WorldWideScience

Sample records for swedish defence doctrine

  1. Doctrinal Imbalance: A Study of Swedish Army Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    patience with endless grammar and spelling corrections. Furthermore, Dr. Sterrett also involved his wife, military historian Dr. Corinne Mahaffey, and his...provocative statement of the Swedish supreme commander. The Swedish Army teaches that doctrine derives from a balance between resources, national...it comes to writing a new doctrine, but none of them evaluates doctrine against a specific scenario using the actual forces the doctrine is supposed

  2. Swedish Defence Acquisition Transformation: A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-13

    of tasks and resources (personnel) • Partial merger of the DPA and the DLO Reformation of defence logistics Owns the equipment and specifies the...towards a new organisation”, • “The repair debt”, • “A strategy for the provisioning of personnel”, • “Capability in health and medical support”, and

  3. Swedish Defence Acquisition Transformation - A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a...reductions in defence expenditure (the peace dividend); participation in Peace Support Operations (PSOs); Lessons Learned (LL) from these operations...especially in the area of logistics; revolutionary development in the area of Information and Communication Technology ( ICT ); emergence of novel

  4. Politics, pleasure, violence: Swedish defence propaganda in social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferrada Stoehrel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Swedish Armed Forces have produced and distributed highly edited video clips on YouTube that show moving images of military activity. Alongside this development, mobile phone apps have emerged as an important channel through which the user can experience and take an interactive part in the staging of contemporary armed conflict. This article examines the way in which the aesthetic and affective experience of Swedish defence and security policy is socially and (media-culturally (co-constructed and how the official representation of Swedish military intervention (reproduces political and economic effects when these activities are distributed through traditional and social media such as YouTube and digital apps. Based on Isabela and Norman Fairclough’s thoughts on political discourse, Michel Foucault’s dialectic idea of power/knowledge, and Sara Ahmed’s concept of the affective, I discuss how the Swedish digital military aesthetic is part of a broader political and economic practice which has consequences beyond the digital, the semiotic and what might at first glance appear to be pure entertainment. 

  5. Politics, pleasure, violence: Swedish defence propaganda in social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferrada Stoehrel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Swedish Armed Forces have produced and distributed highly edited video clips on YouTube that show moving images of military activity. Along- side this development, mobile phone apps have emerged as an important channel through which the user can experience and take an interactive part in the staging of contemporary armed conflict. This article examines the way in which the aes- thetic and affective experience of Swedish defence and security policy is socially and (media-culturally (co-constructed and how the official representation of Swedish military intervention (reproduces political and economic effects when these activi- ties are distributed through traditional and social media such as YouTube and digital apps. Based on Isabela and Norman Fairclough’s thoughts on political discourse, Michel Foucault’s dialectic idea of power/knowledge, and Sara Ahmed’s concept of the affective, I discuss how the Swedish digital military aesthetic is part of a broader political and economic practice that has consequences beyond the digital, the semi- otic, and what might at first glance appear to be pure entertainment.

  6. Swedish Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borgvall, Jonathan; Lif, Patrik

    2005-01-01

    .... The military research work presented here includes the three military administrations, FOI -- Swedish Defence Research Agency, FMV -- Swedish Defence Materiel Administration, and SNDC -- Swedish...

  7. The Swedish National Defence Research Establishment and the plans for Swedish nuclear weapons; Foersvarets forskningsanstalt och planerna paa svenska kaernvapen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonter, Thomas [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of History

    2001-03-01

    This study analyses the Swedish nuclear weapons research since 1945 carried out by the Swedish National Defence Research Establishment (FOA). The most important aspect of this research was dealing with protection in broad terms against nuclear weapons attacks. However, another aspect was also important from early on - to conduct research aiming at a possible production of nuclear weapons. FOA performed an extended research up to 1968, when the Swedish Government signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which meant the end of these production plans. Up to this date, five main investigations about the technical conditions were made, 1948, 1953, 1955, 1957 and 1965, which all together expanded the Swedish know-how to produce a bomb. The Swedish plans to procure nuclear weapons were not an issue in the debate until the mid 50's. The reason for this was simple, prior to 1954 the plans were secretly held within a small group of involved politicians, military and researchers. The change of this procedure did take place when the Swedish Supreme Commander in a public defence report in 1954 favoured a Swedish Nuclear weapons option. In 1958 FOA had reached a technical level that allowed the Parliament to make a decision. Two programs were proposed - the L-programme (the Loading Programme), to be used if the parliament would say yes to a production of nuclear weapons, and the S-programme (the Protection Programme), if the Parliament would say no. The debate on the issue had now created problems for the Social Democratic Government. The Prime Minister, Tage Erlander, who had earlier defended a procurement of nuclear weapons, was now forced to reach a compromise. The compromise was presented to the parliament in a creative manner that meant that only the S-programme would be allowed. The Government argued that the technical level did allow a 'freedom of action' up to at least the beginning of the 60's when Sweden was mature to make a decision on the issue

  8. Brothers in arms or peace? The media representation of Swedish and Norwegian defence- and military co-operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Arne Nohrstedt

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the relevance of Johan Galtung's model for peace journalism and critical discourse analysis (CDA in light of the media coverage of Swedish and Norwegian defence cooperation. By analysing the proposal for closer military cooperation between the Nato-member Norway and the non-aligned Sweden the article emphasises the paradox that the fact that both Sweden and Norway have forces fighting in Afghanistan was not mentioned when the heads of the Norwegian and Swedish Defence in a joint article justified the need for a closer cooperation between the two countries. Thus this analysis illustrates some limitations of the peace journalism perspective and the necessity to take a contextual approach in which also the possibility of "peace talk" being part of a war discourse is considered.

  9. A New Russian Defence Doctrine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Blank

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available En la tradición zarista, soviética y rusa, la doctrina desempeña un papel especialmente importante. La doctrina representa una visión o visiones oficiales acerca del carácter de la guerra contemporánea, las amenazas para Rusia, y las políticas que el gobierno y las fuerzas armadas iniciarán e implementarán para hacer frente a esos desafíos. Desde 2002, el presidente Putin ha declarado que pronto se publicaría una nueva doctrina para afrontar los desafíos del entorno estratégico tras el 11-S. Sin embargo, todavía no ha aparecido tal doctrina ni se conoce cuándo lo hará. La preocupación de la cúpula militar por múltiples amenazas continúa impidiendo una planificación y formulación de políticas coherentes. Hoy, a lo sumo, asistimos a una continua inclinación hacia el retorno a posturas y estrategias casi propias de la Guerra Fría.

  10. On China's Nuclear Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liping

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear weapons have played an important role in China's national strategy. China’s nuclear doctrine has a very strong continuity. Nevertheless, China has made readjustments in its nuclear doctrine according to the changes of its internal and external situation and its general strategic threat perception. China’s nuclear doctrine has experienced a process of evolution from anti-nuclear blackmail to minimum deterrence. There are five major parts in China's nuclear doctrine: policy of declaration, nuclear development, nuclear deployment, nuclear employment, and nuclear disarmament. Because China is faced with a different situation from other nuclear powers and has its own strategic culture, China has a nuclear doctrine with its own characteristics. China’s nuclear doctrine has been affiliated with and has served the national development strategy, national security strategy, national defense policy and military strategy of China.

  11. Military Strategy vs. Military Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The article argues that while doctrine represents the more scientific side of warfare, strategy represents the artistic side. Existing doctrine will almost never meet the requirements for winning the next war; it is through the artistic application of generic peacetime doctrine to the specific...

  12. Questioning the cerebellar doctrine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galliano, Elisa; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2014-01-01

    The basic principles of cerebellar function were originally described by Flourens, Cajal, and Marr/Albus/Ito, and they constitute the pillars of what can be considered to be the classic cerebellar doctrine. In their concepts, the main cerebellar function is to control motor behavior, Purkinje cells

  13. The Transformation from Defence Procurement to Defence Acquisition - Opportunities for New Forms of Analytical Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    internationalisation of industry, this is definitely no longer the case. All things considered, it is probably fair to say that Sweden, from a military...consequent budgetary reductions, as well as changes in legislation and the internationalisation of the defence industry, have forced the Swedish AF and FMV to

  14. Doctrine and Discipline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevelsted, Anders

    The paper argues that in order to understand central aspects of modern welfare, it is important to pay attention to not only to state and secular politics, but also the religious civil society, and not only the Protestant Ethics of the large confessions (Calvinist, Lutheran, Catholic), but also...... the later 18 th and especially 19 th century developments in (Protestant) doctrines. It is argued that the revival and Holiness movements originating in these centuries have provided important contributions to voluntary social work in terms of 1) ideological legitimation, 2) models for institutions related...

  15. Establishing Cyber Warfare Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Colarik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several decades, advances in technology have transformed communications and the ability to acquire, disseminate, and utilize information in a range of environments. Modern societies and their respective militaries have taken advantage of a robust information space through network-centric systems. Because military and commercial operations have increasingly converged, communication and information infrastructures are now high-priority military objectives in times of war. This article examines the theoretical underpinning of current cyber warfare research, what we have learned so far about its application, and some of the emerging themes to be considered; it also postulates the development of a (national cyber warfare doctrine (CWD. An endeavor of this scale requires lots of considerations and preparation for its development if it is to be cooperatively embraced. This article considers why information technology systems and their supporting infrastructures should be considered legitimate military targets in conflicts, and offers several events that support this supposition. In addition, it identifies the various forms of doctrine that will become the basis for developing a CWD, discusses a CWD's possible components, and proposes a national collaborative and discussion framework for obtaining a nation's stakeholder buy-in for such an endeavor.

  16. State Level Intelligence Doctrine: Bridging the Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    strategy, methodology or policy refinement. Dogmatic doctrine usually has no review process, is directive versus descriptive, and usually set by religion ...doctrine without dogmatic restrictions of fear of change or lack of change with pure authoritative unchallengeable principles, and embracing... dogmatism ,15 and military doctrine16focused on direct publications that define military doctrine in correlation to specific operations such as Joint

  17. 47 CFR 73.1910 - Fairness Doctrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fairness Doctrine. 73.1910 Section 73.1910... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1910 Fairness Doctrine. The Fairness Doctrine is... issues of public importance. See FCC public notice “Fairness Doctrine and the Public Interest Standards...

  18. A New Doctrine: Public Cybersecurity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A New Doctrine: Public Cybersecurity. Non-rivalrous: because one user benefiting from the security of a networked system does not diminish the ability of any other user to benefit from the security of that system.

  19. Doctrinal controversies and ecumenical councils | Ogbonnaya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper limited its concern to the doctrine of Trinity and Christology. It also evaluated these doctrines in the light of Asouzu‟s principle of integration or science of missing link. Through it, their strengths and weaknesses are shown. Key Words: Doctrine, Ecumanical, Trinity, Christology, Controversy, Creeds, Church.

  20. The Reagan Doctrine in Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuechterlein, Donald E.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes the foreign policy of former U.S. President Reagan. Discusses Reagan's policies toward the Soviet Union, focusing on his negotiations with Mikhail Gorbachev. Assesses the successes and failures of Reagan's foreign policy. Examines the impact of the Reagan Doctrine on world politics, and summarizes his legacy in the foreign policy arena.…

  1. COIN: Is Current Doctrine Counterfeit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    incorporate lessons from the British in Malaya .74 From the British example in Malaysia , doctrine absorbed lessons on civil-military coordination and...to Eat Soup with a Knife: Counterinsurgency Lessons from Malaya and Vietnam. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005. Napoleoni, Loretta...insurgencies. Choosing mainly the French-Algerian insurgency, the Philippines, Northern Ireland, Malaya , and Vietnam as their primary examples of insurgency

  2. Greece and the Truman Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    1944- 1947: Prelude to the "Truman Doctrine" (Thessaloniki: Insti- tute for Balkan Studies, 1963), p. 181. 24 Robert Rhodes James, ed., Winston...vol. VI: Military Assistance Programs, Part 2, p. 312. 93 L! 70David Horowitz, The Free World Colossus : A Critique of American Policy in the Cold War...Sons, 1978. Horowitz, David. The Free World Colossus : A Critique of Amer- ican Foreign Policy in the Cold War. New York: Hill and Wang, 1965. latrides

  3. Defence White Paper 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    domestic developments since 2009, which influence Australia’s national security and defence settings, including their impact on force posture, future...Financial Crisis, which have continued to see a significant deleterious impact on the global economy, domestic fiscal circumstances and Defence funding...these trends are shaping the emergence of the Indo-Pacific as a single strategic arc. 1.13 Globalisation and new technologies are increasing the

  4. Defence Test and Evaluation Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    development of a centralised and coordinated approach to Defence’s T&E resources and priorities; a proposed T&E framework that considers T&E at the system...main reviews and reports that provide strategic guidance and highlight the importance of T&E for Defence. They are the: Defence Procurement Review...Affairs, Defence and Trade References Committee, March 2003. Defence Procurement Review 2003 The Defence Procurement Review 2003, commonly known as the

  5. Modernism and catholic political doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry T. Sardaryan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the perception of Modernism by the Catholic Church as a movement within the clerical structure and philosophy that existed during the 19-20th centuries in the framework of general skepticism and rejection of tradition, prioritization of individualism, formal equality, faith in inevitability of social, scientific and technological progress, rationalization and professionalization. A distinctive feature of this movement is the participation of the priests themselves, especially in France and Italy. The object of research is the Catholic political doctrine during the pontificate of Pius X. Modernist movement in Catholicism, in opinion of many scientists had a decisive impact on the reform direction during the Second Vatican Council, but on closer study of the discourse that took place in the late 19th - early 20th centuries, it becomes obvious that this is not true. The focus of the article is the political doctrine of Catholicism - the issue of state political structure, its relationship with church institutions, status of the individual in societyc. In this regard, the modernists gave priority to necessity of secularization and complete separation of secular and spiritual power. In the article different scientifical methods, ave used such as dialectical, logical, comparative, systematic. The main conclusion of the author is that modernism should be regarded as an unsuccessful attempt to reform the Catholic Church that could have lead to its another schism, rather than a route towards the Second Vatican Council. The desire to change the structure, methods of church mission, its hierarchy and a number of other formal elements – was implemented by church itself for multiple times before. However, revision of the foundations of Christian ethics and its ontology, including its political doctrine, ran into resistance of the Holy See, causing, in essence, a rhetorical question - whether scientific and technical progress should

  6. Is the "In Loco Parentis" Doctrine Dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.; Reichner, Henry F.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews history of the doctrine of "in loco parentis." Examines court opinions in which the doctrine has surfaced as an issue in the following areas of litigation: corporal punishment, student searches, school rules, correlative duties, and teacher-student relationship at the college level. Finds that the status and scope of the doctrine…

  7. Quranic Doctrine in Peaceful Coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safoora Khosravi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many important teachings in Islam. The human beings can have peaceful coexistence and abundant understanding if the Islamic precepts would be done in all aspects of daily life relationships. One of the sacred precepts is about Quranic doctrine in peaceful coexistence. This study depicts this critical issue based on various verses in Holy Qur'an. Definitely, each of the Quranic teaching has significant impact on the human living in Islamic country. This research implements descriptive methodology to reveal this truth. The results suggest that social interaction, mutual respect, harmony, friendship, understanding and daily life engagement have an important role on the peaceful coexistence, especially altruism provides immense tolerance.

  8. NATO Defence Planning Process. Implications for defence posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Fleischer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The NATO Defence Planning Process (NDPP is the most important element affecting the Alliance's defence posture. Under the process states commit themselves to provide capabilities and forces required to fulfil NATO missions, defined in the NATO Strategic Concept. The NDPP directly affects national defence plans by harmonizing them with identified security and defence objectives as well by influencing development of the novel national defence capabilities. The emergence of new threats in the NATO environment, demands modifications in the defense planning process and establishing new goals for the Alliance. Enhancement of the NDPP should be priority during the time of unrest.

  9. From Defence To Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    These figures are cold and lifeless indicators of human misery, hunger and homelessness. At the same time, South Africa has one of the most unequal distributions of income in the world. The current defence budget clearly absorbs resources which could be invested in infrastructure such as housing, clinics and schools.

  10. TNO and CBRN defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    Within the Defence, Safety & Security branch of TNO a dedicated department focuses on Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Protection. This is a world class research department consisting of about 50 people and a High Tox laboratory that is the only facility in The Netherlands that

  11. An Approach to Operational Analysis: Doctrinal Task Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-04

    SESSION AUGUST 2-4, 2016 – NOVI, MICHIGAN AN APPROACH TO OPERATIONAL ANALYSIS: DOCTRINAL TASK DECOMPOSITION Major Matthew A. Horning U.S...Engineering and Technology Symposium (GVSETS) An Approach To Operational Analysis: Doctrinal Task Decomposition UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution...NCO from any branch, such as logistics, can describe Armor doctrine to the TRADOC standards. DOCTRINAL TASK ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK This approach to

  12. Missile defence : An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Weimar, P.W.L.

    2012-01-01

    At the present day, an unparalleled number of international actors, be it national governments or non-state groups, have acquired or are seeking to acquire both weapons of mass destruction and the means to deliver them. Those means of delivery can be Ballistic Missiles that can bridge vast – even intercontinental – distances. The use of Ballistic Missiles with conventional warheads is also an evolving threat as witnessed by the Chinese anti-ship ballistic missile. The defence of land forces a...

  13. Defence Industrial Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    B8.40 The Maritime Airborne Surveillance and Control ( MASC ) programme, aims to provide an assured airborne surveillance and control capability, forms...capability currently afforded by the Sea King Mk 7 Airborne Surveillance and Control variant. MASC should provide a capability for surveillance of the air...and surface as well as battle management of air defence fighters and other assets. The MASC programme is currently in the Assessment Phase. B8.41

  14. Tetranychus evansi evades plant defence

    OpenAIRE

    Ataíde, Lívia Maria Silva

    2013-01-01

    Spider mites are known to induce or suppress plant defences. For instance, most strains of Tetranychus urticae induce plant defences regulated by jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) pathways and this response has been correlated with a reduction in their reproductive performance on tomato plants. In contrast, the red spider mite Tetranychus evansi suppresses the JA and SA defences and both spider mite species were found to perform much better on tomato leaves that were previously attac...

  15. Operational Analysis on Torpedo Defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootendorst, H.J.; Benders, F.P.A.; Fitski, H.J.; Veldhoven, E.R. van

    2007-01-01

    Since 1998, TNO Defence, Security and Safety has performed operational analysis with the Underwater Warfare Testbed, which provides an environment for evaluation and validation of systems, concepts, and tactics. On top of this testbed the Torpedo Defence System TestBed has been built to simulate

  16. The Swedish Armed Forces Operational Challenges for Command and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Contracted Expeditionary Force Challenge - transforming the Manning system Swe Lead nation for EU NBG 11 + NBG 14 HEADQUARTERS SWEDISH ARMED...Sweden – Advanced parts of the SwAF, for example data-links within the Air Force since 1970-ies – Defence-, IT- and Telecomm industry...Information Management Portal (SHAREPOINT) Exercise Management System (EXONAUT) National simulation systems (TYR, JCATS, GESI, TCT) Air & Combat

  17. Creating Air Refueling Doctrine. Preserving Experience in Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Thunderbolts and Eggshells : Composite Air Operations During Desert Storm and Implications for USAF Doctrine and Force Structure. School of Advanced Airpower...proactive in the call for 42 air refueling doctrine. Although the Air Force Doctrine Center should be responsible for the composition , AMC has the

  18. Repugnancy Doctrine and Customary Law in Nigeria: A Positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Abstract. The doctrine of repugnancy owes it origin to the medieval period and evolution of English equity. The doctrine was introduced into Nigeria by the end of the 19th century via the received English laws to test our customary law for acceptability. The issue has been whether the application of the doctrine by Nigerian ...

  19. Repugnancy Doctrine and Customary Law in Nigeria: A Positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The doctrine of repugnancy owes it origin to the medieval period and evolution of English equity. The doctrine was introduced into Nigeria by the end of the 19th century via the received English laws to test our customary law for acceptability. The issue has been whether the application of the doctrine by Nigerian courts has ...

  20. Democratising Political Powers through Locke's Doctrine of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... their views on political powers, including their 'prerogative powers'; no longer as their individual rights but as the 'federative powers' of the people; aware that after all, legitimate sovereignty belongs to the people. Key Words: Doctrine of Prerogative, Prerogative Powers, John Locke, Political Powers, Despotic Monarchies, ...

  1. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    of during the latter part of the 1990s. The ideas generated by the Danish Air Force later came to good use when Danish air force officers participated in the work that led to the formulation of the NATO Air Power Doctrine (AJP 3.3). During the latter part of the 2000s, the Danish Air Force found...

  2. Probabilistic Flood Defence Assessment Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slomp Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The WTI2017 project is responsible for the development of flood defence assessment tools for the 3600 km of Dutch primary flood defences, dikes/levees, dunes and hydraulic structures. These tools are necessary, as per January 1st 2017, the new flood risk management policy for the Netherlands will be implemented. Then, the seven decades old design practice (maximum water level methodology of 1958 and two decades old safety standards (and maximum hydraulic load methodology of 1996 will formally be replaced by a more risked based approach for the national policy in flood risk management. The formal flood defence assessment is an important part of this new policy, especially for flood defence managers, since national and regional funding for reinforcement is based on this assessment. This new flood defence policy is based on a maximum allowable probability of flooding. For this, a maximum acceptable individual risk was determined at 1/100 000 per year, this is the probability of life loss of for every protected area in the Netherlands. Safety standards of flood defences were then determined based on this acceptable individual risk. The results were adjusted based on information from cost -benefit analysis, societal risk and large scale societal disruption due to the failure of critical infrastructure e.g. power stations. The resulting riskbased flood defence safety standards range from a 300 to a 100 000 year return period for failure. Two policy studies, WV21 (Safety from floods in the 21st century and VNK-2 (the National Flood Risk in 2010 provided the essential information to determine the new risk based safety standards for flood defences. The WTI2017 project will provide the safety assessment tools based on these new standards and is thus an essential element for the implementation of this policy change. A major issue to be tackled was the development of user-friendly tools, as the new assessment is to be carried out by personnel of the

  3. Features of Islamic Health-Treatment Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Alinouri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Islam has particular style and doctrine about health and treatment that makes it different from other treatment methods. The aim of this article is studying the principles and methods of Islamic health treatment and the attitudes of this religion toward appearance of disease caused by material or immaterial factors. This article is review type and it is presented by descriptive analysis method from religious sources. Islam is a religion which is oriented towards health with health-treatment features, priority of prevention over treatment by reforming nutritional principles, tolerance of disease and avoidance of taking medicine if the disease is not sever, paying attention to spiritual causes of illness in addition to physical factors and necessity of treatment as a Divine Will and avoidance of treatment by Haraam because God has not placed healing in Haraam. These features have made Islamic health - treatment doctrine as unique.

  4. Persistence in PHP with the doctrine ORM

    CERN Document Server

    Dunglas, Kévin

    2013-01-01

    Persistence in PHP with the Doctrine ORM is a concise, fast, and focused guide to build a blog engine with advanced features such as native queries and lifecycle callbacks.This book is primarily intended for PHP developers and architects who want to increase their skills in the field of Persistence and ORM to map the data they are working on to objects they are using in programming. Basic knowledge of databases and PDO and working knowledge of PHP namespaces is a prerequisite.

  5. Information Operations: Doctrine, Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Unless stated otherwise, masculine nouns or pronouns do not refer exclu- sively to men. Headquarters, US Army Training and Doctrine Command, is the...destroyed, releasing toxic chemical gases into the air in the vicinity of the plant. (c) The exact numbers of civilians killed and how many were left...f) We extend our fullest sympathies and support to the San Jacinto people who are the victims of this act of terrorism. (2) Toxic

  6. HISTORICAL PARALLELS OF THE NATIONAL ECONOMIC DOCTRINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avtandil SILAGADZE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Historical experience shows that problems of economic development in certain countries are linked to the rational use of economic resources. It is not accidental that this issue was of high importance as early as in the 19th century in Georgia. An outstanding Georgian writer Ilia Tchavtchavadze (1951-1961 and other researchers (see References dedicated interesting works to studying this problem. Like German national economic doctrines, Ilia Tchavtchavadze was much concerned with the priorities of national economy. Based on the research results, the present work provides conclusions that Ilia Tchavtchavadze’s economic doctrine complies with German as well as classic economic doctrines with the only difference that development of Georgian economy should start with the development of agriculture; complies with free trade policy; gives great importance to building railway network and Batumi-Baku pipeline, development of oil industry, co-existence of private and community ownership and inadmissibility of forceful infringement of such ownership; lays foundation to building of an independent banking system in Georgia.

  7. In Defence of Pashukanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Koen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents an extended defence of the general theory of law formulated by the Bolshevik jurist, Evgeny Pashukanis, and published in his Law and Marxism: A General Theory in 1924. The general theory is a theory of the legal form. Although Pashukanis did not name his theory, it has become known as the commodity form theory of law because of its theorising the legal form as a homologue of the commodity form. However, despite having weighty Marxist and revolutionary Bolshevik credentials, the general theory has been subjected to sustained attack, especially from new left and neo-Marxist circles. This essay identifies and explicates six major objections to Pashukanism from its left critics. These are that the general theory is too abstract to comprehend the reality of legal relations; that it is infused with economic reductionism; that it derives the legal form wrongly from commodity exchange; that it classifies the legal form incorrectly as an attribute of capitalism only; that it lacks the generality required of a general theory of law; and that it is imbricated in the growth of anarchism and Stalinism. Following a brief exegetical exercise, the bulk of the essay is devoted to demonstrating in detail that each of the six objections to the general theory is without merit, and that none makes any serious incursion into its integrity as a theory of the legal form. The central submission of the essay is that the Pashukanist general theory of law is rooted in the first principles of classical Marxism and hence may lay claim legitimately to being the Marxist theory of law.

  8. The Swedish Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    2012-01-01

    The main characteristics of ‘the Swedish model’ are arguably related to the country's knowledge-intensive industry and its advanced welfare state. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the historical development of these two features of the Swedish economy. The first part looks at industrial...

  9. The End of Doctrine?
    On the Symbolic Function of Doctrine in Substantive Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry de Jong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there have been various developments within Dutch substantive criminal-law doctrine that in some important ways suggest a shift towards a common-law conception of judicial interpretation in different topics which are central to substantive criminal law. The developments suggest that criminal-law doctrine in the Netherlands is becoming sketchier and is losing some theoretical profundity. Building on Cassirer's philosophy of symbolic forms, Shapiro's planning theory of law, and Wittgenstein's considerations on rule-following, this article aims to contribute to a description of the independent function of doctrine in substantive criminal law, by addressing the question as to how, and in what sense, doctrine 'helps' the court in applying the statutory and non-statutory criminal-law norms. It is argued that the law constitutes a 'symbolic form' that is to some extent disassociated from the social life-world, and that is construed by way of sophisticated, shared forms of 'social planning'. These forms of social planning form parts of a 'practice' governed by a specific 'legal point of view'. It is further argued that criminal-law doctrine, in a radical sense, comprises a form of proceduralization, by means of which the adjudicating judge is 'directed' to a certain position within the criminal law's symbolically construed space. It is concluded that criminal-law doctrine fulfils an important function in 'situating' the judge, and in 'prompting' or 'compelling' the judge, from his subjective position, to apply a criminal-law norm in an objectively correct manner.

  10. Changes in Russia's Military and Nuclear Doctrine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolkov, Benjamin M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balatsky, Galya I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-26

    In 1993, the Russian Federation set out a new military doctrine that would determine the direction of its armed forces until President Putin set out the next doctrine in 2000. The Russian Federation creating the doctrine was new; the USSR had recently collapsed, Gorbachev - the creator of the predecessor to this doctrine in 1987 - was out of office, and the new Russian military had only been formed in May, 1992.1 The analysis of the 1993 doctrine is as follows: a definition of how doctrine is defined; a short history of Russian military doctrine leading up to the 1993 doctrine (officially the Basic Provisions of the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation); and finally, what the doctrine established. An overview of the 1993 doctrine is: (1) Russia's 1993 doctrine was a return to older, more aggressive doctrine as a result of stability concerns surrounding the recent collapse of the USSR; (2) Russia turned from Gorbachev's 'defensive defense' in the 1987 doctrine to aggressive defense with the option of preempting or striking back against an aggressor; (3) Russia was deeply concerned about how nationalism would affect the former Soviet Republics, particularly in respect to the ethnic Russians still living abroad; and (4) Nuclear doctrine pledged to not be the first to use nuclear weapons but provided for the potential for escalation from a conventional to a nuclear war. The 2000 doctrine (officially the Russian Federation Military Doctrine) was created in a more stable world than the 1993 doctrine was. The Russian Federation had survived independence and the 'threat of direct military aggression against the Russian Federation and its allies' had diminished. It had secured all of the nuclear weapons from its neighbors Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, and had elected a new president, Vladimir Putin, to replace Boris Yeltsin. Yet, even as the doctrine took more defensive tones than the 1993 doctrine, it expanded its nuclear options

  11. Theological Predication, Doctrinal Location, and Method in Analytic Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Ryan S.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Theological method is situated properly in relation to a range of doctrinal commitments, especially commitments located in the doctrines of God, creation, and theological anthropology. In this article, I use Thomas Aquinas’s account of theological predication to illustrate this doctrinal and methodological interconnection. Then, I describe the methodological commitments of analytic theology as they have been articulated by its advocates and argue that analytic theology should embrace an explicitly theological methodology. This requires taking seriously the proper ends of theology and the varied means used by theologians in the Christian theological tradition. I argue that analytic theologians should nurture attentiveness to theology’s chief end (the visio Dei and the corresponding goals of faithful worship and personal formation, the doctrinal order in which specific doctrinal questions find their proper context and location (beginning from and ending with the doctrine of God, and the practices that facilitate good theological judgment-making (prayer and contemplation.

  12. Swedish Government Minister at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research recently visited CERN. The Swedish Minister was greeted by Swedish scientists working at CERN. Signing of the Swedish Computing Memorandum of Understanding. Pär Omling, Director-General of the Swedish Research Council (left), and Jos Engelen, CERN’s Chief Scientific Officer. Lars Leijonborg, the Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research, was welcomed to CERN by Director-General Robert Aymar on 10 March. After an introduction to the Laboratory’s activities, the Minister was given guided tours of the control room, the ATLAS surface hall and experiment cavern and the adjoining LHC tunnel. Mr Leijonborg was then greeted by Swedish scientists and given an overview of the Swedish research programme at CERN. Five Swedish university groups are taking part in LHC research. Swedish universities are notably involved in the manufacture of parts for the sub-detectors of AT...

  13. The state in the Eurasian doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S N Lebedev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of the state in the Eurasian doctrine, one of the most distinctive and significant movements of the Russian sociological and political-philosophical thought abroad in the 1920-1930’s. The issues addressed by the Eurasians are still relevant under the current epoch of the new Russian statehood construction and to a certain extent are implemented in the contemporary political practice. According to the classical Eurasian doctrine, all nations of “Russia-Eurasia” are united by the “place of development” and constitute a single historical and socio-cultural world, which organically combines elements of the East and the West. The Eurasian doctrine of the state proclaims the idea of strong government and powerful state, which represents the interests of the people and maintains direct connections with its citizens by combining the law and justice principles with the norms of morality, welfare and conscience. The article examines the key Eurasian concept “ideocratic state” and the essential characteristics of the Eurasian concept of the state system, such as ideocracy, autarchy, idea-ruler, and ruling selection. The key state-forming concept is “Pan-Eurasian nationalism” interpreted by the Eurasians as an archetype of ideology, a basis of the national idea. The authors consider basic principles of the socio-economic structure of the Eurasian state, including active participation of the state in the economic life of the country, the coexistence of public and private properties. According to the Eurasian doctrine, the state-planned economy and the state regulation of culture form the foundations of autarchic states that protect the country from economic and humanitarian intervention. The authors come to the conclusion that Eurasian theory of the state can significantly enrich nowadays scientific theory and help to solve the tasks of modernization of the Russian society at the present stage for it takes

  14. Alternatives to the Judicially Promulgated Feres Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    1950) (barring a soldier’s suit against the Government for negligently performed surgery). 24 See Costo v. United States, 248 F.3d 863 (9th Cir...Doctrine A. Ambiguous Standard 198 See Costo v. United States, 248 F.3d 863 (9th Cir. 2001) (barring suit for the wrongful death of a sailor who drowned...courts tend to bar the service member’s claim. See Costo v. United States, 248 F.3d 863 (9th Cir. 2001) (barring suit for the drowning death of a

  15. Operational Analysis on Torpedo Defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootendordt, H.J.; Benders, F.P.A.; Fitski, H.J.; Veldhoven, E.R. van

    2008-01-01

    Surface vessels and submarines must be able to defend themselves against a torpedo attack. Self-defence can be approached as a modular concept. The first module involves 'Detection, Classification and Localisation (DCL)'. DCL triggers the second module: the 'evaluator'. This module starts the last

  16. In defence of Modern Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Wielander

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is a 3000 word long opinion piece/commentary in defence of Modern Languages as an academic discipline in its own right. it outlines some of the reasons why Modern Languages find themselves in a difficult position and argues that the future lies in cooperation, innovation and confident showcasing of Modern Languages research as exmplified by MLO.

  17. The reconfiguration of the SA defence industry in the post-2015-defence review environment: prospects & challenges

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khanyile, Moses

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available foundation for an expanded and better balanced industry to support the SANDF. STRATEGIC NATIONAL INITIATIVES (Cont’d) National Defence Industry Council (NDIC) Defence Sector Charter  Gazetted for public comment: 4 Oct 2017  Consultative sessions... among defence analysts, academics and broader defence companies  Introduces various scorecards for designated groups, including military veterans Objective: To promote the growth and sustainability of the Defence Industry by : Products...

  18. The Doctrinal Method: Incorporating Interdisciplinary Methods in Reforming the Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Hutchinson (Terry)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe doctrinal methodology is in a period of change and transition. Realising that the scope of the doctrinal method is too constricting, academic lawyers are becoming eclectic in their use of research method. In this transitional time, legal scholars are increasingly infusing evidence

  19. U.S. Air Force Doctrine: A Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    operating, support, and industrial bases which are the responsibility of the combat support forces under the broad definition of " logistics ." In the early...of logistics doctrine had to be filled at the basic doctrinal level. He formed a team that began with the formulation of a basic definition of logistics based

  20. The Swedish Academy Dictionary Project

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    (bo.wendt@svenskaakademien.se), Dictionary Staff of the Swedish Academy,. Lund, Sweden. Abstract: The Swedish Academy Dictionary is one of the world's largest dictionary projects. Work on it was started in 1884 and it will be completed by 2017. The dictionary describes the writ- ten standard language of Swedish from ...

  1. The psychiatric defence and international criminal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, John

    2007-01-01

    Following the development of the International Criminal Court (ICC) the mental state of the perpetrators of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes will become a more important issue in regard to defence and mitigating factors. This article examines how the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in particular has dealt with the mental illness defence to date, and how its judgements can serve as guidance for the ICC as it becomes the major international court of the future. The absence of a mental health defence in the Statutes of the ICTY and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda has led to a reliance on the Rules of Procedure and Evidence of the two tribunals. There are major difficulties in using the mental health defence as it is defined in the Statutes of the ICC because of a requirement for the destruction of mental capacity as a valid defence. Fitness to plead and the defence of intoxication are also examined.

  2. Defence counsel in international criminal law

    OpenAIRE

    Temminck Tuinstra, J.P.W.

    2009-01-01

    The field of international criminal law is relatively new and rapidly developing. This dissertation examines whether international criminal courts enable defence counsel to conduct an effective defence. When the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda (the ad hoc Tribunals) were set up in the mid-nineties to prosecute those responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law, not much thought had been given to the organisation of the defence. The...

  3. Piloting Snapchat for Finnish Defence Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Immonen, Helena

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is about piloting Snapchat for Finnish Defence Forces. The goals for the thesis are to find out how Snapchat can be used as part of Finnish Defence Forces’ social media communication and strategy. Conscripts are the most important target group for social media communication in the Defence Forces. Young conscripts are the main target group for Snapchat. This thesis is theoretically based on organizational communication, stakeholder communication and social media communicati...

  4. Can the UN Stabilize Mali? Towards a UN Stabilization Doctrine?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arthur Boutellis

    2015-01-01

    ... of MINUSMA’s mandate and capabilities. It also raises a broader issue, of whether the consent-based UN peacekeeping tool is appropriate and can be effective in carrying out stabilization mandates in such a context and what doctrine...

