life. A total of 180 male Holstein-Friesian calves arrived at the facilities at 17 ± 3.4 d of age, and blood samples were collected before the first feeding. Subsequently, calves were characterized in the following 9 wk (period 1) using targeted challenges related to traits within each of 5 categories: feeding motivation, digestion, postabsorptive metabolism, behavior and stress, and immunology. In period 2 (wk 10-26), 130 calves were equally divided over 2 MR treatments: a control MR that contained lactose as the only carbohydrate source and a low-lactose MR in which 51% of the lactose was isocalorically replaced by glucose, fructose, and glycerol (2:1:2 ratio). Relations between early life characteristics and growth performance in later life were assessed in 117 clinically healthy calves. Average daily gain (ADG) in period 2 tended to be greater for control calves (1,292 ± 111 g/d) than for calves receiving the low-lactose MR (1,267 ± 103 g/d). Observations in period 1 were clustered per category using principal component analysis, and the resulting principal components were used to predict performance in period 2 using multiple regression procedures. Variation in observations in period 1 predicted 17% of variation in ADG in period 2. However, this was mainly related to variation in solid feed refusals. When ADG was adjusted to equal solid feed intake, only 7% of the variation in standardized ADG in period 2, in fact reflecting feed efficiency, could be explained by early life measurements. This indicates that >90

  12. Effects of local anesthesia and flunixin meglumine on the acute cortisol response, behavior, and performance of young dairy calves undergoing surgical castration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, H B; Morin, D; Jarrell, V; Shipley, C; Brown, L; Green, A; Wallace, R; Constable, P D

    2013-10-01

    This study assessed the effects of flunixin meglumine (FM) and a local anesthetic block (LA) on postcastration performance, plasma cortisol concentration, and behavior in dairy calves. Thirty 2- to 3-mo-old Holstein-Friesian bull calves were allocated to 5 treatments: castration with LA (2% lidocaine injected into the testes and subcutaneously), castration with FM (1.1mg/kg, i.v.), castration with LA+FM, castration without drugs (CC), and sham castration (SC). Castration was performed using a Newberry knife and Henderson castrating tool. Feed intake and body weight gain were recorded for 10d postcastration. Plasma cortisol concentration and behavior frequency and duration were monitored for 8h postcastration. Variables with repeated measures were analyzed using PROC MIXED (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC); one-way ANOVA was used for nonrepeated measures. No differences in feed intake or body weight gain were detected among groups. Calves in the CC, LA, and FM groups had transient (<60, <60, and <45 min, respectively) increases in plasma cortisol concentration after castration, with a second increase at 120 min in the LA group, whereas cortisol concentration remained at baseline in the LA+FM and SC groups. Mean cortisol concentrations were lower for calves in the LA+FM and SC groups than in the CC group. The area under the plasma cortisol concentration curve during the first 3h postcastration was greater in CC- and LA-treated calves than in SC controls. Castration without drugs was associated with higher frequencies of crouching and statue standing and less oral activity compared with SC controls. Administering LA alone before castration was associated with higher frequencies of head turning, statue standing, and postural changes, and less feeding behavior compared with SC controls. More leg lifting to groom was seen in LA+FM-treated calves than in SC controls. Calves administered FM alone before castration exhibited less crouching than CC calves, fewer postural shifts

  13. Environmental Management at Swedish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Karin

    2004-01-01

    Since 1996, all Swedish public authorities, which includes most universities, have been made responsible for contributing to the sustainable development of the society. Swedish universities are thus required to submit annual environmental reports about their policies, structures and actions. This study provides a review of the activities that…

  14. Effects of heat stress on production, somatic cell score and conception rate in Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiya, Koichi; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Shirai, Tatsuo; Osawa, Takefumi; Terawaki, Yoshinori; Nagamine, Yoshitaka; Masuda, Yutaka; Suzuki, Mitsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effects of heat stress (HS) on production traits, somatic cell score (SCS) and conception rate at first insemination (CR) in Holsteins in Japan. We used a total of 228 242 records of milk, fat and protein yields, and SCS for the first three lactations, as well as of CR in heifers and in first- and second-lactation cows that had calved for the first time between 2000 and 2012. Records from 47 prefectural weather stations throughout Japan were used to calculate the temperature-humidity index (THI); areas were categorized into three regional groups: no HS (THI < 72), mild HS (72 ≤ THI < 79), and moderate HS (THI ≥ 79). Trait records from the three HS-region groups were treated as three different traits and trivariate animal models were used. The genetic correlations between milk yields from different HS groups were very high (0.91 to 0.99). Summer calving caused the greatest increase in SCS, and in the first and second lactations this increase became greater as THI increased. In cows, CR was affected by the interaction between HS group and insemination month: with summer and early autumn insemination, there was a reduction in CR, and it was much larger in the mild- and moderate-HS groups than in the no-HS group. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production during Their First Lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britni M Brown

    Full Text Available The fertility of lactating Holstein cows is severely reduced during periods of heat stress. Despite this reduction in fertility, however, some inseminations conducted during heat stress result in successful pregnancies from which heifer calves are born. Many of these heifer calves are retained and raised to enter the milking herd as replacement animals. Heat stress experienced by these females around the time they were conceived may confer long-lasting effects that alter subsequent milk production capacity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and subsequent milk production of primiparous cows. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included Holstein cows that had completed at least one lactation in one of three states with large populations of dairy cattle and which are known for having hot, humid summers: Georgia, Florida or Texas. Dates of conception were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date of each individual cow. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress-conceived (HSC cows (n = 94,440; cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral-conceived (TNC contemporaries (n = 141,365. In order to account for the effects of environmental conditions on total milk production for a given lactation, cows were blocked by season of calving (winter, spring, summer or fall. Adjusted 305-day mature-equivalent milk production was evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS, in which random effects were used to account for variability between herds. Of the cows that calved in the summer, fall and winter, TNC cows had higher milk yield than the HSC cows in all states. Interestingly, the cows that calved in the spring presented a unique relationship, with HSC cows producing more milk. Overall however

  16. Effects of replacing lactose from milk replacer by glucose, fructose, or glycerol on energy partitioning in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M S; Pantophlet, A J; van den Borne, J J G C; Hendriks, W H; Schols, H A; Gerrits, W J J

    2016-02-01

    Calf milk replacers contain 40 to 50% lactose. Fluctuating dairy prices are a major economic incentive to replace lactose from milk replacers by alternative energy sources. Our objective was, therefore, to determine the effects of replacement of lactose with glucose, fructose, or glycerol on energy and protein metabolism in veal calves. Forty male Holstein-Friesian calves (114±2.4 kg) were fed milk replacer containing 46% lactose (CON) or 31% lactose and 15% of glucose (GLUC), fructose (FRUC), or glycerol (GLYC). Solid feed was provided at 10 g of dry matter (DM)/kg of metabolic body weight (BW(0.75)) per day. After an adaptation of 48 d, individual calves were harnessed, placed in metabolic cages, and housed in pairs in respiration chambers. Apparent total-tract disappearance of DM, energy, and N and complete energy and N balances were measured. The GLUC, FRUC, and GLYC calves received a single dose of 1.5 g of [U-(13)C]glucose, [U-(13)C]fructose, or [U-(13)C]glycerol, respectively, with their milk replacer at 0630 h and exhaled (13)CO2 and (13)C excretion with feces was measured. Apparent total-tract disappearance was decreased by 2.2% for DM, 3.2% for energy, and 4.2% for N in FRUC compared with CON calves. Energy and N retention did not differ between treatments, and averaged 299±16 kJ/kg of BW(0.75) per day and 0.79±0.04 g/kg of BW(0.75) per day, respectively, although FRUC calves retained numerically less N (13%) than other calves. Recovery of (13)C isotopes as (13)CO2 did not differ between treatments and averaged 72±1.6%. The time at which the maximum rate of (13)CO2 production was reached was more than 3 h delayed for FRUC calves, which may be explained by a conversion of fructose into other substrates before being oxidized. Recovery of (13)C in feces was greater for FRUC calves (7.7±0.59%) than for GLUC (1.0±0.27%) and GLYC calves (0.5±0.04%), indicating incomplete absorption of fructose from the small intestine resulting in fructose excretion or

  17. Genetic Parameters for Linear Type Traits and Milk, Fat, and Protein Production in Holstein Cows in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Viegas Campos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for linear type traits, as well as milk yield (MY, fat yield (FY and protein yield (PY in 18,831 Holstein cows reared in 495 herds in Brazil. Restricted maximum likelihood with a bivariate model was used for estimation genetic parameters, including fixed effects of herd-year of classification, period of classification, classifier and stage of lactation for linear type traits and herd-year of calving, season of calving and lactation order effects for production traits. The age of cow at calving was fitted as a covariate (with linear and quadratic terms, common to both models. Heritability estimates varied from 0.09 to 0.38 for linear type traits and from 0.17 to 0.24 for production traits, indicating sufficient genetic variability to achieve genetic gain through selection. In general, estimates of genetic correlations between type and production traits were low, except for udder texture and angularity that showed positive genetic correlations (>0.29 with MY, FY, and PY. Udder depth had the highest negative genetic correlation (−0.30 with production traits. Selection for final score, commonly used by farmers as a practical selection tool to improve type traits, does not lead to significant improvements in production traits, thus the use of selection indices that consider both sets of traits (production and type seems to be the most adequate to carry out genetic selection of animals in the Brazilian herd.

  18. Effect of postpartum propylene glycol allocation to over-conditioned Holstein cows on concentrations of milk metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke; Storm, Adam C; Vestergaard, Mogens; Larsen, Mogens; Larsen, Torben

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of propylene glycol (PG) allocation on concentrations of milk metabolites with potential use as indicators of glucogenic status in high yielding postpartum dairy cows. At time of calving, nine ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were randomly assigned to ruminal dosing of 500 g/d tap water (CON, n = 4) or 500 g/d PG (PPG, n = 5). The PG was given with the morning feeding week 1-4 postpartum (treatment period) and cows were further followed during week 5-8 postpartum (follow-up period). All cows were fed the same postpartum diet. Milk samples were obtained at each milking (3 times/d) in the treatment period, and at morning milking during the follow-up period. Weekly blood samples were obtained from -4 to +8 weeks relative to calving and daily blood samples from -7 until +7 d relative to calving. The main effect of PG allocation was an increased glucogenic status, e.g. visualised by a prompt marked increase in blood fructosamine. During the treatment period, milk concentration of free glucose tended to be greater, whereas milk concentrations of isocitrate and BHBA were lower for PPG compared with CON. It is proposed that the ratio between free glucose and isocitrate in milk may be a potential biomarker for glucogenic status in the vulnerable early postpartum period. We will pursue this issue in the future.

  19. Genetic Parameters for Linear Type Traits and Milk, Fat, and Protein Production in Holstein Cows in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Rafael Viegas; Cobuci, Jaime Araujo; Kern, Elisandra Lurdes; Costa, Cláudio Napolis; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for linear type traits, as well as milk yield (MY), fat yield (FY) and protein yield (PY) in 18,831 Holstein cows reared in 495 herds in Brazil. Restricted maximum likelihood with a bivariate model was used for estimation genetic parameters, including fixed effects of herd-year of classification, period of classification, classifier and stage of lactation for linear type traits and herd-year of calving, season of calving and lactation order effects for production traits. The age of cow at calving was fitted as a covariate (with linear and quadratic terms), common to both models. Heritability estimates varied from 0.09 to 0.38 for linear type traits and from 0.17 to 0.24 for production traits, indicating sufficient genetic variability to achieve genetic gain through selection. In general, estimates of genetic correlations between type and production traits were low, except for udder texture and angularity that showed positive genetic correlations (>0.29) with MY, FY, and PY. Udder depth had the highest negative genetic correlation (−0.30) with production traits. Selection for final score, commonly used by farmers as a practical selection tool to improve type traits, does not lead to significant improvements in production traits, thus the use of selection indices that consider both sets of traits (production and type) seems to be the most adequate to carry out genetic selection of animals in the Brazilian herd. PMID:25656190

  20. A Holstein cow-calf model for the transfer of ciprofloxacin through milk after a long-term intravenous infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, O A; Idowu, O R; Heller, D; Smith, M; Nochetto, C; Chamberlain, P L; Gehring, R; von Bredow, J

    2013-10-01

    This study is part of an ongoing effort to develop animal models that provide milk and sufficient infant (offspring) plasma samples to fully describe a drug's pharmacokinetics to quantitate the risk to the nursing infant. Ciprofloxacin was administered to six healthy Holstein cows as a constant rate intravenous infusion (flow rate was weight adjusted) to achieve a steady-state concentration of approximately 300 ng/mL for 7 days. Plasma and milk samples were collected from the cow at regular intervals over the course of the 7 days. The plasma and milk samples were analyzed for ciprofloxacin by high-performance liquid chromatography. The milk was fed to calves, and calf plasma samples were analyzed to study the lactational transfer of ciprofloxacin from dam to nursing neonate. Remarkably, concentrations of ciprofloxacin in milk were 45 times higher than plasma drug concentrations in the dam. Approximately 6% of the administered dose was transferred to the milk, resulting in an average oral dose of 0.5 mg/kg to the calves with every feeding. The drug did not accumulate in the calves, and plasma concentrations were between one-tenth and one-fifth the plasma concentrations of the dam. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Genetic parameters for linear type traits and milk, fat, and protein production in holstein cows in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Rafael Viegas; Cobuci, Jaime Araujo; Kern, Elisandra Lurdes; Costa, Cláudio Napolis; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for linear type traits, as well as milk yield (MY), fat yield (FY) and protein yield (PY) in 18,831 Holstein cows reared in 495 herds in Brazil. Restricted maximum likelihood with a bivariate model was used for estimation genetic parameters, including fixed effects of herd-year of classification, period of classification, classifier and stage of lactation for linear type traits and herd-year of calving, season of calving and lactation order effects for production traits. The age of cow at calving was fitted as a covariate (with linear and quadratic terms), common to both models. Heritability estimates varied from 0.09 to 0.38 for linear type traits and from 0.17 to 0.24 for production traits, indicating sufficient genetic variability to achieve genetic gain through selection. In general, estimates of genetic correlations between type and production traits were low, except for udder texture and angularity that showed positive genetic correlations (>0.29) with MY, FY, and PY. Udder depth had the highest negative genetic correlation (-0.30) with production traits. Selection for final score, commonly used by farmers as a practical selection tool to improve type traits, does not lead to significant improvements in production traits, thus the use of selection indices that consider both sets of traits (production and type) seems to be the most adequate to carry out genetic selection of animals in the Brazilian herd.

