WorldWideScience

Sample records for swedish forest ecosystems

  1. Restoring Forested Wetland Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Emile S. Gardiner; Melvin L. Warren

    2003-01-01

    Forests as natural systems are intrinsically linked to the sustainability of fresh-water systems. Efforts worldwide to restore forest ecosystems seek to counteract centuries of forest conversion to agriculture and other uses. Afforestation, the practice of regenerating forests on land deforested for agriculture or other uses, is occurring at an intense pace in the...

  2. Forest operations for ecosystem management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert B. Rummer; John Baumgras; Joe McNeel

    1997-01-01

    The evolution of modern forest resource management is focusing on ecologically sensitive forest operations. This shift in management strategies is producing a new set of functional requirements for forest operations. Systems to implement ecosystem management prescriptions may need to be economically viable over a wider range of piece sizes, for example. Increasing...

  3. Decomposition Analysis of Forest Ecosystem Services Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidemichi Fujii

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystem services are fundamental for human life. To protect and increase forest ecosystem services, the driving factors underlying changes in forest ecosystem service values must be determined to properly implement forest resource management planning. This study examines the driving factors that affect changes in forest ecosystem service values by focusing on regional forest characteristics using a dataset of 47 prefectures in Japan for 2000, 2007, and 2012. We applied two approaches: a contingent valuation method for estimating the forest ecosystem service value per area and a decomposition analysis for identifying the main driving factors of changes in the value of forest ecosystem services. The results indicate that the value of forest ecosystem services has increased due to the expansion of forest area from 2000 to 2007. However, factors related to forest management and ecosystem service value per area have contributed to a decrease in the value of ecosystem services from 2000 to 2007 and from 2007 to 2012, respectively.

  4. Conflict resolution through ecosystem-based management: the case of Swedish moose management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Sandström

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Swedish moose (Alces alces management has over the years transformed from a situation similar to what Hardin (1968 defined as a tragedy of the commons – i.e. where open access and unrestricted demands lead to over-exploitation – into a situation characterized by an abundance of moose. While high numbers of moose are preferred by hunters, they damage forests through grazing, causing conflicts between hunters and forest owners. In an attempt to resolve these disputes, the Swedish government is introducing a new local ecosystem-based management system. This paper analyzes this shift from managing a single resource to the broader perspective of ecosystem management and discusses to what extent it will contribute to conflict resolution. The results suggest that some of the problems highlighted may be solved through the implementation of an ecosystem management system. However, several challenges remain to be tackled, such as how to establish robust partnerships between forest owners and hunters for managing moose on land with a fragmented property rights structure. This can lead to different and conflicting objectives and, consequently, difficulties in reaching collective action.

  5. Decomposition Analysis of Forest Ecosystem Services Values

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hidemichi Fujii; Masayuki Sato; Shunsuke Managi

    2017-01-01

    .... We applied two approaches: a contingent valuation method for estimating the forest ecosystem service value per area and a decomposition analysis for identifying the main driving factors of changes in the value of forest ecosystem services...

  6. Management to conserve forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.; McComb, William C.

    1984-01-01

    Historically, management of forests for wildlife has emphasized creation of openings and provision for a maximum of edge habitats. Wildlife managers have believed, quite logically, that increased sunlight enhances productivity among plants and insects, resulting in greater use by game animals and other wildlife. Recent studies comparing breeding bird populations of extensive forests with those of isolated woodlots have shown that the smaller woodlots, especially those under 35 ha (about 85 acres), lack many species that are typical of the larger tracts. The missing species can be predicted, and basically are the neotropical migrants. These long-distance migrants share several characteristics that make them especially vulnerable to reproductive failure in situations where predation and cowbird parasitism are high: they are primarily single-brooded, open nesters that lay small clutches on or near the ground. Edge habitats and forest openings attract cowbirds and predators. The edge species of birds, which are mostly permanent residents or short-distance migrants, are well adapted to survive and reproduce in small isolated woodlands without the benefit of special habitat management. The obligate forest interior species, on the other hand, are decreasing in those parts of North America where extensive forests are being replaced by isolated woodlands. If we are to preserve ecosystems intact for the benefit of future generations, and maintain a viable gene pool for the scarcer species, we must think in terms of retaining large, unbroken tracts of forest and of limiting disturbance in the more remote portions of these tracts.

  7. An Integrated Approach to Forest Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Joaquin Campos; Francisco Alpizar; Bastiaan Louman; John A. Parrotta

    2005-01-01

    Forest ecosystem services (FES) are fundamental for the Earth’s life support systems. This chapter discusses the different services provided by forest ecosystems and the effects that land use and forest management practices have on their provision. It also discusses the role of markets in providing an enabling environment for a sustainable and equitable provision of...

  8. Acid Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dochinger, Leon S.; Seliga, Thomas A.

    1975-01-01

    The First International Symposium on Acid Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem dealt with the potential magnitude of the global effects of acid precipitation on aquatic ecosystems, forest soils, and forest vegetation. The problem is discussed in the light of atmospheric chemistry, transport, and precipitation. (Author/BT)

  9. Assessment and monitoring of forest ecosystem structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar A. Aguirre Calderón; Javier Jiménez Pérez; Horst Kramer

    2006-01-01

    Characterization of forest ecosystems structure must be based on quantitative indices that allow objective analysis of human influences or natural succession processes. The objective of this paper is the compilation of diverse quantitative variables to describe structural attributes from the arboreal stratum of the ecosystem, as well as different methods of forest...

  10. Forest ecosystem services: Provisioning of non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; Gregory E. Frey; C. Denise Ingram; Michael G. Jacobson; Cara Meghan Starbuck Downes

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe approaches to calculate a conservative and defensible estimate of the marginal value of forests for non-timber forest products (NTFPs). 'Provisioning" is one of four categories of benefits, or services that ecosystems provide to humans and was described by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment as 'products...

  11. Estimating Net Primary Production of Swedish Forest Landscapes by Combining Mechanistic Modeling and Remote Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagesson, Håkan Torbern; Smith, Benjamin; Løfgren, Anders

    2009-01-01

    and the Beer-Lambert law. LAI estimates were compared with satellite-extrapolated field estimates of LAI, and the results were generally acceptable. NPP estimates directly from the dynamic vegetation model and estimates obtained by combining the model estimates with remote sensing information were, on average......The aim of this study was to investigate a combination of satellite images of leaf area index (LAI) with processbased vegetation modeling for the accurate assessment of the carbon balances of Swedish forest ecosystems at the scale of a landscape. Monthly climatologic data were used as inputs...... in a dynamic vegetation model, the Lund Potsdam Jena-General Ecosystem Simulator. Model estimates of net primary production (NPP) and the fraction of absorbed photosynthetic active radiation were constrained by combining them with satellite-based LAI images using a general light use efficiency (LUE) model...

  12. Visualizing the Forest in a Boreal Forest Landscape—The Perspective of Swedish Municipal Comprehensive Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Thellbro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available At the international policy level, there is a clear link between access to information about forests and the work towards sustainable land use. However, involving forests in planning for sustainable development (SuD at the Swedish local level, by means of municipal comprehensive planning (MCP, is complicated by sector structure and legislation. Currently, there is a gap or hole in the MCP process when it comes to use and access to knowledge about forest conditions and forest land use. This hole limits the possibilities to formulate well-informed municipal visions and goals for sustainable forest land use as well as for overall SuD. Here we introduce an approach for compilation and presentation of geographic information to increase the preconditions for integrating forest information into Swedish MCP. We produce information about forest ownership patterns and forest conditions in terms of age and significant ecological and social values in forests for a case study municipality. We conclude that it is possible to effectively compile geographic and forest-related information to fill the hole in the municipal land use map. Through our approach, MCP could be strengthened as a tool for overall land use planning and hence as a base in SuD planning.

  13. The Swedish RES national action plan from a forest perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerheden, R. (Uppsala Science Park (Sweden), The Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden), e-mail: rolf.bjorheden@skogforsk.se

    2010-07-01

    The goal set up for Sweden by the EU RES Directive stipulates that Sweden should reach a 49 per cent proportion of renewable energy by 2020. Although this is the highest proportion of energy from RES for any member state in the EU, Sweden has unilaterally decided on a national goal of 50 per cent. Thus, Sweden feels confident that it will be able to comply with the goals. In the current RES mix, forest biomass already plays an important role and there is potential for a substantial increase of forest fuel recovery. But there are a number of outstanding question marks considering follow-up procedures, what fuels that are considered as renewable etc. It is important that the interpretation of current EU regulations is clarified and that they coincide with the current Swedish standpoint. If Nordic forestry is not judged to yield renewable fuel, the EU goals will be much harder to meet. (orig.)

  14. Carbon-nitrogen interactions in forest ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, Per; Berg, Bjørn; Currie, W.S.

    This report is a summary of the main results from the EU project “Carbon – Nitrogen Interactions in Forest Ecosystems” (CNTER). Since carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are bound together in organic matter we studied both the effect of N deposition on C cycling in forest ecosystems, and the effect of C...

  15. Forest restoration, biodiversity and ecosystem functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aerts Raf

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Globally, forests cover nearly one third of the land area and they contain over 80% of terrestrial biodiversity. Both the extent and quality of forest habitat continue to decrease and the associated loss of biodiversity jeopardizes forest ecosystem functioning and the ability of forests to provide ecosystem services. In the light of the increasing population pressure, it is of major importance not only to conserve, but also to restore forest ecosystems. Ecological restoration has recently started to adopt insights from the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF perspective. Central is the focus on restoring the relation between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here we provide an overview of important considerations related to forest restoration that can be inferred from this BEF-perspective. Restoring multiple forest functions requires multiple species. It is highly unlikely that species-poor plantations, which may be optimal for above-ground biomass production, will outperform species diverse assemblages for a combination of functions, including overall carbon storage and control over water and nutrient flows. Restoring stable forest functions also requires multiple species. In particular in the light of global climatic change scenarios, which predict more frequent extreme disturbances and climatic events, it is important to incorporate insights from the relation between biodiversity and stability of ecosystem functioning into forest restoration projects. Rather than focussing on species per se, focussing on functional diversity of tree species assemblages seems appropriate when selecting tree species for restoration. Finally, also plant genetic diversity and above - below-ground linkages should be considered during the restoration process, as these likely have prominent but until now poorly understood effects at the level of the ecosystem. The BEF-approach provides a useful framework to evaluate forest restoration in an

  16. Forest restoration, biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Raf; Honnay, Olivier

    2011-11-24

    Globally, forests cover nearly one third of the land area and they contain over 80% of terrestrial biodiversity. Both the extent and quality of forest habitat continue to decrease and the associated loss of biodiversity jeopardizes forest ecosystem functioning and the ability of forests to provide ecosystem services. In the light of the increasing population pressure, it is of major importance not only to conserve, but also to restore forest ecosystems. Ecological restoration has recently started to adopt insights from the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) perspective. Central is the focus on restoring the relation between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here we provide an overview of important considerations related to forest restoration that can be inferred from this BEF-perspective. Restoring multiple forest functions requires multiple species. It is highly unlikely that species-poor plantations, which may be optimal for above-ground biomass production, will outperform species diverse assemblages for a combination of functions, including overall carbon storage and control over water and nutrient flows. Restoring stable forest functions also requires multiple species. In particular in the light of global climatic change scenarios, which predict more frequent extreme disturbances and climatic events, it is important to incorporate insights from the relation between biodiversity and stability of ecosystem functioning into forest restoration projects. Rather than focussing on species per se, focussing on functional diversity of tree species assemblages seems appropriate when selecting tree species for restoration. Finally, also plant genetic diversity and above - below-ground linkages should be considered during the restoration process, as these likely have prominent but until now poorly understood effects at the level of the ecosystem. The BEF-approach provides a useful framework to evaluate forest restoration in an ecosystem functioning context, but

  17. Predictors of Drought Recovery across Forest Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, W.

    2016-12-01

    The impacts of climate extremes on terrestrial ecosystems are poorly understood but central for predicting carbon cycle feedbacks to climate change. Coupled climate-carbon cycle models typically assume that vegetation recovery from extreme drought is immediate and complete, which conflicts with basic plant physiological understanding. Here, we discuss what we have learned about forest ecosystem recovery from extreme drought across spatial and temporal scales, drawing on inference from tree rings, eddy covariance data, large scale gross primary productivity products, and ecosystem models. In tree rings, we find pervasive and substantial "legacy effects" of reduced growth and incomplete recovery for 1-4 years after severe drought, and that legacy effects are most prevalent in dry ecosystems, Pinaceae, and species with low hydraulic safety margins. At larger scales, we see relatively rapid recovery of ecosystem fluxes, with strong influences of ecosystem productivity and diversity and longer recovery periods in high latidue forests. In contrast, no or limited legacy effects are simulated in current climate-vegetation models after drought, and we highlight some of the key missing mechanisms in dynamic vegetation models. Our results reveal hysteresis in forest ecosystem carbon cycling and delayed recovery from climate extremes and help advance a predictive understanding of ecosystem recovery.

  18. Radiocesium in a Danish pine forest ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg, M.

    1994-01-01

    During the autumn of 1991, a Scots pine forest, Tisvilde Hegn, was investigated with respect to the distribution of radiocesium on compartments in the forest ecosystem. The sandy acidic soil is poor, with a approximately 5-cm thick layer of organic soil, and clay content is very low, between 0...... of the different components of the forest ecosystem to accumulate radiocesium. OR is defined as the ratio between the content of Cs-137 kg-1 (dry wt.) and the deposition per meter square. In vascular plants, mosses and lichens, OR varied between 0.01 and 0.1 m2/kg. In fungi, it varied between 0.05 and 4.5 m2/kg......-natural ecosystems in Denmark....

  19. Neighbourhood-scale urban forest ecosystem classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenberg, James W N; Millward, Andrew A; Duinker, Peter N; Nowak, David J; Robinson, Pamela J

    2015-11-01

    Urban forests are now recognized as essential components of sustainable cities, but there remains uncertainty concerning how to stratify and classify urban landscapes into units of ecological significance at spatial scales appropriate for management. Ecosystem classification is an approach that entails quantifying the social and ecological processes that shape ecosystem conditions into logical and relatively homogeneous management units, making the potential for ecosystem-based decision support available to urban planners. The purpose of this study is to develop and propose a framework for urban forest ecosystem classification (UFEC). The multifactor framework integrates 12 ecosystem components that characterize the biophysical landscape, built environment, and human population. This framework is then applied at the neighbourhood scale in Toronto, Canada, using hierarchical cluster analysis. The analysis used 27 spatially-explicit variables to quantify the ecosystem components in Toronto. Twelve ecosystem classes were identified in this UFEC application. Across the ecosystem classes, tree canopy cover was positively related to economic wealth, especially income. However, education levels and homeownership were occasionally inconsistent with the expected positive relationship with canopy cover. Open green space and stocking had variable relationships with economic wealth and were more closely related to population density, building intensity, and land use. The UFEC can provide ecosystem-based information for greening initiatives, tree planting, and the maintenance of the existing canopy. Moreover, its use has the potential to inform the prioritization of limited municipal resources according to ecological conditions and to concerns of social equity in the access to nature and distribution of ecosystem service supply. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ecosystem carbon stocks in Pinus palustris forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Samuelson; Tom Stokes; John R. Butnor; Kurt H. Johnsen; Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Pete Anderson; Jason Jackson; Lorenzo Ferrari; Tim A. Martin; Wendell P. Cropper

    2014-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) restoration in the southeastern United States offers opportunities for carbon (C) sequestration. Ecosystem C stocks are not well understood in longleaf pine forests, which are typically of low density and maintained by prescribed fire. The objectives of this research were to develop allometric equations for...

  1. Saproxylic beetles in a Swedish boreal forest landscape managed according to 'new forestry'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stig Larsson; Barbara Ekbom; L. Martin Schroeder; Melodie A. McGeoch

    2006-01-01

    A major threat to biodiversity in Swedish forests is the decline of Coarse Woody Debris (CWD), which is an essential resource for many organisms and plays an essential role for the structure and function of boreal forests. Removal of CWD in commercial forestry has depleted important resources for many rare wood-living (saproxylic) beetles. Replenishment of CWD has been...

  2. Experimental manipulation of a forest ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beier, C.; Rasmussen, L.; Hansen, K. (eds.)

    1991-04-01

    The report describes the scientific research activities at the Klosterhede research site, Lemvig, West Jutland, Denmark. The site was selected as being located on the most sensitive soil type in Denmark with respect to potential soil acidification, as a permanent observation plot. From including descriptions of the biochemical cycling and ion balances of the forest ecosystem the research has been extended to include manipulations of the water and element fluxes of the ecosystem by means of a roof construction for removal of the atmospheric inputs of strong acids to the soil. A brief overview describes the applied methods and instrumentation, the general objectives, the hypotheses to be tested and the measuring programmes in addition to a description of the site and environmental conditions. Currently, it is considered that forest decline is a multifactoral problem caused by a combined stress on the trees from air pollution, climate, forest management, biological and abiotic influences etc. The project attempts to assess the importance of the various factors contributing to the total stress on the ecosystem. At the Klosterhede site the aim is to test some of the hypotheses by creating different research plots within the same research stand and site, thus ensuring that all soil and climatic factors are comparable whilst different manipulations of the biochemical cycles of the ecosystem are performed. The investigations, which cover nitrogen circulation, denitrification, ecophysiological activity, ectomycorrhiza and fertilization, susceptibility to insect attacks, microbial decomposition etc. are described in detail. (AB) (67 refs.).

  3. Cryptic Methane Emissions from Upland Forest Ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megonigal, Patrick [Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC (United States); Pitz, Scott [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-04-19

    This exploratory research on Cryptic Methane Emissions from Upland Forest Ecosystems was motivated by evidence that upland ecosystems emit 36% as much methane to the atmosphere as global wetlands, yet we knew almost nothing about this source. The long-term objective was to refine Earth system models by quantifying methane emissions from upland forests, and elucidate the biogeochemical processes that govern upland methane emissions. The immediate objectives of the grant were to: (i) test the emerging paradigm that upland trees unexpectedly transpire methane, (ii) test the basic biogeochemical assumptions of an existing global model of upland methane emissions, and (iii) develop the suite of biogeochemical approaches that will be needed to advance research on upland methane emissions. We instrumented a temperate forest system in order to explore the processes that govern upland methane emissions. We demonstrated that methane is emitted from the stems of dominant tree species in temperate upland forests. Tree emissions occurred throughout the growing season, while soils adjacent to the trees consumed methane simultaneously, challenging the concept that forests are uniform sinks of methane. High frequency measurements revealed diurnal cycling in the rate of methane emissions, pointing to soils as the methane source and transpiration as the most likely pathway for methane transport. We propose the forests are smaller methane sinks than previously estimated due to stem emissions. Stem emissions may be particularly important in upland tropical forests characterized by high rainfall and transpiration, resolving differences between models and measurements. The methods we used can be effectively implemented in order to determine if the phenomenon is widespread.

  4. Biomass estimation in forest ecosystems - a review | Wakawa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forest ecosystems plays an important role in global warming serving as both sink and source of one of the prominent green house gases, carbon dioxide (CO2). Biomass estimation in forest ecosystems is an important aspect of forest management processes aimed at ensuring sustainability. The choice of appropriate ...

  5. Dealing with reducing trends in forest ecosystem services through a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    richness of West African forest ecosystem landscapes are fast changing on account of both anthropogenic and climatic reasons. The 1968 – 1973 and 1983 - 1984 drought affected most ... economically useful forest ecosystem services in Ghana ... resources, forest degradation and undergoing vegetation change, and the ...

  6. Moroccan Mountains: Forest Ecosystems and Biodiversity Conservation Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Sghir Taleb

    2016-01-01

    Forest ecosystems in Morocco are subject increasingly to natural and human pressures. Conscious of this problem, Morocco set a strategy that focuses on programs of in-situ and ex-situ biodiversity conservation. This study is the result of a synthesis of various existing studies on biodiversity and forest ecosystems. It gives an overview of Moroccan mountain forest ecosystems and flora diversity. It also focuses on the efforts made by Morocco to conserve and sustainably manage biodiversity.

  7. Patterns in potassium dynamics in forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripler, Christopher E; Kaushal, Sujay S; Likens, Gene E; Walter, M Todd

    2006-04-01

    significance warrant further study. We suggest that knowledge about the dynamics of this understudied element is imperative for our understanding patterns and processes in forest ecosystems.

  8. Forest ecosystem services of changbai mountain in china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Xiao, Han; Zhao, Jingzhu; Shao, Guofan; Li, Jing

    2002-02-01

    The forest ecosystem of the Changbai Mountain is the most typical upland temperate forest ecosystem in eastern Asia. It is also of the most primitive vegetation type that came into being through the natural succession of soil and vegetation following volcanic eruption. The forest ecosystem has great importance for maintaining the structures and functions of the watershed ecosystems of the Songhua River, the Yalu River and the Tumen River. We combined physical assessment method (PAM) with the value assessment method (VAM) to evaluate the forest ecosystem services of the northern slope of the, including eco-tourism, forest by-products, timber, soil and water conservation, air purification, and the recycling of nutritive elements. We also assessed the integrated forest ecosystem service and analyzed its dynamics. The service value provided by the Changbai Mountain forest ecosystem amounts up to RMB 3.38 x 10(12) yuan, of which, water conservation is 66%, water conservation and air purification together make up 80%, while the timber value is only 7%. Therefore, developing the ecosystem services besides timber is the best way to exert the integrated value of the forest ecosystem services of Changbai Mountain.

  9. Impacts of forestry on boreal forests: An ecosystem services perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjanmies, Tähti; Triviño, María; Le Tortorec, Eric; Mazziotta, Adriano; Snäll, Tord; Mönkkönen, Mikko

    2017-11-01

    Forests are widely recognized as major providers of ecosystem services, including timber, other forest products, recreation, regulation of water, soil and air quality, and climate change mitigation. Extensive tracts of boreal forests are actively managed for timber production, but actions aimed at increasing timber yields also affect other forest functions and services. Here, we present an overview of the environmental impacts of forest management from the perspective of ecosystem services. We show how prevailing forestry practices may have substantial but diverse effects on the various ecosystem services provided by boreal forests. Several aspects of these processes remain poorly known and warrant a greater role in future studies, including the role of community structure. Conflicts among different interests related to boreal forests are most likely to occur, but the concept of ecosystem services may provide a useful framework for identifying and resolving these conflicts.

  10. Thresholds of biodiversity and ecosystem function in a forest ecosystem undergoing dieback

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P M Evans; A C Newton; E Cantarello; P Martin; N Sanderson; D L Jones; N Barsoum; J E Cottrell; S W A’Hara; L Fuller

    2017-01-01

    ...s. To address this knowledge gap, we tested whether a number of biodiversity, ecosystem functions and ecosystem condition metrics exhibited thresholds in response to a gradient of forest dieback...

  11. [Evaluation of economic forest ecosystem services in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Lu, Shao-Wei

    2009-02-01

    This paper quantitatively evaluated the economic forest ecosystem services in the provinces of China in 2003, based on the long-term and continuous observations of economic forest ecosystems in this country, the sixth China national forest resources inventory data, and the price parameter data from the authorities in the world, and by applying the law of market value, the method of substitution of the expenses, and the law of the shadow project. The results showed that in 2003, the total value of economic forest ecosystem services in China was 11763.39 x 10(8) yuan, and the total value of the products from economic forests occupied 19.3% of the total ecosystem services value, which indicated that the economic forests not only provided society direct products, but also exhibited enormous eco-economic value. The service value of the functions of economic forests was in the order of water storage > C fixation and O2 release > biodiversity conservation > erosion control > air quality purification > nutrient cycle. The spatial pattern of economic forest ecosystem services in the provinces of China had the same trend with the spatial distribution of water and heat resources and biodiversity. To understand the differences of economic forest ecosystem services in the provinces of China was of significance in alternating the irrational arrangement of our present forestry production, diminishing the abuses of forest management, and establishing high grade, high efficient, and modernized economic forests.

  12. CO2 flux studies of different hemiboreal forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnova, Alisa; Krasnov, Dmitrii; Noe, Steffen M.; Uri, Veiko; Mander, Ülo; Niinemets, Ülo; Soosaar, Kaido

    2017-04-01

    Hemiboreal zone is a transition between boreal and temperate zones characterized by the combination of climatic and edaphic conditions inherent in both zones. Hemiboreal forests are typically presented by mixed forests types with different ratios of deciduous and conifer tree species. Dominating tree species composition affects the functioning of forest ecosystem and its influence on biogeochemical cycles. We present the result of ecosystem scale CO2 eddy-covariance fluxes research conducted in 4 ecosystems (3 forests sites and 1 clear-cut area) of hemiboreal zone in Estonia. All 4 sites were developing under similar climatic conditions, but different forest management practices resulted in different composition of dominating tree species: pine forest with spruce trees as a second layer (Soontaga site); spruce/birch forest with single alder trees (Liispõllu site); forest presented by sectors of pine, spruce, birch and clearcut areas (SMEAR Estonia site); 5-years old clearcut area (Kõnnu site).

  13. Dealing with reducing trends in forest ecosystem services through a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vulnerability of forest ecosystems in West Africa is likely to be aggravated with current and projected climate and human stresses with implications for adaptation and REDD regimes. This is because vulnerability of the forest ecosystems affects economic sectors and millions of people that depend on their services. This study ...

  14. WEFES - Web explorer of forest ecosystems services under climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, J. H. N.; Palmer, D.; Hock, B.; Payn, T.

    2010-01-01

    Poster Climate change will change the dynamics of forest environmental services. All the change complexity involved is difficult to visualize under an easy and accessible information tool capable to integrate several services that forests can provide. A preliminary Web-Explorer of Forest Ecosystems Services was developed for New Zealand where forest managers and the general public can observe what are the predictions of the different forest environmental services under current and futu...

  15. Urban forests and pollution mitigation: analyzing ecosystem services and disservices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Francisco J; Kroeger, Timm; Wagner, John E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to integrate the concepts of ecosystem services and disservices when assessing the efficacy of using urban forests for mitigating pollution. A brief review of the literature identifies some pollution mitigation ecosystem services provided by urban forests. Existing ecosystem services definitions and typologies from the economics and ecological literature are adapted and applied to urban forest management and the concepts of ecosystem disservices from natural and semi-natural systems are discussed. Examples of the urban forest ecosystem services of air quality and carbon dioxide sequestration are used to illustrate issues associated with assessing their efficacy in mitigating urban pollution. Development of urban forest management alternatives that mitigate pollution should consider scale, contexts, heterogeneity, management intensities and other social and economic co-benefits, tradeoffs, and costs affecting stakeholders and urban sustainability goals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Niche comparison of dominant entomopathogenic fungi in three forest ecosystems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Jun; Huang, Bo; Li, Zeng-Zhi

    2011-05-01

    An investigation was made on the quantitative composition, niche width, and niche overlap of dominant entomopathogenic fungi in three different forest ecosystems, i.e., natural broad-leaved forest, natural secondary broad-leaved forest, and pure Masson' s pine plantation. In the three forest ecosystems, Beauveria bassiana was the first dominant species in natural secondary broad-leaved forest, the second in pure Masson's pine plantation, and the third in natural broad-leaved forest. B. bassiana had the broadest temporal niche width and nutritional niche width, whereas the dominant species Isaria cateinannulata, L. farinose, and I. tenuipes had much smaller niche widths. Meanwhile, B. bassiana had larger temporal niche overlaps but smaller nutritional niche overlaps with other dominant entomopathogenic fungi. It was suggested that in the three forest ecosystems, B. bassiana had the longest occurrence duration, widest host range, and strongest environmental adaptability.

  17. The Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project: the effects of forest management on the forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Brookshire; Carl Hauser

    1993-01-01

    The effects of forest management on non-timber resources are of growing concern to forest managers and the public. While many previous studies have reported effects of stand-level treatments (less than 15 ha) on various stand-level attributes, few studies have attempted to document the influence of forest management on the biotic and abiotic characteristics of entire...

  18. Integrating forest products with ecosystem services: a global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Rachel. White

    2012-01-01

    Around the world forests provide a broad range of vital ecosystem services. Sustainable forest management and forest products play an important role in global carbon management, but one of the major forestry concerns worldwide is reducing the loss of forestland from development. Currently, deforestation accounts for approximately 20% of total greenhouse gas emissions....

  19. The experimental design of the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven L. Sheriff; Shuoqiong. He

    1997-01-01

    The Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) is an experiment that examines the effects of three forest management practices on the forest community. MOFEP is designed as a randomized complete block design using nine sites divided into three blocks. Treatments of uneven-aged, even-aged, and no-harvest management were randomly assigned to sites within each block...

  20. On the decline of ground lichen forests in the Swedish boreal landscape: Implications for reindeer husbandry and sustainable forest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandström, Per; Cory, Neil; Svensson, Johan; Hedenås, Henrik; Jougda, Leif; Borchert, Nanna

    2016-05-01

    Lichens are a bottleneck resource for circumpolar populations of reindeer, and as such, for reindeer husbandry as an indigenous Sami land-use tradition in northern Sweden. This study uses ground lichen data and forest information collected within the Swedish National Forest Inventory since 1953, on the scale of northern Sweden. We found a 71 % decline in the area of lichen-abundant forests over the last 60 years. A decline was observed in all regions and age classes and especially coincided with a decrease of >60 year old, open pine forests, which was the primary explanatory factor in our model. The effects of reindeer numbers were inconclusive in explaining the decrease in lichen-abundant forest. The role that forestry has played in causing this decline can be debated, but forestry can have a significant role in reversing the trend and improving ground lichen conditions.

  1. Forest ecosystems: Vegetation, disturbance, and economics: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Jeremy S.; Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Shafer, Sarah L.; Capalbo, Susan M.; Houston, Laurie L.; Glick, Patty

    2013-01-01

    Forests cover about 47% of the Northwest (NW–Washington, Oregon, and Idaho) (Smith et al. 2009, fig. 5.1, table 5.1). The impacts of current and future climate change on NW forest ecosystems are a product of the sensitivities of ecosystem processes to climate and the degree to which humans depend on and interact with those systems. Forest ecosystem structure and function, particularly in relatively unmanaged forests where timber harvest and other land use have smaller effects, is sensitive to climate change because climate has a strong influence on ecosystem processes. Climate can affect forest structure directly through its control of plan physiology and life history (establishment, individual growth, productivity, and morality) or indirectly through its control of disturbance (fire, insects, disease). As climate changes, many forest processes will be affected, altering ecosystem services such as timber production and recreation. These changes have socioeconomic implications (e.g. for timber economies) and will require changes to current management of forests. Climate and management will interact to determine the forests of the future, and the scientific basis for adaptation to climate change in forests thus depends significantly on how forests will be affected.

  2. Forest ecosystem services and eco-compensation mechanisms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongbing; Zheng, Peng; Liu, Tianxing; Liu, Xin

    2011-12-01

    Forests are a major terrestrial ecosystem providing multiple ecosystem services. However, the importance of forests is frequently underestimated from an economic perspective because of the externalities and public good properties of these services. Forest eco-compensation is a transfer mechanism that serves to internalize the externalities of forest ecosystem services by compensating individuals or companies for the losses or costs resulting from the provision of these services. China's current forest eco-compensation system is centered mainly on noncommercial forest. The primary measures associated with ecosystem services are (1) a charge on destructive activities, such as indiscriminate logging, and (2) compensation for individual or local activities and investments in forest conservation. The Compensation Fund System for Forest Ecological Benefits was first listed in the Forest Law of the People's Republic of China in 1998. In 2004, the Central Government Financial Compensation Fund, an important source for the Compensation Fund for Forest Ecological Benefits, was formally established. To improve the forest eco-compensation system, it is crucial to design and establish compensation criteria for noncommercial forests. These criteria should take both theoretical and practical concerns into account, and they should be based on the quantitative valuation of ecosystem services. Although some initial headway has been made on this task, the implementation of an effective forest eco-compensation system in China still has deficiencies and still faces problems. Implementing classification-based and dynamic management for key noncommercial forests and establishing an eco-compensation mechanism with multiple funding sources in the market economy are the key measures needed to conquer these problems and improve the forest eco-compensation system and China's forestry development in sequence.

  3. Forest Ecosystem Services and Eco-Compensation Mechanisms in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongbing; Zheng, Peng; Liu, Tianxing; Liu, Xin

    2011-12-01

    Forests are a major terrestrial ecosystem providing multiple ecosystem services. However, the importance of forests is frequently underestimated from an economic perspective because of the externalities and public good properties of these services. Forest eco-compensation is a transfer mechanism that serves to internalize the externalities of forest ecosystem services by compensating individuals or companies for the losses or costs resulting from the provision of these services. China's current forest eco-compensation system is centered mainly on noncommercial forest. The primary measures associated with ecosystem services are (1) a charge on destructive activities, such as indiscriminate logging, and (2) compensation for individual or local activities and investments in forest conservation. The Compensation Fund System for Forest Ecological Benefits was first listed in the Forest Law of the People's Republic of China in 1998. In 2004, the Central Government Financial Compensation Fund, an important source for the Compensation Fund for Forest Ecological Benefits, was formally established. To improve the forest eco-compensation system, it is crucial to design and establish compensation criteria for noncommercial forests. These criteria should take both theoretical and practical concerns into account, and they should be based on the quantitative valuation of ecosystem services. Although some initial headway has been made on this task, the implementation of an effective forest eco-compensation system in China still has deficiencies and still faces problems. Implementing classification-based and dynamic management for key noncommercial forests and establishing an eco-compensation mechanism with multiple funding sources in the market economy are the key measures needed to conquer these problems and improve the forest eco-compensation system and China's forestry development in sequence.

  4. Valuation of Non-Market Ecosystem Services of Forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taye, Fitalew Agimass

    Forests provide a multitude of ecosystem services to society. However, not all such services are being reflected in market prices and that leads to underestimation of their economic values and suboptimal management schemes. Therefore, non-market valuation is required to provide complementary...... information for better forest management that underpins the concept of total economic values. In this thesis, the non-market ecosystem services of forests are evaluated with a focus on showing the impact of forest management. The thesis consists of four papers that address three main research questions: 1...... ecosystem service provision? The first paper is undertaken using choice experiment (CE) data about people's preferences for forest characteristics in their future recreational visits. The variation between stands increases the recreational value of forests; and in some instances, may outweigh...

  5. [Forest ecosystem service and its evaluation in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jin; Lu, Shaowei; Yu, Xinxiao; Rao, Liangyi; Niu, Jianzhi; Xie, Yuanyuan; Zhag, Zhenming

    2005-08-01

    Facing the relative lag of forest ecosystem service and estimation in China, this paper proposed to quickly carry out the research on the evaluation of forest ecosystem service. On the basis of the classification of forest ecosystem types in China, the service of artificial and semi-artificial forest ecosystems was investigated, which was divided into eight types, i.e., timber and other products, recreation and eco-tourism, water storage, C fixation and O2 release, nutrient cycling, air quality purifying, erosion control, and habitat provision. According to the assessment index system for global ecosystem service proposed by Costanza et al., a series of assessment index system suitable for Chinese forest ecosystem service was set up, by which, the total value of forest ecosystem service in China was estimated to be 30 601.20 x 10(8) yuan x yr(-1), including direct and indirect economic value about 1 920.23 x 10(8) and 28 680.97 x 10(8) yuan x yr(-1), respectively. The indirect value was as 14.94 times as the direct one. The research aimed to bring natural resources and environment factors into the account system of national economy quickly, and to realize the green GDP at last, which would be helpful to realize sustainable development and environment protection.

  6. Changing Forest Values and Ecosystem Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston

    1994-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that we are currently in a period of rapid and significant change in forest values. Some have charged that managing forests in ways that are responsive to diverse and changing forest values is the main challenge faced by public forest managers. To tackle this challenge, we need to address the following questions: (1) What is the nature of...

  7. LINKAGES: An Individual-based Forest Ecosystem Biogeochemistry Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This model product contains the source codes for version 1 of the individual-based forest ecosystem biogeochemistry model LINKAGES and two subsequent versions as...

  8. LINKAGES: An Individual-based Forest Ecosystem Biogeochemistry Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This model product contains the source codes for version 1 of the individual-based forest ecosystem biogeochemistry model LINKAGES and two subsequent...

  9. Timber productivity of seven forest ecosystems in southeastern Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    1988-01-01

    Observations of growth on Alaska-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), and western redcedar (Thuja plicata) on seven forest ecosystems in southeastern Alaska...

  10. Francis Marion National Forest forest plan revision - ecosystems & restoration needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Danaher

    2016-01-01

    The Forest Service is currently revising the previous 1995 Forest Plan for the Francis Marion National Forest in Coastal South Carolina developed in the wake of Hurricane Hugo which devastated the forest in 1989. Since 1995, the human communities surrounding the Francis Marion National Forest have grown and changed significantly. The revised Francis Marion Forest Plan...

  11. CHANGES IN BIODIVERSITY AND ITS IMPACT ON THE FOREST ECOSYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Bodede A.I; Temowo O.O; Bodede O.J

    2011-01-01

    Forests are biologically diverse systems but are however increasingly threatened as a result of deforestation, fragmentation, climate change and other stressors that can be linked to human activities. When biodiversity is lost, the strength and capacity of the ecosystems to provide essential goods and services become incapacitated in terms of scientific, educational, historical and cultural resources. This reviewed paper summarises the impact of biodiversity change on the forest ecosystem and...

  12. An ecosystem model for tropical forest disturbance and selective logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoyi Huang; Gregory P. Asner; Michael Keller; Joseph A. Berry

    2008-01-01

    [1] A new three-dimensional version of the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) ecosystem model (CASA-3D) was developed to simulate regional carbon cycling in tropical forest ecosystems after disturbances such as logging. CASA-3D has the following new features: (1) an alternative approach for calculating absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) using new...

  13. Detecting forest cover and ecosystem service change using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural forests in Uganda have experienced both spatial and temporal modifications from different drivers which need to be monitored to assess the impacts of such changes on ecosystems and prevent related risks of reduction in ecosystem service benefits. Ground investigations may be complex because of dual ...

  14. A Practical Decision-Analysis Process for Forest Ecosystem Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Michael Rauscher; F. Thomas Lloyd; David L. Loftis; Mark J. Twery

    2000-01-01

    Many authors have pointed out the need to firm up the 'fuzzy' ecosystem management paradigm and develop operationally practical processes to allow forest managers to accommodate more effectively the continuing rapid change in societal perspectives and goals. There are three spatial scales where clear, precise, practical ecosystem management processes are...

  15. Ecosystem functions and services of cloud afromontane forests in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a negative shock to the overall economy. Furthermore increasing forest cover through the planting of trees and others would have significant positive effect on the economy which enhances the wellbeing of a significant portion of the population in the country. Key Words: Ecosystem Functions, Ecosystem Services, Ethiopia ...

  16. A conceptual framework of urban forest ecosystem vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W.N. Steenberg; Andrew A. Millward; David J. Nowak; Pamela J. Robinson

    2017-01-01

    The urban environment is becoming the most common setting in which people worldwide will spend their lives. Urban forests, and the ecosystem services they provide, are becoming a priority for municipalities. Quantifying and communicating the vulnerability of this resource are essential for maintaining a consistent and equitable supply of these ecosystem services. We...

  17. Forest ecosystem services and livelihood of communities around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the potential of forest ecosystem services to the livelihood of communities around Shume-Magamba Forest Reserve in Lushoto District, Tanzania was conducted. Questionnaire survey, focus group discussion and participant's observation were used. Qualitatively and quantitatively data were analysed using the ...

  18. Forecasting Urban Forest Ecosystem Structure, Function, and Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. N. Steenberg; Andrew A. Millward; David J. Nowak; Pamela J. Robinson; Alexis Ellis

    2016-01-01

    The benefits derived from urban forest ecosystems are garnering increasing attention in ecological research and municipal planning. However, because of their location in heterogeneous and highly-altered urban landscapes, urban forests are vulnerable and commonly suffer disproportionate and varying levels of stress and disturbance. The objective of this study is to...

  19. Emerald ash borer aftermath forests: the future of ash ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Knight; Daniel A. Herms; John Cardina; Robert Long; Kamal J.K. Gandhi; Catharine P. Herms

    2011-01-01

    The effects of emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) on forest ecosystems are being studied through a collaborative research program between the U.S. Forest Service and The Ohio State University. We are monitoring ash demographics, understory light availability, EAB population dynamics, native and non-native plants, and effects of ash...

  20. Analysis of litter mesofauna of Poltava region forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of research of litter mesofauna of 48 forest biogeocenoses the regularities of invertebrate communities formation on the species and families levels are determined. The degree of similarity of test plots are analysed by taxonomic structure of the communities. The factors of the litter invertebrate communities formation in forest ecosystems of the Poltava region are revealed.

  1. Application of artificial intelligence to risk analysis for forested ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt

    2001-01-01

    Forest ecosystems are subject to a variety of natural and anthropogenic disturbances that extract a penalty from human population values. Such value losses (undesirable effects) combined with their likelihoods of occurrence constitute risk. Assessment or prediction of risk for various events is an important aid to forest management. Artificial intelligence (AI)...

  2. Diseases of Forest Trees: Consequences of Exotic Ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Otrosina

    1998-01-01

    Much attention is now given to risks and impacts of exotic pest introductions in forest ecosystems. This concern is for good reason because, once introduced, an exotic pathogen or insect encounters little resistance in the native plant population and can produce catastrophic losses in relatively short periods of time. Most native fungal pathogens of forest trees have...

  3. Advances of Air Pollution Science: From Forest Decline to Multiple-Stress Effects on Forest Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Paoletti; M. Schaub; R. Matyssek; G. Wieser; A. Augustaitis; A. M. Bastrup-Birk; A. Bytnerowicz; M. S. Gunthardt-Goerg; G. Muller-Starck; Y. Serengil

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the focus of forest science on air pollution has moved from forest decline to a holistic framework of forest health, and from the effects on forest production to the ecosystem services provided by forest ecosystems. Hence, future research should focus on the interacting factorial impacts and resulting antagonistic and synergistic responses of...

  4. Ecosystem Services and Forest Management in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filyushkina, Anna

    The main objective of this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of the impacts of forest management on provision of non-market ecosystem services and identify trade-offs and synergies for forestry decision-making in the Nordic countries. First, existing scientific literature on assessments...... of several non-market ecosystem services in relation to forest management and the extent of their integration into decision support was systematically reviewed in Paper I. The findings suggest an uneven and limited coverage of services in the reviewed literature. Existing assessments are in their majority...... confined to a single research domain and focus on a single non-market ecosystem service. The same trends have been revealed in studies on decision support. In the next three papers impacts of forest management on provision of different ecosystem services were investigated. In Paper II a structured expert...

  5. Learning in Virtual Forest: A Forest Ecosystem in the Web-Based Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jussila, Terttu; Virtanen, Viivi

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Forest is a web-based, open-access learning environment about forests designed for primary-school pupils between the ages of 10 and 13 years. It is pedagogically designed to develop an understanding of ecology, to enhance conceptual development and to give a holistic view of forest ecosystems. Various learning tools, such as concept maps,…

  6. Nitrate leaching in forest ecosystems is related to forest floor C/N ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gundersen, P.; Callesen, I.; Vries, de W.

    1998-01-01

    Relationships between nitrogen (N) output with seepage water and forest floor C/N ratios were analysed by use of three independent datasets: (i) a compilation of input-output studies in temperate forest ecosystems in Europe; (ii) a seven-year nationalDanish survey of nitrate concentrations in forest

  7. Community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi in Swedish boreal forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Lena [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    1998-12-31

    The main aim of this work has been to elucidate the species composition and community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with mature trees and naturally regenerated seedlings in natural boreal forests in Sweden. Further, the effects of disturbances, such as wildfire and nitrogen inputs, were studied. Sporocarp surveys, morphological stratification and DNA-based analyses of mycorrhizas were used to describe the mycorrhizal fungal communities. In addition, a reference database useful for identifying individual mycorrhizas was developed based on analyses of sporocarp tissue. Overall, the species richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi was at least 30 to 40 times higher than that of their host trees. Naturally regenerated seedlings were colonized by the ectomycorrhizal fungal species present in the mycelial network of the old trees, indicating that the species composition will remain about the same provided that the host does not disappear. Wildfire, disturbing the fungal continuum, caused a shift in the frequencies of ectomycorrhizal fungi rather than a change in species composition. Nitrogen addition did not have any detectable effect on the abundance or species richness of mycorrhizas, but led to a decrease in sporocarp production. In all the studies, there was little resemblance between the species composition of sporocarps and that of mycorrhizas. The ITS-RFLP reference database was very useful in identifying single mycorrhizas, and proved to be a powerful tool for species identification of unknown mycorrhizas 76 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Considerations on forest ecosystems evolution in the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru COCÎRȚĂ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain statistical data on forest ecosystems evolution in Republic of Moldova’s territory in 200 years period are analyzed in the article.  The history of forest fund and ecosystems’ development on the territory between Prut andNistru Rivers and of data presentation methods during different periods of territories’social economical development is summarized. Forest ecosystems development issues instudy and specifically those of forests’ continuity and conservation are extremely important for Republic of Moldova, which is a country with high population density, oldtraditions in agricultural branch and with a major negative attitude towards biological diversity maintaining and forest ecosystems’ viable development. Goals and objectives of the present work are to analyze forest evolution and to identifyhigher priority issues in order to rectify the situation in forest sector in Republic of Moldova. Basic characteristics of forest ecosystems are presented and causes of differences in datainterpretation were described on the basis of statistical data study and analysis during different periods and from different sources, as well as maps dated 1910 and 2004. Certainbasic elements of ecological management in forestry that exist in Republic of Moldova in present are described, such as legal normative base, infrastructure and others. The final part of work contains conclusions and some suggestions on forest ecosystems’viable development in Republic of Moldova according to European and internationalrequirements.

  9. Climate change and forest ecosystem dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Meer, P.J.; Kramer, K. [Alterra, Wageningen (Netherlands); Van Wijk, M. [IBED, University of Amsterdam UvA, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    Effects of climate change on water relations in forests were studied using several modelling approaches. Of several models tested, the FORGRO model had the highest potential for a reliable estimation of effects of climate change on forests. An evaluation of process-based models of forest growth showed that several models, including FORGRO, were able to produce accurate estimates of carbon and water fluxes at several forest sites of Europe. Responses were in relatively good agreement with the expected responses obtained by experimental studies, and models were able to deal with new conditions and explore the likely effects of climate change. The effect of climate change on forest development was assessed for three forests stands in the Netherlands using a gap model which was made climate sensitive by including the effects of climate change scenario IPCC IS92A on growth (FORGRO results), phenology (FORGRO results), and seed production (regression analysis). Results showed that climate change is likely to cause subtle changes rather than abrupt changes in forest development in the Netherlands, and that forest development on sandy soils in the Netherlands is not likely to be influenced significantly by climate change over the coming 50 years. The impact of climate change on the production, nature and recreation values of forests was studied using a simple economic model, and showed that response are likely to be relatively small during the first century, and are related to the successional status of the forest. Linking of detailed process-based models with gap models enables interpretation of climate change effects beyond a change in tree growth only, and is an important tool for investigating the effects of climate change on the development of mixed forests. The modelling approach presented in this project (process-based growth models -> gap models -> economic model) is a useful tool to support policy decisions in the light of climate change and forests. refs.

  10. Ecosystem carbon stocks of micronesian mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Boone Kauffman; Chris Heider; Thomas G. Cole; Kathleen A. Dwire; Daniel C. Donato

    2011-01-01

    Among the least studied ecosystem services of mangroves is their value as global carbon (C) stocks. This is significant as mangroves are subject to rapid rates of deforestation and therefore could be significant sources of atmospheric emissions. Mangroves could be key ecosystems in strategies addressing the mitigation of climate change though reduced deforestation. We...

  11. Maintenance of forest ecosystem health and vitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan D. DeSantis; W. Keith Moser

    2016-01-01

    Forest health will likely be threatened by a number of factors - including fragmentation, fire regime alteration, and a variety of diseases, insects, and invasive plants - along with global climate change (Krist et al. 2007, Tkacz et al. 2008). By itself, global climate change could dramatically and rapidly alter forest composition and structure (Allen and Breshears...

  12. Restoring forest ecosystems: the human dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Hull; Paul H. Gobster

    2000-01-01

    In the past two decades, ecological restoration has moved from an obscure and scientifically suspect craft to a widely practiced and respected profession with considerable scientific knowledge and refined on-the-ground practices. Concurrently, forest restoration has become a valued skill of forestry professionals and a popular goal for forest management. Politics and...

  13. Role of Forest Resources to Local Livelihoods: The Case of East Mau Forest Ecosystem, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Langat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forests in Kenya are threatened by unsustainable uses and conversion to alternative land uses. In spite of the consequences of forest degradation and biodiversity loss and reliance of communities on forests livelihoods, there is little empirical data on the role of forest resources in livelihoods of the local communities. Socioeconomic, demographic, and forest use data were obtained by interviewing 367 households. Forest product market survey was undertaken to determine prices of various forest products for valuation of forest use. Forest income was significant to households contributing 33% of total household income. Fuel wood contributed 50%, food (27%, construction material (18%, and fodder, and thatching material 5% to household forest income. Absolute forest income and relative forest income (% were not significantly different across study locations and between ethnic groups. However, absolute forest income and relative forest income (% were significantly different among wealth classes. Poor households were more dependent on forests resources. However, in absolute terms, the rich households derived higher forest income. These results provide valuable information on the role of forest resources to livelihoods and could be applied in developing forest conservation policies for enhanced ecosystem services and livelihoods.

  14. Electricity vs Ecosystems – understanding and predicting hydropower impact on Swedish river flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Arheimer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The most radical anthropogenic impact on water systems in Sweden originates from the years 1900–1970, when the electricity network was developed in the country and almost all rivers were regulated. The construction of dams and changes in water flow caused problems for ecosystems. Therefore, when implementing the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD hydro-morphological indicators and targets were developed for rivers and lakes to achieve good ecological potential. The hydrological regime is one such indicator. To understand the change in flow regime we quantified the hydropower impact on river flow across Sweden by using the S-HYPE model and observations. The results show that the average redistribution of water during a year due to regulation is 19 % for the total discharge from Sweden. A distinct impact was found in seasonal flow patterns and flow duration curves. Moreover, we quantified the model skills in predicting hydropower impact on flow. The median NSE for simulating change in flow regime was 0.71 for eight dams studied. Results from the spatially distributed model are available for 37 000 sub-basins across the country, and will be used by the Swedish water authorities for reporting hydro-morphological indicators to the EU and for guiding the allocation of river restoration measures.

  15. Trends and Possible Future Developments in Global Forest-Product Markets—Implications for the Swedish Forest Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnar Jonsson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes trends and possible future developments in global wood-product markets and discusses implications for the Swedish forest sector. Four possible futures, or scenarios, are considered, based on qualitative scenario analysis. The scenarios are distinguished principally by divergent futures with respect to two highly influential factors driving change in global wood-product markets, whose future development is unpredictable. These so-called critical uncertainties were found to be degrees to which: (i current patterns of globalization will continue, or be replaced by regionalism, and (ii concern about the environment, particularly climate change, related policy initiatives and customer preferences, will materialize. The overall future of the Swedish solid wood-product industry looks bright, irrespective of which of the four possible futures occurs, provided it accommodates the expected growth in demand for factory-made, energy-efficient construction components. The prospects for the pulp and paper industry in Sweden appear more ambiguous. Globalization is increasingly shifting production and consumption to the Southern hemisphere, adversely affecting employment and forest owners in Sweden. Further, technical progress in information and communication technology (ICT is expected to lead to drastic reductions in demand for newsprint and printing paper. Chemical pulp producers may profit from a growing bio-energy industry, since they could manufacture new, high-value products in integrated bio-refineries. Mechanical pulp producers cannot do this, however, and might suffer from higher prices for raw materials and electricity.

  16. Belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal communities respond to liming in three southern Swedish coniferous forest stands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Rasmus; Clemmensen, Karina

    2009-01-01

    In this study we report on changes in the belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in southern Swedish coniferous forests as a consequence of liming with 3-7 ton limestone per hectare 16 years prior to the study. A total of 107 ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified from 969 independently...... were colonised by a different fungal species as a consequence of liming. The observed shift in ectomycorrhizal fungal communities was related to an increased pH and base saturation with liming. We conclude that even a moderate level of liming have long lasting effects on belowground ectomycorrhizal...... community composition. We discuss the observed community changes in relation to ectomycorrhizal functionality and biodiversity in limed forests....

  17. Fungicidal control of Lophodermium seditiosum on Pinus sylvestris seedlings in Swedish forest nurseries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenstroem, Elna [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology; Arvidsson, Bernt [Svenska Skogsplantor AB, Joenkoeping (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    During the 1990s, there were serious outbreaks of the pathogen Lophodermium seditiosum on pine seedlings in Swedish forest nurseries, even though the seedlings had been treated with the fungicide propiconazole. The present experiment was carried out to evaluate two other fungicides, fluazinam and azoxystrobin, as possible alternatives to propiconazole. In the tests, which were all carried out in the same forest nursery, seedlings were treated with either propiconazole, fluazinam. or azoxystrobin, and the proportion of needles with ascocarps of L. seditiosum and the number of ascocarps per needle were recorded over the following 2 yrs. Seedlings treated with azoxystrobin already appeared healthier than control seedlings in September of the first year, and by November all azoxystrobin-treated seedlings had fewer ascocarps per needle compared with control seedlings. In autumn of the second year, there were no ascocarps on seedlings treated with fluazinam or azoxystrobin, whereas seedlings treated with propiconazole had similar numbers of ascocarps to non-treated control seedlings.

  18. Fitting rainfall interception models to forest ecosystems of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Návar, José

    2017-05-01

    Models that accurately predict forest interception are essential both for water balance studies and for assessing watershed responses to changes in land use and the long-term climate variability. This paper compares the performance of four rainfall interception models-the sparse Gash (1995), Rutter et al. (1975), Liu (1997) and two new models (NvMxa and NvMxb)-using data from four spatially extensive, structurally diverse forest ecosystems in Mexico. Ninety-eight case studies measuring interception in tropical dry (25), arid/semi-arid (29), temperate (26), and tropical montane cloud forests (18) were compiled and analyzed. Coefficients derived from raw data or published statistical relationships were used as model input to evaluate multi-storm forest interception at the case study scale. On average empirical data showed that, tropical montane cloud, temperate, arid/semi-arid and tropical dry forests intercepted 14%, 18%, 22% and 26% of total precipitation, respectively. The models performed well in predicting interception, with mean deviations between measured and modeled interception as a function of total precipitation (ME) generally 0.66. Model fitting precision was dependent on the forest ecosystem. Arid/semi-arid forests exhibited the smallest, while tropical montane cloud forest displayed the largest ME deviations. Improved agreement between measured and modeled data requires modification of in-storm evaporation rate in the Liu; the canopy storage in the sparse Gash model; and the throughfall coefficient in the Rutter and the NvMx models. This research concludes on recommending the wide application of rainfall interception models with some caution as they provide mixed results. The extensive forest interception data source, the fitting and testing of four models, the introduction of a new model, and the availability of coefficient values for all four forest ecosystems are an important source of information and a benchmark for future investigations in this

  19. [Edge effect and its impacts on forest ecosystem: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chao; Yang, Xin-bing; Liu, Yang

    2011-08-01

    Edge effect is an important concept in ecology and biological conservation, playing an important role in the study of ecological processes such as energy and material flow at ecosystem scale and landscape scale. This paper expatiated the connotation, features, quantitative evaluation (basis of quantitative analysis, strength, impact zone, and models, etc.), and applied aspects of edge effect, summarized the impacts of edge effect on forest ecosystem, analyzed the deficiencies in the study of edge effect, and prospected related research directions, aimed to provide references for forest and protected area management.

  20. Modelling of radionuclide migration in forest ecosystems. A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, R.; Moberg, L.; Hubbard, L.

    1998-03-01

    The Chernobyl accident has clearly shown the long-term effects of a radioactive contamination of forest ecosystems. This report is based on a literature review of models which describe the migration of radionuclides, radioactive caesium in particular, in forest ecosystems. The report describes the particularities of the forest ecosystem, the time dynamics of the contamination, the transfer processes and factors influencing caesium migration. This provides a basis for a discussion of different approaches for modelling caesium migration in the forest. It is concluded that the studied dynamic models include the most relevant transfer processes both for the acute and the long-term phase after a radioactive deposition. However, most models are site specific and do not consider some of the factors responsible for the differences in radionuclide behaviour and distribution in different types of forests. Although model improvements are constrained by the availability of experimental data and by the lack of knowledge of the migration mechanisms some possible improvements are discussed. This report is part of the LANDSCAPE project. -An integrated approach to radionuclide flow in the semi-natural ecosystems underlying exposure pathways to man. 42 refs, 3 tabs, 9 figs.

  1. FOREST ECOSYSTEM DYNAMICS ASSESSMENT AND PREDICTIVE MODELLING IN EASTERN HIMALAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. S. Kushwaha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the forest ecosystem dynamics assessment and predictive modelling deforestation and forest cover prediction in a part of north-eastern India i.e. forest areas along West Bengal, Bhutan, Arunachal Pradesh and Assam border in Eastern Himalaya using temporal satellite imagery of 1975, 1990 and 2009 and predicted forest cover for the period 2028 using Cellular Automata Markov Modedel (CAMM. The exercise highlighted large-scale deforestation in the study area during 1975–1990 as well as 1990–2009 forest cover vectors. A net loss of 2,334.28 km2 forest cover was noticed between 1975 and 2009, and with current rate of deforestation, a forest area of 4,563.34 km2 will be lost by 2028. The annual rate of deforestation worked out to be 0.35 and 0.78% during 1975–1990 and 1990–2009 respectively. Bamboo forest increased by 24.98% between 1975 and 2009 due to opening up of the forests. Forests in Kokrajhar, Barpeta, Darrang, Sonitpur, and Dhemaji districts in Assam were noticed to be worst-affected while Lower Subansiri, West and East Siang, Dibang Valley, Lohit and Changlang in Arunachal Pradesh were severely affected. Among different forest types, the maximum loss was seen in case of sal forest (37.97% between 1975 and 2009 and is expected to deplete further to 60.39% by 2028. The tropical moist deciduous forest was the next category, which decreased from 5,208.11 km2 to 3,447.28 (33.81% during same period with further chances of depletion to 2,288.81 km2 (56.05% by 2028. It noted progressive loss of forests in the study area between 1975 and 2009 through 1990 and predicted that, unless checked, the area is in for further depletion of the invaluable climax forests in the region, especially sal and moist deciduous forests. The exercise demonstrated high potential of remote sensing and geographic information system for forest ecosystem dynamics assessment and the efficacy of CAMM to predict the forest cover change.

  2. Integrating ecosystem services into national Forest Service policy and operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Deal; Lisa Fong; Erin Phelps; Emily Weidner; Jonas Epstein; Tommie Herbert; Mary Snieckus; Nikola Smith; Tania Ellersick; Greg Arthaud

    2017-01-01

    The ecosystem services concept describes the many benefits people receive from nature. It highlights the importance of managing public and private lands sustainably to ensure these benefits continue into the future, and it closely aligns with the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) mission to “sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the Nation’s forests and...

  3. Hessian forest ecosystem study. Forest report 2005. Weather, oaks; Waldoekosystemstudie Hessen. Waldzustandsbericht 2005. Witterung, Eiche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paar, U.; Gawehn, P.; Scheler, B.; Schmidt, M.; Schoenfelder, E.; Eichhorn, J. (comps.) [Hessen-Forst FIV - Forsteinrichtung, Information, Versuchswesen, Hannoversch Muenden (Germany). Fachgebiet fuer Waldoekosystemstudie Hessen/Forsthydrologie

    2005-07-01

    The Hessian Forest Ecosystem Study aims to document and explore changes of forest ecosystems as a result of emissions and climatic influences. Thus, it contributes importantly to a multifunctional and sustainable forest management. Crown condition assessment results show only slight differences compared to the previous year (over all defoliation 2004: 25%, 2005: 26%). Vitality of oak proved a significant increase of defoliation, closely correlated to insect damage in 2005. Crown condition of oak is worse in the Hessian Rhein-Main area compared to the whole country. In contradiction to other species beech shows some regeneration in 2005. Deposition of sulfur and acid components has been on a low level. A high deposition of nitrogen compounds needs further reduction. Long term monitoring of forest ecosystems allows interpretation of climate based effects on forests. (orig.)

  4. Climate change and forest ecosystem dynamics. Carbon and water relations, competition, and consequences for forest development and forest use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohren, G.M.J.; Kramer, K. [Institute for Forestry and Nature Research IBN-DLO, Wageningen (Netherlands); Van Wijk, M.; Bouten, W. [Landscape and Environmental Research Group LERG-UvA, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-07-01

    In the title project, emphasis is on a modelling analysis of forest-atmosphere interactions, on coupling of models for short-term impact assessment with models for long-term forest ecosystem dynamics, and on assessment of consequences of climate change for forest management and forest use. For this purpose, the authors rely on experimental data collected elsewhere for the parametrisation of the models. 37 refs.