  5. [The reception of Franz Joseph Gall's doctrine on phrenology in Holland shortly after 1800].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiningen, T

    1997-01-01

    Between 1800 and 1810 Gall's 'Hersen-Schedelleer' [= doctrine on phrenology] received increasing attention in Holland, just as it did in Germany and France. Gall had tried to connect visible human skull marks with brain anatomy, brain functioning and behaviour, a relationship in which he also compared man and animal. Scientists as well as people in non-scientific circles tried to find an answer to the question to what extent Gall's ideas on human brain anatomy and the development of the skull in relation to behaviour were acceptable. Besides there was a growing interest in the possible consequences of Gall's theory for moral life. However, Gall's doctrine was largely based on unproved and unprovable assumptions. Gall's visit to Holland, in the early spring of 1806, had a polarizing effect on supporters and adversaries, as it had had in Germany. In Holland Gerard Vrolik, professor at the Amsterdam Athenaeum Illustre, published the first treatise on this subject, in which he revealed himself to be a hesitant and prudent supporter of Gall's theories. From early 1804 Jacob Eliza Doornik, physician and scientist, and Martinus Stuart, theologist and historian, played a leading part in the discussion on this subject. The former opposed all aspects of Gall's theory. The latter - contrary to what one would expect - supported Gall in every way, with both regard to his explanation of brain anatomy and physiology and to his views on the relationship between the shape of the brain and the development of the skull. Remarkably he accepted Gall's materialism and rejected his fatalism. We can only explain Stuart's defence of Gall's moral views supposing he considered these in a religious framework. In Stuart's conviction God had given man a certain tendency to evil which man has to accept as a necessity in the fight against evil and the search for good. ...

  6. Homeland Security: Developing National Doctrine to Guide State Strategy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    James Monroe in 1823 ( Martin , n.d.). There is also political doctrine, such as egalitarianism a “political doctrine that holds that all people...be able to engage a larger stakeholder community and avoid the need for a huge new bureaucracy (Linde, O’Brien, Lindstrom , Spiegeleire, Vayrynen...Presentation, Osan Air Force Base, South Korea. 74 Linde, E., O’Brien, K., Lindstrom , G., Spiegeleire, S., Vayrynen, M., & de Vries, H. (2002

  7. Discussion on Registration Validity Doctrine of Housing Land Use Right

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Wenli

    2013-01-01

    Relationship between the registration and right change of housing land use right is not clearly stipulated in the Property Law. Land registration involves functions of private law and public law. It is partial to only considering private rights dimension when deciding whether registration validity doctrine or registration confrontation doctrine should be implemented in housing land use right. Compilation of land use planning, implementation of land use control and promotion of arrangement pro...

  8. Political and Legal Doctrine of Simon Bolivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mixail V. Fedorov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Present article is devoted to the legal, political and constitutional ideas of the outstanding leader of war of independence in Latin America Simon Bolivar that was called by his countrymen and contemporaries to be a LIBERATOR. In the present article author discusses complex genesis and evolution of the political and legal doctrine of Simon Bolivar. Review is conducted by author in the context of developing theory and practice of Latin American constitutionalism in the XIX century. Author conceptualized and revealed basic historical patterns of formation and development of Latin American countries during the War of Independence (1810-1826 period. Author conducted comprehensive analysis of the draft constitution which was developed by Simon Bolivar for the newly independent states of Latin America and reveals theoretical and practical problem of choosing Simon Bolivar republican form of government, such as a peculiar institution in the form of principle of the separation of powers, containing the fourth power. Author focuses on the questions of Simon Bolivar’s relationship to the constitutional institute of human rights, idea of relationship between state and church. Article also researches many other political, legal and constitutional ideas of Simon Bolivar, present views of historians, lawyers, political scientists, statesmen and public activists.

  9. CSIR eNews: Defence peace safety and security

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available in defence, peace, safety and security. CSIR DPSS provides a national defence S&T capability: supplying knowledge, advice and solutions in defence and matters of national security....

  10. CSIR eNews: Defence, peace, safety and security

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available , peace, safety and security. CSIR Defence, Peace, Safety and Security provides a national defence S&T capability: supplying knowledge, advice and solutions in defence and matters of national security....

  11. Identification of plant defence regulators through transcriptional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-02-04

    Feb 4, 2015 ... The cdd1 mutant is constitutive for salicylic acid accumulation, signalling, and defence against biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens, without having much impact on growth. Thus, cdd1 offers an ideal genetic background to identify novel regulators of plant defence. Here we report the differential gene.

  12. South Africa's Defence Industrial Participation in Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jvdyk

    2014-03-31

    Mar 31, 2014 ... civil purchases (e.g. passenger aircraft).3 As a result of the biggest defence transaction in. South Africa, the Strategic Defence Package. (SDP) of December 1999, incurred R15 billion worth of DIP obligations. This article. Scientia Militaria, South African. Journal of Military Studies, Vol. 44, No. 2, 2016, pp.

  13. The Parliamentary Dimension of Defence Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Anne; Drent, Margriet; Landman, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    Europe’s unprecedented security challenges call for a step change in the EU’s approach to security and defence. This Clingendael report reflects the main topics of discussion at the high-level Netherlands EU Presidency Seminar on Defence held on 20 and 21 January 2016. The new EU Global Strategy on

  14. The South African National Defence Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This research paper is an evaluation of The Souch African National Defence Force´s (SANDF) involvement in Peace Support Operations.......This research paper is an evaluation of The Souch African National Defence Force´s (SANDF) involvement in Peace Support Operations....

  15. Plant defences against herbivore and insect attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants deploy a number of defences against attack by insects and other herbivores. Direct defence is conferred by plant products and structures that deter or kill the herbivores. Chemical toxins and deterrents vary widely among plant species, and some typical toxins include alkaloids, terpenoids, st...

  16. Defence counsel in international criminal law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temminck Tuinstra, J.P.W.

    2009-01-01

    The field of international criminal law is relatively new and rapidly developing. This dissertation examines whether international criminal courts enable defence counsel to conduct an effective defence. When the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda (the ad hoc

  17. Failure probability of regional flood defences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendering, K.T.; lang, M.; Klijn, F.; Samuels, P.

    2016-01-01

    Polders in the Netherlands are protected from flooding by primary and regional flood defence systems. During the last decade, scientific research in flood risk focused on the development of a probabilistic approach to quantify the probability of flooding of the primary flood defence system. This

  18. Salmonella in Swedish cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ågren, Estelle

    2017-01-01

    In Sweden, all herds detected with salmonella are put under restrictions and measures aiming at eradication are required. The purpose of these studies was to provide a basis for decisions on how surveillance and control of salmonella in Swedish cattle can be made more cost-efficient. Results from a bulk milk screening were used to investigate seroprevalence of salmonella and to study associations between salmonella status and geographical location, local animal density, number of test pos...

  19. Swedish electricity market 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The organization of the Swedish electricity market has been in a state of continual change since the electricity market reform was started in the early 1990s. The conditions for the development of the electricity market have changed since the new Electricity Act came into force on 1 January 1996. The purpose of the reform is to introduce greater competition on the electricity market and provide the consumers with greater freedom of choice and, by open trade in electricity, to create the conditions for more efficient pricing. Being the central energy authority, the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development, NUTEK, was entrusted by the Government with the task of following developments on the Swedish electricity market. The Network Authority, which has the supervisory function for the new electricity market, were entrusted by the Government with the task of following developments on the Swedish electricity market and regularly compiling and reporting current market information. The new electricity market has now been operative for ten months. The Network Authority has submitted to the Government a detailed report entitled `Developments on the electricity market`, dealing with the experience gained from the electricity market reform. The purpose of the publication is to provide the players on the electricity market - the decision makers, the media and the general public - with comprehensive and easily accessible information on the market conditions. The publication includes summaries of information on electricity production and use in recent years, the structure of the electricity market from the perspective of a player, electricity trade in Sweden and in northern Europe, electricity prices in Sweden and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment

  20. Swedish Family Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrstrom, Staffan

    1986-01-01

    Family policy remains one of the leading issues of Swedish domestic politics. All parties are agreed that families with children must be given a better deal in the wake of the economic crisis. But how is this to be done and how quickly can it be achieved? Is the expansion of day nursery facilities to be speeded up, or are parents to be given a…

  1. Failure probability of regional flood defences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lendering Kasper

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polders in the Netherlands are protected from flooding by primary and regional flood defence systems. During the last decade, scientific research in flood risk focused on the development of a probabilistic approach to quantify the probability of flooding of the primary flood defence system. This paper proposed a methodology to quantify the probability of flooding of regional flood defence systems, which required several additions to the methodology used for the primary flood defence system. These additions focused on a method to account for regulation of regional water levels, the possibility of (reduced intrusion resistance due to maintenance dredging in regional water, the probability of traffic loads and the influence of dependence between regional water levels and the phreatic surface of a regional flood defence. In addition, reliability updating is used to demonstrate the potential for updating the probability of failure of regional flood defences with performance observations. The results demonstrated that the proposed methodology can be used to determine the probability of flooding of a regional flood defence system. In doing so, the methodology contributes to improving flood risk management in these systems.

  2. A Critical Analysis of Some Views on Atonement Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyavash Asadi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of "Atonement doctrine", Christ’s severe suffering and sacrificial death led to God’s forgiveness of mankind’s sins . There are several theories on this doctrine, the most important of which are three: “Ransom Theory”, “Moral Exemplar Theory”, and “Satisfaction Theory”. This paper presents a brief introduction to these theories and a critical consideration of challenges and answers to them. To this aim, this paper considers the answers of Thomas Aquinas, Philip Quinn and Richard Swinburne. The paper shows that the Atonement doctrine cannot be logically defended and each of the answers to its difficulties causes new challenges and antinomies. Nevertheless, the Swinburne’s theory has less difficulties than the others, although it also cannot answer to some important questions .

  3. A Critical Analysis of Some Views on Atonement Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoolrasool Kashfi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available   On the basis of "Atonement doctrine", Christ’s severe suffering and sacrificial death led to God’s forgiveness of mankind’s sins . There are several theories on this doctrine, the most important of which are three: “Ransom Theory”, “Moral Exemplar Theory”, and “Satisfaction Theory”. This paper presents a brief introduction to these theories and a critical consideration of challenges and answers to them. To this aim, this paper considers the answers of Thomas Aquinas, Philip Quinn and Richard Swinburne. The paper shows that the Atonement doctrine cannot be logically defended and each of the answers to its difficulties causes new challenges and antinomies. Nevertheless, the Swinburne’s theory has less difficulties than the others, although it also cannot answer to some important questions .     

  4. A Critical Analysis of Some Views on Atonement Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashfi, A.R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of "Atonement doctrine", Christ’s severe suffering and sacrificial death led to God’s forgiveness of mankind’s sins . There are several theories on this doctrine, the most important of which are three: “Ransom Theory”, “Moral Exemplar Theory”, and “Satisfaction Theory”. This paper presents a brief introduction to these theories and a critical consideration of challenges and answers to them. To this aim, this paper considers the answers of Thomas Aquinas, Philip Quinn and Richard Swinburne. The paper shows that the Atonement doctrine cannot be logically defended and each of the answers to its difficulties causes new challenges and antinomies. Nevertheless, the Swinburne’s theory has less difficulties than the others, although it also cannot answer to some important questions.

  5. Environmental Management at Swedish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Karin

    2004-01-01

    Since 1996, all Swedish public authorities, which includes most universities, have been made responsible for contributing to the sustainable development of the society. Swedish universities are thus required to submit annual environmental reports about their policies, structures and actions. This study provides a review of the activities that…

  6. Altruistic defence behaviours in aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodeur Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altruistic anti-predatory behaviours pose an evolutionary problem because they are costly to the actor and beneficial to the recipients. Altruistic behaviours can evolve through indirect fitness benefits when directed toward kin. The altruistic nature of anti-predatory behaviours is often difficult to establish because the actor can obtain direct fitness benefits, or the behaviour could result from selfish coercion by others, especially in eusocial animals. Non-eusocial parthenogenetically reproducing aphids form colonies of clone-mates, which are ideal to test the altruistic nature of anti-predatory defence behaviours. Many aphids release cornicle secretions when attacked by natural enemies such as parasitoids. These secretions contain an alarm pheromone that alerts neighbours (clone-mates of danger, thereby providing indirect fitness benefits to the actor. However, contact with cornicle secretions also hampers an attacker and could provide direct fitness to the actor. Results We tested the hypothesis that cornicle secretions are altruistic by assessing direct and indirect fitness consequences of smearing cornicle secretions onto an attacker, and by manipulating the number of clone-mates that could benefit from the behaviour. We observed parasitoids, Aphidius rhopalosiphi, foraging singly in patches of the cereal aphid Sitobion avenae of varied patch size (2, 6, and 12 aphids. Aphids that smeared parasitoids did not benefit from a reduced probability of parasitism, or increase the parasitoids' handling time. Smeared parasitoids, however, spent proportionately more time grooming and less time foraging, which resulted in a decreased host-encounter and oviposition rate within the host patch. In addition, individual smearing rate increased with the number of clone-mates in the colony. Conclusions Cornicle secretions of aphids were altruistic against parasitoids, as they provided no direct fitness benefits to secretion

  7. Altruistic defence behaviours in aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gi-Mick; Boivin, Guy; Brodeur, Jacques; Giraldeau, Luc-Alain; Outreman, Yannick

    2010-01-20

    Altruistic anti-predatory behaviours pose an evolutionary problem because they are costly to the actor and beneficial to the recipients. Altruistic behaviours can evolve through indirect fitness benefits when directed toward kin. The altruistic nature of anti-predatory behaviours is often difficult to establish because the actor can obtain direct fitness benefits, or the behaviour could result from selfish coercion by others, especially in eusocial animals. Non-eusocial parthenogenetically reproducing aphids form colonies of clone-mates, which are ideal to test the altruistic nature of anti-predatory defence behaviours. Many aphids release cornicle secretions when attacked by natural enemies such as parasitoids. These secretions contain an alarm pheromone that alerts neighbours (clone-mates) of danger, thereby providing indirect fitness benefits to the actor. However, contact with cornicle secretions also hampers an attacker and could provide direct fitness to the actor. We tested the hypothesis that cornicle secretions are altruistic by assessing direct and indirect fitness consequences of smearing cornicle secretions onto an attacker, and by manipulating the number of clone-mates that could benefit from the behaviour. We observed parasitoids, Aphidius rhopalosiphi, foraging singly in patches of the cereal aphid Sitobion avenae of varied patch size (2, 6, and 12 aphids). Aphids that smeared parasitoids did not benefit from a reduced probability of parasitism, or increase the parasitoids' handling time. Smeared parasitoids, however, spent proportionately more time grooming and less time foraging, which resulted in a decreased host-encounter and oviposition rate within the host patch. In addition, individual smearing rate increased with the number of clone-mates in the colony. Cornicle secretions of aphids were altruistic against parasitoids, as they provided no direct fitness benefits to secretion-releasing individuals, only indirect fitness benefits through

  8. Defence Capability Plan 2006-2016

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    The Defence Capability Plan: Public Version 2006-2016 (DCP 2006-16) provides a brief account of major capital equipment proposals that are currently planned to be approved in the period 2006 to 2016...

  9. The mechanical defence advantage of small seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Evan C; Wright, S Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Seed size and toughness affect seed predators, and size-dependent investment in mechanical defence could affect relationships between seed size and predation. We tested how seed toughness and mechanical defence traits (tissue density and protective tissue content) are related to seed size among tropical forest species. Absolute toughness increased with seed size. However, smaller seeds had higher specific toughness both within and among species, with the smallest seeds requiring over 2000 times more energy per gram to break than the largest seeds. Investment in mechanical defence traits varied widely but independently of the toughness-mass allometry. Instead, a physical scaling relationship confers a toughness advantage on small seeds independent of selection on defence traits and without a direct cost. This scaling relationship may contribute to seed size diversity by decreasing fitness differences among large and small seeds. Allometric scaling of toughness reconciles predictions and conflicting empirical relationships between seed size and predation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  10. Driving Danish Defence Towards Political Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    Scientist’s Perspective ........................................................................................... 24 Kotter’s Eight-step Change Model ...structure of the Danish Defence, the underlying perspective in this thesis will be based on social constructivism . According to John W. Creswell...

  11. Comparative perspectives on East and West European defence industries

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Brian

    2001-01-01

    Coupled with the continuing threat of reduced defence expenditures and increasing competition, European defence companies have reacted with a number of strategic manoeuvres involving mergers, acquisitions and other forms of alliance. Moves towards a single European defence industry have been a focus for discussion among major EU member countries for some time and the integration of defence aerospace organisations seems well placed to succeed with the advent of EADS. Defence industry firms and...

  12. Host defences against Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Romero, G; Quintero, J; Astiazarán-García, H; Velazquez, C

    2015-08-01

    Giardia spp. is a protozoan parasite that inhabits the upper small intestine of mammals and other species and is the aetiological agent of giardiasis. It has been demonstrated that nitric oxide, mast cells and dendritic cells are the first line of defence against Giardia. IL-6 and IL-17 play an important role during infection. Several cytokines possess overlapping functions in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. IgA and CD4(+) T cells are fundamental to the process of Giardia clearance. It has been suggested that CD4(+) T cells play a double role during the anti-Giardia immune response. First, they activate and stimulate the differentiation of B cells to generate Giardia-specific antibodies. Second, they act through a B-cell-independent mechanism that is probably mediated by Th17 cells. Several Giardia proteins that stimulate humoral and cellular immune responses have been described. Variant surface proteins, α-1 giardin, and cyst wall protein 2 can induce host protective responses to future Giardia challenges. The characterization and evaluation of the protective potential of the immunogenic proteins that are associated with Giardia will offer new insights into host-parasite interactions and may aid in the development of an effective vaccine against the parasite. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. UK photonics in defence and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracie, C.; Tooley, I.; Wilson, A.

    2008-10-01

    The UK is globally recognised as strong in Photonics. However its Photonics sector is fragmented and the size and sectors of interest have not previously been established. The UK government has instigated the formation of the Photonics Knowledge Transfer Network (PKTN) to bring the Photonics community together. The UK features in Defence & Security; Communications; Measurement; Medical Technology; Lighting; Solar Energy; Information Technology and Flat Panels. This expertise is scattered through out the UK in geographic areas each with a breadth of Photonic interests. The PKTN has mapped the UK capability in all Photonics sectors. This paper will present the capability of the Companies, Research Institutions and Infrastructure making up the Defence & Security Photonics scene in the UK. Large Defence companies in the UK are well known throughout the world. However, there are a large number of SMEs, which may not be as well known in the supply chain. These are being actively encouraged by the UK MoD to engage with the Defence & Security Market and shall be discussed here. The presentation will reference a number of organisations which help to fund and network the community, such as the Defence Technology Centres. In addition the Roadmap for Defence & Security in the UK, produced for the UK Photonics Strategy (July 2006) by the Scottish Optoelectronics Association will be described and the plans in taking it forward under the PKTN will be revealed.

  14. 47 CFR 76.209 - Fairness doctrine; personal attacks; political editorials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fairness doctrine; personal attacks; political... RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cablecasting § 76.209 Fairness doctrine... importance. Note to § 76.209: See public notice, “Applicability of the Fairness Doctrine in the Handling of...

  15. 76 FR 55817 - Broadcast Applications and Proceedings; Fairness Doctrine and Digital Broadcast Television...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 1, 73 and 76 Broadcast Applications and Proceedings; Fairness Doctrine and Digital Broadcast Television Redistribution Control; Fairness Doctrine, Personal Attacks, Political Editorials and... legal effect and are obsolete. The deleted rules include ] the fairness doctrine, broadcast flag rules...

  16. Novel naval technologies: Sustaining or disrupting naval doctrine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Kulve, Haico; Smit, Willem A.

    2010-01-01

    The defense sector is generally known to be simultaneously conservative and enthusiastic about novel technologies. Uptake of new technologies by the military may differ depending on the perceived impact of new technologies. Introduction of technological changes can sustain or disrupt doctrine and

  17. ARMY DOCTRINE AND THE PHYSICAL DOMAIN REQUIREMENTS OF STRATEGIC LEADERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    personality, values, abilities and skills , leadership styles and behaviors. A leader’s genetics, exposed to an environment interact to shape the...of three attributes within Army leadership doctrine. Character, Presence, and Intellect are contextually used to define the three components...Presence is fitness, bearing, attitude, and resilience. Character is values and morals with Intellect being cognitive skills . The overall intent of

  18. The Doctrine of Eternal Recurrence and its significance with respect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reading the writings of Nietzsche is somewhat like putting together a large and complex jigsaw puzzle. In this paper I aim to show how two pieces of. Nietzsche's puzzle fit together: the first piece being the Doctrine of Eternal Recurrence; and the second piece being On the Genealogy of Morals. In order to see how these two ...

  19. Swiss Armed Forces Reform: Doctrinal and Organizational Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    making me laugh and accepting that I could not always open the door, play ball, listen to the whole story or catch frogs. Finally, this project would...Draft documents propose Zonenverteidigung [Zone Defense] as a defensive doctrine, which is nothing more than a reduced version of the dynamische

  20. An Ingenuous Account of the Doctrine of the Mean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Martin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aristotle admits the possibility of many vices opposed to one virtue, but insists that there are always at least two, related as deficiency and excess. The doctrine that virtue is in a mean is thus both true and useful.

  1. U-CrAc Flexible Interior Doctrine, Agile Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Bolvig; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    2012-01-01

    The research domain of this article is flexible learning environment for immediate use. The research question is: How can the learning environment support an agile learning process? The research contribution of this article is a flexible interior doctrine. The research method is action research...

  2. An Army without Doctrine: The Evolution of US Army Tactics in the Absence of Doctrine, 1779 to 1847

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harvey, Conrad E

    2007-01-01

    .... During this period, the U.S. Army lacked a comprehensive written doctrine that captured how the Army fought its wars so that those skills and techniques could be passed down for subsequent conflicts against Native Americans. This caused the U.S...

  3. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  4. Strategic analysis of Swedish agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Fogelfors, Håkan; Wivstad, Maria; Eckersten, Henrik; Holstein, Fredrik; Johansson, Susanne; Verwijst, Theo

    2009-01-01

    This strategic analysis of Swedish agriculture – production systems and agricultural landscapes in a time of change – focuses on climate change, future availability of natural resources and economic regulation in a global food market. The background to the project was that the Faculty of Natural Resources and Agriculture of the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences identified an urgent need to explore the implications and opportunities of coming changes for agricultural production syste...

  5. Plants under attack: systemic signals in defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jyoti

    2009-08-01

    Efficient communication between the pest-colonised and non-colonised organs is vital for the timely manifestation of defences that restrict systemic spread of pests. The vasculature provides an important conduit for translocation of signals that contribute to long-distance communication within a plant. Airborne signals also contribute to this process. In recent years, major advances have been made in identifying metabolites that are candidate systemic signals in plant defence against pathogens. Methyl salicylate, jasmonates, azelaic acid and a diterpenoid have been implicated as mobile signals associated with the activation of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), which confers enhanced resistance against a broad spectrum of pathogens. By contrast, auxins probably contribute to negative regulation of systemic defences.

  6. MAPK cascade signalling networks in plant defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzschke, Andrea; Schikora, Adam; Hirt, Heribert

    2009-08-01

    The sensing of stress signals and their transduction into appropriate responses is crucial for the adaptation and survival of plants. Kinase cascades of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) class play a remarkably important role in plant signalling of a variety of abiotic and biotic stresses. MAPK cascade-mediated signalling is an essential step in the establishment of resistance to pathogens. Here, we describe the most recent insights into MAPK-mediated pathogen defence response regulation with a particular focus on the cascades involving MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6. We also discuss the strategies developed by plant pathogens to circumvent, inactivate or even 'hijack' MAPK-mediated defence responses.

  7. Airbus Defence & Space 4.0

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nasr, J-M

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available -Marc NASR – Senior Vice President Middle East & Africa 06 Oct, 2017 – Pretoria Airbus Defence & Space Airbus Defence & Space 4.0 2 “If I had asked to people what they wanted, they would have said faster horses." (Henry Ford) “Heavier...-than-air flying machines are impossible." (Lord Kelvin, President, Royal Society, 1895) Where we come from I was a child of the 80s 3 My iPhone My iPod My Google My YouTube My WhatsApp My eMail My navigation system 4 Digitalization changes...

  8. Unpacking the Public Trust Doctrine: A Journey into Foreign Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E van der Schyff

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has borne witness to the transformation of South Africa's natural resources law with the introduction of a new legal concept, that of "public trusteeship", to South African jurisprudence. The concept of "public trusteeship" as it is embodied in South African legislation encapsulates the sovereign's duty to act as guardian of certain interests to the benefit of the nation as a whole. In the quest to demystify the incorporation of the concept of "public trusteeship" in South Africa, this article, as a first tentative step, focuses solely on the public trust doctrine as it functions in American jurisprudence. It is the aim of this article to give a thorough theoretical exposition of the development and application of the public trust doctrine in American jurisprudence in order to provide the South African scholar with a perspective on a legal construct founded on the philosophical notion that governments exercise a "fiduciary trust" on behalf of their people.

  9. Heterodox Autonomy Doctrine: realism and purposes, and its relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Bernal-Meza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Autonomy Doctrine, elaborated by Juan Carlos Puig, is a realist point of view of International Relations. It is an analysis, from the periphery, about the structure of world power, and a roadmap (from a theoretical point of view for the longing process of autonomization-regarding hegemonic power-for a country whose ruling class would decide to overcome dependency. The elements its author took into account when analyzing its own context are explained in this text and, afterwards, are reflected over its relevance nowadays. For that purpose, it is necessary to answer certain questions, such as which are the concepts and categories that may explain its relevance, its applicability to regional integration and cooperation models and projects, and what would be the analytical method to compare reality versus ideas, among others. The methodological proposal to analyze the relevance of Puig's doctrine is to compare it to different visions of regionalism that are currently in effect in Latin America.

  10. The Icarus Illusion: Technology, Doctrine and the Soviet Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    Kipp, Jacob W., eds. Soviet Aviation and Air Power. Boulder: Westview Press, 1977. Hollowav. David. The Soviet Union and the Arms Race. New Haven: Yale...L. Fighter Combat: Tactics, and Maneuvering. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1985. Scott, Harriet Fast and Scott, William F. The Armed Forces of the...USSR. Boulder: Praeger, 1979. Scott, Harriet Fast and Scott, William F., eds. The Soviet Art of War: Doctrine, Strategy and Tactics. Boulder

  11. Doctrine Development Process in the Kenya Army: Bridging the Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    user, avoiding abstract or overly academic writing . It should be comprehensible in a single rapid reading and free of errors in grammar , mechanics, and...John Wycliffe used it in a religious sense to define the teaching of a body of instruction. In 1848, I. E Holmes mentioned doctrine as it pertained...authoritative and officially approved teachings based upon accumulated experience, numerous recorded instances that have led to generalization. To

  12. The Value of Doctrine for a Developing Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    such as Coca Cola or FedEx. Branding is discussed further in the body of this thesis. While not doctrinal, so to speak, it does resonate with the...security strategy as to the core competencies , capabilities and limitations of military forces. It also provides other government agencies and...leadership “is a type of leadership that evokes collaboration and concerted action among diverse and often competing groups toward a shared outcome.” The

  13. Swedish encapsulation station review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G. [NAC International, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB`s document `Plan 1996`. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL`s Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International`s experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation 19 refs, 9 figs, 35 tabs

  14. Swedish vineyards: a utopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mårtensson A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Anna Mårtensson,1 Thord Karlsson,2 Jan-Gunnar Gustafsson31Department of Soil and Environment, 2Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden; 3Bio Evaluation AB, Uppsala, SwedenAbstract: As there is an increasing interest for setting up vineyards and wineries in Sweden, a cost analysis is becoming necessary. In this study, we assessed the potential for wine production in Sweden. The estimated annual costs varied from €15.1/per L for production of 1800 L wine per ha to €41.9 for 525 L per ha. For an annual production of 1800 L per ha potentially achieved in an established vineyard, the capital requirement is €730,000. It would take 6 years for the investment to be paid off if the wine was sold for €37.5 per L. The high production costs mean that the only viable option for success is to orientate production towards the exclusive upper segment.Keywords: cold climate conditions, wine production costs, wine quality

  15. The formulation of the neuron doctrine: the Island of Cajal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Sidlow, R J

    1998-02-01

    Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934), Spanish histologist, was the renowned formulator of the "neuron doctrine" and recipient of the 1906 Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology for his work on the structure of the nervous system. In contrast to the then well-accepted "reticular theory," which held that the nervous system is arranged and functions as a continuous network of cellular material, Cajal's neuron doctrine envisioned each nerve cell as an autonomous entity, establishing contact--not continuity--with other nerve cells. Cajal's theory is as well a description fitting of Cajal's own temperament, as emerges from his profound memoirs Recuerdos de Mi Vida (Recollections of My Life). The recollections detail the life of the man known from his boyhood as "capricious," the term for the goat who lives alone in the hills. For Cajal, this need for solitude and autonomy was reflected in his choice of the adventurer Robinson Crusoe as a childhood hero. Throughout his life, Cajal's desire for independence formed both his social interactions and his scientific pursuits; in his research, he preferred to remain unfettered by the academic "reticulum" of his time. A close reading of his memoirs reveals that the neuron doctrine, which envisions each nerve cell as "free," is a theory shaped by Cajal's essence, by his solitary nature and unhindered personal spirit.

  16. Swedish Defence Research Abstracts 1980/81-3 (Froe Forsvars Forsknings Referat 1980/81-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    thermophilic actinomycetes (culture temp 500C); the size of airborne particles contain- ing bacteria and fungi respectively. The results obtained in the great...number of fungi (culture temp 240 and 44 C); coliform bacteria (culture temp 370 and 44 C); salmonella; thermophilic actinomycetes (culture temp 500C); the...discussed. This article forms part of the FOA/STU agreement on marine technology. E4 Countermeasures, including signal interception and technical

  17. Swedish Defence Research Abstracts 82/83-2 (Froe Foersvars Forsknings Referat 82/83-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    alarm (78) Carbon dioxide retention inside motorcycle helmets (79) Vibration and decompression gas bubbles (80) No effects of nootropic drugs on memory... nootropic drugs on memory and psychomotor performance during reduced air pressure (in English) S. Levander and others Report I from the Roche Clinical Unit

  18. Swedish Defence Research Abstracts 82/83-1 (Froe Foersvars Forsknings Referat 82/83-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    system (25) Long-range target identification of vehicle silhouettes (26) Factor analytical description of night vision tests (27) Identification of...report contains a brief technical description, gives the structural requirements for the camara , and account of masurmnts and field tests. The c re...description of night vision tests (in English) Lars Persson and others August 1982 The object of the present study was to identify the fundamental

  19. Swedish Defence Research Abstracts 78/79-1 (Froe Foersvars Forsknings Referat 78/79-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-07

    first practise TM or some other technique supposed to influence the mind, eg yoga or self- training. They all agreed and said they intended to start with...between the groups for variables such as weight, bone structure, blood pressure, and acuteness of vision and hearing. Allergies to food substances were

  20. Leadership and Institutional Reform in Consensual Democracies : Dutch and Swedish Defence Organizations after the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noll, Jörg E.

    2005-01-01

    Het einde van de Koude Oorlog betekende niet noodzakelijkerwijs het einde van de dienstplicht in Westerse democratieën. De reactie van verschillende landen op het einde van de Koude Oorlog (of: de val van het IJzeren Gordijn) wordt gekenmerkt door een grote mate van variatie. Nederland en Zweden

  1. Swedish Defence Research Abstracts 1979/80-2 (Froe Foersvars Forsknings Referat 1979/80-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    matching criteria in 6 groups: (i) Persons subjected to stress (the Stroop test) where performance was found to be related to the emotional index (E). (ii...officers under training, and whose ranking was related to the R index. (v) Women after mastectomy as a result of cancer , whose self-esteem and con

  2. Swedish Defence Research Abstracts 1979/80-3 (Froe Foersvars Forsknings Referat 1979/80-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    effectivity - Interim report E CONDUCT OF WAR - INFORMATION AND COMMAND TECHNIqUE (139) Optical electronics - apparatus and techniques (140) Computer ...planning and operational use. (ii) Studies and research involving topography in the yCA. (iii) Computer techniques for processing and utilisint- topog...vinits ,Ore >ait, universities in Ottawa and Utah for discussions on reometricul and Fraphical Jata yro- cessing, and to the data-processing conference

  3. Swedish Defence Research Abstracts 81/82-1 (Froe Foersvars Forsknings Referat 81/82-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-28

    the corresponding untreated controls. Animals receiving bone 7 - marrow transplants exhibited a similar increase at the higher dose. As regards bone...Alexander L. Kielland on 27 March 1980 Helge Bryne and Henry Lorin In response to an invitation from Norway to participate in a Symposium on 21-22...regards serious accidents at sea and under hostile conditions. Therefore after the symposium H. Lorin contacted H. Bryne of the Rogaland Central

  4. Swedish Defence Research Abstracts 79/80-4 (Froe Foersvars Forsknings Referat 79/80-4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-05

    di;plaY ,geographical databases. A large port o i the costs of these systems coo nw , -i Pd to the digitalisation and codirig f the i ptt data. A...plaY ,geographical databases. A large port o i the costs of these systems coo nw , -i Pd to the digitalisation and codirig f the i ptt data. A method is...consisted of just on 500 secondary school pupils. By means of a group questionnaire in two parts and using two question forms, their mass-media habits

  5. Applying systems engineering principles towards developing defence capabilities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, CJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to high cost of defence systems and the advent of multi-role military platforms, defence forces can no longer replace old systems with similar newer systems, but need to effectively and continually re-evaluate their defence capability...

  6. Trends in Western Defence Planning: Regulatory, Temporal and Functional Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2011-01-01

    Even as political attention/guidance has consistently moved away from core/classical defence planning areas, much less has changed than expected at the level of actual defence planning process. One might conceptually discern three major axes along which defence planning change (and the debate about...... it) is happening: Regulatory elevation; Temporal extension; Functional widening. This brief presents these axes and discusses implications....

  7. Genetics of insect resistance to plant defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, K.M.C.A.

    2014-01-01

      Plants are chemically defended against insect herbivory in various ways. They produce a broad range of secondary metabolites that may be toxic or deterrent to insects. Specialist insects, however, are often capable of overcoming these defences. The yellow striped flea beetle (Phyllotreta

  8. Foreigners in the defence of South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical assault against the. Republic is conducted by Russian supported revolutionary and terrorist ... tertiary educational careers unhindered. How- ever, the newly-promulgated amendment to the. Defence Act ... quite a few lost their lives for the cause they believed in. Portuguese and Jewish South Africans of the July ...

  9. Salicylic acid-independent plant defence pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van

    1999-01-01

    Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule involved in both locally and systemically induced disease resistance responses. Recent advances in our understanding of plant defence signalling have revealed that plants employ a network of signal transduction pathways, some of which are

  10. Defence Output Measures: An Economics Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    1 Introduction 1.1...intentionally left blank. 1 Introduction 1.1 Terms of Reference The Terms of Reference required research on defence...It also protects national interests, including independence and ‘appropriate sovereignty’ (e.g. protecting a nation’s interests in a globalised

  11. Identification of plant defence regulators through transcriptional

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Through bacterial resistance, callose deposition and pathogenesis-associated expression analyses, we identified four novel regulators of plant defence. Resistance levels in the mutants suggest that At2g19810 and [rom] At5g05790 are positive regulators, whereas At1g61370 and At3g42790 are negative regulators of plant ...

  12. Induced chemical defences in Colophospermum mopane trees ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Induced chemical defences in Colophospermum mopane trees. DCJ Wessels, C van der Waal, WF de Boer. Abstract. A field experiment was conducted in which Mopane (Colophospermum mopane) trees were subjected to three different canopy treatments:felling of trees at a mean height of 0.7m above ground level, felling ...

  13. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 2. The Immune System and Bodily Defence How Do Parasites and the Immune System Choose their Dances? Vineeta Bal Satyajit Rath. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 2 February 1997 pp 17-24 ...

  14. The Cooperative Ballistic Missile Defence Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing proliferation of ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction poses new risks worldwide. For a threatened nation and given the characteristics of this threat a layered ballistic missile defence system strategy appears to be the preferred solution. However, such a strategy

  15. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. The Immune System and Bodily Defence How Does the Immune System Organize Itself so as to Connect Target Recognition to Expected Functions? Vineeta Bal Satyajit Rath. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 25-38 ...

  16. Closing the loop: towards strategic defence management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Spiegeleire, S.; van Hooft, P.; Culpepper, C.; Willems, R.

    2009-01-01

    How do defence-organisations (or organisations with comparable profiles) of other countries map out policy goals and how are policy goals related to activities and capabilities and the required financial means, and finally how does the feedback loop on the performance in all these areas take place?