  2. Haematological Studies of Gaolao Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Kapale

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The hematological study in fifteen healthy Gaolao calves ranging from birth to 12 months of age indicate the mean ± S.E. value of TEC (11.00± 0.20 million/cu.mm, Hb (14.27±0.43 gm%, PCV (35.00±0.79%, MCV (31.70±0.92 cu.μ, MCH (13.04±0.84 μ. μgm, MCHC (41.16±1.76%, TLC (07.49±0.39 thousand/cu.mm, Lymphocytes (71.87 ±1.45%, Neutrophil (23.27±1.27%, Monocyte (1.3 ±0.25%, Basophil (0.27±0.12% and Esonophil (3.4 ±0.49%. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(1.000: 17-17

  3. Management of Calving in Norwegian Cubicle-Housed Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simensen E

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Sixty of the 65 dairy farms with cubicle houses in the Norwegian county of Oppland were included in a field study of the management of calving in 1990. The farmers recorded the location of the cow when giving birth, farmer presence and whether assistance was given during calving, occurrence of suckling, and time after birth when cow and calf were separated. Such data were recorded for a total of 1125 calvings. About 10% occurred on pasture, while 78% of the remaining calvings took place in the cubicle-equipped section. Thirteen percent calved in a calving pen, the remaining cows being tethered at the time of calving. Thirty-two percent of the calvings took place in houses lacking a calving pen altogether. Farmers were present during 41% of the calvings. Suckling most frequently occurred after pasture calvings, and was least frequent after calvings within the cubicle-equipped section of the cowhouse. Injuries to the calf caused by trampling or contact with fittings etc. were rare, and no more common in association with calving in the cubicle-equipped section than with calving taking place with the cow isolated from the rest of the herd. All calves were removed from their dams within 24 h after birth.

  4. Moderate summer heat stress does not modify immunological parameters of Holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacetera, Nicola; Bernabucci, Umberto; Ronchi, Bruno; Scalia, Daniela; Nardone, Alessandro

    2002-02-01

    The study was undertaken during spring and summer months in a territory representative of the Mediterranean climate to assess the effects of season on some immunological parameters of dairy cows. Twenty Holstein cows were used. Eleven of those cows gave birth during spring; the remaining nine cows gave birth in summer. The two groups of cows were homogeneous for parity. Values of air temperatures and relative humidity were recorded both during spring and summer, and were utilized to calculate the temperature humidity index (THI). One week before the expected calving, rectal temperatures and respiratory rates of the cows were recorded (1500 hours), and cell-mediated immunity was assessed by measuring the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Within 3 h of calving, one colostrum sample was taken from each cow and analysed to determine content of immunoglobulin (Ig) G1, IgG2, IgM and IgA. At 48 h after birth, passive immunization of the calves was assessed by measuring total serum IgG. During summer, daytime (0900-2000 hours) THI values were above the upper critical value of 72 [75.2, (SD 2.6)] indicating conditions that could represent moderate heat stress. That THI values were able to predict heat stress was confirmed by the values of rectal temperatures and respiratory rates, which were higher ( P cows. Results indicated that moderate heat stress due to the hot Mediterranean summer does not modify cell-mediated immunity, the protective value of colostrum and passive immunization of the offspring in dairy cows.

  5. Two-dimensional Hubbard-Holstein bipolaron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macridin, A.; Sawatzky, G. A.; Jarrell, M

    We present a diagrammatic Monte Carlo study of the properties of the Hubbard-Holstein bipolaron on a two-dimensional square lattice. With a small Coulomb repulsion U and with increasing electron-phonon interaction, and when reaching a value about two times smaller than the one corresponding to the

  6. Congenital desmoid fibromatosis in a Holstein heifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Richard; Sweet, Wade; Desrochers, André

    2008-01-01

    An 11-month-old, Holstein heifer was presented for a progressive swelling on the left side of the face that had been present since birth. A diagnosis of fibromatosis was made, based on macroscopic and microscopic examination of the abnormal infiltrative tissue. Because of the poor prognosis the animal was euthanized. PMID:19043487

  7. Schleswig-Holstein Energie 2020. Green paper. More power, more economy. - Schleswig-Holstein; Schleswig-Holstein Energie 2020. Gruenbuch. Mehr Energie. Mehr Wirtschaft - Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, G.W. (comp.)

    2007-06-15

    The paper shows that Schleswig-Holstein, Germany's northermost state, will by 2020 be capable of covering more than 100 percent of its power demand on the basis of wind power and biomass. Wind power is an important technological, economic, labour-political and exports factor. (orig.)

  8. The comparative performance of primiparous Holstein Friesland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative performance of primiparous Holstein Friesland and Jersey cows on complete diets during summer in a temperate climate. C.J.C. Muller* and J.A. Botha. Department of Agriculture: Western Cape, Private Bag X1, Elsenburg,. 7607 Republic of South Africa. Received 7 April 1997; accepted 20 May 1998.

  9. Genetic parameters of test day milk yields of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Machado

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Data were obtained from 17,968 records from 2,130 first lactations of Holstein cows calving between 1988 and 1991. The subjects were daughters of 136 sires monitored by Brazilian Breeders Association, Animal Science Institute, Department of Agriculture, a branch of the State of São Paulo. Data were divided into 10 subsets based on the number of days in milk yield. Test day milk yields (M1 to M10 and 305-day milk yield (M305 were the traits studied. These traits were adjusted for several environmental effects: class of cow age at calving, interval from calving to first test day, and herd-year-season. Restricted maximum likelihood estimates of (covariance components were obtained from one and two-traits analysis under a sire model. Estimates of heritabilities for M ranged from 0.04 to 0.32. The highest values were found in the second half of lactation (M5 to M7. Heritability estimate for M305 was 0.32. Genetic correlations between individual test days and M305 ranged from 0.78 to 1.00. Results suggested that test day milk yields, mainly in mid-lactation, can be used instead of 305-day milk yield in genetic evaluations, because estimates of these two-trait heritabilities are nearly alike. Moreover, early selection can reduce generation intervals.No presente estudo foram utilizados 17.968 registros de produção de leite, referentes a 2130 primeiras lactações de vacas da raça Holandesa, paridas nos anos de 1988 a 1991, filhas de 136 touros e controladas pela Associação Brasileira de Criadores (ABC. Os dados foram distribuídos em dez sub-arquivos de acordo com o número do controle (M1 a M10. As características estudadas foram: produção de leite no dia do controle (M e produção aos 305 dias de lactação (M305, as quais foram ajustadas para os seguintes fatores de variação: idade da vaca ao parto em classes, intervalo parto-primeiro controle e subclasses de rebanho-ano-estação de parto. Os componentes de (covariância foram obtidos a

  10. Effect of a lucerne feeding strategy in the first week postpartum on feed intake and ketone body profiles in blood plasma, urine, and milk in Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2010-01-01

    lactation diet (lucerne) in the first week postpartum. From week 2 to 4 postpartum, all cows were fed the control lactation diet. In the first week postpartum, dry matter intake (DMI) was unaffected by treatment, but during week 2-4 postpartum, DMI was lower for lucerne as compared with control......The objectives were to investigate the effects of a lucerne feeding strategy to postpartum transition dairy cows on feed intake and ketone body profiles in plasma, urine, and milk. At calving, 13 Holstein cows were assigned to one of two treatments: a control lactation diet or a lucerne haylage...

  11. Efeito do tempo após a ingestão de leite sobre o equilíbrio ácido-básico de bezerros Effect of the time after milk feeding on the acid-base balance of calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.N. Lisbôa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood pH, carbon dioxide and oxygen partial pressures, bicarbonate, total carbon dioxide, base excess, standard bicarbonate and oxygen saturation concentrations were measured by blood gas analyses in a study of assessment of the acid-base status in young calves. Venous blood samples were taken from 80 healthy female Holstein calves, from four to 30 days of age. The calves were divided in two groups based on the interval between the morning milk feeding and the blood sample collection (up to 30 minutes or over two hours. Greater alkali reserve and higher carbon dioxide pressure values were observed later than 2h after milk feeding, supporting the influence of the diet on the acid-base balance of calves during the milk feeding phase.

  12. Behaviour around the time of calving in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    before until 96 h after calving while housed in individual calving pens. Data on behaviour were obtained via video recordings and accelerometers attached to the cows’ legs. Cows spent less time lying, had more lying bouts and were more active the day before calving as compared to 2–4 days before calving...... throughout the 24 h following birth. Cows spent more time lying on the second day after calving than on the first day after calving. The results show marked behavioural changes during the last 6 h prior to calving and suggest that behavioural changes may be useful indicators of imminent calving. Furthermore......, the results show that the first hours after calving contain most cow–calf interaction. These behaviours were at the expense of the cows’ resting and feeding, which showed a rebound during the subsequent hours and the following day. This suggests that ample opportunity to rest and feed during the first days...

  13. Evaluation of serum protein-based arrival formula and serum protein supplement (Gammulin) on growth, morbidity, and mortality of stressed (transport and cold) male dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, A; Ballou, M A; Campbell, J M; Cardoso, F C; Drackley, J K

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies with calves and other species have provided evidence that blood serum-derived proteins and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) may benefit intestinal health. We assessed the effects of supplementing products containing serum proteins as a component of arrival fluid support or serum proteins plus FOS (in addition to additional solids, minerals, and vitamins) in an early life dietary supplement on performance, morbidity, and mortality of stressed (transport, cold) male calves. Male Holstein calves (n=93) weight (BW) and plasma protein concentration, and then randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of one-time administration of fluid support [either control electrolyte solution (E) or the serum protein-containing arrival formula (AF)] and 14d of either no supplementation (NG) or supplementation with Gammulin (G; APC Inc., Ankeny, IA), which contains serum proteins and FOS in addition to other solids, minerals, and vitamins. Upon arrival at the research facility, calves were orally administered either AF or E. At the next feeding, half of the calves from each fluid support treatment received either milk replacer (20% crude protein, 20% fat) or the same milk replacer supplemented with G (50g/d during the first 14d). Starter and water were freely available. Feed offered and refused was recorded daily. Calf health was assessed by daily assignment of fecal and respiratory scores. Stature measures and BW were determined weekly. Blood samples were obtained at d 0 (before treatments), 2, 7, 14, and 28. Calves were weaned at d 42 and remained in the experiment until d 56. After 2 wk of treatments, calves previously fed AF had greater body length (66.6 vs. 66.0cm), intakes of dry matter (38.7 vs. 23.5g/d) and crude protein (9.2 vs. 5.6g/d) from starter, and cortisol concentration in blood (17.0 vs. 13.9 ng/mL) than calves fed E. Supplementation with G resulted in greater BW gain during the first 2 wk, increased intakes of dry

  14. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  15. Computed tomography of the thorax in calves from birth to 105 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlerth, S; Augsburger, H; Abé, M; Ringer, S; Hatz, L; Braun, U

    2014-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to provide computed tomographic (CT) reference values for structures in the thorax of the calf. Six clinically healthy Holstein-Friesian calves were anaesthetized. Transverse pre- and postcontrast images with a reconstructed 1.5-mm slice thickness were obtained using a multislice-CT scanner at 6 different time points from birth to 105 days of age. Absolute and relative measurements of the trachea, heart, cranial and caudal vena cava, thoracic aorta, right and left principal bronchi, right and left caudal lobar bronchi and the accompanying branches of the right and left pulmonary artery and vein, thoracic lymph nodes and lung density were taken for every time point. All animals were euthanized after the last CT scan, and 4 calves were frozen to generate an atlas comparing gross anatomy with CT. During the study, 4 animals temporarily showed coughing and mucopurulent nasal discharge, and mild to moderate bronchopneumonia and pleuritis were diagnosed using CT. Animals recovered with treatment; however, mild to moderate CT changes remained throughout the study. Even in the 2 clinically normal animals, mild bronchopneumonia was diagnosed on CT.

  16. Development of ruminal and fecal microbiomes are affected by weaning but not weaning strategy in dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jade Meale

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The nature of weaning, considered the most stressful and significant transition experienced by dairy calves, influences the ability of a calf to adapt to the dramatic dietary shift and thus, can influence the severity of production losses through the weaning transition. However, the effects of various feeding strategies on the development of rumen or fecal microbiota across weaning are yet to be examined. Here we characterized the pre- and post-weaning ruminal and fecal microbiomes of Holstein dairy calves exposed to two different weaning strategies, gradual (step-down or abrupt. We describe the shifts towards a mature ruminant state, a transition which is hastened by the introduction of the solid feeds initiating ruminal fermentation. Additionally, we discuss the predicted functional roles of these communities, which also appear to represent that of the mature gastrointestinal system prior to weaning, suggesting functional maturity. This assumed state of readiness also appeared to negate the effects of weaning strategy on ruminal and fecal microbiomes and therefore, we conclude that the shift in gastrointestinal microbiota may not account for the declines in gain and intakes observed in calves during an abrupt weaning.

  17. Development of Ruminal and Fecal Microbiomes Are Affected by Weaning But Not Weaning Strategy in Dairy Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meale, Sarah J; Li, Shucong; Azevedo, Paula; Derakhshani, Hooman; Plaizier, Jan C; Khafipour, Ehsan; Steele, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    The nature of weaning, considered the most stressful and significant transition experienced by dairy calves, influences the ability of a calf to adapt to the dramatic dietary shift, and thus, can influence the severity of production losses through the weaning transition. However, the effects of various feeding strategies on the development of rumen or fecal microbiota across weaning are yet to be examined. Here we characterized the pre- and post-weaning ruminal and fecal microbiomes of Holstein dairy calves exposed to two different weaning strategies, gradual (step-down) or abrupt. We describe the shifts toward a mature ruminant state, a transition which is hastened by the introduction of the solid feeds initiating ruminal fermentation. Additionally, we discuss the predicted functional roles of these communities, which also appear to represent that of the mature gastrointestinal system prior to weaning, suggesting functional maturity. This assumed state of readiness also appeared to negate the effects of weaning strategy on ruminal and fecal microbiomes and therefore, we conclude that the shift in gastrointestinal microbiota may not account for the declines in gain and intakes observed in calves during an abrupt weaning.

  18. Periparturition alterations to liver ultrasonographic echo-texture and fat mobilization parameters in clinically healthy Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafia, Saman; Taghipour-Bazargani, Taghi; Asadi, Farzad; Vajhi, Alireza; Bokaie, Saied

    2011-12-01

    The objective of present study was to record the sequential alterations in liver echo-texture through digital analyzing of the B-mode ultrasonography in three groups of under-conditioned (UC), moderate-conditioned (MC), and over-conditioned (OC) clinically healthy Holstein cows from 30 days to calving until 30 days in milk. Furthermore, to compare their changes in association with the changes of fat mobilization parameters of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), betahydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), and body condition score (BCS). Although the cows lost significant (P < 0.05) BCS from calving and the NEFA values showed an increasing trend near calving and the BHBA values significantly inclined postparturition, the mean grey scale histogram (MGSH) of liver images did not reveal significant fluctuations unless a significant decrease on calving day (P < 0.05). The MGSH drop was predicted to be the result of anatomical changes in abdominal cavity, related to delivery and liver's blood flow. OC cows had higher NEFA on day +20 than UC and MC cows (P < 0.05). UC cows showed higher MGSH values on day -30 than MC cows and again on day -10 comparing to MC and OC cows (P < 0.05). MGSH values correlated with BCS values (rUC = -0.186; rMC = -0.283; rOC = -0.158). It was concluded that the studied cows did not show significant alterations in textural changes in their liver ultrasound whilst going through fat mobilization. As quantitative ultrasonography has shown the potential to detect cases of fatty liver, it could gain the attention to become a feasible device for liver health monitoring on a herd basis.

  19. Strategic analysis of Swedish agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Fogelfors, Håkan; Wivstad, Maria; Eckersten, Henrik; Holstein, Fredrik; Johansson, Susanne; Verwijst, Theo

    2009-01-01

    This strategic analysis of Swedish agriculture – production systems and agricultural landscapes in a time of change – focuses on climate change, future availability of natural resources and economic regulation in a global food market. The background to the project was that the Faculty of Natural Resources and Agriculture of the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences identified an urgent need to explore the implications and opportunities of coming changes for agricultural production syste...