  5. Density-dependent vulnerability of forest ecosystems to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottero, Alessandra; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Palik, Brian J.; Bradford, John B.; Fraver, Shawn; Battaglia, Mike A.; Asherin, Lance A.

    2017-01-01

    1. Climate models predict increasing drought intensity and frequency for many regions, which may have negative consequences for tree recruitment, growth and mortality, as well as forest ecosystem services. Furthermore, practical strategies for minimizing vulnerability to drought are limited. Tree population density, a metric of tree abundance in a given area, is a primary driver of competitive intensity among trees, which influences tree growth and mortality. Manipulating tree population density may be a mechanism for moderating drought-induced stress and growth reductions, although the relationship between tree population density and tree drought vulnerability remains poorly quantified, especially across climatic gradients.2. In this study, we examined three long-term forest ecosystem experiments in two widely distributed North American pine species, ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa (Lawson & C. Lawson) and red pine Pinus resinosa (Aiton), to better elucidate the relationship between tree population density, growth and drought. These experiments span a broad latitude and aridity range and include tree population density treatments that have been purposefully maintained for several decades. We investigated how tree population density influenced resistance (growth during drought) and resilience (growth after drought compared to pre-drought growth) of stand-level growth during and after documented drought events.3. Our results show that relative tree population density was negatively related to drought resistance and resilience, indicating that trees growing at lower densities were less vulnerable to drought. This result was apparent in all three forest ecosystems, and was consistent across species, stand age and drought intensity.4. Synthesis and applications. Our results highlighted that managing pine forest ecosystems at low tree population density represents a promising adaptive strategy for reducing the adverse impacts of drought on forest growth in coming decades

  6. An index for the assessment of degraded Mediterranean forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Modica

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Diagnosing the degradation degree of forest ecosystems is the basis for restoration strategies. However, there is no literature documenting how to quantify the forest degradation degree by using synthetic indicators, also because there is not a widely accepted definition for "forest degradation" and "degraded forest". Although there are many definitions of forest degradation that converge on the loss of ecosystem services, still today there are no largely accepted methods that give operational guidance to help in defining it. In the present research, with the aim to assess the degree of forest degradation, an integrated index - FDI, Forest Degradation Index - was developed.Area of study: In this first application, the FDI was applied and validated at stand level in two different Mediterranean forest types in two different case studies: Madonie and Nedrodi regional Parks (Sicily, Italy. The first dominated by sessile oak [Quercus petraea (Matt. Liebl. subsp. austrotyrrhenica Brullo, Guarino & Siracusa], the second dominated by cork oak (Quercus suber L..Material and methods: FDI is a synthetic index structured starting from representative and relatively easily detectable parameters. Here, we propose a set of six indicators that should be assessed to determine the forest degradation: Structural Index (SI, Canopy Cover (CC, Natural Regeneration Density (NRD, Focal Species of Degradation (FSD, Coarse Woody Debris (CWD, and Soil Depth (SD. FDI, here proposed and discussed, has been based on a MCDA (Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis approach using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP technique, and implemented in order to contribute in finding simple indicators useful for forest restoration purposes that have an eco-functional basis.Main results: An integrated index of forest degradation has been defined. FDI values are comprised in the closed interval [0, 10], ranging from class I (Higher ecological functionality to class IV (Lower

  7. Sustainable carbon uptake - important ecosystem service within sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorana Ostrogović Sever, Maša; Anić, Mislav; Paladinić, Elvis; Alberti, Giorgio; Marjanović, Hrvoje

    2016-04-01

    Even-aged forest management with natural regeneration under continuous cover (i.e. close to nature management) is considered to be sustainable regarding the yield, biodiversity and stability of forest ecosystems. Recently, in the context of climate change, there is a raising question of sustainable forest management regarding carbon uptake. Aim of this research was to explore whether current close to nature forest management approach in Croatia can be considered sustainable in terms of carbon uptake throughout the life-time of Pedunculate oak forest. In state-owned managed forest a chronosequence experiment was set up and carbon stocks in main ecosystem pools (live biomass, dead wood, litter and mineral soil layer), main carbon fluxes (net primary production, soil respiration (SR), decomposition) and net ecosystem productivity were estimated in eight stands of different age (5, 13, 38, 53, 68, 108, 138 and 168 years) based on field measurements and published data. Air and soil temperature and soil moisture were recorded on 7 automatic mini-meteorological stations and weekly SR measurements were used to parameterize SR model. Carbon balance was estimated at weekly scale for the growing season 2011 (there was no harvesting), as well as throughout the normal rotation period of 140 years (harvesting was included). Carbon stocks in different ecosystem pools change during a stand development. Carbon stocks in forest floor increase with stand age, while carbon stocks in dead wood are highest in young and older stands, and lowest in middle-aged, mature stands. Carbon stocks in mineral soil layer were found to be stable across chronosequence with no statistically significant age-dependent trend. Pedunculate Oak stand, assuming successful regeneration, becomes carbon sink very early in a development phase, between the age of 5 and 13 years, and remains carbon sink even after the age of 160 years. Greatest carbon sink was reached in the stand aged 53 years. Obtained results

  8. Global sensitivity analysis of DRAINMOD-FOREST, an integrated forest ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiying Tian; Mohamed A. Youssef; Devendra M. Amatya; Eric D. Vance

    2014-01-01

    Global sensitivity analysis is a useful tool to understand process-based ecosystem models by identifying key parameters and processes controlling model predictions. This study reported a comprehensive global sensitivity analysis for DRAINMOD-FOREST, an integrated model for simulating water, carbon (C), and nitrogen (N) cycles and plant growth in lowland forests. The...

  9. Maintenance of productive capacity of forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Keith Moser; Patrick D. Miles; Aimee Stephens; Dale D. Gormanson; Stephen R. Shifley; Dave Wear; Robert J. Huggett; Ruhong. Li

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reports projected changes in forest area, age, volume, biomass, number of trees, and removals from 2010 to 2060 for alternative scenarios that bracket a range of possible future socioeconomic and climate conditions in the Northern United States, which consists of 20 central and northeastern States. As described in Chapter 2, the scenarios incorporate...

  10. Responses of LAI to rainfall explain contrasting sensitivities to carbon uptake between forest and non-forest ecosystems in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longhui; Wang, Ying-Ping; Beringer, Jason; Shi, Hao; Cleverly, James; Cheng, Lei; Eamus, Derek; Huete, Alfredo; Hutley, Lindsay; Lu, Xingjie; Piao, Shilong; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Yongqiang; Yu, Qiang

    2017-09-15

    Non-forest ecosystems (predominant in semi-arid and arid regions) contribute significantly to the increasing trend and interannual variation of land carbon uptake over the last three decades, yet the mechanisms are poorly understood. By analysing the flux measurements from 23 ecosystems in Australia, we found the the correlation between gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) was significant for non-forest ecosystems, but was not for forests. In non-forest ecosystems, both GPP and Re increased with rainfall, and, consequently net ecosystem production (NEP) increased with rainfall. In forest ecosystems, GPP and Re were insensitive to rainfall. Furthermore sensitivity of GPP to rainfall was dominated by the rainfall-driven variation of LAI rather GPP per unit LAI in non-forest ecosystems, which was not correctly reproduced by current land models, indicating that the mechanisms underlying the response of LAI to rainfall should be targeted for future model development.

  11. Estimating gross primary productivity of a tropical forest ecosystem ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pramit Kumar Deb Burman

    2017-10-06

    Oct 6, 2017 ... association with a global biome classification map. (Yang et al. 2006). MODIS LAI dataset has been subjected to many extensive validation studies over multiple different ecosystems, such as croplands. (Garrigues et al. 2008), forest (Arag˜ao et al. 2005;. Fisher and Mustard 2007; Liang et al. 2011; Tang.

  12. Dealing with reducing trends in forest ecosystem services through a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    richness of West African forest ecosystem landscapes are fast changing on account of both anthropogenic and climatic reasons. The 1968 – 1973 and 1983 - 1984 drought affected most West African countries (Burkina. Faso, Ghana, Mali etc), some natural vegetation began to disappear, trees were lost, land cover thinned ...

  13. Invasive bark and ambrosia beetles in California Mediterranean forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven Seybold; Richard Penrose; Andrew Graves

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses the native ranges, histories of introduction, recent research efforts, and the potential impacts of some of 22 species of invasive scolytids in California’s Mediterranean forest ecosystems. The diversity of native and ornamental tree species, the varied climatic zones, and the widespread importation of nursery stock and packaged cargo have made...

  14. Analyzing growth and mortality in a subtropical urban forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia B. Lawrence; Fancisco J. Escobedo; Christina L. Staudhammera; Wayne Zipperer Zipperer

    2012-01-01

    Information on urban tree growth, mortality and in-growth is currently being used to estimate urban forest structure changes and ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration. This study reports on tree diameter growth and mortality in 65 plots distributed among four land use categories, which were established in 2005/2006 in Gainesville, Florida, USA and were re-...

  15. Human dimensions in ecosystem management: a USDA Forest Service perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah S. Carr

    1995-01-01

    For many decades, the natural resource profession has approached the management of public lands as exclusively a natural science endeavor requiring purely technical solutions. With the adoption of an ecosystem management philosophy, the USDA Forest Service has acknowledged the centrality of people in land management policy and decision-making. This paper explores the...

  16. Dominance and Diversity of Bird Community in Floodplain Forest Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Poprach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed to assessment of diversity and structure of bird community in floodplain forest ecosystem. Authors present results of analyses data on bird communities obtained at two transects in the Litovelské Pomoraví Protected Landscape Area (Czech Republic in the period 1998–2012. Research of bird communities was carried out using the point-count method. The article deals with qualitative and quantitative representation of breeding bird species, including their relation to habitat type (closed floodplain forest, ecotone. Altogether 63 breeding species were recorded at the Vrapač transect and 67 at the Litovelské luhy transect, respectively. To be able to detect all recorded species, 11 out of 14 years of monitoring were needed at the Vrapač transect and all 8 years of monitoring at the Litovelské luhy transect, respectively. Authors show that the values in dominant bird species change significantly among the particular census dates within one season, mainly with respect to their activity and detectability. Results are discussed in the frame of sustainable forest management in floodplain forest ecosystems. The presented article can promote to discussion aimed to management strategy for floodplain forest ecosystems, which ranks among natural habitat types of Community interest protected under the Natura 2000 European network.

  17. Dust outpaces bedrock in nutrient supply to montane forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aciego, S. M.; Riebe, C. S.; Hart, S. C.; Blakowski, M. A.; Carey, C. J.; Aarons, S. M.; Dove, N. C.; Botthoff, J. K.; Sims, K. W. W.; Aronson, E. L.

    2017-03-01

    Dust provides ecosystem-sustaining nutrients to landscapes underlain by intensively weathered soils. Here we show that dust may also be crucial in montane forest ecosystems, dominating nutrient budgets despite continuous replacement of depleted soils with fresh bedrock via erosion. Strontium and neodymium isotopes in modern dust show that Asian sources contribute 18-45% of dust deposition across our Sierra Nevada, California study sites. The remaining dust originates regionally from the nearby Central Valley. Measured dust fluxes are greater than or equal to modern erosional outputs from hillslopes to channels, and account for 10-20% of estimated millennial-average inputs of bedrock P. Our results demonstrate that exogenic dust can drive the evolution of nutrient budgets in montane ecosystems, with implications for predicting forest response to changes in climate and land use.

  18. Assessment and valuation of forest ecosystem services: State of the science review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth Binder; Robert G. Haight; Stephen Polasky; Travis Warziniack; Miranda H. Mockrin; Robert L. Deal; Greg. Arthaud

    2017-01-01

    This review focuses on the assessment and economic valuation of ecosystem services from forest ecosystems—that is, our ability to predict changes in the quantity and value of ecosystem services as a result of specific forest management decisions. It is aimed at forest economists and managers and intended to provide a useful reference to those interested in developing...

  19. Urban Forest Ecosystem Service Optimization, Tradeoffs, and Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnaruk, E.; Kroll, C. N.; Endreny, T. A.; Hirabayashi, S.; Yang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Urban land area and the proportion of humanity living in cities is growing, leading to increased urban air pollution, temperature, and stormwater runoff. These changes can exacerbate respiratory and heat-related illnesses and affect ecosystem functioning. Urban trees can help mitigate these threats by removing air pollutants, mitigating urban heat island effects, and infiltrating and filtering stormwater. The urban environment is highly heterogeneous, and there is no tool to determine optimal locations to plant or protect trees. Using spatially explicit land cover, weather, and demographic data within biophysical ecosystem service models, this research expands upon the iTree urban forest tools to produce a new decision support tool (iTree-DST) that will explore the development and impacts of optimal tree planting. It will also heighten awareness of environmental justice by incorporating the Atkinson Index to quantify disparities in health risks and ecosystem services across vulnerable and susceptible populations. The study area is Baltimore City, a location whose urban forest and environmental justice concerns have been studied extensively. The iTree-DST is run at the US Census block group level and utilizes a local gradient approach to calculate the change in ecosystem services with changing tree cover across the study area. Empirical fits provide ecosystem service gradients for possible tree cover scenarios, greatly increasing the speed and efficiency of the optimization procedure. Initial results include an evaluation of the performance of the gradient method, optimal planting schemes for individual ecosystem services, and an analysis of tradeoffs and synergies between competing objectives.

  20. Understory cover and biomass indices predictions for forest ecosystems of the Northwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile A. Suchar; Nicholas L. Crookston

    2010-01-01

    The understory community is a critical component of many processes of forest ecosystems. Cover and biomass indices of shrubs and herbs of forested ecosystems of Northwestern United States are presented. Various forest data were recorded for 10,895 plots during a Current Vegetation Survey, over the National Forest lands of entire Pacific Northwest. No significant...

  1. Assessing impacts of intensified biomass production and biodiversity protection on ecosystem services provided by European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, P.J.; Mavsar, R.; Giergiczny, M.; Lindner, M.; Edwards, D.; Schelhaas, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    To develop viable strategies for intensifying the use of forest biomass and for increasing forest protection, impacts on ecosystem services need to be assessed. We investigated the biophysical and economic impacts of increased forest biomass production and biodiversity protection on forest ecosystem

  2. [Ancientness and maturity: two complementary qualities of forest ecosystems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cateau, Eugénie; Larrieu, Laurent; Vallauri, Daniel; Savoie, Jean-Marie; Touroult, Julien; Brustel, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Ancientness and maturity are two major qualities of forest ecosystems. They are components of naturalness and are affected by human impact. These qualities and the associated terms are often mixed up and incorrectly used. We have carried out a synthesis in order to propose an adapted French terminology based on international literature. The topics of ancientness and maturity for biodiversity and soil characteristics are explained. This review leads us to submit different potential thresholds for ancientness and maturity. An analysis on ancientness and maturity on forest data for France leads to the conclusion that about 29% of all forests can be considered "ancient woodland", and less than 3% of the even-age forest is older than the harvesting age. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Structuring Effects of Deer in Boreal Forest Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steeve D. Côté

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many deer populations have recently increased worldwide leading to strong direct and indirect ecological and socioeconomical impacts on the composition, dynamic, and functions of forest ecosystems. Deer directly modify the composition and structure of vegetation communities, but they also indirectly affect other species of the ecosystem by modifying the structure of the vegetation. Here we review the results of a research program on overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus in the boreal forest of Anticosti Island (Québec, Canada aimed at identifying deer densities compatible with forest regeneration. Various silvicultural systems and treatments failed to regenerate deer habitat at high deer densities, but planting size-adapted seedlings could be effective at moderate densities. Using a controlled deer density experiment, we found vegetation recovery at deer densities ≤ 15 deer/km2. The same experiment revealed that other groups of organisms such as insects and birds responded favorably to a reduction of deer density. We also found that alternative successional trajectories may occur after a certain period of heavy browsing during early succession. We conclude that one of the most important remaining research gaps is the need to identify habitat-specific threshold densities at which deer impacts occur and then to design effective wildlife and forest management strategies to limit deer impacts and sustain ecosystem integrity.

  4. Impact of cloudiness on net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide in different types of forest ecosystems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Yu, G.-R.; Zhang, L.-M.; Sun, X.-M.; Wen, X.-F.; Han, S.-J.; Yan, J.-H.

    2010-02-01

    Clouds can significantly affect carbon exchange process between forest ecosystems and the atmosphere by influencing the quantity and quality of solar radiation received by ecosystem's surface and other environmental factors. In this study, we analyzed the effects of cloudiness on net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) in a temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest at Changbaishan (CBS) and a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest at Dinghushan (DHS), based on the flux data obtained during June-August from 2003 to 2006. The results showed that the response of NEE of forest ecosystems to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) differed under clear skies and cloudy skies. Compared with clear skies, the light-saturated maximum photosynthetic rate (Pec,max) at CBS under cloudy skies during mid-growing season (from June to August) increased by 34%, 25%, 4% and 11% in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006, respectively. In contrast, Pec,max of the forest ecosystem at DHS was higher under clear skies than under cloudy skies from 2004 to 2006. When the clearness index (kt) ranged between 0.4 and 0.6, the NEE reached its maximum at both CBS and DHS. However, the NEE decreased more dramatically at CBS than at DHS when kt exceeded 0.6. The results indicate that cloudy sky conditions are beneficial to net carbon uptake in the temperate forest ecosystem and the subtropical forest ecosystem. Under clear skies, vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and air temperature increased due to strong light. These environmental conditions led to greater decrease in gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP) and greater increase in ecosystem respiration (Re) at CBS than at DHS. As a result, clear sky conditions caused more reduction of NEE in the temperate forest ecosystem than in the subtropical forest ecosystem. The response of NEE of different forest ecosystems to the changes in cloudiness is an important factor that should be included in evaluating regional carbon budgets under climate change

  5. Water stress and harmful insects in agri-forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Solinas

    Full Text Available Present knowledge on ecological services supplied by insects to natural terrestrial ecosystems, allow us to identify many homeostatic mechanisms regulating biological balance as well as life perpetuation of the said ecosystems; at the same time, that knowledge represents a sound referring point to understanding how those mechanisms do work so as to manage them in the anthropized ecosystems (i.e., agriculture and forests, and especially in order to identify in the latter the natural meaning of the so called insect outbreaks, so as to forecast and possibly prevent them; as well as, when needed, to conceive and formulate efficient control strategies having minimal environmental impact. Water factor is crucial with genesis, configuration and conservation of a terrestrial ecosystem (both natural or anthropized as a whole or in its individual components, but especially concerning plant life as well as plant interactions with phytophagous invertebrates, mainly insects. Insect-plant trophic interactions are principally influenced by the water conditions in the ecosystem, and the impact of phytophagous insects on crops is markedly affected. Extremely severe water stress, especially if prolonged, prevent insect life just like plant’s life but a moderate and not so prolonged water stress, while depressing plant vigour, paradoxically can improve development and multiplication of phytophagous arthropods, with severe consequences on woody plants especially, and forest trees markedly.

  6. Water stress and harmful insects in agri-forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Solinas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Present knowledge on ecological services supplied by insects to natural terrestrial ecosystems, allow us to identify many homeostatic mechanisms regulating biological balance as well as life perpetuation of the said ecosystems; at the same time, that knowledge represents a sound referring point to understanding how those mechanisms do work so as to manage them in the anthropized ecosystems (i.e., agriculture and forests, and especially in order to identify in the latter the natural meaning of the so called insect outbreaks, so as to forecast and possibly prevent them; as well as, when needed, to conceive and formulate efficient control strategies having minimal environmental impact. Water factor is crucial with genesis, configuration and conservation of a terrestrial ecosystem (both natural or anthropized as a whole or in its individual components, but especially concerning plant life as well as plant interactions with phytophagous invertebrates, mainly insects. Insect-plant trophic interactions are principally influenced by the water conditions in the ecosystem, and the impact of phytophagous insects on crops is markedly affected. Extremely severe water stress, especially if prolonged, prevent insect life just like plant’s life but a moderate and not so prolonged water stress, while depressing plant vigour, paradoxically can improve development and multiplication of phytophagous arthropods, with severe consequences on woody plants especially, and forest trees markedly.

  7. Biological diversity and conservation of forest ecosystems in Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. B. Bikirov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kyrgyzstan is a natural repository of genetic resources and the diversity of species and natural laboratory, where at the small area are represented almost all altitudinal belts, ranging from semi-desert, ending with glacial-nival belt. This article discusses water-protective, water-regulating, anti-erosion and anti-mudflow functions of each forest category. It analyzes the main factors affecting the degradation of forests and reduction of forest cover in the study area. The complex of silvicultural measures on reforestation in the country and, in particular, the improvement of the forest seed business. It notes the importance of mountain forests in the national economy, and examines prospects for their conservation and restoration. Protection and rational use of forest genetic resources, which are an integral part of the global ecosystem, began to take on a special significance in recent years. Due to the high sensitivity of mountain ecosystems of the Tien Shan to human impact, there is a need for particularly careful monitoring of wildlife. The practical solution of many problems for the protection of mountain ecosystems directly or indirectly linked to the protection of the unique vegetation of the mountains. To solve these problems we should use the objects of flora and fauna on a legal basis under the rules and regulations set by laws and other normative legal acts of the Kyrgyz Republic, as well as to benefit from the commercial and other utilization of genetic resources. Such sharing shall be on mutually agreed terms with the local authorities and local communities in their jurisdictions providing such resources.

  8. Potential climate change impacts on temperate forest ecosystem processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Emily B.; Wythers, Kirk R.; Zhang, Shuxia; Bradford, John B.; Reich, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Large changes in atmospheric CO2, temperature and precipitation are predicted by 2100, yet the long-term consequences for carbon, water, and nitrogen cycling in forests are poorly understood. We applied the PnET-CN ecosystem model to compare the long-term effects of changing climate and atmospheric CO2 on productivity, evapotranspiration, runoff, and net nitrogen mineralization in current Great Lakes forest types. We used two statistically downscaled climate projections, PCM B1 (warmer and wetter) and GFDL A1FI (hotter and drier), to represent two potential future climate and atmospheric CO2 scenarios. To separate the effects of climate and CO2, we ran PnET-CN including and excluding the CO2 routine. Our results suggest that, with rising CO2 and without changes in forest type, average regional productivity could increase from 67% to 142%, changes in evapotranspiration could range from –3% to +6%, runoff could increase from 2% to 22%, and net N mineralization could increase 10% to 12%. Ecosystem responses varied geographically and by forest type. Increased productivity was almost entirely driven by CO2 fertilization effects, rather than by temperature or precipitation (model runs holding CO2 constant showed stable or declining productivity). The relative importance of edaphic and climatic spatial drivers of productivity varied over time, suggesting that productivity in Great Lakes forests may switch from being temperature to water limited by the end of the century.

  9. FOREST ECOSYSTEMS AND GLOBAL CHANGE: THE CASE STUDY OF INSUBRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pautasso

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystems face multiple challenges due to climate change, invasive species, urbanization, land use change and the interactions between these global change drivers. This review provides an overview of such challenges for the case study of Insubria. Insubria is a region on the Southern side of the European Alps, famous for its stunning lakes (e.g., Como, Garda, Lugano, Maggiore, blessed by a relatively mild and humid climate, and shaped by the geologic fault line between the African and European plates. Global change impacts in Insubria pose a threat to its biodiversity and chestnut woodlands, particularly through modified winter forest fire regimes. Insubric biodiversity conservation, in turn, is essential to counteract the effects of climate change. Sustainable management of Insubric forests is made more difficult by rural abandonment, air pollution and invasive exotic species. There is a need to develop reliable long-term bio-indicators and to predict the shift of Insubric species, ecosystems and tree-lines due to rapid climate changes. Insubric studies on forests and global change call for enhanced international collaboration in forest management and research. Interdisciplinary approaches are needed to move from studies of single global change drivers to experiments, scenarios and models taking into account their combination and our responses to global change.

  10. Net ecosystem carbon exchange of a dry temperate eucalypt forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinko-Najera, Nina; Isaac, Peter; Beringer, Jason; van Gorsel, Eva; Ewenz, Cacilia; McHugh, Ian; Exbrayat, Jean-François; Livesley, Stephen J.; Arndt, Stefan K.

    2017-08-01

    Forest ecosystems play a crucial role in the global carbon cycle by sequestering a considerable fraction of anthropogenic CO2, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation. However, there is a gap in our understanding about the carbon dynamics of eucalypt (broadleaf evergreen) forests in temperate climates, which might differ from temperate evergreen coniferous or deciduous broadleaved forests given their fundamental differences in physiology, phenology and growth dynamics. To address this gap we undertook a 3-year study (2010-2012) of eddy covariance measurements in a dry temperate eucalypt forest in southeastern Australia. We determined the annual net carbon balance and investigated the temporal (seasonal and inter-annual) variability in and environmental controls of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE), gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER). The forest was a large and constant carbon sink throughout the study period, even in winter, with an overall mean NEE of -1234 ± 109 (SE) g C m-2 yr-1. Estimated annual ER was similar for 2010 and 2011 but decreased in 2012 ranging from 1603 to 1346 g C m-2 yr-1, whereas GPP showed no significant inter-annual variability, with a mean annual estimate of 2728 ± 39 g C m-2 yr-1. All ecosystem carbon fluxes had a pronounced seasonality, with GPP being greatest during spring and summer and ER being highest during summer, whereas peaks in NEE occurred in early spring and again in summer. High NEE in spring was likely caused by a delayed increase in ER due to low temperatures. A strong seasonal pattern in environmental controls of daytime and night-time NEE was revealed. Daytime NEE was equally explained by incoming solar radiation and air temperature, whereas air temperature was the main environmental driver of night-time NEE. The forest experienced unusual above-average annual rainfall during the first 2 years of this 3-year period so that soil water content remained relatively high and the forest

  11. Net ecosystem carbon exchange of a dry temperate eucalypt forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hinko-Najera

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystems play a crucial role in the global carbon cycle by sequestering a considerable fraction of anthropogenic CO2, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation. However, there is a gap in our understanding about the carbon dynamics of eucalypt (broadleaf evergreen forests in temperate climates, which might differ from temperate evergreen coniferous or deciduous broadleaved forests given their fundamental differences in physiology, phenology and growth dynamics. To address this gap we undertook a 3-year study (2010–2012 of eddy covariance measurements in a dry temperate eucalypt forest in southeastern Australia. We determined the annual net carbon balance and investigated the temporal (seasonal and inter-annual variability in and environmental controls of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE, gross primary productivity (GPP and ecosystem respiration (ER. The forest was a large and constant carbon sink throughout the study period, even in winter, with an overall mean NEE of −1234 ± 109 (SE g C m−2 yr−1. Estimated annual ER was similar for 2010 and 2011 but decreased in 2012 ranging from 1603 to 1346 g C m−2 yr−1, whereas GPP showed no significant inter-annual variability, with a mean annual estimate of 2728 ± 39 g C m−2 yr−1. All ecosystem carbon fluxes had a pronounced seasonality, with GPP being greatest during spring and summer and ER being highest during summer, whereas peaks in NEE occurred in early spring and again in summer. High NEE in spring was likely caused by a delayed increase in ER due to low temperatures. A strong seasonal pattern in environmental controls of daytime and night-time NEE was revealed. Daytime NEE was equally explained by incoming solar radiation and air temperature, whereas air temperature was the main environmental driver of night-time NEE. The forest experienced unusual above-average annual rainfall during the first 2 years of this 3-year period so

  12. Forest Ecosystem Processes at the Watershed Scale: Ecosystem services, feedback and evolution in developing mountainous catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, Larry

    2010-05-01

    Mountain watersheds provide significant ecosystem services both locally and for surrounding regions, including the provision of freshwater, hydropower, carbon sequestration, habitat, forest products and recreational/aesthetic opportunities. The hydrologic connectivity along hillslopes in sloping terrain provides an upslope subsidy of water and nutrients to downslope ecosystem patches, producing characteristic ecosystem patterns of vegetation density and type, and soil biogeochemical cycling. Recent work suggests that optimal patterns of forest cover evolve along these flowpaths which maximize net primary productivity and carbon sequestration at the hillslope to catchment scale. These watersheds are under significant pressure from potential climate change, changes in forest management, increasing population and development, and increasing demand for water export. As water balance and flowpaths are altered by shifting weather patterns and new development, the spatial distribution and coupling of water, carbon and nutrient cycling will spur the evolution of different ecosystem patterns. These issues have both theoretical and practical implications for the coupling of water, carbon and nutrient cycling at the landscape level, and the potential to manage watersheds for bundled ecosystem services. If the spatial structure of the ecosystem spontaneously adjusts to maximize landscape level use of limiting resources, there may be trade-offs in the level of services provided. The well known carbon-for-water tradeoff reflects the growth of forests to maximize carbon uptake, but also transpiration which limits freshwater availability in many biomes. We provide examples of the response of bundled ecosystem services to climate and land use change in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of the United States. These mountains have very high net primary productivity, biodiversity and water yields, and provide significant freshwater resources to surrounding regions. There has been a

  13. Chapter 10: Case studies in ecosystem management: the Mammoth-June ecosystem management project, Inyo National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar

    1996-01-01

    To assess the various ways organizations and people come together to manage Sierran ecosystems, SNEP conducted four case studies to examine the efficacy of different institutional arrangements:The Mammoth-June case study examines how a single national forest is attempting to implement the new Forest Service policy for ecosystem analysis...

  14. {sup 137}Cs in the fungal compartment of Swedish forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinichuk, Mykhaylo M. [Department of General Ecology, University of Agriculture and Ecology, Stary Blvd. 7, Zhytomyr 10001 (Ukraine); Johanson, Karl J.; Taylor, Andy F.S. [Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7026, Uppsala S-750 07 (Sweden)

    2004-05-05

    The {sup 137}Cs activities in soil profiles and in the mycelia of four ectomycorrhizal fungi were studied in a Swedish forest in an attempt to understand the mechanisms governing the transfer and retention of {sup 137}Cs in forest soil. The biomass of four species of fungi was determined and estimated to be 16 g m{sup -2} in a peat soil and 47-189 g m{sup -2} in non-peat soil to the depth of 10 cm. The vertical distribution was rather homogeneous for two species (Tylospora spp. and Piloderma fallax) and very superficial for Hydnellum peckii. Most of the {sup 137}Cs activity in mycelium of non-peat soils was found in the upper 5 cm. Transfer factors were quite high even for those species producing resupinate sporocarps. In the peat soil only approximately 0.3% of the total {sup 137}Cs inventory in soil was found in the fungal mycelium. The corresponding values for non-peat soil were 1.3, 1.8 and 1.9%.

  15. Forecasting Urban Forest Ecosystem Structure, Function, and Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenberg, James W. N.; Millward, Andrew A.; Nowak, David J.; Robinson, Pamela J.; Ellis, Alexis

    2017-03-01

    The benefits derived from urban forest ecosystems are garnering increasing attention in ecological research and municipal planning. However, because of their location in heterogeneous and highly-altered urban landscapes, urban forests are vulnerable and commonly suffer disproportionate and varying levels of stress and disturbance. The objective of this study is to assess and analyze the spatial and temporal changes, and potential vulnerability, of the urban forest resource in Toronto, Canada. This research was conducted using a spatially-explicit, indicator-based assessment of vulnerability and i-Tree Forecast modeling of temporal changes in forest structure and function. Nine scenarios were simulated for 45 years and model output was analyzed at the ecosystem and municipal scale. Substantial mismatches in ecological processes between spatial scales were found, which can translate into unanticipated loss of function and social inequities if not accounted for in planning and management. At the municipal scale, the effects of Asian longhorned beetle and ice storm disturbance were far less influential on structure and function than changes in management actions. The strategic goals of removing invasive species and increasing tree planting resulted in a decline in carbon storage and leaf biomass. Introducing vulnerability parameters in the modeling increased the spatial heterogeneity in structure and function while expanding the disparities of resident access to ecosystem services. There was often a variable and uncertain relationship between vulnerability and ecosystem structure and function. Vulnerability assessment and analysis can provide strategic planning initiatives with valuable insight into the processes of structural and functional change resulting from management intervention.

  16. Methane uptake in forest and agro-ecosystems in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, S. K.; Livesley, S. J.; Fest, B. J.; Weston, C. J.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2007-12-01

    Oxidation of methane by methanotrophic bacteria in aerated soils does provide a considerable global sink for greenhouse gases (-30 Tg CH4/yr). The form of land-use can have a significant impact on the methane uptake capacity of a soil. We investigated the sink strength for methane uptake of forest ecosystems and agro- ecosystems in Australia using automated measurement systems and manual chamber methods. Our results demonstrate large differences in the methane uptake capacity of Australian soils. Data from Western Australia showed that CH4 uptake rates increased with stand age of plantations and were greatest in an undisturbed native forest and lowest in an improved pasture. Measurements in differently aged forest ecosystems indicated that sites with the most recent fire disturbance had the lowest methane uptake rates. Generally, native forest ecosystems showed the greatest methane uptake rates (up to 130 kg CO2-e ha yr). Plantations (eucalyptus/pine) showed significantly lower methane uptake rates (around 15 kg CO2-e ha yr). Grazed pastures in Australia had the lowest uptake rates (6 kg CO2-e ha yr) and were occasional methane sources. The methane uptake rates of soils were only marginally influenced by environmental parameters over the course of a year. Between sites the methane uptake rates were not related to soil parameters such as soil bulk density. Experiments with excavated soil cores demonstrated that diffusivity of methane through the upper soil layer was the rate limiting step. Our results indicate that the community structure of methanotrophic bacteria and substrate diffusivity are the most important factor influencing methane uptake rates in soils. Disturbance events such as change of land-use or vegetation structure can have significant impacts on the capacity of soils to take up methane.

  17. Forecasting Urban Forest Ecosystem Structure, Function, and Vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenberg, James W N; Millward, Andrew A; Nowak, David J; Robinson, Pamela J; Ellis, Alexis

    2017-03-01

    The benefits derived from urban forest ecosystems are garnering increasing attention in ecological research and municipal planning. However, because of their location in heterogeneous and highly-altered urban landscapes, urban forests are vulnerable and commonly suffer disproportionate and varying levels of stress and disturbance. The objective of this study is to assess and analyze the spatial and temporal changes, and potential vulnerability, of the urban forest resource in Toronto, Canada. This research was conducted using a spatially-explicit, indicator-based assessment of vulnerability and i-Tree Forecast modeling of temporal changes in forest structure and function. Nine scenarios were simulated for 45 years and model output was analyzed at the ecosystem and municipal scale. Substantial mismatches in ecological processes between spatial scales were found, which can translate into unanticipated loss of function and social inequities if not accounted for in planning and management. At the municipal scale, the effects of Asian longhorned beetle and ice storm disturbance were far less influential on structure and function than changes in management actions. The strategic goals of removing invasive species and increasing tree planting resulted in a decline in carbon storage and leaf biomass. Introducing vulnerability parameters in the modeling increased the spatial heterogeneity in structure and function while expanding the disparities of resident access to ecosystem services. There was often a variable and uncertain relationship between vulnerability and ecosystem structure and function. Vulnerability assessment and analysis can provide strategic planning initiatives with valuable insight into the processes of structural and functional change resulting from management intervention.

  18. Simulated carbon and water processes of forest ecosystems in Forsmark and Oskarshamn during a 100-year period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Land and Water Resources Engineering; Gaerdenaes, Annemieke [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Soil Sciences; Eckersten, Henrik [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Crop Production Ecology

    2006-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is currently investigating the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas for possible localisation of a repository for spent nuclear fuel. Important components of the investigations are characterizations of the land surface ecosystems in the areas with respect to hydrological and biological processes, and their implications for the fate of radionuclide contaminants entering the biosphere from a shallow groundwater contamination. In this study, we simulate water balance and carbon turnover processes in forest ecosystems representative for the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas for a 100-year period using the ecosystem process model CoupModel. The CoupModel describes the fluxes of water and matter in a one-dimensional soil-vegetation-atmosphere system, forced by time series of meteorological variables. The model has previously been parameterized for many of the vegetation systems that can be found in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas: spruce/pine forests, willow, grassland and different agricultural crops. This report presents a platform for further use of models like CoupModel for investigations of radionuclide turnover in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn area based on SKB data, including a data set of meteorological forcing variables for Forsmark 1970-2004, suitable for simulations of a 100-year period representing the present day climate, a hydrological parameterization of the CoupModel for simulations of the forest ecosystems in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas, and simulated carbon budgets and process descriptions for Forsmark that correspond to a possible steady state of the soil storage of the forest ecosystem.

  19. The distribution of radioactive caesium in boreal forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, R. [National Defence Research Establishment, Dept. of NBC Defence, Umeaa (Sweden)

    1994-12-31

    The behaviour of radioactive caesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) in boreal forests of the Nordic countries is reviewed with emphasis on its distribution in various time perspectives. The analysis has thus been focused on data of relevance for both early and later phases after fallout over forest areas. Possibilities and limitation in using data from other time periods or regions, than that characterised by fallout over the boreal zones after the Chernobyl event are also discussed. This concerns extrapolations from information pertaining to neighbouring ecological areas - at higher altitudes (alpine, and sub-alpine regions) or below the southern limit (i.e. in the hemiboreal and nemoboreal zones), and to future time with respect to predictions of the behaviour of Cs-137, based on results for OLD (i.e. from atmospheric weapons tests - mainly in the sixties) versus CHERNOBYL caesium. Beside the principal terrestrial constituents of the soil-plant-animal system, the BOREAL FOREST ECOSYSTEM will for the present purpose be considered to comprise the semi-aquatic and aquatic components pertaining to peat, open peat bog, and ground water. This implies that run-off from a catchment constitutes the main link between the terrestrial part considered here and the aquatic ecosystem proper. In boreal forests the humus layer usually retains a major fraction of the fallout of radioactive caesium, evidently even several decades after deposition. This notable feature, as well as a persistent high availability in important food-chains, emerges from the present Nordic radioecological research. Both constitute facets of a singularity conservative - although not at all static - situation prevailing for radioactive caesium in the boreal forest. The implication is that for Cs-137 physical decay will be the major factor of loss from the boreal ecosystem in a long-term perspective, and that runoff, particularly from peat bogs, is expected to be the second in order of importance. (orig./HP).

  20. Continental mapping of forest ecosystem functions reveals a high but unrealised potential for forest multifunctionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Plas, Fons; Ratcliffe, Sophia; Ruiz-Benito, Paloma; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Verheyen, Kris; Wirth, Christian; Zavala, Miguel A; Ampoorter, Evy; Baeten, Lander; Barbaro, Luc; Bastias, Cristina C; Bauhus, Jürgen; Benavides, Raquel; Benneter, Adam; Bonal, Damien; Bouriaud, Olivier; Bruelheide, Helge; Bussotti, Filippo; Carnol, Monique; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Charbonnier, Yohan; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Dahlgren, Jonas; Checko, Ewa; Coppi, Andrea; Dawud, Seid Muhie; Deconchat, Marc; De Smedt, Pallieter; De Wandeler, Hans; Domisch, Timo; Finér, Leena; Fotelli, Mariangela; Gessler, Arthur; Granier, André; Grossiord, Charlotte; Guyot, Virginie; Haase, Josephine; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Jactel, Hervé; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Joly, François-Xavier; Jucker, Tommaso; Kambach, Stephan; Kaendler, Gerald; Kattge, Jens; Koricheva, Julia; Kunstler, Georges; Lehtonen, Aleksi; Liebergesell, Mario; Manning, Peter; Milligan, Harriet; Müller, Sandra; Muys, Bart; Nguyen, Diem; Nock, Charles; Ohse, Bettina; Paquette, Alain; Peñuelas, Josep; Pollastrini, Martina; Radoglou, Kalliopi; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Roger, Fabian; Seidl, Rupert; Selvi, Federico; Stenlid, Jan; Valladares, Fernando; van Keer, Johan; Vesterdal, Lars; Fischer, Markus; Gamfeldt, Lars; Allan, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Humans require multiple services from ecosystems, but it is largely unknown whether trade-offs between ecosystem functions prevent the realisation of high ecosystem multifunctionality across spatial scales. Here, we combined a comprehensive dataset (28 ecosystem functions measured on 209 forest plots) with a forest inventory dataset (105,316 plots) to extrapolate and map relationships between various ecosystem multifunctionality measures across Europe. These multifunctionality measures reflected different management objectives, related to timber production, climate regulation and biodiversity conservation/recreation. We found that trade-offs among them were rare across Europe, at both local and continental scales. This suggests a high potential for 'win-win' forest management strategies, where overall multifunctionality is maximised. However, across sites, multifunctionality was on average 45.8-49.8% below maximum levels and not necessarily highest in protected areas. Therefore, using one of the most comprehensive assessments so far, our study suggests a high but largely unrealised potential for management to promote multifunctional forests. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  1. Atmospheric variables as driving variables of agricultural and forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Mariani

    Full Text Available Atmospheric variables, which represent meteorology if seen in their instantaneous behavior or climatology if seen in their long time behavior, can be considered among the main driving variables of agricultural and forest ecosystems. In other words meteo-climatic variables determine productivity and quality and territorial specificity of agroforestry productions. On the base of this premise some significant examples are shown in order to describe how different modeling approaches (empirical and mechanistic can improve our degree of description of phenomena and the rationality of our approach to management of agro-ecosystem. The need of strict linkage among agrometeorology and other physical and biological sciences referred to agro-forestry ecosystems is also discussed.

  2. Assessing exergy of forest ecosystem using airborne and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovkina, Olga; Fabianek, Tomas; Lukes, Petr; Zemek, Frantisek

    2017-04-01

    Interactions of the energy flows of forest ecosystem with environment are formed by a suite of forest structure, functions and pathways of self-control. According to recent thermodynamic theory for open systems, concept of exergy of solar radiation has been applied to estimate energy consumptions on evapotranspiration and biomass production in forest ecosystem or to indicate forest decline and human land use impact on ecosystem stability. However, most of the methods for exergy estimation in forest ecosystem is not stable and its physical meaning remains on the surface. This study was aimed to contribute to understanding the exergy of forest ecosystem using combination of remote sensing (RS) and eddy covariance technologies, specifically: 1/to explore exergy of solar radiation depending on structure of solar spectrum (number of spectral bands of RS data), and 2/to explore the relationship between exergy and flux tower eddy covariance measurements. Two study forest sites were located in Western Beskids in the Czech Republic. The first site was dominated by young Norway spruce, the second site was dominated by mature European beech. Airborne hyperspectral data in VNIR, SWIR and TIR spectral regions were acquired 9 times for study sites during a vegetation periods in 2015-2016. Radiometric, geometric and atmospheric corrections of airborne data were performed. Satellite multispectral Landsat-8 cloud-free 21 scenes were downloaded and atmospherically corrected for the period from April to November 2015-2016. Evapotranspiration and latent heat fluxes were collected from operating flux towers located on study sites according to date and time of remote sensing data acquisition. Exergy was calculated for each satellite and airborne scene using various combinations of spectral bands as: Ex=E^out (K+ln E^out/E^in )+R, where Ein is the incoming solar energy, Eout is the reflected solar energy, R = Ein-Eout is absorbed energy, Eout/Ein is albedo and K is the Kullback increment

  3. Vulnerability of tropical forest ecosystems and forest dependent communities to droughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, D J; Vogt, K A; Gmur, S J; Scullion, J J; Suntana, A S; Daryanto, S; Sigurðardóttir, R

    2016-01-01

    Energy captured by and flowing through a forest ecosystem can be indexed by its total Net Primary Productivity (NPP). This forest NPP can also be a reflection of its sensitivity to, and its ability to adapt to, any climate change while also being harvested by humans. However detecting and identifying the vulnerability of forest and human ecosystems to climate change requires information on whether these coupled social and ecological systems are able to maintain functionality while responding to environmental variability. To better understand what parameters might be representative of environmental variability, we compiled a metadata analysis of 96 tropical forest sites. We found that three soil textural classes (i.e., sand, sandy loam and clay) had significant but different relationships between NPP and precipitation levels. Therefore, assessing the vulnerability of forests and forest dependent communities to drought was carried out using data from those sites that had one of those three soil textural classes. For example, forests growing on soil textures of sand and clay had NPP levels decreasing as precipitation levels increased, in contrast to those forest sites that had sandy loam soils where NPP levels increased. Also, forests growing on sandy loam soil textures appeared better adapted to grow at lower precipitation levels compared to the sand and clay textured soils. In fact in our tropical database the lowest precipitation level found for the sandy loam soils was 821 mm yr(-1) compared to sand at 1739 mm yr(-1) and clay at 1771 mm yr(-1). Soil texture also determined the level of NPP reached by a forest, i.e., forest growing on sandy loam and clay reached low-medium NPP levels while higher NPP levels (i.e., medium, high) were found on sand-textured soils. Intermediate precipitation levels (>1800-3000 mm yr(-1)) were needed to grow forests at the medium and high NPP levels. Low thresholds of NPP were identified at both low (∼750 mm) and high precipitation

  4. Sustainable development and use of ecosystems with non-forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-forest trees are components of managed ecosystems including orchards and agroforestry systems and natural ecosystems such as savannas and riparian corridors. Each of these ecosystems includes trees but does not have a complete tree canopy or spatial extent necessary to create a true forest ecosy...

  5. A framework for developing urban forest ecosystem services and goods indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynnamon Dobbs; Francisco J. Escobedo; Wayne C. Zipperer

    2011-01-01

    The social and ecological processes impacting on urban forests have been studied at multiple temporal and spatial scales in order to help us quantify, monitor, and value the ecosystem services that benefit people. Few studies have comprehensively analyzed the full suite of ecosystem services, goods (ESG), and ecosystem disservices provided by an urban forest....

  6. The Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project: inception, objectives, and progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared Verner; Mark T. Smith

    2002-01-01

    The Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project, a formal administrative study involving extensive and intensive collaboration between Forest Service managers and researchers, is a response to changes in the agency’s orientation in favor of ecosystem approaches and to recent concern over issues associated with maintenance of late successional forest attributes...

  7. Forest-land conversion, ecosystem services, and economic issues for policy: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Smail; David J. Lewis

    2009-01-01

    The continued conversion and development of forest land pose a serious threat to the ecosystem services derived from forested landscapes. We argue that developing an understanding of the full range of consequences from forest conversion requires understanding the effects of such conversion on both components of ecosystem services: products and processes....

  8. A review of malaria transmission dynamics in forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Malaria continues to be a major health problem in more than 100 endemic countries located primarily in tropical and sub-tropical regions around the world. Malaria transmission is a dynamic process and involves many interlinked factors, from uncontrollable natural environmental conditions to man-made disturbances to nature. Almost half of the population at risk of malaria lives in forest areas. Forests are hot beds of malaria transmission as they provide conditions such as vegetation cover, temperature, rainfall and humidity conditions that are conducive to distribution and survival of malaria vectors. Forests often lack infrastructure and harbor tribes with distinct genetic traits, socio-cultural beliefs and practices that greatly influence malaria transmission dynamics. Here we summarize the various topographical, entomological, parasitological, human ecological and socio-economic factors, which are crucial and shape malaria transmission in forested areas. An in-depth understanding and synthesis of the intricate relationship of these parameters in achieving better malaria control in various types of forest ecosystems is emphasized. PMID:24912923

  9. Forest biodiversity, carbon and other ecosystem services: relationships and impacts of deforestation and forest degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian D. Thompson; Joice Ferreira; Toby Gardner; Manuel Guariguata; Lian Pin Koh; Kimiko Okabe; Yude Pan; Christine B. Schmitt; Jason Tylianakis; Jos Barlow; Valerie Kapos; Werner A. Kurz; John A. Parrotta; Mark D. Spalding; Nathalie. van Vliet

    2012-01-01

    REDD+ actions should be based on the best science and on the understanding that forests can provide more than a repository for carbon but also offer a wide range of services beneficial to people. Biodiversity underpins many ecosystem services, one of which is carbon sequestration, and individual species’ functional traits play an important role in determining...

  10. A new estimate of carbon for Bangladesh forest ecosystems with their spatial distribution and REDD+ implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukul, Sharif A.; Biswas, Shekhar R.; Rashid, A. Z. M. Manzoor

    2014-01-01

    in forest ecosystems. Using available published data, we provide here a new and more reliable estimate of carbon in Bangladesh forest ecosystems, along with their geo-spatial distribution. Our study reveals great variability in carbon density in different forests and higher carbon stock in the mangrove...... ecosystems, followed by in hill forests and in inland Sal (Shorea robusta) forests in the country. Due to its coverage, degraded nature, and diverse stakeholder engagement, the hill forests of Bangladesh can be used to obtain maximum REDD+ benefits. Further research on carbon and biodiversity in under...

  11. Aquatic biodiversity in forests: A weak link in ecosystem services resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaluna, Brooke E.; Olson, Deanna H.; Flitcroft, Rebecca L; Weber, Matthew A.; Bellmore, J. Ryan; Wondzell, Steven M.; Dunham, Jason; Johnson, Sherri L.; Reeves, Gordon H.

    2017-01-01

    The diversity of aquatic ecosystems is being quickly reduced on many continents, warranting a closer examination of the consequences for ecological integrity and ecosystem services. Here we describe intermediate and final ecosystem services derived from aquatic biodiversity in forests. We include a summary of the factors framing the assembly of aquatic biodiversity in forests in natural systems and how they change with a variety of natural disturbances and human-derived stressors. We consider forested aquatic ecosystems as a multi-state portfolio, with diverse assemblages and life-history strategies occurring at local scales as a consequence of a mosaic of habitat conditions and past disturbances and stressors. Maintaining this multi-state portfolio of assemblages requires a broad perspective of ecosystem structure, various functions, services, and management implications relative to contemporary stressors. Because aquatic biodiversity provides multiple ecosystem services to forests, activities that compromise aquatic ecosystems and biodiversity could be an issue for maintaining forest ecosystem integrity. We illustrate these concepts with examples of aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem services in forests of northwestern North America, also known as Northeast Pacific Rim. Encouraging management planning at broad as well as local spatial scales to recognize multi-state ecosystem management goals has promise for maintaining valuable ecosystem services. Ultimately, integration of information from socio-ecological ecosystems will be needed to maintain ecosystem services derived directly and indirectly from forest aquatic biota.

  12. Dynamics of Ecosystem Services during Forest Transitions in Reventazón, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, Améline; Locatelli, Bruno; Levrel, Harold; Brenes Pérez, Christian; Imbach, Pablo; Estrada Carmona, Natalia; Manlay, Raphaël; Oszwald, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The forest transition framework describes the temporal changes of forest areas with economic development. A first phase of forest contraction is followed by a second phase of expansion once a turning point is reached. This framework does not differentiate forest types or ecosystem services, and describes forests regardless of their contribution to human well-being. For several decades, deforestation in many tropical regions has degraded ecosystem services, such as watershed regulation, while increasing provisioning services from agriculture, for example, food. Forest transitions and expansion have been observed in some countries, but their consequences for ecosystem services are often unclear. We analyzed the implications of forest cover change on ecosystem services in Costa Rica, where a forest transition has been suggested. A review of literature and secondary data on forest and ecosystem services in Costa Rica indicated that forest transition might have led to an ecosystem services transition. We modeled and mapped the changes of selected ecosystem services in the upper part of the Reventazón watershed and analyzed how supply changed over time in order to identify possible transitions in ecosystem services. The modeled changes of ecosystem services is similar to the second phase of a forest transition but no turning point was identified, probably because of the limited temporal scope of the analysis. Trends of provisioning and regulating services and their tradeoffs were opposite in different spatial subunits of our study area, which highlights the importance of scale in the analysis of ecosystem services and forest transitions. The ecosystem services transition framework proposed in this study is useful for analyzing the temporal changes of ecosystem services and linking socio-economic drivers to ecosystem services demand at different scales.

  13. Biodiversity as a solution to mitigate climate change impacts on the functioning of forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisano, Masumi; Searle, Eric B; Chen, Han Y H

    2018-02-01

    Forest ecosystems are critical to mitigating greenhouse gas emissions through carbon sequestration. However, climate change has affected forest ecosystem functioning in both negative and positive ways, and has led to shifts in species/functional diversity and losses in plant species diversity which may impair the positive effects of diversity on ecosystem functioning. Biodiversity may mitigate climate change impacts on (I) biodiversity itself, as more-diverse systems could be more resilient to climate change impacts, and (II) ecosystem functioning through the positive relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning. By surveying the literature, we examined how climate change has affected forest ecosystem functioning and plant diversity. Based on the biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning (B→EF), we specifically address the potential for biodiversity to mitigate climate change impacts on forest ecosystem functioning. For this purpose, we formulate a concept whereby biodiversity may reduce the negative impacts or enhance the positive impacts of climate change on ecosystem functioning. Further B→EF studies on climate change in natural forests are encouraged to elucidate how biodiversity might influence ecosystem functioning. This may be achieved through the detailed scrutiny of large spatial/long temporal scale data sets, such as long-term forest inventories. Forest management strategies based on B→EF have strong potential for augmenting the effectiveness of the roles of forests in the mitigation of climate change impacts on ecosystem functioning. © 2017 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  14. Advances of air pollution science: from forest decline to multiple-stress effects on forest ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, E; Schaub, M; Matyssek, R; Wieser, G; Augustaitis, A; Bastrup-Birk, A M; Bytnerowicz, A; Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Müller-Starck, G; Serengil, Y

    2010-06-01

    Over the past 20 years, the focus of forest science on air pollution has moved from forest decline to a holistic framework of forest health, and from the effects on forest production to the ecosystem services provided by forest ecosystems. Hence, future research should focus on the interacting factorial impacts and resulting antagonistic and synergistic responses of forest trees and ecosystems. The synergistic effects of air pollution and climatic changes, in particular elevated ozone, altered nitrogen, carbon and water availability, must be key issues for research. Present evidence suggests air pollution will become increasingly harmful to forests under climate change, which requires integration amongst various stressors (abiotic and biotic factors, including competition, parasites and fire), effects on forest services (production, biodiversity protection, soil protection, sustained water balance, socio-economical relevance) and assessment approaches (research, monitoring, modeling) to be fostered. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A large-scale forest fragmentation experiment: the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, Robert M; Didham, Raphael K; Fahrig, Lenore; Ferraz, Gonçalo; Hector, Andy; Holt, Robert D; Kapos, Valerie; Reynolds, Glen; Sinun, Waidi; Snaddon, Jake L; Turner, Edgar C

    2011-11-27

    Opportunities to conduct large-scale field experiments are rare, but provide a unique opportunity to reveal the complex processes that operate within natural ecosystems. Here, we review the design of existing, large-scale forest fragmentation experiments. Based on this review, we develop a design for the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems (SAFE) Project, a new forest fragmentation experiment to be located in the lowland tropical forests of Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia). The SAFE Project represents an advance on existing experiments in that it: (i) allows discrimination of the effects of landscape-level forest cover from patch-level processes; (ii) is designed to facilitate the unification of a wide range of data types on ecological patterns and processes that operate over a wide range of spatial scales; (iii) has greater replication than existing experiments; (iv) incorporates an experimental manipulation of riparian corridors; and (v) embeds the experimentally fragmented landscape within a wider gradient of land-use intensity than do existing projects. The SAFE Project represents an opportunity for ecologists across disciplines to participate in a large initiative designed to generate a broad understanding of the ecological impacts of tropical forest modification.

  16. A large-scale forest fragmentation experiment: the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, Robert M.; Didham, Raphael K.; Fahrig, Lenore; Ferraz, Gonçalo; Hector, Andy; Holt, Robert D.; Kapos, Valerie; Reynolds, Glen; Sinun, Waidi; Snaddon, Jake L.; Turner, Edgar C.

    2011-01-01

    Opportunities to conduct large-scale field experiments are rare, but provide a unique opportunity to reveal the complex processes that operate within natural ecosystems. Here, we review the design of existing, large-scale forest fragmentation experiments. Based on this review, we develop a design for the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems (SAFE) Project, a new forest fragmentation experiment to be located in the lowland tropical forests of Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia). The SAFE Project represents an advance on existing experiments in that it: (i) allows discrimination of the effects of landscape-level forest cover from patch-level processes; (ii) is designed to facilitate the unification of a wide range of data types on ecological patterns and processes that operate over a wide range of spatial scales; (iii) has greater replication than existing experiments; (iv) incorporates an experimental manipulation of riparian corridors; and (v) embeds the experimentally fragmented landscape within a wider gradient of land-use intensity than do existing projects. The SAFE Project represents an opportunity for ecologists across disciplines to participate in a large initiative designed to generate a broad understanding of the ecological impacts of tropical forest modification. PMID:22006969

  17. Unresolving the "real age" of fine roots in forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solly, Emily; Brunner, Ivano; Herzog, Claude; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Schweigruber, Fritz; Trumbore, Susan; Hagedorn, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Estimating the turnover time of tree fine roots is crucial for modelling soil organic matter dynamics, but it is one of the biggest challenges in soil ecology and one of the least understood aspects of the belowground carbon cycle. The methods used - ranging from radiocarbon to ingrowth cores and root cameras (minirhizotrons) - yield very diverse pictures of fine root dynamics in forest ecosystems with turnover rates reaching from less than one year to decades. These have huge implications on estimates of carbon allocation to root growth and maintenance and on the persistence of root carbon in soils before it is decomposed or leached. We will present a new approach, involving techniques to study plant anatomy, which unravels the "real age" of fine roots. For a range of forests with diverse water and nutrient limitations located at different latitudes, we investigated the annual growth rings in the secondary xylem of thin transversal sections of fine roots belonging to tree species which form distinct growth rings. In temperate forests we find mean root "ring ages" of 1-2 years while in sub-arctic forests living fine roots can also persist for several years. The robustness of these results were tested by counting the maximum yearly growth rings in tree seedlings of known age and by counting the maximum number of growth rings of fine roots grown in ingrowth cores which were kept in temperate forest soils for one and two years. Radiocarbon estimates of mean "carbon ages", which define the time elapsed since structural carbon was fixed from the atmosphere, instead average around a decade in root systems of temperate forests (mixture of newly produced and older living roots). This dramatic difference may not be related to methodological bias, but to a time lag between C assimilation and production of a portion of fine root tissues due to the storage of older carbon components. The time lag depends very likely on tree species and environmental conditions. We further

  18. Ecosystem Services and Opportunity Costs Shift Spatial Priorities for Conserving Forest Biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroter, M.; Rusch, G.M.; Barton, D.N.; Blumentrath, S.; Nordén, B.

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion of spatially explicit information on ecosystem services in conservation planning is a fairly new practice. This study analyses how the incorporation of ecosystem services as conservation features can affect conservation of forest biodiversity and how different opportunity cost constraints

  19. A review of impacts by invasive exotic plants on forest ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Devine; Songlin. Fei

    2011-01-01

    Many of our forest ecosystems are at risk due to the invasion of exotic invasive plant species. Invasive plant species pose numerous threats to ecosystems by decreasing biodiversity, deteriorating ecosystem processes, and degrading ecosystem services. Literature on Kentucky's most invasive exotic plant species was examined to understand their potential impacts on...

  20. Influence of forest planning alternatives on landscape pattern and ecosystem processes in northern Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick A. Zollner; L. Jay Roberts; Eric J. Gustafson; Hong S. He; Volker Radeloff

    2008-01-01

    Incorporating an ecosystem management perspective into forest planning requires consideration of the impacts of timber management on a suite of landscape characteristics at broad spatial and long temporal scales. We used the LANDIS forest landscape simulation model to predict forest composition and landscape pattern under seven alternative forest management plans...

  1. Potential increases in natural disturbance rates could offset forest management impacts on ecosystem carbon stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John B. Bradford; Nicholas R. Jensen; Grant M. Domke; Anthony W. D' Amato

    2013-01-01

    Forested ecosystems contain the majority of the world’s terrestrial carbon, and forest management has implications for regional and global carbon cycling. Carbon stored in forests changes with stand age and is affected by natural disturbance and timber harvesting. We examined how harvesting and disturbance interact to influence forest carbon stocks over the Superior...

  2. Dynamics of novel forests of Castilla elastica in Puerto Rico: from species to ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica Fonseca da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Novel forests (NFs)—forests that contain a combination of introduced and native species—are a consequence of intense anthropogenic disturbances and the natural resilience of disturbed ecosystems. The extent to which NFs have similar forest function as comparable native secondary forests is a matter of debate in the scientific community. Little is known about the...

  3. The Function and Value of Water Conservation of Forest Ecosystem in Gongbo Nature Reserve of Tibet

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jia; Fang, Jiang-ping; Li, Ping; Guo, Jian-bin; Lu, Jie; Yuan, Qing-juan

    2012-01-01

    Gongbo Nature Reserve, located in Nyingchi of Tibet, is by far the largest construction project of forest reserves that China approves and invests in. This article adopts the shadow project method, and estimates the water conservation function of forest ecosystem of Gongbo Nature Reserve based on the Specifications for Assessment of Forest Ecosystem Services in China promulgated by State Forestry Administration of China. The results show that the total value of water conservation of forest ec...