  17. Reliability analysis of flood defence systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, H.M.G.M.; Lassing, B.L.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Waarts, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years an advanced program for the reliability analysis of flood defence systems has been under development. This paper describes the global data requirements for the application and the setup of the models. The analysis generates the probability of system failure and the contribution of

  18. South Africa's Defence Industrial Participation in Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jvdyk

    2014-03-31

    Mar 31, 2014 ... One is the DIP, managed exclusively by Armscor, South Africa's acquisition agency. DIP favours pursuing ..... and NIP (the DTI) custodians. DIP directly caused a substantial number of mergers between prominent .... “Defence acquisitions – Unpacking the package deals”. ISS occasional paper no. 29.

  19. Psychobiology of coping and defence strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursin, H.; Olff, M.

    1993-01-01

    The stress response should be regarded as an alarm system, occurring whenever there is something missing. Lack of information (uncertainty), and the absence or loss of control produce alarm, presence of information and control (coping), or cognitive defence mechanisms (distorted stimulus

  20. The Swedish Energy Market 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-01

    The Swedish Energy Market, 2005 is an annual publication that presents information and statistics on the network based energy markets in Sweden, i.e. the markets for electricity, natural gas and district heating. It also provides an overview of the issues that have arisen on these markets during the second half of 2004 and the first half of 2005. Considerable work is being carried out in the EU on creating a single market for electricity and natural gas. This publication therefore describes expansion of the Swedish market towards a Nordic and a European market. The publication normally includes a theme chapter, describing some event of particular interest for the Swedish energy market during the year. This year, the theme chapter is devoted to the Storm Gudrun, which struck the south of the country at the beginning of January, and its effects on electricity supply throughout the country. The chapter is based on the report submitted to the Government by the Energy Markets Inspectorate in the spring of 2005, and also includes a summary of the Inspectorate's proposals for measures to improve the security of electricity transmission. Energy in Sweden, which is another of the Swedish Energy Agency's annual publications, provides information and statistics on the development of the entire Swedish energy system.

  1. Health and safety strategy in Swedish agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Peter; Svennefelt, Catharina Alwall

    2012-01-01

    In Sweden there is a joint focus on injury prevention in agriculture and this is coordinated through the Swedish Committee on Working Environment (LAMK). LAMK is a network working for a good, healthy and safe working environment in Swedish agriculture from the view of the enterprise with the humans in focus. It is a committee consisting of representatives of authorities, institutions, companies, research & education institutions and organisations referring to the green sector. Examples of on-going initiatives & partners are presented which are included in this mission against injuries in agriculture. It involves the Swedish Work Environment Authority,, the Federation of Swedish Farmers (LRF), the Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU, the Federation of Swedish Forestry and Agricultural Employers (SLA) and the Swedish Municipal Worker's Union.

  2. Is the Swedish FRAX model appropriate for Swedish immigrants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, H; Odén, A; Lorentzon, M; McCloskey, E; Kanis, J A; Harvey, N C; Karlsson, M K; Mellström, D

    2015-11-01

    The incidence of hip fracture in Sweden is substantially lower in immigrants than in the population born in Sweden. Thus, the use of a FRAX® model in immigrants overestimates the risk of fracture, and the use of country of origin-specific models may be more appropriate. Age-specific fracture and mortality rates vary between countries so that FRAX tools are country-specific. In the case of immigrants, it is not known whether the model for the original or the new country is most appropriate. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of hip fractures in foreign-born and Swedish-born individuals residing in Sweden. We studied the incidence of hip fracture in all men and women aged 50 years or more in Sweden between 1987 and 2002. The population comprised 2.8 million Swedish-born and 270,000 foreign-born individuals. Incident hip fractures occurred in 239,842 Swedish-born and 12,563 foreign-born individuals. The hip fracture incidence rose with age for both groups and was higher for women than men amongst both Swedish-born and foreign-born individuals. The hip fracture incidence for the Swedish-born cohort was approximately twice that of immigrants. For example, at the age of 70 years, the annual hip fracture incidence (per 100,000) was 450 (95 % CI 446-454) for a Swedish-born woman and 239 (95 % CI 223-257) for a foreign-born woman at the time of immigration. The hip fracture incidence rose slowly with time from immigration (0.6 % per annum, 95 % CI 0.5-0.8 %) but remained significantly lower than for Swedish-born individuals even after 40 years of residence. The incidence of hip fracture in Sweden is substantially lower in immigrants than in the population native to Sweden. Although there was a small rise in age- and sex-specific incidence after immigration, the incidence remained markedly lower than that observed in Swedish-born individuals. Thus, the use of a FRAX model for Sweden will overestimate the risk of fracture for foreign-born individuals living

  3. Bonjour tristesse in Swedish suburbia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Jonas E

    2013-01-01

    the country. Global news media paralleled the Swedish situation with previous incidents in Paris in 2007, Athens in 2008 and London in 2011. Foreign offices, among others the American, British, Danish, and Norwegian ones, advised their citizens not to travel to Sweden: the Swedish welfare model...... and a high unemployment rate. The young generation experienced a Bonjour Tristesse! existence going in and out of unemployment. An existing dismay with architecture and physical planning of suburbia surfaced: The plausible responsibility of the body of architects was debated, since many esteemed profiles...... of the Swedish functionalist architecture had been involved in its realisation. One representative of the profession stated the need for upgrading the existing architecture to new user needs, while another one emphasised that the real group of inhabitants in suburbia is often not the group of users envisioned...

  4. Obstetric Thromboprophylaxis: The Swedish Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelle G. Lindqvist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstetric thromboprophylaxis is difficult. Since 10 years Swedish obstetricians have used a combined risk estimation model and recommendations concerning to whom, at what dose, when, and for how long thromboprophylaxis is to be administrated based on a weighted risk score. In this paper we describe the background and validation of the Swedish guidelines for obstetric thromboprophylaxis in women with moderate-high risk of VTE, that is, at similar or higher risk as the antepartum risk among women with history of thrombosis. The risk score is based on major risk factors (i.e., 5-fold increased risk of thromboembolism. We present data on the efficacy of the model, the cost-effectiveness, and the lifestyle advice that is given. We believe that the Swedish guidelines for obstetric thromboprophylaxis aid clinicians in providing women at increased risk of VTE with effective and appropriate thromboprophylaxis, thus avoiding both over- and under-treatment.

  5. Meta-Analysis of Data from the Submarine Ventilation Doctrine Test Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoover, J

    1998-01-01

    .... The Submarine Ventilation Doctrine Test Program was developed to address submarine-specific issues regarding the use of ventilation systems to control smoke and heat movement, maintain habitability...

  6. Coping and defence mechanisms: what's the difference?--second act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Ueli

    2010-06-01

    Research into adaptational processes has sometimes been confusing as regards differentiating coping and defence mechanisms. This theoretical discussion is based on Cramer's effort to disentangle the two concepts concerning the psychological processes involved, as well as acknowledge their mutual overlapping. Although such an effort is needed, at the same time several issues should be re-addressed and further implications on the differentiation of coping and defence processes discussed, such as consciousness and intentionality, functionality, adaptiveness, and the question of trait versus state. Based on Cramer's review, a search was conducted for current models on defence and coping that address the aforementioned implications. Only theoretical models that differentiate the defence and coping concepts, without necessarily presenting related empirical evidence, were taken into account. Recent integrative models of defence and coping yield a more differentiated picture with regard to these issues: coping includes conscious and unconscious efforts, coping and defence serve very similar functions, adaptiveness can be defined in qualitative (defences) and quantitative (coping) terms and the question of stability of defences and coping needs to be more fully explored empirically. Furthermore, the nature of the underlying fear can be theoretically differentiated and related to the difference between coping and defence. Also, the implication of competence-related aspects of functioning (coping) and of internal determinants of functioning (defence) is discussed. Implications for research perspectives implying defence and coping concepts based on observer-rating methodology are proposed.

  7. Physician-assisted death: doctrinal develoment vs. Christian tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, H Tristram

    1998-08-01

    Physician-assisted suicide offers a moral and theological Rorschach test. Foundational commitments regarding morality and theology are disclosed by how the issue is perceived and by what moral problems it is seen to present. One of the cardinal differences disclosed is that between Western and Orthodox Christian approaches to theology in general, and the theology of dying and suicide in particular. Confrontation with the issue of suicide is likely to bring further doctrinal development in many of the Western Christian religions, so as to be able to accept physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia.

  8. Senior Leader Mentoring: Its Role in Leader Development Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-03

    employ mentors."’ 21 It defined a mentor as a leader who develops "an individual by being for that individual a role model , teacher, coach, advisor, and...Shapiro, E. C., F. P. Hazeltine, and M. P. Rowe. "Moving Up: Role Models , Mentors, and the Patron System." Sloan Management Review (Spring 1978): 51-58...AD-A284 464 3 June 1994 Master’s Thesis, 2 Aug 93-3 Jun 94 Senior Leader Mentoring: Its Role in Leader Development Doctrine Major Mark L. Ritter, USA

  9. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: the regulatory taking doctrine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the third of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 3 introduces one of the most controversial legal doctrines of investment law – 'regulatory taking' – and sets out its implications for sustainable development.

  10. The European Security and Defence Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    The European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP), which is the operational military and civilian dimension of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), is today one of the most dynamic areas of the European Union. However, it is only recently that the EU has acquired explicit military decision....... The Union is thus gradually emerging as an important player on the international scene, with a strategic vision, as well as diplomatic, civilian and military crisis-management instruments that complement the existing economic, commercial, humanitarian and development policies on which the EU has hitherto...... built its reputation as a ‘soft power'. Despite its rapid development, many still regard the EU as weak and ineffi cient when it comes to security and defence policy. Moreover, the EU struggles with internal divisions and has a strained relationship with NATO. Nonetheless, there are good reasons...

  11. Transformational Leadership in the Estonian Defence Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Antek Kasemaa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The study is a contribution to the validation of the 15 items and 5 subscales Transformational Leadership Scale (TLS) proposed by Rafferty and Griffin (2004). Design/methodology/approach – The sample includes participants from different levels of the Estonian Defence Forces (EDF) military hierarchy (N=2570). The structure of the TLS was examined by using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Additionally ANOVA was used to compare the results between different subsamples....

  12. Applied Cyberpsychology: Military and Defence Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Dando, C.J.; Tranter, C

    2016-01-01

    Virtual environments are synthetic computer simulations that represent activities at a high degree of realism. Virtual environments have numerous applications for military and defence purposes, ranging from allowing personnel to experience realistic, high-pressure situations with a sense of presence, but in the absence of real world risk, to modelling threats to national and international infrastructure to improve resilience. Emerging opportunities also exist for communication and intelligenc...

  13. Doubts about a classic defence of abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difford, Jo

    2011-01-01

    Professor Judith Jarvis Thomson's seminal paper "A defence of abortion" published in 1971 has formed part of higher education syllabi for decades. In the paper Thomson criticizes one of the fundamental arguments against abortion, that is, the right of the foetus to life by denying that the foetus is a person. This article argues that her thought experiments do not compare to the reality of abortion and focuses on the influence of the paper on arguments concerning personhood.

  14. Insult in Context: Incorporating Speech Act Theory in Doctrinal Legal Analysis of Interpretative Discussions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.T.M. Kloosterhuis (Harm)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn this article, I want to show that some doctrinal problems of legal interpretation and argumentation can be analysed in a more precise way than a standard doctrinal analysis, when we use insights from speech act theory and argumentation theory. Taking a discussion about the accusation

  15. Coping and defence mechanisms: What are we assessing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricutoiu, Laurentiu P; Crasovan, Danut I

    2016-04-01

    The present research study addresses the disparity between theoretical considerations and empirical evidence regarding the relationships between coping strategies and defence mechanisms. Self-reported measures of coping and defences were administered to a Romanian adult sample (N = 542; 74.53% female, mean age = 31.28). Using structural equation modelling, models that assumed independence between coping and defences were compared with models that assumed the existence of relationships between the two concepts. Findings identified strong relationships between coping and defences, indicating large common variance between the two concepts. Furthermore, results suggested that coping and defences can be classified into two independent types of adaptation processes. Results of this research study suggested that coping and defences are facets of common adaptation processes. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. Non-immunological defence mechanisms of the gut.

    OpenAIRE

    Sarker, S. A.; Gyr, K

    1992-01-01

    Non-immunological defence mechanisms represent an important line of intestinal defence in addition to humoral and cellular immunity. This review summarises the evidence for the role of the non-immunological defence system. Protective factors that have been amply documented are gastric juice, intestinal motility, and intestinal flora. Components of pancreatic juice, lysozyme, and epithelial cell turnover may also be involved. Special attention is given to gastric acid, infection with Helicobac...

  17. Defence behaviour of reindeer in response to flying parasitic Diptera

    OpenAIRE

    Karter, Andrew J.; Ivar Folstad

    1989-01-01

    Similar defence behaviours were exhibited by a reindeer when experimentally exposed to three different species of tethered, flying parasitic Diptera, Cephenemyia trompe (Modeer), Hypoderma tarandi (L) and Tabanid. Defencive behavioural responses appeared to be related to attack angle, and were not elicited by auditory stimuli. These observations raise questions about the validity of parasite species-specific defence responses in reindeer.Forsvars-adferd hos rein angrepet av flyvende, parasitt...

  18. Networks and network analysis for defence and security

    CERN Document Server

    Masys, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Networks and Network Analysis for Defence and Security discusses relevant theoretical frameworks and applications of network analysis in support of the defence and security domains. This book details real world applications of network analysis to support defence and security. Shocks to regional, national and global systems stemming from natural hazards, acts of armed violence, terrorism and serious and organized crime have significant defence and security implications. Today, nations face an uncertain and complex security landscape in which threats impact/target the physical, social, economic

  19. Endoparasites in some Swedish Amphibians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1988-01-01

    A study was made of the endoparasites in specimens of Rana arvalis and R. temporaria collected on two occasions from a locality of southern Sweden. Some frogs were investigated directly after capture while other frogs were kept hibernating and the composition of the parasites as well as the behav...... not previously been reported from Sweden. The late Prof. O. Nybelin's unpublished records of parasites found in Swedish amphibians are also given....

  20. Swedish minister rebuilds scientists' trust

    CERN Multimedia

    Sylwan, P

    1999-01-01

    Thomas Ostros, Sweden's new science minister is aiming to improve links with the science community, severely strained during the tenure of Carl Tham. Significantly, he confirmed that he will not be making any further changes to the managment of the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research. He also announced a 5 per cent increase in government funding for science which will be used to strengthen basic research and education (1 page).

  1. New Swedish environmental and sustainable education research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Öhman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of Education & Democracy presents examples froma new generation of Swedish research on environmental and sustainability education and thereby complement the picture of the current Swedish environmental and sustainability education research outlined in the recent Danish-Swedish special issue of Environmental EducationResearch (Vol 16, No 1 and the anthology Democracy and Values inEducation for Sustainable Development – Contributions from Swedish Research (Öhman 2008. All the contributors to this issue are associatedwith the Graduate School in Education and Sustainable Development (GRESD, either as PhD students or as supervisors.

  2. Adolescent brain development and the mature minor doctrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Tomas J

    2011-08-01

    The medical rights of minors have been questioned, especially due to information on adolescent brain development and studies on adolescent decision-making. This chapter briefly introduces the mature minor doctrine (MMD) and its history, justification, and practice and then presents some of the objections to the MMD. The article then highlights new knowledge about adolescent brain development (ABD) and what this may contribute to this debate and describes "hot cognition" and "cold cognition". It concludes by alerting the reader to the danger of making inappropriate use of the discoveries of brain science and proposing a prudent approach to adolescent consent and confidentiality, one that incorporates the new knowledge on ABD without "turning back the clock" on the medical rights of minors.

  3. The Public Trust Doctrine and Liability for Historic Water Pollution in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Feris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The public trust doctrine is now, in the post-constitutional era, part and parcel of South African natural resources law. However, the precise meaning and content remain, to some extent, unclear. This is particularly true in respect of the relationship between the public trust doctrine and the polluter pays principle and the extent to which liability for pollution and degradation of natural resources also lies within the realm of the public trust doctrine. This article sets out to explore the public trust doctrine in South African law and its potential for assigning liability in a natural resources law context. It does so in the context of South Africa’s challenges in dealing with acid mine drainage (AMD, a legacy from defunct mines, but a continuing by-product of existing mining. It revisits the traditional scope of the public trust doctrine and argues for an expansive view in line not only with the constitutional imperatives embodied in South Africa’s environmental right, but also by way of an analogy between the public trust doctrine and the common heritage of mankind principle as it presents itself in international environmental law. In doing so this article also explores the development of the doctrine in US law which in some respects has set the course for its application with respect to natural resources law.

  4. Doctrine Of Good Administration: Elements And Their Contents On The Example Of The European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Shmelev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available anagement of the society – one of the most important problems of the state, thus the state represented by bodies and officials for the achievement of this task has to work effectively. For this purpose it is necessary to define not only concept of effective management and cornerstone criteria, but also concept and requirements to the management subject – administration which has to cope with this task. Article represents the legislative bases review of the doctrine of good administration in the EU countries, and also opinions of scientists on disputable aspects of this doctrine. In particular, in the article parallels between earlier assumed purposes of the doctrine and established by law. It appears that the new purposes of the doctrine are established only in public interests and for preservation of the European Union integrity. In article concepts of effective management and good administration, as subject of the specified activity are compared. In the article some elements of the doctrine of good administration are considered. Their legal sense is investigated and author's understanding of their value is given. It is noted that principles as elements of the doctrine form the corresponding rights and duties which explains how the concrete principle can be applied to the subject (activity of administrative legal relations. Within the studied doctrine standards of appropriate behavior of the public employee in the EU countries and similar rules for public servants in the Russian Federation were studied. In the conclusion author concludes that it is impossible to apply the unified European standards in Russian Federation, which is due to the developed organization of the public service in Russian Federation. In the article it is noted positive influence of the doctrine of good administration on the EU in general, despite various interpretations of the doctrine elements in the legislation of member countries.

  5. Alcohol misuse in patients attending a defence force general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcohol misuse in patients attending a defence force general medical clinic. D Bekker, DP Van Velden. Abstract. Aim: To determine the prevalence of alcohol misuse in adult patients attending a defence force general practice clinic. Design: Descriptive cross-sectional survey. Methods: The setting is a military sickbay ...

  6. Methodology to detect gaps in a soccer defence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nikolas Sten; Andersen, Thomas Bull

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to create a methodology which can provide information about gaps in an opposing team’s defence. To illustrate the methodology, a defence was tracked during a game in the danish Superliga using ZXY radio tracking and analysed using the methodology. Results showed...

  7. Improvement of program-goal method in defence planning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р.М. Федоренко

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available  The article proposes the conception of defence planning system development with program-goal method application that based on analysis of advanced experience of developed countries. Article specified the place of program-goal method in resolving defence planning tasks of national security.

  8. Options for Enhancing Nordic–Baltic Defence and Security Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.; Kristensen, Kristian Søby; Schaub Jr, Gary John

    is challenged to respond, particularly in the areas of defence and security. This report begins with the regional demand for enhanced defence and security cooperation. This was the background for a workshop that was held at the Centre for Military Studies in March 2017 consisting of 25 regional experts, all...

  9. Pareto Efficient Solution of Attack-Defence Trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming

    Attack-defence trees are a promising approach for representing threat scenarios and possible countermeasures in a concise and intuitive manner. An attack-defence tree describes the interaction between an attacker and a defender, and is evaluated by assigning parameters to the nodes, such as

  10. From Defence to Development : Redirecting Military Resources in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    From Defence to Development : Redirecting Military Resources in South Africa. Couverture du livre From Defence to Development : Redirecting Military Resources in South Africa. Directeur(s) : Jacklyn Cock et Penny Mckenzie. Maison(s) d'édition : David Philip, CRDI. 1 janvier 1998. ISBN : Épuisé. 234 pages. e-ISBN :.

  11. Metabolic Engineering of Chemical Defence Pathways in Plant Disease Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rook, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce a wide variety of specialized (or secondary) metabolites that function as chemical defence compounds and provide protection against microbial pathogens or herbivores. This chapter focuses on the metabolic engineering of biosynthetic pathways for plant chemical defence compounds...... with antimicrobial properties for use in crop protection. It presents an overview of the metabolic engineering efforts made in the area of plant chemical defence. For in-depth information on the characteristics of a specific class of chemical defence compounds, the reader is referred to the specialized reviews...... on each topic. The chapter reviews the some of the scientific and technical challenges in metabolic engineering and the new possibilities emerging from recent technological developments. It concludes by discussing the outlook for bioengineered chemical defences as part of crop protection strategies, also...

  12. Shaping Baltic States Defence Strategy: Host Nation Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otzulis Valdis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of NATO troops in the Baltic states has increased in the last years due to changing international environment, increased level of potential risks and threats, and necessity to enhance deterrence in the region. As a result of NATO’s Wales and Warsaw summits decisions, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania are entitled to host a battalion size battle group. The article aims at investigating how host nation support (HNS can contribute to the national defence and, additionally, to the self-defence capabilities of the Baltic states. The concept of HNS is present in the national defence concepts of all three countries. However, its active application and utilization started in the last two years. The article argues that more intensive incorporation of an HNS system in national defence policies serve the capability development in fields like national military logistics, infrastructure, and civil-military cooperation. Those capabilities can serve as an extension of the national defence.

  13. Swedish Opinion on Nuclear Power 1986 - 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Soeren

    2012-11-01

    This report contains the Swedish opinion on Nuclear Power and European Attitudes on Nuclear Power. It also includes European Attitudes Towards the Future of Three Energy Sources; Nuclear Energy, Wind Power and Solar Power - with a focus on the Swedish opinion. Results from measurements done by the SOM Inst. are presented.

  14. Is spoken Danish less intelligible than Swedish?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooskens, Charlotte; van Heuven, Vincent J.; van Bezooijen, Renee; Pacilly, Jos J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The most straightforward way to explain why Danes understand spoken Swedish relatively better than Swedes understand spoken Danish would be that spoken Danish is intrinsically a more difficult language to understand than spoken Swedish. We discuss circumstantial evidence suggesting that Danish is

  15. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  16. Composite Warfare Commander Doctrine in the Age of the Joint Task Force: A New Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Richard

    1998-01-01

    .... This doctrine does not, however, transition well into joint or combined operations nor does it adequately address command and control problems associated with a Navy-Marine Task Force, comprised...

  17. Naval Warfare Doctrine-Is it Ready for the 21st Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    world politics , the opportunity and responsibility to ensure that naval doctrine is ready for the demanding command and control challenges of the high-tech multinational world of 21st Century maritime

  18. Simulation for doctrine development and training: modelling the cognitive domain of the OODA loop

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roodt, JHS

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation and Weapon Assignment (TEWA) at this level contain multiple threats and defensive force elements, taxing the cognitive abilities of the commander. Development of new doctrine and training simulators require systems that adequately reflect...

  19. Transformational Leaders and Doctrine in an Age of Peace: Searching for a Tamer Billy Mitchell

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rynecki, William

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. military that emerged from the First World War, credited with having been the decisive factor in those killing fields, faced many of the same doctrinal dilemmas that gnaw at armies in any 'age of peace...

  20. Four moments from US foreign policy doctrine: Between theory and the practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Tovar Ruiz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Doctrines and strategies in international politics represent one of the most interesting elements for the discipline of international relations as a point of connection between theory and practice. An analysis of four of the great doctrines of US foreign policy (two of them realist, i.e those of Truman and Nixon, and two idealist, those of Clinton and Bush Jr and their historical development lead us to the conclusion that these doctrines are capable of changing reality and creating lasting instruments for applying to very different contexts, reaching even the present day (for example, containment, the domino theory and “Vietnamization”. We must bear in mind, however, the need for these doctrines to meet the criteria ofpragmatism and flexibility, prudence and self restriction, and for them to accept the institutional and moral limits of the societies on which they are established.

  1. Three I know not what: The influence of Greek philosophy on the doctrine of Trinity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aleksandar S. Santrac

    2013-01-01

    ...) has been influenced by Greek philosophy. Through contemporary theological dialogue on this issue, the research focuses on the comparison between the traditional formulation of the doctrine of Trinity, influenced by Greek philosophy...

  2. Raise your defence: a baseline for security

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2011-01-01

    It is an unfair imbalance: the (computer) security of a system/service is only as strong as the weakest link in the chain of protection. This provides attackers with an incredible advantage: they can choose when to attack, where and with which means. The defence side is permanently under pressure: they must defend at all times all assets against all eventualities. For computer security, this means that every computer system, every account, every web site and every service must be properly protected --- always.   In particular, at CERN, those services visible to the Internet are permanently probed. Web sites and servers are permanently scanned by adversaries for vulnerabilities; attackers repeatedly try to guess user passwords on our remote access gateways like LXPLUS or CERNTS; computing services, e.g. for Grid computing, are analysed again and again by malicious attackers for weaknesses which can be exploited. Thanks to the vigilance of the corresponding system and service experts, these atta...

  3. Can the UN Stabilize Mali? Towards a UN Stabilization Doctrine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Boutellis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Almost two years after the deployment of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA in July 2013, the increasing number of asymmetric terrorist attacks targeting UN peacekeepers – in the context of a drawn-out peace process – has raised a number of questions in Mali, the sub-region, and in New York, over the relevance and adequacies of MINUSMA’s mandate and capabilities. It also raises a broader issue, of whether the consent-based UN peacekeeping tool is appropriate and can be effective in carrying out stabilization mandates in such a context and what doctrine such operations should be based on. The UN is indeed under increasing pressure from host countries and some African troop-contributing countries to go on the offensive. Member States have also increasingly recognized terrorism and organized crime as a strategic threat, and while opposed to the UN directly engaging in counterterrorism (CT operations, some may wish to see the UN playing a greater stabilization role following the January 2013 French military intervention in Mali. However, little guidance and means have been given so far to UN missions for dealing with such threats and implementing effective stabilization mandates. The High-Level Panel on Peace Operations, which recently released its report, noted that the usage of the term “stabilization” by the UN requires clarification. This article analyses the complex and evolving nature of threats in northern Mali and implications for MINUSMA and describes the military and political tools – including mediation – so far available within and outside the UN. The article concludes that the UN is bound to move towards stabilization when and if deployed in contexts such as Mali’s if it wants to remain relevant. However, such a move should be based on an overarching UN stabilization doctrine and context-specific UN-wide stabilization strategies which are first and foremost political

  4. The Evolution of Air and Nuclear Doctrine: The Theories that Shaped SIOP-62

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    doctrine developments at ACTS beginning with the school opening in 1920. The chapter concludes with ACTS graduates assigned to the Air War Plans...the Air Corps Tactical School: 1920-1940 (Bolling AFB, DC: Air Force History and Museums Program, 1998), 21, 67. 26 Futrell, Ideas, Concepts...Robert Jervis This paper traces the development of nuclear doctrine back to the early 1920s when the Air Corps Tactical School opened and

  5. Friction in Command and Control: Sources of Conflict in Military Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    defines military doctrine as ―the subcomponent of grand strategy that deals explicitly with military means. Two questions are important: What means shall...analysis focuses on military doctrine at the grand strategic level, in which sovereign states interact and measure elements of national power against...based air forces under the command of local garrison commanders.42 Captain Simard‘s air force included: a Navy component, composed of 16 Catalina

  6. Specificity in Mesograzer-Induced Defences in Seagrasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Martínez-Crego

    Full Text Available Grazing-induced plant defences that reduce palatability to herbivores are widespread in terrestrial plants and seaweeds, but they have not yet been reported in seagrasses. We investigated the ability of two seagrass species to induce defences in response to direct grazing by three associated mesograzers. Specifically, we conducted feeding-assayed induction experiments to examine how mesograzer-specific grazing impact affects seagrass induction of defences within the context of the optimal defence theory. We found that the amphipod Gammarus insensibilis and the isopod Idotea chelipes exerted a low-intensity grazing on older blades of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa, which reflects a weak grazing impact that may explain the lack of inducible defences. The isopod Synischia hectica exerted the strongest grazing impact on C. nodosa via high-intensity feeding on young blades with a higher fitness value. This isopod grazing induced defences in C. nodosa as indicated by a consistently lower consumption of blades previously grazed for 5, 12 and 16 days. The lower consumption was maintained when offered tissues with no plant structure (agar-reconstituted food, but showing a reduced size of the previous grazing effect. This indicates that structural traits act in combination with chemical traits to reduce seagrass palatability to the isopod. Increase in total phenolics but not in C:N ratio and total nitrogen of grazed C. nodosa suggests chemical defences rather than a modified nutritional quality as primarily induced chemical traits. We detected no induction of defences in Zostera noltei, which showed the ability to replace moderate losses of young biomass to mesograzers via compensatory growth. Our study provides the first experimental evidence of induction of defences against meso-herbivory that reduce further consumption in seagrasses. It also emphasizes the relevance of grazer identity in determining the level of grazing impact triggering resistance and

  7. Specificity in Mesograzer-Induced Defences in Seagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Crego, Begoña; Arteaga, Pedro; Ueber, Alexandra; Engelen, Aschwin H; Santos, Rui; Molis, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Grazing-induced plant defences that reduce palatability to herbivores are widespread in terrestrial plants and seaweeds, but they have not yet been reported in seagrasses. We investigated the ability of two seagrass species to induce defences in response to direct grazing by three associated mesograzers. Specifically, we conducted feeding-assayed induction experiments to examine how mesograzer-specific grazing impact affects seagrass induction of defences within the context of the optimal defence theory. We found that the amphipod Gammarus insensibilis and the isopod Idotea chelipes exerted a low-intensity grazing on older blades of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa, which reflects a weak grazing impact that may explain the lack of inducible defences. The isopod Synischia hectica exerted the strongest grazing impact on C. nodosa via high-intensity feeding on young blades with a higher fitness value. This isopod grazing induced defences in C. nodosa as indicated by a consistently lower consumption of blades previously grazed for 5, 12 and 16 days. The lower consumption was maintained when offered tissues with no plant structure (agar-reconstituted food), but showing a reduced size of the previous grazing effect. This indicates that structural traits act in combination with chemical traits to reduce seagrass palatability to the isopod. Increase in total phenolics but not in C:N ratio and total nitrogen of grazed C. nodosa suggests chemical defences rather than a modified nutritional quality as primarily induced chemical traits. We detected no induction of defences in Zostera noltei, which showed the ability to replace moderate losses of young biomass to mesograzers via compensatory growth. Our study provides the first experimental evidence of induction of defences against meso-herbivory that reduce further consumption in seagrasses. It also emphasizes the relevance of grazer identity in determining the level of grazing impact triggering resistance and compensatory

  8. Non-immunological defence mechanisms of the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, S A; Gyr, K

    1992-01-01

    Non-immunological defence mechanisms represent an important line of intestinal defence in addition to humoral and cellular immunity. This review summarises the evidence for the role of the non-immunological defence system. Protective factors that have been amply documented are gastric juice, intestinal motility, and intestinal flora. Components of pancreatic juice, lysozyme, and epithelial cell turnover may also be involved. Special attention is given to gastric acid, infection with Helicobacter pylori, and hypochlorhydria and their association with infectious diarrhoea. Epidemic hypochlorhydria is discussed since this increases sensitivity to intestinal infections in third world countries. PMID:1644343

  9. EU Defence Industry Integration between Spillover and High Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich

    on an intergovernmental base. In the past 10 years, however, the defence industries of the major EU powers have instigated a move from cross national collaboration to cross national consolidation. Cross border mergers and acquisitions has been carried out and pressures for regulatory mainstreaming is mounting......Defence industry regulation falls in between the ‘Low Politics' of ensuring market efficiency and the ‘High Politics' of preserving the national defence industrial and technological base. It has been exempt from internal market regulation and integrative initiatives have been managed...

  10. Gender Integration and the Swedish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Daniel Marcus Sunil

    This paper discusses different gender aspects of the Swedish Armed Forces with specific references to sexual harassment and prostitution. By using the concept of Hegemonic Masculinity, sexual harassment of the women in the Swedish Armed Forces is explained in terms of a need of the men within...... the organisation to reinforce the notion of women as inferior and subordinate to men, whereby the external hegemony is believed to be restored. Likewise, male Swedish peacekeepers’ demand for prostitution during international peacekeeping missions is explained in terms of a need to confirm manhood and as homo...

  11. Studies in Swedish Energy Opinion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Soeren; Hedberg, Per

    2012-07-01

    the 1970s, energy production was politicized big time in the industrialized world. The birth of the environmental movement, the oil crises in 1973 - 74 and the beginning conflict surrounding civilian nuclear power, put energy issues center stage on the political agenda. Energy policies - especially related to the development of nuclear power - came to dominate election campaigns, like in Sweden in 1976 or be the subject of referendums, like in Austria in 1978 or in Sweden in 1980. Critical voices toward the peaceful use of nuclear power - having started in America before being exported to Europe - gained real strength and public support all over the Western world by the nuclear accident at the Three Mile Island plant in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania in 1979. The energy genie was out of the bottle and out to stay. Fueled by the nuclear meltdowns in Chernobyl in 1986 and in Fukushima in 2011 and supplemented by conflicts over how to reduce the use of oil and coal, how to sensibly exploit the waste gas reserves, and how to develop renewable energy sources based on sun, wind and waves – have made all kinds of energy issues the focal point of political contentions ever since the early 1970s. In Sweden, as in many other countries, energy policies - often with nuclear power in the center - have been one of the most fought-over policy areas during the last thirty-forty years. And the contentious character of energy policies is not limited to the elite level of politics - to politicians, to media pundits or to lobbyists. It is also manifest among ordinary citizens. Energy issues - nuclear power and wind power in particular - are highly polarizing among voters as well. Given this historic background, starting in the 1970s, it was rather natural that energy questions - featuring most prominently questions related to nuclear power - would be important parts of the voter surveys performed by the Swedish National Elections Studies (SNES) at the Univ. of Gothenburg. The first book

  12. 4th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sillitti, Alberto; Succi, Giancarlo; Messina, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    This book presents high-quality original contributions on new software engineering models, approaches, methods, and tools and their evaluation in the context of defence and security applications. In addition, important business and economic aspects are discussed, with a particular focus on cost/benefit analysis, new business models, organizational evolution, and business intelligence systems. The contents are based on presentations delivered at SEDA 2015, the 4th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications, which was held in Rome, Italy, in May 2015. This conference series represents a targeted response to the growing need for research that reports and debates the practical implications of software engineering within the defence environment and also for software performance evaluation in real settings through controlled experiments as well as case and field studies. The book will appeal to all with an interest in modeling, managing, and implementing defence-related software devel...

  13. Is the Bush Doctrine the Right American National Security Strategy for the Beginning of the 21st Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-18

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT IS THE BUSH DOCTRINE THE RIGHT AMERICAN NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY FOR THE BEGINNING OF THE 21ST CENTURY? by...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Is The Bush Doctrine the Right American National Security Strategy for the Beginning of the 21st Century? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...Beck TITLE: Is The Bush Doctrine The Right American National Security Strategy For The Beginning Of The 21st Century? FORMAT: Strategy Research Project

  14. Method of defence of solder surface from oxidization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurmashev Sh. D.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Compositions are developed for defence of fusion solder from oxidization on the basis of mixture of glycerin, urea and powders of refractory oxides, carbides (Al2O3, TiO2, SIC, graphite. The offered compositions can be used for defence of fusion of solder from oxidization in the process of soludering and tinning of explorers, and also electric conclusions of elements of radio electronic apparatus by the method of immersion in stationary baths.

  15. Ministry of Defence Main Estimates 2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-02

    Estimates 2009–10 21 Session 2006–07 First Report Defence Procurement 2006 HC 56 (HC 318) Second Report Ministry of Defence Annual Report and...skills strategy Universities and Skills Ministry of Justice 1 Ŕ.050 Centralisation of Tribunals Department for Business 1 ŕ.325 MOD share of the...Government’s Secure Zone Fund costs. HM Treasury 1 Ŕ.045 Transfer to the Centre of Expertise for Sustainable Procurement administration costs—a pan

  16. The Strategic Development of the Trinidad and Tobago Defence Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    role played by leadership in the growth environment of the 1950s. As a strategic leadership thinker, Selznick contributed several novel ideas to the... Mintzberg , Ahlstrand, Lampel This research study is about strategy, although not military strategy. Rather, using the Trinidad and Tobago Defence Force...Reserve. A Chief of Defence Staff, usually in the rank of Brigadier General, has operational command and managerial authority over the Force. On

  17. Knowledge as an Inhibitor to Competition in Defence Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    suggest that the neoliberal move to globalisation would increase market competitiveness by increasing the number of suppliers. While this argument may...overcapacity and the need to rationalise. Nonetheless, globalisation did not arrest this trend; in fact, it encouraged the development of transnational... Globalisation in the Defence Industry: An exploration of the paradigm for US and European Defence Firms and the implications for being global players

  18. European defence industry consolidation and domestic procurement bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich

    2017-01-01

    How have European cross-border defence industrial mergers and acquisitions affected domestic procurement bias among the major EU powers? This article departs from the findings of Andrew Moravcsik more than two decades ago suggesting that major West European states had no ingrained preferences for......-border defence industry consolidation will be analysed. Procurement bias is assessed in two industry segments characterised by pervasive consolidation....