  20. Performance, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites of dairy calves fed starter mixtures supplemented with herbal plants, essential oils or monensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarian-Tefaghi, M; Ghasemi, E; Khorvash, M

    2018-01-18

    This study evaluated the supplementation effects of three herbal plants (thyme [THY], eucalyptus [EUC] and celery [CEL]), a commercial phytogenic additive ‎containing essential oils (PFA-EO, Digestarom® P.E.P.) and monensin (MON) in calf starter on performance, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites during pre- (days 3-55) and post-weaning (days 56-70). Sixty-six Holstein dairy calves (3 days of age, 41.2 ± 3 kg of BW) were allocated to one of six starters supplemented with: (i) no additives (CON), (ii) MON (30 mg/kg), (iii) THY (23 g/kg), (iv) CEL (23 g/kg), (v) EUC (23 g/kg) and (vi) PFA-EO (3 g/kg). All the calves were offered starters ad libitum plus 6 L of whole milk daily. Starter intake tended to be the highest in calves fed PFA-EO and THY; intermediate in calves fed CON, MON and EUC; and the lowest in those fed CEL. Average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency (FE) remained unaffected by dietary treatments during the pre-weaning. During the post-weaning period, ADG and FE ‎were greatest in calves fed EUC followed by those fed CON, MON, PFA-EO and THY, and then in those fed CEL. No differences were observed among the treatments in skeletal growth, faecal score, rumen pH or ammonia-N concentration. Compared to calves fed CON and MON, those fed the herbal plants or PFA-EO tended to recorded higher molar proportions of acetate and butyrate, and the acetate: propionate ratio. Blood malondialdehyde level did not differ among treatments, but calves on CON had the highest glucose concentration, and those fed PFA-EO recorded the highest value for β-hydroxyl butyrate on day 70. In conclusion, the results indicate that the three herbs and PFA-EO are capable of modulating some of the rumen fermentation parameters and blood metabolites as well as eucalyptus could potentially be a better alternative to monensin for improving post-weaning performance. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Reciprocated cross sucking between dairy calves after weaning off milk does not appear to negatively affect udder health or production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Alison; Miguel-Pacheco, Giuliana G; Marie de Passillé, Anne; Rushen, Jeffrey

    2016-07-01

    Cross sucking by dairy calves occurs most commonly before weaning, but is of most concern in older animals where it has been claimed to cause mastitis and udder damage. Providing ad libitum milk allowance via a teat and gradual weaning reduces cross sucking, but low levels of this behavior still persist. Our aims were to understand why this behavior persists in some calves after weaning off milk and to examine whether individuals which are cross sucked postweaning are more likely to sustain teat injury or develop mastitis during their first lactation. Fifty-six female Holstein calves were housed in groups of 8 and fed milk, grain, and hay ad libitum from automated feeders. During weaning, milk allowance was gradually reduced according to grain intake. Cross sucking was recorded using overhead video cameras (5 observation periods of 72h). The effects of weaning on cross sucking were examined; to examine whether cross sucking affected udder health, all incidences of damaged quarters or clinical and sub-clinical mastitis in the first lactation were recorded, as was milk production. The overall level of cross sucking after weaning, at 4 to 5mo of age, was low and a small proportion of individuals accounted for the majority of events. The duration of cross sucking that occurred at 4 to 5mo of age was correlated with the amount of cross sucking done before and immediately after weaning. After weaning, the calves that cross sucked did so on certain calves, with the most sucked calf within each pen accounting for 73.98% of all cross-sucking events. No relationship was found between cross sucking and being cross sucked in the period before weaning but a positive correlation was found by 4 to 5mo of age. The majority of calves reduced or ceased cross sucking after weaning. Individuals still observed to be cross sucking by 4 to 5mo of age had formed pairs with other cross-sucking individuals and cross-sucking events occurred almost exclusively between these pairs. Cows that

  2. Effects of early rumen development and solid feed composition on growth performance and abomasal health in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, H; van Reenen, C G; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N; Gerrits, W J J

    2012-06-01

    The experiment was designed to study the importance of early rumen development and of the composition of solid feed intake on growth performance and abomasal health in milk-fed veal calves. One hundred and six Holstein-Friesian male calves were included in the experiment, and studied during 2 successive 12-wk periods (period 1 and period 2). In a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, effects of partially replacing milk replacer by solid feed during period 1 and partially replacing dry matter (DM) intake from maize silage and barley straw by concentrate during period 2 were tested. Solid feed during period 1 consisted of maize silage, barley straw, and concentrate (25:25:50 on a DM basis). Solid feed during period 2 consisted of maize silage and barley straw (50:50 ratio on DM basis) for the nonconcentrate groups, and maize silage, barley straw and concentrates (25:25:50 on a DM basis) for the concentrate groups. At the end of period 1 (n=16) and at the end of period 2 (n=90), parameters of animal performance, rumen development, rumen fermentation, ruminal drinking, and abomasal damage were examined. Partially replacing milk replacer by solid feed during period 1 resulted in early rumen development (ERD) at the end of period 1, characterized by increased rumen weight, and an increased epithelial and absorptive surface area. Both ERD and partially replacing roughage by concentrates in period 2 increased the rumen development score at the end of period 2. Although ERD calves consumed more solid feed and less milk replacer during period 1 and 2 than non-ERD calves, carcass weight gains at 25 wk were identical, and utilization of the solid feed provided appeared similar to that of milk replacer. Partially replacing roughage by concentrates in period 2 increased dressing percentage and warm carcass weight. Plaque formation at the rumen mucosa was unaffected by ERD or partially replacing roughage by concentrates and generally low in all calves. The prevalence of large scars in

  3. Identification of brachyspina syndrome carriers in Chinese Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lingzhao; Li, Yanhua; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Dongxiao; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Shengli

    2013-07-01

    Brachyspina syndrome (BS) is a rare monogenic autosomal recessive hereditary disorder identified in the Holstein breed caused by a 3.3-kb deletion in the bovine Fanconi anemia complementation group I (FANCI) gene on chromosome 21. In previous reports, the BS mutant allele was identified in North American and European Holstein populations. Because frozen semen and embryos have been imported into China from such regions during the past few years, BS has potentially spread into the dairy cattle population in China. In the present study, 206 Holstein bulls and 136 Holstein cows were tested for BS, with 10 BS carrier bulls and 3 carrier cows identified. Pedigree analysis showed that all 10 BS carrier bulls could be traced back to a common ancestor, the U.S. Holstein sire Sweet Haven Tradition. It is recommended that effective selection and mating strategies should be carried out to gradually eliminate this recessive gene from the Chinese Holstein population.

  4. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases net amino acid utilization by the portal-drained viscera of ruminating calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor-Edwards, C C; Burrin, D G; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases small intestinal mass and blood flow in ruminant calves, but its impact on nutrient metabolism across the portal-drained viscera (PDV) and liver is unknown. Eight Holstein calves with catheters in the carotid artery, mesenteric vein, portal vein and hepatic......, potentially by increased small intestinal epithelial growth and thus energy and amino acid requirements of this tissue. Increased PDV extraction of glutamine and alterations in PDV metabolism of arginine, ornithine and citrulline support the concept that GLP-2 influences intestine-specific amino acid...... metabolism. Alterations in amino acid metabolism but unchanged glucose metabolism suggests that the growth effects induced by GLP-2 in ruminants increase reliance on amino acids preferentially over glucose. Thus, GLP-2 increases PDV utilization of amino acids, but not glucose, concurrent with stimulated...

  5. Impact of carprofen administration on stress and nociception responses of calves to cautery dehorning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, M L; Barth, L A; Van Engen, N K; Millman, S T; Gehring, R; Wang, C; Voris, E A; Wulf, L W; Labeur, Léa; Hsu, W H; Coetzee, J F

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of carprofen administered immediately before cautery dehorning on nociception and stress. Forty Holstein calves aged approximately 6 to 8 wk old were either placebo treated and sham dehorned ( = 10) or cautery dehorned following administration of carprofen (1.4 mg/kg) subcutaneously ( = 10) or orally ( = 10) or a subcutaneous and oral placebo ( = 10) in a randomized, controlled trial. All animals were given a cornual nerve block using lidocaine before dehorning. Response variables including mechanical nociception threshold, ocular temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate were measured before and following cautery dehorning for 96 h. Blood samples were also collected over 96 h following dehorning and analyzed for plasma cortisol and substance P concentrations by RIA. Plasma carprofen concentration and ex vivo PGE concentrations were also determined for this time period. Average daily gain was calculated for 7 d after dehorning. Data were analyzed using a linear mixed effects model with repeated measures, controlling for baseline values by their inclusion as a covariate in addition to planned contrasts. Dehorning was associated with decreased nociception thresholds throughout the study and a stress response immediately after dehorning, following the loss of local anesthesia, and 48 h after dehorning compared with sham-dehorned calves. Carprofen was well absorbed after administration and reached concentrations that inhibited ex vivo PGE concentrations for 72 h (subcutaneous) and 96 h (oral) compared with placebo-treated calves ( nociceptive threshold tests. Overall, at the dosing regimen studied, the effect of carprofen on sensitivity and stress following cautery dehorning was minimal. Consideration of route of administration and dose determination studies may be warranted.

  6. CALVING ANALYSIS IN COWS OF CHAROLAIS BREED AT SELECTED FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KLÁRA VAVRIŠÍNOVÁ

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available At our work we have analysed the organisation of calving in Charolais breed during the years from 1998 to 2001 at selected farm. Our monitoring of calving during winter season (from January to February shows the percentage of calving was in particular years ranged from 43.2 to 71.1. The most calves were born in February. We found out (total all years diffi cult calving (value 3 in 2 cases in April (1998 and 1999 and 1 case in February (1998 and 1 in March (1999. Calving marked with value 2 (total of all years we found out in January (2 cases, February (3 cases, March (4 cases and from September to December past one case. From 18 cases of diffi cult calving what we found out, 11 calves (61.11 % come from CHV 529 bull. In calves born by normal calving was found out average weight 34.75 kg, in ones born by calving with level 2 of diffi culty 36.36 kg, and in calves born by calving with diffi culty 3 was recorded average weight 41.5 kg. Recorded weight at 210 days of age in mostly cases was similar like in published breed standard.

  7. Phonon spectral function of the Holstein polaron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, J [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic); Hohenadler, M [Institute for Theoretical and Computational Physics, TU Graz (Austria); Alvermann, A [Institute of Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Greifswald (Germany); Fehske, H [Institute of Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Greifswald (Germany)

    2006-08-09

    The phonon spectral function of the one-dimensional Holstein model is obtained within weak-coupling and strong-coupling approximations based on analytical self-energy calculations. The characteristic excitations found in the limit of small charge-carrier density are related to the known (electronic) spectral properties of Holstein polarons such as the polaron band dispersion. Particular emphasis is laid on the different physics occurring in the adiabatic and anti-adiabatic regimes, respectively. Comparison is made with a cluster approach exploiting exact numerical results on small systems to yield an approximation for the thermodynamic limit. This method, similar to cluster perturbation theory, confirms the analytical findings, and also yields accurate results in the intermediate-coupling regime.

  8. Spectral Properties of Holstein and Breathing Polarons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slezak, Cyrill [University of Cincinnati; Macridin, Alexandru [University of Cincinnati; Sawatzky, George [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Jarrell, Mark [University of Cincinnati; Maier, Thomas A [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the spectral properties of the one-dimensional Holstein and breathing polarons using the self-consistent Born approximation. The Holstein model electron-phonon coupling is momentum independent while the breathing coupling increases monotonically with the phonon momentum. We find that for a linear or tight binding electron dispersion: i) for the same value of the dimensionless coupling the quasiparticle renormalization at small momentum in the breathing polaron is much smaller, ii) the quasiparticle renormalization at small momentum in the breathing polaron increases with phonon frequency unlike in the Holstein model where it decreases, iii) in the Holstein model the quasiparticle dispersion displays a kink and a small gap at an excitation energy equal to the phonon frequency $\\omega_0$ while in the breathing model it displays two gaps, one at excitation energy $\\omega_0$ and another one at $2\\omega_0$. These differences have two reasons: first, the momentum of the relevant scattered phonons increases with increasing polaron momentum and second, the breathing bare coupling is an increasing function of the phonon momentum. These result in an effective electron-phonon coupling for the breathing model which is an increasing function of the total polaron momentum, such that the small momentum polaron is in the weak coupling regime while the large momentum one is in the strong coupling regime. However the first reason does not hold if the free electron dispersion has low energy states separated by large momentum, as in a higher dimensional system for example, in which situation the difference between the two models becomes less significant.

  9. Experimental infection of calves with Haemonchus placei or Haemonchus contortus: Assessment of clinical, hematological and biochemical parameters and histopathological characteristics of abomasums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Buzzulini, Carolina; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Felippelli, Gustavo; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Salatta, Bruna; Siniscalchi, Débora; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Soares, Vando Edésio; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2016-11-01

    The present study had the primary objective of evaluating clinical, hematological and biochemical parameters, as well as observing anatomical and histopathological characteristics of abomasums, from calves prime-infected with Haemonchus contortus or H. placei. Ten male Holstein newborns were subdivided in three groups (GI placebo; GII infected with H. contortus; GIII inoculated with H. placei). Eye mucosa staining was evaluated. Hematological and biochemical tests were performed on animals. The euthanasia of all ten experimental calves was performed on the 42nd day post-inoculation. Fragments were collected from each of all 10 abomasums for histopathological analysis. Discrete submandibular edema was diagnosed in animals from both infected groups (H. contortus or H. placei). However, there were no significant changes (P > 0.05) in the color of the ocular mucosa of calves from all three experimental groups across the entire experimental period. Hematological and biochemical changes diagnosed on animals could not be linked to infections by species of Haemonchus spp. Regarding histopathological exams, it was possible to diagnose hypertrophy, hyperplasia, binucleated cells, inflammatory infiltrate, multifocal hemorrhage and edema in abomasums from calves of both groups infected with H. placei and H. contortus. It can, thus, be concluded that not only are calves susceptible to infections by both Haemonchus species, but they can also present clinical changes and similar anatomic histopathological lesions independent of being infected by Haemonchus placei or Haemonchus contortus. These results reflect a negative effect on helminth control by mixed grazing between sheep and cattle, especially when using calves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical pathology of milking calves digestion disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatur Bogo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The period from calving until normal dry food feeding is very sensitive for preruminat animals. Normal weaning can be successful at 6 to 8 weeks post partum. Young milking calves are very susceptible to bacterial or viral infection if immunity is not reached through colostrum on time. On the other hand indigestions are very frequent and account for one-third of the most frequent disorders in young calves. Parturition losses (dystocia and respiratory diseases are more frequent. The final result of negative environmental and management influences can be the onset of acute or chronic diarrhea associated with long, expensive and often unsuccessful treatment. Acute dehydration and death are not so rare. Etiological reasons are known, it is possible define them: inadequate feeding of pregnant cows and heifers in late stages of pregnancy; hygiene problems and bad management of neonate calves. Contaminated milk, starters and milk substitutes are the main source of scours. These problems are evident on farms where owners or workers do not have the elementary knowledge about physiology, anatomic differences and management principles for preruminant animals. At weaning time calves can develop serious problems when dry feeding does not begin on time. For does that reason normal micro flora and fauna are not able to accept normal function for ruminal digestion.