  4. Rational use of the forest indirect utilization — the key to sustainable development of forest ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    L.I. Saharnatska

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the ecological and economic characteristics of the utilization, protection and restoration of the collateral products of forest management. A number of measures aimed at sustainable and long-term utilization and reproduction based on environmental requirements has been analyzed. Role of the collateral products of forest use in the context of sustainable development of forest ecosystems has been highlighted

  5. Managing forests as ecosystems: A success story or a challenge ahead?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, V.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1997-10-01

    To manage forests as ecosystems, the many values they hold for different users must be recognized, and they must be used so that those assets are not destroyed. Important ecosystem features of forests include nutrient cycling, habitat, succession, and water quality. Over time, the ways in which humans value forests have changed as forest uses have altered and as forests have declined in size and quality. Both ecosystem science and forest ecology have developed approaches that are useful to manage forests to retain their value. A historical perspective shows how changes in ecology, legislation, and technology have resulted in modern forest-management practices. However, current forest practices are still a decade or so behind current ecosystem science. Ecologists have done a good job of transferring their theories and approaches to the forest manager classroom but have done a poor job of translating these concepts into practice. Thus, the future for ecosystem management requires a closer linkage between ecologists and other disciplines. For example, the changing ways in which humans value forests are the primary determinant of forest-management policies. Therefore, if ecologists are to understand how ecosystem science can influence these policies, they must work closely with social scientists trained to assess human values.

  6. Impact of cloudiness on net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide in different types of forest ecosystems in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zhang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Clouds can significantly affect carbon exchange process between forest ecosystems and the atmosphere by influencing the quantity and quality of solar radiation received by ecosystem's surface and other environmental factors. In this study, we analyzed the effects of cloudiness on net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE in a temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest at Changbaishan (CBS and a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest at Dinghushan (DHS, based on the flux data obtained during June–August from 2003 to 2006. The results showed that the response of NEE of forest ecosystems to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR differed under clear skies and cloudy skies. Compared with clear skies, the light-saturated maximum photosynthetic rate (Pec,max at CBS under cloudy skies during mid-growing season (from June to August increased by 34%, 25%, 4% and 11% in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006, respectively. In contrast, Pec,max of the forest ecosystem at DHS was higher under clear skies than under cloudy skies from 2004 to 2006. When the clearness index (kt ranged between 0.4 and 0.6, the NEE reached its maximum at both CBS and DHS. However, the NEE decreased more dramatically at CBS than at DHS when kt exceeded 0.6. The results indicate that cloudy sky conditions are beneficial to net carbon uptake in the temperate forest ecosystem and the subtropical forest ecosystem. Under clear skies, vapor pressure deficit (VPD and air temperature increased due to strong light. These environmental conditions led to greater decrease in gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP and greater increase in ecosystem respiration (Re at CBS than at DHS. As a result, clear sky conditions caused more reduction of NEE in the temperate forest ecosystem than in the subtropical forest ecosystem. The response of NEE of different forest ecosystems to the changes in

  7. Tree diversity does not always improve resistance of forest ecosystems to drought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossiord, Charlotte; Granier, André; Ratcliffe, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Climate models predict an increase in the intensity and frequency of drought episodes in the Northern Hemisphere. Among terrestrial ecosystems, forests will be profoundly impacted by drier climatic conditions, with drastic consequences for the functions and services they supply. Simultaneously......, biodiversity is known to support a wide range of forest ecosystem functions and services. However, whether biodiversity also improves the resistance of these ecosystems to drought remains unclear. We compared soil drought exposure levels in a total of 160 forest stands within five major forest types across...... in two forest types, suggesting that species interactions in these forests diminished the drought exposure of the ecosystem. However, the other three forest types were unaffected by tree species diversity. We conclude that higher diversity enhances resistance to drought events only in drought...

  8. Forest fragmentation and selective logging have inconsistent effects on multiple animal-mediated ecosystem processes in a tropical forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schleuning

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation and selective logging are two main drivers of global environmental change and modify biodiversity and environmental conditions in many tropical forests. The consequences of these changes for the functioning of tropical forest ecosystems have rarely been explored in a comprehensive approach. In a Kenyan rainforest, we studied six animal-mediated ecosystem processes and recorded species richness and community composition of all animal taxa involved in these processes. We used linear models and a formal meta-analysis to test whether forest fragmentation and selective logging affected ecosystem processes and biodiversity and used structural equation models to disentangle direct from biodiversity-related indirect effects of human disturbance on multiple ecosystem processes. Fragmentation increased decomposition and reduced antbird predation, while selective logging consistently increased pollination, seed dispersal and army-ant raiding. Fragmentation modified species richness or community composition of five taxa, whereas selective logging did not affect any component of biodiversity. Changes in the abundance of functionally important species were related to lower predation by antbirds and higher decomposition rates in small forest fragments. The positive effects of selective logging on bee pollination, bird seed dispersal and army-ant raiding were direct, i.e. not related to changes in biodiversity, and were probably due to behavioural changes of these highly mobile animal taxa. We conclude that animal-mediated ecosystem processes respond in distinct ways to different types of human disturbance in Kakamega Forest. Our findings suggest that forest fragmentation affects ecosystem processes indirectly by changes in biodiversity, whereas selective logging influences processes directly by modifying local environmental conditions and resource distributions. The positive to neutral effects of selective logging on ecosystem processes

  9. Forest fragmentation and selective logging have inconsistent effects on multiple animal-mediated ecosystem processes in a tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleuning, Matthias; Farwig, Nina; Peters, Marcell K; Bergsdorf, Thomas; Bleher, Bärbel; Brandl, Roland; Dalitz, Helmut; Fischer, Georg; Freund, Wolfram; Gikungu, Mary W; Hagen, Melanie; Garcia, Francisco Hita; Kagezi, Godfrey H; Kaib, Manfred; Kraemer, Manfred; Lung, Tobias; Naumann, Clas M; Schaab, Gertrud; Templin, Mathias; Uster, Dana; Wägele, J Wolfgang; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and selective logging are two main drivers of global environmental change and modify biodiversity and environmental conditions in many tropical forests. The consequences of these changes for the functioning of tropical forest ecosystems have rarely been explored in a comprehensive approach. In a Kenyan rainforest, we studied six animal-mediated ecosystem processes and recorded species richness and community composition of all animal taxa involved in these processes. We used linear models and a formal meta-analysis to test whether forest fragmentation and selective logging affected ecosystem processes and biodiversity and used structural equation models to disentangle direct from biodiversity-related indirect effects of human disturbance on multiple ecosystem processes. Fragmentation increased decomposition and reduced antbird predation, while selective logging consistently increased pollination, seed dispersal and army-ant raiding. Fragmentation modified species richness or community composition of five taxa, whereas selective logging did not affect any component of biodiversity. Changes in the abundance of functionally important species were related to lower predation by antbirds and higher decomposition rates in small forest fragments. The positive effects of selective logging on bee pollination, bird seed dispersal and army-ant raiding were direct, i.e. not related to changes in biodiversity, and were probably due to behavioural changes of these highly mobile animal taxa. We conclude that animal-mediated ecosystem processes respond in distinct ways to different types of human disturbance in Kakamega Forest. Our findings suggest that forest fragmentation affects ecosystem processes indirectly by changes in biodiversity, whereas selective logging influences processes directly by modifying local environmental conditions and resource distributions. The positive to neutral effects of selective logging on ecosystem processes show that the

  10. Assessing the ecosystem service potential of Tucson AZ's urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavao-Zuckerman, M.

    2011-12-01

    canopy photos) to asses growth of the trees in the urban environment. These growth rates, and associated ecosystem services (C-sequestration, energy savings, pollution mitigation, etc.) are evaluated using US Forest Service models (Tree Carbon Calculator and i-tree software) to determine how the performance of trees in the Tucson urban environment perform vs. model predictions. We hypothesize that the models overestimate tree performance as Tucson differs in water availability relative to the cities the model was parameterized in (e.g. Glendale), both in terms of soil water holding capacities and also city "water culture." This preliminary study will provide a data collection framework for a citizen science urban forestry project which will provide data to improve environmental decision making related to the interaction of plants, water, and energy balance in this arid city.

  11. Central Appalachians forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Central Appalachians Climate Change Response Framework project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia R. Butler; Louis Iverson; Frank R. Thompson; Leslie Brandt; Stephen Handler; Maria Janowiak; P. Danielle Shannon; Chris Swanston; Kent Karriker; Jarel Bartig; Stephanie Connolly; William Dijak; Scott Bearer; Steve Blatt; Andrea Brandon; Elizabeth Byers; Cheryl Coon; Tim Culbreth; Jad Daly; Wade Dorsey; David Ede; Chris Euler; Neil Gillies; David M. Hix; Catherine Johnson; Latasha Lyte; Stephen Matthews; Dawn McCarthy; Dave Minney; Daniel Murphy; Claire O’Dea; Rachel Orwan; Matthew Peters; Anantha Prasad; Cotton Randall; Jason Reed; Cynthia Sandeno; Tom Schuler; Lesley Sneddon; Bill Stanley; Al Steele; Susan Stout; Randy Swaty; Jason Teets; Tim Tomon; Jim Vanderhorst; John Whatley; Nicholas. Zegre

    2015-01-01

    Forest ecosystems in the Central Appalachians will be affected directly and indirectly by a changing climate over the 21st century. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of forest ecosystems in the Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest-Coniferous Forest-Meadow and Eastern Broadleaf Forest Provinces of Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland for a range of future...

  12. Managing forest ecosystems to conserve fungus diversity and sustain wild mushroom harvests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Pilz; R. Molina

    1996-01-01

    Ecosystem management is the dominant paradigm for managing the forests of the Pacific Northwest. It integrates biological, ecological, geophysical, and silvicultural information to develop adaptive management practices that conserve biological diversity and maintain ecosystem functioning while meeting human needs for the sustainable production of forest products. Fungi...

  13. Intensive monitoring of forest ecosystems in Europe; 1 objectives, set-up and evaluation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Vel, E.M.; Reinds, G.J.; Deelstra, H.; Klap, J.M.; Leeters, E.E.J.M.; Hendriks, C.M.A.; Kerkvoorden, M.; Landmann, G.; Herkendell, J.; Haussmann, T.; Erisman, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    In order to contribute to a better understanding of the impact of air pollution and other environmental factors on forest ecosystems, a Pan-European Programme for Intensive and Continuous Monitoring of Forest Ecosystems has been implemented in 1994. Results of the Programme must contribute to a

  14. Linking an ecosystem model and a landscape model to study forest species response to climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong S. He; David J. Mladenoff; Thomas R. Crow

    1999-01-01

    No single model can address forest change from single tree to regional scales. We discuss a framework linking an ecosystem process model {LINKAGES) with a spatial landscape model (LANDIS) to examine forest species responses to climate warming for a large, heterogeneous landscape in northern Wisconsin, USA. Individual species response at the ecosystem scale was...

  15. Biomass is the main driver of changes in ecosystem process rates during tropical forest succession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohbeck, M.W.M.; Poorter, L.; Martinez-Ramos, M.; Bongers, F.

    2015-01-01

    Over half of the world's forests are disturbed, and the rate at which ecosystem processes recover after disturbance is important for the services these forests can provide. We analyze the drivers' underlying changes in rates of key ecosystem processes (biomass productivity, litter productivity,

  16. Pattern and dynamics of the ground vegetation in south Swedish Carpinus betulus forests. Importance of soil chemistry and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Conservation Biology, Uppsala (Sweden); Falkengren-Grerup, U.; Tyler, G. [Plant Ecology, Dept. of Ecology, Lund (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    The vegetation and environmental conditions of south Swedish horn-beam Carpinus betulus forests are described with data from 35 permanent sample plots. The main floristic gradient of the ground vegetation is closely related to acid-base properties of the top soil: Base saturation, pH and organic matter content. Other floristic differences are related to tree canopy cover and the distance of the sample plots to the Baltic coast. Species richness of herbaceous plants typical of forests increases with soil pH. The number of other herbaceous species, occurring in both forests and open habitats, and of woody species is not related to pH. Comparisons of vegetation data from 1983 and 1993 show relatively small compositional differences of the herbaceous forest flora. The number of other herbaceous species increased considerably in those plots where canopy trees had been cut after 1983. The number of new species in managed plots increases with soil pH. Species losses and gains of the herbaceous forest flora between 1983 and 1993 are generally lower as compared with other herbaceous species and woody species. However, the ground cover of herbaceous forest species, especially of Oxalis acetosella and Lamium galeobdolon, was considerably lower in 1993 as compared to 1983 in both unmanaged and managed plots. Possible explanations for this decrease are current soil acidification and drought during the growing season. (au) 32 refs.

  17. Passive nighttime warming facility for forest ecosystem research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxmoore, R. J.; Hanson, P. J.; Beauchamp, J. J.; Joslin, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    A nighttime warming experiment is proposed. Over the last four decades a significant rise in nighttime minimum temperature has been determined from analysis of meteorological records from a global distribution of locations. The experiment involves nighttime deployment of infrared (IR) reflecting curtains around four sides of a forest canopy and across the top of the forest to mimic the top-down warming effect of cloud cover. The curtains are deployed with cable and pulley systems mounted on a tower and scaffolding structure built around the selected forest site. The trunk space is not enclosed except as an optional manipulation. The curtains reflect long-wave radiation emitted from the forest and ground back into the forest warming the trees, litter, and soil. Excellent infrared reflection can be obtained with commercially available fabrics that have aluminum foil bonded to one side. A canopy warming of 3 to 5 degrees C is expected on cloudless nights, and on cloudy nights, a warming of 1 to 3 degrees C is anticipated relative to a control plot. The curtains are withdrawn by computer control during the day and also at night during periods with precipitation or excessive wind. Examples of hypothesized ecosystem responses to nighttime warming include: (1) increase in tree maintenance respiration (decreasing carbon reserves and ultimately tree growth), (2) increase in the length of the growing season (increasing growth), (3) increase in soil respiration, (4) increase in litter decomposition, (5) increase in mineralization of N and other nutrients from soil organic matter, (6) increase in nutrient uptake (increasing growth), and (7) increase in N immobilization in litter. Hypothesis 1 has the opposite consequence for tree growth to Hypotheses 2 and 6, and thus opposite consequences for the feedback regulation that vegetation has on net greenhouse gas releases to the atmosphere. If Hypothesis 1 is dominant, warming could lead to more warming from the additional CO(2

  18. Significant increase in ecosystem C can be achieved with sustainable forest management in subtropical plantation forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A

    2014-01-01

    Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500-2500 trees ha⁻¹. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir--Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr⁻¹, offsetting 1.9% of China's annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber products

  19. Significant increase in ecosystem C can be achieved with sustainable forest management in subtropical plantation forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Wei

    Full Text Available Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500-2500 trees ha⁻¹. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir--Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr⁻¹, offsetting 1.9% of China's annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production

  20. Impacts of elevated carbon dioxide and temperature on a boreal forest ecosystem (CLIMEX project)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breemen, N. van; Jenkins, A.; Wright, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of climate change on boreal forest ecosystems, both atmospheric CO2 (to 560 ppmv) and air temperature (by 3 degrees-5 degrees C above ambient) were increased at a forested headwater catchment in southern Norway. The entire catchment (860 m(2)) is enclosed within....... While the ecosystem now loses N, the long-term fate of soil N is a key uncertainty in predicting the future response of boreal ecosystems to climate change....

  1. Forest management type influences diversity and community composition of soil fungi across temperate forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezia eGoldmann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fungal communities have been shown to be highly sensitive towards shifts in plant diversity and species composition in forest ecosystems. However, little is known about the impact of forest management on fungal diversity and community composition of geographically separated sites. This study examined the effects of four different forest management types on soil fungal communities. These forest management types include age class forests of young managed beech (Fagus sylvatica L., with beech stands age of approximately 30 years, age class beech stands with an age of approximately 70 years, unmanaged beech stands, and coniferous stands dominated by either pine (Pinus sylvestris L. or spruce (Picea abies Karst. which are located in three study sites across Germany. Soil were sampled from 48 study plots and we employed fungal ITS rDNA pyrotag sequencing to assess the soil fungal diversity and community structure.We found that forest management type significantly affects the Shannon diversity of soil fungi and a significant interaction effect of study site and forest management on the fungal OTU richness. Consequently distinct fungal communities were detected in the three study sites and within the four forest management types, which were mainly related to the main tree species. Further analysis of the contribution of soil properties revealed that C/N ratio being the most important factor in all the three study sites whereas soil pH was significantly related to the fungal community in two study sites. Functional assignment of the fungal communities indicated that 38% of the observed communities were Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM and their distribution is significantly influenced by the forest management. Soil pH and C/N ratio were found to be the main drivers of the ECM fungal community composition. Additional fungal community similarity analysis revealed the presence of study site and management type specific ECM genera.This study extends our knowledge

  2. Forest ecosystems and environments scaling up from shoot module to watershed

    CERN Document Server

    Kohyama, Takashi; Ojima, Dennis S

    2005-01-01

    Coastal East and Southeast Asia are characterized by wet growing seasons, and species-rich forest ecosystems develop throughout the latitudinal and altitudinal gradients. In this region, the Global Change Impacts on Terrestrial Ecosystems in Monsoon Asia (TEMA) project was carried out as a unique contribution to the international project Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems. TEMA aimed to integrate forest ecosystem processes, from leaf physiology to meteorological budget and prediction of long-term change of vegetation composition and architecture through demographic processes. Special attention was given to watershed processes, where forest ecosystem metabolism affects the properties and biogeochemical budgets of freshwater ecosystems, and where rivers, wetlands, and lakes are subject to direct and indirect effects of environmental change. This volume presents the scaling-up concept for better understanding of ecosystem functioning.

  3. Locating provisioning ecosystem services in urban forests: Forageable woody species in New York City, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick T. Hurley; Marla R. Emery

    2017-01-01

    Scholarship on the ecosystem services provided by urban forests has focused on regulating and supporting services, with a growing body of research examining provisioning and cultural ecosystem services from farms and gardens in metropolitan areas. Using the case of New York, New York, USA, we propose a method to assess the supply of potential provisioning ecosystem...

  4. Climate Change and Ecosystem Services Output Efficiency in Southern Loblolly Pine Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susaeta, Andres; Adams, Damian C; Carter, Douglas R; Dwivedi, Puneet

    2016-09-01

    Forests provide myriad ecosystem services that are vital to humanity. With climate change, we expect to see significant changes to forests that will alter the supply of these critical services and affect human well-being. To better understand the impacts of climate change on forest-based ecosystem services, we applied a data envelopment analysis method to assess plot-level efficiency in the provision of ecosystem services in Florida natural loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forests. Using field data for n = 16 loblolly pine forest plots, including inputs such as site index, tree density, age, precipitation, and temperatures for each forest plot, we assessed the relative plot-level production of three ecosystem services: timber, carbon sequestered, and species richness. The results suggested that loblolly pine forests in Florida were largely inefficient in the provision of these ecosystem services under current climatic conditions. Climate change had a small negative impact on the loblolly pine forests efficiency in the provision of ecosystem services. In this context, we discussed the reduction of tree density that may not improve ecosystem services production.

  5. Terrestrial Liming As a Restoration Technique for Acidified Forest Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Pabian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of liming on soils and forest songbirds as well as vegetation and calcium-rich invertebrate prey variables that were predicted to link birds to changes in soil conditions. We observed increases in soil pH, calcium, and magnesium, as well as in songbird abundances in response to lime application, with continuing increases through five years after liming. We observed an overall increase in snail abundance on limed sites, but an initial peak of a 23 fold increase three years after liming was reduced to an 11 fold increase five years after liming. We observed an increase in forb ground cover on limed sites, but liming had no effect on millipede abundance or other vegetation measures. Of the variables we measured, snail abundance was the most likely mechanism for the response in bird abundances. Because we observed continued benefits of liming up to five years post treatment, we concluded that liming is a very promising technique for restoring forest ecosystems impacted by acidic deposition.

  6. Effects of nutrient additions on ecosystem carbon cycle in a Puerto Rican tropical wet forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    YIQING LI; MING XU; XIAOMING ZOU

    2006-01-01

    Wet tropical forests play a critical role in global ecosystem carbon (C) cycle, but C allocation and the response of different C pools to nutrient addition in these forests remain poorly understood. We measured soil organic carbon (SOC), litterfall, root biomass, microbial biomass and soil physical and chemical properties in a wet tropical forest from May 1996 to July...

  7. Long-term trends from ecosystem research at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Campbell; Charles T. Driscoll; Christopher Eagar; Gene E. Likens; Thomas G. Siccama; Chris E. Johnson; Timothy J. Fahey; Steven P. Hamburg; Richard T. Holmes; Amey S. Bailey; Donald C. Buso

    2007-01-01

    Summarizes 52 years of collaborative, long-term research conducted at the Hubbard Brook (NH) Experimental Forest on ecosystem response to disturbances such as air pollution, climate change, forest disturbance, and forest management practices. Also provides explanations of some of the trends and lists references from scientific literature for further reading.

  8. Managing ecosystems for forest health: An approach and the effects on uses and values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick D. Oliver; Dennis E. Ferguson; Alan E. Harvey; Herbert S. Malany; John M. Mandzak; Robert W. Mutch

    1994-01-01

    Forest health is most appropriately based on the scientific paradigm of dynamic, constantly changing forest ecosystems. Many forests in the Inland West now support high levels of insect infestations, disease epidemics, fire susceptibilities, and imbalances in stand structures and habitats because of natural processes and past management practices. Impending,...

  9. The role of remote sensing in process‐scaling studies of managed forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey G. Masek; Daniel J. Hayes; M. Joseph Hughes; Sean P. Healey; David P. Turner

    2015-01-01

    Sustaining forest resources requires a better understanding of forest ecosystem processes, and how management decisions and climate change may affect these processes in the future. While plot and inventory data provide our most detailed information on forest carbon, energy, and water cycling, applying this understanding to broader spatial and temporal domains...

  10. Assessing and comparing risk to climate changes among forested locations: implications for ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen N. Matthews; Louis R. Iverson; Matthew P. Peters; Anantha M. Prasad; Sakthi. Subburayalu

    2014-01-01

    Forests provide key ecosystem services (ES) and the extent to which the ES are realized varies spatially, with forest composition and cultural context, and in breadth, depending on the dominant tree species inhabiting an area. We address the question of how climate change may impact ES within the temperate and diverse forests of the eastern United States. We quantify...

  11. Integrating studies in the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project: Status and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Gwaze; Stephen Sheriff; John Kabrick; Larry. Vangilder

    2011-01-01

    The Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP), which was started in 1989 by the Missouri Department of Conservation, evaluates the effects of forest management practices (even-aged management, uneven-aged management, and no-harvest management) on upland oak-forest components in southern Missouri. MOFEP is a long-term, landscape-level, fully replicated, and...

  12. Effects of roads on elk: implications for management in forested ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary M. Rowland; Michael J. Wisdom; Bruce K. Johnson; Mark A. Penninger

    2004-01-01

    The effects of roads on both habitat and population responses of elk (Cervus elaphus) have been of keen interest to foresters and ungulate biologists for the last half century. Increased timber harvest in national forests, beginning in the 1960s, led to a proliferation of road networks in forested ecosystems inhabited by elk (Hieb 1976, Lyon and...

  13. System of measures on Ukraine forest ecosystems adaptation to the requirements of FSC certification

    OpenAIRE

    Martynchuk, I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with types of certificates at the Council of Forest Management FSC and criteria for forest certification. The interrelation between certification of forest ecosystems and production chain from producer to end-user has been analyzed. Main directions of adaptation contemporary forestry of FSC have been identified. The scheme automation of timber products has been developed

  14. Physical attributes of some clouds amid a forest ecosystem's trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFelice, Thomas P.

    2002-01-01

    Cloud or fog water collected by forest canopies of any elevation could represent significant sources of required moisture and nutrients for forest ecosystems, human consumption, and as an alternative source of water for agriculture and domestic use. The physical characteristics of fogs and other clouds have been well studied, and this information can be useful to water balance or canopy–cloud interaction model verification and to calibration or training of satellite-borne sensors to recognize atmospheric attributes, such as optical thickness, albedo, and cloud properties. These studies have taken place above-canopy or within canopy clearings and rarely amid the canopy. Simultaneous physical and chemical characteristics of clouds amid and above the trees of a mountain forest, located about 3.3 km southwest of Mt. Mitchell, NC, were collected between 13 and 22 June 1993. This paper summarizes the physical characteristics of the cloud portions amid the trees. The characteristic cloud amid the trees (including cloud and precipitation periods) contained 250 droplet/cm3 with a mean diameter of 9.5 μm and liquid water content (LWC) of 0.11 g m−3. The cloud droplets exhibited a bimodal distribution with modes at about 2 and 8 μm and a mean diameter near 5 μm during precipitation-free periods, whereas the concurrent above-canopy cloud droplets had a unimodal distribution with a mode near 6 μm and a mean diameter of 6 μm. The horizontal cloud water flux is nonlinearly related to the rate of collection onto that surface amid the trees, especially for the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center (ASRC) sampling device, whereas it is linear when the forward scattering spectrometer probe (FSSP) are is used. These findings suggest that statements about the effects clouds have on surfaces they encounter, which are based on above-canopy or canopy-clearing data, can be misleading, if not erroneous.

  15. Microbiological assessment of technogenicaly disturbed forest ecosystems in Central Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bogorodskaya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The state of soil microbial complexes of forest ecosystems of Central Siberia, disturbed by cutting, fires, emissions of pollutants and mining was investigated. The most appropriate indicators for early diagnosis of the condition and sustainability assessment of soils were the contents of microbial biomass, the intensity of the basal respiration and microbial metabolic quotient. Recorded time quantitative and structural-taxonomic restructuring of ecological trophic groups of microorganisms exhibited orientation of the elementary soil-biological processes and allowed detail to assess the state of soils of disturbed forest ecosystems. Successions of soil microorganisms reflected stages of plant succession after cutting. Structural and functional changes in the microbial soil complexes marked by only one-two years after cutting of coniferous forests. For the grassy stage in deciduous young stands, there was an increase in soil microbial activity that accompanied the development of the sod process. Microbiological processes were balanced and comparable to the control at the stage of closed 30-year-old stands. Post-fire recovery of the microbial soil complexes was determined by fire severity and by the properties of soils and vegetation succession. Functional activity of microbial soil complexes were recovered in one or two years after a low-intensity fires, whereas after high-intensity fires – was not recovered in eight years. Indicative responses of soil microorganisms in the sustainable impact of aggressive pollutants tundra zone of the Norilsk industrial region were registered at the functional and at the structural level. In areas of moderate and weak disturbances of vegetation, there were quantitative changes, whereas strong disturbances and constant exposure to pollutants marked structural and taxonomic adjustment of microbial soil complexes, disturbed dynamic processes of synthesis-mineralization and reduced adaptive capacity saprophytic

  16. Forest type effects on the retention of radiocesium in organic layers of forest ecosystems affected by the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Sanada, Yukihisa

    2016-12-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster caused serious radiocesium (137Cs) contamination of forest ecosystems over a wide area. Forest-floor organic layers play a key role in controlling the overall bioavailability of 137Cs in forest ecosystems; however, there is still an insufficient understanding of how forest types influence the retention capability of 137Cs in organic layers in Japanese forest ecosystems. Here we conducted plot-scale investigations on the retention of 137Cs in organic layers at two contrasting forest sites in Fukushima. In a deciduous broad-leaved forest, approximately 80% of the deposited 137Cs migrated to mineral soil located below the organic layers within two years after the accident, with an ecological half-life of approximately one year. Conversely, in an evergreen coniferous forest, more than half of the deposited 137Cs remained in the organic layers, with an ecological half-life of 2.1 years. The observed retention behavior can be well explained by the tree phenology and accumulation of 137Cs associated with litter materials with different degrees of degradation in the organic layers. Spatial and temporal patterns of gamma-ray dose rates depended on the retention capability. Our results demonstrate that enhanced radiation risks last longer in evergreen coniferous forests than in deciduous broad-leaved forests.

  17. Microbial responses to experimental warming in a peatland forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluber, L. A.; Hanson, P. J.; Schadt, C. W.

    2016-12-01

    The Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change (SPRUCE) experiment is a ten-year ecosystem manipulation experiment examining how peatland forests respond to increased temperature and CO2 levels. This experiment is expected to lead to various changes in ecosystem processes, including microbially mediated biogeochemical cycles that may ultimately alter the overall C balance of these ecosystems. The initial phase of this experiment began over the summer of 2014 by heating deep subsurface peat to +2.25, +4.5, +6.75 and +9.0 °C above ambient plots with a target heating zone of 1.5-2 meters depth. Whole ecosystem warming began the summer of 2015 with the addition of aboveground heating to the same target temperatures. The response of microbial communities to in-situ warming is assessed with qPCR and rRNA amplicon sequencing at eleven discrete depths across the peat profile to a depth of 200 cm. Additionally, metagenomic sequencing is used to characterize microbial metabolic and functional potential on four depths per profile. After one year of deep peat warming, microbial community structure and abundance of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and methanogenic populations showed strong vertical stratification across the peat depth profile yet no clear response to the temperature treatments. In an effort to identify factors that may be limiting decomposition and microbial community change in deep peat, we conducted a microcosm incubation of deep peat (150-200 cm depth) at 6 and 15 °C to mimic ambient and +9 °C SPRUCE conditions. Additional treatments included elevated pH and the addition of N and P. Microcosms were monitored for CO2 and CH4 production, and microbial community dynamics were assessed using qPCR and amplicon sequencing. Increasing temperature elevated both CO2 and CH4 production while elevated pH only resulted in greater CH4 production. The effects of elevating temperature and pH in combination with N, P, or N+P additions were more

  18. Hessian forest ecosystem study. Hessian forest ecosystem study 2004: Weather - water balance - gas concentrations; Waldoekosystemstudie Hessen. Waldzustandsbericht 2004: Witterung - Wasserhaushalt - Gaskonzentrationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paar, U.; Gawehn, P.; Scheler, B.; Schmidt, M.; Kolb, M.; Schoenfelder, E.; Eichhorn, J. (comps.) [Hessen-Forst, Hannoversch Muenden (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The Hessian Forest Ecosystem Study aims to document and explore changes to forest ecosystems as a result of emissions and climatic influences. Thus, it contributes importantly to a multifunctional and sustainable forest management. 2003 has been an exceptional warm and dry year. High precipitation during summer 2004 reduced some of the drought induced risks. However, crown condition assessments proved an increase of defoliation, mainly regarding young and old beech. Deposition of sulfur and acid components has been on a low level in 2003/2004. Input of acidity and sulfur caused changes in forest soils, therefore a well balance liming is recommended. A further reduction of nitrogen input in Hessian forests and ozone content of ambient air is required. (orig.)

  19. How forest management affects ecosystem services, including timber production and economic return

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duncker, Philipp S.; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Gundersen, Per

    2012-01-01

    processes. However, forests provide further services, including carbon sequestration, water quantity and quality, and preservation of biodiversity. In order to develop and implement strategies for sustainable forest management, it is important to anticipate the long-term effects of different forest......Forest ecosystems deliver multiple goods and services and, traditionally, forest owners tend to have a high interest in goods in the form of merchantable wood. As a consequence, forest management often aims to increase timber production and economic returns through intervention into natural...... management alternatives on the ability of the forest to provide ecosystem goods and services. Management objectives might emphasize economic interests at the expense of other services. Very few attempts have been made to illustrate and evaluate quantitatively the relationship between forest goods...

  20. Criterion 2: Maintenance of productive capacity of forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    People rely on forests, directly and indirectly, for a wide range of goods and services. Measures of forest productive capacity are indicators of the ability of forests to sustainably supply goods and services over time. An ongoing emphasis on maintaining productive capacity of forests can help ensure that utilization of forest resources does not impair long term...

  1. Forest ecosystems of South-Western Pribaikalie: contemporary status and mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Cherednikova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial structure of the natural ecosystems in the South-Western Pribaikalie is considered. In mountain-belt arrangement ecosystems are divided into mountain taiga, dark- and light coniferous, sub-taiga-forest steppe and steppe. A special group assigned the ecosystems of the river valleys. Within Goloustnensky landfill 53 kinds of ecosystems are allocated. Depending on geomorphological and lithological structures within the mountain taiga dark coniferous belt – 12, in mountain taiga light coniferous – 18, subtaiga-forest-steppe – 8, steppe ecosystems are represented by 4 and 11 – are formed in the river valleys. The main factor destabilizing the normal functioning of forest ecosystems in South-Western Pribaikalie is fire. In the region, almost all the forests were subjected to varying degrees of fire. Forest Fund is presented along with a conditional not impacted by fire areas, large burned areas of different age and with different trends in their recovery. It was found that the litter grassroots-humus fires of low and moderate intensity without damaging the forest stand, allow it to maintain basic edificator role, but destroy the undergrowth and thereby violate the normal course of forest renewing process. Evaluation of anthropogenic disturbance of forest ecosystems by fires and final felling have been designed. Fragments of the maps of natural and anthropogenically disturbed ecosystems at a scale of 1:200 000 within the Goloustnensky forestry district of Irkutsk region are presented. Assessment and mapping of ecosystems serves as a base for the organization of monitoring of the state of ecosystems, as well as to predict possible changes in its economic activities.

  2. Challenges for tree officers to enhance the provision of regulating ecosystem services from urban forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Helen J; Doick, Kieron J; Hudson, Malcolm D; Schreckenberg, Kate

    2017-07-01

    Urbanisation and a changing climate are leading to more frequent and severe flood, heat and air pollution episodes in Britain's cities. Interest in nature-based solutions to these urban problems is growing, with urban forests potentially able to provide a range of regulating ecosystem services such as stormwater attenuation, heat amelioration and air purification. The extent to which these benefits are realized is largely dependent on urban forest management objectives, the availability of funding, and the understanding of ecosystem service concepts within local governments, the primary delivery agents of urban forests. This study aims to establish the extent to which British local authorities actively manage their urban forests for regulating ecosystem services, and identify which resources local authorities most need in order to enhance provision of ecosystem services by Britain's urban forests. Interviews were carried out with staff responsible for tree management decisions in fifteen major local authorities from across Britain, selected on the basis of their urban nature and high population density. Local authorities have a reactive approach to urban forest management, driven by human health and safety concerns and complaints about tree disservices. There is relatively little focus on ensuring provision of regulating ecosystem services, despite awareness by tree officers of the key role that urban forests can play in alleviating chronic air pollution, flood risk and urban heat anomalies. However, this is expected to become a greater focus in future provided that existing constraints - lack of understanding of ecosystem services amongst key stakeholders, limited political support, funding constraints - can be overcome. Our findings suggest that the adoption of a proactive urban forest strategy, underpinned by quantified and valued urban forest-based ecosystem services provision data, and innovative private sector funding mechanisms, can facilitate a change to a

  3. Bioecological principles of maintaining stability in mountain forest ecosystems of the Ukrainian Carpathians

    OpenAIRE

    PARPAN T.V.

    2016-01-01

    The forest cover of the Carpathians has been deeply transformed by productive activities over the past centuries. The forest cover, age and species structure of its ecosystems have been changed. Beech and fir forests were replaced by spruce monocultures. Consequently, nitrogen and mineral elements cycles changed, the genetic and population structures altered and the eco-stabilizing function of forests decreased. These negative trends make it desirable to process the bioecological principles o...

  4. Tree diversity does not always improve resistance of forest ecosystems to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossiord, Charlotte; Granier, André; Ratcliffe, Sophia; Bouriaud, Olivier; Bruelheide, Helge; Chećko, Ewa; Forrester, David Ian; Dawud, Seid Muhie; Finér, Leena; Pollastrini, Martina; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Valladares, Fernando; Bonal, Damien; Gessler, Arthur

    2014-10-14

    Climate models predict an increase in the intensity and frequency of drought episodes in the Northern Hemisphere. Among terrestrial ecosystems, forests will be profoundly impacted by drier climatic conditions, with drastic consequences for the functions and services they supply. Simultaneously, biodiversity is known to support a wide range of forest ecosystem functions and services. However, whether biodiversity also improves the resistance of these ecosystems to drought remains unclear. We compared soil drought exposure levels in a total of 160 forest stands within five major forest types across Europe along a gradient of tree species diversity. We assessed soil drought exposure in each forest stand by calculating the stand-level increase in carbon isotope composition of late wood from a wet to a dry year (Δδ(13)CS). Δδ(13)CS exhibited a negative linear relationship with tree species diversity in two forest types, suggesting that species interactions in these forests diminished the drought exposure of the ecosystem. However, the other three forest types were unaffected by tree species diversity. We conclude that higher diversity enhances resistance to drought events only in drought-prone environments. Managing forest ecosystems for high tree species diversity does not necessarily assure improved adaptability to the more severe and frequent drought events predicted for the future.

  5. Swedish Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borgvall, Jonathan; Lif, Patrik

    2005-01-01

    .... The military research work presented here includes the three military administrations, FOI -- Swedish Defence Research Agency, FMV -- Swedish Defence Materiel Administration, and SNDC -- Swedish...

  6. Ecosystem change and stability over multiple decades in the Swedish subarctic: complex processes and multiple drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Terry V; Jonasson, Christer; Thierfelder, Tomas; Yang, Zhenlin; Hedenås, Henrik; Johansson, Margareta; Molau, Ulf; Van Bogaert, Rik; Michelsen, Anders; Olofsson, Johan; Gwynn-Jones, Dylan; Bokhorst, Stef; Phoenix, Gareth; Bjerke, Jarle W; Tømmervik, Hans; Christensen, Torben R; Hanna, Edward; Koller, Eva K; Sloan, Victoria L

    2013-08-19

    The subarctic environment of northernmost Sweden has changed over the past century, particularly elements of climate and cryosphere. This paper presents a unique geo-referenced record of environmental and ecosystem observations from the area since 1913. Abiotic changes have been substantial. Vegetation changes include not only increases in growth and range extension but also counterintuitive decreases, and stability: all three possible responses. Changes in species composition within the major plant communities have ranged between almost no changes to almost a 50 per cent increase in the number of species. Changes in plant species abundance also vary with particularly large increases in trees and shrubs (up to 600%). There has been an increase in abundance of aspen and large changes in other plant communities responding to wetland area increases resulting from permafrost thaw. Populations of herbivores have responded to varying management practices and climate regimes, particularly changing snow conditions. While it is difficult to generalize and scale-up the site-specific changes in ecosystems, this very site-specificity, combined with projections of change, is of immediate relevance to local stakeholders who need to adapt to new opportunities and to respond to challenges. Furthermore, the relatively small area and its unique datasets are a microcosm of the complexity of Arctic landscapes in transition that remains to be documented.

  7. Restoration of Degraded Salt Affected Lands to Productive Forest Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yash; Singh, Gurbachan; Singh, Bajrang; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Soil system determines the fluxes of energy and matter in the Earth and is the source of goods, services and resources to the humankind (Keesstra et al., 2012; Brevik et al., 2015; Keesstra et al., 2016). To restore and rehabilitate the soil system is a key strategy to recover the services the soils offers (Celentano et al., 2016; Galati et al., 2016; Parras-Alcantara et al., 2016). Transformation of degraded sodic lands in biodiversity rich productive forest ecosystem is a challenging task before the researchers all over the world. The soils of the degraded sites remain almost unfavorable for the normal growth, development and multiplication of organisms; all our attempts tend to alleviate the soil constraints. Land degradation due to presence of salts in the soil is an alarming threat to agricultural productivity and sustainability, particularly in arid and semiarid regions of the world (Tanji, 1990; Qadir et al., 2006). According to the FAO Land and Nutrition Management Service (2008), over 6% of the world's lands are affected by salinity, which accounts for more than 800 million ha in 100 countries. This is due to natural causes, extensive utilization of land (Egamberdieva et al., 2008), poor drainage systems and limited availability of irrigation water which causes salinization in many irrigated soils (Town et al., 2008).In India, about 6.73 million ha are salt affected which spread in 194 districts out of 584 districts in India and represents 2.1% of the geographical area of the country (Mandal et al., 2009).Out of these, 2.8 million ha are sodic in nature and primarily occurring in the Indo-Gangetic alluvial plains. These lands are degraded in structural, chemical, nutritional, hydrological and microbiological characteristics. The reclamation of salt affected soils with chemical amendments like gypsum and phospho-gypsum are in practice for the cultivation field crops under agricultural production. Forest development on such lands although takes considerable

  8. Forest management based on ecosystem services and payments for ecosystem services: considerations after the project LIFE+ Making Good Natura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaglioppa P

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Forests are important for timber production and provide a wide range of ecosystem services (ES, including water provision and regulation, carbon sequestration, erosion control, and recreational services. However, these services, which are crucial for human well-being, are not sufficiently recognised and rarely included into forest planning. The project LIFE+ Making Good Natura aims to develop innovative governance models for agro-forestry sites of the Natura 2000 network based on ES to achieve new possible mechanisms of (selffinancing. This paper provides insights into the biophysical and monetary valuation of nine ES, which were quantified for selected Natura 2000 sites in different regions of Italy. Based on our results, Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES are discussed in relation to forest planning and management suggesting a new concept for the forest planning. Management plans should hence integrate different financial flows, not only wood or timber, but also different ES which provide more interesting income.

  9. Analysis of zone of vulnurability and impact of forest fires in forest ecosystems in north algeria by susing remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegrar, Ahmed

    2010-05-01

    The Forest in steppe present ecological diversity, and seen climatic unfavourable conditions in zone and impact of forest fires; we notes deterioration of physical environment particularly, deterioration of natural forest. This deterioration of forests provokes an unbalance of environment witch provokes a process of deterioration advanced in the ultimate stadium is desertification. By elsewhere, where climatic conditions are favourable, the fire is an ecological and acted agent like integral part of evolution of the ecosystems, the specific regeneration of plants are influenced greatly by the regime of fire (season of fire, intensity, interval), witch leads to the recuperation of the vegetation of meadow- fire. In this survey we used the pictures ALSAT-1 for detection of zones with risk of forest fire and their impact on the naturals forests in region named TLEMCEN in the north west of Algeria. A thematic detailed analysis of forests well attended ecosystems some processing on the picture ALSAT-1, we allowed to identify and classifying the forests in there opinion components flowers. We identified ampleness of fire on this zone also. Some parameters as the slope, the proximity to the road and the forests formations were studied in the goal of determining the zones to risk of forest fire. A crossing of diaper of information in a GIS according to a very determined logic allowed classifying the zones in degree of risk of fire in semi arid zone witch forest zone not encouraging the regeneration but permitting the installation of cash of steppe which encourages the desertification.

  10. Can We Use Forest Inventory Mapping as a Coarse Filter in Ecosystem Based Management in the Black Spruce Boreal Forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chafi Chaieb

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Forest inventory mapping is used worldwide to describe forests at a large spatial scale via the delimitation of portions of the landscape that are structurally homogeneous. Consequently, there is a significant amount of descriptive forest data in forest inventory maps, particularly with the development of ecosystem classification, which represents a significant potential for use in ecosystem based management. With this study we propose to test whether forest inventory maps can be used to describe not only stand characteristics but also dynamic processes. The results indicate that stand types identifiable in forest inventory maps do not in fact represent unique developmental stages, but rather confound stands at multiple developmental stages that may be undergoing different ecological processes. The reasons for this are linked to both the interaction between succession, fire severity and paludification. Finally, some aspects of the process of forest inventory mapping itself contribute to the disjunction between forest types and forest succession. Given the low similarity between spruce mapping types and their actual description following forest inventories, it would be too ambitious to infer the dynamic aspects of spruce forest by map units.

  11. Hydrological principles for sustainable management of forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irena F. Creed; Gabor Z. Sass; Jim M. Buttle; Julia A. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Forested landscapes around the world are changing as a result of human activities, including forest management, fire suppression, mountaintop mining, conversion of natural forests to plantations, and climate change (Brockerhoff et al., 2008; Cyr et al., 2009; Johnston et al., 2010; Miller et al., 2009; Kelly et al., 2010; Palmer et al., 2010). Forests...

  12. Influence of different tree-harvesting intensities on forest soil carbon stocks in boreal and northern temperate forest ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Nicholas; Gundersen, Per; Jönsson-Belyazid, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    Effective forest governance measures are crucial to ensure sustainable management of forests, but so far there has been little specific focus in boreal and northern temperate forests on governance measures in relation to management effects, including harvesting effects, on soil organic carbon (SOC......) stocks. This paper reviews the findings in the scientific literature concerning the effects of harvesting of different intensities on SOC stocks and fluxes in boreal and northern temperate forest ecosystems to evaluate the evidence for significant SOC losses following biomass removal. An overview...... on SOC stocks in boreal and northern temperate forest ecosystems, which is in any case species-, site- and practice-specific. Properly conducted long-term experiments are therefore necessary to enable us to clarify the relative importance of different harvesting practices on the SOC stores, the key...

  13. FOREST ECOLOGY. Pervasive drought legacies in forest ecosystems and their implications for carbon cycle models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, W R L; Schwalm, C; Biondi, F; Camarero, J J; Koch, G; Litvak, M; Ogle, K; Shaw, J D; Shevliakova, E; Williams, A P; Wolf, A; Ziaco, E; Pacala, S

    2015-07-31

    The impacts of climate extremes on terrestrial ecosystems are poorly understood but important for predicting carbon cycle feedbacks to climate change. Coupled climate-carbon cycle models typically assume that vegetation recovery from extreme drought is immediate and complete, which conflicts with the understanding of basic plant physiology. We examined the recovery of stem growth in trees after severe drought at 1338 forest sites across the globe, comprising 49,339 site-years, and compared the results with simulated recovery in climate-vegetation models. We found pervasive and substantial "legacy effects" of reduced growth and incomplete recovery for 1 to 4 years after severe drought. Legacy effects were most prevalent in dry ecosystems, among Pinaceae, and among species with low hydraulic safety margins. In contrast, limited or no legacy effects after drought were simulated by current climate-vegetation models. Our results highlight hysteresis in ecosystem-level carbon cycling and delayed recovery from climate extremes. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. The impact of human-environment interactions on the stability of forest-grassland mosaic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Clinton; Anand, Madhur; Bauch, Chris T

    2013-01-01

    Forest-grassland mosaic ecosystems can exhibit alternative stables states, whereby under the same environmental conditions, the ecosystem could equally well reside either in one state or another, depending on the initial conditions. We develop a mathematical model that couples a simplified forest-grassland mosaic model to a dynamic model of opinions about conservation priorities in a population, based on perceptions of ecosystem rarity. Weak human influence increases the region of parameter space where alternative stable states are possible. However, strong human influence precludes bistability, such that forest and grassland either co-exist at a single, stable equilibrium, or their relative abundance oscillates. Moreover, a perturbation can shift the system from a stable state to an oscillatory state. We conclude that human-environment interactions can qualitatively alter the composition of forest-grassland mosaic ecosystems. The human role in such systems should be viewed as dynamic, responsive element rather than as a fixed, unchanging entity.

  15. Population genetics provides an efficient tool to quantify fragmentation impact in forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A method in population genetics (Dutech et al., Am. J. Bot. 92 (2, 252-261, February 2005 is described and discussed as an interesting tool for investigating the effects of fragmentation in forest ecosystems.

  16. PnET Models: Carbon, Nitrogen, Water Dynamics in Forest Ecosystems (Vers. 4 and 5)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PnET (Photosynthetic / EvapoTranspiration model) is a nested series of models of carbon, water, and nitrogen dynamics in forest ecosystems. The models can be used to...

  17. PnET Models: Carbon, Nitrogen, Water Dynamics in Forest Ecosystems (Vers. 4 and 5)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: PnET (Photosynthetic / EvapoTranspiration model) is a nested series of models of carbon, water, and nitrogen dynamics in forest ecosystems. The models can...

  18. Forest restoration and forest communities: Have local communities benefited from forest service contracting of ecosystem management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra Moseley; Yolanda E. Reyes

    2008-01-01

    Conservation-based development programs have sought to create economic opportunities for people negatively affected by biological diversity protection. The USDA Forest Service, for example, developed policies and programs to create contracting opportunities for local communities to restore public lands to replace jobs lost from reduced timber harvest. This article...

  19. A decision framework for identifying models to estimate forest ecosystem services gains from restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christin, Zachary; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Verdone, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Restoring degraded forests and agricultural lands has become a global conservation priority. A growing number of tools can quantify ecosystem service tradeoffs associated with forest restoration. This evolving “tools landscape” presents a dilemma: more tools are available, but selecting appropriate tools has become more challenging. We present a Restoration Ecosystem Service Tool Selector (RESTS) framework that describes key characteristics of 13 ecosystem service assessment tools. Analysts enter information about their decision context, services to be analyzed, and desired outputs. Tools are filtered and presented based on five evaluative criteria: scalability, cost, time requirements, handling of uncertainty, and applicability to benefit-cost analysis. RESTS uses a spreadsheet interface but a web-based interface is planned. Given the rapid evolution of ecosystem services science, RESTS provides an adaptable framework to guide forest restoration decision makers toward tools that can help quantify ecosystem services in support of restoration.

  20. Non-market forest ecosystem services and decision support in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filyushkina, Anna; Strange, Niels; Löf, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    The need to integrate non-market ecosystem services into decision-making is widely acknowledged. Despite the exponentially growing body of literature, trade-offs between services are still poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review of published literature in the Nordic countries (Denmark......, Norway, Sweden and Finland) on the integration of non-market forest ecosystem services into decision-making. The aim of the review was two-fold: (1) to provide an overview of coverage of biophysical and socio-economic assessments of non-market ecosystem services in relation to forest management; (2......) to determine the extent of the integration of biophysical and socio-economic models of these services into decision support models. Our findings reveal the need for wider coverage of non-market ecosystem services and evidence-based modelling of how forest management regimes affect ecosystem services...

  1. Forest owners' willingness to accept contracts for ecosystem service provision is sensitive to additionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Suzanne Elizabeth; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2015-01-01

    A key prerequisite to ensure that payment for ecosystem services is effective is that the management measures landowners are paid to undertake are in fact additional to the status quo and hence bring about a change in provision. We investigated Danish forest owners' preferences for conditional...... contracts for the provision of ecosystem services in Natura 2000 policies in a sample covering 12.5% of the total private forest area. This involves allowing old trees to decay naturally, setting aside forest areas, accepting a fixed percentage of broadleaves and increasing access for the public. Forest...... owners may already provide some of these, e.g., if they derive private benefits from them, in which case additionality becomes an issue. This study investigates the link between forest owners' current management and their willingness to accept (WTA) payments for providing specific ecosystem services...

  2. Nitrogen Dynamics in European Forest Ecosystems: Considerations regarding Anthropogenic Nitrogen Depositions

    OpenAIRE

    Ågren, G.I.; P. E. Kauppi

    1983-01-01

    This study deals with the nutrient cycle of forest ecosystems over large geographic regions in Europe as affected by nitrogen deposition. The view is taken that the nitrogen cycle of a forest ecosystem has a maximum capacity for circulating nitrogen. Two different cases are defined: case (1) in which the nutrient cycle functions below its maximum capacity, and case (2) in which the circulation operates at the maximum level.

  3. TOWARDS THE LEGAL RECOGNITION AND GOVERNANCE OF FOREST ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN MOZAMBIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Norfolk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of Mozambique, this paper examines the state of forest ecosystem services, the dependency of the population on these systems for their well-being, if an adaptive governance regime is being created which will ensure the resilience of the forest ecosystem services including the legal framework, the institutions operating within this framework, the tools available and their functioning, and how cooperative governance is operating.

  4. Ecosystem services to enhance sustainable forest management in the US: moving from forest service national programmes to local projects in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Nikola Smith; Joe Gates

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem services are increasingly recognized as a way of framing and describing the broad suite of benefits that people receive from forests. The USDA Forest Service has been exploring use of an ecosystem services framework to describe forest values provided by federal lands and to attract and build partnerships with stakeholders to implement projects. Recently, the...

  5. Biodiversity and ecosystem processes: lessons from nature to improve management of planted forests for REDD-plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian D. Thompson; Kimiko Okabe; John A. Parrotta; David I. Forrester; Eckehard Brockerhoff; Hervé Jactel; Hisatomo. Taki

    2014-01-01

    Planted forests are increasingly contributing wood products and other ecosystem services at a global scale. These forests will be even more important as carbon markets develop and REDD-plus forest programs (forests used specifically to reduce atmospheric emissions of CO2 through deforestation and forest degradation) become common. Restoring degraded and deforested...

  6. Lessons from native spruce forests in Alaska: managing Sitka spruce plantations worldwide to benefit biodiversity and ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Paul Hennon; Richard O' Hanlon; David D' Amore

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest worldwide in managing forests to maintain or improve biodiversity, enhance ecosystem services and assure long-term sustainability of forest resources. An important goal of forest management is to increase stand diversity, provide wildlife habitat and improve forest species diversity. We synthesize results from natural spruce forests in...

  7. Alternative silvicultural practices in Appalachian forest ecosystems: implications for species diversity, ecosystem resilience, and commercial timber production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Fox; Carola A. Haas; David W. Smith; David L. Loftis; Shepard M. Zedaker; Robert H. Jones; A.L. Hammett

    2007-01-01

    Increasing demands for timber and non-timber forest products often conflict with demands to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem processes. To examine tradeoffs between these goals, we implemented six alternative management systems using a stand-level, replicated experiment. The treatments included four silvicultural regeneration methods designed to sustain timber...

  8. A Evaluation of Effects on a Ecosystem and Countermeasures in accordance with Climate Change I- Forest Ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Ha; Jeon, Seong Woo; Choi, Jae Yong; Jeong Hwi Chol; Kim, Jeong Won [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    Climate change requests a lot of changes in the existing life style and economic developing system, which form the foundation of modern culture and economic/social development. Especially, in Korea, whose economic basis is mainly dependent on fossil energy, it is expected that the change of policies on climate change have a bigger effect on many-sided fields including ecosystem than other nations. Therefore, even though all of the Government, academic organizations, and private organizations have made efforts to estimate effects of climate change and to prepare countermeasures, the focus has been on forecast and evaluation of the mutual effect between industrial/economic activities and climate change. Forecast of ecosystem change and preservation of ecosystem according to climate change is another political field to promote. However, such a field has not been promoted systematically in Korea. The Institute recognizing such a current state, as part of the policy on ecosystem preservation according to climate change, forecasted the effect on forest ecosystem, analyzed the economic effects according to the effect of forest ecosystem, and started this study to prepare the countermeasures of the Government-level. This study collected and analyzed international trend and necessary data to develop the model, which would be executed in future, and then suggested the selection and development of the model fitted to Korea. There could be differences between Institute's view and the Government/other institutes. However, such differences are caused by the different methods in capturing the effects of various ecosystems. Such various approaching methods will be of great help to estimate the correct effects and to establish the Government's policies as base data. I hope that this study cannot only be applied to analyze the effects of forest ecosystem according to climate change but contribute to enlarging the understanding of various problems according to climate

  9. Effects of productivity on biodiversity in forest ecosystems across the United States and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingjing; Watson, James V; Zhou, Mo; Lei, Xiangdong

    2016-04-01

    In the global campaign against biodiversity loss in forest ecosystems, land managers need to know the status of forest biodiversity, but practical guidelines for conserving biodiversity in forest management are lacking. A major obstacle is the incomplete understanding of the relationship between site primary productivity and plant diversity, due to insufficient ecosystem-wide data, especially for taxonomically and structurally diverse forest ecosystems. We investigated the effects of site productivity (the site's inherent capacity to grow timber) on tree species richness across 19 types of forest ecosystems in North America and China through 3 ground-sourced forest inventory data sets (U.S. Forest Inventory and Analysis, Cooperative Alaska Forest Inventory, and Chinese Forest Management Planning Inventory). All forest types conformed to a consistent and highly significant (P < 0.001) hump-shaped unimodal relationship, of which the generalized coefficients of determination averaged 20.5% over all the forest types. That is, tree species richness first increased as productivity increased at a progressively slower rate, and, after reaching a maximum, richness started to decline. Our consistent findings suggest that forests of high productivity would sustain few species because they consist mostly of flat homogeneous areas lacking an environmental gradient along which a diversity of species with different habitats can coexist. The consistency of the productivity-biodiversity relationship among the 3 data sets we examined makes it possible to quantify the expected tree species richness that a forest stand is capable of sustaining, and a comparison between the actual species richness and the sustainable values can be useful in prioritizing conservation efforts. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Restoring forests and associated ecosystem services on appalachian coal surface mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, Carl E; Burger, James A; Skousen, Jeffrey G; Angel, Patrick N; Barton, Christopher D; Davis, Victor; Franklin, Jennifer A

    2011-05-01

    Surface coal mining in Appalachia has caused extensive replacement of forest with non-forested land cover, much of which is unmanaged and unproductive. Although forested ecosystems are valued by society for both marketable products and ecosystem services, forests have not been restored on most Appalachian mined lands because traditional reclamation practices, encouraged by regulatory policies, created conditions poorly suited for reforestation. Reclamation scientists have studied productive forests growing on older mine sites, established forest vegetation experimentally on recent mines, and identified mine reclamation practices that encourage forest vegetation re-establishment. Based on these findings, they developed a Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) that can be employed by coal mining firms to restore forest vegetation. Scientists and mine regulators, working collaboratively, have communicated the FRA to the coal industry and to regulatory enforcement personnel. Today, the FRA is used routinely by many coal mining firms, and thousands of mined hectares have been reclaimed to restore productive mine soils and planted with native forest trees. Reclamation of coal mines using the FRA is expected to restore these lands' capabilities to provide forest-based ecosystem services, such as wood production, atmospheric carbon sequestration, wildlife habitat, watershed protection, and water quality protection to a greater extent than conventional reclamation practices.

  11. Climate change implications of shifting forest management strategy in a boreal forest ecosystem of Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Ryan M; Antón-Fernández, Clara; Astrup, Rasmus; Cherubini, Francesco; Kvalevåg, Maria; Strømman, Anders H

    2014-02-01

    Empirical models alongside remotely sensed and station measured meteorological observations are employed to investigate both the local and global direct climate change impacts of alternative forest management strategies within a boreal ecosystem of eastern Norway. Stand-level analysis is firstly executed to attribute differences in daily, seasonal, and annual mean surface temperatures to differences in surface intrinsic biophysical properties across conifer, deciduous, and clear-cut sites. Relative to a conifer site, a slight local cooling of −0.13 °C at a deciduous site and −0.25 °C at a clear-cut site were observed over a 6-year period, which were mostly attributed to a higher albedo throughout the year. When monthly mean albedo trajectories over the entire managed forest landscape were taken into consideration, we found that strategies promoting natural regeneration of coniferous sites with native deciduous species led to substantial global direct climate cooling benefits relative to those maintaining current silviculture regimes – despite predicted long-term regional warming feedbacks and a reduced albedo in spring and autumn months. The magnitude and duration of the cooling benefit depended largely on whether management strategies jointly promoted an enhanced material supply over business-as-usual levels. Expressed in terms of an equivalent CO2 emission pulse at the start of the simulation, the net climate response at the end of the 21st century spanned −8 to −159 Tg-CO2-eq., depending on whether near-term harvest levels increased or followed current trends, respectively. This magnitude equates to approximately −20 to −300% of Norway's annual domestic (production) emission impact. Our analysis supports the assertion that a carbon-only focus in the design and implementation of forest management policy in boreal and other climatically similar regions can be counterproductive – and at best – suboptimal if boreal forests are to be used as a

  12. Epiphytic lichens as sentinels for heavy metal pollution at forest ecosystems (central Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loppi, Stefano; Pirintsos, S.A

    2003-03-01

    Epiphytic lichens were useful as an early warning system for changes in forest ecosystems. - The results of a study using epiphytic lichens (Parmelia caperata) as sentinels for heavy metal deposition at six selected forest ecosystems of central Italy are reported. The woods investigated are characterized by holm oak (Quercus ilex), turkey oak (Quercus cerris) and beech (Fagus sylvatica) and represent the typical forest ecosystems of central Italy at low, medium and high elevations, respectively. The results showed that levels of heavy metals in lichens were relatively low and consequently no risk of heavy metal air pollution is expected for the six forest ecosystems investigated. However, for two of them there are indications of a potential risk: the beech forest of Vallombrosa showed signs of contamination by Pb as a consequence of vehicle traffic due to the rather high touristic pressure in the area, and the holm oak forest of Cala Violina showed transboundary pollution by Mn, Cr and Ni originating from the steel industry in Piombino. Epiphytic lichens proved to be very effective as an early warning system to detect signs of a changing environment at forest ecosystems.