  19. Ferride geochemistry of Swedish precambrian iron ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loberg, B. E. H.; Horndahl, A.-K.

    1983-10-01

    Chemical analysis for major and trace elements have been performed on 30 Swedish Precambrian iron ores and on some from Iran and Chile. The Swedish ores consist of apatite iron ores, quartz-banded iron ores, skarn and limestone iron ores from the two main ore districts of Sweden, the Bergslagen and the Norrbotten province. Some Swedish titaniferous iron ores were also included in the investigation. The trace element data show that the Swedish ores can be subdivided into two major groups: 1. orthomagmatic and exhalative, 2. sedimentary. Within group 1 the titaniferous iron ores are distinguished by their high Ti-contents. From the ferride contents of the Kiruna apatite iron ores, the ores are considered to be mobilization products of skarn iron ores from the Norbotten province.

  20. Defence Policy under the Labour Government: Operational Dynamism and Strategic Inertia’

    OpenAIRE

    Dyson, PTA

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the process and outcome of defence reform under the Labour government, with a particular focus on the structuring of military input to defence planning. It argues that UK defence reform has been characterised by dynamism at the tactical and operational levels but that organisational politics between the services has impacted upon decisions surrounding defence capability procurement and force posture. The core executive has been able to structure military input to defence...

  1. Transformational Leadership in the Estonian Defence Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antek Kasemaa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The study is a contribution to the validation of the 15 items and 5 subscales Transformational Leadership Scale (TLS proposed by Rafferty and Griffin (2004. Design/methodology/approach – The sample includes participants from different levels of the Estonian Defence Forces (EDF military hierarchy (N=2570. The structure of the TLS was examined by using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Additionally ANOVA was used to compare the results between different subsamples. Findings – TLS showed satisfactory reliability. Confirmatory factor analyses found TLS as valid five dimensions instrument to measure transformational leadership in the Estonian military context. Different management levels showed different emphases among the dimensions of transformational leadership. Research and practical limitations/implications – TLS will be an important tool to use in transformational leadership research in the Estonian military context and beyond. Additionally, the current research contributes to the development of alternative measurement tools besides the most commonly used MLQ. The limitation of the work will be the rather homogenous sample from the Estonian military, however it will open the door for the subsequent research using different samplings. Originality/value – The current research found TLS to be a reliable and valid instrument, very short and therefore easy to administrate, having the possibility to use it with five dimensional and as one general transformational instrument as well.

  2. Impact of environmental factors on lung defences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Olivieri

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The lungs are one of the most important organs exposed to environmental agents. The lungs have the ability to protect themselves by both immunological and nonimmunological mechanisms. An individual's susceptibility to the impact of environmental agents will determine their adverse effects. This article focuses on air pollution, in particular ozone (O3, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, particulate matter (PM and sulphur dioxide (SO2. O3 inhalation first modifies the ciliary cells. O3 is an extremely strong oxidant, since it increases the permeability of epithelial cells and decreases mucociliary clearance. NO2 is a less potent and less reactive oxidant pollutant and impairs the function of epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages. PM induces oxidative stress in macrophages and epithelial cells, and increases tumour necrosis factor-beta, interleukin (IL-6, interferon-gamma, transforming growth factor-beta and nuclear factor-kappaB. Diesel exhaust particulate, contained in PM, increases IL-8 production. High concentrations of SO2 increase the production of reactive oxygen species in the lungs. In conclusion, air pollution certainly interferes with aspecific and specific lung defences, thus facilitating the development of pulmonary diseases, such as exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, allergies and asthma.

  3. Between-population outbreeding affects plant defence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosa Leimu

    Full Text Available Between-population crosses may replenish genetic variation of populations, but may also result in outbreeding depression. Apart from direct effects on plant fitness, these outbreeding effects can also alter plant-herbivore interactions by influencing plant tolerance and resistance to herbivory. We investigated effects of experimental within- and between-population outbreeding on herbivore resistance, tolerance and plant fitness using plants from 13 to 19 Lychnis flos-cuculi populations. We found no evidence for outbreeding depression in resistance reflected by the amount of leaf area consumed. However, herbivore performance was greater when fed on plants from between-population compared to within-population crosses. This can reflect outbreeding depression in resistance and/or outbreeding effects on plant quality for the herbivores. The effects of type of cross on the relationship between herbivore damage and plant fitness varied among populations. This demonstrates how between-population outbreeding effects on tolerance range from outbreeding depression to outbreeding benefits among plant populations. Finally, herbivore damage strengthened the observed outbreeding effects on plant fitness in several populations. These results raise novel considerations on the impact of outbreeding on the joint evolution of resistance and tolerance, and on the evolution of multiple defence strategies.

  4. [Personality characteristics, defence mechanisms and binge eating in obese patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzoli, S; Drago, C; Zanardi, G; Negri, M; Giorgi, I

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate defence mechanisms and personality characteristics in obese subjects. In particular, we compared the use of defence mechanisms in two groups: obese persons vs. normal weight subjects. We also compared the defence mechanisms and personality characteristics of two groups of obese subjects: those with Binge Eating Disorder vs. those without this disorder. Finally, we investigated the presence of possible differences linked to gender or to age of onset of obesity. 93 obese subjects and 68 normal weight subjects were administered a test battery composed of the following self-complete questionnaires (in the Italian version): Binge Eating Scale, Response Evaluation Measure-71, Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory). Obese subjects appear to use specific defence mechanisms. A gender effect was found on the use of defence mechanisms, on the psychological characteristics associated to an Eating Disorder and on personality features. Obese subjects with Binge Eating Disorder showed a marked tendency to manifest anxiety and bulimic behaviour. Obesity with onset in adolescence was associated with the possibility of developing drug dependence. Specific defence characteristics and personality features in obese subjects should be taken into account in designing a slimming program.

  5. Revolution in military affairs, missile defence and weapons in space ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The US is actively pursuing an RMA, conceptualised as integrating new IT into weapons systems and integrated command, control, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (C4ISR) and, in turn, doctrinal, operational and organisational change in the military to take advantage of information dominance on ...

  6. INTEROPERABILITY AND STANDARDISATION IN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENCE: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. De Waal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The political changes in South Africa have extended its international obligations by actively involving it in the social wellbeing of troubled African states. Under the auspices of the United Nations, this role is manifested in peacekeeping operations and other standard international practices. The ability of African allied forces to train, exercise, and operate efficiently, effectively, and economically together depends on the interoperability of their operational procedures, doctrine, administration, materiel and technology. This implies that all parties must have the same interpretation of ‘interoperability’. In this study, a conceptual model that explains interoperability and standardisation in terms of a systems hierarchy and the systems engineering process is developed. The study also explores the level of understanding of interoperability in the South African Department of Defence in terms of the levels of standardisation and its relationship to the concepts of systems, systems hierarchy, and systems engineering.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die politieke veranderinge in Suid-Afrika het daartoe aanleiding gegee dat verdere internasionale verpligtinge die land opgelê is. Suid-Afrika, in samewerking met mede-Afrika lande en onder toesig van die Verenigde Nasies, moet deur middel van vredesoperasies by onstabiele Afrika lande betrokke raak. Die vermoë om gesamentlik aan vredesopleiding, vredesoefeninge en vredesoperasies op ‘n effektiewe, doeltreffende en ekonomiese wyse deel te neem, vereis dat daar versoenbaarheid tussen onderlinge operasionele prosedures, doktrine, administrasie, materieel en tegnologie is. Dit beteken dat alle partye eens omtrent die begrip ‘versoenbaarheid’ moet wees. In hierdie studie is ‘n konseptuele model wat versoenbaarheid en standaardisasie verduidelik in terme van die stelselhiërargie en die stelselingenieursweseproses ontwikkel. Hierdie studie het ook die vlak van begrip en

  7. Innate immune defences in the human endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Rodney W

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The human endometrium is an important site of innate immune defence, giving protection against uterine infection. Such protection is critical to successful implantation and pregnancy. Infection is a major cause of preterm birth and can also cause infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Natural anti-microbial peptides are key mediators of the innate immune system. These peptides, between them, have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-viral activity and are expressed at epithelial surfaces throughout the female genital tract. Two families of natural anti-microbials, the defensins and the whey acidic protein (WAP motif proteins, appear to be prominent in endometrium. The human endometrial epithelium expresses beta-defensins 1–4 and the WAP motif protein, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. Each beta-defensin has a different expression profile in relation to the stage of the menstrual cycle, providing potential protection throughout the cycle. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor is expressed during the secretory phase of the cycle and has a range of possible roles including anti-protease and anti-microbial activity as well as having effects on epithelial cell growth. The leukocyte populations in the endometrium are also a source of anti-microbial production. Neutrophils are a particularly rich source of alpha-defensins, lactoferrin, lysozyme and the WAP motif protein, elafin. The presence of neutrophils during menstruation will enhance anti-microbial protection at a time when the epithelial barrier is disrupted. Several other anti-microbials including the natural killer cell product, granulysin, are likely to have a role in endometrium. The sequential production of natural anti-microbial peptides by the endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle and at other sites in the female genital tract will offer protection from many pathogens, including those that are sexually transmitted.

  8. Avicenna's doctrine and institutional review board in international bio-medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radfar, Amir; Kazerouninia, Chekameh; Filip, Irina; Patriche, Diana; Ahmadi, Seyed Ahmad Asgharzadeh

    2012-12-01

    Avicenna, an outstanding Persian physician and philosopher (980 AD-1037 AD), established a clinical treaty, or doctrine, without which medical experimentation would not have progressed. This doctrine emphasizes the ultimate divine power of God or a higher being over healing and mandates the patients' well-being as the crucial aspect in all medical care and experiments. The Institutional Review Board, as the ethical body that oversees clinical research, is in line with this doctrine. However, the lack of a homogenous and internationally recognized code of ethics, the decentralized work of ethics oversight committees, the improper implementation of established ethical standards and a shortage of scientific auditing capacities have raised concerns over the possible exploitation of vulnerable populations.

  9. Hughlings Jackson and the "doctrine of concomitance": mind-brain theorising between metaphysics and the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirimuuta, M

    2017-09-11

    John Hughlings Jackson (1835-1911) is a major figure at the origins of neurology and neuroscience in Britain. Alongside his contributions to clinical medicine, he left a large corpus of writing on localisation of function in the nervous system and other theoretical topics. In this paper I focus on Jackson's "doctrine of concomitance"-his parallelist theory of the mind-brain relationship. I argue that the doctrine can be given both an ontological and a causal interpretation, and that the causal aspect of the doctrine is especially significant for Jackson and his contemporaries. I interpret Jackson's engagement with the metaphysics of mind as an instance of what I call meta-science-the deployment by scientists of metaphysical positions and arguments which help streamline empirical investigations by bracketing off unanswerable questions and focussing attention on matters amenable to the current tools of experimental research.

  10. Modelling joint air defence doctrinal issues with a LinkZA-based integration of two C2 simulators – a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nel, JJ

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available of the Sector Control Centre and the Fire Support Coordinating Centre of the Tactical Head Quarters. It illustrates the feasibility of clarifying this uncertainty by integrating the BattleTek Constructive War Simulation (from CyberSim) with the Virtual Ground...

  11. Swedish health care in perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, O W

    1992-01-01

    The evolution and current problems of the Swedish health services are placed in an international comparative perspective with other industrially developed democratic states as to cost control, distribution of facilities and personnel, management of waiting lists for services, and differences in use of services. All of these countries are experiencing the same aforementioned problems differing mainly in degree. It is suggested that Sweden as well as other countries needs to reconceptualize the meaning of equality of access relative to the apparent emergence of private insurance as waiting lists grow for quality of life procedures such as lens and hip replacement. A concept of a basic service for everybody and so-called luxury service for those who wish to buy it needs to be faced in political debate. It is clear that government is unable to finance and supply the range of demand of a consumption good represented by a modern medicine. In so far as Sweden has been regarded as a model it appears that no country is a model anymore. The complexities of a modern health service has overwhelmed all countries and can be regarded as a sublime loss of innocence.

  12. The Role of the United States in Definition of Japan Military Doctrine 1945—2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A D Evdokimov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the role of the United States in forming military doctrine of Japan from 1945 to 2010. The article also examined the influence of Samurai military tradition on military and ideological training of Japanese army and Navy since the late 19th to mid 20th century, the history of development of strategic relations between the United States and Japan after the Second World War in military, economic and political fields. Documents on political and economic development of Japan from 1945 to the present day have been explored; factors which have had a huge impact on the formation of a new military doctrine have been examined.

  13. The Reactions and Attitudes Displayed by Air Force Officers to the Combat Support Doctrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    n. USAF I. AFM 2-15 Director of, -!:t; ,: :. I Prc,;nrTs 2. Survey DCS/ Logistcs & Ere 3. Return Envelope 68 I "/" " q’ " "" .J,,r, -.-. J...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION 17. COSATI CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP AFM 2...15, AFM 1-10, Combat Support Doctrine, re. 1 ,Doctrine S 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) Title: T!-E

  14. The “Essential Practice of Religion” Doctrine in India and its application in Pakistan and Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rita Scotti

    2016-02-01

    Therefore, the present essay discusses the interpretation of constitutional provisions by the Supreme Court of India in order to introduce the essential elements doctrine as well as its application by the Pakistani and Malaysian Courts with the aim to asses, relying on the theory of cross-fertilization, whether they merely imported the doctrine or adapted it to the national contexts

  15. Evaluating arguments during instigations of defence motivation and accuracy motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Hong

    2017-05-01

    When people evaluate the strength of an argument, their motivations are likely to influence the evaluation. However, few studies have specifically investigated the influences of motivational factors on argument evaluation. This study examined the effects of defence and accuracy motivations on argument evaluation. According to the compatibility between the advocated positions of arguments and participants' prior beliefs and the objective strength of arguments, participants evaluated four types of arguments: compatible-strong, compatible-weak, incompatible-strong, and incompatible-weak arguments. Experiment 1 revealed that participants possessing a high defence motivation rated compatible-weak arguments as stronger and incompatible-strong ones as weaker than participants possessing a low defence motivation. However, the strength ratings between the high and low defence groups regarding both compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments were similar. Experiment 2 revealed that when participants possessed a high accuracy motivation, they rated compatible-weak arguments as weaker and incompatible-strong ones as stronger than when they possessed a low accuracy motivation. However, participants' ratings on both compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments were similar when comparing high and low accuracy conditions. The results suggest that defence and accuracy motivations are two major motives influencing argument evaluation. However, they primarily influence the evaluation results for compatible-weak and incompatible-strong arguments, but not for compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Contemporary Leadership and Doctrine: The Utility of Analyzing the Outcome of Thucydides' The Peloponnesian War Via Clausewitz's Concepts as Articulated in On War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slaughter, Aaron

    2001-01-01

    ... to the study of Thucydides. Additionally, this analysis demonstrates the danger of developing modern doctrine without considering relevant history and demonstrates the importance of leadership in relation to doctrine...

  17. Phytoplankton defence mechanisms: traits and trade-offs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pančić, Marina; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, unicellular algae form the basis of the food webs. Theoretical and experimental studies have demonstrated that one of the mechanisms that maintain high diversity of phytoplankton is through predation and the consequent evolution of defence mechanisms. Proposed defence...... mechanisms in phytoplankton are diverse and include physiological (e.g. toxicity, bioluminescence), morphological (e.g. silica shell, colony formation), and behavioural (e.g. escape response) traits. However, the function of many of the proposed defence mechanisms remains elusive, and the costs and benefits...... (trade-offs) are often unquantified or undocumented. Here, we provide an overview of suggested phytoplankton defensive traits and review their experimental support. Wherever possible we quantify the trade-offs from experimental evidence and theoretical considerations. In many instances, experimental...

  18. How insects overcome two-component plant chemical defence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pentzold, Stefan; Zagrobelny, Mika; Rook, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    , before and during feeding as well as during digestion, and at several levels such as the insects’ feeding behaviour, physiology and metabolism. Insect adaptations frequently circumvent or counteract the activity of the plant β-glucosidases, bioactivating enzymes that are a key element in the plant’s two......-component chemical defence. These adaptations include host plant choice, non-disruptive feeding guilds and various physiological adaptations as well as metabolic enzymatic strategies of the insect’s digestive system. Furthermore, insect adaptations often act in combination, may exist in both generalists......Insect herbivory is often restricted by glucosylated plant chemical defence compounds that are activated by plant β-glucosidases to release toxic aglucones upon plant tissue damage. Such two-component plant defences are widespread in the plant kingdom and examples of these classes of compounds...

  19. Moving nitrogen to the centre of plant defence against pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mur, Luis A J; Simpson, Catherine; Kumari, Aprajita; Gupta, Alok Kumar; Gupta, Kapuganti Jagadis

    2017-03-01

    Plants require nitrogen (N) for growth, development and defence against abiotic and biotic stresses. The extensive use of artificial N fertilizers has played an important role in the Green Revolution. N assimilation can involve a reductase series ( NO3- → NO2- → NH4+ ) followed by transamination to form amino acids. Given its widespread use, the agricultural impact of N nutrition on disease development has been extensively examined. When a pathogen first comes into contact with a host, it is usually nutrient starved such that rapid assimilation of host nutrients is essential for successful pathogenesis. Equally, the host may reallocate its nutrients to defence responses or away from the site of attempted infection. Exogenous application of N fertilizer can, therefore, shift the balance in favour of the host or pathogen. In line with this, increasing N has been reported either to increase or to decrease plant resistance to pathogens, which reflects differences in the infection strategies of discrete pathogens. Beyond considering only N content, the use of NO3- or NH4+ fertilizers affects the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions. NO3- feeding augments hypersensitive response- (HR) mediated resistance, while ammonium nutrition can compromise defence. Metabolically, NO3- enhances production of polyamines such as spermine and spermidine, which are established defence signals, with NH4+ nutrition leading to increased γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels which may be a nutrient source for the pathogen. Within the defensive N economy, the roles of nitric oxide must also be considered. This is mostly generated from NO2- by nitrate reductase and is elicited by both pathogen-associated microbial patterns and gene-for-gene-mediated defences. Nitric oxide (NO) production and associated defences are therefore NO3- dependent and are compromised by NH4+ . This review demonstrates how N content and form plays an essential role in defensive primary and secondary metabolism and

  20. Tensions in Stakeholder Relations for a Swedish Football Club

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghagen, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Swedish football is an industry not yet being as commercial as the big leagues and is regulated in terms of ownership of clubs. This implies a need for management of stakeholder relations for a Swedish football club. This paper identifies important stakeholders in Swedish football and discusses...

  1. Working on an historical dictionary: the Swedish academy dictionary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Working on an historical dictionary: the Swedish academy dictionary project. P Stille, B-O Wendt. Abstract. The Swedish Academy Dictionary is one of the world's largest dictionary projects. Work on it was started in 1884 and it will be completed by 2017. The dictionary describes the written standard language of Swedish ...

  2. FOA Information from the Research Institute of Swedish National Defence on Electronic Warfare (FOA Orientar om Electronic Warfare),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    lie Itoii a1 dic’i’rt iii’ 111 e, Iiv iit 1- c k ttcifh i mlti’cd to fill- it, ’lrlcr li’rta lele Midc tiIcl I Ittre It 1 1k i Ict tin Itim rIitut... lele - -and so the attenuation. veloc- the design and size of the trans- communications. ity and direction of propagation (Coft. on p. 20) 18 - . on 1...To get to grips with this sit- pons that can be carried, but the iiA Curve P] =probabtlity of destroying a target with- out air defrence. Curve P

  3. Quantitative Verification and Synthesis of Attack-Defence Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming; Parker, David

    2016-01-01

    -defence trees to two-player stochastic games, and then employ probabilistic model checking techniques to formally analyse these models. This provides a means to both verify formally specified security properties of the attack-defence scenarios and, dually, to synthesise strategies for attackers or defenders...... which guarantee or optimise some quantitative property, such as the probability of a successful attack, the expected cost incurred, or some multi-objective trade-off between the two. We implement our approach, building upon the PRISM-games model checker, and apply it to a case study of an RFID goods...

  4. Infection biology and defence responses in sorghum against Colletotrichum sublineolum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puttalingaiah, Basavaraju; Shetty, Nandini Prasad; Shetty, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the infection biology of Colletotrichum sublineolum (isolate CP2126) and defence responses in leaves of resistant (SC146), intermediately resistant (SC326) and susceptible (BTx623) sorghum genotypes. Methods and Results: Infection biology and defence responses were studied......: The fact that there is a significant correlation between induced accumulation of H2O2, papilla formation and cell wall cross-linking, as evidenced by HRGP accumulation, and cessation of pathogen growth in resistant genotypes may help exploit host resistance in sorghum....

  5. Phonology of a southern Swedish idiolect

    OpenAIRE

    Svantesson, Jan-Olof

    2001-01-01

    In this egocentric article I describe briefly the segmental phonology of my own southern Swedish idiolect. I grew up in Getinge in central Halland, about 20 km north of Halmstad, speaking a regional variant of southern Standard Swedish. Although my dialect has certainly changed somewhat after I moved to Lund in 1964 at the age of 20, I believe that I still retain the basic pronunciation of vowels and consonants from my original dialect. There is one older description of the Getinge dialect by...

  6. Market reforms in Swedish health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the main characteristics of reforms in the Swedish health services, as exemplified by the "Stockholm Model" introduced in 1992 in Stockholm county. The author discusses the motives behind these reforms, the already-evident increases in costs that are occurring, and the effect...... of these reforms on public support for the welfare state.......This report presents the main characteristics of reforms in the Swedish health services, as exemplified by the "Stockholm Model" introduced in 1992 in Stockholm county. The author discusses the motives behind these reforms, the already-evident increases in costs that are occurring, and the effect...

  7. The origin, development and a brief appraisal of the doctrine of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-12

    Mar 12, 2013 ... Conference on the Origin of. Christ Apostolic Church in. Nigeria and Ghana organised ... The origin, development and a brief appraisal of the doctrine of the baptism in the Holy Spirit in Christ ..... place in a believer's life, whilst the data under Section B point out the evidence, according to CAC ministers, that ...

  8. Niels Bohr as philosopher of experiment: Does decoherence theory challenge Bohr's doctrine of classical concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Kristian; Schlosshauer, Maximilian

    2015-02-01

    Niels Bohr's doctrine of the primacy of "classical concepts" is arguably his most criticized and misunderstood view. We present a new, careful historical analysis that makes clear that Bohr's doctrine was primarily an epistemological thesis, derived from his understanding of the functional role of experiment. A hitherto largely overlooked disagreement between Bohr and Heisenberg about the movability of the "cut" between measuring apparatus and observed quantum system supports the view that, for Bohr, such a cut did not originate in dynamical (ontological) considerations, but rather in functional (epistemological) considerations. As such, both the motivation and the target of Bohr's doctrine of classical concepts are of a fundamentally different nature than what is understood as the dynamical problem of the quantum-to-classical transition. Our analysis suggests that, contrary to claims often found in the literature, Bohr's doctrine is not, and cannot be, at odds with proposed solutions to the dynamical problem of the quantum-classical transition that were pursued by several of Bohr's followers and culminated in the development of decoherence theory.

  9. Does Current Army Physical Fitness Training Doctrine Adequately Prepare Soldiers for War?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    soldiers for war. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Army physical fitness doctrine, Army Physical Readiness Training, CrossFit , P90X 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...57 CrossFit ...Side Wallball Toss/Shuttle Run Muscle Utilization .......................................64 Table 17. CrossFit Evaluation Criteria

  10. The Search for Space Doctrine’s War-Fighting Icon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    strategy from Europe, relying heavily upon the train- ing and guidance of Frenchman Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette —better known today simply as... Lafayette . Up until the Ameri- November–December 2014 Air & Space Power Journal | 58 Views can Civil War, European doctrine continued to promulgate

  11. The Chinese People’s Militia and the Doctrine of People’s War,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    traditional Chinese works on the laws of warfare, such as those by the fourth century B.C. strategists Sun Tsu and Wu Ch’i; from con- temporary revolutionary...doctrinal principles espoused in this article. 33. Zhang Guozhan, "The Battle of Cheng Gao Between Chu and Han and the Antagonism of Thinking of the

  12. The Proximity Principle: Army Chaplains on the Fighting Line in Doctrine and History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    chair has proven invaluable, particularly as I sought to wed historiography with a study of doctrine. The finished product reflects his thoughtful......through seven: “Re-rig! Jump in twenty minutes!” Brown, along with the rest of the Rangers, was completely astounded: “Had a doctor taken my blood

  13. The doctrine of providence in the Institutes of Calvin – still relevant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F.C. Coetzee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the reformed tradition and theology, the doctrine of provi- dence has always been important and relevant, so much so that it forms an integral part of the reformed confessions. At the same time some of the most difficult theological questions are raised regarding this doctrine, questions like the following: Is God in control of everything? What is the relationship between the providence of God and sin, suffering, man’s responsibility, et cetera? In our times the doctrine as such is questioned or even rejected. What makes this topic even more important is the commemoration of the publication of Darwin’s book, “The origin of species”, coupled with the renewed emphasis on Darwinism, evolutionism and atheism.1 From the perspective of the Calvinistic-reformed theology and in the light of the com- memoration of Calvin’s birth 500 years ago, it is important to determine the relevance of Calvin’s thoughts on a number of important issues in the current debate, e.g. the doctrine on God, providence and creation, sin, suffering, et cetera. It is also determined that Calvin’s thoughts are reflected in the reformed confessions, which is still the living faith of reformed churches all over the world.

  14. Changing Attitudes and Changing Latitudes: The Impact of Changes in the Strategic Environment on Tactical Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-08

    n, , preliminary draft, 21 August 1992, 2-10. "! Micheal R. Rampy, "FM 100-5, Operations: A Paradigm for Adaptation," Aviation Digest, July-August...Survey of 20th Century Tactics, Doctrine, and Organizations." CS1 Research Survey No. 2. Fort Leavenworth, 1984. / 7 \\// Jordan , Amos A. William 3

  15. A Complex and Volatile Environment: The Doctrinal Evolution from Full Spectrum Operations in Unified Land Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-23

    The Future of Sustainment Doctrine," Army Sustainment 44, no. 2 (2012): 2. 120 Lieutenant General David Perkins and Nathan Finney , "Speed of War For...operational-concept-of-unified. Perkins, David, and Nathan Finney . "Speed of War for Army Knowledge." Army Magazine, March 1, 2012. Schrankel, Chuck

  16. An Essay Towards Solving a Problem in the Doctrine of Chances 1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    conclusions are fully given, but some of the long and elaborate derivations based on geometric considerations have been left out due to page constraints. Problem. An Essay Towards Solving a. Problem in the Doctrine of Chances 1. Given the number of times in which an unknown event has happened and failed: Required.

  17. the doctrine of piercing the corporate veil: its legal and judicial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    of the grounds by which the corporate veil can be pierced under Ethiopian law and the role of courts in recognizing the doctrine. Based on the analysis of the relevant legislative provisions and some court cases, it is found that Ethiopian company law, though not sufficient, provides some clear grounds of piercing.

  18. Minority Voices in the Marketplace of Ideas: A Case Study of Women and the Fairness Doctrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb-Reiley, Linda

    The fairness doctrine was established by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to promote public debate over the media and to ensure that opposing viewpoints be heard on issues of public importance. To change the image of women as portrayed in the mass media, the National Organization for Women (NOW) focused on television because of the…

  19. Towards the single european EMC defence standard AECTP 250-500, and planned updates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The European Commission is supporting one European wide defence (equipment) market, and national standards are preventing such a European-wide approach. Therefore the European Standardisation organisation CEN was asked to create an organisation to rationalize standards for defence procurement.

  20. Ambassadors of the Swedish Nation: National Images in the Teaching of the Swedish Lecturers in Germany 1918-1945

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerlund, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the teaching of Swedish language lecturers active in Germany during the first half of the twentieth century. It shows the centrality of literature and literary constructions and analyses images of Swedishness and the Swedish nation present in the teaching material of that time in relation to the national image present in…

  1. An ecological cost of plant defence : attractiveness of bitter cucumber plants to natural enemies of herbivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agrawal, A.A.; Janssen, A.; Bruin, J.; Posthumus, M.A.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2002-01-01

    Plants produce defences that act directly on herbivores and indirectly via the attraction of natural enemies of herbivores. We examined the pleiotropic effects of direct chemical defence production on indirect defence employing near-isogenic varieties of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus) that differ

  2. Polymorphism at selected defence gene analogs (DGAs) of Musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the major diseases affecting banana is Sigatoka or leaf spot disease that comprises three species, Mycosphaerella fijiensis, Mycosphaerella musicola and Mycosphaerella eumusae. Plants have a large number of defence related genes which trigger a cascade of defense responses that halt the spread of pathogens.

  3. The Legacy of Daantjie Oosthuizen: Revisiting the Liberal Defence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    canberry

    The Legacy of Daantjie Oosthuizen: Revisiting the Liberal Defence of. Academic Freedom. André du Toit. De part ment of Po lit i cal Studies. Uni ver sity of Cape Town. Cape Town. Intro duction. The classic formu la tions of the liberal notion of academic freedom in the South. African context date from the period of the late ...

  4. Three intelligence methodologies for border defence and border ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Border defence is predominately against the armed forces of other states requiring tanks, aircraft and ships. Traditionally, border security includes the mission roles of immigration, crime, agriculture, finance, disease control and terrorism. Intelligence gathering and analysis using three methodologies - trends and patterns, ...

  5. Torpedo and countermeasures modelling in the Torpedo Defence System Testbed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, F.P.A.; Witberg, R.R.; H.J. Grootendorst, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    Several years ago, TNO-FEL started the development of the Torpedo Defence System Testbed (TDSTB) based on the TORpedo SIMulation (TORSIM) model and the Maritime Operations Simulation and Evaluation System (MOSES). MOSES provides the simulation and modelling environment for the evaluation and

  6. Alcohol misuse in patients attending a defence force general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the prevalence of alcohol misuse in adult patients attending a defence force general practice clinic. Design: Descriptive cross-sectional survey. Methods: The setting is a military sickbay situated in the Cape Town metropolitan area, South Africa. Participants included all adult patients (>=18 years) ...

  7. "Contributory intent" as a defence limiting delictual liability | Ahmed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In terms of delictual liability, the term "fault" generally refers to the defendant's conduct, whereas "contributory fault" refers to the plaintiff's conduct. "Contributory intent" is a form of "contributory fault" and may apply as a defence limiting delictual liability within the ambit of the Apportionment of Damages Act 34 of 1956 ...

  8. Exploiting Modelling and Simulation in Support of Cyber Defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.H.A.; Boltjes, B.; Croom-Jonson, S.; Jonat, F.; Çankaya, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly evolving environment of Cyber threats against the NATO Alliance has necessitated a renewed focus on the development of Cyber Defence policy and capabilities. The NATO Modelling and Simulation Group is looking for ways to leverage Modelling and Simulation experience in research, analysis

  9. The South African Defence Force and Horse Mounted Infantry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Defence Force (SADF) made effective use of the horse mounted soldier in the Namibian Independence War or 'Border War', 1966 to 1989, in Namibia (South West African) and Angola, in a conflict usually depicted as a series of high profile mechanised infantry operations. Nevertheless, the legacy of the ...

  10. Safety Assessment Method of Flood Defences for Flow Sliding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Krogt, M.G.; Van den Ham, G.A.; Kok, M.

    2015-01-01

    Flow sliding of submerged slopes in front of dikes can affect the reliability of flood defences. The occurrence of flow sliding may result, sometimes with delay, in a failure mode and consequent flooding. The current safety assessment method for flow sliding does not consider the interaction between

  11. Suicide Prevention and Management in the SA National Defence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suicide Prevention and Management in the SA National Defence Force: A Psychological Discussion. ... Suicide can be a reaction in peacekeeping operations or conventional warfare, because the stressful nature of both types of operations can force military members to such a catastrophic end. This article focuses on the ...

  12. Standardization for Defence Procurement - European Handbook, recommendations Electromagnetic Environmental Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes; Malabiau, R.

    2006-01-01

    The European Commission (EC) would like to improve the competitiveness of the European Defence Industry. The large number of (national) standards, more than 10.000, is recognised by EC as a major constraint and cost driver [1]. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) and more generally Electromagnetic

  13. CSIR eNews: Defence peace safety and security

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available At the CSIR, science and technology (S&T) is hard at work for a peaceful, safe and prosperous South Africa. The organisation has developed strong S&T capabilities through its associations with key players in defence, safety and security...

  14. CSIR eNews: Defence peace safety and security

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available At the CSIR, science and technology (S&T) is a hard core at work for a peaceful, secured and prosperous South Africa. The organisation has developed strong S&T capabilities through its associations with key players in defence, safety and security...

  15. Briefing : Lessons learned from failures of flood defences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, S.N.; Schweckendiek, T.

    2015-01-01

    Failure of flood defences during extreme events can lead to enormous damage and loss of life. This paper presents lessons learned from investigations of flood events over recent years, including the 2005 flooding in New Orleans, USA, caused by hurricane Katrina. Based on these findings, new

  16. State Aid as a Defence for Public Authorities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2016-01-01

    In the annotated judgment a public authority uses the existence of State aid as a defence in a legal action, where its contractual partner aimed to achieve damages and fulfilment of the contracts. The public authority claimed that the contracts were not on market terms, which also was the nationa...

  17. suicide prevention and management in the sa national defence force

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rene

    DEFENCE FORCE: A PSYCHOLOGICAL. DISCUSSION. Rene Koopman and Gielie ..... includes depression, substance abuse, schizophrenia and many other mental illnesses, is the main cause for the ..... and mindset of soldiers seeking psychological help to assist them in dealing with the stressors they experience during ...

  18. Foreigners in the defence of South Africa | Jooste | Scientia Militaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 16, No 2 (1986) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Foreigners in the defence of South Africa.

  19. Paradigm shifts, South African Defence Policy and the South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African paradigm that guided the pre-1994 Total Strategy defence outlook was later opposed and ousted by one that was more explanatory and embracing of the democratic features permeating and envisaged for South African society. This democratic imperative drove the dominant shift in the South African ...

  20. Plan ontogeny and chemical defence : older seedlings are better defended

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elger, A.F.; Lemoine, D.G.; Fenner, M.; Hanley, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Although patterns of seedling selection by herbivores are strongly influenced by plant age and the expression of anti-herbivore defence, it is unclear how these characteristics interact to influence seedling susceptibility to herbivory. We tracked ontogenetic changes in a range of secondary

  1. Cross Border EU Defence Industry Consolidation between Globalization and Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich

    The European Defence Industry is undergoing consolidation cutting across national borders. This is spurred by European Union policy initiatives and active encouragement by some national governments fearing a US-led global consolidation of the industry. The process in many ways proves challenging...

  2. Psychiatric, Psychological and “Witchcraft” Defences to Murder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Expert psychiatric testimony may be relevant in certain instances of homicide especially murder. However, the exposure of most psychiatric trainees may be inadequate in relation to the range of psychological defences available to an offender accused of homicide. Aim: To describe the psychiatric and ...

  3. Interdepartmental Cooperation in Defence Issues and Strategic Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojsa Nikolic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this paper comes from one successfully conducted empirical research about motivation of potential candidates to serve in the active reserve as a kind of military service which is recently introduced in the Serbian Army. The research team was faced with a set of problems related to the deadlines, resources and mandate issues. A solution was found in agile interdepartmental cooperation. Firstly, we started with identification of missing resources and mandates of our research team. Then, we investigated where we could find the missing issues. After that, we established lines for cooperation with other departments in the MoD. The clarity of interdepartmental communication and concretisation of demands and expectations were crucial for success. In the end we realized the full potential of interdepartmental cooperation and started to think about that phenomenon in the wider context of defence and security issues. We found some other examples of interdepartmental cooperation in earlier efforts of the defence sector reform, as well as some results in other armies. The paper presents strengths and opportunities of interdepartmental cooperation through temporary engaged working groups in the specific defence sector environment, as well as potential obstacles. In a wider aspect, interdepartmental cooperation in defence and security issues becomes more and more important because of new security challenges we are facing today.