  11. slaughtered cattle and calves in Tabriz abattoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khakpour

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available E.coli is natural flour in large intestine and main common pathogen between human and animal , and its transportable by food , that its important cause of diarrhea infections in cows , particularly in calves. The aim of this survey is identify and separating E.coli and verotoxicogenic, that by referring to Tabriz slaughterhouse in chance 43 excrement samples from calves and 151 excrement samples from cows has been taken and transport to microbiology laboratory of veterinary faculty of Islamic azad TabrizUniversity. After in riching the samples and culturing in plates this results has been taken: From 194 taken samples, 113 E.coli samples were separated that were 85 positive sorbitol samples and 28 negative sorbitol samples .From 85 positive sorbitol samples were 19 samples of calves and 66 samples of cows and from 28 negative sorbitol samples were 13 samples of calves and 15 samples of cows. Also serological test accomplished for determining E.coli non O157 serotypes on the positive sorbitol samples that 9 samples of cows and 42 samples of cows demonstrate positive reaction, then on 28 negative sorbitol samples and 85 positive sorbitol samples, the PCR test accomplished by using secans of stx1, stx2 gens, that 15 samples of 28 negative sorbitol samples and 19 samples of 42 positive sorbitol samples were E.coli and verotoxicogenic. The result demonstrated that high amount of E.coli and verotoxicogenic exist in excrement of cows and calves slaughtered in Tabriz slaughterhouse.

  12. Effects of rumen-protected methionine and choline supplementation on vaginal discharge and uterine cytology of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra S. Skenandore

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Methionine is one of the most limiting amino acids in dairy diets and low feed intake around the time of calving could lead to decreased synthesis of phosphatidylcholine. An alternative pathway for phosphatidylcholine is to have choline as a precursor. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding rumen-protected methionine and choline pre – and postpartum on reproduction of Holstein cows. Seventy-two Holstein cows were randomly assigned to four treatments from 21 days before calving to 30 days in milk (DIM: supplementation with rumen-protected methionine (MET; n = 20, received 0.08% of the dry matter (DM of the diet/d as methionine, Smartamine M® to a Lys:Met = 2.9:1, rumen-protected choline (CHO; n = 17, received 60 g/d choline, Reassure, both rumen protected methionine and choline (MIX; n = 19, received 0.08% of the DM of the diet/d as methionine to a Lys:Met = 2.9:1 and 60 g/d choline, or no supplementation to serve as control (CON; n = 16, fed total mixed ration with a Lys:Met = 3.5:1. Cows were evaluated at 4, 7, 10, 13, 15, 17, and 30 d after calving for the presence of secretion using the Metricheck® device. On 15, 30, and 72 d after calving, the uterine endometrium of all cows was sampled using a cytological brush and streaked onto slides for analysis of the presence of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN. We hypothesized that cows supplemented with methionine would have lower metricheck smell scores and lower rates of PMN than non-supplemented cows. On d 30, a treatment difference was detected using the metricheck score and smell (P < 0.04, with treatment MIX (score = 0.38 having a lower score than CHO (score = 2.11. Supplementing cows with rumen-protected methionine may have a beneficial effect on cows’ uterine health.

  13. Energy policy for Schleswig-Holstein. Priority to industry; Energiepolitik fuer Schleswig-Holstein. Mehr Wirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschfeld, Markus; Fehlau, Karin (comps.)

    2010-03-15

    This is a publication of the Schleswig-Holstein state government, stating its goals in energy policy and the resulting political priorities, positions and important milestones and projects in Schleswig-Holstein. The energy policy focuses on the following aspects: Enhancement of renewable energy sources; Energy conservation and higher energy efficiency; Establishing a balanced energy mix; Support to the expansion of the existing power grids; Support to competition in the energy markets; Reliable supervision to ensure uninterrupted energy supply, and innovations in the energy sector.

  14. Swedish encapsulation station review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G. [NAC International, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB`s document `Plan 1996`. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL`s Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International`s experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation 19 refs, 9 figs, 35 tabs

  15. Swedish vineyards: a utopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mårtensson A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Anna Mårtensson,1 Thord Karlsson,2 Jan-Gunnar Gustafsson31Department of Soil and Environment, 2Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden; 3Bio Evaluation AB, Uppsala, SwedenAbstract: As there is an increasing interest for setting up vineyards and wineries in Sweden, a cost analysis is becoming necessary. In this study, we assessed the potential for wine production in Sweden. The estimated annual costs varied from €15.1/per L for production of 1800 L wine per ha to €41.9 for 525 L per ha. For an annual production of 1800 L per ha potentially achieved in an established vineyard, the capital requirement is €730,000. It would take 6 years for the investment to be paid off if the wine was sold for €37.5 per L. The high production costs mean that the only viable option for success is to orientate production towards the exclusive upper segment.Keywords: cold climate conditions, wine production costs, wine quality

  16. Effects of live weight adjusted feeding strategy on plasma indicators of energy balance in Holstein cows managed for extended lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Vestergaard, Mogens; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    of the negative energy balance, and that the reduction in diet energy concentration from LW nadir will extend the negative energy balance period further. Sixty-two Holstein cows (30% first parity) were managed for 16 months extended lactation and randomly allocated to one of two feeding strategies at calving. Two......In early lactation, most of the dairy cows are in negative energy balance; the extent and duration depend in part on the feeding strategy. Previous studies showed an increased lactation milk yield by use of a live weight (LW) adjusted feeding strategy with a high energy diet before and a reduced...... partially mixed rations were used, one with a high energy density (HD) and a 50 : 50 forage : concentrate ratio, and one with a lower energy density (LD, control diet) and a 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio. Half of the cows were offered the HD diet until they reached at least 42 days in milk and a LW...

  17. A clinical case of neosporosis in a 4-week-old holstein friesian calf which developed hindlimb paresis postnatally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesaka, Karin; Koyama, Kenji; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2018-02-20

    A 4-week-old female Holstein Friesian calf presented with hindlimb paresis. Neurologic examination of spinal reflexes revealed depressed or absent reflexes of the hindlimbs. Menace responses on both sides disappeared on examination of cranial nerves. The calf was finally diagnosed with Neospora caninum infection by pathological findings including nonsuppurative inflammation associated with cysts in the cerebrum and spinal cord. High levels of antibody against recombinant surface antigen 1 of N. caninum (NcSAG1) were detected by ELISA from both serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. This result suggests that detection of antibodies against N. caninum by NcSAG1-ELISA in serum and CSF could be useful for the clinical diagnosis of neosporosis in calves with acquired neurological signs.

  18. Bayesian estimates of genetic parameters for metritis, retained placenta, milk fever, and clinical mastitis in Holstein dairy cows via Gibbs sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein-Zadeh, Navid Ghavi; Ardalan, Mehrnaz

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate heritability and genetic correlations between the liabilities of clinical mastitis (CM), milk fever (MF), metritis (MET), and retained placenta (RP) within the first three lactations of Holstein dairy cows. The records of 57,301 dairy cows from 20 large dairy herds in Iran between January 2005 and June 2009 were analysed with univariate and bivariate threshold animal models, using Gibbs sampling methodology. The final model included the fixed class effects of herd-year, season of calving, parity of dam, the linear covariate effect of age at calving, and the random direct genetic effect of animal. Posterior means of heritability for liabilities in first, second, and third lactations were 0.06, 0.08, and 0.09, respectively, for CM; 0.10, 0.12, and 0.11, respectively, for MF; 0.09, 0.07, and 0.10, respectively, for MET, and 0.07, 0.08, and 0.08, respectively, for RP. Posterior means of genetic correlations between disease liabilities were low or moderate (from -0.01 to 0.26). The results of this study indicated the importance of health traits for considering in the selection index of Iranian Holstein dairy cows. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Association of bovine leptin polymorphisms with energy output and energy storage traits in progeny tested Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle sires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters Sinead M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptin modulates appetite, energy expenditure and the reproductive axis by signalling via its receptor the status of body energy stores to the brain. The present study aimed to quantify the associations between 10 novel and known single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes coding for leptin and leptin receptor with performance traits in 848 Holstein-Friesian sires, estimated from performance of up to 43,117 daughter-parity records per sire. Results All single nucleotide polymorphisms were segregating in this sample population and none deviated (P > 0.05 from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Complete linkage disequilibrium existed between the novel polymorphism LEP-1609, and the previously identified polymorphisms LEP-1457 and LEP-580. LEP-2470 associated (P Conclusions Several leptin polymorphisms (LEP-2470, LEP-1238, LEP-963, Y7F and R25C associated with the energetically expensive process of lactogenesis. Only SNP Y7F associated with energy storage. Associations were also observed between leptin polymorphisms and calving difficulty, gestation length and calf perinatal mortality. The lack of an association between the leptin variants investigated with calving interval in this large data set would question the potential importance of these leptin variants, or indeed leptin, in selection for improved fertility in the Holstein-Friesian dairy cow.

  20. Efficacy of oral meloxicam suspension for prevention of pain and inflammation following band and surgical castration in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, M E; Ralston, Brenda; Burwash, Les; Matheson-Bird, Heather; Allan, Nick D

    2016-06-13

    Castration is one of the most common procedures performed on beef and dairy cattle. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of meloxicam oral suspension in reducing pain and inflammation in calves following band or surgical castration. Two identical trials with the exception of the method of castration (Band Castration Study 1 and Surgical Castration Study 2) were conducted. Sixty (60) healthy Holstein calves 4 to 5 months of age (138-202 Kg) were used. Animals received either Meloxicam Oral Suspension at a dose of 1 mg/kg BW (n = 15 Study 1 and 15 Study 2) or Saline (n = 15 Study 1 and 15 Study 2) 2 h before castration. Physiological (Heart Rate, Plasma Cortisol and Plasma Substance P) and Behavioral (Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Accelerometers and tail Pedometers) evaluations were conducted before (day -1) and after Castration (Day 0, 1, 2, 3). Inflammation was evaluated daily by providing an individual animal score (Study1) or with a measurement of scrotal thickness (Study 2). Heart rates were significantly greater in control animals following band and surgical castration. Plasma cortisol and substance P were significantly reduced in animals receiving Meloxicam Oral Suspension. Control animals had significantly greater VAS scores. Accelerometers showed that meloxicam treated animals had a significantly greater motion index and number of steps as well as less % time lying and number of lying bouts. The scrotal inflammation (based on scrotal swelling) was significantly decreased in the meloxicam treated animals compared to the control animals on day 1, day 2 and 3. Meloxicam Oral Suspension was able to significantly reduce the display of painful behaviors and physiological responses to pain in band castrated and surgical castrated calves for up to 72 h following a single oral treatment of 1 mg/kg body weight. Meloxicam Oral Suspension was able to significantly reduce scrotal inflammation in band castrated and surgical castrated calves.

  1. Effects of protein sources for milk replacers on growth performance and serum biochemical indexes of suckling calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiwu Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of protein sources for milk replacers on growth performance and serum biochemical indexes of suckling calves. Fifty Chinese Holstein bull calves with similar BW and age were randomly allocated to 5 groups (1 control and 4 treatments of 10 calves in each group. Five types of milk replacers were designed to have the same level of energy and protein. The protein source for milk replacers of the control group was full milk protein (MP. The protein source of milk replacers of the 4 treatment groups was composed of MP and one vegetable protein (VP (30 and 70% of total protein. The 4 types of VP were soybean protein concentrate (SP, hydrolyzed wheat protein (WP, peanut protein concentrate (PP, and rice protein isolate (RP. Results of the experiment showed: 1 there was no significant difference on average daily gain (ADG and feed:gain ratio (F:G among the MP, SP and RP groups (P > 0.05, whereas the ADG and F:G of the WP and PP groups were significantly lower compared with the MP group (P  0.05. Thereby the 4 VP milk replacers had no adverse effects on body size of calves; 3 all groups showed no significant difference in the serum contents of urea nitrogen, total protein, albumin, globulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and the ratio of albumin to globulin (A:G (P > 0.05. In conclusion, SP or RP (accounts for 70% of the total protein as calf milk replacers could substitute MP, whereas wheat gluten and PP had a significant adverse effect on growth performance in this experiment.

  2. Space allowance influences individually housed Holstein bull calf innate immune measures and standing behaviors after castration at 3 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Lorenzo, M S; Hulbert, L E; Ballou, M A; Fowler, A L; Luo, Y; Klasing, K C; Mitloehner, F M

    2017-03-01

    Dairy calves in the Southwest regions of the United States are typically raised individually in wooden hutches with 1.23 m2 of space. The objective of the study was to determine if increased space allowance in wooden hutches influences measures of innate immunity and behaviors of Holstein bull calves pre- and postcastration. Calves were randomly assigned at 4 d of age to conventional (CONV; 1.23 m2 of space; n = 18), moderate (MOD; 1.85 m2 space; n = 17), or maximized space allowance (MAX; 3.71 m2 space; n = 19) in hutches. Calves were surgically castrated at 24 d of age. Peripheral whole blood samples were collected at -1, +1, +5, and +12 d of castration. Accelerometer loggers (n = 16 calves per treatment) were used from -3 to +5 d of castration to assess standing behaviors. All calves decreased total standing duration the day of castration versus precastration. Overall, MAX spent the most time in the stand position postcastration versus CONV and MOD. Within treatments, MOD and MAX had increased plasma cortisol 1 d postcastration versus precastration. A treatment × time tendency was observed for cortisol at 12 d postcastration; MAX had the least circulating cortisol. A treatment × time tendency for circulating haptoglobin (Hp) was observed and Hp was greatest among CONV 1 d pre- and 12 d postcastration. Compared with precastration, CONV had increased Hp at 1, 5, and 12 d, whereas MOD had increased Hp at 5 d, and Hp remained similar within MAX. A treatment × time tendency for tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated whole blood was observed; at 1 d postcastration, MOD had the most TNF-α, whereas MAX had the least. Within MAX, calves had increased TNF-α from precastration to 5 d postcastration. A treatment × time interaction was observed for whole blood bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli (WB anti-E). The CONV tended to have the greatest WB anti-E at d -1, but at d 1 and 5 postcastration, CONV had the least WB anti

  3. The Swedish Energy Market 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-01

    The Swedish Energy Market, 2005 is an annual publication that presents information and statistics on the network based energy markets in Sweden, i.e. the markets for electricity, natural gas and district heating. It also provides an overview of the issues that have arisen on these markets during the second half of 2004 and the first half of 2005. Considerable work is being carried out in the EU on creating a single market for electricity and natural gas. This publication therefore describes expansion of the Swedish market towards a Nordic and a European market. The publication normally includes a theme chapter, describing some event of particular interest for the Swedish energy market during the year. This year, the theme chapter is devoted to the Storm Gudrun, which struck the south of the country at the beginning of January, and its effects on electricity supply throughout the country. The chapter is based on the report submitted to the Government by the Energy Markets Inspectorate in the spring of 2005, and also includes a summary of the Inspectorate's proposals for measures to improve the security of electricity transmission. Energy in Sweden, which is another of the Swedish Energy Agency's annual publications, provides information and statistics on the development of the entire Swedish energy system.