  13. Human Influences on Tree Diversity and Composition of a Coastal Forest Ecosystem: The Case of Ngumburuni Forest Reserve, Rufiji, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kimaro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of an ecological survey conducted in Ngumburuni Forest Reserve, a biodiversity rich forest reserve within the coastal forests of Tanzania. The main goal of this study was to determine the influence of uncontrolled anthropogenic activities on tree species diversity and composition within the forest ecosystem. It was revealed that economic activities including logging, charcoaling, and shifting cultivation were the most important disturbing activities affecting ecological functioning and biodiversity integrity of the forest. Further to this, we noted that the values of species diversity, composition, and regeneration potential within the undisturbed forest areas were significantly different from those in heavily disturbed areas. These observations confirm that the ongoing human activities have already caused size quality degradation of useful plants, enhanced species diversification impacts to the forest ecosystem, and possibly negatively affected the livelihoods of the adjacent local communities. Despite these disturbances, Ngumburuni forest reserve still holds important proportions of both endemic and threatened animal and plant species. The study suggests urgent implementation of several conservation measures in order to limit accessibility to the forest resources so as to safeguard the richness and abundance of useful biodiversity stocks in the reserve.

  14. Ecosystem management decision support for federal forests in the United States: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Michael Rauscher

    1999-01-01

    Ecosystem management has been adopted as the philosophical paradigm guiding management on many Federal forests in the United States. The strategic goal of ecosystem management is to find a sensible middle ground between ensuring long-term protection of the environment while allowing an increasing population to use its natural resources for maintaining and improving...

  15. Using FLUXNET data to improve models of springtime vegetation activity onset in forest ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melaas, E.; Richardson, A.; Friedl, M.; Dragoni, D.; Gough, C.; Herbst, M.; Montagnani, L.; Moors, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetation phenology is sensitive to climate change and variability, and is a first order control on the carbon budget of forest ecosystems. Robust representation of phenology is therefore needed to support model-based projections of how climate change will affect ecosystem function. A variety of

  16. Influence of spring and autumn phenological transitions on forest ecosystem productivit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, A.D.; Black, T.A.; Ciais, P.; Delbart, N.; Moors, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    We use eddy covariance measurements of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) from 21 FLUXNET sites (153 site-years of data) to investigate relationships between phenology and productivity (in terms of both NEP and gross ecosystem photosynthesis, GEP) in temperate and boreal forests. Results are used to

  17. Ecosystem services: foundations, opportunities, and challenges for the forest products sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trista M. Patterson; Dana L. Coelho

    2009-01-01

    The ecosystem service concept has been proposed as a meaningful framework for natural resource management. In theory, it holds concomitant benefit and consequence for the forest product sector. However, numerous barriers impede practitioners from developing concrete and enduring responses to emerging ecosystem service markets, policies, and initiatives. Principal among...

  18. Understanding ecosystem service preferences across residential classifications near Mt. Baker Snoqualmie National Forest, Washington (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine Williams; Kelly Biedenweg; Lee Cerveny

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem services consistently group together both spatially and cognitively into “bundles”. Understanding socio-economic predictors of these bundles is essential to informing a management approach that emphasizes equitable distribution of ecosystem services. We received 1796 completed surveys from stakeholders of the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest (WA, USA)...

  19. Forest floor CO2 flux from two contrasting ecosystems in the Southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Barton D. Clinton; Verl Emrick

    1995-01-01

    We measured forest floor CO2 flux in two contrasting ecosystems (white pine plantation and northern hardwood ecosystems at low and high elevations, respectively) in May and September 1993 to quantify differences and determine factors regulating CO2 fluxes. An automated, IRGA based, flow through system was used with chambers...

  20. An individual-based process model to simulate landscape-scale forest ecosystem dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert Seidl; Werner Rammer; Robert M. Scheller; Thomas Spies

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystem dynamics emerges from nonlinear interactions between adaptive biotic agents (i.e., individual trees) and their relationship with a spatially and temporally heterogeneous abiotic environment. Understanding and predicting the dynamics resulting from these complex interactions is crucial for the sustainable stewardship of ecosystems, particularly in the...

  1. The role of mosses in ecosystem succession and function in Alaska's boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt R. Turetsky; Michelle C. Mack; Teresa N. Hollingsworth; Jennifer W. Harden

    2010-01-01

    Shifts in moss communities may affect the resilience of boreal ecosystems to a changing climate because of the role of moss species in regulating soil climate and biogeochemical cycling. Here, we use long-term data analysis and literature synthesis to examine the role of moss in ecosystem succession, productivity, and decomposition. In Alaskan forests, moss abundance...

  2. Integrating Science and Management to Assess Forest Ecosystem Vulnerability to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie A. Brandt; Patricia R. Butler; Stephen D. Handler; Maria K. Janowiak; P. Danielle Shannon; Christopher W. Swanston

    2017-01-01

    We developed the ecosystem vulnerability assessment approach (EVAA) to help inform potential adaptation actions in response to a changing climate. EVAA combines multiple quantitative models and expert elicitation from scientists and land managers. In each of eight assessment areas, a panel of local experts determined potential vulnerability of forest ecosystems to...

  3. Synthesis and Integration of Pre-treatment Results from the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendy K. Gram; Victoria L. Sork; Robert J. Marquis

    1997-01-01

    Integrating results across disciplines is a critical component of ecosystem management and research. The common research sites, landscape-scale experimental design, and breadth of research subjects in Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project provide circumstances conducive for addressing multidisciplinary questions. Our objectives were to (1) summarize the treatment and...

  4. Effects of Soil Texture on Belowground Carbon and Nutrient Storage in a Lowland Amazonian Forest Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whendee L. Silver; Jason Neff; Megan McGroddy; Ed Veldkamp; Michael Keller; Raimundo Cosme

    2000-01-01

    Soil texture plays a key role in belowground C storage in forest ecosystems and strongly influences nutrient availability and retention, particularly in highly weathered soils. We used field data and the Century ecosystem model to explore the role of soil texture in belowground C storage, nutrient pool sizes, and N fluxes in highly weathered soils in an Amazonian...

  5. Age-dependent changes in ecosystem carbon fluxes in managed forests in Northern Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asko Noormets; Jiquan Chen; Thomas R. Crow

    2007-01-01

    The age-dependent variability of ecosystem carbon (C) fluxes was assessed by measuring the net ecosystem exchange of C (NEE) in five managed forest stands in northern Wisconsin, USA. The study sites ranged in age from 3-year-old clearcut to mature stands (65 years). All stands, except the clearcut, accumulated C over the study period from May to October 2002. Seasonal...

  6. Forest ecosystem changes from annual methane source to sink depending on late summer water balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie K. Shoemaker; Trevor F. Keenan; David Y. Hollinger; Andrew D. Richardson

    2014-01-01

    Forests dominate the global carbon cycle, but their role in methane (CH4) biogeochemistry remains uncertain. We analyzed whole-ecosystem CH4 fluxes from 2 years, obtained over a lowland evergreen forest in Maine, USA. Gross primary productivity provided the strongest correlation with the CH4 flux in...

  7. Impacts of air pollution and climate change on forest ecosystems - emerging research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elena Paoletti; Bytnerowicz; Chris Andersen; Algirdas Augustaitis; Marco Ferretti; Nancy Grulke; Madeleine S. Gunthardt-goerg; John Innes; Dale Johnson; Dave Karnosky; Jessada Luangjame; Rainer Matyssek; Steven McNulty; Gerhard Muller-Starck; Robert Musselman; Kevin Percy

    2007-01-01

    Outcomes from the 22nd meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest Ecosystems "Forests under Anthropogenic Pressure – Effects of Air Pollution, Climate Change and Urban Development", September 10–16, 2006, Riverside, CA, are summarized. Tropospheric or ground-level ozone (O3) is still the phytotoxic...

  8. Human influences on forest ecosystems: the southern wildland-urban interface assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward A. Macie; L. Annie Hermansen; [Editors

    2002-01-01

    This publication provides a review of critical wildland-urban interface issues, challenges, and needs for the Southern United States. Chapter topics include population and demographic trends; economic and tax issues; land use planning and policy; urban effects on forest ecosystems; challenges for forest resource management and conservation; social consequences of...

  9. Preface: long-term response of a forest watershed ecosystem, clearcutting in the Southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne Swank; Jackson Webster

    2014-01-01

    Our North American forests are no longer the wild areas of past centuries; they are an economic and ecological resource undergoing changes from both natural and management disturbances. A watershed-scale and long-term perspective of forest ecosystem responses is requisite to understanding and predicting cause and effect relationships. This book synthesizes...

  10. The Northwest Forest Plan as a model for broad-scale ecosystem management: a social perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan. Charnely

    2006-01-01

    I evaluated the Northwest Forest Plan as a model for ecosystem management to achieve social and economic goals in communities located around federal forests in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. My assessment is based on the results of socioeconomic monitoring conducted to evaluate progress in achieving the plan's goals during its past 10 years. The assessment criteria I...

  11. Impacts of acid deposition, ozone exposure and weather conditions on forest ecosystems in Europe: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Dobbertin, M.H.; Solberg, S.; Dobben, van H.F.; Schaub, M.

    2014-01-01

    In 1994, a “Pan-European Programme for Intensive and Continuous Monitoring of Forest Ecosystems” started to contribute to a better understanding of the impact of air pollution, climate change and natural stress factors on forest ecosystems. The programme today counts approximately 760 permanent

  12. Ownership and ecosystem as sources of spatial heterogeneity in a forested landscape, Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Crow; George E. Host; David J. Mladenoff

    1999-01-01

    The interaction between physical environment and land ownership in creating spatial heterogeneity was studied in largely forested landscapes of northern Wisconsin, USA. A stratified random approach was used in which 2500-ha plots representing two ownerships (National Forest and private non-industrial) were located within two regional ecosystems (extremely well-drained...

  13. Impacts of elevated carbon dioxide and temperature on a boreal forest ecosystem (CLIMEX project).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.; Jenkins, A.; Wright, R.F.; Beerling, D.J.; Arp, W.J.; Berendse, F.; Beier, C.; Collins, R.; Dam, van D.; Rasmussen, L.; Verburg, P.S.J.; Wills, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of climate change on boreal forest ecosystems, both atmospheric CO2 (to 560 ppmv) and air temperature (by 3°–5°C above ambient) were increased at a forested headwater catchment in southern Norway. The entire catchment (860 m2) is enclosed within a transparent greenhouse, and

  14. Modeling impacts of management on carbon sequestration and trace gas emissions in forested wetland ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changsheng Li; Jianbo Cui

    2004-01-01

    A process- based model, Wetland-DNDC, was modified to enhance its capacity to predict the impacts of management practices on carbon sequestration in and trace gas emissions from forested wetland ecosystems. The modifications included parameterization of management practices fe.g., forest harvest, chopping, burning, water management, fertilization, and tree planting),...

  15. Disturbance and net ecosystem production across three climatically distinct forest landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Campbell; O.J. Sun; B.E. Law

    2004-01-01

    Biometric techniques were used to measure net ecosystem production (NEP) across three climatically distinct forest chronosequences in Oregon. NEP was highly negative immediately following stand-replacing disturbance in all forests and recovered to positive values by 10, 20, and 30 years of age for the mild mesic Coast Range, mesic West Cascades, and semi-arid East...

  16. A review of the role of fungi in wood decay of forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot

    2017-01-01

    Fungi are key players in the health, diversity, and productivity of forest ecosystems in Pacific Northwest forests, as mycorrhizal associations, pathogens, decomposers, nontimber resources, and food resources for wildlife. A number of invertebrate species are associated with wood decay fungi, serve as vectors for fungal pathogens, or are fungivorous (consume fungi) and...

  17. 77 FR 60373 - Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project Fishlake National Forest; Sevier and Piute...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project Fishlake National Forest; Sevier and... Open House will be held at the Sevier County Administrative Building in Richfield, Utah October 10, 6...

  18. Foliar and ecosystem respiration in an old-growth tropical rain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molly A. Cavaleri; Steven F. Oberbauer; Michael G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Foliar respiration is a major component of ecosystem respiration, yet extrapolations are often uncertain in tropical forests because of indirect estimates of leaf area index (LAI).A portable tower was used to directly measure LAI and night-time foliar respiration from 52 vertical transects throughout an old-growth tropical rain forest in Costa Rica. In this study, we (...

  19. Diversity, stand characteristics and spatial aggregation of tree species in a Bangladesh forest ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad B.; Steinbauer, Manuel; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Assessing biodiversity and the spatial structures of forest ecosystems are important for forestry and nature conservation. However, tropical forests of Bangladesh are only sparsely investigated. Here we determined biodiversity (alpha, beta and gamma), spatial species turnover and stand characteri......Assessing biodiversity and the spatial structures of forest ecosystems are important for forestry and nature conservation. However, tropical forests of Bangladesh are only sparsely investigated. Here we determined biodiversity (alpha, beta and gamma), spatial species turnover and stand...... characteristics of one of the few remnant tropical forests in Bangladesh. Two differently protected areas of Satchari forest were compared. We recorded tree species composition, in a systematic plot design, measured diameter at breast height for each individual tree (to assess basal area), and calculated decay...

  20. Anthropogenic impacts on tropical forest biodiversity: a network structure and ecosystem functioning perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Rebecca J

    2010-11-27

    Huge areas of diverse tropical forest are lost or degraded every year with dramatic consequences for biodiversity. Deforestation and fragmentation, over-exploitation, invasive species and climate change are the main drivers of tropical forest biodiversity loss. Most studies investigating these threats have focused on changes in species richness or species diversity. However, if we are to understand the absolute and long-term effects of anthropogenic impacts on tropical forests, we should also consider the interactions between species, how those species are organized in networks, and the function that those species perform. I discuss our current knowledge of network structure and ecosystem functioning, highlighting empirical examples of their response to anthropogenic impacts. I consider the future prospects for tropical forest biodiversity, focusing on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in secondary forest. Finally, I propose directions for future research to help us better understand the effects of anthropogenic impacts on tropical forest biodiversity.

  1. Divergence of ecosystem services in U.S. National Forests and Grasslands under a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai Duan; Ge Sun; Shanlei Sun; Peter V. Caldwell; Erika Cohen Mack; Steve McNulty; Heather D. Aldridge; Yang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The 170 National Forests and Grasslands (NFs) in the conterminous United States are public lands that provide important ecosystem services such as clean water and timber supply to the American people. This study investigates the potential impacts of climate change on two key ecosystem functions (i.e., water yield and ecosystem productivity) using the most recent...

  2. Fungal Ecology and Ecosystem-based Management of Special Forest Products

    OpenAIRE

    Crandall, Sharifa Gulamhussein

    2016-01-01

    Fungi shape the dynamics of natural ecosystems as pathogens, nutritional mutualists, and decomposers. They are also important as Special Forest Products with cultural and economic significance. I took an interdisciplinary approach to understand how fungal reproduction varies in response to abiotic (weather) and biotic (vegetation) factors, and how forest managers in the Pacific Northwest manage collaborative activities associated with Special Forest Products. I used three complementary approa...

  3. CARBON BALANCE OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS UNDER GLOBAL WARMING: LANDSCAPE-ECOLOGICAL PREDICTIVE MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    Erland Kolomyts; Gennady Rozenberg; Larisa Sharaya

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of application of landscape-ecological methods for evaluation of biotic regulation of the carbon cycle in forest ecosystems. Methods for constructing analytical and cartographic empirical-statistical models for identification of forest associations and zonal/regional types of forest formations capable of stabilizing the continental biosphere under changing climate are described. Possible biotic regulation of the carbon cycle under known scenarios of future gree...

  4. Anthropogenic Effects on Forest Ecosystems at Various Spatio-Temporal Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bredemeier

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus in this review of long-term effects on forest ecosystems is on human impact. As a classification of this differentiated and complex matter, three domains of long-term effects with different scales in space and time are distinguished: 1- Exploitation and conversion history of forests in areas of extended human settlement 2- Long-range air pollution and acid deposition in industrialized regions 3- Current global loss of forests and soil degradation.

  5. The importance and conservation of ectomycorrizal fungal diversity in forest ecosystems: lessons from Europe and the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael P. Amaranthus

    1998-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) consist of about 5,000 species and profoundly affect forest ecosystems by mediating nutrient and water uptake, protecting roots from pathogens and environmental extremes, and maintaining soil structure and forest food webs. Diversity of EMF likely aids forest ecosystem resilience in the face of changing environmental factors such as...

  6. Establishment and Data Collection of Vegetation-related Studies on the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project Study Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian L. Brookshire; Daniel C. Dey

    2000-01-01

    The Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) is an experiment designed to determine the effects of forest management practices on important ecosystem attributes. MOFEP treatments evaluated include even-aged, uneven-aged, and no management treatments. Forest vegetation provides a common ecological link among many organisms and ecological processes, and therefore...

  7. Socio-Ecological Characterization of Forest Ecosystem Health in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The provisional capacity of the reserve for goods and services was also evaluated. In order to assess individual local actions at the household level and their effects on the overall health dynamics in the forest reserve, information about the direct and indirect drivers of forest degradation at the forest reserve level was sought ...

  8. Riparian forests, a unique but endangered ecosystem in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.K.; Sinsin, B.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2002-01-01

    Riparian forests are often small in area, but are of extreme ecological and economic value for local people. The interest of riparian forests lies in their resources: basically fertile and moist soils, water, wood and non-timber forest products that are utilised by neighbouring populations to

  9. Bridging the gap between ecosystem theory and forest watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson Webster; Wayne Swank; James Vose; Jennifer Knoepp; Katherine Elliott

    2014-01-01

    The history of forests and logging in North America provides a back drop for our study of Watershed (WS) 7. Prior to European settlement, potentially commercial forests covered approximately 45% of North America, but not all of it was the pristine, ancient forest that some have imagined. Prior to 1492, Native Americans had extensive settlements throughout eastern...

  10. Asymmetric warming significantly affects net primary production, but not ecosystem carbon balances of forest and grassland ecosystems in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hongxin; Feng, Jinchao; Axmacher, Jan C; Sang, Weiguo

    2015-03-13

    We combine the process-based ecosystem model (Biome-BGC) with climate change-scenarios based on both RegCM3 model outputs and historic observed trends to quantify differential effects of symmetric and asymmetric warming on ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of six ecosystem types representing different climatic zones of northern China. Analysis of covariance shows that NPP is significant greater at most ecosystems under the various environmental change scenarios once temperature asymmetries are taken into consideration. However, these differences do not lead to significant differences in NEP, which indicates that asymmetry in climate change does not result in significant alterations of the overall carbon balance in the dominating forest or grassland ecosystems. Overall, NPP, Rh and NEP are regulated by highly interrelated effects of increases in temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentrations and precipitation changes, while the magnitude of these effects strongly varies across the six sites. Further studies underpinned by suitable experiments are nonetheless required to further improve the performance of ecosystem models and confirm the validity of these model predictions. This is crucial for a sound understanding of the mechanisms controlling the variability in asymmetric warming effects on ecosystem structure and functioning.

  11. Disturbance, complexity, and succession of net ecosystem production in North America’s temperate deciduous forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gough, Christopher; Curtis, Peter; Hardiman, Brady; Scheuermann, Cynthia; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin

    2016-06-29

    Century-old forests in the U.S. upper Midwest and Northeast power much of North Amer- ica’s terrestrial carbon (C) sink, but these forests’ production and C sequestration capacity are expected to soon decline as fast-growing early successional species die and are replaced by slower growing late successional species. But will this really happen? Here we marshal empirical data and ecological theory to argue that substantial declines in net ecosystem production (NEP) owing to reduced forest growth, or net primary production (NPP), are not imminent in regrown temperate deciduous forests over the next several decades. Forest age and production data for temperate deciduous forests, synthesized from published literature, suggest slight declines in NEP and increasing or stable NPP during middle successional stages. We revisit long-held hypotheses by EP Odum and others that suggest low-severity, high-frequency disturbances occurring in the region’s aging forests will, against intuition, maintain NEP at higher-than- expected rates by increasing ecosystem complexity, sustaining or enhancing NPP to a level that largely o sets rising C losses as heterotrophic respiration increases. This theoretical model is also supported by biological evidence and observations from the Forest Accelerated Succession Experiment in Michigan, USA. Ecosystems that experience high-severity disturbances that simplify ecosystem complexity can exhibit substantial declines in production during middle stages of succession. However, observations from these ecosystems have exerted a disproportionate in uence on assumptions regarding the trajectory and magnitude of age-related declines in forest production. We conclude that there is a wide ecological space for forests to maintain NPP and, in doing so, lessens the declines in NEP, with signi cant implications for the future of the North American carbon sink. Our intellectual frameworks for understanding forest C cycle dynamics and resilience need to

  12. Temporal-Spatial Pattern of Carbon Stocks in Forest Ecosystems in Shaanxi, Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoyang Cui

    Full Text Available The precise and accurate quantitative evaluation of the temporal and spatial pattern of carbon (C storage in forest ecosystems is critical for understanding the role of forests in the global terrestrial C cycle and is essential for formulating forest management policies to combat climate change. In this study, we examined the C dynamics of forest ecosystems in Shaanxi, northwest China, based on four forest inventories (1989-1993, 1994-1998, 1999-2003, and 2004-2008 and field-sampling measurements (2012. The results indicate that the total C storage of forest ecosystems in Shaanxi increased by approximately 29.3%, from 611.72 Tg in 1993 to 790.75 Tg in 2008, partially as a result of ecological restoration projects. The spatial pattern of C storage in forest ecosystems mainly exhibited a latitude-zonal distribution across the province, increasing from north (high latitude to south (low latitude generally, which signifies the effect of environmental conditions, chiefly water and heat related factors, on forest growth and C sequestration. In addition, different data sources and estimation methods had a significant effect on the results obtained, with the C stocks in 2008 being considerably overestimated (864.55 Tg and slightly underestimated (778.07 Tg when measured using the mean C density method and integrated method, respectively. Overall, our results demonstrated that the forest ecosystem in Shaanxi acted as a C sink over the last few decades. However, further studies should be carried out with a focus on adaption of plants to environmental factors along with forest management for vegetation restoration to maximize the C sequestration potential and to better cope with climate change.

  13. Integrating beneficiaries into assessment of ecosystem services from managed forests at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Caputo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Forests contribute to human wellbeing through the provision of important ecosystem services. Methods: In this study, we investigated how the perceived importance of ecosystem services may impact the overall benefit provided by managed watersheds at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest over a 45-year period, using standardized measures of service capacity weighted by service importance weights derived from a survey of beneficiaries. Results: The capacity of watersheds to regulate water flow and quality was high in all watersheds throughout the study period, whereas cultural services such as scenic beauty declined after harvest. Impacts on greenhouse gas regulation depended on the efficiency with which harvested biomass was used. Surveys revealed that stakeholders placed high value on all ecosystem services, with regulating and cultural services seen as more important than provisioning services. When service metrics were weighted by survey responses and aggregated into a single measure, total service provision followed the same overall trend as greenhouse gas regulation. Where biomass use was less efficient in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, harvesting resulted in an overall “ecosystem service debt”; where use was more efficient, this “ecosystem service debt” was reduced. Beneficiaries’ educational backgrounds significantly affected overall assessment of service provision. Beneficiaries with college or university degrees incurred smaller “ecosystem service debts” and were less negatively affected by harvesting overall. Conclusions: This study highlights the importance of including empirical measures of beneficiary preference when attempting to quantify overall provision of ecosystem services to human beneficiaries over time. Keywords: Ecosystem services, Forests, Long-term ecological research, Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, Regulating services

  14. Hierarchical land classification and mapping of Aglasun forest ecosystems in the Mediterranean region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Kursad; Mert, Ahmet; Aertsen, Wim; Muys, Bart

    2013-05-01

    Hierarchical Land Classification of forest ecosystems is an attempt to classify the territory considering hierarchical distinctions of plant communities. Ecological land classification is especially crucial for semi natural or degraded forest ecosystems. In this study, a hierarchical land classification was generated for Aglasun forest ecosystems where urban and agricultural developments and non-stop human activity for fuel wood and timber have caused extensive degradation to native plant communities. Data obtained from 153 sample plots consisting of environmental characteristics and vascular plant species were evaluated by using cluster analysis, stepwise discriminate analysis, and chi-square test. Interspesific correlation analysis was applied to define the indicator species at each distinction level. Two sections, two subsections and four units were finally determined for the Aglasun forest district. The results of the stepwise discriminate analyses showed that the fundamental variables for classifying the district are altitude, exposition, latitude and longitude.

  15. FORECO. Countermeasures applied in forest ecosystems and their secondary effects: a review of literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, B.; Synnot, H. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, (Ireland)

    1998-12-31

    The present document reports a literature review of the countermeasures applied in forest ecosystems and their secondary effects. The review has been prepared as a deliverable for the FORECO research Project. FORECO (Forest Ecosystems: Classification of Restoration Options, Considering Dose Reduction, Long-Term Ecological Quality and Economic Factors) is a project funded by the European Commission (Research Contract n. ERBIC-CT96-0202) in the frame of the Cooperation with third countries and international organizations (INCO-COPERNICUS) and coordinated by the National Environmental Protection Agency of Italy. The main aim of FORECO activities with respect to forest ecosystems is the classification of countermeasure options in different forest types, considering the balance between dose reduction, long-term ecological quality and economical factors.

  16. DEPENDENCE OF GRASS COVER TAXONOMIC AND ECOLOGICAL STRUCTURE ON THE ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACT IN FOREST ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Miroshnik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pine forests Chigirinsky Bor grow on fresh sod-podzolic soils formed on ancient alluvial deposits. Pine forests are characterized by stringent moisture regimes and constantly suffer from lack of productive moisture in soil.  Industrial development of Cherkasy in 60th years of ХХ century leaded air pollution and emissions of SO2, NOx, NH3, and dust. This contributed to significant negative influence on the surrounding forest ecosystems from enterprises of  Cherkassy industrial agglomeration. The grass cover in pine stands of Chigirinsky Bor transforms into xerophytic grasses and ruderal communities under the impact of negative biotic and abiotic factors. They are namely the anthropogenic violation of forest conditions, stands decline, recreational and industrial tree crowns understocking, xerophytic and heliophytic transformations of forest conditions. All the above mentioned caused strong ruderal and adventive transformation of grass cover. We registered the changes in nitrophilous plant spread regards the Cherkasy industrial agglomeration approaching which emits toxic with nitrogen-containing gases. Adventive and other non-forest species displace ferns and mosses, the ratio of ecomorfs is also changes due to increase of the quantity and development activation of annuals, xerophytic, ruderal, and nitrofil plants. The Asteraceae/Brassicaceae 3:1 ratio indicates significant anthropogenic violations in the region. We fixed the xerophytic, ruderal, and adventive transformation of grass cover in forest ecosystems. It is also founded the tendency of expanding the fraction of mesophilic plant species due to alterations in water regime (creation of Kremenchug reservoir and draining of floodplain Tyasmyn. When approaching the Cherkasy industrial agglomeration the grass cover degradation is clearly observed on the environmental profile. All this causes the forest ecosystem degradation and gradual loss of forest vegetation typical characteristics. We

  17. Nutrient addition effects on tropical dry forests: a mini-review from microbial to ecosystem scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Powers

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans have more than doubled inputs of reactive nitrogen globally and greatly accelerated the biogeochemical cycles of phosphorus and metals. However, the impacts of increased element mobility on tropical ecosystems remain poorly quantified, particularly for the vast tropical dry forest biome. Tropical dry forests are characterized by marked seasonality, relatively little precipitation, and high heterogeneity in plant functional diversity and soil chemistry. For these reasons, increased nutrient deposition may affect tropical dry forests differently than wet tropical or temperate forests. Here we review studies that investigated how nutrient availability affects ecosystem and community processes from the microsite to ecosystem scales in tropical dry forests. The effects of N and P addition on ecosystem carbon cycling and plant and microbial dynamics depend on forest successional stage, soil parent material and rainfall regime. Responses may depend on whether overall productivity is N- versus P-limited, although data to test this hypothesis are limited. These results highlight the many important gaps in our understanding of tropical dry forest responses to global change. Large-scale experiments are required to resolve these uncertainties.

  18. Nutrient addition effects on tropical dry forests: a mini-review from microbial to ecosystem scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jennifer; Becklund, Kristen; Gei, Maria; Iyengar, Siddarth; Meyer, Rebecca; O'Connell, Christine; Schilling, Erik; Smith, Christina; Waring, Bonnie; Werden, Leland

    2015-06-01

    Humans have more than doubled inputs of reactive nitrogen globally and greatly accelerated the biogeochemical cycles of phosphorus and metals. However, the impacts of increased element mobility on tropical ecosystems remain poorly quantified, particularly for the vast tropical dry forest biome. Tropical dry forests are characterized by marked seasonality, relatively little precipitation, and high heterogeneity in plant functional diversity and soil chemistry. For these reasons, increased nutrient deposition may affect tropical dry forests differently than wet tropical or temperate forests. Here we review studies that investigated how nutrient availability affects ecosystem and community processes from the microsite to ecosystem scales in tropical dry forests. The effects of N and P addition on ecosystem carbon cycling and plant and microbial dynamics depend on forest successional stage, soil parent material and rainfall regime. Responses may depend on whether overall productivity is N- versus P-limited, although data to test this hypothesis are limited. These results highlight the many important gaps in our understanding of tropical dry forest responses to global change. Large-scale experiments are required to resolve these uncertainties.

  19. The Role of Phytodiversity in Riparian Alder Forests in Supporting the Provision of Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariničová Patrícia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nature, ecosystems and biodiversity provide human society with many benefits known as ecosystem services. Functional diversity is an important aspect of biodiversity. In this paper, we applied inductive approach to the identification, mapping and evaluation of ecosystem services of the Aegopodio-Alnetum glutinosae community in Tribeč Mts. The results from 2015 show that the alder floodplain forest represents one of the most productive forest ecosystems with seasonal maximum production of 59.03 g m−2, species diversity of N0 = 40 and functional diversity of FD = 10. The forage potential of this community is medium, the melliferous potential is high and the therapeutic potential was estimated as extremely rich in medicinal plants. From the functional groups for providing ecosystem services, woody plants and hemicryptophytes play the most significant role.

  20. Current net ecosystem exchange of CO2 in a young mixed forest: any heritage from the previous ecosystem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violette, Aurélie; Heinesch, Bernard; Erpicum, Michel; Carnol, Monique; Aubinet, Marc; François, Louis

    2013-04-01

    For 15 years, networks of flux towers have been developed to determine accurate carbon balance with the eddy-covariance method and determine if forests are sink or source of carbon. However, for prediction of the evolution of carbon cycle and climate, major uncertainties remain on the ecosystem respiration (Reco, which includes the respiration of above ground part of trees, roots respiration and mineralization of the soil organic matter), the gross primary productivity (GPP) and their difference, the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of forests. These uncertainties are consequences of spatial and inter-annual variability, driven by previous and current climatic conditions, as well as by the particular history of the site (management, diseases, etc.). In this study we focus on the carbon cycle in two mixed forests in the Belgian Ardennes. The first site, Vielsalm, is a mature stand mostly composed of beeches (Fagus sylvatica) and douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) from 80 to 100 years old. The second site, La Robinette, was covered before 1995 with spruces. After an important windfall and a clear cutting, the site was replanted, between 1995 and 2000, with spruces (Piceas abies) and deciduous species (mostly Betula pendula, Aulnus glutinosa and Salix aurita). The challenge here is to highlight how initial conditions can influence the current behavior of the carbon cycle in a growing stand compared to a mature one, where initial conditions are supposed to be forgotten. A modeling approach suits particularly well for sensitivity tests and estimation of the temporal lag between an event and the ecosystem response. We use the forest ecosystem model ASPECTS (Rasse et al., Ecological Modelling 141, 35-52, 2001). This model predicts long-term forest growth by calculating, over time, hourly NEE. It was developed and already validated on the Vielsalm forest. Modelling results are confronted to eddy-covariance data on both sites from 2006 to 2011. The main difference between both

  1. EnviroAtlas - Ecosystem Service Market and Project Locations, U.S., 2015, Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset contains points depicting the location of market-based programs, referred to herein as markets, and projects addressing ecosystem services protection in the United States. The data were collected via surveys and desk research conducted by Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace from 2008 to 2016 on biodiversity (i.e., imperiled species/habitats; wetlands and streams), carbon, and water markets. Additional biodiversity data were obtained from the Regulatory In-lieu Fee and Bank Information Tracking System (RIBITS) database in 2015. Points represent the centroids (i.e., center points) of market coverage areas, project footprints, or project primary impact areas in which ecosystem service markets or projects operate. National-level markets are an exception to this norm with points representing administrative headquarters locations. Attribute data include information regarding the methodology, design, and development of biodiversity, carbon, and water markets and projects. This dataset was produced by Forest Trends' Ecosystem Marketplace for EnviroAtlas in order to support public access to and use of information related to environmental markets. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) o

  2. Biological diversity and conservation of forest ecosystems in Kyrgyzstan

    OpenAIRE

    Sh. B. Bikirov; R. T. Murzakmatov; N. K. Umetalieva; Y. Jumagul kyzy; K. K. Bostonalieva; B. B. Ashyrova

    2016-01-01

    Kyrgyzstan is a natural repository of genetic resources and the diversity of species and natural laboratory, where at the small area are represented almost all altitudinal belts, ranging from semi-desert, ending with glacial-nival belt. This article discusses water-protective, water-regulating, anti-erosion and anti-mudflow functions of each forest category. It analyzes the main factors affecting the degradation of forests and reduction of forest cover in the study area. The complex of silvic...

  3. Characterization of Canopy Layering in Forested Ecosystems Using Full Waveform Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Dubayah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Canopy structure, the vertical distribution of canopy material, is an important element of forest ecosystem dynamics and habitat preference. Although vertical stratification, or “canopy layering,” is a basic characterization of canopy structure for research and forest management, it is difficult to quantify at landscape scales. In this paper we describe canopy structure and develop methodologies to map forest vertical stratification in a mixed temperate forest using full-waveform lidar. Two definitions—one categorical and one continuous—are used to map canopy layering over Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire with lidar data collected in 2009 by NASA’s Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS. The two resulting canopy layering datasets describe variation of canopy layering throughout the forest and show that layering varies with terrain elevation and canopy height. This information should provide increased understanding of vertical structure variability and aid habitat characterization and other forest management activities.

  4. Forest Fire Effects on Mercury and Other Trace Metal Concentrations in a Rocky Mountain Forest Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, A.; Blum, J. D.; Keeler, G. J.

    2003-12-01

    The impacts of forest fires on pools of major elements including carbon, calcium, and sulfur, have been extensively studied while their effects on potentially toxic trace metals are not as well understood. We examined the effect of the summer 2001, 4470 acre Green Knoll Fire (GKF) in northeastern Wyoming on mercury (Hg) and other trace metal concentrations in forest ecosystem pools. A paired watershed study was conducted using a burned and unburned watershed of similar stand age, climate, vegetation, and geology to investigate wildfire effects on the evolution and dispersal of pools of Hg and trace metals in forests. Mercury and other trace metal concentrations were determined through a 15 cm soil profile as well as in vegetation. Atmospheric sampling suggests that possibly due to geothermal inputs, ambient atmospheric and soil mercury concentrations are elevated in this region compared to other rural areas in the US, with typical concentrations of vapor phase mercury >5 ng/m3. The burned watershed soil profile had much lower mercury concentrations than that of the unburned watershed, suggesting Hg volatilization by wildfires. Previous studies have suggested that leaf litter releases 97-100%\\ of its mercury content, while this study suggests that the Hg release from soil organic matter may not be as complete. Mercury concentrations in the unburned soil column decreased from an average of 158 ppb at the surface to 38 ppb at 10-15 cm. In contrast, average concentrations in the burned soil were near 30 ppb from 0-15 cm. This result indicates the GKF released only ˜ 85%\\ of the mercury present in the organic soil horizon, which may be attributed to relatively low fire intensity. Extrapolations from our results indicate that this relatively small fire released ˜ 0.1 Mg of Hg from the soil. On average, 4.2 million acres are burned yearly in the US, suggesting that soil burning releases an approximate 100 Mg annual Hg flux into the atmosphere, 70%\\ of the estimated

  5. Urban forest structure, ecosystem services and change in Syracuse, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Robert E. Hoehn; Allison R. Bodine; Eric J. Greenfield; Jarlath. O' Neil-Dunne

    2013-01-01

    The tree population within the City of Syracuse was assessed using a random sampling of plots in 1999, 2001 and 2009 to determine how the population and the ecosystem services these trees provide have changed over time. Ecosystem services and values for carbon sequestration, air pollution removal and changes in building energy use were derived using the i-Tree Eco...

  6. Minnesota forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Northwoods Climate Change Response Framework project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Handler; Matthew J. Duveneck; Louis Iverson; Emily Peters; Robert M. Scheller; Kirk R. Wythers; Leslie Brandt; Patricia Butler; Maria Janowiak; P. Danielle Shannon; Chris Swanston; Kelly Barrett; Randy Kolka; Casey McQuiston; Brian Palik; Peter B. Reich; Clarence Turner; Mark White; Cheryl Adams; Anthony D' Amato; Suzanne Hagell; Patricia Johnson; Rosemary Johnson; Mike Larson; Stephen Matthews; Rebecca Montgomery; Steve Olson; Matthew Peters; Anantha Prasad; Jack Rajala; Jad Daley; Mae Davenport; Marla R. Emery; David Fehringer; Christopher L. Hoving; Gary Johnson; Lucinda Johnson; David Neitzel; Adena Rissman; Chadwick Rittenhouse; Robert. Ziel

    2014-01-01

    Forests in northern Minnesota will be affected directly and indirectly by a changing climate over the next 100 years. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of forest ecosystems in Minnesota's Laurentian Mixed Forest Province to a range of future climates. Information on current forest conditions, observed climate trends, projected climate changes, and...

  7. A decision framework for identifying models to estimate forest ecosystem services gains from restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary L. Christin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Restoring degraded forests and agricultural lands has become a global conservation priority. A growing number of tools can quantify ecosystem service tradeoffs associated with forest restoration. This evolving “tools landscape” presents a dilemma: more tools are available, but selecting appropriate tools has become more challenging. We present a Restoration Ecosystem Service Tool Selector (RESTS framework that describes key characteristics of 13 ecosystem service assessment tools. Analysts enter information about their decision context, services to be analyzed, and desired outputs. Tools are filtered and presented based on five evaluative criteria: scalability, cost, time requirements, handling of uncertainty, and applicability to benefit-cost analysis. RESTS uses a spreadsheet interface but a web-based interface is planned. Given the rapid evolution of ecosystem services science, RESTS provides an adaptable framework to guide forest restoration decision makers toward tools that can help quantify ecosystem services in support of restoration. Keywords: Decision support, Ecosystem services, Forest restoration, Modeling, Valuation, Comparative tools assessment

  8. Soils, water and nutrients in a forest ecosystem in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poels, R.L.H.

    1987-01-01

    Water and nutrient flows were measured in catchments on strongly weathered loamy sediments of the Zanderij formation in Suriname under undisturbed forest and forest silviculturally treated whereby 40 % of the biomass was killed. The topography of the two catchment areas studied (each of

  9. Responses of Forest Ecosystems to Changing Sulfur Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale W. Johnson; Myron J. Mitchell

    1998-01-01

    There was little information on sulfur (S) cycling in forests compared with that of other nutrients (especially N) until the past two decades. Interest in S nutrition and cycling in forests was heightened with the discovery of deficiencies in some unpolluted regions (Kelly and Lambert, 1972; Humphreys et al., 1975; Turner et al., 1977, 1980) and excesses associated...

  10. Restoring biodiversity and forest ecosystem services in degraded tropical landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Parrotta

    2010-01-01

    Over the past century, an estimated 850 million ha of the world’s tropical forests have been lost or severely degraded, with serious impacts on local and regional biodiversity. A significant proportion of these lands were originally cleared of their forest cover for agricultural development or other economic uses. Today, however, they provide few if any environmental...

  11. Human impacts on genetic diversity in forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Thomas Ledig

    1992-01-01

    Humans have converted forest to agricultural and urban uses, exploited species, fragmented wildlands. changed the demographic structure of forests, altered habitat, degraded the environment with atmospheric and soil pollutants, introduced exotic pests and competitors, and domesticated favored species. None of they activities is new; perhaps with the exception of...

  12. Biogeochemical modelling vs. tree-ring data - comparison of forest ecosystem productivity estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorana Ostrogović Sever, Maša; Barcza, Zoltán; Hidy, Dóra; Paladinić, Elvis; Kern, Anikó; Marjanović, Hrvoje

    2017-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are sensitive to environmental changes as well as human-induce disturbances, therefore process-based models with integrated management modules represent valuable tool for estimating and forecasting forest ecosystem productivity under changing conditions. Biogeochemical model Biome-BGC simulates carbon, nitrogen and water fluxes, and it is widely used for different terrestrial ecosystems. It was modified and parameterised by many researchers in the past to meet the specific local conditions. In this research, we used recently published improved version of the model Biome-BGCMuSo (BBGCMuSo), with multilayer soil module and integrated management module. The aim of our research is to validate modelling results of forest ecosystem productivity (NPP) from BBGCMuSo model with observed productivity estimated from an extensive dataset of tree-rings. The research was conducted in two distinct forest complexes of managed Pedunculate oak in SE Europe (Croatia), namely Pokupsko basin and Spačva basin. First, we parameterized BBGCMuSo model at a local level using eddy-covariance (EC) data from Jastrebarsko EC site. Parameterized model was used for the assessment of productivity on a larger scale. Results of NPP assessment with BBGCMuSo are compared with NPP estimated from tree ring data taken from trees on over 100 plots in both forest complexes. Keywords: Biome-BGCMuSo, forest productivity, model parameterization, NPP, Pedunculate oak

  13. Characterization of the Montane Huntington Wildlife Forest Ecosystem Using Machine Learning Approaches from Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Manqi

    Montane forests are susceptible to various stressors such as land use and climate change. Consequently, research on characterizing montane forest ecosystems should be conducted on a continuous basis for sustainable forest management. In this research, forest type mapping and change analysis, and biomass/carbon stock quantification were performed over a mountainous forest located in the central Adirondack Park, NY, by employing machine learning techniques at the plot level. Multi-temporal Landsat TM data were used to classify forest type cover and to detect forest cover changes for the past 20 years. Forest biomass and carbon stock quantification was then performed using full waveform LiDAR data collected in September 2011. Accuracies from the two case studies were in support of the versatility of machine learning approaches for forest and ecological investigation. Topographic characteristics affected the classification accuracy as well as the forest type change for the past 20 years. LiDAR-derived metrics, especially height-based ones, proved useful for quantifying biomass/carbon stock. Keywords: Landsat TM, full waveform LiDAR, forest classification, forest change analysis, biomass, carbon stock, machine learning

  14. Searching for resilience: addressing the impacts of changing disturbance regimes on forest ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Rupert; Spies, Thomas A; Peterson, David L; Stephens, Scott L; Hicke, Jeffrey A

    2016-02-01

    1. The provisioning of ecosystem services to society is increasingly under pressure from global change. Changing disturbance regimes are of particular concern in this context due to their high potential impact on ecosystem structure, function and composition. Resilience-based stewardship is advocated to address these changes in ecosystem management, but its operational implementation has remained challenging. 2. We review observed and expected changes in disturbance regimes and their potential impacts on provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting ecosystem services, concentrating on temperate and boreal forests. Subsequently, we focus on resilience as a powerful concept to quantify and address these changes and their impacts, and present an approach towards its operational application using established methods from disturbance ecology. 3. We suggest using the range of variability concept - characterizing and bounding the long-term behaviour of ecosystems - to locate and delineate the basins of attraction of a system. System recovery in relation to its range of variability can be used to measure resilience of ecosystems, allowing inferences on both engineering resilience (recovery rate) and monitoring for regime shifts (directionality of recovery trajectory). 4. It is important to consider the dynamic nature of these properties in ecosystem analysis and management decision-making, as both disturbance processes and mechanisms of resilience will be subject to changes in the future. Furthermore, because ecosystem services are at the interface between natural and human systems, the social dimension of resilience (social adaptive capacity and range of variability) requires consideration in responding to changing disturbance regimes in forests. 5.Synthesis and applications. Based on examples from temperate and boreal forests we synthesize principles and pathways for fostering resilience to changing disturbance regimes in ecosystem management. We conclude that

  15. Radiocesium distributions and fluxes in the forest ecosystems of Chernobyl and Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoschenko, Vasyl; Nanba, Kenji; Konoplev, Alexei; Takase, Tsugiko; Kashparov, Valery; Zheleznyak, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Institute of Environmental Radioactivity (IER) of Fukushima University and Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR) of NUBiP of Ukraine have started the long-term monitoring programs for characterization of the radiocesium distributions and fluxes in the typical forest ecosystems of the Fukushima and Chernobyl zones, respectively. Realization of the programs will enable identification of the key processes governing the radionuclides cycling in the forest ecosystems at the intermediate (Fukushima) and late (Chernobyl) stages of the two accidents and will provide the empirical data needed for modelling the radionuclide long-term behavior in the Fukushima and Chernobyl forests. At the present stage in the Chernobyl zone root uptake of radionuclides plays the main role in the forest biomass contamination with 137Cs. In the typical Scots pine forests its inventories in the aboveground biomass and litter may reach several percents of the total radionuclide activity in the ecosystem. The radionuclides biogenic fluxes (root uptake and return to soil with litterfall and throughfall) in the Chernobyl forests are comparable or exceed their geochemical migration fluxes in the root-inhabited soil layer, which leads to stabilization of the radionuclide distributions in the soil profile and to the gradual decrease of the apparent vertical migration rates. For example, the main part (about 80%) of the radiocesium activity in soil is still localized in the 0-5 cm topsoil layer; the radiocesium uptake flux may reach 0.n % year-1 of its total activity in the ecosystem, while the geochemical migration flux from the root-inhabited layer is estimated as 0.1 % year-1. In the studied typical forest ecosystem at the territory contaminated as a result of the Fukushima accident (Sugi forest) about 20% of the total radiocesium activity in the soil profile is localized in the forest litter, and similarly to the Chernobyl forest, major part of the activity, about 70% of the total in

  16. Quantifying ecosystem service trade-offs for plantation forest management to benefit provisioning and regulating services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Er-Fu; Wang, Xiao-Li; Zhu, Jian-Jia; Xi, Wei-Min

    2017-10-01

    There is increasing interest worldwide regarding managing plantation forests in a manner that maintains or improves timber production, enhances ecosystem services, and promotes long-term sustainability of forest resources. We selected the Gan River Basin, the largest catchment of Poyang Lake and a region with a typical plantation distribution in South China, as the study region. We evaluated and mapped four important forest ecosystem services, including wood volume, carbon storage, water yield, and soil retention at a 30 × 30 m resolution, then quantified their trade-offs and synergies at the county and subwatershed scales. We found that the wood volume and carbon storage services, as well as the soil retention and water yield, exhibited synergistic relationships. However, the carbon storage displayed a trade-off relationship with the water yield. Additionally, we compared the beneficial spatial characteristics among dominant species in the study region. The results showed that the Chinese fir forest and the pine forest exhibited lower overall benefits than natural forests including the broad-leaved forest and the bamboo forest. To propose a suitable management strategy for the study region, method of spatial cluster analysis was used based on the four eco-services at the subwatershed scale. The basin was divided into four management groups instead of treating the region as a homogenous management region. Finally, we proposed more specific and diverse management strategies to optimize forest benefits throughout the entire region.

  17. Intensive land use in the Swedish mountains between AD 800 and 1200 led to deforestation and ecosystem transformation with long-lasting effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östlund, Lars; Hörnberg, Greger; DeLuca, Thomas H; Liedgren, Lars; Wikström, Peder; Zackrisson, Olle; Josefsson, Torbjörn

    2015-10-01

    Anthropogenic deforestation has shaped ecosystems worldwide. In subarctic ecosystems, primarily inhabited by native peoples, deforestation is generally considered to be mainly associated with the industrial period. Here we examined mechanisms underlying deforestation a thousand years ago in a high-mountain valley with settlement artifacts located in subarctic Scandinavia. Using the Heureka Forestry Decision Support System, we modeled pre-settlement conditions and effects of tree cutting on forest cover. To examine lack of regeneration and present nutrient status, we analyzed soil nitrogen. We found that tree cutting could have deforested the valley within some hundred years. Overexploitation left the soil depleted beyond the capacity of re-establishment of trees. We suggest that pre-historical deforestation has occurred also in subarctic ecosystems and that ecosystem boundaries were especially vulnerable to this process. This study improves our understanding of mechanisms behind human-induced ecosystem transformations and tree-line changes, and of the concept of wilderness in the Scandinavian mountain range.

  18. Biomass is the main driver of changes in ecosystem process rates during tropical forest succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohbeck, Madelon; Poorter, Lourens; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Bongers, Frans

    2015-05-01

    Over half of the world's forests are disturbed, and the rate at which ecosystem processes recover after disturbance is important for the services these forests can provide. We analyze the drivers' underlying changes in rates of key ecosystem processes (biomass productivity, litter productivity, actual litter decomposition, and potential litter decomposition) during secondary succession after shifting cultivation in wet tropical forest of Mexico. We test the importance of three alternative drivers of ecosystem processes: vegetation biomass (vegetation quantity hypothesis), community-weighted trait mean (mass ratio hypothesis), and functional diversity (niche complementarity hypothesis) using structural equation modeling. This allows us to infer the relative importance of different mechanisms underlying ecosystem process recovery. Ecosystem process rates changed during succession, and the strongest driver was aboveground biomass for each of the processes. Productivity of aboveground stem biomass and leaf litter as well as actual litter decomposition increased with initial standing vegetation biomass, whereas potential litter decomposition decreased with standing biomass. Additionally, biomass productivity was positively affected by community-weighted mean of specific leaf area, and potential decomposition was positively affected by functional divergence, and negatively by community-weighted mean of leaf dry matter content. Our empirical results show that functional diversity and community-weighted means are of secondary importance for explaining changes in ecosystem process rates during tropical forest succession. Instead, simply, the amount of vegetation in a site is the major driver of changes, perhaps because there is a steep biomass buildup during succession that overrides more subtle effects of community functional properties on ecosystem processes. We recommend future studies in the field of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning to separate the effects of

  19. Wildfires, Ecosystem Services, and Biodiversity in Tropical Dry Forest in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerbeck, Joachim; Fiener, Peter

    2015-08-01

    This review is intended to contribute to the understanding of the interlinkage between wildfire in India's tropical dry forest (TDF) and selected ecosystem services (ES), namely forest provisioning and water regulating services, as well as biodiversity. TDF covers approximately 146,000 km2 (4.4 %) of India, whereas according to the MODIS fire product about 2200 km2 (1.4 %) burns per year. As studies on wildfire effects upon ESs and biodiversity in Indian TDFs are rare we partly transferred findings from other (dry) forest areas to the environmental situation in India. In India (intentionally lit) wildfires have a very important connection to local livelihoods and the availability of non-wood forest products. Very important adverse long-term effects are the deterioration of forest ecosystems and soil degradation. The potential for TDF to regulate hydrological cycles is expected to be greater in the absence of fire than with it. A general judgment on the effect of fire on biodiversity is difficult as it depends on the community and species involved but a loss of biodiversity under regular burnings is apparent. Consequently, forest managers need sound knowledge regarding the interplay of wildfires and ecosystem behavior in general and more specific knowledge regarding the effects on taxa being considered for conservation efforts. Generally, much more research is needed to understand the trade-offs between the short-term benefits gained from forest provisioning services and long-term adverse effects.

  20. Integrating remotely sensed land cover observations and a biogeochemical model for estimating forest ecosystem carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Liu, S.; Loveland, T.R.; Tieszen, L.L.

    2008-01-01

    Land cover change is one of the key driving forces for ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics. We present an approach for using sequential remotely sensed land cover observations and a biogeochemical model to estimate contemporary and future ecosystem carbon trends. We applied the General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modelling System (GEMS) for the Laurentian Plains and Hills ecoregion in the northeastern United States for the period of 1975-2025. The land cover changes, especially forest stand-replacing events, were detected on 30 randomly located 10-km by 10-km sample blocks, and were assimilated by GEMS for biogeochemical simulations. In GEMS, each unique combination of major controlling variables (including land cover change history) forms a geo-referenced simulation unit. For a forest simulation unit, a Monte Carlo process is used to determine forest type, forest age, forest biomass, and soil C, based on the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data and the U.S. General Soil Map (STATSGO) data. Ensemble simulations are performed for each simulation unit to incorporate input data uncertainty. Results show that on average forests of the Laurentian Plains and Hills ecoregion have been sequestrating 4.2 Tg C (1 teragram = 1012 gram) per year, including 1.9 Tg C removed from the ecosystem as the consequences of land cover change. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Beyond CO2 - Tackling the full greenhouse gas budget of a sub-alpine forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, Susanne; Merbold, Lutz; Meier, Philip; Eugster, Werner; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Buchmann, Nina

    2017-04-01

    In order to tackle the full greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets of forest ecosystems, it is desirable but challenging to quantify the three major GHGs, i.e. CO2, CH4 and N2O simultaneously in-situ. At the long-term forest research site Davos (Candidate Class I Ecosystem Station within the Integrated Carbon Observation System - ICOS), we have recently installed a state-of-the-art measuring system simultaneously to observe the three GHGs on a high temporal resolution and both within and above the forest canopy. Thereby, we combine above-canopy eddy covariance flux measurements and forest floor chamber flux measurements (using five custom-made fully automated chambers). Both systems are connected to a quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer (QCL, Aerodyne) and measurements are switched between three hours of above-canopy and one hour of forest floor GHG flux measurements. Using this approach, we will be able to study the full GHG budget as well as the dynamics of the individual fluxes on two vertical levels within the forest using a single instrument. The first results presented here will highlight the suitability of this promising tool for quantifying the full GHG budget of forest ecosystems.

  2. Disturbance-mediated heterogeneity drives pollinator diversity in boreal managed forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Antonio; Kouki, Jari

    2017-03-01

    Intensive forest management, together with fire suppression, have decreased structural complexity and altered dynamics of boreal forests profoundly. Such management threatens forest biodiversity and can reduce the provision of ecosystem services. Although the importance of ecosystem services is widely acknowledged, conservation strategies are hindered by poor knowledge about diversity patterns of service provider species as well as on mechanisms affecting these assemblages at different spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we assessed the effect of disturbance management on forest pollinator communities. To do so, we used a large-scale ecological experiment conducted in the year 2000, where forest complexity was manipulated with different harvest regimes and prescribed fire. Results were consistent with a positive response of pollinators to increasing habitat heterogeneity driven by past disturbances. Harvested sites harbored a diverse pollinator community, and showed higher spatial and temporal turnover in species richness. Conversely, old-growth forest communities were a nested subset of harvested sites and contained half of their total diversity. Variation in community composition (β diversity) was primarily affected by species temporal turnover. Throughout the season, β diversity was controlled by fire and harvesting legacies, which provide environmental heterogeneity in the form of flowering and nesting resources over space and time. Conservation strategies may undervalue ecosystem services in dynamic, naturally disturbance-driven, landscapes when relying solely on undisturbed forests areas. However, maintaining natural dynamics in early successional forests, by emulating natural disturbances at harvesting, hold promise for the conservation of both biodiversity and ecosystem services in boreal forests. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Disturbances catalyze the adaptation of forest ecosystems to changing climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Dominik; Rammer, Werner; Seidl, Rupert

    2017-01-01

    The rates of anthropogenic climate change substantially exceed those at which forest ecosystems - dominated by immobile, long-lived organisms - are able to adapt. The resulting maladaptation of forests has potentially detrimental effects on ecosystem functioning. Furthermore, as many forest-dwelling species are highly dependent on the prevailing tree species, a delayed response of the latter to a changing climate can contribute to an extinction debt and mask climate-induced biodiversity loss. However, climate change will likely also intensify forest disturbances. Here, we tested the hypothesis that disturbances foster the reorganization of ecosystems and catalyze the adaptation of forest composition to climate change. Our specific objectives were (i) to quantify the rate of autonomous forest adaptation to climate change, (ii) examine the role of disturbance in the adaptation process, and (iii) investigate spatial differences in climate-induced species turnover in an unmanaged mountain forest landscape (Kalkalpen National Park, Austria). Simulations with a process-based forest landscape model were performed for 36 unique combinations of climate and disturbance scenarios over 1000 years. We found that climate change strongly favored European beech and oak species (currently prevailing in mid- to low-elevation areas), with novel species associations emerging on the landscape. Yet, it took between 357 and 706 years before the landscape attained a dynamic equilibrium with the climate system. Disturbances generally catalyzed adaptation and decreased the time needed to attain equilibrium by up to 211 years. However, while increasing disturbance frequency and severity accelerated adaptation, increasing disturbance size had the opposite effect. Spatial analyses suggest that particularly the lowest and highest elevation areas will be hotspots of future species change. We conclude that the growing maladaptation of forests to climate and the long lead times of autonomous

  4. Earthworms influenced by reduced tillage, conventional tillage and energy forest in Swedish agricultural field experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerloef, Jan (SLU, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)), Email: Jan.Lagerlof@ekol.slu.se; Paalsson, Olof; Arvidsson, Johan (SLU, Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2012-03-15

    We compared earthworm density, depth distribution and species composition in three soil cultivation experiments including the treatments ploughless tillage and mouldboard ploughing. Sampling was done in September 2005 and for one experiment also in 1994. By yearly sampling 1995-2005, earthworms in an energy forest of Salix viminalis were compared with those in an adjacent arable field. Sampling method was digging of soil blocks and hand sorting and formalin sampling in one cultivation experiment. Both methods were used in the energy forest and arable land comparison. In two soil cultivation experiments, highest abundances or biomass were found in ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was higher in the upper 10 cm, especially in the ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was significantly higher in the energy forest than in the arable field. Formalin sampling revealed c. 36% of the earthworm numbers found by digging in the energy forest and gave almost no earthworms in the arable field. In all treatments with soil cultivation, species living and feeding in the rhizosphere and soil dominated. One such species, Allolobophora chlorotica, was more abundant under mouldboard ploughing than ploughless tillage. Lumbricus terrestris, browsing on the surface and producing deep vertical burrows, was more common in the ploughless tillage. Species living and feeding close to the soil surface were almost only found in the energy forest, which had not been soil cultivated since 1984. The findings support earlier studies pointing out possibilities to encourage earthworms by reduced soil cultivation. This is one of the first published studies that followed earthworm populations in an energy forest plantation during several years. Explanation of earthworm reactions to management and environmental impacts should be done with consideration of the ecology of species or species groups. Earthworm sampling by formalin must always be interpreted with caution and calibrated by digging and

  5. Proceedings of the fourth meeting of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) Working Party S07.02.09: Phytophthoras in forests and natural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.M. Goheen; S.J. Frankel

    2009-01-01

    The fourth meeting of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) Working Party S07.02.09, Phytophthoras in Forests and Natural Ecosystems provided a forum for current research on Phytophthora species worldwide. Seventy-eight submissions describing papers and posters on recent developments in Phytophthora diseases of trees and natural ecosystems in...

  6. The new flora of northeastern USA: quantifying introduced plant species occupancy in forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Bethany K; Gray, Andrew N

    2013-05-01

    Introduced plant species have significant negative impacts in many ecosystems and are found in many forests around the world. Some factors linked to the distribution of introduced species include fragmentation and disturbance, native species richness, and climatic and physical conditions of the landscape. However, there are few data sources that enable the assessment of introduced species occupancy in native plant communities over broad regions. Vegetation data from 1,302 forest inventory plots across 24 states in northeastern and mid-western USA were used to examine and compare the distribution of introduced species in relation to forest fragmentation across ecological provinces and forest types, and to examine correlations between native and introduced species richness. There were 305 introduced species recorded, and 66 % of all forested plots had at least one introduced species. Forest edge plots had higher constancy and occupancy of introduced species than intact forest plots, but the differences varied significantly among ecological provinces and, to a lesser degree, forest types. Weak but significant positive correlations between native and introduced species richness were observed most often in intact forests. Rosa multiflora was the most common introduced species recorded across the region, but Hieracium aurantiacum and Epipactus helleborine were dominant in some ecological provinces. Identifying regions and forest types with high and low constancies and occupation by introduced species can help target forest stands where management actions will be the most effective. Identifying seemingly benign introduced species that are more prevalent than realized will help focus attention on newly emerging invasives.

  7. Unconventional gas development and its effect on forested ecosystems in the Northern Appalachians, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drohan, Patrick; Brittingham, Margaret; Mortensen, David; Barlow, Kathryn; Langlois, Lillie

    2017-04-01

    Worldwide unconventional shale-gas development has the potential to cause substantial landscape disturbance. The northeastern U.S.A. Appalachian Mountains across the states of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, and Kentucky, are experiencing rapid landscape change as unconventional gas development occurs. We highlight several years of our research from this region in order to demonstrate the unique effect unconventional development has had on forested ecosystems. Infrastructure development has had a wide-reaching and varied effect on forested ecosystems and their services, which has resulted in temporary disturbances and long-lasting ones altering habitats and their viability. Corridor disturbances, such as pipelines, are the most spatially extensive disturbance and have substantially fragmented forest cover. Core forest disturbance, especially, in upper watershed positions, has resulted in disproportionate disturbances to forested ecosystems and their wildlife, and suggests a need for adaptive land management strategies to minimize and mitigate the effects of gas development. Soil and water resources are most affected by surface disturbances; however, soil protection and restoration strategies are evolving as the gas play changes economically. Dynamic soil properties related to soil organic matter and water availability respond uniquely to unconventional gas development and new, flexible restoration strategies are required to support long-term ecosystem stability. While the focus of management and research to date has been on acute disturbances to forested ecosystems, unconventional gas development is clearly a greater chronic, long-term disturbance factor in the Appalachian Mountains. Effectively managing ecosystems where unconventional gas development is occurring is a complicated interplay between public, private and corporate interests.