  4. Probabilistic safety assessment of multi-functional flood defences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar Lopez, Juan Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art of flood defence design and assessment shows that the most common adaptation measures for coping with the uncertainties associated with climate change often involve an increase in the size of these water-retaining structures. The shortage of habitable areas in the deltaic zones

  5. Leisure, Government and Governance: A Swedish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    The leisure sector has witnessed a tremendous expansion since 1960. The purpose of this article is to analyse the decisions and goals of Swedish government policy during the period 1962 to 2005. The empirical analysis covers government Propositions and governmental investigations. The fields covered are sports, culture, exercise, tourism and…

  6. Training Entrepreneurship at Universities: A Swedish Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klofsten, Magnus

    2000-01-01

    The Entrepreneurship and New Business Development Program trains Swedish individuals in the startup of technology- or knowledge-based enterprises. Built on the characteristics of entrepreneurial behavior, the program features a holistic outlook, a network of established entrepreneurs, mentoring, a mix of theory and practice, and focus on the…

  7. Exergy use in the Swedish society 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, G.

    1997-07-01

    The exergy concept is reviewed as a tool for resource accounting. Conversions of energy and material resources in the Swedish society in 1994 are described in terms of exergy. Necessary concepts and conventions are introduced. Exergy losses in transformations of material resources and in conversions of various forms of energy into heat are described in some detail

  8. SWEDISH CRIME FICTION AS SOCIALLY INVOLVED LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Samsel-Chojnacka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Swedish crime novel has been transforming for many years to become more socially involved. The ambition of many writers is not only to entertain the readers but also to participating in the social debate, criticizing the political and economical system, focusing on important issues such as violence against women, exploitation of working class by the privileged ruling class, the problems of a modern family and the situation of immigrants. Since the moment when in the mid 60’s two journalists Maj Sjöwall and Per Wahlöö decided to use popular literature to spread social matters many other Swedish writers have decided to follow their way. Some of them are journalists – like Liza Marklund, Börge Hellström and Anders Roslund or Stieg Larsson. Their novels as well as the ones written by Henning Mannkel on Kurt Wallander have become crucial evidence of changes of Swedish society in the past twenty years. Modern Swedish crime fiction illustrates the population in the model fashion that is the reason why it can become one of the interests of the sociology of literature.

  9. Mathematics and Didactic Contract in Swedish Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacour, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study and analyse how a teacher implements an outdoor realistic problem situation for children aged 4-5 in a Swedish preschool. By an "outdoor realistic problem situation", I mean a situation initiated by a teacher in which children come into contact with mathematical concepts and in which the outside…

  10. Landscape settings as part of earth wall systems for defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk

    2013-04-01

    Remnants of earth wall systems from different periods are preserved in many European countries. They were built for different functions, such as defence, demarcating ownership or keeping wild animals or cattle in or out a terrain, and often changed function over time. Earth walls date from a past in which man had limited access to man- and horsepower. In the case of defence systems, our ancestors made use of the landscape settings to improve the strength. The poster gives an overview of landscape settings used for this purpose, from prehistoric up to medieval age, for building round and linear earth wall defence systems. Round earth walls systems are found on: • High viewpoints along a river, often in combination with marshland at its feet, • Almost completely cut-off meanders of antecedent rivers. This natural setting offered an ideal defence. It allowed an almost 360 degree view and exposed the enemy for a long time when passing the river, while the steep slopes and narrow entrance made the hill fort difficult to access, • Islands in lakes, • Bordering a lake at one side, • Confluences of rivers, • Hills near the sea and a natural harbour with possibilities for defence, • High flat hill tops of medium size with steep sides. Of each situation examples are presented. Linear earth wall defence systems For linear defence earth walls no overview of landscape settings can be given, for lack of sufficient data. The Celtic, 10 m steep Beech Bottom Dyke earth wall system from around 20 A.D. connects two steeply incised river valleys. For building the Hadrian Wall (UK) the Romans made use of earth walls paralleling the steepest cuesta of the Cheviot hills. The Viking Danewerk (Ger), was built on push moraines and used the coastal marsh lands at their feet for defence. And the defence of the earth wall around the Velder (NL, probably 13th century) made use of the many small streams crossing this marshy coversand landscape, by diverting them into a canal

  11. Swedish attitudes towards persons with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högberg, Torbjörn; Magnusson, Annabella; Lützén, Kim; Ewalds-Kvist, Béatrice

    2012-04-01

    Negative and stigmatizing attitudes towards persons with mental illness must be dealt with to facilitate the sufferers' social acceptance. The present study aimed at survey Swedish attitudes towards persons with mental illness related to factors impacting these attitudes. New CAMI-S based on the questionnaire "Community Attitudes to Mental Illness in Sweden" ([CAMI] Taylor & Dear, 1981) was developed with nine behavioral-intention items and thus comprised a total of 29 items. Of 5000 Swedish people, 2391 agreed to complete the questionnaire. Principal component analysis rendered four factors reflecting attitudes towards the mentally ill: Intention to Interact, Fearful and Avoidant, Open-minded and Pro-Integration, as well as Community Mental Health Ideology. The factors were analyzed for trends in attitudes. By MANOVA, the experience of mental illness effects on mind-set towards the sufferers was assessed. By means of logistic regression, demographic factors contributing to positive attitudes towards persons with mental illness residing in the neighborhood were assessed. By New CAMI-S, the Swedish attitudes towards the mentally ill were surveyed and trends in agreement with living next to a person with mental illness were revealed in three out of four factors derived by principal component analysis. Aspects impacting the Swedish attitudes towards persons with mental illness and willingness to have him/her residing in the neighborhood comprised experience of mental illness, female gender, age (31-50 years), born in Scandinavia or outside Europe, only 9 years of compulsory school and accommodation in flat. The New CAMI-S came out as a useful tool to screen Swedish attitudes towards persons with mental illness. Most Swedes were prepared to live next to the mentally ill.

  12. Professional reinventions: Swedish psychologists, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagius, Peter; Münger, Ann-Charlotte

    2016-11-01

    Since the early 20th century, the Swedish psychology profession has undergone several changes in its essential tasks, epistemological foundations, and social roles. These changes occurred through an ongoing "tuning" with Swedish society, in which the profession strove to appear relevant to society's concerns and problems as well as enroll others to share the profession's goals and aims. Studying the history of the profession can thus shed light on the changing definitions and contours of the psychology profession itself as well as on the organization of the society in which it acts. This article examines the history of the Swedish psychology profession from 1990 to 2010, through an analysis of the discussions and debates taking place in the Swedish Psychological Association's journal. The analytical framework used draws on work done within actor-network theory and science studies. We argue that the profession's institutional connections, defining tasks, epistemological underpinnings, and social position have changed in major ways during these 2 decades. Overall, as a result of an increasingly felt insecurity, the profession has turned outward and tried to find new ways to legitimize itself to politicians, the media, patients, and customers through means such as a more economized vocabulary and novel forms of empirical research. These changes have led to a more socialized profession, now more closely tuned to other actors in Swedish society, leading to conflicts within the profession over whether this is an opportunity to better control their own destiny or if it will lead to a loss of autonomy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Prevalence of footrot in Swedish slaughter lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyman Ann-Kristin J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Footrot is a world-wide contagious disease in sheep and goats. It is an infection of the epidermis of the interdigital skin, and the germinal layers of the horn tissue of the feet. The first case of footrot in Swedish sheep was diagnosed in 2004. Due to difficulties in distinguishing benign footrot from early cases of virulent footrot and because there is no possibility for virulence testing of strains of Dichelobacter nodosus in Sweden, the diagnosis is based of the presence or absence of clinical signs of footrot in sheep flocks. Ever since the first diagnosed case the Swedish Animal Health Service has worked intensively to stop the spread of infection and control the disease at flock level. However, to continue this work effectively it is important to have knowledge about the distribution of the disease both nationally and regionally. Therefore, the aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of footrot in Swedish lambs at abattoirs and to assess the geographical distribution of the disease. Methods A prevalence study on footrot in Swedish lambs was performed by visual examination of 2000 feet from 500 lambs submitted from six slaughter houses. Each foot was scored according to a 0 to 5 scoring system, where feet with score ≥2 were defined as having footrot. Moreover, samples from feet with footrot were examined for Dichelobacter nodosus by culture and PCR. Results The prevalence of footrot at the individual sheep level was 5.8%, and Dichelobacter nodosus was found by culture and PCR in 83% and 97% of the samples from feet with footrot, respectively. Some minor differences in geographical distribution of footrot were found in this study. Conclusions In a national context, the findings indicate that footrot is fairly common in Swedish slaughter lambs, and should be regarded seriously.

  14. A methodology for the quantification of doctrine and materiel approaches in a capability-based assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Steven Anthony

    Due to the complexities of modern military operations and the technologies employed on today's military systems, acquisition costs and development times are becoming increasingly large. Meanwhile, the transformation of the global security environment is driving the U.S. military's own transformation. In order to meet the required capabilities of the next generation without buying prohibitively costly new systems, it is necessary for the military to evolve across the spectrum of doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities (DOTMLPF). However, the methods for analyzing DOTMLPF approaches within the early acquisition phase of a capability-based assessment (CBA) are not as well established as the traditional technology design techniques. This makes it difficult for decision makers to decide if investments should be made in materiel or non-materiel solutions. This research develops an agent-based constructive simulation to quantitatively assess doctrine alongside materiel approaches. Additionally, life-cycle cost techniques are provided to enable a cost-effectiveness trade. These techniques are wrapped together in a decision-making environment that brings crucial information forward so informed and appropriate acquisition choices can be made. The methodology is tested on a future unmanned aerial vehicle design problem. Through the implementation of this quantitative methodology on the proof-of-concept study, it is shown that doctrinal changes including fleet composition, asset allocation, and patrol pattern were capable of dramatic improvements in system effectiveness at a much lower cost than the incorporation of candidate technologies. Additionally, this methodology was able to quantify the precise nature of strong doctrine-doctrine and doctrine-technology interactions which have been observed only qualitatively throughout military history. This dissertation outlines the methodology and demonstrates how potential

  15. Mortgages, seniors and the common law contractual doctrine of mental incapacity in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    Seniors in Australia are being called upon to mortgage their most precious economic asset, the family home. They may be asked to guarantee the liabilities of other family members by providing a mortgage-based guarantee or they may decide to enter into a reverse mortgage to supplement financially their savings and pensions. As the family home is the single most valuable asset for most older Australians, the creation of any obligations in regard to it ought to be undertaken with care and vigilance. While seniors are free to create mortgage, they may lack the capacity to understand the legal ramifications of these complex transactions or be unable to protect their interests when entering into them. It is not suggested that older Australians necessarily suffer a lack of contractual capacity. Many seniors are more than able to take care of their interests and assets. However, some seniors do suffer cognitive impairment which adversely affects their capacity to act in their best interests and to navigate the complexities of contractual relations. In contract and mortgage law, this raises the issue of mental incapacity. For centuries, the common law has recognized not only that mentally incapacitated people exist, but that they may enter into contracts such as mortgage and may later wish to have the mortgage set aside. The present formulation of the contractual doctrine of mental incapacity is the product of 19th century jurisprudence in which the courts framed the doctrine to accommodate commercial dealing rather than the interests of persons who lacked the necessary mental capacity. Accordingly, the doctrine has been very difficult to rely on successfully when challenging mortgages made by persons lacking capacity. Therefore, Australian litigators and courts alike have sought to deal with mental incapacity issues in the contractual context by using and modifying other doctrines (such as non est factum, undue influence and unconscionable dealing) in which the issue of

  16. Directors’ Liability under thr Doctrine of Piercing the Corporate Veil : The Directors' Liability for Corporate Debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laya Joneydi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The doctrine of piercing the corporate veil fascilitated holding directors liable for corporate debt. Nevertheless, the doctrine is not a seperate cause of action. Directors are bound by fiduciary duty, duty of loyalty and duty of care and skill to the corporation and its shareholders. However, there is not such a contractual relationship between directors and creditors. Thus, requiring directors to compensate creditors should be justified on tort law. In the Iranian, French and American legal systems, fault-based liability is the cause of action for directors' liability. The author found that in piercing cases, directors' liability follows the traditional rules of fault-based liability unless specified otherwise by statute as strict liability.

  17. Cognitive phase transitions in the cerebral cortex enhancing the neuron doctrine by modeling neural fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kozma, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This intriguing book was born out of the many discussions the authors had in the past 10 years about the role of scale-free structure and dynamics in producing intelligent behavior in brains. The microscopic dynamics of neural networks is well described by the prevailing paradigm based in a narrow interpretation of the neuron doctrine. This book broadens the doctrine by incorporating the dynamics of neural fields, as first revealed by modeling with differential equations (K-sets).  The book broadens that approach by application of random graph theory (neuropercolation). The book concludes with diverse commentaries that exemplify the wide range of mathematical/conceptual approaches to neural fields. This book is intended for researchers, postdocs, and graduate students, who see the limitations of network theory and seek a beachhead from which to embark on mesoscopic and macroscopic neurodynamics.

  18. John Dewey's unknown critique of marginal utility doctrine: instrumentalism, motivation, and values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilman, R; Knapp, T

    1999-01-01

    During the late nineteenth century, marginal utility theory became the dominant ideology of the new academic discipline of economics. This article explicates and discusses previously unexamined lecture notes prepared in 1913 by John Dewey on marginal utility doctrine. After briefly characterizing the state of marginal utility doctrine, Dewey's criticisms are shown to derive from his instrumentalism and general theory of value. In Dewey's view, marginalism privatized value and by doing so induced moral agnosticism, a condition of permanently suspended judgment regarding individual and social needs that was likely to undermine the foundations of a democratic community since it immunizes value against collective appraisal by public bodies. Moreover, while marginal utility theory represented a serious concerted attempt to deal with substantive problems of value in economics and the economy, to Dewey it was ultimately a form of apologetics for the existing mode of social relations. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. The Doctrine of Incommensurability in Paul Feyerabend. An Objection Against a Particular Conception of Scientific Rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Gargiulo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Incommensurability has caused many controversies and debates. In these debates seems to be unanimous the interpretation of that doctrine as an objection to objectivity, realism and scientific progress. Now this is a narrow hermeneutical framework for understanding the intention of Paul Feyerabend when formulating his doctrine of incommensurability. Because he was never intended to challenge such notions in themselves but only to show how vain turns out to be the neo-positivism and Popperian rationalism´s attempt to define them. In a positive sense we argue that incommensurability, according to Paul Feyerabend, prevents or impedes when we comes to define those notions return to dialectical of logical positivism or critical rationalism. Our intention in this paper is to present his thesis of incommensurability as a challenge to a particular way of conceiving scientific rationality and its consequent notions of objectivity, progress and scientific realism.

  20. Does recent research on adolescent brain development inform the mature minor doctrine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Laurence

    2013-06-01

    US Supreme Court rulings concerning sanctions for juvenile offenders have drawn on the science of brain development and concluded that adolescents are inherently less mature than adults in ways that render them less culpable. This conclusion departs from arguments made in cases involving the mature minor doctrine, in which teenagers have been portrayed as comparable to adults in their capacity to make medical decisions. I attempt to reconcile these apparently incompatible views of adolescents' decision-making competence. Adolescents are indeed less mature than adults when making decisions under conditions that are characterized by emotional arousal and peer pressure, but adolescents aged 15 and older are just as mature as adults when emotional arousal is minimized and when they are not under the influence of peers, conditions that typically characterize medical decision-making. The mature minor doctrine, as applied to individuals 15 and older, is thus consistent with recent research on adolescent development.

  1. Doctrinal Bases of the Russian Historical Tradition of Local Government Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey S. Miloserdov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In article the content of the principle of the accounting of historical features of local government on the example of theories of local government of the period of the Russian Empire is analyzed. Author considers these theories as a doctrinal basis of formation of domestic historical tradition of the local government. Basic provisions of the state, legal and public and economic theories of local government are analyzed. Concepts of founders of these theories are shown. The conclusion is drawn that in a basis of territorial and city reforms the public and economic theory of local government laid down. Also it is told about an insufficient practical demand of doctrinal development of the period of great reforms because of a contradiction between the being available concepts and the saved-up historical experience which wasn't creating prerequisites for successful development of local government.

  2. Life-history constraints in grassland plant species: a growth-defence trade-off is the norm

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.M. Lind; E.T. Borer; E.W. Seabloom; P.B. Adler; J.D. Bakker; D.M. Blumenthal; M. Crawley; K.F. Davies; J. Firn; D.S. Gruner; S. Harpole; Y. Hautier; H. Hillebrand; J.M.H. Knops; B.A. Melbourne; B. Mortensen; A.C. Risch; M. Schuetz; C.J. Stevens; P.D. Wragg

    2013-01-01

    Plant growth can be limited by resource acquisition and defence against consumers, leading to contrasting trade-off possibilities. The competition-defence hypothesis posits a trade-off between competitive ability and defence against enemies (e.g. herbivores and pathogens). The growth-defence hypothesis suggests that strong competitors for nutrients are also defended...

  3. Trans-boarding the Doctrinal Phenomenon within the Management Sciences towards a Creative Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIORICA MIRELA STEFAN-DUICU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The changes generated by the doctrinal phenomenon belonging to the management sciences within the economic dimension mark an evolutionary scale of the industry. The birth of a creative side of the global industries has generated an assembly of multidisciplinary framed phenomenon. This paper aims to highlight these issues and to describe a different point of view of this environment that is being characterized by an ascending innovation trend.

  4. Amphibious Landing Operations in World War II: Personal Experience in Applying and Developing Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    43 Becker, 5. 44 Ibid., 31. 14 to-shore landings, because of the existence of “very little concrete doctrine or principles on which to base...the best methods for vehicle and equipment waterproofing and beach organization, maintenance, and supply.122 In regards to the Navy being responsible...ultimately ineffective due to teams not waterproofing radio sets properly. For the first four hours of the operation, fire support ships engaged pre

  5. Four Decades and Five manuals: U.S. Army Strategic Leadership Doctrine, 1983-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    Press, 1990. Bennis , Warren . On Becoming a Leader. New York: Basic Books, 2003. Bryson, John M. and Barbara C. Crosby. Leadership for the Common...Leadership Quarterly 7, Issue 4 (Winter 1996): 435. 26 concluded that the Army must link training management with doctrinal leadership frameworks within...study of leadership as an aspect missing in management . There was a metamorphosis away from the study of direct leadership to a greater study of

  6. The right to remain silent in roman-type law doctrine : an economic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Günther

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the strategic implications of the existence of the right to silence in criminal trial in the context of Roman law doctrine. The right confers to the defendant the privilege that, in the context of a signalling game, i. e. the trial, no adverse conclusions may be drawn from his exercise of the right. It is shown that respect for the right to silence does not have significant strategic consequences. In particular, no influence on conviction rates exists, neither rightful nor...

  7. Foreign Security Force Advisor Training, Doctrine, and Manning for 2015 and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    materials, such as policies, doctrinal publications, current organizational models, and other literary information to gain a better 8 understanding...once identified, they reported to MHG. In a Marine Corps news article , Cpl Burton (2010) 16 stated, “the ATC’s mission is to form, equip, train... article for the Small Wars Journal, Colonel Grigsby and Lieutenant Colonel Pendall (2010) stated, “pre-deployment combat training centers in the U.S. and

  8. Ethnic Swedish parents' experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence in Swedish paediatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavallali, Azar G; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Jirwe, Maria

    2014-06-01

    Sweden has a population of a little more than 9.4 million. The rapid growth of immigration in Sweden has resulted in an increased number of minority ethnic patients and minority ethnic nurses in the Swedish healthcare system. This also applies to paediatric care. The purpose of this study was to explore how parents with ethnic Swedish backgrounds experience minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence and the care the nurses provide in a Swedish paediatric care context. This exploratory qualitative study is of 14 parents with an ethnic Swedish background whose child was in a ward at a children's hospital in Stockholm County Council. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews to identify parents' perceptions and experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence. The interviews were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The analyses of the interviews led to four main categories: influence of nurses' ethnicity; significance of cross-cultural communication; cross-cultural skills; and the importance of nursing education. Nurses' ethnicity did not have much impact on parents' satisfaction with their child's care. The parents attached importance to nurses' language skills and to their adaptation and awareness of Swedish culture. They also attached weight to nurses' professional knowledge and personal attributes. The role of nursing education to increase nurses' cultural awareness was highlighted too. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  9. THE ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF LAW - WILL THE ROMANIAN DOCTRINE FINALLY CATCH UP WITH IT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA-FLORENTINA POPA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Although a well-established presence on the international legal scene, the economic analysis of law is still an unfamiliar concept to most Romanian scholars. While worldwide, prestigious universities offer special courses on this topic and an impressive body of legal studies continues to add up, only scant traces of this important legal school can be detected in some recent Romanian doctoral thesis and papers. This article explores the main concepts of the economic analysis of law, the recent spin-offs of this theory, especially in the area of comparative law, as well as some of the critiques addressed in the legal doctrine, concerning the consequences on law of overemphasizing “efficiency” to the expense of less quantifiable, moral and social considerations. Some explanations on why the Romanian doctrine is lagging behind with respect to the economic analysis of law will also be attempted, together with a tentative answer to whether this major legal theory will ever make an impact on local doctrinal developments in the near future.

  10. Reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisell, Kristin; Winblad, Ulrika; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, a reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector took place, and a fundamental change in ownership and structure followed. The reregulation provides an opportunity to reveal the politicians' views on pharmacies. The aim of this study was to explore and analyze the political arguments...... for the reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector in 2009. The method used was a qualitative content analysis of written political documents regarding the reregulation. The primary rationales for the reregulation were better availability, efficiency, price pressure, and safe usage of medicines. During...... are better equipped to perform public activities. The results point to that the reform was done almost solely in order to introduce private ownership in the pharmacy sector, and was not initiated in order to solve any general problems, or to enhance patient outcomes of medicine use....

  11. Time Trends in Murray's Psychogenic Needs over Three Decades in Swedish 75-Year-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billstedt, Eva; Waern, Margda; Falk, Hanna; Duberstein, Paul; Östling, Svante; Hällström, Tore; Skoog, Ingmar

    2017-01-01

    While time trends in personality traits have been suggested in younger cohorts, little is known regarding this issue in older adults. To test for birth cohort changes in psychogenic needs according to Murray's theory of personality in two birth cohorts of 75-year-olds born 1901-1902 and 1930. Two population-based birth cohorts were examined at the age of 75 years in 1976-1977 and in 2005-2006. Psychogenic needs according to Murray were measured with the Cesarec-Marke Personality Schedule (CMPS), a Swedish version of the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule. Scores on the CMPS subscales (achievement, affiliation, aggression, defence of status, guilt feelings, dominance, exhibition, autonomy, nurturance, order, succorance, and acquiescence) were compared between cohorts. Achievement, exhibition, dominance, aggression, affiliation, and succorance scores were higher, and order and acquiescence scores lower, in the more recent birth cohort of 75-year-olds. Women scored lower than men on exhibition and dominance, and higher on defence of status, guilt feelings, affiliation, nurturance, and succorance. Interaction effects between cohort and sex were found for achievement (women scored lower than men in 1976-1977 but not in 2005-2006), order (the lower scores in 2005-2006 were more accentuated among men), and acquiescence (increased in men and decreased in women). The later-born birth cohort scored higher on self-centred traits, such as more dominant, competitive, and exhibitive traits as well as the need to be taken care of and have friends around, but it scored lower on the need for order. The gap between men and women regarding achievement decreased, possibly reflecting women's more prominent role in society. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. A Comparative Analysis of Sonic Defences in Bombycoidea Caterpillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bura, Veronica L; Kawahara, Akito Y; Yack, Jayne E

    2016-08-11

    Caterpillars have long been used as models for studying animal defence. Their impressive armour, including flamboyant warning colours, poisonous spines, irritating sprays, and mimicry of plant parts, snakes and bird droppings, has been extensively documented. But research has mainly focused on visual and chemical displays. Here we show that some caterpillars also exhibit sonic displays. During simulated attacks, 45% of 38 genera and 33% of 61 species of silk and hawkmoth caterpillars (Bombycoidea) produced sounds. Sonic caterpillars are found in many distantly-related groups of Bombycoidea, and have evolved four distinct sound types- clicks, chirps, whistles and vocalizations. We propose that different sounds convey different messages, with some designed to warn of a chemical defence and others, to startle predators. This research underscores the importance of exploring acoustic communication in juvenile insects, and provides a model system to explore how different signals have evolved to frighten, warn or even trick predators.

  13. Nelson Mandela's defence: A psychological capital documentary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene van Wyk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative documentary analysis examines Nelson Mandela�s defence statement at the Rivonia Trial, Pretoria Supreme Court, on 20 April 1964. The defence document is analysed through the psychological capital lens, depicting themes that support the constructs of hope, efficacy, resilience and optimism. Psychological capital characteristics played a major role in the initial non-violent policies of negotiation. The inevitable establishment of Umkhonto we Sizwe followed, as a result of the increased restrictions and unwillingness of government to negotiate and collaborate. Mandela showed a determined spirit to unite the country. The discussion gives insight into Mandela�s authentic psychological capital leadership under difficult political and personal circumstances. Some implications are indicated in adopting Mandela�s psychological characteristics for personal reform.

  14. Workplace Incivility in a Swedish Context

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Torkelson; Kristoffer Holm; Martin Bäckström

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated workplace incivility in a Swedish context. The first aim was to assess how common the phenomenon is and the second was to study which groups (gender, age, ethnicity, and power position) are most targeted by workplace incivility and are more prone to act in an uncivil way. Additionally, the relationships between experienced and witnessed incivility and wellbeing as well as instigated incivility were investigated. An online survey was administered by SIFO (the nat...

  15. Diversity work in a Swedish Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Risberg, Annette

    2012-01-01

    This paper builds on a case study of diversity work in a Swedish municipality, Malmö. It focuses on certain actors partaking in the diversity work done in the municipality that of a gender and diversity committee and its members – here called diversity ambassadors. I will describe the work of the diversity ambassadors and discuss what impact they could possibly have on the organization. Organizational efforts to change inequalities at the workplace may take different forms. The literature ...

  16. The swedish challenge; Le pari Suedois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tregouet, R

    2006-07-01

    Sweden decided to be the first country without petroleum for 2020. The author presents the major energy policy axis implemented by the swedish government to delete the part of the produced energy by the petroleum: development of the renewable energies, research programs of the transportation sector concerning the alternative fuels for the motors, energy efficiency and development of the biomass to replace the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  17. Patient safety as perceived by Swedish leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Härenstam, Karin Pukk; Elg, Mattias; Svensson, Carina; Brommels, Mats; Øvretveit, John

    2009-01-01

    Artikkelen beskriver en studie hvor hensikten var å kartlegge svenske helselederes bevissthet knyttet til pasientsikkerhet, deres prioritering av sikkerhetsspørsmål, og deres syn på ledelsesstrategier som er egnet i pasientsikkerhetsarbeid. The purpose of this paper is to survey Swedish healthcare leaders' patient safety awareness, the priority they give to safety issues and their views on suitable safety management strategies. A total 623 leaders of a sample of 1,129 responded to a mail q...

  18. Spirometric reference equations for Swedish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisman, Jonas; Kim, Jeong-Lim; Olin, Anna-Carin; Torén, Kjell; Bake, Björn

    2017-11-01

    New spirometric reference equations for Swedish adults are required. Three different older sets of reference equations clinically used in Sweden have various drawbacks and the recently published 'The Global Lung Function 2012 (GLI) equations' have been shown not to be adequate for Swedish normal, healthy non-smokers. We have recently concluded that a piecewise linear model presented by Lubinski and Gólczewski accurately describes the distribution of spirometric variables in a large Swedish random population sample. This piecewise linear model also offers the important advantage of implementing easily physiologically interpretable coefficients. The present study aimed at presenting piecewise linear reference equations for Swedish adults based on a random population sample of 6685 individuals aged 25-75 years. Predicted normal values by the piecewise linear reference equations and lower limit normal (LLN) were compared with the three reference equations frequently used clinically in Sweden and the GLI equations. We found predicted normal values according to the present piecewise linear reference equations close to 100% predicted normal as expected, whereas the other equations either overestimated or underestimated normal subjects. Concerning LLN, the present equations, i.e. 1·645 × RSD, showed the least deviation from the expected 5% and, e.g., the GLI equations systematically identified too few subjects below LLN. We conclude that the present piecewise linear reference equations, based on a relatively large general population sample, ought to be considered for clinical use in Sweden. Application of 1·645 × RSD below predicted value gave an acceptably accurate LLN. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Debugging and Logging Services for Defence Service Oriented Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    to facilitate the creation and maintenance of the most bug- free , reliable and stable information technology environment possible based on SOA using a...highly relevant to the Australian Defence context because of Defence’s need to integrate many legacy systems, to interoperate with other forces and...manifestation and what isn’t. Never throw away a debugging tool Storing related debugging tools, such as pro- grammer written test scripts, with the software

  20. A Review of Enterprise Architecture Use in Defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Visio ™; and IBM’s enterprise architecting tool System Architect™. Similar to commercial EA frameworks such as the Zachman Framework and TOGAF, the...comprising office and graphic drawing tools (Microsoft Office desktop computing tools PowerPoint™, Word™, EXCEL™ and Visio ™), and specialist IBM EA...desktop computing “Common Operating Environment” (COE) in Defence. Visio ™ is also a CIOG approved software application and can be purchased through

  1. Signalling network construction for modelling plant defence response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Miljkovic

    Full Text Available Plant defence signalling response against various pathogens, including viruses, is a complex phenomenon. In resistant interaction a plant cell perceives the pathogen signal, transduces it within the cell and performs a reprogramming of the cell metabolism leading to the pathogen replication arrest. This work focuses on signalling pathways crucial for the plant defence response, i.e., the salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene signal transduction pathways, in the Arabidopsis thaliana model plant. The initial signalling network topology was constructed manually by defining the representation formalism, encoding the information from public databases and literature, and composing a pathway diagram. The manually constructed network structure consists of 175 components and 387 reactions. In order to complement the network topology with possibly missing relations, a new approach to automated information extraction from biological literature was developed. This approach, named Bio3graph, allows for automated extraction of biological relations from the literature, resulting in a set of (component1, reaction, component2 triplets and composing a graph structure which can be visualised, compared to the manually constructed topology and examined by the experts. Using a plant defence response vocabulary of components and reaction types, Bio3graph was applied to a set of 9,586 relevant full text articles, resulting in 137 newly detected reactions between the components. Finally, the manually constructed topology and the new reactions were merged to form a network structure consisting of 175 components and 524 reactions. The resulting pathway diagram of plant defence signalling represents a valuable source for further computational modelling and interpretation of omics data. The developed Bio3graph approach, implemented as an executable language processing and graph visualisation workflow, is publically available at http://ropot.ijs.si/bio3graph/and can be

  2. Sino-Japanese relations and ballistic missile defence

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Christopher W.

    2001-01-01

    Since December 1998, the Japanese government has formally committed itself to undertake cooperative technological research with the US into Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD). Japanese government policy-makers stress that the BMD project remains at present purely at the research stage, and that separate government decisions will be necessary before any progression towards the stages of development, production and deployment. Nevertheless, even at the research phase it is clear that both Japanese...

  3. Patient safety as perceived by Swedish leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härenstam, Karin Pukk; Elg, Mattias; Svensson, Carina; Brommels, Mats; Ovretveit, John

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to survey Swedish healthcare leaders' patient safety awareness, the priority they give to safety issues and their views on suitable safety management strategies. A total 623 leaders of a sample of 1,129 responded to a mail questionnaire (55 percent response rate). Descriptive statistics of the responses are presented as frequency distributions across respondent subgroups. Means were tested for similarity by a repetitive one-way ANOVA procedure. Homogeneous response groups were sought by hierarchical cluster analysis. Swedish healthcare leaders show relatively high safety awareness and how their organizations prioritize safety management. There is a marked polarization between leaders; half feel that the system works reasonably well, and that adequate funds are available to improve or maintain services. The other half thinks the system needs major change and calls for additional funding. A majority sees system errors as the main cause for adverse events; a substantial minority find human errors to be more important. Two-thirds were willing to make safety performance information on organizations and specialties public, one third was restrictive. Survey instruments used to explore leaders' patient safety views have not yet been rigorously tested against psychometric criteria. One hospital type was slightly over-represented and three regions somewhat under-represented in the respondent groups. This is the first systematic attempt to explore the views of Swedish healthcare leaders on patient safety. It provides input to a national strategy to improve patient safety.

  4. Psychosocial work environment among Swedish audiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännström, K Jonas; Båsjö, Sara; Larsson, Josefina; Lood, Sofie; Lundå, Stefan; Notsten, Margareta; Taheri, Satu Turunen

    2013-03-01

    The study examined the self-reported psychosocial work environment for audiologists working in three practice types (public, completely private, and private but publicly funded). A cross-sectional e-mail survey using the demand-control-support questionnaire, a short version of the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) questionnaire, and descriptive data. Five-hundred Swedish licensed audiologists. Overall, the results indicate differences in psychosocial work environment pertaining to the practice types. These differences are small and the type explains few percent of the variability accounted in the measures of psychosocial work environment. Social support seems important for the psychosocial work environment and is considered a reward in itself. Using the demand-control model, 29% of the audiologists reported working in a high-stress psychosocial work environment. Using the ERI-ratio to estimate the imbalance between effort and reward it was shown that that 86% of the participants experienced an unfavorable work situation where the rewards do not correspond to the efforts made. The organizational framework has minor effect on self-reported psychosocial work environment for Swedish licensed audiologists. The percentage of unfavorable ERI-ratios seen in Swedish audiologists seems conspicuously high compared to other working populations in general, but also compared to other health service workers.

  5. Compromised Rat Testicular Antioxidant Defence System by Hypothyroidism before Puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak K. Sahoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered thyroid function during early stages of development is known to affect adversely testicular growth, physiology, and antioxidant defence status at adulthood. The objective of the present study is to investigate the modulation of antioxidant defence status in neonatal persistent hypothyroid rats before their sexual maturation and also to identify the specific testicular cell populations vulnerable to degeneration during neonatal hypothyroidism in immature rats. Hypothyroidism was induced in neonates by feeding the lactating mother with 0.05% 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU through the drinking water. From the day of parturition till weaning (25 day postpartum, the pups received PTU through mother's milk (or drinking water and then directly from drinking water containing PTU for the remaining period of experimentation. On the 31st day postpartum, the animals were sacrificed for the study. An altered antioxidant defence system marked by elevated SOD, CAT, and GR activities, with decreased GPx and GST activities were observed along with increased protein carbonylation, disturbed redox status in hypothyroid immature rat testis. This compromised testicular antioxidant status might have contributed to poor growth and development by affecting the spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in rats before puberty as indicated by reduced germ cell number, complete absence of round spermatids, decreased seminiferous tubule diameter, and decreased testosterone level.

  6. Epigenetic variation in plant responses to defence hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzel, Vít; Zhang, Yuanye; Karlsson Moritz, Kim; Fischer, Markus; Bossdorf, Oliver

    2012-11-01

    There is currently much speculation about the role of epigenetic variation as a determinant of heritable variation in ecologically important plant traits. However, we still know very little about the phenotypic consequences of epigenetic variation, in particular with regard to more complex traits related to biotic interactions. Here, a test was carried out to determine whether variation in DNA methylation alone can cause heritable variation in plant growth responses to jasmonic acid and salicylic acid, two key hormones involved in induction of plant defences against herbivores and pathogens. In order to be able to ascribe phenotypic differences to epigenetic variation, the hormone responses were studied of epigenetic recombinant inbred lines (epiRILs) of Arabidopsis thaliana - lines that are highly variable at the level of DNA methylation but nearly identical at the level of DNA sequence. Significant heritable variation was found among epiRILs both in the means of phenotypic traits, including growth rate, and in the degree to which these responded to treatment with jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. Moreover, there was a positive epigenetic correlation between the responses of different epiRILs to the two hormones, suggesting that plant responses to herbivore and pathogen attack may have a similar molecular epigenetic basis. This study demonstrates that epigenetic variation alone can cause heritable variation in, and thus potentially microevolution of, plant responses to defence hormones. This suggests that part of the variation of plant defences observed in natural populations may be due to underlying epigenetic, rather than entirely genetic, variation.

  7. Defence behaviour of reindeer in response to flying parasitic Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Karter

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Similar defence behaviours were exhibited by a reindeer when experimentally exposed to three different species of tethered, flying parasitic Diptera, Cephenemyia trompe (Modeer, Hypoderma tarandi (L and Tabanid. Defencive behavioural responses appeared to be related to attack angle, and were not elicited by auditory stimuli. These observations raise questions about the validity of parasite species-specific defence responses in reindeer.Forsvars-adferd hos rein angrepet av flyvende, parasittiske diptera.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Likeartet forsvars-adferd ble utvist av en rein som ble eksperimentelt utsatt for tre forskjellige arter av bundne, flyvende parasittiske diptera, Cephenemyia trompe (Modeer, Hypoderma tarandi (L og Tabanid. Den forsvarsmessige adferd syntes å ha sammenheng med parasittenes angreps-vinkel og ble ikke utløst av lydstimuli. Disse observasjoner reiser spørsmål om gyldigheten av parasittære artsspesifikke forsvarsreaksjoner hos rein.Poron puolustuskàyttàytyminen lentàvià kaksisiipisià (Diptera hyônteisià vastaan.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Poro kàyttàytyi samalla tavalla kun se joutui tekemisiin kolmen kiinniolevan lentàvân kaksisiipisen hyônteisen: saulakan {Cephenemyia trompe Modeer, kurumupaarman {Hypoderma tarandi L ja parman kanssa. Puolustuskàyttàytyminen riippui hyônteisen làhestymiskulvàt kysymyksià lajispesifisen puolustuskàyttàytymisen esiintymisestà proolla hyônteisià vastaan.