  4. Health and safety strategy in Swedish agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Peter; Svennefelt, Catharina Alwall

    2012-01-01

    In Sweden there is a joint focus on injury prevention in agriculture and this is coordinated through the Swedish Committee on Working Environment (LAMK). LAMK is a network working for a good, healthy and safe working environment in Swedish agriculture from the view of the enterprise with the humans in focus. It is a committee consisting of representatives of authorities, institutions, companies, research & education institutions and organisations referring to the green sector. Examples of on-going initiatives & partners are presented which are included in this mission against injuries in agriculture. It involves the Swedish Work Environment Authority,, the Federation of Swedish Farmers (LRF), the Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU, the Federation of Swedish Forestry and Agricultural Employers (SLA) and the Swedish Municipal Worker's Union.

  5. Is the Swedish FRAX model appropriate for Swedish immigrants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, H; Odén, A; Lorentzon, M; McCloskey, E; Kanis, J A; Harvey, N C; Karlsson, M K; Mellström, D

    2015-11-01

    The incidence of hip fracture in Sweden is substantially lower in immigrants than in the population born in Sweden. Thus, the use of a FRAX® model in immigrants overestimates the risk of fracture, and the use of country of origin-specific models may be more appropriate. Age-specific fracture and mortality rates vary between countries so that FRAX tools are country-specific. In the case of immigrants, it is not known whether the model for the original or the new country is most appropriate. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of hip fractures in foreign-born and Swedish-born individuals residing in Sweden. We studied the incidence of hip fracture in all men and women aged 50 years or more in Sweden between 1987 and 2002. The population comprised 2.8 million Swedish-born and 270,000 foreign-born individuals. Incident hip fractures occurred in 239,842 Swedish-born and 12,563 foreign-born individuals. The hip fracture incidence rose with age for both groups and was higher for women than men amongst both Swedish-born and foreign-born individuals. The hip fracture incidence for the Swedish-born cohort was approximately twice that of immigrants. For example, at the age of 70 years, the annual hip fracture incidence (per 100,000) was 450 (95 % CI 446-454) for a Swedish-born woman and 239 (95 % CI 223-257) for a foreign-born woman at the time of immigration. The hip fracture incidence rose slowly with time from immigration (0.6 % per annum, 95 % CI 0.5-0.8 %) but remained significantly lower than for Swedish-born individuals even after 40 years of residence. The incidence of hip fracture in Sweden is substantially lower in immigrants than in the population native to Sweden. Although there was a small rise in age- and sex-specific incidence after immigration, the incidence remained markedly lower than that observed in Swedish-born individuals. Thus, the use of a FRAX model for Sweden will overestimate the risk of fracture for foreign-born individuals living

  6. Long-term soil monitoring in Schleswig-Holstein; Boden-Dauerbeobachtung in Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, A. [Landesamt fuer Natur und Umwelt des Landes Schleswig-Holstein, Flintbek (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    Since 1989 in Schleswig-Holstein are 37 Soil-Monitoringsites are established, where soil chemistry, soil physic and (soil)biology are investigated. The investigation-sites are chosen with the intention to longterm changing of soils regarding to earth-science criteria, deposition- and landuse-situation as well as integrated into the integrational environmental monitoring. (orig.)

  7. Genotype x environment interaction for milk yield in Holsteins using Luxembourg and Tunisian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, H; Rekik, B; Soyeurt, H; Bastin, C; Stoll, J; Gengler, N

    2008-09-01

    Test-day (TD) milk yield records of first-lactation Holstein cows in Luxembourg and Tunisia were analyzed using within-and between-country random regression TD models. Edited data used for within-country analysis included 661,453 and 281,913 TD records in Luxembourg and Tunisia, respectively. The joint data included 730,810 TD records of 87,734 cows and 231 common sires. Both data sets covered calving years 1995 to 2006. Fourth-order Legendre polynomials for random effects and a Gibbs sampling method were used to estimate variance components of lactation curve parameters in separate and joint analyses. Genetic variances of the first 3 coefficients from Luxembourg data were 46 to 69% larger than corresponding estimates from the Tunisian data. Inversely, the Tunisian permanent environment variances for the same coefficients were 52 to 65% larger than the Luxembourg ones. Posterior mean heritabilities of 305-d milk yield and persistency, defined as estimated breeding values (EBV) at 280 days in milk-EBV at 80 days in milk, from between-country analysis were 0.42 and 0.12 and 0.19 and 0.08 in Luxembourg and Tunisia, respectively. Heritability estimates for the same traits from within-country analyses, mainly from the Tunisian data, were lower than those from the joint analysis. Genetic correlations for 305-d milk yield and persistency between countries were 0.60 and 0.36. Product moment and rank correlations between EBV of common sires for 305-d milk yield and persistency from within-country analyses were 0.38 and 0.41 and 0.27 and 0.26, respectively. Differences between genetic variances found in both countries reflect different milk production levels. Moreover, low genetic and rank correlations suggest different ranking of sires in the 2 environments, which implies the existence of a genotype x environment interaction for milk yield in Holsteins.

  8. Bonjour tristesse in Swedish suburbia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Jonas E

    2013-01-01

    the country. Global news media paralleled the Swedish situation with previous incidents in Paris in 2007, Athens in 2008 and London in 2011. Foreign offices, among others the American, British, Danish, and Norwegian ones, advised their citizens not to travel to Sweden: the Swedish welfare model...... and a high unemployment rate. The young generation experienced a Bonjour Tristesse! existence going in and out of unemployment. An existing dismay with architecture and physical planning of suburbia surfaced: The plausible responsibility of the body of architects was debated, since many esteemed profiles...... of the Swedish functionalist architecture had been involved in its realisation. One representative of the profession stated the need for upgrading the existing architecture to new user needs, while another one emphasised that the real group of inhabitants in suburbia is often not the group of users envisioned...

  9. Obstetric Thromboprophylaxis: The Swedish Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelle G. Lindqvist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstetric thromboprophylaxis is difficult. Since 10 years Swedish obstetricians have used a combined risk estimation model and recommendations concerning to whom, at what dose, when, and for how long thromboprophylaxis is to be administrated based on a weighted risk score. In this paper we describe the background and validation of the Swedish guidelines for obstetric thromboprophylaxis in women with moderate-high risk of VTE, that is, at similar or higher risk as the antepartum risk among women with history of thrombosis. The risk score is based on major risk factors (i.e., 5-fold increased risk of thromboembolism. We present data on the efficacy of the model, the cost-effectiveness, and the lifestyle advice that is given. We believe that the Swedish guidelines for obstetric thromboprophylaxis aid clinicians in providing women at increased risk of VTE with effective and appropriate thromboprophylaxis, thus avoiding both over- and under-treatment.

  10. Analysis of pregnancy length in multiple births in Czech Fleckvieh and Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Bezdíček

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work we have evaluated multiple births (calving between the years 1992 and 2003 in Czech Fleckvieh and Holstein cattle. We have compared the length of pregnancy in case of twins and triplets with the length of pregnancy of the same cow during the previous lactation when only one calf was born. Total number of observed multiple births of both strains was 686 cases – including 508 births of twins and 178 births of triplets. Mathematical statistical procedures have been made by standard mathematical methods using a SPSS 15.0 for Windows, Release 15.0.0 (6 Sep 2006 program. The results we have reached showed a significant (P ≤ 0.01 decrease in pregnancy length in multiple births. These results have appeared in both observed strains. Czech Fleckvieh cattle showed the length of pregnancy 281.57 days in case of twins (previous pregnacy with one calf was 287.41 days long and in case of triplets it was 277.09 days (previous pregnancy was 287.17 days long. Decrase in pregnancy length was therefore by 5.84 days in case of twins and by 10.08 days in case of triplets. A similar tendency was found also in Holstein cattle, where the length of pregnancy in case of twins was 274.98 days (previous pregnancy with one calf was 279.66 days long and in case of triplets was 271.12 (280.27 with one calf. Also in this case the shortening of the pregnancy with twins (by 4.68 days and with triplets (by 9.15 days was significant (P ≤ 0.01. Both observed strains showed the highest number of multiple births in the second to fifth pregnancy. These pregnancies showed the 75.07 % of all the multiple births – twins were 52.77 % and triplets were 22.3 %. On the other hand the lowest ratio of multiple births was in case of the first calving (total 2.33 %.

  11. Estimates of genetic parameters and eigenvector indices for milk production of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savegnago, R P; Rosa, G J M; Valente, B D; Herrera, L G G; Carneiro, R L R; Sesana, R C; El Faro, L; Munari, D P

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to estimate genetic parameters of monthly test-day milk yield (TDMY) of the first lactation of Brazilian Holstein cows using random regression (RR), and to compare the genetic gains for milk production and persistency, derived from RR models, using eigenvector indices and selection indices that did not consider eigenvectors. The data set contained monthly TDMY of 3,543 first lactations of Brazilian Holstein cows calving between 1994 and 2011. The RR model included the fixed effect of the contemporary group (herd-month-year of test days), the covariate calving age (linear and quadratic effects), and a fourth-order regression on Legendre orthogonal polynomials of days in milk (DIM) to model the population-based mean curve. Additive genetic and nongenetic animal effects were fit as RR with 4 classes of residual variance random effect. Eigenvector indices based on the additive genetic RR covariance matrix were used to evaluate the genetic gains of milk yield and persistency compared with the traditional selection index (selection index based on breeding values of milk yield until 305 DIM). The heritability estimates for monthly TDMY ranged from 0.12 ± 0.04 to 0.31 ± 0.04. The estimates of additive genetic and nongenetic animal effects correlation were close to 1 at adjacent monthly TDMY, with a tendency to diminish as the time between DIM classes increased. The first eigenvector was related to the increase of the genetic response of the milk yield and the second eigenvector was related to the increase of the genetic gains of the persistency but it contributed to decrease the genetic gains for total milk yield. Therefore, using this eigenvector to improve persistency will not contribute to change the shape of genetic curve pattern. If the breeding goal is to improve milk production and persistency, complete sequential eigenvector indices (selection indices composite with all eigenvectors) could be used with higher economic

  12. Identification of genomic regions associated with inbreeding depression in Holstein and Jersey dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, Jennie E; Haile-Mariam, Mekonnen; Goddard, Michael E; Hayes, Ben J

    2014-11-18

    Inbreeding reduces the fitness of individuals by increasing the frequency of homozygous deleterious recessive alleles. Some insight into the genetic architecture of fitness, and other complex traits, can be gained by using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data to identify regions of the genome which lead to reduction in performance when identical by descent (IBD). Here, we compared the effect of genome-wide and location-specific homozygosity on fertility and milk production traits in dairy cattle. Genotype data from more than 43 000 SNPs were available for 8853 Holstein and 4138 Jersey dairy cows that were part of a much larger dataset that had pedigree records (338 696 Holstein and 64 049 Jersey animals). Measures of inbreeding were based on: (1) pedigree data; (2) genotypes to determine the realised proportion of the genome that is IBD; (3) the proportion of the total genome that is homozygous and (4) runs of homozygosity (ROH) which are stretches of the genome that are homozygous. A 1% increase in inbreeding based either on pedigree or genomic data was associated with a decrease in milk, fat and protein yields of around 0.4 to 0.6% of the phenotypic mean, and an increase in calving interval (i.e. a deterioration in fertility) of 0.02 to 0.05% of the phenotypic mean. A genome-wide association study using ROH of more than 50 SNPs revealed genomic regions that resulted in depression of up to 12.5 d and 260 L for calving interval and milk yield, respectively, when completely homozygous. Genomic measures can be used instead of pedigree-based inbreeding to estimate inbreeding depression. Both the diagonal elements of the genomic relationship matrix and the proportion of homozygous SNPs can be used to measure inbreeding. Longer ROH (>3 Mb) were found to be associated with a reduction in milk yield and captured recent inbreeding independently and in addition to overall homozygosity. Inbreeding depression can be reduced by minimizing overall inbreeding but maybe

  13. A de novo missense mutation of FGFR2 causes facial dysplasia syndrome in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agerholm, Jørgen S; McEvoy, Fintan J; Heegaard, Steffen; Charlier, Carole; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Drögemüller, Cord

    2017-08-02

    Surveillance for bovine genetic diseases in Denmark identified a hitherto unreported congenital syndrome occurring among progeny of a Holstein sire used for artificial breeding. A genetic aetiology due to a dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance or a mosaic germline mutation was suspected as all recorded cases were progeny of the same sire. Detailed investigations were performed to characterize the syndrome and to reveal its cause. Seven malformed calves were submitted examination. All cases shared a common morphology with the most striking lesions being severe facial dysplasia and complete prolapse of the eyes. Consequently the syndrome was named facial dysplasia syndrome (FDS). Furthermore, extensive brain malformations, including microencephaly, hydrocephalus, lobation of the cerebral hemispheres and compression of the brain were present. Subsequent data analysis of progeny of the sire revealed that around 0.5% of his offspring suffered from FDS. High density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping data of the seven cases and their parents were used to map the defect in the bovine genome. Significant genetic linkage was obtained for three regions, including chromosome 26 where whole genome sequencing of a case-parent trio revealed two de novo variants perfectly associated with the disease: an intronic SNP in the DMBT1 gene and a single non-synonymous variant in the FGFR2 gene. This FGFR2 missense variant (c.927G>T) affects a gene encoding a member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family, where amino acid sequence is highly conserved between members and across species. It is predicted to change an evolutionary conserved tryptophan into a cysteine residue (p.Trp309Cys). Both variant alleles were proven to result from de novo mutation events in the germline of the sire. FDS is a novel genetic disorder of Holstein cattle. Mutations in the human FGFR2 gene are associated with various dominant inherited craniofacial dysostosis syndromes. Given

  14. Experimental Escherichia coli O157:H7 carriage in calves.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, C A; Harmon, B G; Zhao, T; Doyle, M P

    1997-01-01

    Nine weaned calves (6 to 8 weeks of age) were given 10(10) CFU of a five-strain mixture of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 by oral-gastric intubation. After an initial brief period of pyrexia in three calves and transient mild diarrhea in five calves, calves were clinically normal throughout the 13- to 27-day study. The population of E. coli O157:H7 in the faces decreased dramatically in all calves during the first 2 weeks after inoculation. Thereafter, small populations of E. coli...