  8. Natural disturbance impacts on ecosystem services and biodiversity in temperate and boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Dominik; Seidl, Rupert

    2016-08-01

    In many parts of the world forest disturbance regimes have intensified recently, and future climatic changes are expected to amplify this development further in the coming decades. These changes are increasingly challenging the main objectives of forest ecosystem management, which are to provide ecosystem services sustainably to society and maintain the biological diversity of forests. Yet a comprehensive understanding of how disturbances affect these primary goals of ecosystem management is still lacking. We conducted a global literature review on the impact of three of the most important disturbance agents (fire, wind, and bark beetles) on 13 different ecosystem services and three indicators of biodiversity in forests of the boreal, cool- and warm-temperate biomes. Our objectives were to (i) synthesize the effect of natural disturbances on a wide range of possible objectives of forest management, and (ii) investigate standardized effect sizes of disturbance for selected indicators via a quantitative meta-analysis. We screened a total of 1958 disturbance studies published between 1981 and 2013, and reviewed 478 in detail. We first investigated the overall effect of disturbances on individual ecosystem services and indicators of biodiversity by means of independence tests, and subsequently examined the effect size of disturbances on indicators of carbon storage and biodiversity by means of regression analysis. Additionally, we investigated the effect of commonly used approaches of disturbance management, i.e. salvage logging and prescribed burning. We found that disturbance impacts on ecosystem services are generally negative, an effect that was supported for all categories of ecosystem services, i.e. supporting, provisioning, regulating, and cultural services (P ecosystem services at risk while simultaneously facilitating biodiversity. A detailed investigation of disturbance effect sizes on carbon storage and biodiversity further underlined these divergent effects

  9. Modelling carbon cycle of agro-forest ecosystems in Lombardy (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo R

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a methodology for the estimation of Gross Primary Production (GPP, Net Primary Production (NPP and Net Ecosystem Production (NEP for the main agricultural and forest ecosystems of the Lombardia Region (Italy. The MOD17 model was parameterized according to the different agro-forestry ecosystems and applied at regional scale by using satellite data with a spatial resolution of 250m. The high spatial resolution along with fine classification agro-forestry ecosystems has allowed to accurately analyze the carbon budget of an extremely fragmented and complex environment such as the Lombardia Region. Modeling results showed the role of the forests in the carbon budget at regional scale and represent important information layer for the spatial analysis and for inferring the inter-annual variability of carbon sequestration due to impacts of extreme events and recent climate change (e.g., drought, heat wave, flooding, fires.

  10. Improving SWAT for simulating water and carbon fluxes of forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qichun; Zhang, Xuesong

    2016-11-01

    As a widely used watershed model for assessing impacts of anthropogenic and natural disturbances on water quantity and quality, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has not been extensively tested in simulating water and carbon fluxes of forest ecosystems. Here, we examine SWAT simulations of evapotranspiration (ET), net primary productivity (NPP), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), and plant biomass at ten AmeriFlux forest sites across the U.S. We identify unrealistic radiation use efficiency (Bio_E), large leaf to biomass fraction (Bio_LEAF), and missing phosphorus supply from parent material weathering as the primary causes for the inadequate performance of the default SWAT model in simulating forest dynamics. By further revising the relevant parameters and processes, SWAT’s performance is substantially improved. Based on the comparison between the improved SWAT simulations and flux tower observations, we discuss future research directions for further enhancing model parameterization and representation of water and carbon cycling for forests.

  11. Faunal impact on vegetation structure and ecosystem function in mangrove forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannicci, S.; Burrows, Damien; Fratini, Sara

    2008-01-01

    The last 20 years witnessed a real paradigm shift concerning the impact of biotic factors on ecosystem functions as well as on vegetation structure of mangrove forests. Before this small scientific revolution took place, structural aspects of mangrove forests were viewed to be the result of abiotic...... to be considered a main actor in mangrove structuring processes, thanks to a number of studies carried out in the Indo-Pacific forests in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Following these classical papers, a number of studies on Sesarmidae feeding and burrowing ecology were carried out, which leave no doubts about...... to have the same role as Sesarmidae in terms of retention of forest products and organic matter processing in New world mangroves. In both New and Old world mangroves, crabs process large amounts of algal primary production, contribute consistently to retention of mangrove production and as ecosystem...

  12. Faunal impact on vegetation structure and ecosystem function in mangrove forests: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannicci, S.; Burows, D.; Fratini, S.

    2008-01-01

    The last 20 years witnessed a real paradigm shift concerning the impact of biotic factors on ecosystem functions as well as on vegetation structure of mangrove forests. Before this small scientific revolution took place, structural aspects of mangrove forests were viewed to be the result of abiotic...... to be considered a main actor in mangrove structuring processes, thanks to a number of studies carried out in the Indo-Pacific forests in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Following these classical papers, a number of studies on Sesarmidae feeding and burrowing ecology were carried out, which leave no doubts about...... to have the same role as Sesarmidae in terms of retention of forest products and organic matter processing in New world mangroves. In both New and Old world mangroves, crabs process large amounts of algal primary production, contribute consistently to retention of mangrove production and as ecosystem...

  13. Comparing soil biogeochemical processes in novel and natural boreal forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Quideau

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Emulating the variability that exists in the natural landscape prior to disturbance should be a goal of soil reconstruction and land reclamation efforts following resource extraction. Long-term ecosystem sustainability within reclaimed landscapes can only be achieved with the re-establishment of biogeochemical processes between reconstructed soils and plants. In this study, we assessed key soil biogeochemical attributes (nutrient availability, organic matter composition, and microbial communities in reconstructed, novel, anthropogenic ecosystems, covering different reclamation treatments following open-cast mining for oil extraction. We compared the attributes to those present in a range of natural soils representative of mature boreal forest ecosystems in the same area of Northern Alberta. Soil nutrient availability was determined in situ with resin probes, organic matter composition was described with 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and soil microbial community structure was characterized using phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Significant differences among natural ecosystems were apparent in nutrient availability and seemed more related to the dominant tree cover than to soil type. When analyzed together, all natural forests differed significantly from the novel ecosystems, in particular with respect to soil organic matter composition. However, there was some overlap between the reconstructed soils and some of the natural ecosystems in nutrient availability and microbial communities, but not in organic matter characteristics. Hence, our results illustrate the importance of considering the range of natural landscape variability and including several soil biogeochemical attributes when comparing novel, anthropogenic ecosystems to the mature ecosystems that constitute ecological targets.

  14. Energy efficiency of biomass production in managed versus natural temperate forest and grassland ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Callesen, I; Østergård, H.

    2008-01-01

    In a conceptual model study based on literature data from Danish ecosystems, energy yield from biomass production was compared in two semi-natural ecosystems (broadleaved forest and grassland) and their managed counterparts. The highest net energy yield of harvested biomass was obtained in the managed grassland system. The energy efficiency in terms of output:input ratios were about 190:1 in the managed beech forest and 6:1 in the managed grassland. This is discussed in relation to nitrogen c...

  15. Temporal Trends of Ecosystem Development on Different Site Types in Reclaimed Boreal Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley D. Pinno

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest development after land reclamation in the oil sands mining region of northern Alberta, Canada was assessed using long-term monitoring plots from both reclaimed and natural forests. The metrics of ecosystem development analyzed included measures of plant community structure and composition and soil nutrient availability. Early seral reclamation plots were grouped by site type (dry and moist-rich and age categories, and these were compared with mature natural forests. There were few significant differences in ecosystem metrics between reclamation site types, but natural stands showed numerous significant differences between site types. Over time, there were significant changes in most plant community metrics such as species richness and cover of plant community groups (e.g., forbs, shrubs, and non-native species, but these were still substantially different from mature forests 20 years after reclamation. Available soil nitrogen did not change over time or by reclamation site type but available soil phosphorus did, suggesting that phosphorus may be a more suitable indicator of ecosystem development. The significant temporal changes in these reclaimed ecosystems indicate that studies of ecosystem establishment and development on reclaimed areas should be conducted over the long-term, emphasizing the utility of monitoring using long-term plot networks.

  16. Effects of disturbance and climate change on ecosystem performance in the Yukon River Basin boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Bruce K.; Rigge, Matthew B.; Brisco, Brian; Mrnaghan, Kevin; Rover, Jennifer R.; Long, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    A warming climate influences boreal forest productivity, dynamics, and disturbance regimes. We used ecosystem models and 250 m satellite Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data averaged over the growing season (GSN) to model current, and estimate future, ecosystem performance. We modeled Expected Ecosystem Performance (EEP), or anticipated productivity, in undisturbed stands over the 2000–2008 period from a variety of abiotic data sources, using a rule-based piecewise regression tree. The EEP model was applied to a future climate ensemble A1B projection to quantify expected changes to mature boreal forest performance. Ecosystem Performance Anomalies (EPA), were identified as the residuals of the EEP and GSN relationship and represent performance departures from expected performance conditions. These performance data were used to monitor successional events following fire. Results suggested that maximum EPA occurs 30–40 years following fire, and deciduous stands generally have higher EPA than coniferous stands. Mean undisturbed EEP is projected to increase 5.6% by 2040 and 8.7% by 2070, suggesting an increased deciduous component in boreal forests. Our results contribute to the understanding of boreal forest successional dynamics and its response to climate change. This information enables informed decisions to prepare for, and adapt to, climate change in the Yukon River Basin forest.

  17. Copper level and distribution in soils of forest ecosystems of Samara river region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Dubina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The level and regularities of distribution of the copper in the soils of steppe and forest ecosystems of Samara river region were determined. The data on general and mobile forms of copper combination in soils of the studied ecosystems are presented. The interval of copper variation in the soils is indicated. The distribution of copper in soil genetic horizons is shown. The distinction in the copper content in soils of different types of the landscape was revealed.

  18. Social-Natural Landscape Reorganised: Swedish Forest-edge Farmers and Wolf Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjolander-Lindqvist Annelie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The politics and the underlying reasons behind the recovery of the Scandinavian wolf population are increasingly contested. According to official policy, wolves should be guaranteed a place in the Swedish natural world. However, the conflict over whether Sweden should host a wolf population sets views on biodiversity and sustainable development against the perspective that local traditions and livelihoods are threatened by the return of wolves. These diverging environmental visions can be seen as competing interests and understandings of nature and wildlife. The desire of the state and nature conservation organisations to implement measures to provide conditions fostering wolf survival are counterbalanced by local action groups and community residents struggling to maintain conditions for conserving summer pastures, opportunities for hunting with sporting dogs, and other recreational activities such as mushroom- and berry-picking. Not only are these activities considered to have high natural and cultural value, the European Union (EU has stated that small-scale farming is important for maintaining the landscape and safeguarding the survival of values associated with ′agri-environmental′ habitats. The conflict between the interest groups is essentially about the access to and use of environmental resources. Squeezed between policies safeguarding wolf populations, preventing cruelty to animals and implementing activities required by the EU agricultural programme, farmers in areas with resident wolf populations have come to take part in processes that may reinforce rural identity.

  19. Development of the BIOME-BGC model for the simulation of managed Moso bamboo forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Fangjie; Li, Pingheng; Zhou, Guomo; Du, Huaqiang; Xu, Xiaojun; Shi, Yongjun; Mo, Lufeng; Zhou, Yufeng; Tu, Guoqing

    2016-05-01

    Numerical models are the most appropriate instrument for the analysis of the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems and their interactions with changing environmental conditions. The process-based model BIOME-BGC is widely used in simulation of carbon balance within vegetation, litter and soil of unmanaged ecosystems. For Moso bamboo forests, however, simulations with BIOME-BGC are inaccurate in terms of the growing season and the carbon allocation, due to the oversimplified representation of phenology. Our aim was to improve the applicability of BIOME-BGC for managed Moso bamboo forest ecosystem by implementing several new modules, including phenology, carbon allocation, and management. Instead of the simple phenology and carbon allocation representations in the original version, a periodic Moso bamboo phenology and carbon allocation module was implemented, which can handle the processes of Moso bamboo shooting and high growth during "on-year" and "off-year". Four management modules (digging bamboo shoots, selective cutting, obtruncation, fertilization) were integrated in order to quantify the functioning of managed ecosystems. The improved model was calibrated and validated using eddy covariance measurement data collected at a managed Moso bamboo forest site (Anji) during 2011-2013 years. As a result of these developments and calibrations, the performance of the model was substantially improved. Regarding the measured and modeled fluxes (gross primary production, total ecosystem respiration, net ecosystem exchange), relative errors were decreased by 42.23%, 103.02% and 18.67%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Integrating Expert Knowledge into Mapping Ecosystem Services Trade-offs for Sustainable Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Grêt-Regamey

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mountain ecosystems are highly sensitive to global change. In fact, the continued capacity of mountain regions to provide goods and services to society is threatened by the impact of environmental changes on ecosystems. Although mapping ecosystem services values is known to support sustainable resource management, the integration of spatially explicit local expert knowledge on ecosystem dynamics and social responses to global changes has not yet been integrated in the modeling process. This contribution demonstrates the importance of integrating local knowledge into the spatially explicit valuation of ecosystem services. Knowledge acquired by expert surveys flows into a GIS-based Bayesian Network for valuing forest ecosystem services under a land-use and a climate change scenario in a case study in the Swiss Alps. Results show that including expert knowledge in ecosystem services mapping not only reduces uncertainties considerably, but also has an important effect on the ecosystem services values. Particularly the iterative process between integrating expert knowledge into the modeling process and mapping ecosystem services guarantees a continuous improvement of ecosystem services values maps while opening a new way for mutual learning between scientists and stakeholders which might support adaptive resource management.

  1. Historical range of variation assessment for wetland and riparian ecosystems, U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Gage; David J. Cooper

    2013-01-01

    This document provides an overview of historical range of variation concepts and explores their application to wetland and riparian ecosystems in the US Forest Service Rocky Mountain Region (Region 2), which includes National Forests and National Grasslands occurring in the states of Colorado, Wyoming, Nebraska, Kansas, and South Dakota. For each of five ecosystem...

  2. Selective and traditional forest management options for black pine forests in Central Italy: effects on ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Paletto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable Forest Management (SFM should be able to produce an optimal level of bundle of Ecosystem Services (ES, thus ensuring more resilient forest ecosystems also creating benefits for local population and human well-being. Yet, choosing between alternative forest management practices is not straightforward as it necessarily involves ES trade-offs. Forest management decisions have to reconcile the socio-economic and ecological contributions of forest ecosystems by fostering a synergistic relation between multiple ES while lowering ES trade-offs. The aim of the study is to analyze different forest management practices (selective and traditional thinning in black pine peri-urban forest in Central Italy, by investigating their contribution in terms of provisioning (wood production, cultural (recreational benefits, regulating (climate change mitigation ES. For each management option was performed: (1 the biophysical assessment of selected ES by using primary data and calculating indicators for wood production with special regard to biomass for energy use (living trees and deadwood volume harvested, recreational benefits (tourists’ preferences for each forest management practice, climate change mitigation (carbon sequestration in above-ground and below-ground biomass, and (2 the economic valuation of wood production, recreational benefits and climate change mitigation ES using direct and indirect methods (environmental evaluation techniques. The results show that the effects of the selective thinning on ES is higher that the effects of the traditional thinning. The economic value of the three ES provided by traditional and selective thinning are respectively: bioenergy production 154.2 € ha-1 yr-1 and 223.3 € ha-1 yr-1; recreational benefits 193.2 € ha-1 yr-1 and 231.9 € ha-1 yr-1; carbon sequestration 29.0 € ha-1 yr-1and 36.2 € ha-1 yr-1. The integrated (biophysical and economic assessment of ES in addition to the trade

  3. Uncertainties in mapping forest carbon in urban ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Ozelkan, Emre; Singh, Kunwar K; Zhou, Jun; Brown, Marilyn R; Meentemeyer, Ross K

    2017-02-01

    Spatially explicit urban forest carbon estimation provides a baseline map for understanding the variation in forest vertical structure, informing sustainable forest management and urban planning. While high-resolution remote sensing has proven promising for carbon mapping in highly fragmented urban landscapes, data cost and availability are the major obstacle prohibiting accurate, consistent, and repeated measurement of forest carbon pools in cities. This study aims to evaluate the uncertainties of forest carbon estimation in response to the combined impacts of remote sensing data resolution and neighborhood spatial patterns in Charlotte, North Carolina. The remote sensing data for carbon mapping were resampled to a range of resolutions, i.e., LiDAR point cloud density - 5.8, 4.6, 2.3, and 1.2 pt s/m2, aerial optical NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program) imagery - 1, 5, 10, and 20 m. Urban spatial patterns were extracted to represent area, shape complexity, dispersion/interspersion, diversity, and connectivity of landscape patches across the residential neighborhoods with built-up densities from low, medium-low, medium-high, to high. Through statistical analyses, we found that changing remote sensing data resolution introduced noticeable uncertainties (variation) in forest carbon estimation at the neighborhood level. Higher uncertainties were caused by the change of LiDAR point density (causing 8.7-11.0% of variation) than changing NAIP image resolution (causing 6.2-8.6% of variation). For both LiDAR and NAIP, urban neighborhoods with a higher degree of anthropogenic disturbance unveiled a higher level of uncertainty in carbon mapping. However, LiDAR-based results were more likely to be affected by landscape patch connectivity, and the NAIP-based estimation was found to be significantly influenced by the complexity of patch shape. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Application experiments to trace N-P interactions in forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Jaane; Niederberger, Jörg; Schulz, Stefanie; Lang, Friederike

    2017-04-01

    Phosphorus is a limited resource and there is increasing debate regarding the principles of tight P recycling. Forest ecosystems show commonly high P use efficiencies but the processes behind this phenomenon are still unresolved. In frame of the priority program "SPP 1685 Ecosystem nutrition - Forest strategies for limited phosphorus resources" around 70 researchers from different disciplines collaborate to unravel these processes. The overall hypothesis to be tested is that the P nutrition strategy of forest ecosystems at sites rich in mineral P is characterized by high P uptake efficiency (acquiring systems). In contrast, the P strategy of forest ecosystems facing low soil P stocks is characterized by highly efficient mechanisms of P recycling. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed five beech forest ecosystems on silicate rock with different parent materials representing a gradient of total P stocks (160 - 900 g P m-2, down to 1m soil depth). In fact, we found evidence confirming our hypothesis, but controls and drivers of P strategies are still unknown as other environmental variables differ. One of those might be the N content, as organisms strive to reach a specific internal N:P ratio. Thus, an additional application of N might also alter P nutrition. To test this, we established a factorial P x N application experiment at three of the study sites. With our presentation we will introduce this experiment and give a review on published P x N experiments discussing different advantages and disadvantages of different basic conditions (e.g. amount and application form, doses, sampling and statistical design, monitoring periods, budget calculation, isotopic tracing). Finally, we want to initiate a common discussion on the standardization of P x N field experiments to enable interdisciplinary and across-compartment comparisons (e.g. different land use, different climate zones, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems).

  5. Methodological Considerations in the Study of Earthworms in Forest Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylan Rhea-Fournier; Grizelle Gonzalez

    2017-01-01

    Decades of studies have shown that soil macrofauna, especially earthworms, play dominant engineering roles in soils, affecting physical, chemical, and biological components of ecosystems. Quantifying these effects would allow crucial improvement in biogeochemical budgets and modeling, predicting response of land use and disturbance, and could be applied to...

  6. Ecosystem services of the Niger Delta Forests, Nigeria | Ezenwaka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the good knowledge of ecosystem services by the urban respondents, only 42.5% were aware of fresh water provisioning services and only 27.5% were aware of water purification services. Both the urban and rural respondents had preference for the “provisioning services”. Rural populations were particularly ...

  7. Imaging spectroscopy for ecological analysis in forest and grassland ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homolova, L.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial vegetation is an important component of the Earth’s biosphere and therefore playing an essential role in climate regulation, carbon sequestration, and it provides large variety of services to humans. For a sustainable management of terrestrial ecosystems it is essential to

  8. Willingness to pay for ecosystem conservation in Alaska's Tongass National Forest: a choice modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan E. Hjerpe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystems contribute to human welfare in important ways, but because of the nonmarket nature of many of the goods and services produced, both markets and governments fail to optimize their production commensurate with their economic and ecological significance. Despite the recent proliferation of nonmarket environmental valuation in the literature, the incorporation of nonmarket values into public forest decision making has been limited by institutional and methodological barriers. To address this disconnect, we conducted a case study to quantify conservation values for the Tongass National Forest in a manner conducive for public forest planning. A choice experiment featuring proposed forest management alternatives with changes in critical attributes relative to their levels in the status quo was used to generate the requisite data. Econometric analysis suggests that Alaskans have strong preference for conservation management, including both preservation and ecological restoration, over status quo or exploitation management. However, there is significant heterogeneity among Alaskans in terms of bias toward the status quo depending on their socioeconomic characteristics, e.g., gender, age, place of residence, household income, whether or not they have dependent children. The findings of this study can be helpful to forest managers in the preparation of resource management plans consistent with maximization of total economic value of forest ecosystem services.

  9. Alternative Modelling Approach to Spatial Harvest Scheduling with Respect to Fragmentation of Forest Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marušák, Róbert; Kašpar, Jan; Hlavatý, Robert; Kotek, Václav; Kuželka, Karel; Vopěnka, Petr

    2015-11-01

    Fragmentation of the forests affects forest ecosystems by changing the composition, shape, and configuration of the resulting patches. Subsequently, the prevailing conditions vary between patches. The exposure to the sun decreases from the patch boundary to the patch interior and this forms core and edge areas within each patch. Forest harvesting and, in particular, the clear-cut management system which is still preferred in many European countries has a significant impact on forest fragmentation. There are many indices of measuring fragmentation: non-spatial and spatial. The non-spatial indices measure the composition of patches, while the spatial indices measure both the shape and configuration of the resulting patches. The effect of forest harvesting on fragmentation, biodiversity, and the environment is extensively studied; however, the integration of fragmentation indices in the harvest scheduling model is a new, novel approach. This paper presents a multi-objective integer model of harvest scheduling for clear-cut management system and presents a case study demonstrating its use. Harvest balance and sustainability are ensured by the addition of constraints from the basic principle of the regulated forest model. The results indicate that harvest balance and sustainability can be also achieved in minimizing fragmentation of forest ecosystems. From the analyses presented in this study, it can be concluded that integration of fragmentation into harvest scheduling can provide better spatial structure. It depends on the initial spatial and age structure. It was confirmed that it is possible to find compromise solution while minimizing fragmentation and maximizing harvested area.

  10. Multi-Stakeholder Collaboration in Russian and Swedish Model Forest Initiatives: Adaptive Governance Toward Sustainable Forest Management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Elbakidze

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Building the adaptive capacity of interlinked social and ecological systems is assumed to improve implementation of sustainable forest management (SFM policies. One mechanism is collaborative learning by continuous evaluation, communication, and transdisciplinary knowledge production. The Model Forest (MF concept, developed in Canada, is intended to encourage all dimensions of sustainable development through collaboration among stakeholders of forest resources in a geographical area. Because the MF approach encompasses both social and ecological systems, it can be seen as a process aimed at improving adaptive capacity to deal with uncertainty and change. We analyzed multi-stakeholder approaches used in four MF initiatives representing social-ecological systems with different governance legacies and economic histories in the northwest of the Russian Federation (Komi MF and Pskov MF and in Sweden (Vilhelmina MF and the Foundation Säfsen Forests in the Bergslagen region. To describe the motivations behind development of the initiative and the governance systems, we used qualitative open-ended interviews and analyzed reports and official documents. The initial driving forces for establishing new local governance arrangements were different in all four cases. All MFs were characterized by multi-level and multi-sector collaboration. However, the distribution of power among stakeholders ranged from clearly top down in the Russian Federation to largely bottom up in Sweden. All MF initiatives shared three main challenges: (a to develop governance arrangements that include representative actors and stakeholders, (b to combine top-down and bottom-up approaches to governance, and (c to coordinate different sectors' modes of landscape governance. We conclude that, in principle, the MF concept is a promising approach to multi-stakeholder collaboration. However, to understand the local and regional dimensions of sustainability, and the level of adaptability

  11. Assessment of vulnerability of forest ecosystems to climate change and adaptation planning in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, M. A.; Chitale, V. S.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding ecosystem level vulnerability of forests and dependence of local communities on these ecosystems is a first step towards developing effective adaptation strategies. As forests are important components of livelihoods system for a large percentage of the population in the Himalayan region, they offer an important basis for creating and safeguarding more climate-resilient communities. Increased frequency, duration, and/or severity of drought and heat stress, changes in winter ecology, and pest and fire outbreaksunder climate change scenarios could fundamentally alter the composition, productivity and biogeography of forests affecting the potential ecosystem services offered and forest-based livelihoods. Hence, forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment to climate change and the development of a knowledgebase to identify and support relevant adaptation strategies is identified as an urgent need. Climate change vulnerability is measured as a function of exposure, sensitivity and the adaptive capacity of the system towards climate variability and extreme events. Effective adaptation to climate change depends on the availability of two important prerequisites: a) information on what, where, and how to adapt, and b) availability of resources to implement the adaptation measures. In the present study, we introduce the concept of two way multitier approach, which can support effective identification and implementation of adaptation measures in Nepal and the framework can be replicated in other countries in the HKH region. The assessment of overall vulnerability of forests comprises of two components: 1) understanding the relationship between exposure and sensitivity and positive feedback from adaptive capacity of forests; 2) quantifying the dependence of local communities on these ecosystems. We use climate datasets from Bioclim and biophysical products from MODIS, alongwith field datasets. We report that most of the forests along the high altitude areas and few

  12. Long-term forest ecosystem research: a programmatic view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne Swank; James Vose

    2010-01-01

    Long-term research provides the building blocks of knowledge needed to address natural resource and environmental issues. "Long-term" has frequently been considered to span decades with a time frame that usually encompasses at least one generation of scientists and frequently two or more generations. In the rich history of forest science, the origin of long-...

  13. Modelling atmospheric OH-reactivity in a boreal forest ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, D.; Smolander, S.; Sogachev, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    We have modelled the total atmospheric OH-reactivity in a boreal forest and investigated the individual contributions from gas phase inorganic species, isoprene, monoterpenes, and methane along with other important VOCs. Daily and seasonal variation in OH-reactivity for the year 2008 was examined...

  14. Effects of natural gas development on forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Beth Adams; W. Mark Ford; Thomas M. Schuler; Melissa. Thomas-Van Gundy

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, an energy company leased the privately owned minerals that underlie the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia. The Fernow, established in 1934, is dedicated to long-term research. In 2008, a natural gas well was drilled on the Fernow and a pipeline and supporting infrastructure constructed. We describe the impacts of natural gas development on the...

  15. Ant species richness of fynbos and forest ecosystems in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-06-26

    Jun 26, 1987 ... The ant fauna in fynbos and forest habitats in the southern Cape are compared. There is no significant difference in ant species richness between the two undisturbed habitat types. and the only two species common to both are. Acantholepis capensis and Camponotus maculatus. The degree of Hakea ...

  16. Ant species richness of fynbos and forest ecosystems in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ant fauna in fynbos and forest habitats in the southern Cape are compared. There is no significant difference in ant species richness between the two undisturbed habitat types, and the only two species common to both are Acantholepis capensis and Camponotus maculatus. The degree of Hakea sericea infestation in ...

  17. Impacts of Air Pollution and Climate Change on Forest Ecosystems — Emerging Research Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Paoletti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Outcomes from the 22nd meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest EcosystemsForests under Anthropogenic Pressure Effects of Air Pollution, Climate Change and Urban Development”, September 1016, 2006, Riverside, CA, are summarized. Tropospheric or ground-level ozone (O3 is still the phytotoxic air pollutant of major interest. Challenging issues are how to make O3 standards or critical levels more biologically based and at the same time practical for wide use; quantification of plant detoxification processes in flux modeling; inclusion of multiple environmental stresses in critical load determinations; new concept development for nitrogen saturation; interactions between air pollution, climate, and forest pests; effects of forest fire on air quality; the capacity of forests to sequester carbon under changing climatic conditions and coexposure to elevated levels of air pollutants; enhanced linkage between molecular biology, biochemistry, physiology, and morphological traits.

  18. Biotic resistance to exotic invasions: its role in forest ecosystems, confounding artifacts, and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriela C. Nunez-Mir; Andrew M. Liebhold; Qinfeng Guo; Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Insu Jo; Kimberly Ordonez; Songlin Fei

    2017-01-01

    Biotic resistance, the ability of communities to resist exotic invasions, has long attracted interest in the research and management communities. However, inconsistencies exist in various biotic resistance studies and less is known about the current status and knowledge gaps of biotic resistance in forest ecosystems. In this paper, we provide a brief review of the...

  19. Structural equation modelling reveals plant-community drivers of carbon storage in boreal forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Micael; Wardle, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Boreal forest ecosystems are important drivers of the global carbon (C) cycle by acting as both sinks and sources of atmospheric CO2. While several factors have been proposed as determining the ability of boreal forest to function as C sinks, little is known about their relative importance. In this study, we applied structural equation modelling to a previously published dataset involving 30 boreal-forested islands that vary greatly in their historic fire regime, in order to explore the simultaneous influence of several factors believed to be important in influencing above-ground, below-ground and total ecosystem C accumulation. We found that wildfire was a major driver of ecosystem C sequestration, and exerted direct effects on below-ground C storage (presumably through humus combustion) and indirect effects on both above-ground and below-ground C storage through altering plant-community composition. By contrast, plant diversity influenced only below-ground C storage (and even then only weakly), while net primary productivity and decomposition had no detectable effect. Our results suggest that while boreal forests have great potential for storing significant amounts of C, traits of dominant plant species that promote below-ground C accumulation and the absence of wildfire are the most important drivers of C sequestration in these ecosystems. PMID:19755530

  20. Forest aesthetics, biodiversity, and the perceived appropriateness of ecosystem management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster

    1996-01-01

    The social acceptability of 'ecosystem management' and related new forestry programs hinges on how people view the forest environment and what it means to them. For many, these conceptions are based on a 'scenic aesthetic" that is dramatic and visual, where both human and natural changes are perceived negatively. In contrast, appreciation of...

  1. Climate change adaptation and mitigation options a guide for natural resource managers in southern forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Kier D. Klepzig

    2014-01-01

    The rapid pace of climate change and its direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems present a pressing need for better scientific understanding and the development of new science-management partnerships. Understanding the effects of stressors and disturbances (including climatic variability), and developing and testing science-based management options to deal...

  2. Relevance of Lick Creek ecosystem-based management treatments to National Forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathy Stewart

    1999-01-01

    Treatments applied at Lick Creek were the first landscape-scale applications of ecosystem management on the Bitterroot National Forest. The coordinated effort between educators, researchers, resource managers, and the public helped gain acceptance and understanding of new approaches to management, both internally and externally. The longer skidding distances, high...

  3. Climatic and pollution influences on ecosystem processes in northern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt S. Pregitzer; David D. Reed; Glenn D. Mroz; Andrew J. Burton; John A. Witter; Donald A. Zak

    1996-01-01

    The Michigan gradient study was established in 1987 to examine the effects of climate and atmospheric deposition on forest productivity and ecosystem processes in the Great Lakes region. Four intensively-monitored northern hardwood study sites are located along a climatic and pollutant gradient extending from southern lower Michigan to northwestern upper Michigan. The...

  4. Trees at work: economic accounting for forest ecosystem services in the U.S.South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin O. Sills; Susan E. Moore; Frederick W. Cubbage; Kelley D. McCarter; Thomas P. Holmes; D. Evan Mercer

    2017-01-01

    Southern forests provide a variety of critical ecosystem services, from purification of water and air to recreational opportunities for millions of people. Because many of these services are public goods with no observable market value, they are not fully accounted for in land use and policy decisions. There have been several efforts to remedy this by...

  5. Global topics and novel approaches in the study of air pollution, climate change and forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Sicard; A. Augustaitis; S. Belyazid; C. Calfapietra; A. De Marco; Mark E. Fenn; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Nancy Grulke; S. He; R. Matyssek; Y. Serengil; G. Wieser; E. Paoletti

    2016-01-01

    Research directions from the 27th conference for Specialists in Air Pollution and Climate Change Effects on Forest Ecosystems (2015) reflect knowledge advancements about (i) Mechanistic bases of tree responses to multiple climate and pollution stressors, in particular the interaction of ozone (O3) with nitrogen (N) deposition and drought; (ii)...

  6. Quantification of Impacts of Nitrogen Deposition on Forest Ecosystem Services in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Posch, M.; Reinds, G.J.; Hettelingh, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Important forest ecosystem services are the provision of a habitat for a diversity of plants and wildlife (habitat service), pollutant filtering relevant for an adequate water quality (regulating service) and wood production with the related carbon (C) storage (provisioning/regulating service).

  7. Intelligent Model Management in a Forest Ecosystem Management Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald Nute; Walter D. Potter; Frederick Maier; Jin Wang; Mark Twery; H. Michael Rauscher; Peter Knopp; Scott Thomasma; Mayukh Dass; Hajime Uchiyama

    2002-01-01

    Decision making for forest ecosystem management can include the use of a wide variety of modeling tools. These tools include vegetation growth models, wildlife models, silvicultural models, GIS, and visualization tools. NED-2 is a robust, intelligent, goal-driven decision support system that integrates tools in each of these categories. NED-2 uses a blackboard...

  8. Toward an integrated classification of ecosystems: Defining opportunities for managing fish and forest health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce E. Rieman; Danny C. Lee; Russell F. Thurow; Paul F. Hessburg; James R. Sedell

    2000-01-01

    Many of the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest United States have been simplified and degraded in part through past land-management activities. Recent listings of fishes under the Endangered Species Act and major new initiatives for the restoration of forest health have precipitated contentious debate among managers and conservation interests...

  9. Measuring soil frost depth in forest ecosystems with ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Butnor; John L. Campbell; James B. Shanley; Stanley. Zarnoch

    2014-01-01

    Soil frost depth in forest ecosystems can be variable and depends largely on early winter air temperatures and the amount and timing of snowfall. A thorough evaluation of ecological responses to seasonally frozen ground is hampered by our inability to adequately characterize the frequency, depth, duration and intensity of soil frost events. We evaluated the use of...

  10. An agent architecture for an integrated forest ecosystem management decision support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald Nute; Walter D. Potter; Mayukh Dass; Astrid Glende; Frederick Maier; Hajime Uchiyama; Jin Wang; Mark Twery; Peter Knopp; Scott Thomasma; H. Michael Rauscher

    2003-01-01

    A wide variety of software tools are available to support decision in the management of forest ecosystems. These tools include databases, growth and yield models, wildlife models, silvicultural expert systems, financial models, geographical informations systems, and visualization tools. Typically, each of these tools has its own complex interface and data format. To...

  11. When does biodiversity matter? Assessing ecosystem services across broad regions using forest inventory and analysis data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Christopher W. Woodall; Christopher M. Oswalt; Basil V. III Iannone; Songlin. Fei

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity is expected to convey numerous functional benefits to forested ecosystems, including increased productivity and resilience. When assessing biodiversity, however, statistics that account for evolutionary relationships among species may be more ecologically meaningful than traditional measures such as species richness. In three broad-scale studies, we...

  12. Assessing Urban Forest Structure, Ecosystem Services, and Economic Benefits on Vacant Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunwoo Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An urban forest assessment is essential for developing a baseline from which to measure changes and trends. The most precise way to assess urban forests is to measure and record every tree on a site, but although this may work well for relatively small populations (e.g., street trees, small parks, it is prohibitively expensive for large tree populations. Thus, random sampling offers a cost-effective way to assess urban forest structure and the associated ecosystem services for large-scale assessments. The methodology applied to assess ecosystem services in this study can also be used to assess the ecosystem services provided by vacant land in other urban contexts and improve urban forest policies, planning, and the management of vacant land. The study’s findings support the inclusion of trees on vacant land and contribute to a new vision of vacant land as a valuable ecological resource by demonstrating how green infrastructure can be used to enhance ecosystem health and promote a better quality of life for city residents.

  13. Short and long-term impacts of nitrogen deposition on carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Du, E.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-01-01

    The carbon to nitrogen response of forest ecosystems depends on the possible occurrence of nitrogen limitation versus possible co-limitations by other drivers, such as low temperature or availability of phosphorus. A combination of nitrogen retention estimates and stoichiometric scaling is used to

  14. Bettle fauna of agro and forest ecosystems in a tropical rainforest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bettle fauna of agro and forest ecosystems in a tropical rainforest habitat, Nigeria. ... Eight pitfall traps made up of plastic containers with mouth diameters of 9.80 cm and 6.20 cm deep were set monthly at random in the two sampling sites. Thetraps, which were filled to one third with 5 % formalin, serving a preservative, were ...

  15. [Design of dynamic simulation system for carbon cycle in forest ecosystem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian-Gang; Yu, Xin-Xiao; Zhang, Zhen-Ming; Wang, Chen; Gan, Jing; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Li, Jin-Hai

    2009-11-01

    Modeling techniques are indispensable for the researches on the carbon cycle of forest ecosystem. In this paper, a new general simulation system FORCASS (FORest CArbon Simulation System) was designed and developed under Simulink environment, with the objectives of modeling the carbon cycle dynamics of forest ecosystems. A comprehensive analysis on the framework, design solution, and development process showed that the FORCASS was feasible. This simulation system had the characteristics of 1) it divided the carbon storage in forest ecosystem into four compartments, i.e., vegetation, litter, soil, and animal, and took into account the carbon flows between the compartments, possessing high mechanism and easily to be comprehended, 2) it was a process-based system, taking the Richards growth function of vegetation component biomass carbon storage as the input to solve difference equations, and was easily to export the outputs such as net primary productivity (NPP) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) at different stand ages, and 3) it had the explicit expansibility because it was developed based on a general framework for carbon cycle patterns.

  16. Assessing ecosystem restoration alternatives in eastern deciduous forests: the view from belowground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph E.J. Boerner; Adam T. Coates; Daniel A. Yaussy; Thomas A. Waldrop

    2008-01-01

    Both structural and functional approaches to restoration of eastern deciduous forests are becoming more common as recognition of the altered state of these ecosystems grows. In our study, structural restoration involves mechanically modifying the woody plant assemblage to a species composition, density, and community structure specified by the restoration goals....

  17. Patterns of Genetic Variation in Woody Plant Species in the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria L. Sork; Anthony Koop; Marie Ann de la Fuente; Paul Foster; Jay. Raveill

    1997-01-01

    We quantified current patterns of genetic variation of three woody plant species—Carya tomentosa (Juglandaceae), Quercus alba (Fagaceae), and Sassafras albidum (Lauraceae)—distributed throughout the nine Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) study sites and evaluated the data in light of the MOFEP...

  18. Proceedings of the first international symposium on acid precipitation and the forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.S. Dochinger; T.A. Seliga

    1976-01-01

    These Proceedings report on the results of The First International Symposium on Acid Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem which was held at The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A., on May 12-15, 1975. The Symposium focused on four related topics: (1) atmospheric chemistry, transport and precipitation; and effects of acidic precipitation on (2) aquatic...

  19. Snags and Down Wood on Upland Oak Sites in the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen R. Shifley; Brian L. Brookshire; David R. Larsen; Laura A. Herbeck; Randy G. Jensen

    1997-01-01

    We analyzed volume, surface area, and percent cover of down wood to determine if there were pre-treatment differences among the sites in the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project. We also compared pre-treatment values for the number and basal area of snags. We observed no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) among treatment classes for these...

  20. Effect of environmental variables and stand structure on ecosystem respiration components in a Mediterranean beech forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidolotti, Gabriele; Rey, Ana; D'Andrea, Ettore; Matteucci, Giorgio; De Angelis, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    The temporal variability of ecosystem respiration (RECO) has been reported to have important effects on the temporal variability of net ecosystem exchange, the net amount of carbon exchanged between an ecosystem and the atmosphere. However, our understanding of ecosystem respiration is rather limited compared with photosynthesis or gross primary productivity, particularly in Mediterranean montane ecosystems. In order to investigate how environmental variables and forest structure (tree classes) affect different respiration components and RECO in a Mediterranean beech forest, we measured soil, stem and leaf CO2 efflux rates with dynamic chambers and RECO by the eddy-covariance technique over 1 year (2007-2008). Ecosystem respiration showed marked seasonal variation, with the highest rates in spring and autumn and the lowest in summer. We found that the soil respiration (SR) was mainly controlled by soil water content below a threshold value of 0.2 m(3) m(-3), above which the soil temperature explained temporal variation in SR. Stem CO2 effluxes were influenced by air temperature and difference between tree classes with higher rates measured in dominant trees than in co-dominant ones. Leaf respiration (LR) varied significantly between the two canopy layers considered. Non-structural carbohydrates were a very good predictor of LR variability. We used these measurements to scale up respiration components to ecosystem respiration for the whole canopy and obtained cumulative amounts of carbon losses over the year. Based on the up-scaled chamber measurements, the relative contributions of soil, stem and leaves to the total annual CO2 efflux were: 56, 8 and 36%, respectively. These results confirm that SR is the main contributor of ecosystem respiration and provided an insight on the driving factors of respiration in Mediterranean montane beech forests.

  1. Forest Soil Bacteria: Diversity, Involvement in Ecosystem Processes, and Response to Global Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lladó, Salvador; López-Mondéjar, Rubén; Baldrian, Petr

    2017-06-01

    The ecology of forest soils is an important field of research due to the role of forests as carbon sinks. Consequently, a significant amount of information has been accumulated concerning their ecology, especially for temperate and boreal forests. Although most studies have focused on fungi, forest soil bacteria also play important roles in this environment. In forest soils, bacteria inhabit multiple habitats with specific properties, including bulk soil, rhizosphere, litter, and deadwood habitats, where their communities are shaped by nutrient availability and biotic interactions. Bacteria contribute to a range of essential soil processes involved in the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. They take part in the decomposition of dead plant biomass and are highly important for the decomposition of dead fungal mycelia. In rhizospheres of forest trees, bacteria interact with plant roots and mycorrhizal fungi as commensalists or mycorrhiza helpers. Bacteria also mediate multiple critical steps in the nitrogen cycle, including N fixation. Bacterial communities in forest soils respond to the effects of global change, such as climate warming, increased levels of carbon dioxide, or anthropogenic nitrogen deposition. This response, however, often reflects the specificities of each studied forest ecosystem, and it is still impossible to fully incorporate bacteria into predictive models. The understanding of bacterial ecology in forest soils has advanced dramatically in recent years, but it is still incomplete. The exact extent of the contribution of bacteria to forest ecosystem processes will be recognized only in the future, when the activities of all soil community members are studied simultaneously. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Vegetation indicators of transformation in the urban forest ecosystems of "Kuzminki-Lyublino" Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyvolova, Anna; Trifonova, Tatiana; Bykova, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Forest ecosystems in the city are at the same time a component of its natural environment and part of urban developmental planning. It imposes upon urban forests a large functional load, both environmental (formation of environment, air purification, noise pollution reducing, etc.) and social (recreational, educational) which defines the special attitude to their management and study. It is not a simple task to preserve maximum accessibility to the forest ecosystems of the large metropolises with a minimum of change. The urban forest vegetates in naturally formed soil, it has all the elements of a morphological structure (canopy layers), represented by natural species of the zonal vegetation. Sometimes it is impossible for a specialist to distinguish between an urban forest and a rural one. However, the urban forests are changing, being under the threat of various negative influences of the city, of which pollution is arguably the most significant. This article presents some indicators of structural changes to the plant communities, which is a response of forest ecosystems to an anthropogenic impact. It is shown that the indicators of the transformation of natural ecosystems in the city can be a reduction of the projective cover of moss layer, until its complete absence (in the pine forest), increasing the role of Acer negundo (adventive species) in the undergrowth, high variability of floristic indicators of the ground herbaceous vegetation, and a change in the spatial arrangement of adventive species. The assessment of the impact of the urban environment on the state of vegetation in the "Kuzminki-Lyublino" Natural-Historical Park was conducted in two key areas least affected by anthropogenic impacts under different plant communities represented by complex pine and birch forests and in similar forest types in the Prioksko-Terrasny Biosphere Reserve. The selection of pine forests as a model is due to the fact that, according to some scientists, pine (Pinus

  3. Measuring ecosystem capacity to provide regulating services: forest removal and recovery at Hubbard Brook (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Colin M; Caputo, Jesse; Groffman, Peter M

    2015-10-01

    In this study, by coupling long-term ecological data with empirical proxies of societal demand for benefits, we measured the capacity of forest watersheds to provide ecosystem services over variable time periods, to different beneficiaries, and in response to discrete perturbations and drivers of change. We revisited one of the earliest ecosystem experiments in North America: the 1963 de-vegetation of a forested catchment at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA. Potential benefits of the regulation of water flow, water quality, greenhouse gases, and forest growth were compared between experimental (WS 2) and reference (WS 6) watersheds over a 30-year period. Both watersheds exhibited similarly high capacity for flow regulation, in part because functional loads remained low (i.e., few major storm events) during the de-vegetation period. Drought mitigation capacity, or the maintenance of flows sufficient to satisfy municipal water consumption, was higher in WS 2 due to reduced evapotranspiration associated with loss of plant cover. We also assessed watershed capacity to regulate flows to satisfy different beneficiaries, including hypothetical flood averse and drought averse types. Capacity to regulate water quality was severely degraded during de-vegetation, as nitrate concentrations exceeded drinking water standards on 40% of measurement days. Once forest regeneration began, WS 2 rapidly recovered the capacity to provide safe drinking water, and subsequently mitigated the eutrophication potential of rainwater at a marginally higher level than WS 6. We estimated this additional pollution removal benefit would have to accrue for approximately 65-70 years to offset the net eutrophication cost incurred during forest removal. Overall, our results affirmed the critical role of forest vegetation in water regulation, but also indicated trade-offs associated with forest removal and recovery that partially depend on larger-scale exogenous changes in climate

  4. A Prospectus on Restoring Late Successional Forest Structure to Eastside Pine Ecosystems Through Large-Scale, Interdisciplinary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Zack; William F. Laudenslayer; Luke George; Carl Skinner; William Oliver

    1999-01-01

    At two different locations in northeast California, an interdisciplinary team of scientists is initiating long-term studies to quantify the effects of forest manipulations intended to accelerate andlor enhance late-successional structure of eastside pine forest ecosystems. One study, at Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest, uses a split-plot, factorial, randomized block...

  5. Michigan forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Northwoods Climate Change Response Framework project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Handler; Matthew J. Duveneck; Louis Iverson; Emily Peters; Robert M. Scheller; Kirk R. Wythers; Leslie Brandt; Patricia Butler; Maria Janowiak; P. Danielle Shannon; Chris Swanston; Amy Clark Eagle; Joshua G. Cohen; Rich Corner; Peter B. Reich; Tim Baker; Sophan Chhin; Eric Clark; David Fehringer; Jon Fosgitt; James Gries; Christine Hall; Kimberly R. Hall; Robert Heyd; Christopher L. Hoving; Ines Ibáñez; Don Kuhr; Stephen Matthews; Jennifer Muladore; Knute Nadelhoffer; David Neumann; Matthew Peters; Anantha Prasad; Matt Sands; Randy Swaty; Leiloni Wonch; Jad Daley; Mae Davenport; Marla R. Emery; Gary Johnson; Lucinda Johnson; David Neitzel; Adena Rissman; Chadwick Rittenhouse; Robert. Ziel

    2014-01-01

    Forests in northern Michigan will be affected directly and indirectly by a changing climate during the next 100 years. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of forest ecosystems in Michigan's eastern Upper Peninsula and northern Lower Peninsula to a range of future climates. Information on current forest conditions, observed climate trends, projected climate...

  6. Chapter 6 - Links between land cover and lichen species richness at large scales in forested ecosystems across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Will-Wolf; Randall S. Morin; Mark J. Ambrose; Kurt Riitters; Sarah Jovan

    2014-01-01

    Lichen community composition is well known for exhibiting response to air pollution, and to macroenvironmental and microenvironmental variables. Lichens are useful indicators of air quality impact, forest health, and forest ecosystem integrity across the United States (McCune 2000, reviews in Nimis and others 2002, USDA Forest Service 2007).

  7. [Quantitative estimation of evapotranspiration from Tahe forest ecosystem, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Di; Fan, Wen-Yi; Yang, Jin-Ming; Wang, Xu-Peng

    2014-06-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important parameter of agriculture, meteorology and hydrology research, and also an important part of the global hydrological cycle. This paper applied the improved DHSVM distributed hydrological model to estimate daily ET of Tahe area in 2007 using leaf area index and other surface data extracted TM remote sensing data, and slope, aspect and other topographic indices obtained by using the digital elevation model. The relationship between daily ET and daily watershed outlet flow was built by the BP neural network, and a water balance equation was established for the studied watershed, together to test the accuracy of the estimation. The results showed that the model could be applied in the study area. The annual total ET of Tahe watershed was 234.01 mm. ET had a significant seasonal variation. The ET had the highest value in summer and the average daily ET value was 1.56 mm. The average daily ET in autumn and spring were 0.30, 0.29 mm, respectively, and winter had the lowest ET value. Land cover type had a great effect on ET value, and the broadleaf forest had a higher ET ability than the mixed forest, followed by the needle leaf forest.

  8. Variation in phenolic root exudates and rhizosphere carbon cycling among tree species in temperate forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwetsloot, Marie; Bauerle, Taryn; Kessler, André; Wickings, Kyle

    2017-04-01

    Temperate forest tree species composition has been highly dynamic over the past few centuries and is expected to only further change under current climate change predictions. While aboveground changes in forest biodiversity have been widely studied, the impacts on belowground processes are far more challenging to measure. In particular, root exudation - the process through which roots release organic and inorganic compounds into the rhizosphere - has received little scientific attention yet may be the key to understanding root-facilitated carbon cycling in temperate forest ecosystems. The aim of this study was to analyze the extent by which tree species' variation in phenolic root exudate profiles influences soil carbon cycling in temperate forest ecosystems. In order to answer this question, we grew six temperate forest tree species in a greenhouse including Acer saccharum, Alnus rugosa, Fagus grandifolia, Picea abies, Pinus strobus, and Quercus rubra. To collect root exudates, trees were transferred to hydroponic growing systems for one week and then exposed to cellulose acetate strips in individual 800 mL jars with a sterile solution for 24 hours. We analyzed the methanol-extracted root exudates for phenolic composition with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and determined species differences in phenolic abundance, diversity and compound classes. This information was used to design the subsequent soil incubation study in which we tested the effect of different phenolic compound classes on rhizosphere carbon cycling using potassium hydroxide (KOH) traps to capture soil CO2 emissions. Our findings show that tree species show high variation in phenolic root exudate patterns and that these differences can significantly influence soil CO2 fluxes. These results stress the importance of linking belowground plant traits to ecosystem functioning. Moreover, this study highlights the need for research on root and rhizosphere processes in order to improve

  9. Quantifying resilience of multiple ecosystem services and biodiversity in a temperate forest landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarello, Elena; Newton, Adrian C; Martin, Philip A; Evans, Paul M; Gosal, Arjan; Lucash, Melissa S

    2017-11-01

    Resilience is increasingly being considered as a new paradigm of forest management among scientists, practitioners, and policymakers. However, metrics of resilience to environmental change are lacking. Faced with novel disturbances, forests may be able to sustain existing ecosystem services and biodiversity by exhibiting resilience, or alternatively these attributes may undergo either a linear or nonlinear decline. Here we provide a novel quantitative approach for assessing forest resilience that focuses on three components of resilience, namely resistance, recovery, and net change, using a spatially explicit model of forest dynamics. Under the pulse set scenarios, we explored the resilience of nine ecosystem services and four biodiversity measures following a one-off disturbance applied to an increasing percentage of forest area. Under the pulse + press set scenarios, the six disturbance intensities explored during the pulse set were followed by a continuous disturbance. We detected thresholds in net change under pulse + press scenarios for the majority of the ecosystem services and biodiversity measures, which started to decline sharply when disturbance affected >40% of the landscape. Thresholds in net change were not observed under the pulse scenarios, with the exception of timber volume and ground flora species richness. Thresholds were most pronounced for aboveground biomass, timber volume with respect to the ecosystem services, and ectomycorrhizal fungi and ground flora species richness with respect to the biodiversity measures. Synthesis and applications . The approach presented here illustrates how the multidimensionality of stability research in ecology can be addressed and how forest resilience can be estimated in practice. Managers should adopt specific management actions to support each of the three components of resilience separately, as these may respond differently to disturbance. In addition, management interventions aiming to deliver resilience

  10. Evaluating the Contribution of Climate Forcing and Forest Dynamics to Accelerating Carbon Sequestration by Forest Ecosystems in the Northeastern U.S.: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munger, J. William [Harvard University, SEAS; Foster, David R. [Harvard University, Harvard Forest; Richardson, Andrew D. [Harvard University, OEB

    2014-10-01

    This report summarizes work to improve quantitative understanding of the terrestrial ecosystem processes that control carbon sequestration in unmanaged forests It builds upon the comprehensive long-term observations of CO2 fluxes, climate and forest structure and function at the Harvard Forest in Petersham, MA. This record includes the longest CO2 flux time series in the world. The site is a keystone for the AmeriFlux network. Project Description The project synthesizes observations made at the Harvard Forest HFEMS and Hemlock towers, which represent the dominant mixed deciduous and coniferous forest types in the northeastern United States. The 20+ year record of carbon uptake at Harvard Forest and the associated comprehensive meteorological and biometric data, comprise one of the best data sets to challenge ecosystem models on time scales spanning hourly, daily, monthly, interannual and multi-decadal intervals, as needed to understand ecosystem change and climate feedbacks.

  11. Threats and knowledge gaps for ecosystem services provided by kelp forests: a northeast Atlantic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smale, Dan A; Burrows, Michael T; Moore, Pippa; O'Connor, Nessa; Hawkins, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    Kelp forests along temperate and polar coastlines represent some of most diverse and productive habitats on the Earth. Here, we synthesize information from >60 years of research on the structure and functioning of kelp forest habitats in European waters, with particular emphasis on the coasts of UK and Ireland, which represents an important biogeographic transition zone that is subjected to multiple threats and stressors. We collated existing data on kelp distribution and abundance and reanalyzed these data to describe the structure of kelp forests along a spatial gradient spanning more than 10° of latitude. We then examined ecological goods and services provided by kelp forests, including elevated secondary production, nutrient cycling, energy capture and flow, coastal defense, direct applications, and biodiversity repositories, before discussing current and future threats posed to kelp forests and identifying key knowledge gaps. Recent evidence unequivocally demonstrates that the structure of kelp forests in the NE Atlantic is changing in response to climate- and non-climate-related stressors, which will have major implications for the structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems. However, kelp-dominated habitats along much of the NE Atlantic coastline have been chronically understudied over recent decades in comparison with other regions such as Australasia and North America. The paucity of field-based research currently impedes our ability to conserve and manage these important ecosystems. Targeted observational and experimental research conducted over large spatial and temporal scales is urgently needed to address these knowledge gaps.

  12. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Drought Effects in a Heterogeneous Semi-Arid Forest Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assal, T.; Anderson, P. J.; Sibold, J.

    2015-12-01

    Drought-induced forest mortality has been documented across genera in recent years in western North America. Understanding patterns of mortality and plant response to severe drought is important to resource managers, given the frequency of these events are expected to increase in the future. Remote sensing studies have documented changes in forest properties due to direct and indirect effects of drought; however, few have addressed this at local scales needed to characterize highly heterogeneous ecosystems in the forest-shrubland ecotone. We analyzed a 22-year Landsat time series (1985-2012) to determine changes in forest that experienced a relatively dry decade punctuated by two years of extreme drought. We assessed the relationship between vegetation indices and field measures, applied the index to trend analysis to uncover the location, direction and timing of change, and assessed the interaction of climate on topography. The Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) had the strongest correlation with plant area index (R2 = 0.64) and canopy gap fraction (R2 = 0.65). During the study period, 25% of the forested area experienced a significant (p < 0.05) negative trend in NDMI, compared to less than 10% in a positive trend. Trends were not consistent across forest type as a larger amount of coniferous forest was impacted by negative trends than deciduous forest. Southern aspects were least likely to exhibit a negative trend and north aspects were most prevalent. Field plots with a negative trend had a lower live density, and higher amounts of standing dead and down trees compared to plots with no trend. Our analysis identifies spatially explicit patterns of long-term trends anchored with ground based evidence to highlight areas of forest that are resistant, persistent and vulnerable to severe drought. The results provide a long-term perspective for the resource management of this area and can be applied to similar ecosystems throughout western North America.

  13. Spatial and temporal trends of drought effects in a heterogeneous semi-arid forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assal, Timothy J.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Sibold, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Drought has long been recognized as a driving mechanism in the forests of western North America and drought-induced mortality has been documented across genera in recent years. Given the frequency of these events are expected to increase in the future, understanding patterns of mortality and plant response to severe drought is important to resource managers. Drought can affect the functional, physiological, structural, and demographic properties of forest ecosystems. Remote sensing studies have documented changes in forest properties due to direct and indirect effects of drought; however, few studies have addressed this at local scales needed to characterize highly heterogeneous ecosystems in the forest-shrubland ecotone. We analyzed a 22-year Landsat time series (1985–2012) to determine changes in forest in an area that experienced a relatively dry decade punctuated by two years of extreme drought. We assessed the relationship between several vegetation indices and field measured characteristics (e.g. plant area index and canopy gap fraction) and applied these indices to trend analysis to uncover the location, direction and timing of change. Finally, we assessed the interaction of climate and topography by forest functional type. The Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI), a measure of canopy water content, had the strongest correlation with short-term field measures of plant area index (R2 = 0.64) and canopy gap fraction (R2 = 0.65). Over the entire time period, 25% of the forested area experienced a significant (p-value drought. The results provide a long-term perspective for the resource management of this area and can be applied to similar ecosystems throughout western North America.

  14. Importance of Forest Ecosystem Services to Secondary School Students: a Case from the North-West Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Torkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Forest managers are facing challenges in balancing the demands for forest social services raised by the general public and forest productive services. Knowing local people’s attitudes, taking into account their needs and respecting their opinions, introducing social aspects should become a management priority to ensure success of conservational activities and sustainable use of natural resources. This study investigates the attitudes of one category from the general public which is secondary school students related to forest ecosystem services in order to determine and present a useful basis for further research of people’s attitudes towards forests and forest management. Materials and Methods: In 2013 and 2014 410 Slovenian students from secondary schools in the Vipava valley and Goriška area in northwestern Slovenia completed a questionnaire testing for the influence of gender and frequency of forest experiences on attitudes to forest ecosystem services. Students’ attitudes to forest ecosystem services were investigated via 15 statements about provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services. The gathered data was analysed by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, using ANOVA, Tukey post-hoc test, Spearman’s product moment correlation and the nonparametric Mann–Whitney (U test. Results and Conclusions: Students acknowledged the high benefits of ecosystem services provided by forests, though not all forest ecosystem services hold the same importance to secondary school students. Students placed the highest importance on supporting services; especially on the value of forests as habitats for animal and plant species. Also the importance of forests for clean air production was emphasized. Students with more frequent experiences in the forest environment placed more importance on cultural services as well as regulating services, especially for clean water and air production. Gender

  15. Modelling atmospheric OH-reactivity in a boreal forest ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, D.; Smolander, S.; Sogachev, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    OH sink, and in our opinion, the reason for missing OH-reactivity is due to unmeasured unknown BVOCs, and limitations in our knowledge of atmospheric chemistry including uncertainties in rate constants. Furthermore, we found that the OH-reactivity correlates with both organic and inorganic compounds......We have modelled the total atmospheric OH-reactivity in a boreal forest and investigated the individual contributions from gas phase inorganic species, isoprene, monoterpenes, and methane along with other important VOCs. Daily and seasonal variation in OH-reactivity for the year 2008 was examined...