  8. Transgenerational effects alter plant defence and resistance in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colicchio, J

    2017-04-01

    Trichomes, or leaf hairs, are epidermal extensions that take a variety of forms and perform many functions in plants, including herbivore defence. In this study, I document genetically determined variation, within-generation plasticity, and a direct role of trichomes in herbivore defence for Mimulus guttatus. After establishing the relationship between trichomes and herbivory, I test for transgenerational effects of wounding on trichome density and herbivore resistance. Patterns of interannual variation in herbivore density and the high cost of plant defence makes plant-herbivore interactions a system in which transgenerational phenotypic plasticity (TPP) is apt to evolve. Here, I demonstrate that parental damage alters offspring trichome density and herbivore resistance in nature. Moreover, this response varies between populations. This is among the first studies to demonstrate that TPP contributes to variation in nature, and also suggests that selection can modify TPP in response to local conditions. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. Complement in disease: a defence system turning offensive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklin, Daniel; Reis, Edimara S; Lambris, John D

    2016-07-01

    Although the complement system is primarily perceived as a host defence system, a more versatile, yet potentially more harmful side of this innate immune pathway as an inflammatory mediator also exists. The activities that define the ability of the complement system to control microbial threats and eliminate cellular debris - such as sensing molecular danger patterns, generating immediate effectors, and extensively coordinating with other defence pathways - can quickly turn complement from a defence system to an aggressor that drives immune and inflammatory diseases. These host-offensive actions become more pronounced with age and are exacerbated by a variety of genetic factors and autoimmune responses. Complement can also be activated inappropriately, for example in response to biomaterials or transplants. A wealth of research over the past two decades has led to an increasingly finely tuned understanding of complement activation, identified tipping points between physiological and pathological behaviour, and revealed avenues for therapeutic intervention. This Review summarizes our current view of the key activating, regulatory, and effector mechanisms of the complement system, highlighting important crosstalk connections, and, with an emphasis on kidney disease and transplantation, discusses the involvement of complement in clinical conditions and promising therapeutic approaches.

  10. Tanning beauty ideals among Swedish adults who exercise regularly

    OpenAIRE

    Cedercreutz, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Tanning beauty ideals among Swedish adults who exercise regularly Introduction: The majority of the Swedish population exercise regularly, and it has been reported that they believe having an attractive body is important. While research has shown that Swedes wish to be tanned, it is unknown whether there are any correlations to their exercise habits. Aims: The primary aim was to determine tanned skin tone ideals and tanning beauty ideals among regularly exercising Swedish adults. Associati...

  11. The Swedish version of the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; Rosenberg, Patricia; Lindskär, Erik; Amato, Clara; Al Nima, Ali

    2017-10-01

    The data include responses to the Swedish version of a questionnaire used to operationalize self-regulation or regulatory mode: assessment and locomotion. The data was collected among 567 Swedish high school and university students (see Garcia and Lindskär, 2016 [1]). In this article, we also include the Swedish version of the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire. The data is available, SPSS file, as supplementary material in this article.

  12. Sweden and the bomb. The Swedish plans to acquire nuclear weapons, 1945 - 1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonter, T [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of History

    2001-09-01

    This study analyses the Swedish nuclear weapons research since 1945 carried out by the Swedish National Defence Research Establishment (FOA). The most important aspect of this research was dealing with protection in broad terms against nuclear weapons attacks. However, another aspect was also important from early on - to conduct research aiming at a possible production of nuclear weapons. FOA performed an extended research up to 1968, when the Swedish government signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which meant the end of these production plans. Up to this date, five main investigations about the technical conditions were made, 1948, 1953, 1955, 1957 and 1965, which all together expanded the Swedish know-how to produce a bomb. The Swedish plans to procure nuclear weapons were not an issue in the debate until the mid-50's. The reason for this was simple, prior to 1954 the plans were secretly held within a small group of involved politicians, military and researchers. The change of this procedure did take place when the Swedish Supreme Commander in a public defence report in 1954 favoured a Swedish Nuclear weapons option. In 1958 FOA had reached a technical level that allowed the parliament to make a decision. Two programs were proposed - the L-programme (the Loading Programme), to be used if the parliament would say yes to a production of nuclear weapons, and the S-programme (the Protection Programme), if the parliament would say no. The debate on the issue had now created problems for the Social Democratic Government. The prime minister, Tage Erlander, who had earlier defended a procurement of nuclear weapons, was now forced to reach a compromise. The compromise was presented to the parliament in a creative manner that meant that only the S-programme would be allowed. The government argued that the technical level did allow a 'freedom of action' up to at least the beginning of the 60's when Sweden was mature to make a decision on the issue

  13. Cyanogenesis of Wild Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) Is an Efficient Direct Defence in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballhorn, Daniel J.; Kautz, Stefanie; Heil, Martin; Hegeman, Adrian D.

    2009-01-01

    In natural systems plants face a plethora of antagonists and thus have evolved multiple defence strategies. Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) is a model plant for studies of inducible indirect anti-herbivore defences including the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and extrafloral nectar (EFN). In contrast, studies on direct chemical defence mechanisms as crucial components of lima beans' defence syndrome under natural conditions are nonexistent. In this study, we focus on the cyanogenic potential (HCNp; concentration of cyanogenic glycosides) as a crucial parameter determining lima beans' cyanogenesis, i.e. the release of toxic hydrogen cyanide from preformed precursors. Quantitative variability of cyanogenesis in a natural population of wild lima bean in Mexico was significantly correlated with missing leaf area. Since existing correlations do not by necessity mean causal associations, the function of cyanogenesis as efficient plant defence was subsequently analysed in feeding trials. We used natural chrysomelid herbivores and clonal lima beans with known cyanogenic features produced from field-grown mother plants. We show that in addition to extensively investigated indirect defences, cyanogenesis has to be considered as an important direct defensive trait affecting lima beans' overall defence in nature. Our results indicate the general importance of analysing ‘multiple defence syndromes’ rather than single defence mechanisms in future functional analyses of plant defences. PMID:19424497

  14. Applying reinforcement learning to the weapon assignment problem in air defence

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mouton, H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern battlefield is a fast-paced, information-rich environment, where discovery of intent, situation awareness and the rapid evolution of concepts of operation and doctrine are critical success factors. A combination of the techniques...

  15. Zealous Advocates: The historical foundations of the adversarial criminal defence lawyer

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, T.

    2012-01-01

    The place of the criminal defence lawyer in the modern criminal justice system is a given; everysuspect and defendant expects full representation as a right. However, the defence lawyer appeared surprisingly late in the long and venerable history of the English and Welsh legal system. Notwithstanding the defence lawyer's role as advocate for the accused, this unique professional role involves a variety of duties and obligations. This article will focus on the historical development of these c...

  16. Battered women and the requirement of imminence in self-defence

    OpenAIRE

    Samantha Goosen

    2013-01-01

    Should the South African courts abolish the traditional imminence standard, something must be used to stand in its place. The identification of the various alternatives which have been suggested to replace imminence - most notably the establishment of the "reasonable woman standard" as advanced in the case of S v Engelbrecht 2005 (92) SACR 41 (W) - has moved the law of self-defence into the realm of subjectivity. The end result not only undermines self-defence as a justification defence, but ...

  17. Costs and benefits of chemical defence in the Red Alga Bonnemaisonia hamifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran M Nylund

    Full Text Available A number of studies have shown that the production of chemical defences is costly in terrestrial vascular plants. However, these studies do not necessarily reflect the costs of defence production in macroalgae, due to structural and functional differences between vascular plants and macroalgae. Using a specific culturing technique, we experimentally manipulated the defence production in the red alga Bonnemaisonia hamifera to examine if the defence is costly in terms of growth. Furthermore, we tested if the defence provides fitness benefits by reducing harmful bacterial colonisation of the alga. Costly defences should provide benefits to the producer in order to be maintained in natural populations, but such benefits through protection against harmful bacterial colonisation have rarely been documented in macroalgae. We found that algae with experimentally impaired defence production, but with an externally controlled epibacterial load, grew significantly better than algae with normal defence production. We also found that undefended algae exposed to a natural epibacterial load experienced a substantial reduction in growth and a 6-fold increase in cell bleaching, compared to controls. Thus, this study provides experimental evidence that chemical defence production in macroalgae is costly, but that the cost is outweighed by fitness benefits provided through protection against harmful bacterial colonisation.

  18. Defence mechanisms and coping strategies among caregivers in palliative care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, Marie; Naziri, Despina; Etienne, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the relationship between defence mechanisms, coping strategies, palliative attitude, and the well-being of caregivers in palliative care units, who are confronted with death, suffering, and pain. They use many different defence mechanisms; however, studies linking their coping strategies and defence mechanisms are rare. This study uses a quantitative and qualitative design and is based on 18 caregivers (nurses) in 2 palliative care units in Belgium. Defence mechanisms are tested through a semi-structured interview, TAT, and DSQ-60. Coping strategies are evaluated through a semi-structured interview, COPE, and WCQ. To maximize our global approach, coping strategies and defence mechanisms are associated with measures of well-being and palliative attitude. We determined that defence mechanisms and coping strategies should not be seen as obstacles to professional practices. Palliative caregivers are more likely to adopt "mature" and "mental inhibition and compromise formation" defence mechanisms, as well as "emotion-focused" and "problem-focused" coping strategies. Defence mechanisms are more unconscious and constitute appropriate answers in extreme emotional situations. Coping strategies allow for more conscious processes of adaptation to the environment of palliative care units. This study shows positive relationships between different defence mechanisms and coping strategies, palliative attitudes, and caregivers' well-being. Institutions should improve the conditions for group exchange and for caregivers' individual introspection so that caregivers develop adapted capacities to cope with anxiety.

  19. Problem Solving in Swedish Mathematics Textbooks for Upper Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehmer, Daniel; Ryve, Andreas; Van Steenbrugge, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse how mathematical problem solving is represented in mathematical textbooks for Swedish upper secondary school. The analysis comprises dominating Swedish textbook series, and relates to uncovering (a) the quantity of tasks that are actually mathematical problems, (b) their location in the chapter, (c) their…

  20. Psychosocial working conditions and depressive symptoms among Swedish employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Theorell, Töres; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate prospective associations between working conditions and depressive symptoms in Swedish men and women. METHODS: The study was based on SLOSH (N = 5,985), a follow-up of a representative sample of gainfully employed Swedes 16-64 years of age from the Swedish Work Environment...

  1. Preschool Education and Day Care for Swedish Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jeanne

    A comprehensive study of the types of care provided for Swedish children is presented. The point is made that the three major frameworks which support the Swedish philosophy of early childhood education are those of Arnold Gesell, Jean Piaget, and Erik H. Erikson. From all three sources, preschool teachers learn the concept of epigenesis, the…

  2. Parental Expectations of the Swedish Municipal School of Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilliedahl, Jonathan; Georgii-Hemming, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This article draws on a study designed to analyse parental expectations of the Swedish municipal school of arts (hereafter MSA) (in Swedish: kommunal musik- och kulturskola). The study is based on in-depth interviews conducted and informed by grounded theory. Although parental expectations are scarcely uniform, the study reveals a hope that the…

  3. The Position of the Deaf in the Swedish Labor Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydberg, Emelie; Gellerstedt, Lotta Coniavitis; Danermark, Berth

    2010-01-01

    The position of deaf people in the Swedish labor market is described and analyzed. A population of 2,144 people born from 1941 to 1980 who attended special education programs for the deaf was compared to 100,000 randomly chosen individuals from the total Swedish population born during the same period. Data on these individuals consisted of…

  4. Global health education in Swedish medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, S; Agardh, A; Holmer, H; Krantz, G; Hagander, L

    2015-11-01

    Global health education is increasingly acknowledged as an opportunity for medical schools to prepare future practitioners for the broad health challenges of our time. The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of global health education in Swedish medical schools and to assess students' perceived needs for such education. Data on global health education were collected from all medical faculties in Sweden for the years 2000-2013. In addition, 76% (439/577) of all Swedish medical students in their final semester answered a structured questionnaire. Global health education is offered at four of Sweden's seven medical schools, and most medical students have had no global health education. Medical students in their final semester consider themselves to lack knowledge and skills in areas such as the global burden of disease (51%), social determinants of health (52%), culture and health (60%), climate and health (62%), health promotion and disease prevention (66%), strategies for equal access to health care (69%) and global health care systems (72%). A significant association was found between self-assessed competence and the amount of global health education received (pmedical students (83%) wished to have more global health education added to the curriculum. Most Swedish medical students have had no global health education as part of their medical school curriculum. Expanded education in global health is sought after by medical students and could strengthen the professional development of future medical doctors in a wide range of topics important for practitioners in the global world of the twenty-first century. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  5. [To kill, let die and euthanasia in the bill of rights of patients and in the Chilean doctrine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa G, Rodolfo

    2011-05-01

    The Bill of Rights for Patients provides the patient with autonomy for disposing of his life, enabling him to reject those treatments that unnecessarily prolong his life. However, the bill does not allow an artificial acceleration of death. Therefore, the bill does not permit euthanasia (at least, certain form of it) nor assisted-suicide. However, according to the practice of medicine and also Chilean doctrine, it is permitted to inject morphine to a patient to relieve his pain, even though that could hasten his death. In consequence, it is allowed for the patient to dispose of his life and also to inject in him morphine for pain relief, endangering his life, but neither euthanasia nor assisted-suicide is allowed. Is this coherent? According to Chilean doctrine, it could be coherent under the condition of accepting the distinction between killing and letting die and also the double effect doctrine. The problem is that there is abundant English literature in the realm of moral philosophy to disregard both conditions. Therefore, it is possible to claim that the Bill is not coherent and that the Chilean doctrine is based upon a distinction and a doctrine that are not acceptable.

  6. The Doctrine of Caudillism in Spain: Political Legitimacy and Charismatic Power during Francoism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Moradiellos García

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to analyze the sources of doctrinal justification of the charismatic power of General Francisco Franco as Caudillo of Spain for almost forty years. Taking into account the various political cultures of the Spanish Right, it shows the Civil War of 1936-39 as the seminal context for the new supreme and sovereign authority assumed by Franco during the conflict and preserved afterwards as a legacy of his military victory. The consequent personal cult to the Caudillo and the theoretical productions on Caudillaje leadership were adapted to changing international circumstances without any diminution of the permanent and supreme authority of Franco.

  7. The reception of Kant’s doctrine of postulates in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila E. Kryshtop

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns the reception of practical philosophy of Kant in general and the doctrine of the postulates of the practical reason in particular in Russia in the 18th and the first half of the 19th century. Author analyzes the views on Kant’s philosophy of the most representative Russian thinkers and attempts to answer the question why the way practical philosophy of Kant and his postulates of the existence of God and immortality of soul were interpreted in Russia was rather negative and hostile.

  8. Bridging the Chasm: A Comparison of the Army’s 1997 and 2012 Doctrinal Planning Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    General of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower1 During the late 1980’s and early 1990 ’s, US Army units performed well in maneuver battles with...with the populace and consideration of political factors fostered a change to doctrine. Operations during the 1990 ’s revealed the need to consider a...accounts for unintended patterns. In 1994, Henry Mintzberg defined strategy as both a plan and a pattern. As a plan, strategy served as a course of

  9. Doctrinal and devotional literature in schools of Spanish Baroque. The Memento mori as a school subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente SALIDO LÓPEZ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the Counter-Reformation is fundamental to deal the educational models of the late sixteenth century and Baroque. The religious education became the main focus of the primary schools. It is for that reason that materials for reading and writing include texts from doctrinal and devotional works. In the Baroque, because of his particular vision of life, are enriched with reflections on death and worldly vanity. This article aims to analyze the main calligraphy manuals of the period to find this moralizing purpose in exercises for students, tracking the sources and the pedagogical principle followed by their authors.

  10. The core of Francisco Suárez’s doctrine about resistance and tyrannicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Font Oporto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to resume the exposition of Francisco Suárez about the problem of the resistance to the tyrant and its interpretation in the scientific doctrine. Suárez distinguishes betweentwo kinds of tyrants: the bad ruler and the usurper. The first only can be murdered in self-defense ofproper life or community; the second can be murdered by any person member of the community, on several conditions. Suárez is criticized because the only limits he establishes to political power are resistance and tyrannicide. However, these mean a democratic control really and physically possible inthe sociopolitical reality of his days.

  11. Communication problems in Swedish Mental Health reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Jonas

    2005-01-01

    In a study on the implementation of the Swedish Mental Health reform in the county of Gavleborg in Sweden, attention was called, at an early stage, to the need for relevant theories on the nature of the obstacles that slowed down the reform process. Data had initially been gathered from interviews with persons from all levels of the implementation work. A Grounded Theory (GT) study was carried out using these data in order to generate a theory on the nature of the obstacles. Two separate analyses were made, one based on data from experts and decision makers and the other based on data from consumers and staff. Each of these analyses generated a theory with great explanatory and predictive value. In a further analysis, it became possible to merge the theories into an expanded theory with a greater general validity within the entire field of the Swedish Mental Health reform process. The expanded theory states that the psychiatric reform in Sweden is slowed down by obstacles preventing the transfer of information: 1) between staff in the mental health services and staff in the social services; 2) between social services' care givers and consumers. One reason for not removing these obstacles is that they serve an important purpose for those involved, in terms of preserving group identity, which gives them the opportunity to exert influence on their situation and provides room for manoeuvring.

  12. Mortality in Swedish patients with Hirschsprung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löf Granström, Anna; Wester, Tomas

    2017-11-01

    Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) has previously been associated with increased mortality. The aim of this study was to assess mortality in patients with Hirschsprung disease in a population-based cohort. This was a nationwide, population-based cohort study. The study exposure was HSCR and the study outcome was death. The cohort included all individuals with HSCR registered in the Swedish National Patient Register between 1964 and 2013 and ten age- and sex-matched controls per patient, randomly selected from the Population Register. Mortality and cause of death were assessed using the Swedish National Causes of Death Register. The cohort comprised 739 individuals with HSCR (565 male) and 7390 controls (5650 male). Median age of the cohort was 19 years (range 2-49). Twenty-two (3.0%) individuals with HSCR had died at median age 2.5 years (range 0-35) compared to 49 (0.7%) controls at median age 20 years (0-44), p < 0.001. Hazard ratio for death in HSCR patients compared to healthy controls was 4.77 (confidence interval (CI) 95% 2.87-7.91), and when adjusted for Down syndrome, the hazard ratio was 3.6 (CI 95% 2.04-6.37). The mortality rate in the HSCR cohort was 3%, which was higher than in controls also when data were adjusted for Down syndrome.

  13. The doctrine of joint criminal action in the ad hoc tribunals and its scope in the Rome Statute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren Odriozola-Gurrutxaga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The first judgment of the International Criminal Court has confirmed that article 25 (3 of the Rome Statute adopts the theory of control of the act to distinguish between principals and accessories. On the contrary, since 2003, the ad hoc tribunals’ case law bases the notion of co-perpetration on the Joint Criminal Enterprise doctrine, using a subjective criterion approach. In this article we will first analyze the problems raised by that case law of the ad hoc tribunals, and then, we will study the article of the Rome Statute which apparently most resembles the Joint Criminal Enterprise doctrine: article 25 (3 (d. The article concludes that none of the three categories of that doctrine is included in the said provision.

  14. Microstructured fibres: a positive impact on defence technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, E. J.; Watson, M. A.; Delmonte, T.; Petrovich, M. N.; Feng, X.; Flanagan, J. C.; Hayes, J. R.; Richardson, D. J.

    2006-09-01

    In this paper we seek to assess the potential impact of microstructured fibres for security and defence applications. Recent literature has presented results on using microstructured fibre for delivery of high power, high quality radiation and also on the use of microstructured fibre for broadband source generation. Whilst these two applications may appear contradictory to one another the inherent design flexibility of microstructured fibres allows fibres to be fabricated for the specific application requirements, either minimising (for delivery) or maximising (for broadband source generation) the nonlinear effects. In platform based laser applications such as infrared counter measures, remote sensing and laser directed-energy weapons, a suitable delivery fibre providing high power, high quality light delivery would allow a laser to be sited remotely from the sensor/device head. This opens up the possibility of several sensor/device types sharing the same multi-functional laser, thus reducing the complexity and hence the cost of such systems. For applications requiring broadband source characteristics, microstructured fibres can also offer advantages over conventional sources. By exploiting the nonlinear effects it is possible to realise a multifunctional source for applications such as active hyperspectral imaging, countermeasures, and biochemical sensing. These recent results suggest enormous potential for these novel fibre types to influence the next generation of photonic systems for security and defence applications. However, it is important to establish where the fibres can offer the greatest advantages and what research still needs to be done to drive the technology towards real platform solutions.

  15. Persistence of bat defence reactions in high Arctic moths (Lepidoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, J; Roininen, H; Philip, K W

    2000-03-22

    We investigated the bat defence reactions of three species of moths (Gynaephora groenlandica, Gynaephora rossi (Lymantriidae) and Psychophora sabini (Geometridae)) in the Canadian Arctic archipelago. Since these moths inhabit the Arctic tundra and, therefore, are most probably spatially isolated from bats, their hearing and associated defensive reactions are probably useless and would therefore be expected to disappear with ongoing adaptation to Arctic conditions. When exposed to bat-like ultrasound (26 kHz and 110 dB sound pressure level root mean square at 1 m) flying male Gynaephora spp. always reacted defensively by rapidly reversing their flight course. They could hear the sound and reacted at least 15-25 m away. Psychophora sabini walking on a surface froze at distances of at least 5-7 m from the sound source. However, two out of three individuals of this species (all males) did not respond in any way to the sound while in flight. Hence, we found evidence of degeneration of bat defence reactions, i.e. adaptation to the bat-free environment, in P. sabini but not in Gynaephora spp. Some Arctic moths (Gynaephora spp.) still possess defensive reactions against bats, possibly because the selection pressure for the loss of the trait is such that it declines only very slowly (perhaps by genetic drift; and there may not have been enough time for the trait to disappear. One possible reason may be that Arctic moths have long generation times.

  16. Manic Defences in Contemporary Society. The Psychocultural Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Dusko; Jakovljevic, Miro; Marcinko, Darko

    2016-12-01

    The article discusses the impact of contemporary culture on the individual's personality. We used the "psychocultural" approach whose key feature is the amalgamation of theories and methods belonging to psychodynamic and psychosocial studies, as well as those used in the field of media and cultural studies. The idea of a potentially therapeutic effect of culture (therapy culture) can already been seen in Freud's and Lacan's texts, and it is often used in critical analyses of contemporary corporate culture, which is more or less developed in some parts of the world. In their criticisms, many contemporary authors emphasize that modern societies have a tendency towards the weakening of basic commitment, or lack thereof, to a social equivalent of Winnicott's concept of environmental provisions as an inalienable democratic right essential for human emotional and mental progress or emotional well-being. The article describes frequent resorting to the so-called manic defences that defensively distort, deny and obscure the awareness that a human being is not the omnipotent source of life, but instead depends on other human beings, and often tries to compensate for loss through various activities. The article describes excessive shopping as an activity that often serves as an attempt to find what was lost, i.e. to fill an emotional void. This solution (resorting to manic defences) is encouraged by contemporary culture, especially through promotional material (e.g. advertising). The main theses of this article are supported by quotations and data from world literature.

  17. Airlift Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    but all slid into place like clockwork and proceeded on the final flight down the Watut Valley, turned to the right down the Markham and went...that the additional weight was really 350 pounds, not two tons, but it is difficult to determine which apples and oranges the generals were comparing

  18. Adiaphora en la Reforma protestante: ¿minimalismo doctrinal y neutralidad moral?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Svensson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El articulo presenta un análisis de la noción de cosas indiferentes (adiaphora en el contexto de la Reforma protestante. La literatura precedente sobre dicha noción en el contexto de la Reforma ha estado concentrada en el papel desempefiado por la misma en relación a la diversidad litdrgica. Aqui se aborda, en cambio, de modo primordial la cuestión de si acaso entre los reformadores hay una extensión de la noción de adiaphora al campo doctrinal y al moral.This article presents an analysis of the notion of indifferent things (adiaphora in the context of the Protestant Reformation. The previous literature on this notion in the context of the Reformation has focused on the role the Reformation has played with regard to liturgical diversity. Here, however, the focus is primarily on the question of whether among reformers there is an extension of the notion of adiaphora to the doctrinal and moral field.

  19. Construction of the international system of Versailles, according to the doctrine of Woodrow Wilson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Albulena Halili

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mapping of the international system after the First World War took place in the Conference of Versailles, where a peace treaty was negotiated to end this war, and would reshape the world order. The key role in negotiating peace was handed to the United States of America, and its President Woodrow Wilson. This paper aims to elaborate the doctrine of US President Wilson, presented through the Fourteen Points, which were the basis for the international system that was created after First World War. Two of Wilson’s Fourteen Points, which are the object of study in this paper, had the most important impact on international relations, thereby transforming into international law principles, respected to this day: the right of the people for self-determination, which led to the destruction of multi-national empires, and the creation of a association of nations, which resulted in the establishment of the League of Nations, a predecessor of United Nations. The methodological approach used in this paper is analytical-theoretical, and is based on contemporary literature. It aims to identify the strong and weak sides of this doctrine, and its influence in the establishment of the Versailles international system, which only lasted twenty years. Conclusions from this paper are that the Fourteen Points not only served for the mapping of the Versailles international system but also for the establishment of preceding international systems. Many of those principles are the foundation of contemporary international relations

  20. Clinician, Society and Suicide Mountain: Reading Rogerian Doctrine of Unconditional Positive Regard (UPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinedum Amadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Carl Rogers has become a legendary personage in the mental health field. Rogers (1957 “has been cited in the literature over a thousandtimes, in professional writings originating in 36 countries” (Goldfried, 2007, p. 249. Clinicians in the behavioral health field (psychiatry, socialwork, counseling and psychology are exposed to his teachings about human behavior. Of all the ideas propagated by Rogers, the conceptof unconditional positive regard (UPR has been elevated to the level of a doctrine (Schmitt, 1980. What then is unconditional positive regard?How can clinicians be faithful to the demands of unconditional positive regard in the face of other competing realities such as threat of suicideor terrorism? This paper seeks to discuss the impossible nature of Rogers' UPR, highlighting its inherent linguistic contradiction. Sincepsychotherapy is culturally normative, the doctrine of unconditional positive regard negates this fundamental principle. In this article, the authortakes a critical look at the influence of American philosophy of education on Rogers – he was a product of his culture. Furthermore, this paperasserts that clinicians are guided by societal norms or “conditions” which regulate clinical practice, including unconditional positive regard(Gone, 2011.

  1. [Universal elixir of Thomas-Nicolas Larcheret (1819) and his elixirian and normal doctrine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2014-06-01

    Thomas-Nicolas Larcheret, teacher in singing, declamation, guitar or lyre and violin, author of music and books, but also inventor of the universal elixir by his name, is a good example of quack of the 19th century. His book Larcheregium ou Dictionnaires spéciaux de mon élixir, ainsi que toute ma doctrine et de mes adhérens (Larcheregium or special Dictionaries of my elixir, as well as all my doctrine and my adherents), published in 1819, deserves a deep study to show the most frequently used arguments by the ones who emphasize the value of their secret remedy. The opportunities are there to present themselves as victims of medical authorities, experts and authorities as a whole, that do not recognize the value of their product. The only acceptable judge for them is the experience reported by the patients who are able to demonstrate the efficacy of the product since they do buy it (probably at a very high price). From this viewpoint, the book of Larcheret is a good example of turning the authorities down and of diatribe against physicians and pharmacists. It is also the demonstration that, even with the Empire's new regulations against secret remedies and quacks, they will still persist for a large part of the 19th century in France.

  2. National Audubon Society v. Superior Court: a watershed case integrating the public trust doctrine and California water law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaylord, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    Audobon v. Superior Court is a ''watershed'' case in its integration of the public trust doctrine within traditional water law. The public trust doctrine requires the state to exercise a duty of continued supervision over the taking and use of appropriated water. As a result, the state must periodically balance the economic interests served by the water appropriations with the ecological and recreational interests protected under the public trust. The state can best meet this burden by adopting a balancing procedure that includes comprehensive, long-term planning of the economic effects and ecological interests in water appropriation. 78 references.

  3. Civil Liability And Indemnity For Moral Damage In Labour Law: Application Of The Doctrine Of Punitive Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Geremias

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explain and analyze the importance of the civil liability under labour law with particular emphasis on the application of the doctrine of "punitive damages" as a breakthrough for the development of Brazilian law in the field of solutions to real problems to the fundamental rights at work. The problem of the research is to identify the application of the doctrine of "punitive damages", its justification under the system of civil liability and, in particular, its applicability as a defense mechanism for fundamental rights at work. The research is descriptive and explanatory, documentary-bibliographical.

  4. Defence against vertebrate herbivores trades off into architectural and low nutrient strategies amongst savanna Fabaceae species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomlinson, K.W.; Langevelde, van F.; Ward, D.; Prins, H.H.T.; Bie, de S.; Vosman, B.; Sampaio, E.V.S.B.; Sterck, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Herbivory contributes substantially to plant functional diversity and in ways that move far beyond direct defence trait patterns, as effective growth strategies under herbivory require modification of multiple functional traits that are indirectly related to defence. In order to understand how

  5. A SNARE-protein has opposing functions in penetration resistance and defence signalling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ziguo; Feechan, Angela; Pedersen, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    Penetration resistance is often the first line of defence against fungal pathogens. Subsequently induced defences are mediated by the programmed cell death (PCD) reaction pathway and the salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signalling pathways. We previously demonstrated...

  6. A laws of war review of contemporary land-based missile defence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Automated precise guided missile defence has been around for some years, and is a modern-day mechanism used frequently since 2011 to defend against rocket attacks penetrating national airspace. Israel's automated Iron Dome Missile Defence System has intercepted over 1 000 rockets during two recent military ...

  7. Evaluating Jakarta's flood defence governance: The impact of political and institutional reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Simanjuntak (Imelda); N. Frantzeskaki (Niki); B. Enserink (Bert); W. Ravesteijn (Wim)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractFlood defence management in Jakarta is a critical governmental activity, since Jakarta is a low-lying delta metropolis. Its protection against flooding is crucial for the continuing of economic activities. Despite the urgent need for action, the implementation of flood defences like the

  8. Time-dependent Reliability Analysis of Flood Defence Assets Using Generic Fragility Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nepal Jaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood defence assets such as earth embankments comprise the vital part of linear flood defences in many countries including the UK and protect inland from flooding. The risks of flooding are likely to increase in the future due to increasing pressure on land use, increasing rainfall events and rising sea level caused by climate change also affect aging flood defence assets. Therefore, it is important that the flood defence assets are maintained at a high level of safety and serviceability. The high costs associated with preserving these deteriorating flood defence assets and the limited funds available for their maintenance require the development of systematic approaches to ensure the sustainable flood-risk management system. The integration of realistic deterioration measurement and reliabilitybased performance assessment techniques has tremendous potential for structural safety and economic feasibility of flood defence assets. Therefore, the need for reliability-based performance assessment is evident. However, investigations on time-dependent reliability analysis of flood defence assets are limited. This paper presents a novel approach for time-dependent reliability analysis of flood defence assets. In the analysis, time-dependent fragility curve is developed by using the state-based stochastic deterioration model. The applicability of the proposed approach is then demonstrated with a case study.

  9. Nutraceutical impact of fermented products on human immunity and self - defence mechanisms.

    OpenAIRE

    EIBLOVÁ, Veronika

    2008-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with nutraceutical impact of fermented products on human immunity and self - defence mechanisms. It presents probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics and their supposed healthy influence on human immunity and self - defence mechanisms. We can also find here comparing of conclusions of the intervention on immunity of organisms and the status of cell immunity and the quality of life.

  10. Modelling the effects of a CBRN defence system using a Bayesian Belief Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillipson, F.; Bastings, I.C.L.; Vink, N.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a Bayes model to quantify the effects of a passive CBRN defence system is presented. The model gives insight in the way of the mutual influence of all the elements of passive CBRN defence, by the use of detailed scenario analysis, sensitivity analysis and root cause analysis. This can

  11. NATO Guide for Judgement-Based Operational Analysis in Defence Decision Making : Executive Leaflet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmalen, D.J.D.; et al

    2012-01-01

    Judgment plays an important role in all Operational Analysis (OA). NATO practitioners have determined that approaches in OA that are based on human judgement are increasingly critical to defence decision making. The purpose of the NATO Guide for Judgement-Based OA in Defence Decision Making is to

  12. NATO Guide for Judgement-Based Operational Analysis in Defence Decision Making : Client-Oriented Volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmalen, D.J.D.; et al

    2012-01-01

    Judgment plays an important role in all Operational Analysis (OA). NATO practitioners have determined that approaches in OA that are based on human judgement are increasingly critical to defence decision making. The purpose of the NATO Guide for Judgement-Based OA in Defence Decision Making is to

  13. Two-Staged Doctrines of God as First Known and the Transformation of the Concept of Reality in Bonaventure and Henry of Ghent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goris, W.

    2011-01-01

    The medieval doctrine of God as first known presents a privileged moment in a tradition of classical metaphysics that runs from Plato to Levinas. The present contribution analyzes two versions of this doctrine formulated by Bonaventure († 1274) and Henry of Ghent († 1293). In reaction to the

  14. Effects of light on direct and indirect defences against herbivores of young plants of Mallotus japonicus demonstrate a trade-off between two indirect defence traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawo, Akira; Hada, Yoshio

    2010-07-01

    Although most studies on plant defence strategies have focused on a particular defence trait, some plant species develop multiple defence traits. To clarify the effects of light on the development of multiple defence traits, the production of direct and indirect defence traits of young plants of Mallotus japonicus were examined experimentally under different light conditions. The young plants were cultivated under three light conditions in the experimental field for 3 months from May to July. Numbers of ants and pearl bodies on leaves in July were examined. After cultivation, the plants were collected and the developments of trichomes and pellucid dots, and extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) on the leaves were examined. On plants without nectar-collecting insects, the size of EFNs and the volume of extrafloral nectar secreted from the EFNs were examined. Densities of trichomes and pellucid dots did not differ significantly among the plants under the different light conditions, suggesting that the chemical and physical defences function under both high and low light availability. The number of EFNs on the leaves did not differ significantly among the plants under the different light conditions, but there appeared to be a trade-off between the size of EFNs and the number of pearl bodies; the largest EFNs and the smallest number of pearl bodies were found under high light availability. EFN size was significantly correlated with the volume of extrafloral nectar secreted for 24 h. The number of ants on the plants was smaller under low light availability than under high and moderate light availability. These results suggest that direct defence traits function regardless of light conditions, but light conditions affected the development of indirect defence traits.

  15. Stakeholder involvement in Swedish nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Section for Science and Technology Studies

    2006-09-15

    This report concerning Swedish nuclear waste management has been produced as part of a cross national research project: CARL - A Social Science Research Project into the Effects of Stakeholder involvement on Decision-Making in Radioactive Waste Management. Besides Sweden, the participating countries are Belgium, Canada, Finland, Slovenia and United Kingdom. A social science research team, working for three years, is in the first phase conducting research in their own countries in order to produce 6 country reports. During the next years the focus will shift to comparisons of stakeholder involvement practices in the participating countries. The report addresses current practices of Swedish nuclear waste management and their historical development. The main focus is on past, current and emerging patterns of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a deep repository for the final disposal of Sweden's spent nuclear fuel. The general questions attended to in the report are: Who are the main stakeholders, and how have they emerged and gained recognition as such? What are the issues currently subject to stakeholder involvement and how have these been decided upon? How is stakeholder involvement organized locally and nationally and how has this changed over time? How has stakeholder involvement gained acceptance as an activity of value in the siting of major waste facilities? The report have attempted to show the development of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a final repository for Sweden's spent nuclear fuel as resembling something other than a straightforward linear process of improvement and refinement. Stakeholder involvement has developed, over the past 15 years or so, into something more like a patchwork of different shapes and forms. Some of the forces that may well contribute to the further elaboration of the patchwork of stakeholder involvement have been pointed out, contingently modifying once more its overall colour and orientation. Questions

  16. Ecological aspects of historical and contemporary Swedish and Danish mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Oluf

    2014-01-01

    preventive and curative measures introduced in the second half of the twentieth century? Hansen (2013) proposed a multivariate hazard model aiming at separating ecological factors in terms of endogenous biological from exogenous effects in human mortality. He explored some of its analytic potentials...... the early 1960s to now. This has been a blow to the national pride. Is the better contemporary Swedish life expectancy associated with selection spurred by different timing of the modern Swedish and Danish long term decline of mortality? Or could it be rooted in more expedient Swedish behavior and better...