  15. What do preweaned and weaned calves need in the diet: a high fiber content or a forage source?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terré, M; Pedrals, E; Dalmau, A; Bach, A

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the improvement of performance of young calves associated with the supplementation of chopped grass hay reported in some studies is due to an increase in the total neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content of the consumed diet or to the provision of chopped grass hay. Sixty-three Holstein calves [9±4.4 d old; mean ± standard deviation (SD)] were randomly distributed in 4 treatments resulting from the combination of 2 levels of NDF content of a pelleted starter and the supply or absence of forage provision: low-NDF starter (18%) with or without chopped oat hay, and high-NDF starter (27%) with or without chopped oat hay. All animals were fed the same milk replacer (21% crude protein and 19.2% fat) at the rate of 4 L/d at 15% dry matter from d 1 to 34, and 2 L/d at 15% dry matter from d 35 to 42 (weaning). The study finished 2 wk after weaning. Body weight was measured weekly and individual calf starter and hay intake was recorded daily. On d 50, blood samples were drawn 2h after the morning concentrate offer to determine serum glucose and insulin concentrations. On d 52, samples of ruminal fluid were obtained via an esophageal tube, and pH was measured immediately. During the preweaning period, pelleted starter intake was similar among treatments, but average daily gain tended to be greater in low- than in high-NDF treatments (0.69 vs. 0.63±0.020 kg/d, respectively; mean ± SD). However, during the 2 wk after weaning, supplementation of forage improved pelleted starter intake and average daily gain without affecting the gain-to-feed ratio. Probably, the greater pelleted starter intake observed in forage-supplemented calves was mainly due to the greater ruminal pH found in forage-supplemented calves compared with forage-deprived calves (5.81 vs. 5.05±0.063, respectively). Blood insulin-to-glucose ratio was greater in forage-supplemented compared with unsupplemented calves [mean ± SD; 6.53 vs. 4.24±0.125 insulin

  16. The associations between postpartum serum haptoglobin concentration and metabolic status, calving difficulties, retained fetal membranes, and metritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, A; Burfeind, O; Heuwieser, W

    2015-07-01

    Measurement of serum haptoglobin (Hapto) concentrations results in only moderate reported specificity and sensitivity for the detection of metritic cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between different variables and haptoglobin concentrations after calving. Parity, periparturient metabolic stress indicated by β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), calving difficulties, retained fetal membranes (RFM), and acute puerperal metritis (APM) were evaluated. A total of 443 Holstein Friesian cows were enrolled in this retrospective observational study. Acute puerperal metritis was diagnosed when a cow had fetid, reddish-brown, watery vaginal discharge in combination with rectal temperature ≥39.5°C. The retention of the fetal membranes has been defined as the failure to expel the fetal membranes within 12h after calving. Results of blood samples from 2 and 5 d in milk (DIM) were analyzed for Hapto, BHBA, and NEFA. Primiparous cows had a greater median Hapto concentration than multiparous cows at 5 DIM [primiparous: 2.25g/L, interquartile range (IQR) 1.45-2.50, n=146; multiparous: 1.13g/L, IQR 0.52-2.22, n=302; Pcows (1.4g/L), primiparous cows (2.49g/L), and multiparous cows (1.4g/L) were used for further analysis. Periparturient metabolic stress indicated by elevated BHBA (≥1.2mmol/L) at 5 DIM was associated with elevated Hapto (odds ratio 2.39-2.87) regardless of parity. In contrast, elevated NEFA (≥0.6mmol/L) at 2 DIM was not a risk factor for elevated Hapto. Multiparous cows with assisted calving had a 2.46 times higher risk for elevated Hapto, whereas primiparous cows with assisted calving had no elevated risk for elevated Hapto at 5 DIM. Moreover, multiparous cows with RFM were 5.51 times more likely to have elevated Hapto at 5 DIM than cows without RFM. Acute puerperal metritis within the first 5 DIM was associated with elevated Hapto (odds ratio 2.74-5.01), regardless of parity. We speculate that the

  17. Colostrum and milk pasteurization improve health status and decrease mortality in neonatal calves receiving appropriate colostrum ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengol, Ramon; Fraile, Lorenzo

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate if on-farm heat treatment of colostrum and bulk tank milk can improve calf health status and morbidity and mortality rates during the first 21d of life in neonatal Holstein calves receiving appropriate colostrum ingestion. A total of 587 calves were randomly assigned to 2 groups of males and females over 18mo. The nonpasteurized group (n=287, 143 males and 144 females) was fed frozen (-20°C) colostrum (6-8L during the first 12h of life) that was previously reheated up to 40°C. They were also fed refrigerated (4°C) raw milk from the bulk tank that was also reheated up to 40°C (1.8L every 12h). The pasteurized group (n=300, 150 males and 150 females) was also fed colostrum and milk, but both were pasteurized before freezing. Blood samples were drawn from all calves to obtain serum at 2 to 5d of life. Serum total protein (g/dL) was determined using a commercially available refractometer. Colostrum and milk underwent routine bacteriological analysis to determine total plate counts (cfu/mL) and total coliform counts (cfu/mL). All the calves underwent clinical examination every 24h during the first 21d of life. Every day, calves were clinically diagnosed either as being healthy or suffering from respiratory disease, neonatal calf diarrhea, or suffering other diseases. On-farm heat treatment for colostrum and milk reduced total plate counts and total coliform counts between 1 and 2 log10. Pasteurization of colostrum and milk significantly decreased the morbidity and mortality (5.2 and 2.8%) in comparison with calves receiving nonpasteurized colostrum and milk (15.0 and 6.5%), respectively, during the first 21d of life, even in animals receiving appropriate colostrum ingestion. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Tactile stimulation of dairy heifers: effects on behavior and milk production after calving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. M. Néri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The positive management of primiparous heifers before calving through tactile stimulation may have beneficial effects on behavior during routine milking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of tactile stimulation in dairy heifers and its effects on behavior and milk production after calving. Ten primiparous Holstein heifers were used. Half the group received training with tactile stimulation of all body regions, while the other group did not receive stimulation (control group. The training period was divided into three phases: early, days 1 to 6 of training; intermediate: days 7 to 12, and final, days 13 to 23. During training, movement and displacement scores were obtained over a period of 5 minutes. Physiological parameters were also recorded [respiratory rate (FR and minimum eye temperature (ETmin measured with a thermal imaging camera]. After calving, the heifers were submitted to first milking when the evaluations were started for the first 10 days of milking (20 consecutive milkings. The behavior of the animals was evaluated by attributing a reactivity score of 1 (desirable behaviors or 2 (undesirable behaviors: entry into the pen, teat disinfection, milking one or two jets of milk for mastitis testing, attachment of teat cups, and removal of milk, as well as the amount of milk produced. Mean ETmin and FR decreased over the training period. A significant difference was observed for displacement score (P=0.019, with a reduction in displacement from the early to the final period (from 60.0% to 25.7%. During the attachment of teat cups, stimulated heifers were less reactive (P=0.002, characterized by a lower frequency of undesirable behaviors (12.0%, than unstimulated heifers (30.2%. The average milk yield during the first 60 days of lactation was higher for the group of stimulated heifers (Ln y=2.20–0.0102t+0.331lnt, R2=0.76 compared to unstimulated heifers (Ln y=1.54–0.0191x+0.578lnx, R2=0.79, with this difference being

  19. Application of random regression models for genetic analysis of 305-d milk yield over different lactations of Iranian Holsteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Elahi Torshizi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective During the last decade, genetic evaluation of dairy cows using longitudinal data (test day milk yield or 305- day milk yield using random regression method has been officially adopted in several countries. The objectives of this study were to estimate covariance functions for genetic and permanent environmental effects and to obtain genetic parameters of 305-day milk yield over seven parities. Methods Data including 60,279 total 305–day milk yield of 17,309 Iranian Holstein dairy cows in 7 parities calved between 20 to 140 months between 2004 and 2011. Residual variances were modeled by homogeneous and step functions with 7 and 10 classes. Results The results showed that a third order polynomial for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects plus a step function with 10 classes for the residual variance was the most adequate and parsimonious model to describe the covariance structure of the data. Heritability estimates obtained by this model varied from 0.17 to 0.28. The performance of this model was better than repeatability model. Moreover, 10 classes of residual variance produce the more accurate result than 7 classes or homogeneous residual effect. Conclusion A quadratic Legendre polynomial for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects with 10 step function residual classes are sufficient to produce a parsimonious model that explained the change in 305-day milk yield over consecutive parities of Iranian Holstein cows.

  20. Mineral profile of crossbred F 1 Holstein x Gyr dairy cows during the transition period in summer and winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.F. Moreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The transition period is often a great challenge for dairy cows and mineral imbalances are frequent. With the aim to better understand the mineral profile of F1 Holstein x Gyr dairy cows and their performances under the different conditions of summer and winter, we collected blood samples to measure calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. Samplings were performed during summer and winter, on 15 and 13 pluriparous F1 Holstein x Gyr dairy cows, respectively. Blood sampling started 4 weeks prior to the expected calving date until 30 days postpartum. The mean concentrations of all three minerals had a different pattern during the transition period in each season, representing the interaction time x season. Calcium concentration was lower in winter and more animals suffered from subclinical hypocalcemia (100% then in summer (38.46%. Magnesium concentration was also lower in winter and 46.67% of animals had hypomagnesemia, contributing for the higher hypocalcemia frequency observed in the same season. A high proportion of animals had hyperphosphatemia what can represent an environmental problem and more attention should be given to it. The high frequency of animals with subclinical hypocalcemia is alarming once that can lead to greater consequences.

  1. Rumen development in veal (preruminant) calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suárez, B.J.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, veal calves were fed until slaughter weight with only milk replacer and, in absence of solid feed the physiological development of the forestomachs was limited. In 1997, a new EU legislation stipulated that a minimum amount of solid feed (fiber) has to be provided for the welfare of

  2. Immunity to rotavirus in conventional neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonderfecht, S L; Osburn, B I

    1982-11-01

    The local and systemic humoral immune responses to rotavirus were studied in six conventional neonatal calves. Attenuated bovine rotavirus was administered either orally or directly into an isolated intestinal loop. The parameters monitored were neutralizing rotavirus antibody in serum, immunofluorescent and neutralizing rotavirus antibody in intestinal loop washings, and rotavirus antibody-producing cells in intestinal mucosa. An antibody response was observed in the serum and intestinal secretions from one calf only. Viral replication was not detected in the isolated intestinal loop. Rotavirus antibody-producing cells were found in the intestinal mucosa of five calves. Double staining revealed that most of these cells produced antibody of the immunoglobulin A class. The conclusions were: (i) a previously described system to detect rotavirus antibody-producing cells can be used to study immune responses in neonatal calves, (ii) the class or subclass of antibody in rotavirus antibody-producing cells can be determined by double immunofluorescent staining, (iii) neonatal calves respond to rotavirus inoculation with a local immunoglobulin A response, and (iv) most of the rotavirus antibody-producing cells are located in the mucosa of the proximal small intestine.

  3. Integrated energy concept and climate concept for Schleswig-Holstein; Integriertes Energie- und Klimakonzept fuer Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-15

    For the first time, the state government of Schleswig-Holstein (Federal Republic of Germany) presents an integrated energy and climate concept. In this paper, first of all the challenges, goals and strategies of the integrated energy policy and climate policy are presented. Subsequently, the selected action areas of the integrated policy on climate change and energy policy in Schleswig-Holstein are described.

  4. Genome-wide association for milk production and female fertility traits in Canadian dairy Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayeri, Shadi; Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Abo-Ismail, Mohammed K; May, Natalie; Miller, Stephen P; Schenkel, Flavio; Moore, Stephen S; Stothard, Paul

    2016-06-10

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are a powerful tool for detecting genomic regions explaining variation in phenotype. The objectives of the present study were to identify or refine the positions of genomic regions affecting milk production, milk components and fertility traits in Canadian Holstein cattle, and to use these positions to identify genes and pathways that may influence these traits. Several QTL regions were detected for milk production (MILK), fat production (FAT), protein production (PROT) and fat and protein deviation (FATD, PROTD respectively). The identified QTL regions for production traits (including milk production) support previous findings and some overlap with genes with known relevant biological functions identified in earlier studies such as DGAT1 and CPSF1. A significant region on chromosome 21 overlapping with the gene FAM181A and not previous linked to fertility in dairy cattle was identified for the calving to first service interval and days open. A functional enrichment analysis of the GWAS results yielded GO terms consistent with the specific phenotypes tested, for example GO terms GO:0007595 (lactation) and GO:0043627 (response to estrogen) for milk production (MILK), GO:0051057 (positive regulation of small GTPase mediated signal transduction) for fat production (FAT), GO:0040019 (positive regulation of embryonic development) for first service to calving interval (CTFS) and GO:0043268 (positive regulation of potassium ion transport) for days open (DO). In other cases the connection between the enriched GO terms and the traits were less clear, for example GO:0003279 (cardiac septum development) for FAT and GO:0030903 (notochord development) for DO trait. The chromosomal regions and enriched pathways identified in this study confirm several previous findings and highlight new regions and pathways that may contribute to variation in production or fertility traits in dairy cattle.

  5. Two-dimensional Hubbard-Holstein bipolaron

    OpenAIRE

    Macridin, Alexandru; Sawatzky, George A.; Jarrell, Mark

    2004-01-01

    We present a diagrammatic Monte Carlo study of the properties of the Hubbard-Holstein bipolaron on a two-dimensional square lattice. With a small Coulomb repulsion, U, and with increasing electron-phonon interaction, and when reaching a value about two times smaller than the one corresponding to the transition of light polaron to heavy polaron, the system suffers a sharp transition from a state formed by two weakly bound light polarons to a heavy, strongly bound on-site bipolaron. Aside from ...

  6. Analog superconducting quantum simulator for Holstein polarons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Feng; Stojanović, Vladimir M.; Siddiqi, Irfan; Tian, Lin

    2013-12-01

    We propose an analog quantum simulator for the Holstein molecular-crystal model based on a superconducting circuit QED system in the dispersive regime. By varying the driving field on the superconducting resonators, one can access both the adiabatic and antiadiabatic regimes of this model, and the strong electron-phonon coupling required for small-polaron formation can be readily reached. We show that a small-polaron state of arbitrary quasimomentum can be generated by applying a microwave pulse to the resonators. We also show that significant squeezing in the resonator modes can be achieved in the polaron-crossover regime through a measurement-based scheme.

  7. Tunable Holstein model with cold polar molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Felipe; Krems, Roman V. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    We show that an ensemble of polar molecules trapped in an optical lattice can be considered as a controllable open quantum system. The coupling between collective rotational excitations and the motion of the molecules in the lattice potential can be controlled by varying the strength and orientation of an external dc electric field as well as the intensity of the trapping laser. The system can be described by a generalized Holstein Hamiltonian with tunable parameters and can be used as a quantum simulator of excitation energy transfer and polaron phenomena. We show that the character of excitation energy transfer can be modified by tuning experimental parameters.