  16. Tropical and Highland Temperate Forest Plantations in Mexico: Pathways for Climate Change Mitigation and Ecosystem Services Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Guerra-De la Cruz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest plantations are a possible way of increasing forest productivity in temperate and tropical forests, and therefore also increasing above- and belowground carbon pools. In the context of climate change, monospecific plantations might become an alternative to mitigate global warming; however, their contribution to the structural complexity, complementarity, and biodiversity of forests has not been addressed. Mixed forest plantations can ensure that objectives of climate change mitigation are met through carbon sequestration, while also delivering anticipated ecosystem services (e.g., nutrient cycling, erosion control, and wildlife habitat. However, mixed forest plantations pose considerable operational challenges and research opportunities. For example, it is essential to know how many species or functional traits are necessary to deliver a set of benefits, or what mixture of species and densities are key to maintaining productive plantations and delivering multiple ecosystem services. At the same time, the establishment of forest plantations in Mexico should not be motivated solely by timber production. Forest plantations should also increase carbon sequestration, maintain biodiversity, and provide other ecosystem services. This article analyzes some matters that affect the development of planted forests in the Mexican national context, and presents alternatives for forest resources management through the recommendation of mixed forest plantations as a means of contributing to climate change mitigation and the delivery of ecosystem services.

  17. Forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis for northern Wisconsin and western Upper Michigan: a report from the Northwoods Climate Change Response Framework project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria K. Janowiak; Louis R. Iverson; David J. Mladenoff; Emily Peters; Kirk R. Wythers; Weimin Xi; Leslie A. Brandt; Patricia R. Butler; Stephen D. Handler; P. Danielle Shannon; Chris Swanston; Linda R. Parker; Amy J. Amman; Brian Bogaczyk; Christine Handler; Ellen Lesch; Peter B. Reich; Stephen Matthews; Matthew Peters; Anantha Prasad; Sami Khanal; Feng Liu; Tara Bal; Dustin Bronson; Andrew Burton; Jim Ferris; Jon Fosgitt; Shawn Hagan; Erin Johnston; Evan Kane; Colleen Matula; Ryan O' Connor; Dale Higgins; Matt St. Pierre; Jad Daley; Mae Davenport; Marla R. Emery; David Fehringer; Christopher L. Hoving; Gary Johnson; David Neitzel; Michael Notaro; Adena Rissman; Chadwick Rittenhouse; Robert. Ziel

    2014-01-01

    Forest ecosystems across the Northwoods will face direct and indirect impacts from a changing climate over the 21st century. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of forest ecosystems in the Laurentian Mixed Forest Province of northern Wisconsin and western Upper Michigan under a range of future climates. Information on current forest conditions, observed climate...

  18. A review of the ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations, using forests as a reference system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dislich, Claudia; Keyel, Alexander C; Salecker, Jan; Kisel, Yael; Meyer, Katrin M; Auliya, Mark; Barnes, Andrew D; Corre, Marife D; Darras, Kevin; Faust, Heiko; Hess, Bastian; Klasen, Stephan; Knohl, Alexander; Kreft, Holger; Meijide, Ana; Nurdiansyah, Fuad; Otten, Fenna; Pe'er, Guy; Steinebach, Stefanie; Tarigan, Suria; Tölle, Merja H; Tscharntke, Teja; Wiegand, Kerstin

    2017-08-01

    Oil palm plantations have expanded rapidly in recent decades. This large-scale land-use change has had great ecological, economic, and social impacts on both the areas converted to oil palm and their surroundings. However, research on the impacts of oil palm cultivation is scattered and patchy, and no clear overview exists. We address this gap through a systematic and comprehensive literature review of all ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations, including several (genetic, medicinal and ornamental resources, information functions) not included in previous systematic reviews. We compare ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations to those in forests, as the conversion of forest to oil palm is prevalent in the tropics. We find that oil palm plantations generally have reduced ecosystem functioning compared to forests: 11 out of 14 ecosystem functions show a net decrease in level of function. Some functions show decreases with potentially irreversible global impacts (e.g. reductions in gas and climate regulation, habitat and nursery functions, genetic resources, medicinal resources, and information functions). The most serious impacts occur when forest is cleared to establish new plantations, and immediately afterwards, especially on peat soils. To variable degrees, specific plantation management measures can prevent or reduce losses of some ecosystem functions (e.g. avoid illegal land clearing via fire, avoid draining of peat, use of integrated pest management, use of cover crops, mulch, and compost) and we highlight synergistic mitigation measures that can improve multiple ecosystem functions simultaneously. The only ecosystem function which increases in oil palm plantations is, unsurprisingly, the production of marketable goods. Our review highlights numerous research gaps. In particular, there are significant gaps with respect to socio-cultural information functions. Further, there is a need for more empirical data on the importance of spatial and temporal

  19. Effect of climate change on soil temperature in Swedish boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungqvist, Gunnar; Oni, Stephen K; Teutschbein, Claudia; Futter, Martyn N

    2014-01-01

    Complex non-linear relationships exist between air and soil temperature responses to climate change. Despite its influence on hydrological and biogeochemical processes, soil temperature has received less attention in climate impact studies. Here we present and apply an empirical soil temperature model to four forest sites along a climatic gradient of Sweden. Future air and soil temperature were projected using an ensemble of regional climate models. Annual average air and soil temperatures were projected to increase, but complex dynamics were projected on a seasonal scale. Future changes in winter soil temperature were strongly dependent on projected snow cover. At the northernmost site, winter soil temperatures changed very little due to insulating effects of snow cover but southern sites with little or no snow cover showed the largest projected winter soil warming. Projected soil warming was greatest in the spring (up to 4°C) in the north, suggesting earlier snowmelt, extension of growing season length and possible northward shifts in the boreal biome. This showed that the projected effects of climate change on soil temperature in snow dominated regions are complex and general assumptions of future soil temperature responses to climate change based on air temperature alone are inadequate and should be avoided in boreal regions.

  20. Effect of climate change on soil temperature in Swedish boreal forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Jungqvist

    Full Text Available Complex non-linear relationships exist between air and soil temperature responses to climate change. Despite its influence on hydrological and biogeochemical processes, soil temperature has received less attention in climate impact studies. Here we present and apply an empirical soil temperature model to four forest sites along a climatic gradient of Sweden. Future air and soil temperature were projected using an ensemble of regional climate models. Annual average air and soil temperatures were projected to increase, but complex dynamics were projected on a seasonal scale. Future changes in winter soil temperature were strongly dependent on projected snow cover. At the northernmost site, winter soil temperatures changed very little due to insulating effects of snow cover but southern sites with little or no snow cover showed the largest projected winter soil warming. Projected soil warming was greatest in the spring (up to 4°C in the north, suggesting earlier snowmelt, extension of growing season length and possible northward shifts in the boreal biome. This showed that the projected effects of climate change on soil temperature in snow dominated regions are complex and general assumptions of future soil temperature responses to climate change based on air temperature alone are inadequate and should be avoided in boreal regions.

  1. Genome sequences of six Phytophthora species threatening forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Feau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Phytophthora genus comprises of some of the most destructive plant pathogens and attack a wide range of hosts including economically valuable tree species, both angiosperm and gymnosperm. Many known species of Phytophthora are invasive and have been introduced through nursery and agricultural trade. As part of a larger project aimed at utilizing genomic data for forest disease diagnostics, pathogen detection and monitoring (The TAIGA project: Tree Aggressors Identification using Genomic Approaches; http://taigaforesthealth.com/, we sequenced the genomes of six important Phytophthora species that are important invasive pathogens of trees and a serious threat to the international trade of forest products. This genomic data was used to develop highly sensitive and specific detection assays and for genome comparisons and to make evolutionary inferences and will be useful to the broader plant and tree health community. These WGS data have been deposited in the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the accession numbers AUPN01000000, AUVH01000000, AUWJ02000000, AUUF02000000, AWVV02000000 and AWVW02000000.

  2. Experimental manipulation of a forest ecosystem. The Klosterhede-project. Project description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beier, C.; Rasmussen, L.; Hansen, K. [eds.

    1991-04-01

    The report describes the scientific research activities at the Klosterhede research site, Lemvig, West Jutland, Denmark. The site was selected as being located on the most sensitive soil type in Denmark with respect to potential soil acidification, as a permanent observation plot. From including descriptions of the biochemical cycling and ion balances of the forest ecosystem the research has been extended to include manipulations of the water and element fluxes of the ecosystem by means of a roof construction for removal of the atmospheric inputs of strong acids to the soil. A brief overview describes the applied methods and instrumentation, the general objectives, the hypotheses to be tested and the measuring programmes in addition to a description of the site and environmental conditions. Currently, it is considered that forest decline is a multifactoral problem caused by a combined stress on the trees from air pollution, climate, forest management, biological and abiotic influences etc. The project attempts to assess the importance of the various factors contributing to the total stress on the ecosystem. At the Klosterhede site the aim is to test some of the hypotheses by creating different research plots within the same research stand and site, thus ensuring that all soil and climatic factors are comparable whilst different manipulations of the biochemical cycles of the ecosystem are performed. The investigations, which cover nitrogen circulation, denitrification, ecophysiological activity, ectomycorrhiza and fertilization, susceptibility to insect attacks, microbial decomposition etc. are described in detail. (AB) (67 refs.).

  3. Response of the boreal forest ecosystem to climatic change and its silvicultural implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellomaeki, S.; Haenninen, H.; Karjalainen, T. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forestry] [and others

    1996-12-31

    During the next 100 years, the mean annual temperature is expected to be 1-6 deg C higher than at present. It is also expected to be accompanied by a lengthening of the thermal growing season and increased precipitation. Consequently, climatic change will increase the uncertainty of the management of forest ecosystems in the future. In this context, this research project aimed to outline the ecological and silvicultural implications of climatic change with regard to (1) how the expected climatic change might modify the functioning and structure of the boreal forest ecosystem, and (2) how the silvicultural management of the forest ecosystem should be modified in order to maintain sustainable forest yield under changing climatic conditions. The experimental component of the project concerned first the effect that elevating temperature and elevating concentration of atmospheric carbon have on the ontogenetic development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L) and on the subsequent increase in frost damage during winter. The second part of the study looked the effect of elevating temperature and elevating concentration of atmospheric carbon on the growth of Scots pine through photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, nutrient supply, and changes in crown structure. This experiment was utilised in several subprojects of the overall project

  4. Newtonian boreal forest ecology: The Scots pine ecosystem as an example.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertti Hari

    Full Text Available Isaac Newton's approach to developing theories in his book Principia Mathematica proceeds in four steps. First, he defines various concepts, second, he formulates axioms utilising the concepts, third, he mathematically analyses the behaviour of the system defined by the concepts and axioms obtaining predictions and fourth, he tests the predictions with measurements. In this study, we formulated our theory of boreal forest ecosystems, called NewtonForest, following the four steps introduced by Newton. The forest ecosystem is a complicated entity and hence we needed altogether 27 concepts to describe the material and energy flows in the metabolism of trees, ground vegetation and microbes in the soil, and to describe the regularities in tree structure. Thirtyfour axioms described the most important features in the behaviour of the forest ecosystem. We utilised numerical simulations in the analysis of the behaviour of the system resulting in clear predictions that could be tested with field data. We collected retrospective time series of diameters and heights for test material from 6 stands in southern Finland and five stands in Estonia. The numerical simulations succeeded to predict the measured diameters and heights, providing clear corroboration with our theory.

  5. Newtonian boreal forest ecology: The Scots pine ecosystem as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Pertti; Aakala, Tuomas; Aalto, Juho; Bäck, Jaana; Hollmén, Jaakko; Jõgiste, Kalev; Koupaei, Kourosh Kabiri; Kähkönen, Mika A; Korpela, Mikko; Kulmala, Liisa; Nikinmaa, Eero; Pumpanen, Jukka; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja; Schiestl-Aalto, Pauliina; Simojoki, Asko; Havimo, Mikko

    2017-01-01

    Isaac Newton's approach to developing theories in his book Principia Mathematica proceeds in four steps. First, he defines various concepts, second, he formulates axioms utilising the concepts, third, he mathematically analyses the behaviour of the system defined by the concepts and axioms obtaining predictions and fourth, he tests the predictions with measurements. In this study, we formulated our theory of boreal forest ecosystems, called NewtonForest, following the four steps introduced by Newton. The forest ecosystem is a complicated entity and hence we needed altogether 27 concepts to describe the material and energy flows in the metabolism of trees, ground vegetation and microbes in the soil, and to describe the regularities in tree structure. Thirtyfour axioms described the most important features in the behaviour of the forest ecosystem. We utilised numerical simulations in the analysis of the behaviour of the system resulting in clear predictions that could be tested with field data. We collected retrospective time series of diameters and heights for test material from 6 stands in southern Finland and five stands in Estonia. The numerical simulations succeeded to predict the measured diameters and heights, providing clear corroboration with our theory.

  6. Forest report 2003. Forest ecosystem study for Hessen. Forest, water, weather; Waldzustandsbericht 2003. Waldoekosystemstudie Hessen. Wald und Wasser - Witterung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paar, U.; Gawehn, P.; Rockel, A.; Scheler, B.; Schoenfelder, E.; Eichhorn, J. (comps.) [Hessen-Forst, Hannoversch Muenden (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Between 1984 an 1992 defoliation increased in Hesse. From the year 2000 on, vitality of trees remained unchanged. Since 2001, crown situation starts getting better. Mainly young Fagus sylvatica shows quite good vitality in 2003. However, the overall level of tree vitality still can not be compared to the year 1984. The Rhein-Main area has to be considered as overstrained. Acid deposition has clearly improved, e.g. sulphur. However, nitrogen compounds namely NH4 shows no indication of a clear reduction in forest ecosystems of Hesse. Ozon levels are increasing steadily. The summer of 2003 was extremely warm and dry. Responses of vegetation and soils may occur in 2004. (orig.) [German] Nach einem raschen Anstieg der mittleren Kronenverlichtung zwischen 1984 (11%) und 1992 (25%) war etwa bis 2000 eine Stagnation der Entwicklung zu verzeichnen. In den letzten Jahren mehren sich in Hessen Anzeichen einer Verbesserung des Waldzustandes. Guenstig ist die Entwicklung der juengeren Baeume. Hier ist vor allem die Buche zu nennen. Der Anteil der seit dem letzten Jahr abgestorbenen Baeume ist sehr gering. Noch ist aber die Vitalitaet des hessischen Waldes von 1984 insgesamt nicht wieder erreicht (2003: 21% gegenueber 11%, 1984). Die Region Rhein-Main ist hinsichtlich des Zustandes des Waldes nach wie vor besonders belastet. Trotz heute wesentlich geringerer Saeure- und Schwefeleintraege in den hessischen Wald wirken die jahrzehntelangen hohen Immissionen erheblich nach. Dies glit vor allem fuer die Beschaffenheit des Bodensickerwassers, einer wesentlichen Ernaehrungsgrundlage der Waldbaeume. Nahezu unveraendert hoch ist der Stickstoffeintrag (Kronentraufe) in hessische Waelder. Auch die Ozongehalte der bodennahen Luft lassen keine Tendenz zur Verringerung erkennen. Spitzenwerte der Jahre 1994/1995 wurden jedoch nicht erreicht. Weitere Anstrengungen zur Immissionsminderung sind erforderlich. Fuer den Sommer 2003 wurde die hoechste Durchschnittstemperatur seit 1984 gemessen

  7. Ecosystem carbon storage does not vary with mean annual temperature in Hawaiian tropical montane wet forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmants, Paul C; Litton, Creighton M; Giardina, Christian P; Asner, Gregory P

    2014-09-01

    Theory and experiment agree that climate warming will increase carbon fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The effect of this increased exchange on terrestrial carbon storage is less predictable, with important implications for potential feedbacks to the climate system. We quantified how increased mean annual temperature (MAT) affects ecosystem carbon storage in above- and belowground live biomass and detritus across a well-constrained 5.2 °C MAT gradient in tropical montane wet forests on the Island of Hawaii. This gradient does not systematically vary in biotic or abiotic factors other than MAT (i.e. dominant vegetation, substrate type and age, soil water balance, and disturbance history), allowing us to isolate the impact of MAT on ecosystem carbon storage. Live biomass carbon did not vary predictably as a function of MAT, while detrital carbon declined by ~14 Mg of carbon ha(-1) for each 1 °C rise in temperature - a trend driven entirely by coarse woody debris and litter. The largest detrital pool, soil organic carbon, was the most stable with MAT and averaged 48% of total ecosystem carbon across the MAT gradient. Total ecosystem carbon did not vary significantly with MAT, and the distribution of ecosystem carbon between live biomass and detritus remained relatively constant across the MAT gradient at ~44% and ~56%, respectively. These findings suggest that in the absence of alterations to precipitation or disturbance regimes, the size and distribution of carbon pools in tropical montane wet forests will be less sensitive to rising MAT than predicted by ecosystem models. This article also provides needed detail on how individual carbon pools and ecosystem-level carbon storage will respond to future warming. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Biomass Estimation Using ALOS PALSAR for Identification of Lowland Forest Transition Ecosystem in Jambi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Achmad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The accurate information derived from high accuracy of remote sensing imagery analyses coupled with field observation data are required to develop a sound forest management. The study is mainly emphasized on assessment of the capabilities of remote sensing imageries to identify ecosystem types within the transitional  ecosystem. Since, the predominant transition ecosystems found within the study area were secondary forest, rubber jungle, rubber, oil palm plantation, and also other land cover such as mixed plantation and shrubs,  therefore,  the models developed were focused for those ecosystem types.  Prior to any further analysis, this study was initiated  to develop the biomass estimation model using 50 m resolution of ALOS PALSAR image in transition ecosystem, Jambi Province. Biomass models were developed by analyzing the relationship between  backscatter magnitude and field biomass. Backscatter magnitude from 1 polarization images, namely HH,  HV, and one additional band of  ratio of HH/HV  were analyzed simultaneously with  field biomass. The best models established are AGB = 42,069 exp (0.510 HV and AGB = 1,610 exp (-0.02 HV² with R² of 52.3% and 50,8%, respectively. The models are then used to map out the biomass distribution within the transition ecosystem and to identify the factors affecting the magnitude of biomass content for all transition ecosystem types.Keywords: ALOS PALSAR, backscatter, biomass, transition ecosystemDOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.2.145

  9. Cellulose Dynamics during Foliar Litter Decomposition in an Alpine Forest Meta-Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yue

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the dynamics and relative drivers of cellulose degradation during litter decomposition, a field experiment was conducted in three individual ecosystems (i.e., forest floor, stream, and riparian zone of an alpine forest meta-ecosystem on the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Four litter species (i.e., willow: Salix paraplesia, azalea: Rhododendron lapponicum, cypress: Sabina saltuaria, and larch: Larix mastersiana that had varying initial litter chemical traits were placed separately in litterbags and then incubated on the soil surface of forest floor plots or in the water of the stream and riparian zone plots. Litterbags were retrieved five times each year during the two-year experiment, with nine replicates each time for each treatment. The results suggested that foliar litter lost 32.2%–89.2% of the initial dry mass depending on litter species and ecosystem type after two-year’s incubation. The cellulose lost 60.1%–96.8% of the initial mass with degradation rate in the order of stream > riparian zone > forest floor. Substantial cellulose degradation occurred at the very beginning (i.e., in the first pre-freezing period of litter decomposition. Litter initial concentrations of phosphorus (P and lignin were found to be the dominant chemical traits controlling cellulose degradation regardless of ecosystems type. The local-scale environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and nutrient availability were important moderators of cellulose degradation rate. Although the effects of common litter chemical traits (e.g., P and lignin concentrations on cellulose degradation across different individual ecosystems were identified, local-scale environmental factors such as temperature and nutrient availability were found to be of great importance for cellulose degradation. These results indicated that local-scale environmental factors should be considered apart from litter quality for generating a reliable predictive framework for the drivers

  10. Long-term nitrogen addition decreases carbon leaching in a nitrogen-rich forest ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Lu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic carbon (DOC plays a critical role in the carbon (C cycle of forest soils, and has been recently connected with global increases in nitrogen (N deposition. Most studies on effects of elevated N deposition on DOC have been carried out in N-limited temperate regions, with far fewer data available from N-rich ecosystems, especially in the context of chronically elevated N deposition. Furthermore, mechanisms for excess N-induced changes of DOC dynamics have been suggested to be different between the two kinds of ecosystems, because of the different ecosystem N status. The purpose of this study was to experimentally examine how long-term N addition affects DOC dynamics below the primary rooting zones (the upper 20 cm soils in typically N-rich lowland tropical forests. We have a primary assumption that long-term continuous N addition minimally affects DOC concentrations and effluxes in N-rich tropical forests. Experimental N addition was administered at the following levels: 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha−1 yr−1, respectively. Results showed that seven years of N addition significantly decreased DOC concentrations in soil solution, and chemo-physical controls (solution acidity change and soil sorption rather than biological controls may mainly account for the decreases, in contrast to other forests. We further found that N addition greatly decreased annual DOC effluxes from the primary rooting zone and increased water-extractable DOC in soils. Our results suggest that long-term N deposition could increase soil C sequestration in the upper soils by decreasing DOC efflux from that layer in N-rich ecosystems, a novel mechanism for continued accumulation of soil C in old-growth forests.

  11. Carbon allocation patterns in boreal and hemiboreal forest ecosystems along the gradient of soil fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriiska, Kaie; Uri, Veiko; Frey, Jane; Napa, Ülle; Kabral, Naima; Soosaar, Kaido; Rannik, Kaire; Ostonen, Ivika

    2017-04-01

    Carbon (C) allocation plays a critical role in forest ecosystem carbon cycling. Changes in C allocation alter ecosystems carbon sequestration and plant-soil-atmosphere gas exchange, hence having an impact on the climate. Currently, there is lack of reliable indicators that show the direction of C accumulation patterns in forest ecosystems on regional scale. The first objective of our study was to determine the variability of carbon allocation in hemiboreal coniferous forests along the gradient of soil fertility in Estonia. We measured C stocks and fluxes, such as litter, fine root biomass and production, soil respiration etc. in 8 stands of different site types - Scots pine (Cladonia, Vaccinium, Myrtillus, Fragaria) and Norway spruce (Polytrichum, Myrtillus, Oxalis, Calamagrostis alvar). The suitability of above- and belowground litter production (AG/BG) ratio was analysed as a carbon allocation indicator. The second aim of the study was to analyse forest C allocation patterns along the north-south gradient from northern boreal Finland to hemiboreal Estonia. Finally, C sequestration in silver birch and grey alder stands were compared with coniferous stands in order to determine the impact of tree species on carbon allocation. Preliminary results indicate that estimated AG/BG ratio (0.5 ... 3.0) tends to decrease with increasing soil organic horizon C/N ratio, indicating that in less fertile sites more carbon is allocated into belowground through fine root growth and in consequence the soil organic carbon stock increases. Similar trends were found on the north-south forest gradient. However, there was a significant difference between coniferous and broadleaf stands in C allocation patterns. Net ecosystem exchange in Estonian coniferous stands varied from -1.64 ... 3.95 t C ha-1 yr-1, whereas older stands tended to be net carbon sources.

  12. Thermal Imaging of Forest Canopy Temperatures: Relationships with Biological and Biophysical Drivers and Ecosystem Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, C. J.; Kim, Y.; Hanson, C. V.; Law, B. E.; Kwon, H.; Schulze, M.; Pau, S.; Detto, M.

    2015-12-01

    Temperature is a primary environmental control on plant processes at a range of spatial and temporal scales, affecting enzymatic reactions, ecosystem biogeochemistry, and species distributions. Although most focus is on air temperature, the radiative or skin temperature of plants is more relevant. Canopy skin temperature dynamics reflect biophysical, physiological, and anatomical characteristics and interactions with environmental drivers, and can be used to examine forest responses to stresses like droughts and heat waves. Direct measurements of plant canopy temperatures using thermocouple sensors have been challenging and offer limited information. Such measurements are usually conducted over short periods of time and a limited spatial extent of the canopy. By contrast, thermal infrared (TIR) imaging allows for extensive temporal and spatial measurement of canopy temperature regimes. We present results of TIR imaging of forest canopies at a range of well-studied forest sites in the United States and Panama. These forest types include temperate rainforests, a semi­arid pine forest, and a semi­deciduous tropical forest. Canopy temperature regimes at these sites are highly variable spatially and temporally and display frequent departures from air temperature, particularly during clear sky conditions. Canopy tissue temperatures are often warmer (daytime) and colder (nighttime) than air temperature, and canopy structure seems to have a large influence on the thermal regime. Additionally, comparison of canopy temperatures to eddy covariance fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy reveals relationships not apparent using air temperature. Initial comparisons between our forest canopy temperatures and remotely sensed skin temperature using Landsat and MODIS data show reasonably good agreement. We conclude that temporal and spatial changes in canopy temperature and its relationship to biological and environmental factors can improve our understanding of how

  13. Benefits of riparian forest for the aquatic ecosystem assessed at a large geographic scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Looy K.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Claimed benefits of riparian forest cover for the aquatic ecosystem include purification, thermal control, organic matter input and habitat provision, which may improve physicochemical and biotic quality. However, these beneficial effects might be flawed by multiple stressor conditions of intensive agriculture and urbanization in upstream catchments. We examined the relationship between riparian forest cover and physicochemical quality and biotic integrity indices in extensive large scale datasets. Measurements of hydromorphological conditions and riparian forest cover across different buffer widths for 59 × 103 river stretches covering 230 × 103 km of the French river network were coupled with data for physicochemical and biotic variables taken from the national monitoring network. General linear and quantile regression techniques were used to determine responses of physicochemical variables and biological integrity indices for macroinvertebrates and fish to riparian forest cover in selections of intermediate stress for 2nd to 4th order streams. Significant responses to forest cover were found for the nutrient variables and biological indices. According to these responses a 60% riparian forest cover in the 10 m buffer corresponds to good status boundaries for physicochemical and biotic elements. For the 30 m buffer, the observed response suggests that riparian forest coverage of at least 45% corresponds with good ecological status in the aquatic ecosystem. The observed consistent responses indicate significant potential for improving the quality of the aquatic environment by restoring riparian forest. The effects are more substantial in single-stressor environments but remain significant in multi-stressor environments.

  14. Spatial Aspects of the Provision of Forest Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Sofie Elberg

    , habitat for biodiversity and recreational access is examined at varying spatial scales and complexity, and previous literature for each subject is augmented by combining Geographical Information Systems (GIS) data with micro-level public registers, ecological and survey data. The first paper presents new......, to assess where afforestation should be undertaken for given carbon prices. The second paper investigates the determinants of landowner participation in a Danish voluntary conservation program. Combining contract data of landowners’ actual choices, GIS information on area specific characteristics...... of land for conservation into systematic conservation planning. Finally, the fourth paper uses a choice experiment to test whether people’s WTA for restricted access is influenced by spatial heterogeneity in local forest conditions. In addition, the paper assesses the potential for self-selection bias...

  15. Nitrate in shallow groundwater in typical agricultural and forest ecosystems in China, 2004-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Xu, Zhiwei; Sun, Xiaomin; Dong, Wenyi; Ballantine, Deborah

    2013-05-01

    The nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) concentrations from shallow groundwater wells situated in 29 of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network field stations, representing typical agro- and forest ecosystems, were assessed using monitoring data collected between 2004 and 2010. Results from this assessment permit a national scale assessment of nitrate concentrations in shallow groundwater, and allow linkages between nitrate concentrations in groundwater and broad land use categories to be made. Results indicated that most of the NO3(-)-N concentrations in groundwater from the agro- and forest ecosystems were below the Class 3 drinking water standard stated in the Chinese National Standard: Quality Standard for Ground Water ( 10 mg N /L) in 10 of the 43 wells sampled in the agricultural ecosystems. These elevated concentrations occurred mainly in the Ansai, Yucheng, Linze, Fukang, Akesu, and Cele field sites, which were located in arid and semi-arid areas where irrigation rates are high. We suggest that improvements in N fertilizer application and irrigation management practices in the arid and semi-arid agricultural ecosystems of China are the key to managing groundwater nitrate concentrations.

  16. Using Lidar and Radar measurements to constrain predictions of forest ecosystem structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonarakis, Alexander S; Saatchi, Sassan S; Chazdon, Robin L; Moorcroft, Paul R

    2011-06-01

    Insights into vegetation and aboveground biomass dynamics within terrestrial ecosystems have come almost exclusively from ground-based forest inventories that are limited in their spatial extent. Lidar and synthetic-aperture Radar are promising remote-sensing-based techniques for obtaining comprehensive measurements of forest structure at regional to global scales. In this study we investigate how Lidar-derived forest heights and Radar-derived aboveground biomass can be used to constrain the dynamics of the ED2 terrestrial biosphere model. Four-year simulations initialized with Lidar and Radar structure variables were compared against simulations initialized from forest-inventory data and output from a long-term potential-vegtation simulation. Both height and biomass initializations from Lidar and Radar measurements significantly improved the representation of forest structure within the model, eliminating the bias of too many large trees that arose in the potential-vegtation-initialized simulation. The Lidar and Radar initializations decreased the proportion of larger trees estimated by the potential vegetation by approximately 20-30%, matching the forest inventory. This resulted in improved predictions of ecosystem-scale carbon fluxes and structural dynamics compared to predictions from the potential-vegtation simulation. The Radar initialization produced biomass values that were 75% closer to the forest inventory, with Lidar initializations producing canopy height values closest to the forest inventory. Net primary production values for the Radar and Lidar initializations were around 6-8% closer to the forest inventory. Correcting the Lidar and Radar initializations for forest composition resulted in improved biomass and basal-area dynamics as well as leaf-area index. Correcting the Lidar and Radar initializations for forest composition and fine-scale structure by combining the remote-sensing measurements with ground-based inventory data further improved

  17. EO Underpinning the Quality of Ecosystem Services with Geospatial Data- The Case of Sustainable Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosthwaite Eyre, Charles

    2010-12-01

    Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) is an exciting and expanding opportunity for sustainably managed forests. PES are derived from a range of ecosystem benefits from forests including climate change mitigation through afforestation and avoided deforestation, green power generation, wetland and watershed rehabilitation, water quality improvement, marine flood defence and the reduction in desertification and soil erosion. Forests are also the ancestral home to many vulnerable communities which need protection. Sustainable forest management plays a key role in many of these services which generates a potentially critical source of finance. However, for forests to realise revenues from these PES, they must meet demanding standards of project validation and service verification. They also need geospatial data to manage and monitor operational risk. In many cases the data is difficult to collect on the ground - in some cases impossible. This will create a new demand for data that must be impartial, timely, area wide, accurate and cost effective. This presentation will highlight the unique capacity of EO to provide these geospatial inputs required in the generation of PES from forestry and demonstrate products with practical examples.

  18. Forest ecosystem monitoring in Tuscany (Italy: past activities, present status and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio LEONZIO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 1987 the Region of Tuscany has been actively monitoring crown status in its forests, in order to protect them from atmospheric pollution, biotic factors and environmental change. Over this period the Region has performed periodical inventories on crown condition in publicly-owned forests (Level I network and established a network of permanent plots (MON.I.TO., Level II – III to study long-term changes occurring in forest ecosystems. Some of these permanent plots were later included in the national programme CONECOFOR, managed by the Ministry for Policy in Agriculture and Forest. Currently a further development of MON.I.TO. is being implemented, called MONITO III – TOpModel, the aim of which is to broaden the information potential of the monitoring system to include carbon stocks and biodiversity evaluation. This paper provides an up-to-date report on the status of the various surveys and recommends a closer connection between MON.I.TO. and the other regional information systems, especially the Regional Forest Inventory, in order to produce information that may be useful in forest planning and in Sustainable Forest Management.

  19. Assessing implications of land use and land cover changes in forest ecosystems of NE Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadıoğulları, Ali Ihsan

    2013-03-01

    Monitoring land use and land cover change (LUCC) and understanding forest cover dynamics is extremely important in sustainable development and management of forest ecosystems. This study analyzed the spatial and temporal pattern of LUCC in the Yalnızçam and Uğurlu forest planning units which are located in the northeast corner of Turkey. The investigation also evaluates the temporal changes of the spatial structure of forest conditions through the spatial analysis of forest-cover type maps from 1972 and 2005 using geographical information systems and FRAGSTATS(TM). As an overall change between 1972 and 2005, there was a net increase of 1,823 ha in forested areas, and cumulative forest improvement accounted for 2.06 %. In terms of spatial configuration, the landscape structure in the study area changed substantially over the 33-year study period, resulting in fragmentation of the landscape as indicated by large patch numbers and smaller mean patch sizes, owing to heavy grazing, illegal cutting, and uncontrolled stand treatments.

  20. Integrated research approach to the evaluation of the danger of airborne pollutants to forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, F.; Smidt, S. [Federal Forest Research Centre, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    The protection of the Alpine area, which, between Vienna and Nice, provides a home to thirteen million people, should be given highest priority not only because of the (commercial and other) benefits that the area offers and that are sometimes over-exploited for tourism, but also because the Alpine area is one of the largest coherent ecoregions of Europe and a Noah`s ark for endangered species and ecosystems. The present report focuses on two aspects of the dangers to forest ecosystems: on the threats caused by the input of ozone and nitrogen. (author)

  1. Effects of active forest fire on terrestrial ecosystem production and greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannigrahi, Srikanta; Rahmat, Shahid; Bhatt, Sandeep; Rana, Virendra

    2017-04-01

    The forest fire is one of the most catalysing agents which degrade an ecosystems leading to the loss of net and gross primary productivity (NPP & GPP) and carbon sequestration service. Additionally, it can suppress the efficiency of service providing capacity of an ecosystem throughout the time and space. Remote sensing-based forest fire estimation in a diverse ecosystem is very much essential for mitigating the biodiversity and productivity losses due to the forest fire. Satellite-based Land Surface Temperature (LST) has been calculated for the pre-fire and fire years to identify the burn severity hotspot across all eco-regions in the Lower Himalaya region. Several burn severity indices: Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR), Burnt Area Index (BAI), Normalized Multiband Drought Index (NMDI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Global Environmental Monitoring Index (GEMI), Enhance Vegetation Index (EVI) have been used in this study to quantify the spatial and temporal changes (delta) of the selected indices. Two Light Use Efficiency (LUE) models: Carnegie- Ames-Stanford-Approach (CASA) and Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM) have been used to quantify the terrestrial Net Primary Productivity (NPP) in the pre-fire and fire years across all biomes of the region. A novel approach has been preceded in this field to demonstrate the correlation between forest fire density (FFD) and NPP. A strong positive correlation was found between burn severity indices and predicted NPP: BAI and NPP (r = 0.49), NBR and NPP: (r = 0.58), EVI and NPP: (r = 0.72), SAVI and NPP: (r = 0.67), whereas, a negative association has noted between the NMDI and NPP: (r = -0.36) during the both studied years. Results have shown that the NPP is highly correlated with the forest fire density (R2 = 0.75, RMSE = 5.03 gC m-2 month-1). The estimated LST of the individual fire days has witnessed a sharp temperature increase by > 6oC - 9oC in comparison to the non-fire days clearly indicates high fire risk (in

  2. Long-Term Post-Disturbance Forest Recovery in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem Analyzed Using Landsat Time Series Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng R. Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Forest recovery from past disturbance is an integral process of ecosystem carbon cycles, and remote sensing provides an effective tool for tracking forest disturbance and recovery over large areas. Although the disturbance products (tracking the conversion from forest to non-forest type derived using the Landsat Time Series Stack-Vegetation Change Tracker (LTSS-VCT algorithm have been validated extensively for mapping forest disturbances across the United States, the ability of this approach to characterize long-term post-disturbance recovery (the conversion from non-forest to forest has yet to be assessed. In this study, the LTSS-VCT approach was applied to examine long-term (up to 24 years post-disturbance forest spectral recovery following stand-clearing disturbances (fire and harvests in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE. Using high spatial resolution images from Google Earth, we validated the detectable forest recovery status mapped by VCT by year 2011. Validation results show that the VCT was able to map long-term post-disturbance forest recovery with overall accuracy of ~80% for different disturbance types and forest types in the GYE. Harvested areas in the GYE have higher percentages of forest recovery than burned areas by year 2011, and National Forests land generally has higher recovery rates compared with National Parks. The results also indicate that forest recovery is highly related with forest type, elevation and environmental variables such as soil type. Findings from this study can provide valuable insights for ecosystem modeling that aim to predict future carbon dynamics by integrating fine scale forest recovery conditions in GYE, in the face of climate change. With the availability of the VCT product nationwide, this approach can also be applied to examine long-term post-disturbance forest recovery in other study regions across the U.S.

  3. Mapping regional forest fire probability using artificial neural network model in a Mediterranean forest ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Satir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires are one of the most important factors in environmental risk assessment and it is the main cause of forest destruction in the Mediterranean region. Forestlands have a number of known benefits such as decreasing soil erosion, containing wild life habitats, etc. Additionally, forests are also important player in carbon cycle and decreasing the climate change impacts. This paper discusses forest fire probability mapping of a Mediterranean forestland using a multiple data assessment technique. An artificial neural network (ANN method was used to map forest fire probability in Upper Seyhan Basin (USB in Turkey. Multi-layer perceptron (MLP approach based on back propagation algorithm was applied in respect to physical, anthropogenic, climate and fire occurrence datasets. Result was validated using relative operating characteristic (ROC analysis. Coefficient of accuracy of the MLP was 0.83. Landscape features input to the model were assessed statistically to identify the most descriptive factors on forest fire probability mapping using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Landscape features like elevation (R = −0.43, tree cover (R = 0.93 and temperature (R = 0.42 were strongly correlated with forest fire probability in the USB region.

  4. Nitrous oxide fluxes from tree stems in temperate forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Y.; Corre, M. D.; Veldkamp, E.

    2016-12-01

    Investigations on tree-mediated N2O fluxes are rare and restricted mostly to seedlings and saplings. Presently, little is known about N2O fluxes from mature trees in field conditions as well as their contributions to total forest N2O fluxes. Here we quantified in situ stem N2O fluxes from mature alder trees on poorly-drained soil and mature beech and spruce trees on well-drained soil in Solling, Germany from March to October 2015. Soil N2O fluxes, soil N2O concentrations in 40-cm depth and other environmental factors were also measured simultaneously. In the present study, alder, beech and spruce consistently emitted N2O via stems and all displayed higher emission rates in summer than in spring and autumn. Stem N2O fluxes increased with increasing air and soil temperature, suggesting the influence of temperature on soil N2O production and soil-plant N2O transport (via transpiration stream). Increased in vapor pressure deficit speeded up stem N2O fluxes in alder and spruce, possibly because of enhanced sap flow rates and the subsequent dissolved N2O transport rates. In the alder stand, the significant correlations between stem N2O fluxes, soil N2O fluxes and soil N2O concentrations suggest that N2O transport may have been facilitated by a combination of passive diffusion and convective mechanisms. In the beech and spruce stands, the significant correlations between stem N2O fluxes, temperature and vapor pressure deficit suggest convective transport of soil N2O to the stem. Overall, stem N2O fluxes from alder were higher than beech and spruce due to the presence of aerenchyma and lenticels as well as higher soil water content and soil N availability in the alder stand. Stem N2O fluxes represented 8-11% of the total N2O fluxes in the spruce and beech stands, whereas in the alder stand with large soil N2O fluxes its stem emissions contributed only 1% to total N2O fluxes. Our study provided information of hitherto unknown tree-mediated N2O contribution to forest N2O

  5. Quantification of nitrate leaching from German forest ecosystems by use of a process oriented biogeochemical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiese, Ralf, E-mail: ralf.kiese@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, IMK-IFU Gramisch-Partenkirchen (Germany); Heinzeller, Christoph [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, IMK-IFU Gramisch-Partenkirchen (Germany); Department of Geography, Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich (Germany); Werner, Christian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, IMK-IFU Gramisch-Partenkirchen (Germany); LOEWE Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BIK-F), Frankfurt (Germany); Wochele, Sandra; Grote, Ruediger; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, IMK-IFU Gramisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Simulations with the process oriented Forest-DNDC model showed reasonable to good agreement with observations of soil water contents of different soil layers, annual amounts of seepage water and approximated rates of nitrate leaching at 79 sites across Germany. Following site evaluation, Forest-DNDC was coupled to a GIS to assess nitrate leaching from German forest ecosystems for the year 2000. At national scale leaching rates varied in a range of 0->80 kg NO{sub 3}-N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} (mean 5.5 kg NO{sub 3}-N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}). A comparison of regional simulations with the results of a nitrate inventory study for Bavaria showed that measured and simulated percentages for different nitrate leaching classes (0-5 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}:66% vs. 74%, 5-15 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}:20% vs. 20%, >15 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}:14% vs. 6%) were in good agreement. Mean nitrate concentrations in seepage water ranged between 0 and 23 mg NO{sub 3}-N l{sup -1}. - Highlights: > Forest-DNDC was successfully tested for prediction of annual NO{sub 3} leaching rates. > Coupled to GIS it generated regional estimates of NO{sub 3} leaching for German forests. > At national scale rates varied in a range of 0->80 (mean 5.5) kg NO{sub 3}-N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. > Mean NO{sub 3} concentrations in seepage water were between 0 and 23 mg NO{sub 3}-N l{sup -1}. > Indication of potential risk for groundwater pollution and plant biodiversity. - The Forest-DNDC model is tested on observations at nearly 80 sites and then used to quantify nitrate leaching from German forest ecosystems

  6. An Early Warning System for Identification and Monitoring of Disturbances to Forest Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, A. A.; Hoffman, F. M.; Kumar, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.; Mills, R. T.

    2011-12-01

    Forest ecosystems are susceptible to damage due to threat events like wildfires, insect and disease attacks, extreme weather events, land use change, and long-term climate change. Early identification of such events is desired to devise and implement a protective response. The mission of the USDA Forest Service is to sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the nation's forests. However, limited resources for aerial surveys and ground-based inspections are insufficient for monitoring the large areas covered by the U.S. forests. The USDA Forest Service, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and NASA Stennis Space Center are developing an early warning system for the continuous tracking and long-term monitoring of disturbances and responses in forest ecosystems using high resolution satellite remote sensing data. Geospatiotemporal data mining techniques were developed and applied to normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) products derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) MOD 13 data at 250 m resolution on eight day intervals. Representative phenologically similar regions, or phenoregions, were developed for the conterminous United States (CONUS) by applying a k-means clustering algorithm to the NDVI data spanning the full eight years of the MODIS record. Annual changes in the phenoregions were quantitatively analyzed to identify the significant changes in phenological behavior. This methodology was successfully applied for identification of various forest disturbance events, including wildfire, tree mortality due to Mountain Pine Beetle, and other insect infestation and diseases, as well as extreme events like storms and hurricanes in the United States. Where possible, the results were validated and quantitatively compared with aerial and ground-based survey data available from different agencies. This system was able to identify most of the disturbances reported by aerial and ground-based surveys, and it also identified

  7. Ecosystem CO2 production during winter in a Swedish subarctic region: the relative importance of climate and vegetation type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grogan, Paul; Jonasson, Sven Evert

    2006-01-01

    in these predictions, we know relatively little about the plot and landscape-level controls on tundra biogeochemical cycling in wintertime as compared to summertime. We investigated the relative influence of vegetation type and climate on CO2 production rates and total wintertime CO2 release in the Scandinavian...... in northern Sweden. Both climate and vegetation type were strong interactive controls on ecosystem CO2 production rates during winter. Of all variables tested, soil temperature explained by far the largest amount of variation in respiration rates (41-75%). Our results indicate that vegetation type only....... At the end of winter, within several days of snowmelt, gross ecosystem photosynthesis rates were of a similar magnitude to ecosystem respiration, resulting in significant net carbon gain in some instances. Finally, climate and vegetation type were also strong interactive controls on total wintertime...

  8. Process Network Approach to Understanding How Forest Ecosystems Adapt to Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Yun, J.; Hong, J.; Kwon, H.; Chun, J.

    2011-12-01

    Sustainability challenges are transforming science and its role in society. Complex systems science has emerged as an inevitable field of education and research, which transcends disciplinary boundaries and focuses on understanding of the dynamics of complex social-ecological systems (SES). SES is a combined system of social and ecological components and drivers that interact and give rise to results, which could not be understood on the basis of sociological or ecological considerations alone. However, both systems may be viewed as a network of processes, and such a network hierarchy may serve as a hinge to bridge social and ecological systems. As a first step toward such effort, we attempted to delineate and interpret such process networks in forest ecosystems, which play a critical role in the cycles of carbon and water from local to global scales. These cycles and their variability, in turn, play an important role in the emergent and self-organizing interactions between forest ecosystems and their environment. Ruddell and Kumar (2009) define a process network as a network of feedback loops and the related time scales, which describe the magnitude and direction of the flow of energy, matter, and information between the different variables in a complex system. Observational evidence, based on micrometeorological eddy covariance measurements, suggests that heterogeneity and disturbances in forest ecosystems in monsoon East Asia may facilitate to build resilience for adaptation to change. Yet, the principles that characterize the role of variability in these interactions remain elusive. In this presentation, we report results from the analysis of multivariate ecohydrologic and biogeochemical time series data obtained from temperate forest ecosystems in East Asia based on information flow statistics.

  9. Possibilities of usage of aboveground invertebrates for indication of gradations of edaphotope moistening in forest ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Brygadyrenko

    2006-01-01

    By using the variance analysis the absence of a correlation between the different gradations of soil humidity and the number of dominant taxons of litter invertebrates, the ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae), separate life-forms of the ground beetles and the indices of species diversity is demonstrated. The most sensitive indicator of soil humidity gradations in forest ecosystems is the mixophytophages part in the ground beetles’ complex.

  10. Structuring institutional analysis for urban ecosystems: A key to sustainable urban forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah K. Mincey; Miranda Hutten; Burnell C. Fischer; Tom P. Evans; Susan I. Stewart; Jessica M. Vogt

    2013-01-01

    A decline in urban forest structure and function in the United States jeopardizes the current focus on developing sustainable cities. A number of social dilemmas—for example, free-rider problems—restrict the sustainable production of ecosystem services and the stock of urban trees from which they flow. However, institutions, or the rules, norms, and strategies that...

  11. Patterns of total ecosystem carbon storage with changes in soil temperature in boreal black spruce forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.S. Kane; J.G. Vogel

    2009-01-01

    To understand how carbon (C) pools in boreal ecosystems may change with warming, we measured above- and belowground C pools and C increment along a soil temperature gradient across 16 mature upland black spruce (Picea mariana Mill. [B•S.P]) forests in interior Alaska. Total spruce C stocks (stand and root C) increased from 1.3 to 8.5 kg C m

  12. The ecology of pre-dispersal insect herbivory on tree reproductive structures in natural forest ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Boivin, Thomas; Doublet, Violette; Candau, Jean-Noël

    2017-01-01

    Plant-insect interactions are key model systems to assess how some species affect the distribution, the abundance, and the evolution of others. Tree reproductive structures represent a critical resource for many insect species, which can be likely drivers of demography, spatial distribution, and trait diversification of plants. In this review, we present the ecological implications of pre-dispersal herbivory on tree reproductive structures by insects (PIHR) in forest ecosystems. Both insect’s...

  13. Forest ecosystem development in post-mining landscapes: a case study of the Lusatian lignite district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüttl, Reinhard F.; Weber, Edwin

    2001-08-01

    The restoration of surface mining landscapes requires the (re)creation of ecosystems. In Lusatia (eastern Germany), large-scale open-cast lignite mining operations generated spoil dumps widely consisting of acidified, phytotoxic substrates. Amelioration and rehabilitation measures have been developed and applied to these substrates since the 1950s. However, it is still not clear whether these approaches are sustainable. This paper reports on collaborative research work into the ecological potential of forest ecosystem development on typical minesites in the Lusatian lignite district. At first sight, pine stands on minesites along a chronosequence comprising about 35 years did not show differences when compared with stands on non-mined sites of the general region. Furthermore, with some modification, conceptual models for flora and fauna succession in forest stands on non-mined sites seem to be applicable, at least for the early stages of forest ecosystem development. For example, soil organism abundance and activity at minesites had already reached levels typical of non-mined sites after about 20-30 years. In contrast, mine soils are very different from non-mined soils of the test region. Chemically, mine soil development is dominated by processes originating from pyrite oxidation. Geogenic, i.e. lignitic, soil organic carbon was shown to substitute for some functions of pedogenic soil organic matter. Rooting was hampered but not completely impeded in strongly acidified soil compartments. Roots and mycorrhizae are apparently able to make use of the characteristic heterogeneity of young mine soils. Considering these recent results and the knowledge accumulated during more than 30 years of research on minesite rehabilitation internationally, it can be stated that minesite restoration might be used as an ideal case study for forest ecosystem development starting at "point zero" on " terra nova".

  14. Interannual influence of spring phenological transitions on the water use efficiency of forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiaxin; Wang, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Climate change has significantly influenced the productivity of terrestrial ecosystems through water cycles. Understanding the phenological regulation mechanisms underlying coupled carbon-water cycles is important for improving ecological assessments and projecting terrestrial ecosystem responses and feedback to climate change. In this study, we present an analysis of the interannual relationships among flux-based spring phenological transitions (referred as photosynthetic onset) and water use efficiency (WUE) in North America and Europe using 166 site-years of data from 22 flux sites, including 10 deciduous broadleaf forest (DBF) and 12 evergreen needleleaf forest (ENF) ecosystems. We found that the WUE responses to variations in spring phenological transitions differed substantially across plant functional types (PFTs) and growth periods. During the early spring (defined as one month from spring onset) in the DBF ecosystem, photosynthetic onset dominated changes in WUE by dominating gross primary production (GPP), with one day of advanced onset increasing the WUE by 0.037 gC kg-1H2O in early spring. For the ENF sites, although advanced photosynthetic onset also significantly promoted GPP, earlier onset did not have a significant positive impact on WUE in early spring because it was not significantly correlated to evapotranspiration (ET), which is a more dominant factor for WUE than GPP across the ENF sites. Statistically significant correlations were not observed between interannual variability in photosynthetic onset and WUE for either the DBF or ENF ecosystems following a prolonged period after photosynthetic onset. For the DBF sites, the interannual variability of photosynthetic onset provided a better explanation of the variations in WUE (ca. 51.4%) compared with climatic factors, although this was only applicable to the early spring. For the ENF sites, photosynthetic onset variations did not provide a better explanation of the interannual WUE variations

  15. Past and future effects of atmospheric deposition on the forest ecosystem at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest: simulations with the dynamic model ForSAFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim Belyazid; Scott Bailey; Harald. Sverdrup

    2010-01-01

    The Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study presents a unique opportunity for studying long-term ecosystem responses to changes in anthropogenic factors. Following industrialisation and the intensification of agriculture, the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) has been subject to increased loads of atmospheric deposition, particularly sulfur and nitrogen. The deposition of...

  16. Building on Two Decades of Ecosystem Management and Biodiversity Conservation under the Northwest Forest Plan, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominick A. DellaSala

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The 1994 Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP shifted federal lands management from a focus on timber production to ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation. The plan established a network of conservation reserves and an ecosystem management strategy on ~10 million hectares from northern California to Washington State, USA, within the range of the federally threatened northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina. Several subsequent assessments—and 20 years of data from monitoring programs established under the plan—have demonstrated the effectiveness of this reserve network and ecosystem management approach in making progress toward attaining many of the plan’s conservation and ecosystem management goals. This paper (1 showcases the fundamental conservation biology and ecosystem management principles underpinning the NWFP as a case study for managers interested in large-landscape conservation; and (2 recommends improvements to the plan’s strategy in response to unprecedented climate change and land-use threats. Twenty years into plan implementation, however, the U.S. Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management, under pressure for increased timber harvest, are retreating from conservation measures. We believe that federal agencies should instead build on the NWFP to ensure continuing success in the Pacific Northwest. We urge federal land managers to (1 protect all remaining late-successional/old-growth forests; (2 identify climate refugia for at-risk species; (3 maintain or increase stream buffers and landscape connectivity; (4 decommission and repair failing roads to improve water quality; (5 reduce fire risk in fire-prone tree plantations; and (6 prevent logging after fires in areas of high conservation value. In many respects, the NWFP is instructive for managers considering similar large-scale conservation efforts.

  17. Immediate, landscape-scale impacts of even-aged and uneven-aged forest management on herpetofaunal communities of the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle B. Renken; Debby K. Frantz

    2002-01-01

    We examined the immediate, landscape-scale impacts of even-aged and uneven-aged forest management on the species composition, species richness, and relative abundance of herpetofaunal communities and selected focal groups of species during the second and third years following initial tree harvest on Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) sites in southern...

  18. Understanding fire drivers and relative impacts in different Chinese forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Futao; Su, Zhangwen; Wang, Guangyu; Sun, Long; Tigabu, Mulualem; Yang, Xiajie; Hu, Haiqing

    2017-12-15

    In this study, spatial patterns and driving factors of fires were identified from 2000 to 2010 using Ripley's K (d) function and logistic regression (LR) model in two different forest ecosystems of China: the boreal forest (Daxing'an Mountains) and sub-tropical forest (Fujian province). Relative effects of each driving factor on fire occurrence were identified based on standardized coefficients in the LR model. Results revealed that fires were spatially clustered and that fire drivers vary amongst differing forest ecosystems in China. Fires in the Daxing'an Mountains respond primarily to human factors, of which infrastructure is recognized as the most influential. In contrast, climate factors played a critical role in fire occurrence in Fujian, of which the temperature of fire season was found to be of greater importance than other climate factors. Selected factors can predict nearly 80% of the total fire occurrence in the Daxing'an Mountains and 66% in Fujian, wherein human and climate factors contributed the greatest impact in the two study areas, respectively. This study suggests that different fire prevention and management strategies are required in the areas of study, as significant variations of the main fire-driving exist. Rapid socio-economic development has produced similar effects in different forest ecosystems within China, implying a strong correlation between socio-economic development and fire regimes. It can be concluded that the influence of human factors will increase in the future as China's economy continues to grow - an issue of concern that should be further addressed in future national fire management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of spring and autumn phenological transitions on forest ecosystem productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrew D.; Andy Black, T.; Ciais, Philippe; Delbart, Nicolas; Friedl, Mark A.; Gobron, Nadine; Hollinger, David Y.; Kutsch, Werner L.; Longdoz, Bernard; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Migliavacca, Mirco; Montagnani, Leonardo; William Munger, J.; Moors, Eddy; Piao, Shilong; Rebmann, Corinna; Reichstein, Markus; Saigusa, Nobuko; Tomelleri, Enrico; Vargas, Rodrigo; Varlagin, Andrej

    2010-01-01

    We use eddy covariance measurements of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) from 21 FLUXNET sites (153 site-years of data) to investigate relationships between phenology and productivity (in terms of both NEP and gross ecosystem photosynthesis, GEP) in temperate and boreal forests. Results are used to evaluate the plausibility of four different conceptual models. Phenological indicators were derived from the eddy covariance time series, and from remote sensing and models. We examine spatial patterns (across sites) and temporal patterns (across years); an important conclusion is that it is likely that neither of these accurately represents how productivity will respond to future phenological shifts resulting from ongoing climate change. In spring and autumn, increased GEP resulting from an ‘extra’ day tends to be offset by concurrent, but smaller, increases in ecosystem respiration, and thus the effect on NEP is still positive. Spring productivity anomalies appear to have carry-over effects that translate to productivity anomalies in the following autumn, but it is not clear that these result directly from phenological anomalies. Finally, the productivity of evergreen needleleaf forests is less sensitive to phenology than is productivity of deciduous broadleaf forests. This has implications for how climate change may drive shifts in competition within mixed-species stands. PMID:20819815

  20. Ozone flux over a Norway spruce forest and correlation with net ecosystem production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapletal, Milos, E-mail: milos.zapletal@ekotoxa.cz [Ekotoxa s.r.o. - Centre for Environment and Land Assessment, Oticka 37, 746 01 Opava (Czech Republic); Silesian University at Opava, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Masarykova 37, 746 01 Opava (Czech Republic); Cudlin, Pavel [Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology of the AS CR, v.v.i., Na Sadkach 7, 37005 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Chroust, Petr [Ekotoxa s.r.o. - Centre for Environment and Land Assessment, Oticka 37, 746 01 Opava (Czech Republic); Urban, Otmar; Pokorny, Radek [Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology of the AS CR, v.v.i., Porici 3b, 60300 Brno (Czech Republic); Edwards-Jonasova, Magda [Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology of the AS CR, v.v.i., Na Sadkach 7, 37005 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Czerny, Radek; Janous, Dalibor; Taufarova, Klara [Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology of the AS CR, v.v.i., Porici 3b, 60300 Brno (Czech Republic); Vecera, Zbynek; Mikuska, Pavel [Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the AS CR, v.v.i., Veveri 97, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic); Paoletti, Elena [Institute of Plant Protection, National Research Council of Italy, via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    Daily ozone deposition flux to a Norway spruce forest in Czech Republic was measured using the gradient method in July and August 2008. Results were in good agreement with a deposition flux model. The mean daily stomatal uptake of ozone was around 47% of total deposition. Average deposition velocity was 0.39 cm s{sup -1} and 0.36 cm s{sup -1} by the gradient method and the deposition model, respectively. Measured and modelled non-stomatal uptake was around 0.2 cm s{sup -1}. In addition, net ecosystem production (NEP) was measured by using Eddy Covariance and correlations with O{sub 3} concentrations at 15 m a.g.l., total deposition and stomatal uptake were tested. Total deposition and stomatal uptake of ozone significantly decreased NEP, especially by high intensities of solar radiation. - Highlights: > We estimate ozone deposition flux to a Norway spruce forest using the gradient method and model. > The mean stomatal uptake of ozone is approximately 47% of the total deposition. > We measure net ecosystem production (NEP) using Eddy Covariance. > We test whether elevated total deposition and stomatal uptake of O{sub 3} imply a reduction of NEP. > Deposition and stomatal uptake of O{sub 3} decrease NEP, especially by high intensities of solar radiation. - Net ecosystem production of a Norway spruce forest decreases with increasing deposition and stomatal uptake of ozone.

  1. A walk on the wild side: Disturbance dynamics and the conservation and management of European mountain forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakowski, Dominik; Seidl, Rupert; Holeksa, Jan; Kuuluvainen, Timo; Nagel, Thomas A; Panayotov, Momchil; Svoboda, Miroslav; Thorn, Simon; Vacchiano, Giorgio; Whitlock, Cathy; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Bebi, Peter

    2017-03-15

    Mountain forests are among the most important ecosystems in Europe as they support numerous ecological, hydrological, climatic, social, and economic functions. They are unique relatively natural ecosystems consisting of long-lived species in an otherwise densely populated human landscape. Despite this, centuries of intensive forest management in many of these forests have eclipsed evidence of natural processes, especially the role of disturbances in long-term forest dynamics. Recent trends of land abandonment and establishment of protected forests have coincided with a growing interest in managing forests in more natural states. At the same time, the importance of past disturbances highlighted in an emerging body of literature, and recent increasing disturbances due to climate change are challenging long-held views of dynamics in these ecosystems. Here, we synthesize aspects of this Special Issue on the ecology of mountain forest ecosystems in Europe in the context of broader discussions in the field, to present a new perspective on these ecosystems and their natural disturbance regimes. Most mountain forests in Europe, for which long-term data are available, show a strong and long-term effect of not only human land use but also of natural disturbances that vary by orders of magnitude in size and frequency. Although these disturbances may kill many trees, the forests themselves have not been threatened. The relative importance of natural disturbances, land use, and climate change for ecosystem dynamics varies across space and time. Across the continent, changing climate and land use are altering forest cover, forest structure, tree demography, and natural disturbances, including fires, insect outbreaks, avalanches, and wind disturbances. Projected continued increases in forest area and biomass along with continued warming are likely to further promote forest disturbances. Episodic disturbances may foster ecosystem adaptation to the effects of ongoing and future

  2. [Effect of seasonal high temperature and drought on carbon flux of bamboo forest ecosystem in subtropical region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-feng; Jiang, Hong; Niu, Xiao-dong; Zhang, Jin-meng; Liu, Yu-li; Fang, Cheng-yuan

    2016-02-01

    The carbon flux of subtropical bamboo forest ecosystem was continuously measured using eddy covariance technique in Anji County of Zhejiang Province, China. The monthly net ecosystem productivity (NEP), ecosystem respiration (Re) and gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) data from 2011 to 2013 were selected to analyze the impacts of seasonal high temperature and drought on the carbon flux of bamboo forest ecosystem. The results showed that there were big differences among annual NEP of bamboo forest from 2011 to 2013. Because of the asynchronization of precipitation and heat, the seasonal high temperature and drought in July and August of 2013 caused significant decline in NEP by 59.9% and 80.0% when compared with the same months in 2011. Correlation analysis of the NEP, Re, GEP and environmental factors suggested that the atmosphere temperatures were significantly correlated with Re and GEP in 2011 and 2013 (Pecosystem in Anji, from July to August in 2013.