  17. Comparing Danish and Swedish versions of PISA scientific literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serder, Malmø University, Margareta; Sørensen, Helene

    This paper presents a comparison between the Swedish, Danish, English, and French versions of three scientific literacy test-units from the released PISA items 2006. More specifically it compares how different words and concepts have been translated in the Swedish and Danish tests, compared...... to the English and French original versions. Differences that occur as a result of the translation process concerning words’ meaning are demonstrated. The possible consequences of such differences are exemplified by an excerpt from a situation in which Swedish 15-year-old students collaboratively worked...

  18. Defence Industrial Policies and Their Impact on Acquisition Outcomes: A Comparative Analysis of the United Kingdom and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    and industrial decisions;  where there is a mismatch between the level of activity our own plans (and export /civil opportunities) would support...for Defence, An independent report by Bernard Gray, October 2009 Hall, P and R. Wylie (2010), "Arms export controls and the proliferation of military...prompted by increasing pressure on defence budgets; consolidation of the UK defence industry; “ globalisation ” of UK defence companies & threat of exit

  19. Simple growth patterns can create complex trajectories for the ontogeny of constitutive chemical defences in seaweeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Paul

    Full Text Available All of the theory and most of the data on the ecology and evolution of chemical defences derive from terrestrial plants, which have considerable capacity for internal movement of resources. In contrast, most macroalgae--seaweeds--have no or very limited capacity for resource translocation, meaning that trade-offs between growth and defence, for example, should be localised rather than systemic. This may change the predictions of chemical defence theories for seaweeds. We developed a model that mimicked the simple growth pattern of the red seaweed Asparagopsis armata which is composed of repeating clusters of somatic cells and cells which contain deterrent secondary chemicals (gland cells. To do this we created a distinct growth curve for the somatic cells and another for the gland cells using empirical data. The somatic growth function was linked to the growth function for defence via differential equations modelling, which effectively generated a trade-off between growth and defence as these neighbouring cells develop. By treating growth and defence as separate functions we were also able to model a trade-off in growth of 2-3% under most circumstances. However, we found contrasting evidence for this trade-off in the empirical relationships between growth and defence, depending on the light level under which the alga was cultured. After developing a model that incorporated both branching and cell division rates, we formally demonstrated that positive correlations between growth and defence are predicted in many circumstances and also that allocation costs, if they exist, will be constrained by the intrinsic growth patterns of the seaweed. Growth patterns could therefore explain contrasting evidence for cost of constitutive chemical defence in many studies, highlighting the need to consider the fundamental biology and ontogeny of organisms when assessing the allocation theories for defence.

  20. Simple growth patterns can create complex trajectories for the ontogeny of constitutive chemical defences in seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Nicholas A; Svensson, Carl Johan; de Nys, Rocky; Steinberg, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    All of the theory and most of the data on the ecology and evolution of chemical defences derive from terrestrial plants, which have considerable capacity for internal movement of resources. In contrast, most macroalgae--seaweeds--have no or very limited capacity for resource translocation, meaning that trade-offs between growth and defence, for example, should be localised rather than systemic. This may change the predictions of chemical defence theories for seaweeds. We developed a model that mimicked the simple growth pattern of the red seaweed Asparagopsis armata which is composed of repeating clusters of somatic cells and cells which contain deterrent secondary chemicals (gland cells). To do this we created a distinct growth curve for the somatic cells and another for the gland cells using empirical data. The somatic growth function was linked to the growth function for defence via differential equations modelling, which effectively generated a trade-off between growth and defence as these neighbouring cells develop. By treating growth and defence as separate functions we were also able to model a trade-off in growth of 2-3% under most circumstances. However, we found contrasting evidence for this trade-off in the empirical relationships between growth and defence, depending on the light level under which the alga was cultured. After developing a model that incorporated both branching and cell division rates, we formally demonstrated that positive correlations between growth and defence are predicted in many circumstances and also that allocation costs, if they exist, will be constrained by the intrinsic growth patterns of the seaweed. Growth patterns could therefore explain contrasting evidence for cost of constitutive chemical defence in many studies, highlighting the need to consider the fundamental biology and ontogeny of organisms when assessing the allocation theories for defence.

  1. Are boys discriminated in Swedish high schools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinnerich, Bjørn Tyrefors; Höglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading.Werigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind...... and non-blind grading. The non-blind test score is on average 15% lower for boys than for girls. Blind grading lowers the average grades with 13%, indicating that personal ties and/or grade inflation are important in non-blind grading. But we find no evidence of discrimination against boys in grading....... The point estimate of the discrimination effect is close to zero with a 95% confidence interval of±4.5% of the average non-blind grade....

  2. Wood flow problems in the Swedish forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Dick [Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Roennqvist, M. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematics

    1998-12-31

    In this paper we give an overview of the wood-flow in Sweden including a description of organization and planning. Based on that, we will describe a number of applications or problem areas in the wood-flow chain that are currently considered by the Swedish forest companies to be important and potential in order to improve overall operations. We have focused on applications which are short term planning or operative planning. We do not give any final results as much of the development is currently ongoing or is still in a planning phase. Instead we describe what kind of models and decision support systems that could be applied in order to improve co-operation within and integration of the wood-flow chain 13 refs, 20 figs, 1 tab

  3. Swedish Taxation in a 150-year Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenkula Mikael

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the development of taxation in Sweden from 1862 to 2010. The examination includes six key aspects of the Swedish tax system, namely the taxation of labor income, capital income, wealth, inheritances and gifts, consumption and real estate. The importance of these taxes varied greatly over time and Sweden increasingly relied on broad-based taxes (such as income taxes and general consumption taxes and taxes that were less visible to the public (such as payroll taxes and social security contributions. The tax-to-GDP ratio was initially low and relatively stable, but from the 1930s, the ratio increased sharply for nearly 50 years. Towards the end of the period, the tax-to-GDP ratio declined significantly.

  4. Gendered portraits of depression in Swedish newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengs, Carita; Johansson, Eva; Danielsson, Ulla; Lehti, Arja; Hammarström, Anne

    2008-07-01

    Mass media are influential mediators of information, knowledge, and narratives of health and illness. In this article, we report on an examination of personal accounts of illness as presented in three Swedish newspapers, focusing on the gendered representation of laypersons' experiences of depression. A database search identified all articles mentioning depression during the year 2002. Twenty six articles focusing on personal experiences of depression were then subjected to a qualitative content analysis. We identified four themes: displaying a successful facade, experiencing a cracking facade, losing and regaining control, and explaining the illness. We found both similarities and differences with regard to gendered experiences. The mediated accounts of depression both upheld and challenged traditional gender stereotypes. The women's stories were more detailed, relational, emotionally oriented, and embodied. The portrayal of men was less emotional and expressive, and described a more dramatic onset of depression, reflecting hegemonic patterns of masculinity.

  5. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    During 1997 the PWRs in Ringhals performed extremely well (capability factors 85-90%), the unit Ringhals 2 reached the best capability factor since commercial operation started in 1976. The BWRs made an average 76% capability, which is somewhat less than in 1996. The slightly reduced capability derives from ongoing modernization projects at several units. At the youngest plants, Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3, capability and utilization were very high. Events and data for 1997 are given for each reactor, together with operational statistics for the years 1990-1997. A number of safety-related events are reported, which occurred st the Swedish plants during 1997. These events are classified as level 1 or higher on the international nuclear event scale (INES).

  6. Perceived employability trajectories: A Swedish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnroos Née Kirves, Kaisa; Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia; Leineweber, Constanze

    2017-07-27

    This study identified perceived employability trajectories and their associations with sleeping difficulties and depressive symptoms over time. The sample was part of the Swedish Longitudinal Survey on Health from 2008 to 2014 (n=4,583). Two stable trajectories (high and low perceived employability over time) and three trajectories with changes (increasing, decreasing, and V-shaped perceived employability over time) were identified. Workers with stable low perceived employability reported more sleeping difficulties and depressive symptoms than those who perceived high or increasing employability. Perceived employability is a rather stable personal resource, which is associated with well-being over time. However, changes in perceived employability do not seem to be echoed in well-being, at least not as immediately as theoretically expected.

  7. Down-regulation of plant defence in a resident spider mite species and its effect upon con-and heterospecifics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godinho, D.P.; Janssen, A.; Dias, T.; Cruz, C.; Magalhães, S.

    2016-01-01

    Herbivorous spider mites occurring on tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cope with plant defences in various manners: the invasive Tetranychus evansi reduces defences below constitutive levels, whereas several strains of T. urticae induce such defences and others suppress them. In the

  8. Bacterial self-defence: how Escherichia coli evades serum killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miajlovic, Helen; Smith, Stephen G

    2014-05-01

    The ability to survive the bactericidal action of serum is advantageous to extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli that gain access to the bloodstream. Evasion of the innate defences present in serum, including complement and antimicrobial peptides, involves multiple factors. Serum resistance mechanisms utilized by E. coli include the production of protective extracellular polysaccharide capsules and expression of factors that inhibit or interfere with the complement cascade. Recent studies have also highlighted the importance of structural integrity of the cell envelope in serum survival. These survival strategies are outlined in this review with particular attention to novel findings and recent insights into well-established resistance mechanisms. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Modelling an infrared Man Portable Air Defence System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenall, Richard P.; Richardson, Mark A.; Brian, Butters; Roy, Walmsley

    2010-09-01

    The global proliferation of shoulder launched IR Man Portable Air Defence Systems (ManPADS) has resulted in the existence of a serious threat to both civilian and military aircraft from terrorist attack. Some of the older generations of ManPADS can be defeated with modern countermeasures but even the most sophisticated protection still has vulnerabilities to the latest family of ManPADS. This paper describes the work undertaken by the authors to model a second generation ManPAD, based on the Russian SA-14, and assess the vulnerabilities of aircraft both with and without flare countermeasures from these systems. The conclusions are the results of over 11,000 simulated firings against targets of varying aspects, velocities and altitudes.

  10. Interculturalism in the post-multicultural debate: a defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Barrero, Ricard

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to formulate a defence of the emerging intercultural policy paradigm for the benefit of those who are still somewhat reluctant to accept its proper place within the current migration-related diversity policy debate. My defence will take two main lines of argumentation: Firstly, I will state that the increasing intensity of the intercultural policy paradigm must be placed in the present-day post-multicultural period, which recognizes the strengths ​​of the multicultural policy paradigm but also the limits to its process for recognizing differences. The role played by the emerging national civic policy paradigm (a renovated version of assimilation), prioritizing duties before rights, will also be considered crucial to better contextualize interculturalism. Secondly, I will try to identify the main distinctive features of interculturalism, which legitimize its proper place within the diversity debate today. Without rejecting rights-based and duties-based policy approaches, interculturalism places more emphasis on a contacts-based policy approach, aimed at fostering communication and relationships among people from different backgrounds, including national citizens. This approach focuses on common bonds rather than differences. It also views diversity as an advantage and a resource, and centres its policy goals on community cohesion and reframing a common public culture that places diversity within rather than outside the so-called Unity. In reviewing the current literature and the origins of the intercultural policy paradigm, I restate its contribution towards resolving current trends in transnationalism, changing identities, superdiversity and the rise of populist anti-immigrant parties. These are issues the old multicultural project has struggled to deal with, which has provoked the current disillusionment. Lastly, I will propose a research avenue to further consolidate interculturalism as a distinctive and legitimate policy

  11. Silicon-based plant defences, tooth wear and voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandra, Ivan; Zub, Karol; Szafrańska, Paulina A; Zalewski, Andrzej; Merceron, Gildas

    2016-02-01

    Plant-herbivore interactions are hypothesized to drive vole population cycles through the grazing-induced production of phytoliths in leaves. Phytoliths act as mechanical defences because they deter herbivory and lower growth rates in mammals. However, how phytoliths impair herbivore performance is still unknown. Here, we tested whether the amount of phytoliths changes tooth wear patterns. If confirmed, abrasion from phytoliths could play a role in population crashes. We applied dental microwear texture analysis (DMTA) to laboratory and wild voles. Lab voles were fed two pelleted diets with differing amounts of silicon, which produced similar dental textures. This was most probably due to the loss of food mechanical properties through pelletization and/or the small difference in silicon concentration between diets. Wild voles were trapped in Poland during spring and summer, and every year across a population cycle. In spring, voles feed on silica-rich monocotyledons, while in the summer they also include silica-depleted dicotyledons. This was reflected in the results; the amount of silica therefore leaves a traceable record in the dental microwear texture of voles. Furthermore, voles from different phases of population cycles have different microwear textures. We tentatively propose that these differences result from grazing-induced phytolith concentrations. We hypothesize that the high amount of phytoliths in response to intense grazing in peak years may result in malocclusion and other dental abnormalities, which would explain how these silicon-based plant defences help provoke population crashes. DMTA could then be used to reconstruct vole population dynamics using teeth from pellets or palaeontological material. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. First sale doctrine on computer programs in the European Union. reiteration of the precedent or jurisprudential change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Raúl Cardoso González

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of rulings C-128/11 (UsedSoft of July 3, 2012 and C-166/15 (Ranks and Vasiļevičs of October 12, 2016 by the Court of Justice of the European Union, concerning first sale doctrine on computer programs. Reiteration of the precedent or jurisprudential change?

  13. Development of the Inner Wisdom Development Programs with Buddhist Doctrines to Improvement of Self-Mindedness for Bachelor Educational Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phusopha, Janphen; Sathapornwong, Patananusorn; Saenubon, Khanchit

    2015-01-01

    To investigate inner wisdom development programs with Buddhist doctrines of 508 educational students and 104 lecturers, a wisdom test, diary short note, interview, and observation were used. The principle of Specific Conditionality; the 5-Aggregates, Rule of 3-Characteristics, and practice of 4- Foundations of Insight Meditation were needed. Inner…

  14. Evolución doctrinal y jurisprudencial de la teoría del dominio del hecho

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Alberto Hernández Esquivel

    2008-01-01

    Sumario: i. introducción. ii. Breve rastreo jurisprudencial y doctrinal sobre el dominio del hecho. iii. algunas consideraciones sobre la autoría mediata por “dominio de la voluntad en virtud de estructuras organizadas de poder” y la jurisprudencia colombiana. iV. Delito de infracción de deber y el denominado interviniente. Tratamiento jurisprudencial

  15. The Small Change of Soldiering: US Army Doctrine for Stability Operations in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-16

    institution.”17 This is illustrated by the prominent position of doctrine in the syllabuses of the US Army’s training courses, particularly those...was a week or so before we started them in the north.13 This notion of a flexible transition period is borne out by comments on 30 June 2003

  16. The Noble Train of Artillery: A Study Comparison of Current Doctrinal Concepts of the Mission Command Philosophy in History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    Storage ( JSTOR ) database also assisted me in researching many different journal articles both dealing with Mission Command and Knox’s background...This was the single best database . Finally, it is worth noting that there are no sources which dealt directly with the doctrinal comparison of Knox’s

  17. The Origins of Intergenerational Associations: Lessons from Swedish Adoption Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjorklund, A.; Lindahl, M.; Plug, E.J.S.

    2006-01-01

    We use unique Swedish data with information on adopted children's biological and adoptive parents to estimate intergenerational mobility associations in earnings and education. We argue that the impact from biological parents captures broad prebirth factors, including genes and prenatal environment,

  18. About the Alleged Racism among Swedish Police Officers

    OpenAIRE

    Sjögren, Erika

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of the present research was to investigate whether Swedish police officers who often are accused of being racist are more prejudiced toward people with non Swedish-origin than other occupational groups. Three groups (n = 108) – police officers, fire fighters and teachers participated in the study that was carried out using questionnaires and IAT-tests. The study showed that the police officers were not the most prejudiced occupational group in the explicit measurements and were t...

  19. Components of success in academic reading tasks for Swedish students

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Shaw; Alan McMillion

    2011-01-01

    In a parallel-language environment students are often required to read in a language different from the one they use in lectures, seminars, and among themselves. Relatively little research has been done on the overall reading success of such groups or on the componential make up of their L2 reading skills. This paper compares the English-language reading skills of Swedish students of biology with that of equivalent British biology students. Many Swedish readers perform within or above the nor...

  20. Key success factors : The internationalisation of Swedish fashion companies

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, Stefan; Knudsen, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    Background: The Swedish fashion market today quickly becomes too small, even for the new companies, and they are quick to take the step abroad and launch their internationalisation process. With a focus on the four Swed-ish fashion companies Filippa K, Acne Jeans, Nudie Jeans and Whyred, we have analysed how these representatives of the industry have interna-tionalised themselves. The companies have chosen different ways to promote their brand and how to control the perceived image of the bra...

  1. A study of Swedish tourists going on vacation in thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Rong; PANTO, SITTHIPHON

    2010-01-01

    Date: 2010-05-25 Program: International Marketing Course Master Thesis International Marketing (EFO705) Authors Ms. RongPan Mr. Sitthiphon Panto Teacher Tobias Eltebrandt Title A study of Swedish tourist going on vacation in Thailand Research question Which factors affect Swedish travelers’ decision making in choosing Thailand as a traveling destination? Target audience This report could be beneficial for Tourism Authority of Thailand. The target audiences including Government sector who resp...

  2. Mechanisms and ecological consequences of plant defence induction and suppression in herbivore communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, M. R.; Jonckheere, W.; Knegt, B.; Lemos, F.; Liu, J.; Schimmel, B. C. J.; Villarroel, C. A.; Ataide, L. M. S.; Dermauw, W.; Glas, J. J.; Egas, M.; Janssen, A.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Schuurink, R. C.; Sabelis, M. W.; Alba, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Plants are hotbeds for parasites such as arthropod herbivores, which acquire nutrients and energy from their hosts in order to grow and reproduce. Hence plants are selected to evolve resistance, which in turn selects for herbivores that can cope with this resistance. To preserve their fitness when attacked by herbivores, plants can employ complex strategies that include reallocation of resources and the production of defensive metabolites and structures. Plant defences can be either prefabricated or be produced only upon attack. Those that are ready-made are referred to as constitutive defences. Some constitutive defences are operational at any time while others require activation. Defences produced only when herbivores are present are referred to as induced defences. These can be established via de novo biosynthesis of defensive substances or via modifications of prefabricated substances and consequently these are active only when needed. Inducibility of defence may serve to save energy and to prevent self-intoxication but also implies that there is a delay in these defences becoming operational. Induced defences can be characterized by alterations in plant morphology and molecular chemistry and are associated with a decrease in herbivore performance. These alterations are set in motion by signals generated by herbivores. Finally, a subset of induced metabolites are released into the air as volatiles and function as a beacon for foraging natural enemies searching for prey, and this is referred to as induced indirect defence. Scope The objective of this review is to evaluate (1) which strategies plants have evolved to cope with herbivores and (2) which traits herbivores have evolved that enable them to counter these defences. The primary focus is on the induction and suppression of plant defences and the review outlines how the palette of traits that determine induction/suppression of, and resistance/susceptibility of herbivores to, plant defences can

  3. INTERNAL DYNAMICS WITHIN HADHRAMI ARABS IN INDONESIA: From Social Hierarchy to Islamic Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsul Rijal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the current landscape of Hadhrami Arab Community in Indonesia. It aims to understand the internal fissures that affect the cohesion within the community. Some scholars contended that the conflicts taking place within the Hadhrami community are due to the Yemeni traditional stratification and nationalist orientation during colonial era. However, they do not include in their analysis the contemporary state of Hadhramis in Indonesia. This paper focuses on the contemporary era and argues that doctrinal contest and competition for religious authority have dominated the dynamics of conflict within Indonesian Hadhrami community. The paper will touch on the debates on the notion of Shi’ism among the so-called sayyids and Salafism among the followers of Al-Irsyad Al-Islamiyyah. It suggests that it is through these two currents of thought that the Hadhrami community in Indonesia not only exercise their power and authority, but also shape and transform their very identity.

  4. Normalization of US-Cuban Relations: Obama Doctrine and International Security in the Western Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Łaciński

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Strained relations between the US and Cuba after the victory of the Cuban revolution were a permanent element of the destabilization of international security in the Western Hemisphere. During the Cold War, this destabilization was a function of the East-West confrontation. Since the end of Cold War the importance of Cuba as a Western Hemisphere entity hostile to the United States has diminished radically. Definite steps to normalize relations with Cuba have been taken only in 2014. The media named the change of policies of the US towards Cuba (and Iran as the Obama Doctrine. This article will try to prove that the continuation of the confron-tational and hostile US-Cuban relations after the collapse of the Eastern bloc was an exceptional and "unnatural" phenomenon from the perspective of realistic school of international relations, both for Washington and Havana.

  5. Terpenoids in plant and arbuscular mycorrhiza-reinforced defence against herbivorous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Esha; Anand, Garima; Kapoor, Rupam

    2017-03-01

    Plants, though sessile, employ various strategies to defend themselves against herbivorous insects and convey signals of an impending herbivore attack to other plant(s). Strategies include the production of volatiles that include terpenoids and the formation of symbiotic associations with fungi, such as arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM). This constitutes a two-pronged above-ground/below-ground attack-defence strategy against insect herbivores. Terpenoids represent an important constituent of herbivore-induced plant volatiles that deter herbivores and/or attract their predators. Terpenoids serve as airborne signals that can induce defence responses in systemic undamaged parts of the plant and also prime defence responses in neighbouring plants. Colonization of roots by AM fungi is known to influence secondary metabolism in plants; this includes alteration of the concentration and composition of terpenoids, which can boost both direct and indirect plant defence against herbivorous insects. Enhanced nutrient uptake facilitated by AM, changes in plant morphology and physiology and increased transcription levels of certain genes involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway result in alterations in plant terpenoid profiles. The common mycorrhizal networks of external hyphae have added a dimension to the two-pronged plant defence strategy. These act as conduits to transfer defence signals and terpenoids. Improved understanding of the roles of terpenoids in plant and AM defences against herbivory and of interplant signalling in natural communities has significant implications for sustainable management of pests in agricultural ecosystems.

  6. Independent Effects of a Herbivore’s Bacterial Symbionts on Its Performance and Induced Plant Defences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudacher, Heike; Schimmel, Bernardus C. J.; Lamers, Mart M.; Wybouw, Nicky; Groot, Astrid T.; Kant, Merijn R.

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that microbial pathogens and herbivores elicit defence responses in plants. Moreover, microorganisms associated with herbivores, such as bacteria or viruses, can modulate the plant’s response to herbivores. Herbivorous spider mites can harbour different species of bacterial symbionts and exert a broad range of effects on host-plant defences. Hence, we tested the extent to which such symbionts affect the plant’s defences induced by their mite host and assessed if this translates into changes in plant resistance. We assessed the bacterial communities of two strains of the common mite pest Tetranychus urticae. We found that these strains harboured distinct symbiotic bacteria and removed these using antibiotics. Subsequently, we tested to which extent mites with and without symbiotic bacteria induce plant defences in terms of phytohormone accumulation and defence gene expression, and assessed mite oviposition and survival as a measure for plant resistance. We observed that the absence/presence of these bacteria altered distinct plant defence parameters and affected mite performance but we did not find indications for a causal link between the two. We argue that although bacteria-related effects on host-induced plant defences may occur, these do not necessarily affect plant resistance concomitantly. PMID:28106771

  7. Independent Effects of a Herbivore's Bacterial Symbionts on Its Performance and Induced Plant Defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudacher, Heike; Schimmel, Bernardus C J; Lamers, Mart M; Wybouw, Nicky; Groot, Astrid T; Kant, Merijn R

    2017-01-18

    It is well known that microbial pathogens and herbivores elicit defence responses in plants. Moreover, microorganisms associated with herbivores, such as bacteria or viruses, can modulate the plant's response to herbivores. Herbivorous spider mites can harbour different species of bacterial symbionts and exert a broad range of effects on host-plant defences. Hence, we tested the extent to which such symbionts affect the plant's defences induced by their mite host and assessed if this translates into changes in plant resistance. We assessed the bacterial communities of two strains of the common mite pest Tetranychus urticae. We found that these strains harboured distinct symbiotic bacteria and removed these using antibiotics. Subsequently, we tested to which extent mites with and without symbiotic bacteria induce plant defences in terms of phytohormone accumulation and defence gene expression, and assessed mite oviposition and survival as a measure for plant resistance. We observed that the absence/presence of these bacteria altered distinct plant defence parameters and affected mite performance but we did not find indications for a causal link between the two. We argue that although bacteria-related effects on host-induced plant defences may occur, these do not necessarily affect plant resistance concomitantly.

  8. Independent Effects of a Herbivore’s Bacterial Symbionts on Its Performance and Induced Plant Defences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Staudacher

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that microbial pathogens and herbivores elicit defence responses in plants. Moreover, microorganisms associated with herbivores, such as bacteria or viruses, can modulate the plant’s response to herbivores. Herbivorous spider mites can harbour different species of bacterial symbionts and exert a broad range of effects on host-plant defences. Hence, we tested the extent to which such symbionts affect the plant’s defences induced by their mite host and assessed if this translates into changes in plant resistance. We assessed the bacterial communities of two strains of the common mite pest Tetranychus urticae. We found that these strains harboured distinct symbiotic bacteria and removed these using antibiotics. Subsequently, we tested to which extent mites with and without symbiotic bacteria induce plant defences in terms of phytohormone accumulation and defence gene expression, and assessed mite oviposition and survival as a measure for plant resistance. We observed that the absence/presence of these bacteria altered distinct plant defence parameters and affected mite performance but we did not find indications for a causal link between the two. We argue that although bacteria-related effects on host-induced plant defences may occur, these do not necessarily affect plant resistance concomitantly.

  9. Collective defence portfolios of ant hosts shift with social parasite pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongepier, Evelien; Kleeberg, Isabelle; Job, Sylwester; Foitzik, Susanne

    2014-09-22

    Host defences become increasingly costly as parasites breach successive lines of defence. Because selection favours hosts that successfully resist parasitism at the lowest possible cost, escalating coevolutionary arms races are likely to drive host defence portfolios towards ever more expensive strategies. We investigated the interplay between host defence portfolios and social parasite pressure by comparing 17 populations of two Temnothorax ant species. When successful, collective aggression not only prevents parasitation but also spares host colonies the cost of searching for and moving to a new nest site. However, once parasites breach the host's nest defence, host colonies should resort to flight as the more beneficial resistance strategy. We show that under low parasite pressure, host colonies more likely responded to an intruding Protomognathus americanus slavemaker with collective aggression, which prevented the slavemaker from escaping and potentially recruiting nest-mates. However, as parasite pressure increased, ant colonies of both host species became more likely to flee rather than to fight. We conclude that host defence portfolios shift consistently with social parasite pressure, which is in accordance with the degeneration of frontline defences and the evolution of subsequent anti-parasite strategies often invoked in hosts of brood parasites. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Subcontractors and Component Suppliers in the Swedish Wind Power Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Linn

    2003-05-01

    This paper studies the Swedish component suppliers in the wind power industry. This group has not received much attention so far, and today very little is known. This study addresses the fact that the Swedish component suppliers have not been able to penetrate the wind power market despite the Swedish industry's strength in mechanical and electrical engineering. The aims of this paper were to gather information regarding the existing production and to identify factors that affect the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. To date, although Sweden has spent considerable amounts of money on projects involving wind turbines, there is no series production of large wind turbines in Sweden. The historical development of the wind turbine industry suggests this alone would have inhibited the development of component production in Sweden. Yet, the country's proximity and good access to large wind turbine producing countries should be an advantage. Various factors and issues are identified and discussed in this paper that are relevant for the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. These include market and product development, buyer-supplier relationships, export and sourcing behaviors, and time of market entry. This is a first step towards increasing the knowledge of Swedish component production and it is recognized that more studies are required. Various areas where relevant knowledge is largely missing or scarce are identified and discussed as well, and should serve as relevant starting points for continued research.

  11. Three I know not what:The influence of Greek philosophy on the doctrine of Trinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar S. Santrac

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the origins of the traditional or orthodox Trinitarian formula. The main objective is to clarify to what extent the traditional Christian doctrine of the Trinity (Nicene formula has been influenced by Greek philosophy. Through contemporary theological dialogue on this issue, the research focuses on the comparison between the traditional formulation of the doctrine of Trinity, influenced by Greek philosophy and the biblical revelation of the godhead. The conclusion is that the trinitarian formula might not be a dogmatic teaching, but a mystery (a dehellenisation of the concept of Trinity and that the Church fathers and the post-Nicene church used the Greek philosophical-theological expressions for Trinity, already present in Scriptures in its doxological and liturgical form, primarily for the purpose of contextualisation.Hierdie artikel ondersoek die oorsprong van die tradisionele of ortodokse trinitariese leerstuk. Die hoofdoel is om uit te vind tot watter mate die tradisioneel Christelike leer oor die Drie-eenheid (Niceense formule deur die Griekse filosofie beïnvloed is. Deur die hedendaagse teologiese debat oor hierdie onderwerp na te gaan, fokus die navorsing op ’n vergelyking tussen die tradisionele formulering van die leer van die Drie-eenheid soos beïnvloed deur die ortodokse Griekse filosofie en deur die bybelse openbaring van die godheid. Die slotsom waartoe gekom word, is dat die trinitariese formule moontlik nie ’n dogmatiese leerstuk was nie, maar ’n misterie (’n dehellenisering van die Drie-eenheidsbegrip. Die kerkvaders en die post-Niceense kerk het die Griekse filosofies-teologiese uitdrukkings vir die Drie-eenheid, wat alreeds in die Skrif in sy doksologiese en liturgiese vorm voorgekom het, moontlik slegs vir die doel van kontekstualisering gebruik.

  12. Theory of defamation in the doctrine of honor and dignity protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komissarova E.G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant growth of interest in the issue of protection of honor and dignity as personal intangible benefits is recently caused by two key acts: Federal Law of July 2, 2013 N 142 “On amendments to subsection 3 of section I of the first part of the RF Civil Code” and decision of the RF Constitutional Court of July 9, 2013 N 18 “On the case about verification of the constitutionality of the provisions of paragraphs 1, 5, 6 of Article 152 of the RF Civil Code in connection with the complaint of a citizen E.V. Krylov”. Further humanization of the civil law, its corresponding with human rights, as well as legislator’s wish to eliminate the backlog in regulations of relations on the protection of personal intangible benefits are obvious. The ongoing legislative changes became associated with the theory of defamation. A lot of defamation terms, relating to personal intangible benefits and characterizing the corresponding behavior, tort, doctrine, offence, appeared in the Russian jurisprudence. The phrase “defamation law” is more frequently used, but its logical-semantic boundaries, methodological guidelines and branch are not yet clear. Most of the provisions of the defamation theory are taken for granted, while the theory itself dates back to pre-revolutionary (bourgeois – for the Soviet jurisprudence law and is undergoing a significant transformation currently. The need for theoretical elaboration of the defamation doctrine as applied to the new conditions of its practical application is substantiated. Therefore the necessary methodological guidelines are considered in the article.

  13. [Pharmacy as a means of propagating the Lutherian doctrine of justification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafft, Fritz

    2003-09-01

    Pharmacy serving to propagate the Lutherian doctrine of justification: "Christus as a pharmacist" is an interconfessional, but confessionally differentiated symbolic motif (Sinnbildmotiv) of Christian folklore art in German-speaking countries. The article investigates the sociocultural conditions and prerequisites (German bible translation, religion and confession, piety, pharmacy, chymiatry, chemistry, apothecary training and status) for transfering the old metaphor and idea of Christ as a physician to the new vision of Christ as a apothecary who prepares and dispenses his heavenly medicine all by himself. In the early 17th century (especially in the 1610's) these requirements were fulfilled, so that the oldest known witness to this motif transfer (picturing the so-called Heilandsruf of Matthew 11, 28), a genre picture of 1619, will be the first pictural version of this motif in general. It was created by the protestant Painter Mich(a)el Herr of Nuremberg. In the abstract and reduced form of a devotional picture this motif then became widespread in churches and vicarages, in monasteries and their apothecaries as well as in private houses (with small altars: Herrgottswinkel). The oldest yet known examples are works from around 1630. For the first time during the Thirty Year's War, it served in this form for propagating the Lutherian justification doctrine (now referring to Jesaja 55, 1), saying that the belief in Christ is enough to be released from all sins (sola fide). Around 1650, as a reaction to that, a catholic version of the devotional picture was created, claiming and picturing that in contrast eucharist is the highest and real, healing medium' of Christ to redemption. All pictures of this version avoid quoting Jesaja 55, 1, whereas all protestant pictures quote this verse from the Bible word-for-word.

  14. The doctrine on God, as demonstrated and confessed in the Heidelberg Catechism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carel F.C.Coetzee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the Heidelberg Catechism (HC does not deal with a systematic doctrine on God and although there are not many sources available on the specific subject, it is a most important subject when dealing with the theology of the HC (W. van ’t Spijker. Due to the prescribed length of the article, it only focuses on two aspects of the doctrine on God, namely the Trinity and the relationship between God and the cosmos (reality. Futhermore, today there is an emphasis on a new concept of God, known as Panentheism. In this concept, God and his creation are identified with each other. In the South African context, the article deals very shortly with the viewpoints of Spangenberg, Van Aarde and Müller in this regard. The God confessed in the HC is the triune God: Father, Son and Holy Spirit. In the closest and most logical coherence with this, the HC confesses the deity of Christ and of the Holy Spirit. The HC also proceeds from the premise of the historical, bodily resurrection of Christ from the dead. As far as the relationship between God and creation is concerned, the HC, in agreement with the church of the first centuries, confesses and teaches a personal God, the Father of Jesus Christ, who for the sake of Christ is the Father of the elect. This God is the almighty creator of heaven and earth. He lives in a covenant relationship with his creation, which he sustains and governs at every moment. He is both transcendent and immanent.

  15. Metabolomic assessment of induced and activated chemical defence in the invasive red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylund, Göran M; Weinberger, Florian; Rempt, Martin; Pohnert, Georg

    2011-01-01

    In comparison with terrestrial plants the mechanistic knowledge of chemical defences is poor for marine macroalgae. This restricts our understanding in the chemically mediated interactions that take place between algae and other organisms. Technical advances such as metabolomics, however, enable new approaches towards the characterisation of the chemically mediated interactions of organisms with their environment. We address defence responses in the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla using mass spectrometry based metabolomics in combination with bioassays. Being invasive in the north Atlantic this alga is likely to possess chemical defences according to the prediction that well-defended exotics are most likely to become successful invaders in systems dominated by generalist grazers, such as marine macroalgal communities. We investigated the effect of intense herbivore feeding and simulated herbivory by mechanical wounding of the algae. Both processes led to similar changes in the metabolic profile. Feeding experiments with the generalist isopod grazer Idotea baltica showed that mechanical wounding caused a significant increase in grazer resistance. Structure elucidation of the metabolites of which some were up-regulated more than 100 times in the wounded tissue, revealed known and novel eicosanoids as major components. Among these were prostaglandins, hydroxylated fatty acids and arachidonic acid derived conjugated lactones. Bioassays with pure metabolites showed that these eicosanoids are part of the innate defence system of macroalgae, similarly to animal systems. In accordance with an induced defence mechanism application of extracts from wounded tissue caused a significant increase in grazer resistance and the up-regulation of other pathways than in the activated defence. Thus, this study suggests that G. vermiculophylla chemically deters herbivory by two lines of defence, a rapid wound-activated process followed by a slower inducible defence. By unravelling

  16. Metabolomic assessment of induced and activated chemical defence in the invasive red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran M Nylund

    Full Text Available In comparison with terrestrial plants the mechanistic knowledge of chemical defences is poor for marine macroalgae. This restricts our understanding in the chemically mediated interactions that take place between algae and other organisms. Technical advances such as metabolomics, however, enable new approaches towards the characterisation of the chemically mediated interactions of organisms with their environment. We address defence responses in the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla using mass spectrometry based metabolomics in combination with bioassays. Being invasive in the north Atlantic this alga is likely to possess chemical defences according to the prediction that well-defended exotics are most likely to become successful invaders in systems dominated by generalist grazers, such as marine macroalgal communities. We investigated the effect of intense herbivore feeding and simulated herbivory by mechanical wounding of the algae. Both processes led to similar changes in the metabolic profile. Feeding experiments with the generalist isopod grazer Idotea baltica showed that mechanical wounding caused a significant increase in grazer resistance. Structure elucidation of the metabolites of which some were up-regulated more than 100 times in the wounded tissue, revealed known and novel eicosanoids as major components. Among these were prostaglandins, hydroxylated fatty acids and arachidonic acid derived conjugated lactones. Bioassays with pure metabolites showed that these eicosanoids are part of the innate defence system of macroalgae, similarly to animal systems. In accordance with an induced defence mechanism application of extracts from wounded tissue caused a significant increase in grazer resistance and the up-regulation of other pathways than in the activated defence. Thus, this study suggests that G. vermiculophylla chemically deters herbivory by two lines of defence, a rapid wound-activated process followed by a slower inducible

  17. The cytoskeleton in cell-autonomous immunity: structural determinants of host defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostowy, Serge; Shenoy, Avinash R.