  8. A longitudinal cohort study of acute puerperal metritis cases in Swedish dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordell, Anna; Unnerstad, Helle Ericsson; Nyman, Ann; Gustafsson, Hans; Båge, Renée

    2016-11-10

    Acute puerperal metritis affects cows during the early postpartum period and causes fever, fetid vaginal discharge and general depression. The disease is severe and treatment with antimicrobials is often required. This study followed 79 Swedish dairy cows with acute puerperal metritis with registered treatment and outcome in terms of recovery. Bacteria isolated from the uterus and their susceptibility to penicillin were studied. Clinical cases were assigned by participating practitioners who examined the cows, performed uterine swab sampling, decided treatment and provided information about cow health and calving conditions. Fertility and culling data were collected from the official Swedish milk and health recording scheme. Recovery from disease was defined in four levels; as a cow that survived 1 or 4 months, was inseminated and subsequently became pregnant. Intervals from dates of first and latest calving to insemination date were studied. The most common bacterial findings were a mixed culture of Escherichia coli and bacteria such as Gram positive cocci, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Clostridium spp. or Trueperella pyogenes. The Gram positive cocci, Pasteurella spp. and F. necrophorum were generally susceptible to penicillin. The majority of cows (70%) were treated with penicillin in accordance with the Swedish policy on treatment of metritis while 19% were treated with tetracycline and 8% were not treated with antimicrobials. Recovery rates were similar between treatments. Besides "calving to last insemination" interval (CLI) that was 5 days shorter than the national mean, fertility was slightly reduced compared to national means. "Calving to first insemination" interval (CFI) was 4 days longer than national mean and number of inseminations/cow increased from 1.9 to 2.1. Escherichia coli culture positive cows did not become pregnant to the same extent as cows without E. coli in the uterus (P = 0.046). Twin births resulted in a longer CFI (P = 0.034). The

  9. Penentuan Keberhasilan Involusi Uterus Sapi Perah Friesian Holstein Berdasarkan Kadar Estrogen Setelah Beberapa Penginjeksian Selenium-Vitamin E (DETERMINATION OF THE SUCCESS UTERINE INVOLUTION IN FRIESIAN HOLSTEIN DAIRY COW BASED ESTROGEN LEVELS AFTER MU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Ayu Prasdini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the effectiveness of selenium-vitamin ETM to the increasedlevels of estrogen as a sign of completion uterine involution process in dairy cows Frisian Holstein (FHafter calving. Twenty pragnant FH cows were used in this experiment. The cows devided into four groups.The first group (as control, P0 was not given selenium-vitamin ETM, the second group (P1 was given 0.5mg/mL selenium + 50 mg/mL vitamin ETM, the third group (P2 was given 1,5 mg/mL selenium + 50 mg/mLvitamin ETM and the fourth group (P3 was given 2 mg/mL selenium + 100 mg/mL vitamin ETM. Theadministration of selenium-vitamin ETM performed at the 7th months of pragnancy, 8th month of pragnancy,two weeks before calving, 7 and 14 days after calving intramuscularly. After calving, the serum of dairycows were taken for analysis of estrogen levels on the 25th day, the 45th, the 65th and current first postpartumestrus in the position of standing heat using Bovine Estrogen ELISA Kit (EST methode . The results of theanalysis of high estrogen levels on day 25, the 45th, the 65th and current first estrus days after giving birthin units of pg / mL found in treatment 3 (P3, which were a 8.94 ± 0.22; 9.64 ± 0.55; 9.86 ± 0.67and 10.14 ±0.84 respectively, but the fastest uterine involution based estrogen levels was in treatment 2 (P2 on the45th day with 9.12 ± 0.94 for the estrogen levels.. The conclusions of the study was the addition of seleniumand vitamin E at the 7th month of pragnancy until the 14th day after calving may significantly affecton theincreased levels of estrogen which indicates the success of uterine involution in dairy cows FH.

  10. Short- and long-term effects of forage supplementation of calves during the preweaning period on performance, reproduction, and milk yield at first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Ll; Bach, A; Terré, M

    2015-07-01

    Sixty female Holstein calves [body weight (BW)=39.5±3.76kg] were fed a ground starter concentrate [19% crude protein, 19% neutral detergent fiber (NDF)] during the preweaning period. Furthermore, oats hay (68% NDF) was supplemented only during the postweaning period (CON) or during both pre- and postweaning periods (OH) to evaluate performance until first breeding, diet digestibility after weaning, reproductive performance, and milk yield at first lactation. Calves were individually housed and bedded with wood shavings. All calves were offered 6 L/d of milk replacer (MR) at 12% dry matter (DM) in 2 feedings until 28d of age, 3 L/d of MR at 12% DM in 2 feedings from 29 to 44d of age calves, and 1.5 L of MR at 12% DM in 1 feeding from 45 to 51d of age. Animals were weaned at 52d of age. Starter concentrate and forage intake were recorded daily and BW weekly until 65d of age. Two weeks after weaning, total-tract apparent digestibility was determined in 6 calves per treatment. Heifer BW was recorded at 10 mo of age. Breeding and milk yield at first lactation were also recorded. Starter concentrate intake was greater in OH compared with CON animals during the preweaning period. As a result, calves in the OH treatment had greater average daily gain (ADG) than CON animals during the preweaning period. After weaning, OH calves consumed more forage than CON animals, but we found no differences between treatments in ADG and starter concentrate intake. Similarly, total-tract apparent digestibility did not differ between treatments, and BW and ADG from 2wk after weaning to 10mo of age did not differ between treatments. Moreover, no differences in reproductive performance [age at first artificial insemination (AI), age at fertile insemination, conception rate at first AI, and number of AI] or milk yield at first lactation were observed between treatments, although a positive relationship between growth rate early in life and future energy-corrected milk yield was found. We

  11. Peripartal calcium homoeostasis of multiparous dairy cows fed rumen-protected rice bran or a lowered dietary cation/anion balance diet before calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Tereso, J; ter Wijlen, H; van Laar, H; Verstegen, M W A

    2014-08-01

    Milk fever is one of the most important metabolic diseases in dairy cattle. Reducing the dietary cation/anion balance (DCAD) with anionic salts is a common prevention strategy. However, many small European farms cannot use total mixed rations (TMR) in the close-up period. Including anionic salts in compound feeds can result in feed refusals and moderate inclusions to preserve feed palatability results in insufficient DCAD reduction. Rumen-protected rice bran induces the adaptation of Ca metabolism in dairy cows by a reduction of Ca intake and by a reduction of the availability of dietary Ca. In the presence of a negative control, rumen-protected rice bran (2.8 kg/day) was compared with a lowered DCAD diet (from 269 to 4 meq/kg DM) in their effect to prevent milk fever. In a randomized block design, 45 multiparous Holstein cows joined the trial sequentially from 21 days before the expected calving date and were observed until the 8th week of lactation. Feed and nutrient intakes were recorded, and Ca, P, Mg in serum and urine, urine pH, serum NEFA and milk production in early lactation were compared. Feeding rumen-protected rice bran before calving improved the recovery of calcaemia after calving and had a positive effect on DMI after calving. The moderately low DCAD diet did not positively influence serum Ca at calving. Calcaemia recovered even later than in control, and cows showed reduced DMI post-calving and higher NEFA levels in the first 36 h after calving. This moderate reduction of DCAD did not provide an intermediate prevention level indicating that DCAD needs to be reduced to the recommended levels to prevent milk fever. Rumen-protected rice bran may be a suitable feed to reduce hypocalcaemia post-partum and can be included in pre-calving compound feeds representing a palatable alternative to anionic salts. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Milk yield, udder health and reproductive performance in Swedish organic and conventional dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Nils; Emanuelson, Ulf

    2009-11-01

    Organic dairy farming is an expanding segment of the dairy sector where cow management differs from the conventional model in many respects. Thus, a comparative evaluation of disease and welfare status in organically and conventionally managed dairy cows is required. Assessment of milk yield, udder health and reproductive performance (RP) was done in 20 organically and 20 conventionally managed Swedish dairy herds. In accordance with earlier findings we confirmed lower milk yield in organic cows. Udder health and RP were chosen as indicators of animal health in view of their clinical relevance and the availability of appropriate data bases providing good background knowledge for further animal health assessment. No obvious differences were found in the investigations of somatic cell count (SCC) profiles or time to veterinary-treated cases of mastitis between organically and conventional managed cows. Pregnancy success at first insemination, an appropriate measurement of RP with biological interpretation and background, did not reveal any difference between management types, whereas the hazard rate-ratio (HR) of having a calving-interval was significantly lower (HR=0.71) in organically managed cows. The calving-interval is an important financial determinator in dairy production, but it is not considered an optimal indicator of biologic relevance as it partially reflects farmer decisions. In conclusion, the organically managed cows in this study did not differ from conventionally managed cows in udder health or RP, with the exception of calving interval.

  13. Acute phase response elicited by experimental bovine diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection is associated with decreased vitamin D and E status of vitamin-replete preruminant calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnecke, B J; McGill, J L; Ridpath, J F; Sacco, R E; Lippolis, J D; Reinhardt, T A

    2014-09-01

    Studies in young animals have shown an association between vitamin deficiencies and increased risk of infectious disease; however, there is a paucity of information regarding the effect of acute infection on the vitamin status of the vitamin-replete neonate. To characterize the effects of acute infection on vitamin D and E status of the neonate, 6 vitamin-replete preruminant Holstein bull calves were experimentally infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV; strain BVDV2-1373). Six mock-inoculated calves served as controls. Sustained pyrexia, leukopenia, and asynchronous increases in serum haptoglobin and serum amyloid A characterized the response of calves to infection with BVDV. Infection was also associated with increased serum IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-6 concentrations. During the last 8 d of the 14-d postinoculation period, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and α-tocopherol concentrations in infected calves decreased by 51 and 82%, respectively. The observed inverse association between vitamin D and E status and serum amyloid A in infected calves suggests that the infection-induced acute phase response contributed to the reduced vitamin status of these animals. Additional studies are necessary to determine if the negative effect of infection on status are unique to this specific infection model or is representative of preruminant calf's response to acute infection. Studies are also needed to characterize mechanisms underlying infection-related changes in vitamin D and E status and to determine whether additional vitamin D or E supplementation during an acute infection diminishes disease severity and duration in the young animal. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Addition of casein or whey protein to colostrum or a colostrum supplement product on absorption of IgG in neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, D F; Quigley, J D; Martin, J E; Holt, J A; Arthington, J D

    2000-12-01

    The effects of the addition of nonimmunoglobulin protein on absorption of immunoglobulin G (IgG) from colostrum or colostrum supplement products were determined in two experiments. In experiment 1, 48 Holstein calves were fed 4 L of pooled maternal colostrum or 4 L of reconstituted colostrum supplement with 0, 200, or 400 g of added whey protein concentrate or casein. In experiment 2, 38 Jersey calves were fed 2 L of pooled maternal colostrum with 100 or 200 g of whey protein concentrate or casein added immediately before feeding. Blood was collected at 24 h of age and plasma IgG concentration, total protein, hematocrit (experiment 1 only), and plasma urea N were determined. In experiment 1, blood samples were also collected at 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 h to evaluate absorption of IgG and protein and urea N concentrations. The addition of 400 g of casein to colostrum supplement in experiment 1 reduced plasma IgG from 5.66 g/L (0 g of casein addition) to 3.88 g/L, increased plasma urea N at 24 h, and reduced the change in plasma total protein from 0 to 24 h. Hourly plasma IgG concentrations increased with the consumption of colostrum or supplements but increased more rapidly in calves fed whey protein concentrate and more slowly in calves fed casein. The addition of 200 g of casein or whey protein concentrate to colostrum supplements had no effect on plasma IgG concentration at 24 h of age. The addition of 100 or 200 g of casein or whey protein concentrate to maternal colostrum had no effect on plasma urea N, total protein, or plasma IgG in experiment 2. The addition of nonimmunoglobulin protein to colostrum supplements or maternal colostrum did not affect IgG absorption from the intestine of newborn calves unless the amount of total protein exceeded 500 g of protein.

  15. Analysis of pre-weaning feeding policies and other risk factors influencing growth rates in calves on 11 commercial dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K F; Chancellor, N; Burn, C C; Wathes, D C

    2017-11-23

    Growth rates in pre-weaned calves influence their health, age at first calving and lifetime productivity. Many farms restrict milk rations to encourage solid feed intake and facilitate early weaning, but this can compromise growth. This study determined the milk feeding policies and associated growth rates on 11 commercial dairy farms in South East England, each following their normal management regime. Between 26 and 54 heifers were recruited per farm, providing a final cohort of 492, of which 71% were pure Holstein. Information on calf rearing practices (feeding, weaning, housing) and health was collected via questionnaires and weekly observations. Estimates of actual milk fed (kg solids) between 1 and 63 days were calculated for individual calves. Morphometric data (weight, height, length) were taken at weeks 1, 5 and 9 and at a median age of 7.5 months and growth rates were calculated. Most calves were fed milk replacer via automated feeders (four farms), teat feeder (one) or buckets (four) whereas two farms provided drums of acidified waste milk. Farms fed between 4 and 6 l/day of milk at mixing rates of 10% to 15%, providing 400 to 900 g/day of milk solids. Both skeletal growth rates and average daily weight gain (ADG) increased in the second month of life compared with the first: height growth from 0.17±0.14 to 0.25±0.16 cm/day and ADG from 0.48±0.25 to 0.71±0.28 kg/day. Post-weaning heifers up to 7.5 months had height increases of 0.16±0.035 cm/day and ADG of 0.83±0.16 kg/day. From 1 to 63 days 70% of calves had growth rates pre-weaned period, potentially reducing their health, welfare and productivity.

  16. Effect of slaughter weight on the carcass value of young crossbred ('Polish Holstein Friesian' x 'Limousin' steers and bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenon Nogalski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Apart from others factors, carcass quality is determined by the animal's age and body weight (BW at the end of the fattening period. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum finishing weight of young crossbred 'Polish Holstein Friesian' (PHF x 'Limousin' (LIM steers and bulls, based on their slaughter value. The experimental materials comprised 60 animals, including 30 bulls and 30 steers, fed farm-made feeds. At 2 or 3 wk of age, one half of calves were castrated. Bloodless castration was carried out using a rubber elastrator. Calves were reared under a conventional system, and were fattened semi-intensively. Daily gains ranged from 800 to 950 g. Calves were fattened to 450, 500, 550, or 600 kg BW. Carcass value was estimated after slaughter. Fatty acid profile was determined by gas chromatography in fat extracted from samples of muscle longissimus dorsi (MLD. Bulls, compared with steers, were characterized by a higher slaughter value, including a higher carcass dressing percentage by 1.07-2.60%, higher carcass conformation, and lower carcass fatness. In steers, an increase in live BW was accompanied by a considerable increase in fat content (higher than bulls, as confirmed by a significant (p ≤ 0.01 interaction. The intramuscular fat of bulls was characterized by higher concentrations of fatty acids delivering health benefits, and a more desirable polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids (PUFA/SFA ratio. Fat from bulls contained higher levels of PUFAs by 2.34 g 100 g-1 on average. Semi-intensive fattening of PHF x LIM bulls to slaughter weight of 600 kg BW is recommended due to an increase in carcass value. Steers should be fattened to slaughter weight of 500-550 kg BW to prevent excessive fat deposition.

  17. Preliminary studies of offspring exposure to phenylbutazone and ivermectin during the perinatal period in a Holstein cow-calf model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Pamela L; Fowler, Bruce A; Sexton, Mary J; Peggins, James O; Bredow, Jurgen von

    2003-03-15

    The pregnant Holstein cow and her newborn calf were evaluated as an animal model to study in utero and for lactational drug transfer and offspring exposure. A nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, phenylbutazone, and an antiparasitic drug, ivermectin, were tested in the model. Prior to parturition, pregnant cows were dosed orally to steady state with phenylbutazone at 4 g/day or given a single subcutaneous injection of 200 microg ivermectin/kg body wt. The level of drug transferred to calves exposed in utero, in utero combined with lactational exposure, and via lactational exposure only, was measured from days 1 through 7 postpartum. At birth the plasma level in phenylbutazone-exposed calves was approximately one-half the dam's steady-state level. For ivermectin-exposed calves, plasma levels were at or below the limit of quantitation (0.5 ng/ml) at birth, suggesting that placental transfer of ivermectin is limited in the cow. For both drugs, rapid accumulation of the drug in calf plasma occurred with lactational exposure to a mean daily dose of 2 microg ivermectin/kg body wt or 0.1 mg phenylbutazone/kg body wt/day for the first 7 days of life. The accumulation observed in the newborn calf is attributed to the lipid solubility and long elimination half-lives of these drugs. These results demonstrate that drug transfer and offspring exposure can be studied using the cow-calf model. The data also highlight the importance of considering not only the dose but also physicochemical characteristics and pharmacokinetics of the drug in the offspring when evaluating the safety of a newborn's exposure to a drug in breast milk.