  3. Scale-dependent diversity patterns affect spider assemblages of two contrasting forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Andreas; Assmann, Thorsten; Schaefer, Matthias

    2013-05-01

    Spiders are important generalist predators in forests. However, differences in assemblage structure and diversity can have consequences for their functional impact. Such differences are particularly evident across latitudes, and their analysis can help to generate a better understanding of region-specific characteristics of predator assemblages. Here, we analyse the relationships between species richness, family richness and functional diversity (FD) as well as α- and β-components of epigeic spider diversity in semi-natural temperate and subtropical forest sites. As expected, within-plot and overall spider species and family richness were higher in the subtropical plots. In contrast, local FD within plots was similar between sites, and differences in FD only became evident at larger spatial scales due to higher species turnover in the subtropical forests. Our study indicates that the functional effects of predator assemblages can change across spatial scales. We discuss how differences in richness and functional diversity between contrasting forest ecosystems can depend on environmental heterogeneity and the effects of species filters acting at local scales. The high turnover observed in the species-rich subtropical forests also requires a more regional perspective for the conservation of the overall diversity and the ecological functions of predators than in less diverse forests, as strategies need to account for the large spatial heterogeneity among plots.

  4. Influence of forest management systems on natural resource use and provision of ecosystem services in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Ayron M; Rurai, Masegeri T; Almedom, Astier M

    2016-09-15

    Social, religious and economic facets of rural livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa are heavily dependent on natural resources, but improper resource management, drought, and social instability frequently lead to their unsustainable exploitation. In rural Tanzania, natural resources are often governed locally by informal systems of traditional resource management (TRM), defined as cultural practices developed within the context of social and religious institutions over hundreds of years. However, following independence from colonial rule, centralized governments began to exercise jurisdictional control over natural resources. Following decades of mismanagement that resulted in lost ecosystem services, communities demanded change. To improve resource protection and participation in management among stakeholders, the Tanzanian government began to decentralize management programs in the early 2000s. We investigated these two differing management approaches (traditional and decentralized government) in Sonjo communities, to examine local perceptions of resource governance, management influences on forest use, and their consequences for forest and water resources. While 97% of households understood the regulations governing traditionally-managed forests, this was true for only 39% of households for government-managed forests, leading to differences in forest use. Traditional management practices resulted in improved forest condition and surface water quality. This research provides an essential case study demonstrating the importance of TRM in shaping decision frameworks for natural resource planning and management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of emissions from Cu-Ni smelters on forest ecosystems in the Kola Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukina, N. [Centre for Forest Ecology and Productivity RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    Between 1991 and 1995, a monitoring network was established in the surroundings of the nickel copper (Ni-Cu) smelters and in the background forest areas of the Kola Peninsula. Several components and parameters were monitored, including chemical composition of atmospheric deposition, soil, soil waters and plants as well as tree vitality and plant species composition. This paper presented the results of a study that investigated the effects of pollution originating from smelters in the Kola Peninsula on forest ecosystems. It also elaborated on the approaches to rehabilitation of forested lands. Spruce, pine and birch forests were the types of sites selected for the study. The predominant soil in these forests was podzol. Several site specific factors were considered in evaluating air pollution effects on forests, including soil forming rock, geomorphology, natural disturbances and land use history while the main accompanying factor at the monitoring plots were fires. The paper discussed the monitoring of plots and sites for the studies, precipitation composition, soil acidity, element total concentrations in the soil, and soil waters. The paper also discussed the nutritional status of soil and plants as well as approaches to rehabilitation of lands. It was concluded that the frequency of fires in the areas subjected to air pollution significantly increased because of higher amounts of combustible materials, such as dying off lichens and green mosses, dead tree branches and whole trees. 2 refs.

  6. COST action FP801- established and emerging Phytophthora: incresasing threats to woodland and forest ecosystems in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Woodward, S; Vannini, A.; Werres, S.; Osswald, W.; Bonants, P.J.M.; Jung, T.

    2011-01-01

    With the rapidly growing international trade in plants and ongoing impacts of climate change, impacts of plant pathogens in the genus Phytophthora are increasing, threatening the biodiversity and sustainability of European forest ecosystems. Through the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) framework Action FP0801, scientists and disease-control experts are working on phytophthora in forest ecosystems with the overall aim of increasing understanding of the biology and ecology ...

  7. Assimilating satellite-based canopy height within an ecosystem model to estimate aboveground forest biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joetzjer, E.; Pillet, M.; Ciais, P.; Barbier, N.; Chave, J.; Schlund, M.; Maignan, F.; Barichivich, J.; Luyssaert, S.; Hérault, B.; von Poncet, F.; Poulter, B.

    2017-07-01

    Despite advances in Earth observation and modeling, estimating tropical biomass remains a challenge. Recent work suggests that integrating satellite measurements of canopy height within ecosystem models is a promising approach to infer biomass. We tested the feasibility of this approach to retrieve aboveground biomass (AGB) at three tropical forest sites by assimilating remotely sensed canopy height derived from a texture analysis algorithm applied to the high-resolution Pleiades imager in the Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems Canopy (ORCHIDEE-CAN) ecosystem model. While mean AGB could be estimated within 10% of AGB derived from census data in average across sites, canopy height derived from Pleiades product was spatially too smooth, thus unable to accurately resolve large height (and biomass) variations within the site considered. The error budget was evaluated in details, and systematic errors related to the ORCHIDEE-CAN structure contribute as a secondary source of error and could be overcome by using improved allometric equations.

  8. Carbon isotope discrimination in forest and pasture ecosystems of the Amazon Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ometto, Jean P. H. B.; Flanagan, Lawrence B.; Martinelli, Luiz A.; Moreira, Marcelo Z.; Higuchi, Niro; Ehleringer, James R.

    2002-12-01

    Our objective was to measure the stable carbon isotope composition of leaf tissue and CO2 released by respiration (δr), and to use this information as an estimate of changes in ecosystem isotopic discrimination that occur in response to seasonal and interannual changes in environmental conditions, and land-use change (forest-pasture conversion). We made measurements in primary forest and pastures in the Amazon Basin of Brazil. At the Santarém forest site, δr values showed a seasonal cycle varying from less than -29‰ to approximately -26‰. The observed seasonal change in δr was correlated with variation in the observed monthly precipitation. In contrast, there was no significant seasonal variation in δr at the Manaus forest site (average δr approximately -28‰), consistent with a narrower range of variation in monthly precipitation than occurred in Santarém. Despite substantial (9‰) vertical variation in leaf δ13C, the average δr values observed for all forest sites were similar to the δ13C values of the most exposed sun foliage of the dominant tree species. This suggested that the major portion of recently respired carbon dioxide in these forests was metabolized carbohydrate fixed by the sun leaves at the top of the forest canopy. There was no significant seasonal variation observed in the δ13C values of leaf organic matter for the forest sites. We sampled in pastures dominated by the C4 grass, Brachiaria spp., which is planted after forest vegetation has been cleared. The carbon isotope ratio of respired CO2 in pastures was enriched in 13C by approximately 10‰ compared to forest ecosystems. A significant temporal change occurred in δr after the Manaus pasture was burned. Burning removed much of the encroaching C3 shrub vegetation and so allowed an increased dominance of the C4 pasture grass, which resulted in higher δr values.

  9. Hydrological services in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil: An ecosystem-based adaptation using ecohydrological monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Taffarello

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA involves using services on which human well-being depends to help people adapt to the impacts of climate change. Aiming at strengthening ecosystem resilience and reducing ecosystem and people’s vulnerability, EbA has been encouraged worldwide as an option for climate change. Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES are incentives offered to farmers and landowners to provide an ecological service and are currently proposed as a method for EbA and water resources sustainability on a global scale. However, organized information on PES in Brazil is limited. This paper provides a concise review of PES initiatives in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, where various PES projects on watershed protection (Water-PES have been set up. We found 16 ongoing Water-PES in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The first initiative was launched in 2005 and since then these projects have grown rapidly. In spite of the advances made in many of these initiatives, they seldom have baseline hydrologic data and an implemented strategy for ecohydrological monitoring. Thus, we discuss how PES projects could be more effective by implementing hydrological monitoring based on ecohydrological concepts. Special attention has been given to explaining how the recent Impact-Vulnerability-Adaptation idea could be integrated into Water-PES. As can be seen from the review, these projects contribute as EbA options for climate change, thereby carrying practical implications for environmental policy makers.

  10. Evidence and implications of recent and projected climate change in Alaska's forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolken, Jane M.; Hollingsworth, Teresa N.; Rupp, T. Scott; Chapin, Stuart III; Trainor, Sarah F.; Barrett, Tara M.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; McGuire, A. David; Euskirchen, Eugénie S.; Hennon, Paul E.; Beever, Erik A.; Conn, Jeff S.; Crone, Lisa K.; D'Amore, David V.; Fresco, Nancy; Hanley, Thomas A.; Kielland, Knut; Kruse, James J.; Patterson, Trista; Schuur, Edward A.G.; Verbyla, David L.; Yarie, John

    2011-01-01

    The structure and function of Alaska's forests have changed significantly in response to a changing climate, including alterations in species composition and climate feedbacks (e.g., carbon, radiation budgets) that have important regional societal consequences and human feedbacks to forest ecosystems. In this paper we present the first comprehensive synthesis of climate-change impacts on all forested ecosystems of Alaska, highlighting changes in the most critical biophysical factors of each region. We developed a conceptual framework describing climate drivers, biophysical factors and types of change to illustrate how the biophysical and social subsystems of Alaskan forests interact and respond directly and indirectly to a changing climate. We then identify the regional and global implications to the climate system and associated socio-economic impacts, as presented in the current literature. Projections of temperature and precipitation suggest wildfire will continue to be the dominant biophysical factor in the Interior-boreal forest, leading to shifts from conifer- to deciduous-dominated forests. Based on existing research, projected increases in temperature in the Southcentral- and Kenai-boreal forests will likely increase the frequency and severity of insect outbreaks and associated wildfires, and increase the probability of establishment by invasive plant species. In the Coastal-temperate forest region snow and ice is regarded as the dominant biophysical factor. With continued warming, hydrologic changes related to more rapidly melting glaciers and rising elevation of the winter snowline will alter discharge in many rivers, which will have important consequences for terrestrial and marine ecosystem productivity. These climate-related changes will affect plant species distribution and wildlife habitat, which have regional societal consequences, and trace-gas emissions and radiation budgets, which are globally important. Our conceptual framework facilitates

  11. The Vulnerability of Forest Ecosystems of Armenia to the Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatryan, S.

    2009-05-01

    Climate changes characterized as global warming can lead to irreversible effects on regional and global scales, such as drought, pest attacks, diseases, excessive forest fires, and climate driven extinction of numerous animal and plant species. We assess the issues that the development of forestry in Armenia faces, where the climate change is causing the landscape zone borders in the territory to shift. This will have a significant impact on the most vulnerable tree species in Armenia. An increase in climate aridity and intensification of desertification can be expected under the projected escalated temperatures and reduced precipitation. For example, we can consider average annual temperature of the Ijevan meteorological station (located in forestry region) for the period of 1936-2008. We analyze the vulnerability of forest ecosystems in Armenia to climatic and anthropogenic factors for the period of 1936-2008. Temperature and precipitation data from 25 meteorological stations in the territory of Armenia is studied for the period of 1936-2008. The dynamic of average temperature annual anomalies are revealed. The deviations of temperature and precipitation from the norms (average for 1961-1990) are evaluated for the period of study. We discuss the reasons for the abrupt increase in temperature and decrease in precipitation. Based on the dataset, the possible near future impact of global climate change on the Armenian forest ecosystems is discussed, and measures on the adaptation to the adverse consequences that climate change has on forests are offered.

  12. Geochemistry of vanadium in soils of forest ecosystems of the Prysamar’ja Dniprovske region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Tsvetkova

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Content and distribution of total and mobile forms of trace element Vanadium in the soils of forest and forb-fescue-stipa steppe ecosystems within the Prysamar’ja Dniprovske were studied. It was ascertained, that the gross content of Vanadium in these soils vary from 49 in the pinery-sod soil to 210 mg×kg–1 in chernozem improved by forest.The conent of mobile forms vary from 3 in chernozem to 20 mg×kg–1 in flood pratal-forest soil. Percentage of Vanadium mobility in studied soils was from 1.6 in top horizon of chernozem to 30 % in the mother rock of pinery-sod soil.

  13. Ecosystem services and opportunity costs shift spatial priorities for conserving forest biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schröter

    Full Text Available Inclusion of spatially explicit information on ecosystem services in conservation planning is a fairly new practice. This study analyses how the incorporation of ecosystem services as conservation features can affect conservation of forest biodiversity and how different opportunity cost constraints can change spatial priorities for conservation. We created spatially explicit cost-effective conservation scenarios for 59 forest biodiversity features and five ecosystem services in the county of Telemark (Norway with the help of the heuristic optimisation planning software, Marxan with Zones. We combined a mix of conservation instruments where forestry is either completely (non-use zone or partially restricted (partial use zone. Opportunity costs were measured in terms of foregone timber harvest, an important provisioning service in Telemark. Including a number of ecosystem services shifted priority conservation sites compared to a case where only biodiversity was considered, and increased the area of both the partial (+36.2% and the non-use zone (+3.2%. Furthermore, opportunity costs increased (+6.6%, which suggests that ecosystem services may not be a side-benefit of biodiversity conservation in this area. Opportunity cost levels were systematically changed to analyse their effect on spatial conservation priorities. Conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services trades off against timber harvest. Currently designated nature reserves and landscape protection areas achieve a very low proportion (9.1% of the conservation targets we set in our scenario, which illustrates the high importance given to timber production at present. A trade-off curve indicated that large marginal increases in conservation target achievement are possible when the budget for conservation is increased. Forty percent of the maximum hypothetical opportunity costs would yield an average conservation target achievement of 79%.

  14. Interacting Factors Driving a Major Loss of Large Trees with Cavities in a Forest Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, David B.; Blanchard, Wade; McBurney, Lachlan; Blair, David; Banks, Sam; Likens, Gene E.; Franklin, Jerry F.; Laurance, William F.; Stein, John A. R.; Gibbons, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Large trees with cavities provide critical ecological functions in forests worldwide, including vital nesting and denning resources for many species. However, many ecosystems are experiencing increasingly rapid loss of large trees or a failure to recruit new large trees or both. We quantify this problem in a globally iconic ecosystem in southeastern Australia – forests dominated by the world's tallest angiosperms, Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans). Tree, stand and landscape-level factors influencing the death and collapse of large living cavity trees and the decay and collapse of dead trees with cavities are documented using a suite of long-term datasets gathered between 1983 and 2011. The historical rate of tree mortality on unburned sites between 1997 and 2011 was >14% with a mortality spike in the driest period (2006–2009). Following a major wildfire in 2009, 79% of large living trees with cavities died and 57–100% of large dead trees were destroyed on burned sites. Repeated measurements between 1997 and 2011 revealed no recruitment of any new large trees with cavities on any of our unburned or burned sites. Transition probability matrices of large trees with cavities through increasingly decayed condition states projects a severe shortage of large trees with cavities by 2039 that will continue until at least 2067. This large cavity tree crisis in Mountain Ash forests is a product of: (1) the prolonged time required (>120 years) for initiation of cavities; and (2) repeated past wildfires and widespread logging operations. These latter factors have resulted in all landscapes being dominated by stands ≤72 years and just 1.16% of forest being unburned and unlogged. We discuss how the features that make Mountain Ash forests vulnerable to a decline in large tree abundance are shared with many forest types worldwide. PMID:23071486

  15. Use of AIRS, OMI, MLS, and TES Data in Assessing Forest Ecosystem Exposure to Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    Ground-level ozone at high levels poses health threats to exposed flora and fauna, including negative impacts to human health. While concern is common regarding depletion of ozone in the stratosphere, portions of the urban and rural United States periodically have high ambient levels of tropospheric ozone on the ground. Ozone pollution can cause a variety of impacts to susceptible vegetation (e.g., Ponderosa and Jeffrey pine species in the southwestern United States), such as stunted growth, alteration of growth form, needle or leaf chlorosis, and impaired ability to withstand drought-induced water stress. In addition, Southern Californian forests with high ozone exposures have been recently subject to multiyear droughts that have led to extensive forest overstory mortality from insect outbreaks and increased incidence of wildfires. Residual forests in these impacted areas may be more vulnerable to high ozone exposures and to other forest threats than ever before. NASA sensors collect a wealth of atmospheric data that have been used recently for mapping and monitoring regional tropospheric ozone levels. AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder), OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder), and TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) data could be used to assess forest ecosystem exposure to ozone. Such NASA data hold promise for providing better or at least complementary synoptic information on ground-level ozone levels that Federal agency partners can use to assess forest health trends and to mitigate the threats as needed in compliance with Federal laws and mandates. NASA data products on ozone concentrations may be able to aid applications of DSTs (decision support tools) adopted by the USDA FS (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service) and by the NPS (National Park Service), such as the Ozone Calculator, in which ground ozone estimates are employed to assess ozone impacts to forested vegetation.

  16. Ecological and geochemical impacts of exotic earthworm dispersal in forest ecosystems of Eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Melanie; Fugere, Martine; Lapointe, Line; Vellend, Mark; Bradley, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    In Eastern Canada, native earthworm species did not survive the Wisconsin glaciation, which ended over 11,000 years ago. Accordingly, the 17 known Lumbricidae species in the province of Québec were introduced in recent centuries by European settlers. Given that natural migration rates are no more than 5-10 m yr-1, exotic earthworm dispersal across the landscape is presumed to be mediated by human activities, although this assertion needs further validation. In agroecosystems, earthworms have traditionally been considered beneficial soil organisms that facilitate litter decomposition, increase nutrient availability and improve soil structure. However, earthworm activities could also increase soil nutrient leaching and CO2 emissions. Furthermore, in natural forest ecosystems, exotic earthworms may reduce organic forest floors provoking changes in watershed hydrology and loss of habitat for some faunal species. Over the past decade, studies have also suggested a negative effect of exotic earthworms on understory plant diversity, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Finally, there are no studies to our knowledge that have tested the effects of Lumbricidae species on the production of N2O (an important greenhouse gas) in forest ecosystems. We report on a series of field, greenhouse and laboratory studies on the human activities responsible for the dispersal of exotic earthworms, and on their ecological / geochemical impacts in natural forest ecosystems. Our results show: (1) Car tire treads and bait discarded by fishermen are important human vectors driving the dispersal of earthworms into northern temperate forests; (2) Exotic earthworms significantly modify soil physicochemical properties, nutrient cycling, microbial community structure and biomass; (3) Earthworm abundances in the field correlate with a decrease in understory plant diversity; (4) Lumbricus terrestris, an anecic earthworm species and favorite bait of fishermen, reduces seed germination and

  17. The Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station's Southwestern Borderlands Ecosystem Management Project: building on 10 years of success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Gottfried; Carleton B. Edminster

    2005-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service’s Southwestern Borderlands Ecosystem Management Project mission is to contribute to the scientific basis for developing and implementing a comprehensive ecosystem management plan to restore natural processes, improve the productivity and biological diversity of grasslands and woodlands, and sustain an open landscape with a viable rural economy...

  18. Soil fungal communities respond compositionally to recurring frequent prescribed burning in a managed southeastern US forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alena K. Oliver; Mac A. Callaham; Ari Jumpponen

    2015-01-01

    Prescribed fire is an important management tool to reduce fuel loads, to remove non-fire adapted species and to sustain fire-adapted taxa in many forested ecosystems of the southeastern USA. Yet, the long-term effects of recurring prescribed fires on soil fungi and their communities in these ecosystems remain unclear. We Illumina MiSeq sequenced and analyzed fungal...

  19. The role of experimental forests and ranges in the development of ecosystem science and biogeochemical cycling research [Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Wayne T. Swank; Mary Beth Adams; Devendra Amatya; John Campbell; Sherri Johnson; Frederick J. Swanson; Randy Kolka; Ariel E. Lugo; Robert Musselman; Charles Rhoades

    2014-01-01

    Forest Service watershed-based Experimental Forests and Ranges (EFRs) have significantly advanced scientific knowledge on ecosystem structure and function through long-term monitoring and experimental research on hydrologic and biogeochemical cycling processes. Research conducted in the 1940s and 1950s began as “classic” paired watershed studies. The emergence of the...

  20. The role of experimental forests and ranges in the development of ecosystem science and biogeochemical cycling research

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Wayne T. Swank; Mary Beth Adams; Devendra Amatya; John Campbell; Sherri Johnson; Frederick J. Swanson; Randy Kolka; Ariel E. Lugo; Robert Musselman; Charles. Rhoades

    2014-01-01

    Forest Service watershed-based Experimental Forests and Ranges (EFRs) have significantly advanced scientific knowledge on ecosystem structure and function through long-term monitoring and experimental research on hydrologic and biogeochemical cycling processes. Research conducted in the 1940s and 1950s began as “classic” paired watershed studies. The emergence of the...

  1. Bioenergy harvest impacts to biodiversity and resilience vary across aspen-dominated forest ecosystems in the Lake States region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda T. Curzon; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik; Kris Verheyen

    2016-01-01

    Questions: Does the increase in disturbance associated with removing harvest residues negatively impact biodiversity and resilience in aspen-dominated forest ecosystems? How do responses of functional diversity measures relate to community recovery and standing biomass? Location: Aspen (Populus tremuloides, Michx.) mixedwood forests in Minnesota...

  2. Intensive monitoring of forest ecosystems in Europe; 2: atmospheric deposition and its impacts on soil solution chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Reinds, G.J.; Vel, E.M.

    2003-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of the effects of air pollution and other stress factors on forests, a Pan-European programme for intensive and continuous monitoring of forest ecosystems has been implemented in 1994. Results of this intensive monitoring programme presented in this paper are

  3. Interactive effects of air pollution and climate change on forest ecosystems in the United States: current understanding and future scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Mark Fenn; Steven McNulty; Fengming Yuan; Afshin Pourmokhtarian; Charles Driscoll; Tom Meixner

    2013-01-01

    A review of the current status of air pollution and climate change (CC) in the United States from a perspective of their impacts on forest ecosystems is provided. Ambient ozone (O3) and nitrogen (N) deposition have important and widespread ecological impacts in U.S. forests. Effects of sulphurous (S) air pollutants and other trace pollutants have...

  4. Contribution of ecosystem services to air quality and climate change mitigation policies: The case of urban forests in Barcelona, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesc Baró; Lydia Chaparro; Erik Gómez-Baggethun; Johannes Langemeyer; David J. Nowak; Jaume. Terradas

    2014-01-01

    Mounting research highlights the contribution of ecosystem services provided by urban forests to quality of life in cities, yet these services are rarely explicitly considered in environmental policy targets. We quantify regulating services provided by urban forests and evaluate their contribution to comply with policy targets of air quality and climate change...

  5. The public water supply protection value of forests: A watershed-scale ecosystem services based upon total organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a cost-based methodology to assess the value of forested watersheds to improve water quality in public water supplies. The developed methodology is applicable to other source watersheds to determine ecosystem services for water quality. We assess the value of forest land for source wate...

  6. Ecosystem management and our national forests -- is there a role for forest herbicides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles K. McMahon; J.H. Miller; D.F. Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Abstract.Environmentally safe, selective herbicide treatments can be adapted to manage habitats and direct succession toward desired future conditions within the principles of Ecosystem Management (EM). Six roles for herbicide treatments in EM are suggested: create and maintain desired habitats; create mixed and unevenaged stands; restore damaged...

  7. Belowground processes regulate ecosystem nitrogen retention during a multi-year forest dieback event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, L. E.; Le Moine, J.; Gough, C. M.; Vogel, C.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.; Curtis, P.

    2013-12-01

    In the absence of disturbances, forests typically have strong retention capacity for nitrogen (N), which is internally recycled between soil, microbial and plant pools. However, disturbances that trigger senescence or mortality of forest vegetation may alter internal N cycling processes and lead to the loss of ecosystem N retention capacity. Here, we present an assessment of the role played by belowground processes in governing ecosystem N cycling and retention during an experimental disturbance that killed the dominant canopy taxa in a Great Lakes forest over a 4-year period. After applying stem girdling to hasten the age-related senescence of the dominant taxa (Populus and Betula spp.; ~35% of the basal area), we observed a 38% decrease in stand-level allocation of nonstructural carbohydrates to fine roots, which triggered a tenfold increase in the rate of fine root turnover and increased soil NH4+ and NO3- availability. Elevated soil N availability decreased mycorrhizal hyphal foraging and N uptake, effectively down-regulating the role of symbiotic fungi in the N nutrition of the residual (longer-lived) tree taxa. However, even as residual trees took up less N from mycorrhizal sources, their overall N uptake increased and served to offset the loss of the dominant taxa. The net result of this offset was that canopy N stocks remained constant through the disturbance period and there was no appreciable loss of ecosystem N stocks due to leaching or gaseous export. In sum, the cascade of changes in root, microbial, and soil processes during this experiment indicates that these interdependent components of the belowground system comprised a mechanism responsible for retention and redistribution of ecosystem N stocks during the disturbance period.

  8. Determination of Land Use/ Land Cover Changes in Igneada Alluvial (Longos) Forest Ecosystem, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas Balcik, F.

    2012-12-01

    Alluvial (Longos) forests are one of the most fragile and threatened ecosystems in the world. Typically, these types of ecosystems have high biological diversity, high productivity, and high habitat dynamism. In this study, Igneada, Kirklareli was selected as study area. The region, lies between latitudes 41° 46' N and 41° 59' N and stretches between longitudes 27° 50' E and 28° 02' E and it covers approximately 24000 (ha). Igneada Longos ecosystems include mixed forests, streams, flooded (alluvial) forests, marshes, wetlands, lakes and coastal sand dunes with different types of flora and fauna. Igneada was classified by Conservation International as one of the world's top 122 Important Plant Areas, and 185 Important Bird Areas. These types of wild forest in other parts of Turkey and in Europe have been damaged due to anthropogenic effects. Remote sensing is very effective tool to monitor these types of sensitive regions for sustainable management. In this study, 1984 and 2011 dated Landsat 5 TM data were used to determine land cover/land use change detection of the selected region by using six vegetation indices such as Tasseled Cap index of greenness (TCG), brightness (TCB), and wetness (TCW), ratios of near-infrared to red image (RVI), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI). Geometric and radiometric corrections were applied in image pre-processing step. Selective Principle Component Analysis (PCA) change detection method was applied to the selected vegetation index imagery to generate change imagery for extracting the changed features between the year of 1984 and 2011. Accuracy assessment was applied based on error matrix by calculating overall accuracy and Kappa statistics.

  9. Habitat creation and biodiversity maintenance in mangrove forests: teredinid bivalves as ecosystem engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian W. Hendy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Substantial amounts of dead wood in the intertidal zone of mature mangrove forests are tunnelled by teredinid bivalves. When the tunnels are exposed, animals are able to use tunnels as refuges. In this study, the effect of teredinid tunnelling upon mangrove forest faunal diversity was investigated. Mangrove forests exposed to long emersion times had fewer teredinid tunnels in wood and wood not containing teredinid tunnels had very few species and abundance of animals. However, with a greater cross-sectional percentage surface area of teredinid tunnels, the numbers of species and abundance of animals was significantly higher. Temperatures within teredinid-attacked wood were significantly cooler compared with air temperatures, and animal abundance was greater in wood with cooler temperatures. Animals inside the tunnels within the wood may avoid desiccation by escaping the higher temperatures. Animals co-existing in teredinid tunnelled wood ranged from animals found in terrestrial ecosystems including centipedes, crickets and spiders, and animals found in subtidal marine ecosystems such as fish, octopods and polychaetes. There was also evidence of breeding within teredinid-attacked wood, as many juvenile individuals were found, and they may also benefit from the cooler wood temperatures. Teredinid tunnelled wood is a key low-tide refuge for cryptic animals, which would otherwise be exposed to fishes and birds, and higher external temperatures. This study provides evidence that teredinids are ecosystem engineers and also provides an example of a mechanism whereby mangrove forests support intertidal biodiversity and nurseries through the wood-boring activity of teredinids.

  10. Harnessing ecosystem models and multi-criteria decision analysis for the support of forest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfslehner, Bernhard; Seidl, Rupert

    2010-12-01

    The decision-making environment in forest management (FM) has changed drastically during the last decades. Forest management planning is facing increasing complexity due to a widening portfolio of forest goods and services, a societal demand for a rational, transparent decision process and rising uncertainties concerning future environmental conditions (e.g., climate change). Methodological responses to these challenges include an intensified use of ecosystem models to provide an enriched, quantitative information base for FM planning. Furthermore, multi-criteria methods are increasingly used to amalgamate information, preferences, expert judgments and value expressions, in support of the participatory and communicative dimensions of modern forestry. Although the potential of combining these two approaches has been demonstrated in a number of studies, methodological aspects in interfacing forest ecosystem models (FEM) and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) are scarcely addressed explicitly. In this contribution we review the state of the art in FEM and MCDA in the context of FM planning and highlight some of the crucial issues when combining ecosystem and preference modeling. We discuss issues and requirements in selecting approaches suitable for supporting FM planning problems from the growing body of FEM and MCDA concepts. We furthermore identify two major challenges in a harmonized application of FEM-MCDA: (i) the design and implementation of an indicator-based analysis framework capturing ecological and social aspects and their interactions relevant for the decision process, and (ii) holistic information management that supports consistent use of different information sources, provides meta-information as well as information on uncertainties throughout the planning process.

  11. Forest Dynamics at the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project viewed through stocking diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Larsen; John M. Kabrick; Stephen R. Shifley; Randy G. Jensen

    2017-01-01

    Stocking diagrams come in two forms, the Gingrich diagram and the density management diagram. While they both present the same information about a forest stand, they each provide a different perspective on the data being displayed. Density management diagrams have been around since the 1930s and the Gingrich diagram has been around since the 1960s, but applications of...

  12. Participatory Goal Programming in Forest Management: An Application Integrating Several Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Aldea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose a procedure for integrating several ecosystem services into forest management by using the well-known multi-criteria approach called goal programming. It shows how interactions with various stakeholders are essential in order to choose the goal programming model applied, as well as some of its basic components (variant, targets, preferential weights, etc.. This methodology has been applied to a real forest management case where five criteria have been selected: timber production, wild edible mushroom production, carbon sequestration, net present value of the underlying investment, and a criterion associated with the sustainability of forest management defined by the idea of a normal forest. Given the characteristics of some of these criteria, such as mushroom production, the model has been developed in two scenarios: one deterministic and another with a Monte Carlo analysis. The results show a considerable degree of conflict between the proposed criteria. By applying several goal programming models, different Paretian efficient solutions were obtained. In addition, some results in Monte Carlo analysis for several criteria show notable variations. This fact is especially notable for the mushroom production criterion. Finally, the proposed approach seems attractive and can be directly applied to other forest management situations.

  13. Net Ecosystem Fluxes of Hydrocarbons from a Ponderosa Pine Forest in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, R. C.; Turnipseed, A. A.; Ortega, J. V.; Smith, J. N.; Guenther, A. B.; Shen, S.; Martinez, L.; Koss, A.; Warneke, C.; De Gouw, J. A.; Deventer, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Light (C2-C4) alkenes, light alkanes and isoprene (C5H8) are non-methane hydrocarbons that play important roles in the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone and in the formation of secondary organic aerosols. Natural terrestrial fluxes of the light hydrocarbons are poorly characterized, with global emission estimates based on limited field measurements. In 2014, net fluxes of these compounds were measured at the Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory, a semi-arid ponderosa pine forest in the Colorado Rocky Mountains and site of the prior BEACHON campaigns. Three field intensives were conducted between June 17 and August 10, 2014. Net ecosystem flux measurements utilized a relaxed eddy accumulation system coupled to an automated gas chromatograph. Summertime average emissions of ethene and propene were up to 90% larger than those observed from a temperate deciduous forest. Ethene and propene fluxes were also correlated to each other, similar to the deciduous forest study. Emissions of isoprene were small, as expected for a coniferous forest, and these fluxes were not correlated with either ethene or propene. Unexpected emissions of light alkanes were also observed, and these showed a distinct diurnal cycle. Understory flux measurements allowed for the partitioning of fluxes between the surface and the canopy. Full results from the three field intensives will be compared with environmental variables in order to parameterize the fluxes for use in modeling emissions.

  14. Relating injury to the forest ecosystem near Palmerton, PA, to zinc contamination from smelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Krafft, Cairn; Klassen, Stephen; Green, Carrie E.; Chaney, Rufus L.

    2011-01-01

    The forest on Blue Mountain, near Lehigh Gap, has been injured by emissions from two historical zinc (Zn) smelters in Palmerton, PA, located at the northern base of the mountain. The uppermost mineral soil and lower litter from sites along a transect, just south of the ridgetop, contained from 64 to 4400 mg/kg Zn. We measured forest metrics at 15 sampling sites to ascertain how forest structure, species composition and regeneration are related to soil concentrations of Zn, the probable principal cause of the injury. Understanding how ecotoxicological injury is related to soil Zn concentrations helps us quantify the extent of injury to the ecosystem on Blue Mountain as well as to generalize to other sites. The sum of canopy closure and shrub cover, suggested as a broadly inclusive measure of forest structure, was decreased to half at approximately 2060 mg/kg Zn (102 mg/kg Sr(N03)2-extractable Zn). Tree-seedling density was decreased by 80% (from 10.5/m2 to 2.1/m2) at a much lower concentration: 1080 mg/kg Zn (59 mg/kg Sr(N03)2-extractable Zn). Changes in species composition and richness were not as useful for quantifying injury to the forest. Phytotoxicity, desiccation from exposure, and a gypsy moth infestation combined to form a barren area on the ridgetop. Liming the strongly acid Hazleton soils at the sites would partially ameliorate the observed phytotoxicity and should be considered in planning restoration.

  15. Modeling Nitrous Oxide emissions and identifying emission controlling factors for a spruce forest ecosystem on drained organic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongxing; Kasimir, Åsa; Jansson, Per-Erik; Svensson, Magnus; Meyer, Astrid; Klemedtsson, Leif

    2015-04-01

    interaction between soil N availability, mediated by mineralization, nitrification, and plant growth together with soil anaerobicity controlled by the groundwater level. The model is currently used for modelling greenhouse gas emissions from drained organic soils over the entire forest cycle, from plantation to harvest. Different land use and plant production are compared like Spruce, Willow and Reed Canary Grass as well as rewetting options. This work was funded by the Swedish Energy Agency and conducted within the research programs BECC (Biodiversity and Ecosystem services in a Changing Climate) and LAGGE (Landscape and Greenhouse Gas Exchange).

  16. Towards integration of research and monitoring at forest ecosystems in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielewsha, A.; Paoletti, E.; Clarke, N.; Olejnik, J.; Urbaniak, M.; Baran, M.; Siedlecki, P.; Hansen, K.; Lundin, L.; Vries, W.; Norgaard Mikkelsen, T.; Dillen, S.; Fischer

    2013-07-01

    Aim of study: The main aim of the work was to summarize availability, quality and comparability of on-going European Research and Monitoring Networks (ERMN), based on the results of a COST FP0903 Action questionnaire carried out in September 2010 and May 2012. Area of study: The COST Action FP0903 involves 29 European countries and 4 non-COST institutions from USA, Morocco and Tunisia. In this study, the total of 22 replies to the questionnaire from 18 countries were included. Materials and methods: Based on the feedback from the Action FP0903 countries, the most popular European Networks were identified. Thereafter, the access to the network database, available quality assurance/quality control procedures and publication were described. Finally, the so-called Supersites concept, defined as a highly instrumented research infrastructure, for both research and monitoring of soil-plant-atmosphere interactions was discussed. Main results: The result of the survey indicate that the vast majority of the Action FP0903 countries participate in the International Cooperative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forest (ICP Forest). The multi-disciplinary International Cooperative Programme on Integrated Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Ecosystems (ICPIM) is the second most widespread forest programme. Research highlights: To fully understand biochemical cycles in forest ecosystems, long-term monitoring is needed. Hence, a network of Supersites, is proposed. The application of the above infrastructure can be an effective way to attain a better integration of research and monitoring networks at forest sites in Europe. (Author)

  17. Faunal impact on vegetation structure and ecosystem function in mangrove forests: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannicci, Stefano; Burrows, Damien; Fratini, Sara; Smith, Thomas J.; Offenberg, Joachim; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2008-01-01

    The last 20 years witnessed a real paradigm shift concerning the impact of biotic factors on ecosystem functions as well as on vegetation structure of mangrove forests. Before this small scientific revolution took place, structural aspects of mangrove forests were viewed to be the result of abiotic processes acting from the bottom-up, while, at ecosystem level, the outwelling hypothesis stated that mangroves primary production was removed via tidal action and carried to adjacent nearshore ecosystems where it fuelled detrital based food-webs. The sesarmid crabs were the first macrofaunal taxon to be considered a main actor in mangrove structuring processes, thanks to a number of studies carried out in the Indo-Pacific forests in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Following these classical papers, a number of studies on Sesarmidae feeding and burrowing ecology were carried out, which leave no doubts about the great importance of these herbivorous crabs in structuring and functioning Old world ecosystems. Although Sesarmidae are still considered very important in shaping mangrove structure and functioning, recent literature emphasizes the significance of other invertebrates. The Ocypodidae have now been shown to have the same role as Sesarmidae in terms of retention of forest products and organic matter processing in New world mangroves. In both New and Old world mangroves, crabs process large amounts of algal primary production, contribute consistently to retention of mangrove production and as ecosystem engineers, change particle size distribution and enhance soil aeration. Our understanding of the strong impact of gastropods, by means of high intake rates of mangrove products and differential consumption of propagules, has changed only recently. The role of insects must also be stressed. It is now clear that older techniques used to assess herbivory rates by insects strongly underestimate their impact, both in case of leaf eating and wood boring species and that

  18. Urban forest ecosystem analysis using fused airborne hyperspectral and lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Mike Gerard

    Urban trees are strategically important in a city's effort to mitigate their carbon footprint, heat island effects, air pollution, and stormwater runoff. Currently, the most common method for quantifying urban forest structure and ecosystem function is through field plot sampling. However, taking intensive structural measurements on private properties throughout a city is difficult, and the outputs from sample inventories are not spatially explicit. The overarching goal of this dissertation is to develop methods for mapping urban forest structure and function using fused hyperspectral imagery and waveform lidar data at the individual tree crown scale. Urban forest ecosystem services estimated using the USDA Forest Service's i-Tree Eco (formerly UFORE) model are based largely on tree species and leaf area index (LAI). Accordingly, tree species were mapped in my Santa Barbara, California study area for 29 species comprising >80% of canopy. Crown-scale discriminant analysis methods were introduced for fusing Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometry (AVIRIS) data with a suite of lidar structural metrics (e.g., tree height, crown porosity) to maximize classification accuracy in a complex environment. AVIRIS imagery was critical to achieving an overall species-level accuracy of 83.4% while lidar data was most useful for improving the discrimination of small and morphologically unique species. LAI was estimated at both the field-plot scale using laser penetration metrics and at the crown scale using allometry. Agreement of the former with photographic estimates of gap fraction and the latter with allometric estimates based on field measurements was examined. Results indicate that lidar may be used reasonably to measure LAI in an urban environment lacking in continuous canopy and characterized by high species diversity. Finally, urban ecosystem services such as carbon storage and building energy-use modification were analyzed through combination of aforementioned

  19. Assessing the protection function of Alpine forest ecosystems using BGC modelling theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pötzelsberger, E.; Hasenauer, H.; Petritsch, R.; Pietsch, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the protection function of forests in Alpine areas by modelling the flux dynamics (water, carbon, nutrients) within a watershed as they may depend on the vegetation pattern and forest management impacts. The application case for this study was the catchment Schmittenbach, located in the province of Salzburg. Data available covered the hydrology (rainfall measurements from 1981 to 1998 and runoff measurements at the river Schmittenbach from 1981 to 2005), vegetation dynamics (currently 69% forest, predominantly Norway Spruce). The method of simulating the forest growth and water outflow was validated. For simulations of the key ecosystem processes (e.g. photosynthesis, carbon and nitrogen allocation in the different plant parts, litter fall, mineralisation, tree water uptake, transpiration, rainfall interception, evaporation, snow accumulation and snow melt, outflow of spare water) the biogeochemical ecosystem model Biome-BGC was applied. Relevant model extensions were the tree species specific parameter sets and the improved thinning regime. The model is sensitive to site characteristics and needs daily weather data and information on the atmospheric composition, which makes it sensitive to higher CO2-levels and climate change. For model validation 53 plots were selected covering the full range of site quality and stand age. Tree volume and soil was measured and compared with the respective model results. The outflow for the watershed was predicted by combining the simulated forest-outflow (derived from plot-outflow) with the outflow from the non-forest area (calculated with a fixed outflow/rainfall coefficient (OC)). The analysis of production and water related model outputs indicated that mechanistic modelling can be used as a tool to assess the performance of Alpine protection forests. The Water Use Efficiency (WUE), the ratio of Net primary production (NPP) and Transpiration, was found the highest for juvenile stands (

  20. Ecosystem carbon storage and partitioning in a tropical seasonal forest in Southwestern China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lü, Xiao-Tao; Yin, Jiang-Xia; Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck

    2010-01-01

    , SW China. Averaged across three 1 ha plots, the total carbon stock of the forest ecosystem was 303 t C ha-1. Living tree carbon stocks (both above- and belowground) ranged from 163 to 258 t C ha-1. The aboveground biomass C pool is comparable to the Dipterocarp forests in Sumatra but lower than those...... in Malaysia. The variation of C storage in the tree layer among different plots was mainly due to different densities of large trees (DBH > 70 cm). The contributions of the shrub layer, herb layer, woody lianas, and fine litter each accounted for 1-2 t C ha-1 to the total carbon stock. The mineral soil C...... pools (top 100 cm) ranged from 84 to 102 t C ha-1 and the C in woody debris from 5.6 to 12.5 t C ha-1, representing the second and third largest C component in this ecosystem. Our results reveal that a high percentage (70%) of C is stored in biomass and less in soil in this tropical seasonal forest...

  1. Chicago's urban forest ecosystem: results of the Chicago Urban Forest Climate Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory E. McPherson; David J. Nowak; Rowan A. Rowntree

    1994-01-01

    Results of the 3-year Chicago Urban Forest Climate Project indicate that there are an estimated 50.8 million trees in the Chicago area of Cook and DuPage Counties; 66 percent of these trees rated in good or excellent condition. During 1991, trees in the Chicago area removed an estimated 6,145 tons of air pollutants, providing air cleansing valued at $9.2 million...

  2. Understanding the Factors Influencing Nonindustrial Private Forest Landowner Interest in Supplying Ecosystem Services in Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Tian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Private forests provide a range of ecosystem services for society including provisioning, regulating, cultural, and supporting services. Sustaining the supply of such services depends on the interest of nonindustrial private forest (NIPF landowners in managing their forests for such services. Assessing factors that influence NIPF landowner intentions would be useful in identifying potential suppliers of ecosystem services and in designing and implementing outreach and education programs to elevate the interests of less interested landowners. Using data collected from a mail survey of NIPF landowners on the Cumberland Plateau of Tennessee, this study examined how landowner interest in supplying ecosystem services was influenced by socio-demographic characteristics, economic and market factors, land management objectives, and ownership motivations. To that end, a multivariate logistic regression model was employed to analyze the supply of three types of ecosystem services: carbon storage (regulating service, water quality (provisioning service, and aesthetics (cultural service. Results revealed that landowner interest in managing forests for ecosystem services were significantly related to socio-demographic factors, management and ownership characteristics, and availability of financial incentives. These findings will improve the understanding of the market segment of landowners as related to ecosystem services. The findings may facilitate the development of market protocols and outreach programs that promote payments for ecosystem services in Tennessee and elsewhere.

  3. Kinetic energy of throughfall in a highly diverse forest ecosystem in the humid subtropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geißler, Christian; Kühn, Peter; Scholten, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    After decades of research it is generally accepted that vegetation is a key factor in controlling soil erosion. Therefore, in ecosystems where erosion is a serious problem, afforestation is a common measure against erosion. Most of the studies in the last decades focused on agricultural systems and less attention was paid to natural systems. To understand the mechanisms preventing soil erosion in natural systems the processes have to be studied in detail and gradually. The first step and central research question is on how the canopies of the tree layer alter the properties of rainfall and generate throughfall. Kinetic energy is a widely used parameter to estimate the erosion potential of open field rainfall and throughfall. In the past, numerous studies have shown that vegetation of a certain height enhances the kinetic energy under the canopy (Chapman 1948, Mosley 1982, Vis 1986, Hall & Calder 1993, Nanko et al. 2006, Nanko et al. 2008) in relation to open field rainfall. This is mainly due to a shift in the drop size distribution to less but larger drops possessing a higher amount of kinetic energy. In vital forest ecosystems lower vegetation (shrubs, herbs) as well as a continuous litter layer protects the forest soil from the impact of large drops. The influence of biodiversity, specific forest stands or single species in this process system is still in discussion. In the present study calibrated splash cups (after Ellison 1947, Geißler et al. under review) have been used to detect differences in kinetic energy on the scale of specific species and on the scale of forest stands of contrasting age and biodiversity in a natural forest ecosystem. The splash cups have been calibrated experimentally using a laser disdrometer. The results show that the kinetic energy of throughfall produced by the tree layer increases with the age of the specific forest stand. The average throughfall kinetic energy (J m-2) is about 2.6 times higher in forests than under open field

  4. Estimates of changes of structural parameters of forest ecosystems in decoding high resolution satellite images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri F. Rozhkov

    2016-05-01

    distribution in the long-term monitoring of forest ecosystems status ( for example of the forest restoration process after fire impact. The rate of forest recovery was determined within the burned fragment with an area of 6.98 sq. km

  5. Using lidar data and a height-structured ecosystem model to estimate forest carbon stocks and fluxes over mountainous terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.Q.; Hurtt, G.C.; Schilz, M.H. [New Hampshire Univ., Durham, NH (United States). Dept. of Natural Resources, Inst. for the Study of Earth Oceans; Dubayah, R. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Geography

    2008-07-01

    The exchange of carbon between forest ecosystems and the atmosphere should be accurately predicted in order to determine energy flow into forested landscapes. The current state of ecosystems and the underlying processes and environmental conditions that influence the ecosystem processes must be well understood to predict forest dynamics and associated carbon fluxes. This study investigated the patterns of aboveground carbon stocks and fluxes at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) in the White Mountains of new Hampshire. The highly varied forest structure in this mountainous ecosystem is due to patterns in climate, soil characteristics, natural disturbance regimes and historical land use. The purpose of this study was to use data on vegetation structure to improve model estimates over mountainous terrain and to assess how model predictions depend on data of vegetation structure and underlying environmental and disturbance heterogeneity. The researchers used a combination of light detection and ranging (lidar) remote sensing (LVIS), an individual-based height-structured ecosystem model (ED), and detailed topographic and climate data. Lidar data provided substantial constraints on model estimates of carbon stocks and annual net ecosystem production (ANEP). Lidar-initialized model estimates of carbon stocks were within 5 per cent of the field estimates and accounted for a 44 per cent decrease in carbon stocks observed between minimum and maximum elevation at HBEF. Lidar-initialized model estimates of ANEP were in good agreement with recent field estimates. The study showed that a combination of lidar data and a height-structured ecosystem model can be a powerful tool for estimating forest carbon stocks and fluxes, even in complex mountainous environments. The study identified an important spatial scale for combining data on vegetation structure and models, notably the scale at which heterogeneity in environmental factors influences plant vital rates and other

  6. Contrasting responses of forest ecosystems to rising atmospheric CO2: Implications for the global C cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norby, Richard J [ORNL; DeLucia, E. H. [University of Illinois; Moore, D J [University of Illinois

    2005-01-01

    In two parallel but independent experiments, Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) technology was used to expose plots within contrasting evergreen loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and deciduous sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) forests to the level of CO2 anticipated in 2050. Net primary production (NPP) and net ecosystem production (NEP) increased in both forests. In the year 2000, after exposing pine and sweetgum to elevated CO2 for approximately 5 and 3 years, a complete budget calculation revealed increases in net ecosystem production (NEP) of 41% and 44% in the pine forest and sweetgum forest, respectively, representing the storage of an additional 174 gC m-2 and 128 gC m-2 in these forests. The stimulation of NPP without corresponding increases in leaf area index or light absorption in either forest resulted in 23-27% stimulation in radiation-use efficiency, defined as NPP per unit absorbed photosynthetically active radiation. Greater plant respiration contributed to lower NPP in the loblolly pine forest than in the sweetgum forest, and these forests responded differently to CO2 enrichment. Where the pine forest added C primarily to long-lived woody tissues, exposure to elevated CO2 caused a large increase in the production of labile fine roots in the sweetgum forest. Greater allocation to more labile tissues may cause more rapid cycling of C back to the atmosphere in the sweetgum forest compared to the pine forest. Imbalances in the N cycle may reduce the response of these forests to experimental exposure to elevated CO2 in the future, but even at the current stimulation observed for these forests, the effect of changes in land use on C sequestration are likely to be larger than the effect of CO2-induced growth stimulation.

  7. Wildfire effects on biological properties of soils in forest-steppe ecosystems of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimova, Ekaterina; Abakumov, Evgeny

    2013-04-01

    Forest fires are regularly repeating natural phenomenon that disturb natural balance between separate components of ecosystems and influence on the type of vegetation and dynamics of plant communities. The soil, as a basic component of forest ecosystems, is affected by different impacts of wildfires. Independently of a type and intensity of a fire the plant cover and a upper soil horizon always burn. There is also a transformation of the top organo-mineral and mineral horizons of soils when it's strong influence of fire and full combustion of a laying. Complicated fire conditions in summer of 2010 were caused by extreme climatic effects and low precipitations. The area of soils affected by wildfires assessed as more than 744 000 ha. Forest fires have occupied Moscow, Yekaterinburg, Kaluga, Pskov, Samara and many other regions. The critical situation in the Samarskaya region around Togliatti city results in huge soil dergradation in forest-steppe pine forests. The analytical data obtained shows that wildfires lead to serious changes in a soil profile. The most intensive were the processes of humus losses that result from burning of a forest floor and sod (humic) horizon. Wildfires change a chemical composition of laying and raise their ash-content. Fires lead to increase of biogenic elements' content in the upper horizon - P and K. The content of phosphorus and potassium in 2011 decreased as a result of carrying out with an atmospheric precipitation. Thus, when it is burning the top horizons the ashes arriving on a surface of the soil enrich it with nutrients. Moreover, there is an increase of the calcium content. Calcium provides alkaline reaction of the top horizons. But the next year the content of calcium in upper soil horizons decreased. The soil unaffected by fire is characterized by the greatest content of soil microbial biomass in the top horizon and, respectively, the bigger index of bazal respiration whereas a reduction of both parameters is noted on

  8. A Statistical Methodology for Detecting and Monitoring Change in Forest Ecosystems Using Remotely Sensed Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, R. T.; Kumar, J.; Hoffman, F. M.; Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.

    2011-12-01

    Variations in vegetation phenology, the annual temporal pattern of leaf growth and senescence, can be a strong indicator of ecological change or disturbance. However, phenology is also strongly influenced by seasonal, interannual, and long-term trends in climate, making identification of changes in forest ecosystems a challenge. Forest ecosystems are vulnerable to extreme weather events, insect and disease attacks, wildfire, harvesting, and other land use change. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), a remotely sensed measure of greenness, provides a proxy for phenology. NDVI for the conterminous United States (CONUS) derived from the Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) at 250 m resolution was used in this study to develop phenological signatures of ecological regimes called phenoregions. By applying a quantitative data mining technique to the NDVI measurements for every eight days over the entire MODIS record, annual maps of phenoregions were developed. This geospatiotemporal cluster analysis technique employs high performance computing resources, enabling analysis of such very large data sets. This technique produces a prescribed number of prototypical phenological states to which every location belongs in any year. Analysis of the shifts among phenological states yields information about responses to interannual climate variability and, more importantly, changes in ecosystem health due to disturbances. Moreover, a large change in the phenological states occupied by a single location over time indicates a significant disturbance or ecological shift. This methodology has been applied for identification of various forest disturbance events, including wildfire, tree mortality due to Mountain Pine Beetle, and other insect infestation and diseases, as well as extreme events like storms and hurricanes in the U.S. Presented will be results from analysis of phenological state dynamics, along with disturbance and validation data.

  9. Long-term increase in forest water-use efficiency observed across ecosystem carbon flux networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Trevor; Bohrer, Gil; Dragoni, Danilo; Hollinger, David; Munger, James W.; Schmid, Hans Peter; Richardson, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Terrestrial plants remove CO2 from the atmosphere through photo- synthesis, a process that is accompanied by the loss of water vapour from leaves. The ratio of water loss to carbon gain, or water-use efficiency, is a key characteristic of ecosystem function that is central to the global cycles of water, energy and carbon. Here we analyse direct, long-term measurements of whole-ecosystem carbon and water exchange. We find a substantial increase in water-use efficiency in temperate and boreal forests of the Northern Hemisphere over the past two decades. We systematically assess various competing hypotheses to explain this trend, and find that the observed increase is most consistent with a strong CO2 fertilization effect. The results suggest a partial closure of stomata - small pores on the leaf surface that regulate gas exchange - to maintain a near- constant concentration of CO2 inside the leaf even under continually increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. The observed increase in forest water-use efficiency is larger than that predicted by existing theory and 13 terrestrial biosphere models. The increase is associated with trends of increasing ecosystem-level photosynthesis and net carbon uptake, and decreasing evapotranspiration. Our findings demonstrate the utility of maintaining long-term eddy-covariance flux measurement sites. The results suggest a shift in the carbon- and water-based economics of terrestrial vegetation, which may require a reassessment of the role of stomatal control in regulating interactions between forests and climate change, and a re-evaluation of coupled vegetation-climate models.

  10. Influence of physiological phenology on the seasonal pattern of ecosystem respiration in deciduous forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliavacca, Mirco; Reichstein, Markus; Richardson, Andrew D; Mahecha, Miguel D; Cremonese, Edoardo; Delpierre, Nicolas; Galvagno, Marta; Law, Beverly E; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Black, T Andrew; Carvalhais, Nuno; Ceccherini, Guido; Chen, Jiquan; Gobron, Nadine; Koffi, Ernest; Munger, J William; Perez-Priego, Oscar; Robustelli, Monica; Tomelleri, Enrico; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the environmental and biotic drivers of respiration at the ecosystem level is a prerequisite to further improve scenarios of the global carbon cycle. In this study we investigated the relevance of physiological phenology, defined as seasonal changes in plant physiological properties, for explaining the temporal dynamics of ecosystem respiration (RECO) in deciduous forests. Previous studies showed that empirical RECO models can be substantially improved by considering the biotic dependency of RECO on the short-term productivity (e.g., daily gross primary production, GPP) in addition to the well-known environmental controls of temperature and water availability. Here, we use a model-data integration approach to investigate the added value of physiological phenology, represented by the first temporal derivative of GPP, or alternatively of the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, for modeling RECO at 19 deciduous broadleaved forests in the FLUXNET La Thuile database. The new data-oriented semiempirical model leads to an 8% decrease in root mean square error (RMSE) and a 6% increase in the modeling efficiency (EF) of modeled RECO when compared to a version of the model that does not consider the physiological phenology. The reduction of the model-observation bias occurred mainly at the monthly time scale, and in spring and summer, while a smaller reduction was observed at the annual time scale. The proposed approach did not improve the model performance at several sites, and we identified as potential causes the plant canopy heterogeneity and the use of air temperature as a driver of ecosystem respiration instead of soil temperature. However, in the majority of sites the model-error remained unchanged regardless of the driving temperature. Overall, our results point toward the potential for improving current approaches for modeling RECO in deciduous forests by including the phenological cycle of the canopy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons

  11. Timing of the compensation of winter respiratory carbon losses provides explanatory power for net ecosystem productivity of forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haeni, M.; Zweifel, R.; Eugster, W.

    2017-01-01

    , and Australia, using different NEPc integration methods. We found cDOY to be a particularly powerful predictor for NEPc of temperate evergreen needle-leaf forests (R2 = 0.58) and deciduous broadleaf forests (R2 = 0.68). In general, the latest cDOY correlated with the lowest NEPc. The explanatory power of c......Accurate predictions of net ecosystem productivity (NEPc) of forest ecosystems are essential for climate change decisions and requirements in the context of national forest growth and greenhouse gas inventories. However, drivers and underlying mechanisms determining NEPc (e.g. climate, nutrients......) are not entirely understood yet, particularly when considering the influence of past periods. Here we explored the explanatory power of the compensation day (cDOY) —defined as the day of year when winter net carbon losses are compensated by spring assimilation— for NEPc in 26 forests in Europe, North America...

  12. Ecosystem carbon stock influenced by plantation practice: implications for planting forests as a measure of climate change mitigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhang Liao

    Full Text Available Uncertainties remain in the potential of forest plantations to sequestrate carbon (C. We synthesized 86 experimental studies with paired-site design, using a meta-analysis approach, to quantify the differences in ecosystem C pools between plantations and their corresponding adjacent primary and secondary forests (natural forests. Totaled ecosystem C stock in plant and soil pools was 284 Mg C ha(-1 in natural forests and decreased by 28% in plantations. In comparison with natural forests, plantations decreased aboveground net primary production, litterfall, and rate of soil respiration by 11, 34, and 32%, respectively. Fine root biomass, soil C concentration, and soil microbial C concentration decreased respectively by 66, 32, and 29% in plantations relative to natural forests. Soil available N, P and K concentrations were lower by 22, 20 and 26%, respectively, in plantations than in natural forests. The general pattern of decreased ecosystem C pools did not change between two different groups in relation to various factors: stand age ( or = 25 years, stand types (broadleaved vs. coniferous and deciduous vs. evergreen, tree species origin (native vs. exotic of plantations, land-use history (afforestation vs. reforestation and site preparation for plantations (unburnt vs. burnt, and study regions (tropic vs. temperate. The pattern also held true across geographic regions. Our findings argued against the replacement of natural forests by the plantations as a measure of climate change mitigation.

  13. Jack-of-all-trades effects drive biodiversity–ecosystem multifunctionality relationships in European forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Plas, Fons; Manning, Peter; Allan, Eric; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Verheyen, Kris; Wirth, Christian; Zavala, Miguel A.; Hector, Andy; Ampoorter, Evy; Baeten, Lander; Barbaro, Luc; Bauhus, Jürgen; Benavides, Raquel; Benneter, Adam; Berthold, Felix; Bonal, Damien; Bouriaud, Olivier; Bruelheide, Helge; Bussotti, Filippo; Carnol, Monique; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Charbonnier, Yohan; Coomes, David; Coppi, Andrea; Bastias, Cristina C.; Muhie Dawud, Seid; De Wandeler, Hans; Domisch, Timo; Finér, Leena; Gessler, Arthur; Granier, André; Grossiord, Charlotte; Guyot, Virginie; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Jactel, Hervé; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Joly, François-Xavier; Jucker, Tommaso; Koricheva, Julia; Milligan, Harriet; Müller, Sandra; Muys, Bart; Nguyen, Diem; Pollastrini, Martina; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Selvi, Federico; Stenlid, Jan; Valladares, Fernando; Vesterdal, Lars; Zielínski, Dawid; Fischer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that biodiversity promotes multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality), thus ensuring the delivery of ecosystem services important for human well-being. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood, especially in natural ecosystems. We develop a novel approach to partition biodiversity effects on multifunctionality into three mechanisms and apply this to European forest data. We show that throughout Europe, tree diversity is positively related with multifunctionality when moderate levels of functioning are required, but negatively when very high function levels are desired. For two well-known mechanisms, ‘complementarity' and ‘selection', we detect only minor effects on multifunctionality. Instead a third, so far overlooked mechanism, the ‘jack-of-all-trades' effect, caused by the averaging of individual species effects on function, drives observed patterns. Simulations demonstrate that jack-of-all-trades effects occur whenever species effects on different functions are not perfectly correlated, meaning they may contribute to diversity–multifunctionality relationships in many of the world's ecosystems. PMID:27010076

  14. Application of ecosystem model and Markov Chain Monte Carlo method for parameter optimization and ecosystem productivity prediction at seven forest flux sites across North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, C.; Zhou, X.

    2015-12-01

    To reduce simulation uncertainties due to inaccurate model parameters, the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method was applied in this study to improve the estimations of four key parameters used in the process-based ecosystem model of TRIPLEX-FLUX. These four key parameters include a maximum photosynthetic carboxylation rate of 25°C (Vcmax), an electron transport (Jmax) light-saturated rate within the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle of leaves, a coefficient of stomatal conductance (m), and a reference respiration rate of 10ºC (R10). Seven forest flux tower sites located across North America were used to investigate and facilitate understanding of the daily variation in model parameters for three deciduous forests, three evergreen temperate forests, and one evergreen boreal forest. Eddy covariance CO2 exchange measurements were assimilated to optimize the parameters in the year 2006. After parameter optimization and adjustment took place, net ecosystem production prediction significantly improved (by approximately 25%) compared to the CO2 flux measurements taken at the seven forest ecosystem sites.