  18. Season of birth is associated with first-lactation milk yield in Holstein Friesian cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eetvelde, M; Kamal, M M; Vandaele, L; Opsomer, G

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present research was to assess factors associated with first-lactation milk yield in dairy heifers, including maternal and environmental factors, factors related to the development of the heifer and factors related to its offspring such as gender of the calf. In addition, the potential underlying mechanism, in particular metabolic adaptations, was further explored. Data on body growth, reproduction and milk yield of 74 Holstein Friesian heifers on three herds in Flanders (Belgium) were collected. At birth, body measurements of the heifers were recorded and blood samples were taken (in order) to determine basal glucose and insulin concentrations. Body measurements were assessed every 3 months until first calving, and gender and weight of their first calf were recorded. Information on fertility and milk yield of the heifer and its dam were collected from the herd databases. Daily temperature and photoperiod were recorded from the database of the Belgian Royal Meteorological Institute. Linear mixed models were run with herd as a random factor, to account for differences in herd management. Heifers grew 867±80.7 g/day during their first year of life and were inseminated at 14.8±1.34 months. First calving took place at 24.5±1.93 months, at a weight of 642±61.5 kg and heifers produced 8506±1064 kg energy corrected milk during their first 305-day lactation. Regression models revealed that none of the maternal factors such as milk yield and parity, nor the growth of the heifer during the 1st year of life were associated with milk yield during first lactation. Age, and to a lesser extent BW at first parturition were positively associated with first-lactation milk yield. In addition, the season of birth, but not calving, had a significant influence on milk yield, with winter-born heifers producing less than heifers born in any other season. The lower yielding winter-born heifers had higher insulin concentrations at birth, whereas glucose concentrations

  19. Source of carbohydrate and metabolizable lysine and methionine in the diet of recently weaned dairy calves on digestion and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T M; Quigley, J D; Bateman, H G; Aldrich, J M; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2016-04-01

    Two 56-d trials with weaned Holstein dairy calves (initially 72 ± 1.8 kg of body weight, 58 to 60 d of age) fed 95% concentrate and 5% chopped grass hay diets were conducted. Each trial used 96 calves (4 calves/pen). During 15 of the last 21 d of the first trial and 10 of 14 d of the second and third week of the second trial, fecal samples were taken to estimate digestibility using acid-insoluble ash as an internal marker. Digestibility estimates along with 56-d average daily gain (ADG), hip width change, body condition score, and fecal score were analyzed with pen as the experimental unit. In trial 1, a textured diet (19% crude protein) with high starch [52% starch, 13% neutral detergent fiber (NDF)] based on whole corn and oats or a pelleted low-starch (20% starch, 35% NDF), high-digestible fiber diet were used. Within starch level, diets were formulated from supplemental soybean meal or soybean meal with blood meal and Alimet (Novus International Inc., St. Charles, MO) to provide 2 metabolizable protein levels (1 and 1.07% metabolizable lysine plus methionine). The 4 treatments were analyzed as a completely randomized design with a 2 by 2 factorial arrangement (6 pens/diet). In trial 2, all pelleted diets (19% crude protein) were fed. Diets were based on soybean hulls, wheat middlings, or corn, which contained increasing concentrations of starch (13, 27, and 42% starch and 42, 23, and 16% NDF, respectively; 8 pens/diet). Contrast statements were constructed to separate differences in the means (soybean hulls plus wheat middlings vs. corn; soybean hulls vs. wheat middlings). In trial 1, intake of organic matter (OM) did not differ. Digestibility of OM was greater in calves fed high- versus low starch-diets. Digestibility of NDF and starch were less in calves fed the high- versus low-starch diets. Calf ADG and hip width change were greater for high- versus low-starch diets. Source of protein did not influence digestibility or ADG. In trial 2, intake of OM was not

  20. Comparing profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cattle breeds

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    Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to compare profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cows in northern Italy. Cow’s profitability was calculated for each breed, with consideration of economic incentive programs and alternative milk pricing scenarios. The difference in annual profitability between Burlina and Holstein Friesian ranged from −€719 to −€274 per cow per year. In a low-input management level with a cow’s incentive payment and a specific cheese market strategy the low milk yield of Burlina can be compensate respect to Holstein Friesian.

  1. Genome wide analysis of fertility and production traits in Italian Holstein cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulietta Minozzi

    Full Text Available A genome wide scan was performed on a total of 2093 Italian Holstein proven bulls genotyped with 50K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, with the objective of identifying loci associated with fertility related traits and to test their effects on milk production traits. The analysis was carried out using estimated breeding values for the aggregate fertility index and for each trait contributing to the index: angularity, calving interval, non-return rate at 56 days, days to first service, and 305 day first parity lactation. In addition, two production traits not included in the aggregate fertility index were analysed: fat yield and protein yield. Analyses were carried out using all SNPs treated separately, further the most significant marker on BTA14 associated to milk quality located in the DGAT1 region was treated as fixed effect. Genome wide association analysis identified 61 significant SNPs and 75 significant marker-trait associations. Eight additional SNP associations were detected when SNP located near DGAT1 was included as a fixed effect. As there were no obvious common SNPs between the traits analyzed independently in this study, a network analysis was carried out to identify unforeseen relationships that may link production and fertility traits.

  2. Genetic relationships between calving interval and linear type traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARC-IRENE

    CI. All linear type traits routinely evaluated under the National Genetic Evaluation Programme (18 for. Jersey and 17 for Holstein) were considered. Data were obtained from the National Dairy Animal Recording. Scheme and comprised records of 30 503 Holstein cows in 640 herds and 27 360 Jersey cows in 460 herds.

  3. Genetic relationships between calving interval and linear type traits in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All linear type traits routinely evaluated under the National Genetic Evaluation Programme (18 for Jersey and 17 for Holstein) were considered. Data were obtained from the National Dairy Animal Recording Scheme and comprised records of 30 503 Holstein cows in 640 herds and 27 360 Jersey cows in 460 herds.

  4. Asymptomatic endemic Chlamydia pecorum infections reduce growth rates in calves by up to 48 percent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Poudel

    Full Text Available Intracellular Chlamydia (C. bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. More frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infections in cattle. We investigated the impact of these naturally acquired infections in a cohort of 51 female Holstein and Jersey calves from birth to 15 weeks of age. In biweekly sampling, we measured blood/plasma markers of health and infection and analyzed their association with clinical appearance and growth in dependence of chlamydial infection intensity as determined by mucosal chlamydial burden or contemporaneous anti-chlamydial plasma IgM. Chlamydia 23S rRNA gene PCR and ompA genotyping identified only C. pecorum (strains 1710S, Maeda, and novel strain Smith3v8 in conjunctival and vaginal swabs. All calves acquired the infection but remained clinically asymptomatic. High chlamydial infection associated with reduction of body weight gains by up to 48% and increased conjunctival reddening (P<10(-4. Simultaneously decreased plasma albumin and increased globulin (P<10(-4 suggested liver injury by inflammatory mediators as mechanisms for the growth inhibition. This was confirmed by the reduction of plasma insulin like growth factor-1 at high chlamydial infection intensity (P<10(-4. High anti-C. pecorum IgM associated eight weeks later with 66% increased growth (P = 0.027, indicating a potential for immune protection from C. pecorum-mediated growth depression. The worldwide prevalence of chlamydiae in livestock and their high susceptibility to common feed-additive antibiotics suggests the possibility that suppression of chlamydial infections may be a major contributor to the growth promoting effect of feed-additive antibiotics.

  5. Short communication: Glucagon-like peptide-2 and coccidiosis alter tight junction gene expression in the gastrointestinal tract of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M P; Evock-Clover, C M; Elsasser, T H; Connor, E E

    2015-05-01

    Tight junction (TJ) proteins are integral factors involved in gut barrier function, and therapy with glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) enhances gut integrity. Our aim was to assess effects of GLP-2 treatment on mRNA expression of 8 TJ complex proteins in the intestine of dairy calves not infected or infected with Eimeria bovis at 11±3d of age. Mucosal epithelium from jejunum, ileum, and cecum was collected at slaughter from Holstein bull calves assigned to 4 groups: noninfected, buffer-treated (n=5); noninfected, GLP-2 treated (n=4); E. bovis-infected, buffer-treated (n=5); and E. bovis-infected, GLP-2-treated (n=4). Infected calves were orally dosed with 100,000 to 200,000 sporulated E. bovis oocysts on d 0; GLP-2-treated calves received 50 µg of GLP-2/kg of body weight subcutaneously twice daily for 10d beginning on d 18; and buffer-treated calves received an equal injection volume of 0.01 M Na bicarbonate buffer. All calves were killed on d 28. The mRNA expression of coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CXADR), claudins 1, 2, and 4 (CLDN1, CLDN2, and CLDN4), F11 receptor (F11R), junction adhesion molecule 2 (JAM2), occludin (OCLN), and tight junction protein ZO-1 (TJP1) was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. In jejunum and ileum, an interaction of E. bovis infection and GLP-2 treatment on gene expression was noted. In jejunum of noninfected calves, GLP-2 increased CXADR, CLDN2, OCLN, and TJP1 mRNA expression but had no effect on mRNA expression in infected calves. Treatment with GLP-2 also increased tight junction protein ZO-1 protein expression in jejunum of noninfected calves as determined by immunohistochemistry. In ileum, E. bovis decreased expression of JAM2, OCLN, and TJP1 in buffer-treated calves, and GLP-2 increased TJP1 expression in infected calves. In cecum, E. bovis infection reduced expression of CXADR, CLDN4, F11R, and OCLN, and GLP-2 therapy increased expression of CLDN4, F11R, OCLN, and TJP1. Results are consistent with studies in

  6. Immunity to rotavirus in conventional neonatal calves.

    OpenAIRE

    Vonderfecht, S L; Osburn, B I

    1982-01-01

    The local and systemic humoral immune responses to rotavirus were studied in six conventional neonatal calves. Attenuated bovine rotavirus was administered either orally or directly into an isolated intestinal loop. The parameters monitored were neutralizing rotavirus antibody in serum, immunofluorescent and neutralizing rotavirus antibody in intestinal loop washings, and rotavirus antibody-producing cells in intestinal mucosa. An antibody response was observed in the serum and intestinal sec...

  7. Aerosol infection of calves with Histophilus somni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jánosi, Katalin; Stipkovits, László; Glávits, Róbert; Molnár, Tamás; Makrai, László; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Varga, János; Fodor, László

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate an aerosol infection method with Histophilus somni that closely resembles the natural way of infection of calves. Another aim was to compare the virulence of two H. somni strains by collecting clinical and postmortem data of experimentally infected and control animals. Seventeen conventionally reared 3-month-old calves were divided into three groups. Two groups of six animals each were exposed to suspensions containing H. somni on three consecutive days using a vaporiser mask. The third group of five animals was used as control. The data of individual clinical examination were recorded daily. All animals were exterminated, and gross pathology of all lungs was evaluated on the 15th day after the first infection. Both H. somni strains caused an increase of rectal temperature, respiratory signs, decrease of weight gain, and severe catarrhal bronchopneumonia in both infected groups. Although some chronic lesions were detected in the lungs of the control animals as well, the histopathological findings in the infected and control groups were different. H. somni was recultured from all lungs in the challenged groups but it could not be reisolated or detected by PCR examination in the control group. This is the first paper on aerosol challenge of calves with H. somni using repeated infection and verified by detailed pathological, bacteriological and histopathological examination. The infection method proved to be successful. There was no difference in the virulence of the two H. somni strains used in the trial.

  8. Spectral functions of the spinless Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, J [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic); Hohenadler, M [Institute for Theoretical and Computational Physics, TU Graz (Austria); Fehske, H [Institute for Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Greifswald (Germany)

    2006-03-01

    An analytical approach to the one-dimensional spinless Holstein model is proposed, which is valid at finite charge-carrier concentrations. Spectral functions of charge carriers are computed on the basis of self-energy calculations. A generalization of the Lang-Firsov canonical transformation method is shown to provide an interpolation scheme between the extreme weak-coupling and strong-coupling cases. The transformation depends on a variationally determined parameter that characterizes the charge distribution across the polaron volume. The relation between the spectral functions of the polaron and electron, the latter corresponding to the photoemission spectrum, is derived. Particular attention is paid to the distinction between the coherent and incoherent parts of the spectra, and their evolution as a function of band filling and model parameters. Results are discussed and compared with recent numerical calculations for the many-polaron problem.

  9. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in calves (Bos taurus and Bos indicus in the Formiga city, Minas Gerais - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto César Araujo Lima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is a waterborne disease, has as aggravating the difficulty of preventing environmental contamination and lack of effective therapeutic measures. With marked importance to the cattle, causes inflammation and intestinal villous atrophy resulting in loss of absorptive surface. This study aimed to perform molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in calves in the city of Formiga, Minas Gerais. A total of 300 faeces samples from Holstein calves, Nelore and indefinite breed, both healthy, were evaluated by negative contrast staining technique of malachite green and through the reaction of nested PCR for amplification of DNA fragments of the 18S subunit of the RNA gene ribosomal. Occurrence of 5.33 % ( 16/300 for malachite green and 4.66 % ( 14/300 by PCR was observed, whereas no correlation was found between positive and variables studied. Through molecular characterization were identified Cryptosporidium andersoni and Cryptosporidium ryanae species. In conclusion, we observed a low incidence of infection and elimination of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, the absence of clinical signs in animals, strong agreement between the results obtained by the two techniques. Beyond, with the molecular characterization ( nested PCR , species of C. andersoni and C. ryanae were diagnosed in age groups not present in the literature. These two species of Cryptosporidium are described above for the first time parasitizing cattle in the state of Minas Gerais.

  10. Calving distributions of individual bulls in multiple-sire pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Kaitlynn M; Theurer, Miles E; Larson, Robert L; White, Brad J; Hardin, David K; Randle, Richard F; Cushman, Robert A

    2017-04-15

    The objective of this project was to quantify patterns in the calving rate of sires in multiple-sire pastures over seven years at a large-scale cow-calf operation. Data consisted of reproductive and genomic records from multiple-sire breeding pastures (n = 33) at the United States Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) from 2007 to 2013. Calving intervals were analyzed in 21-day periods. A ranking system for each bull was developed based on the calving rate per pasture over the breeding season, with Rank 1 = the bull with greatest calving rate, Rank 3 = the bull with the least calving rate, and Rank 2 = all other bulls. A total of 179 bulls and 3703 calves were successfully genotyped over seven years. A uniform distribution described the expected percentage of calves sired per rank within pasture. Rank 1 bulls sired 113% greater calves than the expected pasture-average, Rank 2 bulls sired 6% less than expected, and Rank 3 bulls sired 81% less than expected. A rank by calving interval interaction effect was identified (P Rank 1 bull in calving interval 1 produced a greater average percent of the total calf crop over the entire season, compared to a Rank 2 and Rank 3 bull. The calving rate for individual sires is not homogeneous and there is a large difference between bulls siring the greatest and least number of calves. More research is needed to determine how rank changes over multiple breeding years and its association with dominance, libido, and fertility. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. EFFECT OF UREA-MOLASSES BLOCK SUPPLEMENTATION ON NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY AND INTAKE OF AMMONIATED MAIZE STOVERS IN COW -CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Usman Faizi, M.M. Siddiqui and G. Habib

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in a 4x4 Latin square design with four cow-calves {Holstein Friesian, aged' 6-8 months to investigate the effect of supplementing molasses-urea block {MUB to untreated or ammoniated maize stovers on feed intake and in viva digestibility of nutrients. Each period consisted of 10 days adaptation, followed by five days data collection. The four diets were untreated ma