  15. Modeling and Predicting Carbon and Water Fluxes Using Data-Driven Techniques in a Forest Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianming Dou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of carbon and water fluxes of forest ecosystems is of particular importance for addressing the problems originating from global environmental change, and providing helpful information about carbon and water content for analyzing and diagnosing past and future climate change. The main focus of the current work was to investigate the feasibility of four comparatively new methods, including generalized regression neural network, group method of data handling (GMDH, extreme learning machine and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS, for elucidating the carbon and water fluxes in a forest ecosystem. A comparison was made between these models and two widely used data-driven models, artificial neural network (ANN and support vector machine (SVM. All the models were evaluated based on the following statistical indices: coefficient of determination, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, root mean square error and mean absolute error. Results indicated that the data-driven models are capable of accounting for most variance in each flux with the limited meteorological variables. The ANN model provided the best estimates for gross primary productivity (GPP and net ecosystem exchange (NEE, while the ANFIS model achieved the best for ecosystem respiration (R, indicating that no single model was consistently superior to others for the carbon flux prediction. In addition, the GMDH model consistently produced somewhat worse results for all the carbon flux and evapotranspiration (ET estimations. On the whole, among the carbon and water fluxes, all the models produced similar highly satisfactory accuracy for GPP, R and ET fluxes, and did a reasonable job of reproducing the eddy covariance NEE. Based on these findings, it was concluded that these advanced models are promising alternatives to ANN and SVM for estimating the terrestrial carbon and water fluxes.

  16. High-Resolution Forest Canopy Height Estimation in an African Blue Carbon Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomasino, David; Fatoyinbo, Temilola; Lee, Seung-Kuk; Simard, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Mangrove forests are one of the most productive and carbon dense ecosystems that are only found at tidally inundated coastal areas. Forest canopy height is an important measure for modeling carbon and biomass dynamics, as well as land cover change. By taking advantage of the flat terrain and dense canopy cover, the present study derived digital surface models (DSMs) using stereophotogrammetric techniques on high-resolution spaceborne imagery (HRSI) for southern Mozambique. A mean-weighted ground surface elevation factor was subtracted from the HRSI DSM to accurately estimate the canopy height in mangrove forests in southern Mozambique. The mean and H100 tree height measured in both the field and with the digital canopy model provided the most accurate results with a vertical error of 1.18-1.84 m, respectively. Distinct patterns were identified in the HRSI canopy height map that could not be discerned from coarse shuttle radar topography mission canopy maps even though the mode and distribution of canopy heights were similar over the same area. Through further investigation, HRSI DSMs have the potential of providing a new type of three-dimensional dataset that could serve as calibration/validation data for other DSMs generated from spaceborne datasets with much larger global coverage. HSRI DSMs could be used in lieu of Lidar acquisitions for canopy height and forest biomass estimation, and be combined with passive optical data to improve land cover classifications.

  17. [Evaluation of ecosystem service values of the forests of Shennongjia Nature Reserve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Jie; Wang, Shi-Chang; Peng, Hao; Li, Zhen-Qing

    2014-05-01

    As an ecological protected area for rare animals and plants in a subtropical forest zone, Shennongjia National Reserve plays an important role in the study of biodiversity in China. By using the market value, shade-price and opportunity-cost methods, the forest ecosystem service values of Shennongjia National Nature Reserve were evaluated, including forest production, recreation and culture, water conservation, soil conservation, gas regulation, environment purification, nutrient circulation and biodiversity conservation. The total value of the Shennongjia Nature Reserve was approximately 204.33 x 10(8) yuan RMB x a(-1). The values of the different functions were in order of biodiversity conservation (68.5%) > soil conservation (12.7%) > recreation and culture (4.9%) > gas regulation (4.8%) > forest production (4.2%) > water conservation (3.9%) > environment purification (0.7%) > nutrient circulation (0.3%). The values with respect to utility were in sequence of unused value (68.5%) > indirect value in use (22.4% ) > direct value in use (9.1%).

  18. Distribution and Characterization of Armillaria Complex in Atlantic Forest Ecosystems of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebai Mesanza

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Armillaria root disease is a significant forest health concern in the Atlantic forest ecosystems in Spain. The damage occurs in conifers and hardwoods, causing especially high mortality in young trees in both native forests and plantations. In the present study, the distribution of Armillaria root disease in the forests and plantations of the Basque Country is reported. Armillaria spp. were more frequently isolated from stands with slopes of 20–30% and west orientation, acid soils with high permeability, deciduous hosts, and a rainfall average above 1800 mm. In a large-scale survey, 35% of the stands presented Armillaria structures and showed disease symptoms. Of the isolated Armillaria samples, 60% were identified using molecular methods as A. ostoyae, 24% as A. mellea, 14% as A. gallica, 1% as A. tabescens, and 1% as A. cepistipes. In a small scale sampling, population diversity was defined by somatic compatibility tests and Universally Primed-PCR technique. Finally, the pathogenicity of A. mellea, the species with the broadest host range, was determined on different tree species present in the Atlantic area of Spain in order to determine their resistance levels to Armillaria disease. A significant difference in disease severity was observed among tree species (p < 0.001, with Pinus radiata being the most susceptible tree species and Cryptomeria japonica the most resistant to A. mellea.

  19. Ozone deposition in a mixed forest ecosystem - temporal variation and removal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorska, Olga; Gruening, Carsten; Goded, Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    Forests are a major sink for tropospheric ozone, however the fate of ozone within the forest canopy is still not well understood. In this study we will present results of 3 years ozone flux measurements at eddy covariance flux tower in Ispra (Northern Italy) over mixed forest ecosystem. The main tree species in this ecosystem are Quercus robur (80%), Alnus glutinosa (10%), Populus alba (5%) and Carpinus betulus (3%). The measurements were carried out continuously from January 2013 till December 2015. Flux measurements at the canopy level with the eddy covariance technique were complemented with measurements of meteorological parameters and measurements of VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) using PTR-MS (Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry) during an intensive observation period. Continuous measurements produced a big dataset which allowed us to investigate the controls on ozone fluxes and to do multiyear comparisons. Patterns of ozone concentration, ozone fluxes and ozone deposition velocity over forest canopy will be presented in relation to physiological activity of the trees and time of the year. Current research is mainly aimed at better understanding of the contribution of destruction processes within the canopy. Therefore, the collected data were used to calculate the partitioning of total ozone fluxes between stomatal and non-stomatal sinks. We found that the stomatal uptake contributed less that non-stomatal uptake to the total ozone flux during the growing seasons. In particular, non-stomatal ozone removal by reactions with isoprene and other VOCs will be discussed. We will present contribution and change of individual ozone deposition sinks over the years in response to environmental parameters.

  20. Impacts of shifting fire regime on ecosystem carbon storage capacity in the interior Alaskan forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Kelly, R.; Hu, F.; Luo, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Fire is the primary disturbance in the boreal forest, and variations in fire regimes have important ecological, biogeochemical, and socioeconomic implications. Recent widespread burning throughout the biome has been convincingly linked to climatic warming, with expectations of increased burning with future climate change. However, fire-regime dynamics are scale-dependent, and it is unclear whether empirical climate-fire relationships derived from the short observational record are applicable to future projections. Paleo-fire reconstructions offer a valuable extension to historical fire records by providing a context for ongoing change and offering insights to the causes and consequences of fire regime shifts over decades to millennia. The main objectives of this study are to address 1) how fire regime shift impacts ecosystem C dynamics at a millennial time scale; and 2) which factor is more important in regulating the dynamics of ecosystem C storage capacity at decades to millennium scales among fire, CO2 and temperature. In this study, the REGIME model (Weng et al. JGR, 2012) has been modified to evaluate the dynamics of ecosystem C storage capacity (the theoretic capacity of an ecosystem to store C) since 3000 years BP for the black spruce forests in interior Alaska under the influence of changing fire regime, rising atmospheric CO2 concentration, and climate warming, all of which were derived from paleo-data. In addition, C storage capacity was also modeled through the 21 century using IPCC scenarios for CO2 and temperature, and fire regime scenario derived based on a paleo-fire dataset. Overall, fire frequency has been constant but fire severity has increased significantly since 3000 years BP for the studied area. Our results indicate that this fire regime shifting alone or in combination with temperature and/or CO2 always decrease ecosystem C storage capacity over the past 3000 years. Among the single factors, fire regime shifting results in the greatest

  1. How Forest Management affects Ecosystem Services, including Timber Production and Economic Return: Synergies and Trade-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp S. Duncker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystems deliver multiple goods and services and, traditionally, forest owners tend to have a high interest in goods in the form of merchantable wood. As a consequence, forest management often aims to increase timber production and economic returns through intervention into natural processes. However, forests provide further services, including carbon sequestration, water quantity and quality, and preservation of biodiversity. In order to develop and implement strategies for sustainable forest management, it is important to anticipate the long-term effects of different forest management alternatives on the ability of the forest to provide ecosystem goods and services. Management objectives might emphasize economic interests at the expense of other services. Very few attempts have been made to illustrate and evaluate quantitatively the relationship between forest goods and services. By use of virtual but realistic datasets, we quantified, for multiple services, the effects of five forest management alternatives that form an intensity gradient. Our virtual forest management units represented Central European forest ecosystems in the submontane vegetation zone under a humid-temperate climate with acidic soils. In this zone the European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. is the dominant tree species. In order to assess the effects on ecosystem services, the untouched natural forest reserve served as a reference. Wherever possible, response functions were deduced to couple the various services via stand-level data to demonstrate trade-offs between the services. Management units comprised all development phases in the sense of a "normal forest". It was clearly illustrated that maximizing the rates of biomass production and carbon sequestration may conflict with protection of authentic biodiversity. Several silvicultural operations may, however, have positive effects on biodiversity and water protection without high costs. We also illustrated that

  2. Characterization of Forest Ecosystems by combined Radiative Transfer Modeling for Imaging Spectrometer and LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koetz, B.; Sun, G.; Morsdorf, F.; Rubio, J.; Kimes, D.; Ranson, J.

    2009-04-01

    This research was motivated by the increased information dimensionality provided by current Earth Observation systems measuring the complex and dynamic medium of the vegetated surface of the Earth. Advanced and reliable algorithms that fully exploit this enhanced Earth Observation information are needed to deliver consistent data sets of the Earth vegetation condition describing its spatial distribution and change over time. Spectral observation provided by imaging spectrometers and the waveform from large-footprint LiDAR are now available from space for forest ecosystem studies. The imaging spectrometer data contains information about the biochemical composition of the canopy foliage, and is widely used to estimate biophysical canopy parameters such as LAI and fractional cover. LiDAR responds to the vertical distribution of scatters and permits inferences about the plant structures required to supply water and mechanical support to those surfaces. Various canopy height indices derived from LiDAR waveform have been successfully used to infer forest above-ground biomass and the characterization of canopy structure. The structure parameters derived from LiDAR data can improve the accuracy and robustness of canopy parameter retrieval from imaging spectrometer by reducing uncertainties related to the canopy structure. The specific information content, inherent to the observations of imaging spectrometry and LIDAR, assesses thus different but complementary characteristics of the complex vegetation canopy. The combination of these two information dimensions offers a unique and reliable canopy characterization including information relevant to different aspects of the biochemical and biophysical properties and thus understanding of processes within forest ecosystems. A comprehensive canopy characterization of a forest ecosystem is derived from the combined remote sensing signal of imaging spectrometry and large footprint LIDAR. The inversion of two linked physically based

  3. Scaling up from traits to communities to ecosystems across broad climate gradients: Testing Metabolic Scaling Theories predictions for forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, B. J.; Michaletz, S. T.; Buzzard, V.

    2015-12-01

    Key insights in global ecology will come from mechanistically linking pattern and process across scales. Macrosystems ecology specifically attempts to link ecological processes across spatiotemporal scales. The goal s to link the processing of energy and nutrients from cells all the way ecosystems and to understand how shifting climate influences ecosystem processes. Using new data collected from NSF funded Macrosystems project we report on new findings from forests sites across a broad temperature gradient. Our study sites span tropical, temperate, and high elevation forests we assess several key predictions and assumptions of Metabolic Scaling Theory (MST) as well as several other competing hypotheses for the role of climate, light, and plant traits on influencing forest demography and forest ecosystems. Specifically, we assess the importance of plant size, light limitation, size structure, and various climatic factors on forest growth, demography, and ecosystem functioning. We provide some of the first systematic tests of several key predictions from MST. We show that MST predictions are largely upheld and that new insights from assessing theories predictions yields new observations and findings that help modify and extend MST's predictions and applicability. We discuss how theory is critically needed to further our understanding of how to scale pattern and process in ecology - from traits to ecosystems - in order to develop a more predictive global change biology.

  4. The Transfer and diffusion of Cesium 137 within forest ecosystem in Fukushima after the nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Takahiro; Murakami, Masashi [Community Ecology Lab., Biology Course, Faculty of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan); Ishii, Nobuyoshi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Tanoi, Keitaro; Hirose, Atsushi; Ohte, Nobuhito [Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-8657 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    A large amount of radionuclides was released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident after the disastrous earthquake and subsequent tsunami of March 2011. Among the variety of radionuclides released from FDNPP, cesium 137 ({sup 137}Cs) is the most worrying radionuclide in the environment, with a half-life of 30 years. Since most of the Japanese land area is covered by forest, the distribution and transportation of radioactive materials within forest ecosystems should be conscientiously monitored. In Europe, many studies reported that the {sup 137}Cs deposition caused by the Chernobyl accident has still been distributed in the litter and soil layers and has become a source for the soil-to-plant transfer. Most of these studies emphasize the 'stability' of {sup 137}Cs within forest ecosystems, because {sup 137}Cs are considered to be strongly and immediately fixed in clay minerals. Even though there are many studies of the soil-to-plant transfer of {sup 137}Cs in forest after several years of Chernobyl accident, very initial distribution and transfer of {sup 137}Cs in food web within one to two years after the deposition in forest ecosystems have never been examined. The evaluation of the initial dynamics of {sup 137}Cs in forest ecosystems should be quite important because of the increasing stability of {sup 137}Cs after the deposition. The accumulation and transfer of {sup 137}Cs through food web within forest ecosystems were examined by collecting various organisms at forests in Fukushima. The {sup 137}Cs concentrations, natural Cs and K concentrations, and delta {sup 15}N of the specimens were measured to evaluate the occurrence of bioaccumulation or bio-diffusion of {sup 137}Cs through tropic interaction within forest ecosystem. {sup 137}Cs was highly concentrated on leaf litters which had been deposited in autumn 2010, before the accident. This accumulated {sup 137}Cs had transferred to higher trophic organisms mainly through

  5. Effects of Conversion from Boreal Forest to Arctic Steppe on Soil Communities and Ecosystem Carbon Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, P. D.; Natali, S.; Schade, J. D.; Zimov, N.; Zimov, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    The end of the Pleistocene marked the extinction of a great variety of arctic megafauna, which, in part, led to the conversion of arctic grasslands to modern Siberian larch forest. This shift may have increased the vulnerability of permafrost to thawing because of changes driven by the vegetation shift; the higher albedo of grassland and low insulation of snow trampled by animals may have decreased soil temperatures and reduced ground thaw in the grassland ecosystem, resulting in protection of organic carbon in thawed soil and permafrost. To test these hypothesized impacts of arctic megafauna, we examined an experimental reintroduction of large mammals in northeast Siberia, initiated in 1988. Pleistocene Park now contains 23 horses, three musk ox, one bison, and several moose in addition to the native fauna. The park is 16 square km with a smaller enclosure (animals spend most of their time and our study was focused. We measured carbon-pools in forested sites (where scat surveys showed low animal use), and grassy sites (which showed higher use), within the park boundaries. We also measured thaw depth and documented the soil invertebrate communities in each ecosystem. There was a substantial difference in number of invertebrates per kg of organic soil between the forest (600 ± 250) and grassland (300 ± 250), though these differences were not statistically significant they suggest faster nutrient turnover in the forest or a greater proportion of decomposition by invertebrates than other decomposers. While thaw depth was deeper in the grassland (60 ± 4 cm) than in the forest (40 ± 6 cm), we did not detect differences in organic layer depth or percent organic matter between grassland and forest. However, soil in the grassland had higher bulk density, and higher carbon stocks in the organic and mineral soil layers. Although deeper thaw depth in the grassland suggests that more carbon is available to microbial decomposers, ongoing temperature monitoring will help

  6. Behaviour of {sup 137}Cs in the Boreal forest ecosystem of central Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawaris, B.H.

    1995-12-31

    Behaviour of Chernobyl fallout 1{sup 37}Cs in a coniferous forest ecosystem in central Sweden was investigated between 1990 and 1994. Results demonstrated that forest soil belongs to nutrient deficient type, and deposited fallout 1{sup 37}Cs from Chernobyl nuclear accident (CNA) was retained in the upper 5 cm of humic forest soil layer, with a venial migration deeper into soil profile. No correlation between forest soil exchangeable and total potassium (K{sup +}) and 1{sup 37}Cs transfer parameters was observed. However, addition of K{sup +}, found to efficiently reduce 1{sup 37}Cs uptake by sheep`s fescue and the addition of stable caesium (1{sup 33}Cs{sup +}) enhanced it. The addition of ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) was slightly stimulating the uptake of 1{sup 37}Cs by sheep`s fescue in the first cut only. Field plants showed a considerably reduction in their 1{sup 37}Cs activity concentrations. Relative to their 1{sup 37}Cs levels of 1986-89, a little reduction in heather occurred eight years after CNA. In contrast the reductions in lingonberry and bilberry were 87% and 68%, respectively. Three fractions of forest soil bound 1{sup 37}Cs were observed due to sequential extraction procedure (SEP). The first, is easily extractable 1{sup 37}Cs fraction, it comprises 22% of total forest soil 1{sup 37}Cs inventory in the upper 5 cm layer. The second, is soil organically and biologically bound 1{sup 37}Cs comprises about 30% of soil bound 1{sup 37}Cs. This fraction might be accounted for long-term soil available 1{sup 37}Cs for plant uptake after bio-degradation processes by soil microorganisms. The third, is the residual fraction, it comprises more than 35% of total forest soil 1{sup 37}Cs inventory, and may be associated with soil components which are probably of organic nature. Sorption of 1{sup 37}Cs by zeolite (Mordenite) revealed that soil bound 1{sup 37}Cs is to some extent more mobile in forest soils with high OM% and low pH than those with low OM%.

  7. Importance of terrestrial arthropods as subsidies in lowland Neotropical rain forest stream ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Gaston E.; Torres, Pedro J.; Schwizer, Lauren M.; Duff, John H.; Pringle, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of terrestrial arthropods has been documented in temperate stream ecosystems, but little is known about the magnitude of these inputs in tropical streams. Terrestrial arthropods falling from the canopy of tropical forests may be an important subsidy to tropical stream food webs and could also represent an important flux of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in nutrient-poor headwater streams. We quantified input rates of terrestrial insects in eight streams draining lowland tropical wet forest in Costa Rica. In two focal headwater streams, we also measured capture efficiency by the fish assemblage and quantified terrestrially derived N- and P-excretion relative to stream nutrient uptake rates. Average input rates of terrestrial insects ranged from 5 to 41 mg dry mass/m2/d, exceeding previous measurements of aquatic invertebrate secondary production in these study streams, and were relatively consistent year-round, in contrast to values reported in temperate streams. Terrestrial insects accounted for half of the diet of the dominant fish species, Priapicthys annectens. Although terrestrially derived fish excretion was found to be a small flux relative to measured nutrient uptake rates in the focal streams, the efficient capture and processing of terrestrial arthropods by fish made these nutrients available to the local stream ecosystem. This aquatic-terrestrial linkage is likely being decoupled by deforestation in many tropical regions, with largely unknown but potentially important ecological consequences.

  8. Functional composition drives ecosystem function through multiple mechanisms in a broadleaved subtropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jyh-Min; Spasojevic, Marko J; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Sun, I-Fang; Lin, Yiching; Su, Sheng-Hsin; Chen, Zueng-Sang; Chen, Chien-Teh; Swenson, Nathan G; McEwan, Ryan W

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the role of biodiversity (B) in maintaining ecosystem function (EF) is a foundational scientific goal with applications for resource management and conservation. Two main hypotheses have emerged that address B-EF relationships: niche complementarity (NC) and the mass-ratio (MR) effect. We tested the relative importance of these hypotheses in a subtropical old-growth forest on the island nation of Taiwan for two EFs: aboveground biomass (ABG) and coarse woody productivity (CWP). Functional dispersion (FDis) of eight plant functional traits was used to evaluate complementarity of resource use. Under the NC hypothesis, EF will be positively correlated with FDis. Under the MR hypothesis, EF will be negatively correlated with FDis and will be significantly influenced by community-weighted mean (CWM) trait values. We used path analysis to assess how these two processes (NC and MR) directly influence EF and may contribute indirectly to EF via their influence on canopy packing (stem density). Our results indicate that decreasing functional diversity and a significant influence of CWM traits were linked to increasing AGB for all eight traits in this forest supporting the MR hypothesis. Interestingly, CWP was primarily influenced by NC and MR indirectly via their influence on canopy packing. Maximum height explained more of the variation in both AGB and CWP than any of the other plant functional traits. Together, our results suggest that multiple mechanisms operate simultaneously to influence EF, and understanding their relative importance will help to elucidate the role of biodiversity in maintaining ecosystem function.

  9. Seasonal dynamics of water use efficiency of typical forest and grassland ecosystems in China

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Xianjin; Wang, Qiufeng; Hu, Zhongmin; Han, Shijie; Yan, Junhua; Wang, Yanfen; Zhao, Liang

    2014-01-01

    We selected four sites of ChinaFLUX representing four major ecosystem types in China-Changbaishan temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest (CBS), Dinghushan subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest (DHS), Inner Mongolia temperate steppe (NM), and Haibei alpine shrub-meadow (HBGC)-to study the seasonal dynamics of ecosystem water use efficiency (WUE = GPP/ET, where GPP is gross primary productivity and ET is evapotranspiration) and factors affecting it. Our seasonal dynamics results indicated single-peak variation of WUE in CBS, NM, and HBGC, which were affected by air temperature (Ta) and leaf area index (LAI), through their effects on the partitioning of evapotranspiration (ET) into transpiration (T) (i.e., T/ET). In DHS, WUE was higher at the beginning and the end of the year, and minimum in summer. Ta and soil water content affected the seasonal dynamics of WUE through their effects on GPP/T. Our results indicate that seasonal dynamics of WUE were different because factors affecting the seasonal dyn...

  10. A Study of Effects of Acid Deposition on Pine Forest Ecosystem in Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Li, F.; Lv, Z.; Song, W.; Yang, S.

    2013-12-01

    We used a long-term soil acidification model (LTSAM) and a terrestrial biogeochemical model (CENTURY) coupled to simulate the effects of acid deposition on pine forest ecosystem in southwestern China, based on indoor experiment results of aluminum toxicity to individual plant growth. The results of indoor aluminum experiments show that high aluminum concentration may restrict the plant growth and the acidic condition may aggravate it. The behavior of restriction of plant growth includes decreases of pine seedling biomass, root elongation and the sorption of soil cations (e.g. Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+). The model simulation results about soil chemistry show that, as acid deposition increases more, the pH value decreases faster, the soil aluminum ion concentration increase more rapidly, and the nutrition ions in soil solution decrease more quickly. The increased acid deposition also has negative impacts on the forest ecosystem according to the biogeochemical model simulation, for example, decreases of vegetation biomass, net primary productivity (NPP) and net CO2 uptake. Furthermore, the decrease of plant biomass will result in the decrease of the soil organic carbon content for the limited decomposition material supply.

  11. Primates as Predictors of Mammal Community Diversity in the Forest Ecosystems of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Kathleen M; Goodman, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    The geographic distribution of species is the typical metric for identifying priority areas for conservation. Since most biodiversity remains poorly studied, a subset of charismatic species, such as primates, often stand as surrogates for total biodiversity. A central question is therefore, how effectively do primates predict the pooled species richness of other mammalian taxa? We used lemurs as indicator species to predict total non-primate mammal community richness in the forest ecosystems of Madagascar. We combine environmental and species occurrence data to ascertain the extent to which primate diversity can predict (1) non-primate mammal α-diversity (species richness), (2) non-primate complementarity, and (3) non-primate β-diversity (species turnover). Our results indicate that primates are effective predictors of non-primate mammal community diversity in the forest ecosystems of Madagascar after controlling for habitat. When individual orders of mammals are considered, lemurs effectively predict the species richness of carnivorans and rodents (but not afrosoricids), complementarity of rodents (but not carnivorans or afrosoricids), and all individual components of β-diversity. We conclude that lemurs effectively predict total non-primate community richness. However, surrogate species alone cannot achieve complete representation of biodiversity.

  12. An assessment of restoration success to forests planted for ecosystem restoration in loess plateau, Northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhanbiao; Jin, Hongxi; Wang, Gang

    2010-05-01

    Using ecosystem attributes identified by the Society of Ecological Restoration International, we assessed three restoration projects in the loess plateau, northwestern China, including planting Larix principis-rupprechtii (LS) and Pinus tabulaeformis (PS) on shrubland, and planting L. principis-rupprechtii on open forest land (LO). The reestablishment of native species in LS and PS was poorer than LO because of the excessive stand density. Species diversity, seedling number, and seedling diversity were significantly higher in LO than in LS and PS. Soil nutrient was also significantly higher in the LO treatment. The vegetation composition, species diversity, and soil nutrient in LO, however, were more similar to these in the reference. Our results indicate that planting L. principis-rupprechtii on open forest land had accelerated the succession of the ecosystem for approximately 30 years. But the poor natural regeneration of L. principis-rupprechtii suggests that post-planting activities in LO are required after timber harvesting or the natural mortality of the L. principis-rupprechtii. Management operation such as selective thinning will be required in LS and PS to promote the true restoration of native species diversity in the future.

  13. Primates as Predictors of Mammal Community Diversity in the Forest Ecosystems of Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Kathleen M.; Goodman, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    The geographic distribution of species is the typical metric for identifying priority areas for conservation. Since most biodiversity remains poorly studied, a subset of charismatic species, such as primates, often stand as surrogates for total biodiversity. A central question is therefore, how effectively do primates predict the pooled species richness of other mammalian taxa? We used lemurs as indicator species to predict total non-primate mammal community richness in the forest ecosystems of Madagascar. We combine environmental and species occurrence data to ascertain the extent to which primate diversity can predict (1) non-primate mammal α-diversity (species richness), (2) non-primate complementarity, and (3) non-primate β-diversity (species turnover). Our results indicate that primates are effective predictors of non-primate mammal community diversity in the forest ecosystems of Madagascar after controlling for habitat. When individual orders of mammals are considered, lemurs effectively predict the species richness of carnivorans and rodents (but not afrosoricids), complementarity of rodents (but not carnivorans or afrosoricids), and all individual components of β-diversity. We conclude that lemurs effectively predict total non-primate community richness. However, surrogate species alone cannot achieve complete representation of biodiversity. PMID:26334525

  14. Eight years of integrated monitoring in Alpine forest ecosystems of Trentino and South Tyrol, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruggero VALENTINOTTI

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available After the acute emergency of decline in European woodland at the beginning of 1980’s, forest health was the subject of several studies in Trentino and South-Tyrol. Since 1992 investigations focused on an integrated monitoring under the UN-ECE-ICP programme in 4 selected areas, 2 in subalpine Norway spruce woodland (Lavazè Pass and Renon, and 2 in thermophilous Pubescent oak woodland (Pomarolo and Monticolo. The interdisciplinary programme of integrated monitoring aimed to investigate the state of alpine semi-natural forests in relation to air pollution, anthropogenic stresses, climate changes and trophic-energetic balances. Assessment of forest health by means of crown conditions showed very low levels of defoliation and discoloration in the subalpine areas, while in the other ones the same parameters had slightly higher values. Every year and in all the sites the mean percentages values were always in class 0 and class 1, hence indicating no danger. Weather patterns showed the presence of occasional water deficit, albeit general trends were not observed. High level of pollution were never detected while the level of acidity in rainfall has been slightly decreasing in all the investigated plots. Only ozone showed higher values than normal but there was no correlation with any damage. Foliar mineral nutrient contents ranged quite always within the threshold level. Because of the few years of observation and the absence of relevant stress, it is not possible to get any indication about the relationship between the forest health status and the fungi community composition. The presence of some anomalous data and the growing concern on climate change give reason to the importance of a continuous monitoring action acquiring of comparable set of data, in order to get a better understanding of forest ecosystems response to stress and make progress in general ecological knowledge.

  15. Simulated Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance of Western US Forests Under Contemporary Climate and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Law, B. E.; Jones, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    Previous projections of the contemporary forest carbon balance in the western US showed uncertainties associated with impacts of climate extremes and a coarse spatio-temporal resolution implemented over heterogeneous mountain regions. We modified the Community Land Model (CLM) 4.5 to produce 4km resolution forest carbon changes with drought, fire and management in the western US. We parameterized the model with species data using local plant trait observations for 30 species. To quantify uncertainty, we evaluated the model with data from flux sites, inventories and ancillary data in the region. Simulated GPP was lower than the measurements at our AmeriFlux sites by 17-22%. Simulated burned area was generally higher than Landsat observations, suggesting the model overestimates fire emissions with the new fire model. Landsat MTBS data show high severity fire represents only a small portion of the total burnt area (12-14%), and no increasing trend from 1984 to 2011. Moderate severity fire increased ~0.23%/year due to fires in the Sierra Nevada (Law & Waring 2014). Oregon, California, and Washington were a net carbon sink, and net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) declined in California over the past 15 years, partly due to drought impacts. Fire emissions were a small portion of the regional carbon budget compared with the effect of harvest removals. Fossil fuel emissions in CA are more than 3x that of OR and WA combined, but are lower per capita. We also identified forest regions that are most vulnerable to climate-driven transformations and to evaluate the effects of management strategies on forest NECB. Differences in forest NECB among states are strongly influenced by the extent of drought (drier longer in the SW) and management intensity (higher in the PNW).

  16. Spatial Analysis of Conservation Priorities Based on Ecosystem Services in the Atlantic Forest Region of Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L. Clark

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial pattern of ecosystem services is important for effective environmental policy and decision-making. In this study, we use a geospatial decision-support tool (Marxan to identify conservation priorities for habitat and a suite of ecosystem services (storage carbon, soil retention and water yield in the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest from Misiones, Argentina—an area of global conservation priority. Using these results, we then evaluate the efficiency of existing protected areas in conserving both habitat and ecosystem services. Selected areas for conserving habitat had an overlap of carbon and soil ecosystem services. Yet, selected areas for water yield did not have this overlap. Furthermore, selected areas with relatively high overlap of ecosystem services tended to be inside protected areas; however, other important areas for ecosystem services (i.e., central highlands do not have legal protection, revealing the importance of enforcing existing environmental regulations in these areas.

  17. Contributions of Understory and Overstory to Ecosystem CO2 Fluxes in a Temperate Mixed Forest in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul-Limoges, E.; Wolf, S.; Hörtnagl, L. J.; Eugster, W.; Buchmann, N. C.

    2015-12-01

    Forests play an important role in the global carbon cycle by sequestering large amounts of atmospheric CO2. The CO2 sequestered by a forest varies depending on many factors including climate, species composition, growth strategy, stand age and structure. Forests are structurally complex ecosystems, both horizontally and vertically. In many cases, several canopy layers with distinct functional properties and sun exposure contribute differently to the ecosystem CO2exchange. Only a few studies thus far have investigated the contribution of understory to overstory fluxes, and large variations have been found among sites. Our study focused on partitioning the net ecosystem CO2 flux of a mixed deciduous forest in Switzerland into its understory and overstory components using below and above canopy eddy-covariance (EC) measurements over two years. CO2 concentration profile measurements made at eight levels within the canopy complemented those measurements. We quantified the CO2flux contribution from the understory to the overstory, both in terms of photosynthesis and respiration, and assessed the differences between understory and overstory functional responses to environmental drivers. On an annual basis, the understory was a CO2 source, while the overstory was a CO2 sink. The understory was a CO2 sink only in spring with the early emergence of understory plants before overstory canopy leaf-out. Overall, the understory contributed 54% to annual ecosystem respiration but only 7% to annual ecosystem photosynthesis. Moreover, understory and overstory fluxes became decoupled at full canopy closure, thus leading to unaccounted EC fluxes when measured only above the canopy. CO2 concentration profile measurements supported this finding. Our results showed that understory EC measurements are essential in this mixed deciduous forest, and likely in many other forests, to fully understand the carbon dynamics within structurally complex ecosystems.

  18. Assessing vulnerability to climate-induced changes in ecosystem services of boreal croplands and forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankinen, Katri; Akujärvi, Anu; Holmberg, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Croplands and forests of the boreal region supply a wide range of ecosystem services. The properties and processes of these ecosystems regulate water flow and climate, and retain nutrients and store carbon. The functioning of the ecosystem processes depends on ambient temperatures and precipitation patterns, which are likely to continue changing in the boreal zone. MONIMET (LIFE12 ENV/FI/000409, 9/2013 - 9/2017) is an EU Life funded project about Climate Change Indicators and Vulnerability of Boreal Zone Applying Innovative Observation and Modeling Techniques. In this project, we calculated future changes of carbon storage in soil, and nutrient loading from soil to surface waters and drinking water supplies. We calculated the carbon storage of forests and croplands using the dynamic YASSO litter and soil carbon model. The simulated carbon budget estimates were upscaled to the river basin by combining them with gridded data of land cover. We simulated nutrient loading from two boreal catchments to the receiving waters using the dynamic, catchment scale model INCA. We calculated land use specific loading values for these two well monitored catchments that belong to the LTER (The Long Term Ecological Research) monitoring network, and upscaled these results to the larger river basin based on grid-scaled data of land cover. We used population projections as proxies for the societal demand for the services of climate regulation and water purification, and assessed thereby the vulnerability of society to climate-induced changes in these services. In this poster we present the technical frame of combining models and data.

  19. Modelling of Radionuclides Transfer and Ambient Dose Rates in Fukushima Forest Ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmon, P.; Gonze, M.A.; Mourlon, C.; Simon-Cornu, M. [Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, CE Cadarache-Bat 153, BP3 - 13115 St-Paul-lez- Durance cedex (France)

    2014-07-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident led to high atmospheric depositions of volatile fission products such as Caesium, Iodine and Tellurium isotopes, in north-eastern Japan. The radioactive content and ambient radiation level are particularly high in forest ecosystems, partly due to the enhancement of airborne radionuclides capture by forest canopies. The contamination is likely to be dominated in the next decades by Cesium-137, due to its long physical half-life (i.e. 30 years) and its ability to be immobilized and/or recycled within the biotic and abiotic forest components. Thus the long-term management of contaminated forested areas is an environmental, economic and social challenge for Japanese authorities. IRSN developed a forest model ten years ago and implemented it in the ASTRAL software. This model has been tested against measurements in various Fukushima forest stands with varying deposition and meteorological conditions, typical forest ecosystems quite different from those in western Europe, and also with a hilly landscape. This is a great opportunity to test, improve and validate our model. We can take advantage of the expertise gained following the Chernobyl accident fallout, of the data derived from Japanese publications and of the possibility to conduct field measurements. At first, a German scenario in a Norway spruce stand, following the Chernobyl accident has been tested. All deposition and rainfall events were documented. The model could reproduce very closely the dynamics of caesium concentration in soil and input fluxes (e.g. direct vs indirect throughfall, litterfall). For this scenario, deposition occurred mostly with rainfall and 90% of the total deposit was recovered in the soil layer 1 year after the accident. On the opposite, another scenario at Tochigi Prefecture in a Japanese cedar stand, for the Fukushima accident is characterized by 40% of deposition on the soil 1 year after the accident. For this scenario, much uncertainty concerns both

  20. Improving predictions of tropical forest response to climate change through integration of field studies and ecosystem modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaohui; Uriarte, María; González, Grizelle; Reed, Sasha C.; Thompson, Jill; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Murphy, Lora

    2018-01-01

    Tropical forests play a critical role in carbon and water cycles at a global scale. Rapid climate change is anticipated in tropical regions over the coming decades and, under a warmer and drier climate, tropical forests are likely to be net sources of carbon rather than sinks. However, our understanding of tropical forest response and feedback to climate change is very limited. Efforts to model climate change impacts on carbon fluxes in tropical forests have not reached a consensus. Here we use the Ecosystem Demography model (ED2) to predict carbon fluxes of a Puerto Rican tropical forest under realistic climate change scenarios. We parameterized ED2 with species-specific tree physiological data using the Predictive Ecosystem Analyzer workflow and projected the fate of this ecosystem under five future climate scenarios. The model successfully captured inter-annual variability in the dynamics of this tropical forest. Model predictions closely followed observed values across a wide range of metrics including above-ground biomass, tree diameter growth, tree size class distributions, and leaf area index. Under a future warming and drying climate scenario, the model predicted reductions in carbon storage and tree growth, together with large shifts in forest community composition and structure. Such rapid changes in climate led the forest to transition from a sink to a source of carbon. Growth respiration and root allocation parameters were responsible for the highest fraction of predictive uncertainty in modeled biomass, highlighting the need to target these processes in future data collection. Our study is the first effort to rely on Bayesian model calibration and synthesis to elucidate the key physiological parameters that drive uncertainty in tropical forests responses to climatic change. We propose a new path forward for model-data synthesis that can substantially reduce uncertainty in our ability to model tropical forest responses to future climate.

  1. Modeling forest ecosystem responses to elevated carbon dioxide and ozone using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Peter E; Cseke, Leland J; Miller, R Michael; Collart, Frank R

    2014-10-21

    Rising atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and ozone will impact productivity and carbon sequestration in forest ecosystems. The scale of this process and the potential economic consequences provide an incentive for the development of models to predict the types and rates of ecosystem responses and feedbacks that result from and influence of climate change. In this paper, we use phenotypic and molecular data derived from the Aspen Free Air CO2 Enrichment site (Aspen-FACE) to evaluate modeling approaches for ecosystem responses to changing conditions. At FACE, it was observed that different aspen clones exhibit clone-specific responses to elevated atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and ozone. To identify the molecular basis for these observations, we used artificial neural networks (ANN) to examine above and below-ground community phenotype responses to elevated carbon dioxide, elevated ozone and gene expression profiles. The aspen community models generated using this approach identified specific genes and subnetworks of genes associated with variable sensitivities for aspen clones. The ANN model also predicts specific co-regulated gene clusters associated with differential sensitivity to elevated carbon dioxide and ozone in aspen species. The results suggest ANN is an effective approach to predict relevant gene expression changes resulting from environmental perturbation and provides useful information for the rational design of future biological experiments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Financial Mechanisms to Improve the Supply of Ecosystem Services from Privately-Owned Australian Native Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Ferguson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Much of Australia’s native forest is privately-owned and is needing investment to maintain and improve the supply of a wide range of ecosystem services. This paper reviews mechanisms presently used in Australia to improve the supply of ecosystem services, with particular emphasis on financial mechanisms. Auction, green bond and biobanking schemes are widely and, so far, successfully used in a number of States, especially in projects where the actions required and ecosystem services can be readily measured. Measurement of biodiversity and biodiversity-based services remains problematic, despite some fairly widespread application of different measurement systems. Inadequate or variable measurement systems could engender a loss of investor interest if equivalence or gains cannot be appropriately verified. A new Biodiversity Investment Scheme is proposed, based on the structure used commercially in Managed Investment Schemes. The choice of mechanism, however, will be mainly determined by landowner attitudes to assignment of property rights, and by scale, the extent of public versus private consumption goods, and the transaction costs and risks.

  3. Effects of fine root length density and root biomass on soil preferential flow in forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghu Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The study was conducted to characterize the impacts of plant roots systems (e.g., root length density and root biomass on soil preferential flow in forest ecosystems. Area of study: The study was carried out in Jiufeng National Forest Park, Beijing, China. Material and methods: The flow patterns were measured by field dye tracing experiments. Different species (Sophora japonica Linn,Platycladus orientalis Franco, Quercus dentata Thunbwere quantified in two replicates, and 12 soil depth were applied. Plant roots were sampled in the sieving methods. Root length density and root biomass were measured by WinRHIZO. Dye coverage was implied in the image analysis, and maximum depth of dye infiltration by direct measurement. Main results: Root length density and root biomass decreased with the increasing distance from soil surface, and root length density was 81.6% higher in preferential pathways than in soil matrix, and 66.7% for root biomass with respect to all experimental plots. Plant roots were densely distributed in the upper soil layers. Dye coverage was almost 100% in the upper 5-10 cm, but then decreased rapidly with soil depth. Root length density and root biomass were different from species: Platycladus orientalis Franco > Quercus dentata Thunb > Sophora japonica Linn. Research highlights: The results indicated that fine roots systems had strong effects on soil preferential flow, particularly root channels enhancing nutrition transport across soil profiles in forest dynamics.

  4. Soil microarthropod communities from Mediterranean forest ecosystems in Central Italy under different disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Silvia; Menta, Cristina; Balducci, Lorena; Conti, Federica Delia; Petrini, Enrico; Piovesan, Gianluca

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study is to assess soil quality in Mediterranean forests of Central Italy, from evergreen to deciduous, with different types of management (coppice vs. high forest vs. secondary old growth) and compaction impacts (machinery vs. recreational). Soil quality was evaluated studying soil microarthropod communities and applying a biological index (QBS-ar) based on the concept that the higher is the soil quality, the higher will be the number of microarthropod groups well adapted to the soil habitat. Our results confirm that hardwood soils are characterised by the highest biodiversity level among terrestrial communities and by a well-structured and mature microarthropod community, which is typical of stable ecosystems (QBS value, >200). While silvicultural practices and forest composition do not seem to influence QBS-ar values or microarthropod community structure, the index is very efficient in detecting soil impacts (soil compaction due to logging activities). Several taxa (Protura, Diplura, Coleoptera adults, Pauropoda, Diplopoda, Symphyla, Chilopoda, Diptera larvae and Opiliones) react negatively to soil compaction and degradation (QBS value, urban forestry to prevent the negative effects of trampling. QBS-ar is a candidate index for biomonitoring of soil microarthropod biodiversity across the landscape to provide guidance for the sustainable management of renewable resource and nature conservation.

  5. Hybrid MCDA Methods to Integrate Multiple Ecosystem Services in Forest Management Planning: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhde, Britta; Andreas Hahn, W.; Griess, Verena C.; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a decision aid frequently used in the field of forest management planning. It includes the evaluation of multiple criteria such as the production of timber and non-timber forest products and tangible as well as intangible values of ecosystem services (ES). Hence, it is beneficial compared to those methods that take a purely financial perspective. Accordingly, MCDA methods are increasingly popular in the wide field of sustainability assessment. Hybrid approaches allow aggregating MCDA and, potentially, other decision-making techniques to make use of their individual benefits and leading to a more holistic view of the actual consequences that come with certain decisions. This review is providing a comprehensive overview of hybrid approaches that are used in forest management planning. Today, the scientific world is facing increasing challenges regarding the evaluation of ES and the trade-offs between them, for example between provisioning and regulating services. As the preferences of multiple stakeholders are essential to improve the decision process in multi-purpose forestry, participatory and hybrid approaches turn out to be of particular importance. Accordingly, hybrid methods show great potential for becoming most relevant in future decision making. Based on the review presented here, the development of models for the use in planning processes should focus on participatory modeling and the consideration of uncertainty regarding available information.

  6. Hybrid MCDA Methods to Integrate Multiple Ecosystem Services in Forest Management Planning: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhde, Britta; Hahn, W Andreas; Griess, Verena C; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a decision aid frequently used in the field of forest management planning. It includes the evaluation of multiple criteria such as the production of timber and non-timber forest products and tangible as well as intangible values of ecosystem services (ES). Hence, it is beneficial compared to those methods that take a purely financial perspective. Accordingly, MCDA methods are increasingly popular in the wide field of sustainability assessment. Hybrid approaches allow aggregating MCDA and, potentially, other decision-making techniques to make use of their individual benefits and leading to a more holistic view of the actual consequences that come with certain decisions. This review is providing a comprehensive overview of hybrid approaches that are used in forest management planning. Today, the scientific world is facing increasing challenges regarding the evaluation of ES and the trade-offs between them, for example between provisioning and regulating services. As the preferences of multiple stakeholders are essential to improve the decision process in multi-purpose forestry, participatory and hybrid approaches turn out to be of particular importance. Accordingly, hybrid methods show great potential for becoming most relevant in future decision making. Based on the review presented here, the development of models for the use in planning processes should focus on participatory modeling and the consideration of uncertainty regarding available information.

  7. Five challenges to reconcile agricultural land use and forest ecosystem services in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L R; Papworth, S K; Reed, J; Symes, W S; Ickowitz, A; Clements, T; Peh, K S-H; Sunderland, T

    2016-10-01

    Southeast Asia possesses the highest rates of tropical deforestation globally and exceptional levels of species richness and endemism. Many countries in the region are also recognized for their food insecurity and poverty, making the reconciliation of agricultural production and forest conservation a particular priority. This reconciliation requires recognition of the trade-offs between competing land-use values and the subsequent incorporation of this information into policy making. To date, such reconciliation has been relatively unsuccessful across much of Southeast Asia. We propose an ecosystem services (ES) value-internalization framework that identifies the key challenges to such reconciliation. These challenges include lack of accessible ES valuation techniques; limited knowledge of the links between forests, food security, and human well-being; weak demand and political will for the integration of ES in economic activities and environmental regulation; a disconnect between decision makers and ES valuation; and lack of transparent discussion platforms where stakeholders can work toward consensus on negotiated land-use management decisions. Key research priorities to overcome these challenges are developing easy-to-use ES valuation techniques; quantifying links between forests and well-being that go beyond economic values; understanding factors that prevent the incorporation of ES into markets, regulations, and environmental certification schemes; understanding how to integrate ES valuation into policy making processes, and determining how to reduce corruption and power plays in land-use planning processes. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Why Do the Boreal Forest Ecosystems of Northwestern Europe Differ from Those of Western North America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Rudy; Andreassen, Harry P.; Boutin, Stan; Hušek, Jan; Ims, Rolf A.; Krebs, Charles J.; Skarpe, Christina; Wabakken, Petter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The boreal forest is one of the largest terrestrial biomes on Earth. Conifers normally dominate the tree layer across the biome, but other aspects of ecosystem structure and dynamics vary geographically. The cause of the conspicuous differences in the understory vegetation and the herbivore–predator cycles between northwestern Europe and western North America presents an enigma. Ericaceous dwarf shrubs and 3– to 4-year vole–mustelid cycles characterize the European boreal forests, whereas tall deciduous shrubs and 10-year snowshoe hare–lynx cycles characterize the North American ones. We discuss plausible explanations for this difference and conclude that it is bottom-up: Winter climate is the key determinant of the dominant understory vegetation that then determines the herbivore–predator food-web interactions. The crucial unknown for the twenty-first century is how climate change and increasing instability will affect these forests, both with respect to the dynamics of individual plant and animal species and to their community interactions. PMID:28533563

  9. PECULIARITIES OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION OF THE FOREST ECOSYSTEM AFTER THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Varfolomeeva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chernobyl accident has influenced greatly all spheres of life of the affected territories, changing the life-style of the local population. [1, 2]. Investigation of the radionuclides behavior in natural conditions becomes more and more important which is connected with the fact that radionuclides are drawn into substances rotation and are actively accumulated by the plants and animals, that means that they become integral link of the food chains and are of a great importance in the functioning of the ecosystems. Deposition of radionuclides in the forest system is often higher than in agricultural arrears. Specific ecological features of the forests often lead to the high degree of accumulation of contaminating radionuclides. Organic matter high content in the forest soil and its stability increase the transfer of radionuclides from soil into plans which lead to high content of radionuclides in lichens, mosses, mushrooms and berries. Radionuclides transfer to game in such conditions could bring to the situation when some people actively consuming game meet will be highly exposured.

  10. [Global climate change and carbon balance in forest ecosystems of boreal zones: imitating modeling as a forecast tool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanin, V N; Mikhaĭlov, A V; Bykhovets, S S; Komarov, A S

    2010-01-01

    The individually oriented system of the EFIMOD models simulating carbon and nitrogen flows in forest ecosystems has been used for forecasting the response of forest ecosystems to various forest exploitation regimes with climate change. As input data the forest management materials for the Manturovskii forestry of the Kostroma region were used. It has been shown that increase of mid-annual temperatures and rainfall influence the redistribution of carbon and nitrogen supply in organic form: supply increase of these elements in phytomass simultaneously with depletion of them in soil occurred. The most carbon and nitrogen accumulation in forest ecosystems occurs in the scenario without felling. In addition, in this scenario only the ecosystems of the modeling territory function as a carbon drain; in the other two scenarios (with selective and total felling) they function as a source of carbon. Climate changes greatly influence the decomposition rate of organic matter in soil, which leads to increased emission of carbonic acid. The second consequence of the increase in the destruction rate is nitrogen increase in the soil in a form available for plants that entails production increase of plantations.

  11. Impact of environmental pollution and climate change on forest ecosystems: the activity of the IUFRO Research Group 7.01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paoletti E

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Impact of environmental pollution and climate change on forest ecosystems: the activity of the IUFRO Research Group 7.01. The IUFRO RG 7.01 deals with "Impacts of Air Pollution and Climate Change on Forest Ecosystems". Climate change and air pollution are closely linked, although in applied scientific research and even more in political negotiations they have been largely separated. Many of the traditional air pollutants and greenhouse gases have not only common sources, but may also interact physically and chemically in the atmosphere causing a variety of environmental impacts on the local, regional and global scales. The impacts on forest ecosystems have been traditionally treated separately for air pollution and climate change. However, the combined effects of numerous climate change and air pollution factors may significantly differ from a sum of separate effects due to an array of various synergistic or antagonistic interactions. The net effect varies for different ecosystem types and geographic regions, and depends on magnitude of climate or air pollution drivers, and types of interactions between them. This paper reviews the links between air pollution and climate change and their interactive effects on forests. A simultaneous addressing of the air pollution and climate change effects on forests is an opportunity for capturing synergies and avoiding overlaps between two lines of traditional research. This could result in more effective research, monitoring and management as well as better integration of environmental policies.

  12. Ecosystemic forest management approach to ensure forest sustainability and socio-economic development of forest dependent communities: Evidence from Southeast Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mbairamadji

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Forests provide a full spectrum of goods and services that contribute to the socio-economic development of forest dependent communities. In tropical countries, the diversity of stakeholders depending on forests with their divergent interests and expectations, make sustainable forest management (SFM difficult to achieve. Although several studies advocate the decentralization of forest management and public participation as important processes for SFM, little has been done to demonstrate how these processes could contribute to forest sustainability and socioeconomic development of forest dependent communities. Moreover, almost no seminal paper has demonstrated how to integrate the ecological, economical and social issues of forest management, which have nevertheless been recognized as essential for sustainable forest management. This study develops an ecosystemic forest management approach based on “Stakeholder-Resource-Usage-Institution” dynamics as an appropriate framework for ensuring forest sustainability and socio-economic development. This approach is supported with lessons drawn on the limitations and pitfalls of the traditional forest management approach in Southeast Cameroon.Les forêts fournissent toute une gamme de biens et de services qui contribuent au développement socio-économique des communautés dépendantes de la forêt. Dans les régions tropicales, la diversité des parties prenantes qui dépendent des forêts rend la gestion durable des forêts difficile du fait d’attentes et d’intérêts divergents. Bien que plusieurs études estiment la décentralisation de la gestion des forêts et la participation publique comme importantes pour la gestion durable des forêts, peu d’initiatives ont été prises pour démontrer la manière dont ces actions pourraient contribuer à la durabilité de la forêt et au développement socio-économique des communautés dépendant de la forêt. En outre, aucun article majeur n’a d

  13. Effects of drought and irrigation on ecosystem functioning in a mature Scots pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbertin, Matthias; Brunner, Ivano; Egli, Simon; Eilmann, Britta; Graf Pannatier, Eisabeth; Schleppi, Patrick; Zingg, Andreas; Rigling, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Climate change is expected to increase temperature and reduce summer precipitation in Switzerland. To study the expected effects of increased drought in mature forests two different approaches are in general possible: water can be partially or completely removed from the ecosystems via above- or below-canopy roofs or water can be added to already drought-prone ecosystems. Both methods have advantages and disadvantages. In our study water was added to a mature 90-year old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest with a few singe pubescent oaks (Quercus pubescens Willd.), located in the valley bottom of the driest region of Switzerland (Valais). In Valais, Scots pines are declining, usually with increased mortality rates following drought years. It was therefore of special interest to study here how water addition is changing forest ecosystem functioning. The irrigation experiment started in the summer of 2003. Out of eight 0.1 ha experimental plots, four were randomly selected for irrigation, the other four left as a control. Irrigation occurred during rainless nights between April and October, doubling the annual rainfall amount from 650 to 1300 mm. Irrigation water, taken from a near-by irrigation channel, added some nutrients to the plots, but nutrients which were deficient on the site, e.g. nitrogen and phosphorus, were not altered. Tree diameter, tree height and crown width were assessed before the start of the irrigation in winter 2002/2003 and after 7 years of the experiment in 2009/2010. Tree crown transparency (lack of foliage) and leaf area index (LAI) were annually assessed. Additionally, tree mortality was annually evaluated. Mycorrhizal fruit bodies were identified and counted at weekly intervals from 2003 until 2007. Root samples were taken in 2004 and 2005. In 2004 and 2005 wood formation of thirteen trees was analysed in weekly or biweekly intervals using the pinning method. These trees were felled in 2006 for stem, shoot and needle growth analysis

  14. Patterns of forest succession and impacts of flood in the Upper Mississippi River floodplain ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y.; Wu, Y.; Bartell, S.M.; Cosgriff, R.

    2009-01-01

    The widespread loss of oak-hickory forests and the impacts of flood have been major issues of ecological interest concerning forest succession in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) floodplain. The data analysis from two comprehensive field surveys indicated that Quercus was one of the dominant genera in the UMR floodplain ecosystem prior to the 1993 flood and constituted 14% of the total number of trees and 28% of the total basal area. During the post-flood recovery period through 2006, Quercus demonstrated slower recovery rates in both the number of trees (4%) and basal area (17%). In the same period, Carya recovered greatly from the 1993 flood in terms of the number of trees (11%) and basal area (2%), compared to its minor status before the flood. Further analyses suggested that different species responded to the 1993 flood with varying tolerance and different succession strategies. In this study, the relation of flood-caused mortality rates and DBH, fm(d), can be expressed in negative exponential functions for each species. The results of this research also indicate that the growth functions are different for each species and might also be different between pre- and post-flood time periods. These functions indicate different survival strategies and emergent properties in responding to flood impacts. This research enhances our understanding of forest succession patterns in space and time in the UPR floodplain. And such understanding might be used to predict long-term impacts of floods on UMR floodplain forest dynamics in support of management and restoration. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Climate change science applications and needs in forest ecosystem management: a workshop organized as part of the northern Wisconsin Climate Change Response Framework Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie Brandt; Chris Swanston; Linda Parker; Maria Janowiak; Richard Birdsey; Louis Iverson; David Mladenoff; Patricia. Butler

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is leading to direct and indirect impacts on forest tree species and ecosystems in northern Wisconsin. Land managers will need to prepare for and respond to these impacts, so we designed a workshop to identify forest management approaches that can enhance the ability of ecosystems in northern Wisconsin to cope with climate change and address how National...

  16. Woody vegetation following even-aged, uneven-aged, and no-harvest treatments on the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Kabrick; Randy G. Jensen; Stephen R. Shifley; David R. Larsen

    2002-01-01

    The Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) experimentally tests forest ecosystem response to (a) even-aged management with clearcutting, (b) uneven-aged management with single-tree and group selection, and (c) no-harvesting. The nine MOFEP experimental sites in the southeast Missouri Ozarks are small landscapes ranging from 772 ac (312 ha) to 1,271 ac (514 ha...

  17. New England and northern New York forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the New England Climate Change Response Framework project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria K. Janowiak; Anthony W. D' Amato; Christopher W. Swanston; Louis Iverson; Frank R. Thompson; William D. Dijak; Stephen Matthews; Matthew P. Peters; Anantha Prasad; Jacob S. Fraser; Leslie A. Brandt; Patricia Butler-Leopold; Stephen D. Handler; P. Danielle Shannon; Diane Burbank; John Campbell; Charles Cogbill; Matthew J. Duveneck; Marla R. Emery; Nicholas Fisichelli; Jane Foster; Jennifer Hushaw; Laura Kenefic; Amanda Mahaffey; Toni Lyn Morelli; Nicholas J. Reo; Paul G. Schaberg; K. Rogers Simmons; Aaron Weiskittel; Sandy Wilmot; David Hollinger; Erin Lane; Lindsey Rustad; Pamela H. Templer

    2018-01-01

    Forest ecosystems will face direct and indirect impacts from a changing climate over the 21st century. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of forest ecosystems across the New England region (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, northern New York, Rhode Island, and Vermont) under a range of future climates. We synthesized and summarized information...

  18. Influence of Heavy Metal Stress On Water Regime of A Model Forest Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, M.; Abbaspour, K. C.; Schulin, R.

    Among various toxic substances that contaminate the soil, the effects of heavy metals are particularly severe on all aspects of soil-plant system. The Swiss Federal Institute for Forest Snow and Land Research (WSL) is addressing comprehensively the issue of heavy metal toxicity in a forest ecosystem in a project titled Sfrom cell to treeT. As & cedil; part of the above project an investigation is being carried out to evaluate the impact of heavy metal stress on water regime of a young forest ecosystem grown in sixteen open top lysimeters. The factorial treatments of the lysimeters include variations of rainwa- ter acidity (acidic, neutral), subsoil type (acidic, calcareous), and heavy metal con- centration (with and without heavy metals in the top 20 cm). Filling of lysimeters was completed in November 1999. Each model ecosystem was planted in spring 2000 with the same collection of trees and herbaceous plants. Each lysimeters is equipped with tensiometers for monitoring of pressure head, time domain reflectometry for moni- toring of water content, and sprinkler devices for application of controlled irrigation. Drainage water data are measured regularly from the canisters installed at the bot- tom of lysimeters and evapotranspiration is calculated through water balancing. Our preliminary analyses of the data shoed the following results. Weekly data collected from May to October 2001 indicated higher amount of percolating water in acidic soil compared to the neutral soil due to textural difference. At 12 cm depth in both soils, control and acidic rain showed lower water potential than heavy metal and combina- tion of acidic rain with heavy metal treatments. In lower depths, water potential did not show much difference between treatments. Water contents showed differences be- tween treatments in the upper part of the profile where the soil is contaminated with heavy metals. Higher water content was observed in heavy metal treatment at 0-25 cm depth than 25-50 cm

  19. Elevated carbon dioxide and ozone alter productivity and ecosystem carbon content in northern temperate forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhelm, Alan F; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Kubiske, Mark E; Zak, Donald R; Campany, Courtney E; Burton, Andrew J; Dickson, Richard E; Hendrey, George R; Isebrands, J G; Lewin, Keith F; Nagy, John; Karnosky, David F

    2014-01-01

    Three young northern temperate forest communities in the north-central United States were exposed to factorial combinations of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3) for 11 years. Here, we report results from an extensive sampling of plant biomass and soil conducted at the conclusion of the experiment that enabled us to estimate ecosystem carbon (C) content and cumulative net primary productivity (NPP). Elevated CO2 enhanced ecosystem C content by 11%, whereas elevated O3 decreased ecosystem C content by 9%. There was little variation in treatment effects on C content across communities and no meaningful interactions between CO2 and O3. Treatment effects on ecosystem C content resulted primarily from changes in the near-surface mineral soil and tree C, particularly differences in woody tissues. Excluding the mineral soil, cumulative NPP was a strong predictor of ecosystem C content (r2 = 0.96). Elevated CO2 enhanced cumulative NPP by 39%, a consequence of a 28% increase in canopy nitrogen (N) content (g N m−2) and a 28% increase in N productivity (NPP/canopy N). In contrast, elevated O3 lowered NPP by 10% because of a 21% decrease in canopy N, but did not impact N productivity. Consequently, as the marginal impact of canopy N on NPP (ΔNPP/ΔN) decreased through time with further canopy development, the O3 effect on NPP dissipated. Within the mineral soil, there was less C in the top 0.1 m of soil under elevated O3 and less soil C from 0.1 to 0.2 m in depth under elevated CO2. Overall, these results suggest that elevated CO2 may create a sustained increase in NPP, whereas the long-term effect of elevated O3 on NPP will be smaller than expected. However, changes in soil C are not well-understood and limit our ability to predict changes in ecosystem C content. PMID:24604779

  20. Evaluating the responses of forest ecosystems to climate change and CO2 using dynamic global vegetation models

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Xiang; Zeng, Xiaodong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The climate has important influences on the distribution and structure of forest ecosystems, which may lead to vital feedback to climate change. However, much of the existing work focuses on the changes in carbon fluxes or water cycles due to climate change and/or atmospheric CO 2, and few studies have considered how and to what extent climate change and CO 2 influence the ecosystem structure (e.g., fractional coverage change) and the changes in the responses of ecosystems with diffe...