    2016-01-01

    Host cells use antimicrobial proteins, pathogen-restrictive compartmentalization and cell death in their defence against intracellular pathogens. Recent work has revealed that four components of the cytoskeleton — actin, microtubules, intermediate filaments and septins, which are well known for their roles in cell division, shape and movement — have important functions in innate immunity and cellular self-defence. Investigations using cellular and animal models have shown that these cytoskeletal proteins are crucial for sensing bacteria and for mobilizing effector mechanisms to eliminate them. In this Review, we highlight the emerging roles of the cytoskeleton as a structural determinant of cell-autonomous host defence. PMID:26292640

  18. The Strategic Failure of UK Defence Reform and What Still Needs to Be Done

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    acknowledgement in the NSS that an “ economic deficit is also a security deficit .”1 Acknowledging that the economy drives the budget for Defence is...required understanding the context of Defence Reform, the impact of strategic programs, the economic context, and the political relationship vis-à-vis...not go far enough to redress the £37.3 billion deficit in the Defence budget .4 At the time, the MoD faced a period of intense reform on the back of

  19. Genetic anticipation in Swedish Lynch syndrome families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny von Salomé

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Among hereditary colorectal cancer predisposing syndromes, Lynch syndrome (LS caused by mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 is the most common. Patients with LS have an increased risk of early onset colon and endometrial cancer, but also other tumors that generally have an earlier onset compared to the general population. However, age at first primary cancer varies within families and genetic anticipation, i.e. decreasing age at onset in successive generations, has been suggested in LS. Anticipation is a well-known phenomenon in e.g neurodegenerative diseases and several reports have studied anticipation in heritable cancer. The purpose of this study is to determine whether anticipation can be shown in a nationwide cohort of Swedish LS families referred to the regional departments of clinical genetics in Lund, Stockholm, Linköping, Uppsala and Umeå between the years 1990-2013. We analyzed a homogenous group of mutation carriers, utilizing information from both affected and non-affected family members. In total, 239 families with a mismatch repair gene mutation (96 MLH1 families, 90 MSH2 families including one family with an EPCAM-MSH2 deletion, 39 MSH6 families, 12 PMS2 families, and 2 MLH1+PMS2 families comprising 1028 at-risk carriers were identified among the Swedish LS families, of which 1003 mutation carriers had available follow-up information and could be included in the study. Using a normal random effects model (NREM we estimate a 2.1 year decrease in age of diagnosis per generation. An alternative analysis using a mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards model (COX-R estimates a hazard ratio of exp(0.171, or about 1.19, for age of diagnosis between consecutive generations. LS-associated gene-specific anticipation effects are evident for MSH2 (2.6 years/generation for NREM and hazard ratio of 1.33 for COX-R and PMS2 (7.3 years/generation and hazard ratio of 1.86. The estimated anticipation effects for MLH1

  20. Parasite control practices on Swedish horse farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison David A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virtually all horses are infected with helminth parasites. For some decades, the control of parasites of Swedish horses has been based on routine treatments with anthelmintics, often several times per year. Since anthelmintic resistance is becoming an increasing problem it is essential to develop more sustainable control strategies, which are adapted to different types of horse management. The aim of this study was to obtain information on practices used by Swedish horse owners for the control of endoparasites. Methods A questionnaire with 26 questions about management practices and parasite control routines was posted to 627 randomly selected horse establishments covering most types of horse management in Sweden. Results The response rate was good in all categories of respondents (66–78%. A total of 444 questionnaires were used in the analyses. It was found that virtually all horses had access to grazing areas, usually permanent. Generally, pasture hygiene was infrequently practiced. Thirty-six percent of the respondents clipped or chain harrowed their pastures, whereas weekly removal of faeces from the grazing areas was performed by 6% of the respondents, and mixed or rotational grazing with other livestock by 10%. The number of anthelmintic treatments per year varied from 1–8 with an average of 3.2. Thirty-eight percent considered late autumn (Oct-Dec to be the most important time for deworming. This finding, and an increased use of macrocyclic lactones in the autumn, suggests a concern about bot flies, Gasterophilus intestinalis. Only 1% of the respondents stated that faecal egg counts (FEC were performed on a regular basis. The relatively high cost of FEC analyses compared to purchase of anthelmintics was thought to contribute to the preference of deworming without a previous FEC. From the study it was evident that all categories of horse owners took advice mainly from veterinarians. Conclusion The results show that

  1. Parasite control practices on Swedish horse farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Eva Osterman; Rautalinko, Erik; Uggla, Arvid; Waller, Peter J; Morrison, David A; Höglund, Johan

    2007-09-26

    Virtually all horses are infected with helminth parasites. For some decades, the control of parasites of Swedish horses has been based on routine treatments with anthelmintics, often several times per year. Since anthelmintic resistance is becoming an increasing problem it is essential to develop more sustainable control strategies, which are adapted to different types of horse management. The aim of this study was to obtain information on practices used by Swedish horse owners for the control of endoparasites. A questionnaire with 26 questions about management practices and parasite control routines was posted to 627 randomly selected horse establishments covering most types of horse management in Sweden. The response rate was good in all categories of respondents (66-78%). A total of 444 questionnaires were used in the analyses. It was found that virtually all horses had access to grazing areas, usually permanent. Generally, pasture hygiene was infrequently practiced. Thirty-six percent of the respondents clipped or chain harrowed their pastures, whereas weekly removal of faeces from the grazing areas was performed by 6% of the respondents, and mixed or rotational grazing with other livestock by 10%. The number of anthelmintic treatments per year varied from 1-8 with an average of 3.2. Thirty-eight percent considered late autumn (Oct-Dec) to be the most important time for deworming. This finding, and an increased use of macrocyclic lactones in the autumn, suggests a concern about bot flies, Gasterophilus intestinalis. Only 1% of the respondents stated that faecal egg counts (FEC) were performed on a regular basis. The relatively high cost of FEC analyses compared to purchase of anthelmintics was thought to contribute to the preference of deworming without a previous FEC. From the study it was evident that all categories of horse owners took advice mainly from veterinarians. The results show that routines for endoparasite control can be improved in many horse

  2. Experiences from new Swedish passive house projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janson, U. [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden). Energy and Building Design

    2009-07-01

    Passive houses are common in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, and their use is being considered in Sweden as a means to decrease carbon dioxide emissions and address climate change issues. It is anticipated that the use of passive houses in Sweden may contribute to the country's plan to decrease energy use in buildings by 20 per cent per heated unit area before 2020 compared to 1995 energy use. The first Swedish passive house project was built in Lindas in 2001. The Lindas project includes 20 terrace houses and was built according to the German Passive house standard with a maximum use of space heating of 15 kWh per m{sup 2} per year. Although tenants expressed satisfaction in terms of indoor comfort and reduced energy consumption, not many passive houses have been built in Sweden since the project was launched. Therefore, in 2005, the the Department of Energy and Building Design at Lund University launched 4 new Passive house research projects involving 2 apartment buildings, 1 family house and 1 renovation project. The main purpose was to gain information on the entire building process and determine what knowledge, components and systems are required for widespread construction of passive houses in a cold climate. Only residential buildings were studied for this project. The passive houses were closely followed from the clients decision to build a passive house, through the planning process, the building process, measurements of actual energy use after the tenants moved in and the tenants' opinions on living in a passive house. The study showed that passive houses offer high indoor comfort with low energy requirement for heating. One of the passive houses consumed 44 kWh per m{sup 2} per year of district heating for heating and domestic hot water, which constitutes a 72 per cent reduction compared to the Swedish average of 160 kWh per m{sup 2} per year. There is no special architecture or building material needed to build a passive house, but moderate

  3. Attack rates of dengue fever in Swedish travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocklöv, Joacim; Lohr, Wolfgang; Hjertqvist, Marika; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2014-06-01

    Dengue is endemic in many countries visited by Swedish travellers. We aimed to determine the attack rate of dengue in Swedish travellers and analyse the trends over time and the geographical variation. We obtained the following data from the Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control for the y 1995-2010: number of Swedish residents with confirmed dengue, the country and year of infection. We also obtained registers on the Swedish annual air traveller arrivals to dengue endemic areas from the United Nations World Tourist Organization for the time period. We estimated attack rates with 95% confidence intervals (CI). In total, 925 Swedish travellers with confirmed dengue were reported. We found an increasing trend over time for most destinations. The majority of the dengue cases were acquired in Thailand (492 out of 925 travellers; 53%), with an attack rate of 13.6 (95% CI 12.7, 14.4) per 100,000 travellers. However, the 2 highest attack rates per 100,000 travellers were found for Sri Lanka (45.3, 95% CI 34.3, 56.4) and Bangladesh (42.6, 95% CI 23.8, 61.5). Information on attack rates in travellers is more helpful in guiding travel medicine practitioners than reports of absolute numbers, as the latter reflect travel preferences rather than the true risk. Although the majority of dengue infections in Swedish travellers were acquired in Thailand, the attack rates for dengue in travellers to Sri Lanka and Bangladesh were much higher. These data aid in refining information on the risk of dengue in travellers.

  4. Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Johanna; Holmqvist Gattario, Kristina; Frisén, Ann

    2017-06-01

    The relatively high gender equality in the Swedish society is likely to exert an influence on gender role construction. Hence, the present research aimed to investigate Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms. A mixed methods approach with two studies was used. In Study 1, young Swedish women's gender role conformity, as measured by the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory 45 (CFNI-45), was compared to the results from previously published studies in Canada, the United States, and Slovakia. Overall, Swedish women displayed less conformity than their foreign counterparts, with the largest difference on the subscale Sexual fidelity. In Study 2, focus group interviews with young Swedish women added a more complex picture of feminine norms in the Swedish society. For instance the results indicated that Swedish women, while living in a society with a strong gender equality discourse, are torn between the perceived need to invest in their appearances and the risk of being viewed as non-equal when doing so. In sum, despite the fact that traditional gender roles are less pronounced in Sweden, gender role conformity is still a pressing issue. Since attending to the potential roles of feminine norms in women's lives previously has been proposed to be useful in counseling and therapeutic work, the present research also offers valuable information for both researchers and practitioners. [Correction added on 5 May 2017, after first online publication in April 2017: An incorrect Abstract was inadvertently captured in the published article and has been corrected in this current version.]. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Tapetal dysplasia in a Swedish Vallhund dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Erin M; Teixeira, Leandro B C; Dubielzig, Richard R; Komáromy, András M

    2013-07-01

    To describe the gross, histopathological, and ultrastructural findings in a dog with bilateral tapetal dysplasia. The globes of a 15-year-old neutered male Swedish Vallhund dog with a ventrally displaced tapetum in both eyes were fixed in 10% formalin and submitted to the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin for histological evaluation. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and Melan-A immunohistochemistry (IHC), and tissues were subsequently processed for transmission electron microscopy. Bilateral fundic and gross examination revealed a tapetal fundus inferior to the optic nerve head (ONH) and a nontapetal fundus with mild scattering of tapetal tissue superior to the ONH. Histologically, there was decreased pigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium with only a few melanin granules in the peripheral retina. The affected tapetum was relatively acellular and fibrous with occasional tapetal cells scattered throughout the inner choroid or displaced into the vascular outer choroid. Special stains revealed that the tapetum was mostly composed of collagen (Masson's trichrome) and failed to express Melan-A (IHC) unlike a normal canine control tapetum. Ultrastructurally, the tapetum was markedly dysplastic both superior and inferior to the ONH with no uniformly arranged tapetal cells. The few cells identified within the tapetum contained irregularly arranged and disorganized electron-dense structures within their cytoplasm, which were interpreted as dysplastic tapetal rodlets. Based on microscopic and ultrastructural findings, this is the first report of tapetal dysplasia in a dog. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  6. Workplace Incivility in a Swedish Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Torkelson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated workplace incivility in a Swedish context. The first aim was to assess how common the phenomenon is and the second was to study which groups (gender, age, ethnicity, and power position are most targeted by workplace incivility and are more prone to act in an uncivil way. Additionally, the relationships between experienced and witnessed incivility and wellbeing as well as instigated incivility were investigated. An online survey was administered by SIFO (the national public opinion poll agency. The collected data consist of a stratified sample whose composition is identical to the working population in Sweden (N = 3001. The results show that almost three quarters of the respondents had been the target of coworker incivility and 52% of supervisor incivility at least one to two times in the past year. Of the respondents, 75% had witnessed coworkers and 58% witnessed a supervisor treating others in an uncivil way. Furthermore, 66% had instigated uncivil acts toward others. The results also show that female and younger employees are slightly more targeted by incivility from coworkers and younger employees and supervisors are slightly more prone to instigate incivility. Moreover, it was found that that experienced incivility was the strongest predictor of low well-being and that witnessed incivility was the strongest predictor of instigated incivility.

  7. Swedish entrepreneurs' use of occupational health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Kristina; Andersson, Ing-Marie; Josephson, Malin

    2011-10-01

    Small-scale enterprises are less often covered by occupational health services and have insufficient awareness about health and risks in the work environment. This study investigated how Swedish entrepreneurs in small-scale enterprises use occupational health services. The study used a questionnaire sent in two waves, 5 years apart. At baseline, 496 entrepreneurs responded, and 251 participated 5 years later. The questionnaire included items about affiliation with and use of occupational health services, physical and psychosocial work environments, work environment management, sources of work environment information, and membership in professional networks. Only 3% of entrepreneurs without employees and 19% of entrepreneurs with employees were affiliated with an occupational health service. Entrepreneurs affiliated with occupational health services were more active in work environment management and gathering information about the work environment. The occupational health services most used were health examinations, health care, and ergonomic risk assessments. Affiliation with occupational health services was 6% at both measurements, 4% at baseline, and 10% 5 years later. 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. The evolution of plant chemical defence - new roles for hydroxynitrile glucosides in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Camilla

    types of adaptations enable plants to avoid the potential lethal effects of their own defence compounds. These adaptations include detoxification and stabilization by glycosylation and the genomic clustering of biosynthetic pathway genes. These two types are the main focus of this PhD thesis......Plants are sessile organisms well-known to produce a vast array of chemical compounds of which many are used in chemical defence against herbivores and pathogens. The biosynthesis of these plant chemical defence compounds poses a considerable risk of self-toxicity for the plant itself. Several...... on hydroxynitrile glucoside metabolism in the legume model plant Lotus japonicus. Lotus japonicus produces both cyanogenic and non-cyanogenic hydroxynitrile glucosides as chemical defence compounds. The cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin are stored in the cell vacuole as inactive glycosides and, upon...

  9. Lepidopteran defence droplets - a composite physical and chemical weapon against potential predators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pentzold, Stefan; Zagrobelny, Mika; Khakimov, Bekzod

    2016-01-01

    Insects often release noxious substances for their defence. Larvae of Zygaena filipendulae (Lepidoptera) secrete viscous and cyanogenic glucoside-containing droplets, whose effectiveness was associated with their physical and chemical properties. The droplets glued mandibles and legs of potential...

  10. Cross-talk between plant defence signalling pathways: boost or burden?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Ton, J.; Loon, L.C. van

    2001-01-01

    Plants are exposed to very different attackers, including microbial pathogens and herbivorous insects. To protect themselves, plants have evolved defensive strategies to counteract potential invaders. Recent advances in plant defence signalling research have revealed that plants are capable of

  11. Dynamic Plant-Plant-Herbivore Interactions Govern Plant Growth-Defence Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jorad; Evers, Jochem B; Poelman, Erik H

    2017-04-01

    Plants downregulate their defences against insect herbivores upon impending competition for light. This has long been considered a resource trade-off, but recent advances in plant physiology and ecology suggest this mechanism is more complex. Here we propose that to understand why plants regulate and balance growth and defence, the complex dynamics in plant-plant competition and plant-herbivore interactions needs to be considered. Induced growth-defence responses affect plant competition and herbivore colonisation in space and time, which has consequences for the adaptive value of these responses. Assessing these complex interactions strongly benefits from advanced modelling tools that can model multitrophic interactions in space and time. Such an exercise will allow a critical re-evaluation why and how plants integrate defence and competition for light. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Differences in household attitudes on food defence and food safety: an international comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Stinson, Thomas F.; Albisu Aguado, Luis Miguel; Canavari, Maurizio; Larson, Ronald; Gracia Royo, Azucena

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports results from a large, six-nation, internet-based survey of consumer attitudes toward food safety and food defence administered during the fall of 2008. Responses were obtained from separate samples of approximately 1,000 each in Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, the UK, and the USA. Food defence was generally a greater concern, and respondents were less confident that their food supply was well protected against terrorist attack than they were that their food was safe from c...

  13. Some practical examples of defence in depth analysis for category IV gamma irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues Junior, Ary de Araujo, E-mail: aryarj@ig.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2014-07-01

    The Defence in Depth concept provides a major contribution to the safety philosophy of irradiation facilities. But problems occur when somebody tries to understand or analyse a safety system or develop a new one because there is a lack of practical examples in Safety Series 107 or other IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) publications for irradiation facilities. This paper tries to fill this lack of information by providing a series of practical examples and explanations about Defence in Depth concepts. (author)

  14. UK Defence Acquisition Process for NEC: Transaction Governance within an Integrated Project Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-22

    MoD has become more conscious of the need to obtain better value for money in equipment procurement. As a result, it has become a more demanding...contractors would abide by the “ value for money ” principles. Target Cost Incentive agreements were predominantly used for non-competitive defence contracts...defence procurement was failing to achieve efficiency (despite the changes mentioned above): poor value for money ; poor project management; and poor

  15. Transformation or Stagnation? The South African Defence Industry in the early 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Dunne; Richard Haines

    2005-01-01

    In post-Apartheid South Africa, the ANC Government faced the challenge of restructuring an unsustainably large defence sector. This was in the context of economic and social problems and a declining international arms market. This paper considers the restructuring of the South African industry over that period and more recently, providing a valuable case study of defence industrial restructuring in a small industrialised economy. It considers how the public sector (DENEL) and private sector r...

  16. Contrasting ontogenetic trajectories for phenolic and terpenoid defences in Eucalyptus froggattii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodger, Jason Q. D.; Heskes, Allison M.; Woodrow, Ian E.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Plant defence metabolites are considered costly due to diversion of energy and nutrients away from growth. These costs combined with changes in resource availability and herbivory throughout plant ontogeny are likely to promote changes in defence metabolites. A comprehensive understanding of plant defence strategy requires measurement of lifetime ontogenetic trajectories – a dynamic component largely overlooked in plant defence theories. This study aimed to compare ontogenetic trajectories of foliar phenolics and terpenoids. Phenolics are predicted to be inexpensive to biosynthesize, whereas expensive terpenoids also require specialized, non-photosynthetic secretory structures to avoid autotoxicity. Based on these predicted costs, it is hypothesized that phenolics would be maximally deployed early in ontogeny, whereas terpenoids would be maximally deployed later, once the costs of biosynthesis and foregone photosynthesis could be overcome by enhanced resource acquisition. Methods Leaves were harvested from a family of glasshouse-grown Eucalyptus froggattii seedlings, field-grown saplings and the maternal parent tree, and analysed for total terpenoids and phenolics. Key Results Foliar phenolics were highest in young seedlings and lowest in the adult tree. Indeed the ratio of total phenolics to total terpenoids decreased in a significantly exponential manner with plant ontogeny. Most individual terpene constituents increased with plant ontogeny, but some mono- and sesquiterpenes remained relatively constant or even decreased in concentration as plants aged. Conclusions Plant ontogeny can influence different foliar defence metabolites in directionally opposite ways, and the contrasting trajectories support our hypothesis that phenolics would be maximally deployed earlier than terpenoids. The results highlight the importance of examining ontogenetic trajectories of defence traits when developing and testing theories of plant defence, and

  17. How Strong Is Europeanisation, Really? The Danish Defence Administration and the Opt-Out from the European Security and Defence Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2011-01-01

    thesis. The article shows that in spite of the opt-out, the administrative structures and the policy processes in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) have adapted to the common foreign and security policy (CFSP) and the European security and defence policy (ESDP). Surprisingly, the administrative...... is not an explanation of administrative adaptation. The pressure from Europeanisation has to be propagated by actors. In the case of the Danish defence administration, the promoter is government officials embedded in a domestic political-bureaucratic environment, which is remarkably positive towards the integration...

  18. The regulation of host defences to infection by the microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rebecca L; Clarke, Thomas B

    2017-01-01

    The skin and mucosal epithelia of humans and other mammals are permanently colonized by large microbial communities (the microbiota). Due to this life-long association with the microbiota, these microbes have an extensive influence over the physiology of their host organism. It is now becoming apparent that nearly all tissues and organ systems, whether in direct contact with the microbiota or in deeper host sites, are under microbial influence. The immune system is perhaps the most profoundly affected, with the microbiota programming both its innate and adaptive arms. The regulation of immunity by the microbiota helps to protect the host against intestinal and extra-intestinal infection by many classes of pathogen. In this review, we will discuss the experimental evidence supporting a role for the microbiota in regulating host defences to extra-intestinal infection, draw together common mechanistic themes, including the central role of pattern recognition receptors, and outline outstanding questions that need to be answered. © 2016 The Authors. Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Peer-to-Peer Enclaves for Improving Network Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Archer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Information about cyberthreats within networks spreads slowly relative to the speed at which those threats spread. Typical "threat feeds" that are commercially available also disseminate information slowly relative to the propagation speed of attacks, and they often convey irrelevant information about imminent threats. As a result, hosts sharing a network may miss opportunities to improve their defence postures against imminent attack because needed information arrives too late or is lost in irrelevant noise. We envision timely, relevant peer-to-peer sharing of threat information – based on current technologies – as a solution to these problems and as a useful design pattern for defensive cyberwarfare. In our setting, network nodes form communities that we call enclaves, where each node defends itself while sharing information on imminent threats with peers that have similar threat exposure. In this article, we present our vision for this solution. We sketch the architecture of a typical node in such a network and how it might interact with a framework for sharing threat information; we explain why certain defensive countermeasures may work better in our setting; we discuss current tools that could be used as components in our vision; and we describe opportunities for future research and development.

  20. Psychic skin: psychotic defences, borderline process and delusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Martin

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, I apply the concept of psychic skin to analytic work with people suffering from personality disorders and psychoses. When psychoses emerge, the defensive skin which protects the ego is breached and violent unconscious forces rip through the personality. Some of the patients diagnosed as schizophrenic with whom I work have identified with archetypal characters such as Christ, Satan, John Lennon and the Queen. I attempt to show how the adoption of these inflated personas can serve as secondary psychic skins. Such delusional identifications can provide a protective shield to hide the denuded self and prevent intrusion from the external world. Through clinical example, I try to demonstrate how these archetypal 'second skins' can preserve life until internal and external conditions make it possible for the self to emerge. I contrast such psychotic identifications with 'thin-skinned' and 'thick-skinned' narcissism as well as 'defences of the self' in borderline states where the psychic skin may be damaged but does not disintegrate. I also look at the ways in which Jung's own personal experience was different from this and how he managed to avert psychotic breakdown. © 2012, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  1. Faba bean forisomes can function in defence against generalist aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Ortega, Karla J; Walker, Gregory P

    2015-06-01

    Phloem sieve elements have shut-off mechanisms that prevent loss of nutrient-rich phloem sap when the phloem is damaged. Some phloem proteins such as the proteins that form forisomes in legume sieve elements are one such mechanism and in response to damage, they instantly form occlusions that stop the flow of sap. It has long been hypothesized that one function of phloem proteins is defence against phloem sap-feeding insects such as aphids. This study provides the first experimental evidence that aphid feeding can induce phloem protein occlusion and that the aphid-induced occlusions inhibit phloem sap ingestion. The great majority of phloem penetrations in Vicia faba by the generalist aphids Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae triggered forisome occlusion and the aphids eventually withdrew their stylets without ingesting phloem sap. This contrasts starkly with a previous study on the legume-specialist aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, where penetration of faba bean sieve elements did not trigger forisome occlusion and the aphids readily ingested phloem sap. Next, forisome occlusion was demonstrated to be the cause of failed phloem ingestion attempts by M. persicae: when occlusion was inhibited by the calcium channel blocker lanthanum, M. persicae readily ingested faba bean phloem sap. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The vaginal microbiota, host defence and reproductive physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven B; Ravel, Jacques

    2017-01-15

    The interaction between the human host and the vaginal microbiota is highly dynamic. Major changes in the vaginal physiology and microbiota over a woman's lifetime are largely shaped by transitional periods such as puberty, menopause and pregnancy, while daily fluctuations in microbial composition observed through culture-independent studies are more likely to be the results of daily life activities and behaviours. The vaginal microbiota of reproductive-aged women is largely made up of at least five different community state types. Four of these community state types are dominated by lactic-acid producing Lactobacillus spp. while the fifth is commonly composed of anaerobes and strict anaerobes and is sometimes associated with vaginal symptoms. The production of lactic acid has been associated with contributing to the overall health of the vagina due to its direct and indirect effects on pathogens and host defence. Some species associated with non-Lactobacillus vaginal microbiota may trigger immune responses as well as degrade the host mucosa, processes that ultimately increase susceptibility to infections and contribute to negative reproductive outcomes such as infertility and preterm birth. Further studies are needed to better understand the functional underpinnings of how the vaginal microbiota affect host physiology but also how host physiology affects the vaginal microbiota. Understanding this fine-tuned interaction is key to maintaining women's reproductive health. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  3. Trained immunity: A smart way to enhance innate immune defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Jos W M; Joosten, Leo A B; Riksen, Niels; Netea, Mihai G

    2015-11-01

    The innate arm of the immune system is generally viewed as primitive and non-specific and - in contrast to the adaptive immune arm - not to possess memory. However in plants and invertebrate animals that lack adaptive immunity, innate immunity will exhibit a prolonged enhanced functional state after adequate priming. A similar enhancement of function of the innate immunity has occasionally been described in vertebrates, including humans. Over the past few years we have studied this phenomenon in greater detail and we have coined the term 'Trained (innate) immunity' (TI). TI can be induced by a variety of stimuli, of which we have studied BCG and β-glucan in greater detail. The non-specific protective effects of BCG that have been observed in vaccination studies in the literature are probably due to TI. Monocytes and macrophages are among the main cells of the innate immune arm that can be trained. We have discovered that both BCG (via NOD2 signalling) and β-glucan (via dectin-1) induce epigenetic reprogramming, in particular stable changes in histone trimethylation at H3K4. These epigenetic changes lead to cellular activation, enhanced cytokine production and a change in the metabolic state of the cell with a shift from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis. TI is not only important for host defence and vaccine responses, but most probably also for diseases like atherosclerosis. Modulation of TI is a promising area for new treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Competition induces allelopathy but suppresses growth and anti-herbivore defence in a chemically rich seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasher, Douglas B; Hay, Mark E

    2014-02-22

    Many seaweeds and terrestrial plants induce chemical defences in response to herbivory, but whether they induce chemical defences against competitors (allelopathy) remains poorly understood. We evaluated whether two tropical seaweeds induce allelopathy in response to competition with a reef-building coral. We also assessed the effects of competition on seaweed growth and seaweed chemical defence against herbivores. Following 8 days of competition with the coral Porites cylindrica, the chemically rich seaweed Galaxaura filamentosa induced increased allelochemicals and became nearly twice as damaging to the coral. However, it also experienced significantly reduced growth and increased palatability to herbivores (because of reduced chemical defences). Under the same conditions, the seaweed Sargassum polycystum did not induce allelopathy and did not experience a change in growth or palatability. This is the first demonstration of induced allelopathy in a seaweed, or of competitors reducing seaweed chemical defences against herbivores. Our results suggest that the chemical ecology of coral-seaweed-herbivore interactions can be complex and nuanced, highlighting the need to incorporate greater ecological complexity into the study of chemical defence.

  5. Defence strategies against a parasitoid wasp in Drosophila: fight or flight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Thierry; de Roode, Jacobus C; Kacsoh, Balint Z; Schlenke, Todd A

    2012-04-23

    Hosts may defend themselves against parasitism through a wide variety of defence mechanisms, but due to finite resources, investment in one defence mechanism may trade-off with investment in another mechanism. We studied resistance strategies against the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi in two Drosophila species. We found that D. melanogaster had significantly lower physiological resistance against L. boulardi than D. simulans, and hypothesized that D. melanogaster might instead invest more heavily in other forms of defence, such as behavioural defence. We found that when given a choice between clean oviposition sites and sites infested with wasps, both D. melanogaster and D. simulans detected and avoided infested sites, which presumably limits later exposure of their offspring to infection. Unlike D. simulans, however, D. melanogaster laid significantly fewer eggs than controls in the forced presence of wasps. Our findings suggest that D. melanogaster relies more heavily on behavioural avoidance as defence against wasp parasitism than D. simulans, and that this may compensate for a lack of physiological defence.

  6. The correlated evolution of antipredator defences and brain size in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankowich, Theodore; Romero, Ashly N

    2017-01-11

    Mammals that possess elaborate antipredator defences such as body armour, spines and quills are usually well protected, intermediate in size, primarily insectivorous and live in simple open environments. The benefits of such defences seem clear and may relax selection on maintaining cognitive abilities that aid in vigilance and predator recognition, and their bearers may accrue extensive production and maintenance costs. Here, in this comparative phylogenetic analysis of measurements of encephalization quotient and morphological defence scores of 647 mammal species representing nearly every order, we found that as lineages evolve stronger defences, they suffer a correlated reduction in encephalization. The only exceptions were those that live in trees-a complex three-dimensional world probably requiring greater cognitive abilities. At the proximate level, because brain tissue is extremely energetically expensive to build, mammals may be trading off spending more on elaborate defences and saving by building less powerful brains. At the ultimate level, having greater defences may also reduce the need for advanced cognitive abilities for constant assessment of environmental predation risk, especially in simple open environments. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Deregulation and internationalisation - impact on the Swedish nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haukeland, Sverre R. [Swedish Nuclear Society, Vattenfall Research and Development, 162 89 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    The deregulation of the Swedish electricity market in 1996 was well known in advance, and the nuclear power plants in Sweden, as well as their main suppliers, made early preparations for a this new situation. In a study - performed by the author at Malardalen University in Sweden - it is concluded that the electricity industry, including the nuclear power plants, was fundamentally transformed in conjunction with market liberalisation. Two large foreign companies, E-on and Fortum, entered the Swedish market and became part-owners of the nuclear plants. After deregulation, the electricity market in Sweden is dominated by these two companies and the large national company Vattenfall. Similarly, Vattenfall has recently grown into an international energy company, acquiring generation capacity in Northern Europe outside of Sweden, including nuclear power plants in Germany. Restructuring of the nuclear industry on the supplier side started in the 1980's, when the Swedish company ASEA and BBC of Switzerland merged to become ABB. Several years later the Swedish nuclear plant supplier ABB-Atom became part of Westinghouse Electric Company, today owned by Toshiba. The Swedish experience thus confirms an international trend of mergers and consolidation in the nuclear industry. (authors)

  8. Maternal use of Swedish snuff (snus) and risk of stillbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Anna-Karin; Cnattingius, Sven; Stephansson, Olof

    2010-11-01

    Swedish snuff has been discussed internationally as a safer alternative to tobacco smoking. International cigarette manufacturers are promoting new snuff products, and the use of Swedish snuff is increasing, especially among women of childbearing age. The effect of Swedish snuff on pregnancy complications is unknown. In this population-based cohort study, we estimated the risk of stillbirth in snuff users (n = 7629), light smokers (1-9 cigarettes/day; n = 41,488), and heavy smokers (≥10 cigarettes/day; n = 17,014), using nontobacco users (n = 504,531) as reference. Compared with nontobacco users, snuff users had an increased risk of stillbirth (adjusted odds ratio = 1.6 [95% confidence interval = 1.1-2.3]); the risk was higher for preterm (stillbirth (2.1 [1.3-3.4]). For light smokers, the adjusted odds ratio of stillbirth was 1.4 (1.2-1.7) and the corresponding risk for heavy smokers was 2.4 (2.0-3.0). When we excluded women with preeclampsia or antenatal bleeding and infants who were small for gestational age, the smoking-related risks of stillbirth was markedly attenuated; the elevated risk for snuff users remained the same level. Use of Swedish snuff during pregnancy was associated with a higher risk of stillbirth. The mechanism behind this increased risk seems to differ from the underlying mechanism in smokers. Swedish snuff does not appear to be a safe alternative to cigarette smoking during pregnancy.

  9. Aggregate analysis of vowel pronunciation in Swedish dialects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Leinonen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an aggregate analysis of vowel pronunciation in Swedish dialects is proposed by means of multidimensional scaling (MDS. The Gap statistic showed that no statistically significant partitioning of Swedish dialects can be made based on vowel pronunciation, which means that the dialects form a true linguistic continuum. Vowels recorded by 1,170 speakers at 98 sites were analyzed acoustically with principal components of Bark-filtered spectra, and the linguistic distances between varieties were computed as the Euclidean distance of the acoustic variables. The MDS analyses showed that the dialect areas that can be detected based on vowel pronunciation in modern rural varieties of Swedish largely correspond to the traditional Swedish dialect division and divisions of regional varieties of Standard Swedish. The results also show a large-scale ongoing dialect leveling. The change is largest in many central parts of the language area close to the biggest cities, while the dialects in more peripheral areas are relatively stable.

  10. Beyond Hearts and Minds: How The Operational Commander Must Understand Islamic War-Fighting Doctrine to Secure Victory in the Long War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vartanian, James M

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the need for the operational commander to fully understand the religious, military and political doctrine of Islam's Prophet Muhammad if success is to be realized in the long war...

  11. The Doctrine of Signatures, Materia Medica of Orchids, and the Contributions of Doctor - Orchidologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, John

    2012-12-01

    The heritage of medicine is written in many forms. One repository is to be found in the history of orchids, the world's largest family of flowering plants. Orchids were so named by Theophrastus (c.372-288 BC) who recorded their medicinal use as an aphrodisiac and the promoter of virility, in the context of the Doctrine of Signatures. Such use endured for millennia, and was recorded both by Paracelsus (1493-1551) and Linnaeus (1707-1778). The history of orchidology and medicine are entwined in four domains: (a) orchids and their historical materia medica, within the paradigm of the Doctrine of Signatures; (b) the enduring and extensive contemporary medicinal and culinary use of orchids such as Vanilla and salep extracts of Orchis; (c) the scientific contributions of doctors as orchidologists; and (d) the heritage of more than a hundred doctors' names in the scientific etymology of the Orchidaceae family. Prominent orchidologists have included the Scottish doctor-soldier and botanist, Robert Brown (1773-1858); the Director of the State Herbarium at Leyden and the Rijks Museum, Carl Ludwig Blume (1796-1862); and Dr William Sterling MD (1888-1967). Among the more than 1250 genus names (and 33,000 species) of orchids are the names of more than a hundred doctors, their lives and works perpetuated in the scientific etymology of this family of exotic, beautiful, flamboyant, intriguing and often expensive flowers. Generic names record the lives and works of such as Aristotle (384-322BC) in Aristotelia Loureiro 1790; Cadet de Gassicourt (1769-1821) in Cadetia Gaudichaud 1826; Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911) in Sirhookera O. Kuntze 1891; and Dr Theodore Daniel Vrydag Zynen (fl. 1820-1850) in Vrydagzynea Blume 1858. One of the principal horticultural genera of orchids, Brassavola, records the life and work of the Ferrara and Padua physician and botanist, Antonio Musa Brassavola (1500-1555). The first Slipper Orchid bred as a hybrid, Paphiopedilum harrisianum (by John

  12. The Catholic Doctrine of ‘Integral Human Development’ and its Influence on the International Development Community (abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Bertina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1967, Pope Paul VI posited the notion of ‘integral human development’, which, as developed by his successors, John Paul II and Benedict XVI, broke with the modern project of purely economic and technological development, resulting in an original understanding of ‘development’. The papal doctrine, as conventional conceptions of development, is in favour of economic growth, technological innovation and the implementation of social programmes. As ‘integral human development’, however, emphasises the religious goal of reconciling humanity and God through the creation of a human family over these more material social and economic issues, it cannot be equated to secular development theory. This chapter highlights the unique character of this doctrine and examines its influences on the theoretical framework of the international development community.

  13. Incidence of pyometra in Swedish insured cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Manifestations of Positive Leadership Strategies in the Doctrinal Assumptions of the U.S. Army Leadership Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Lis

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to identify the manifestations of positive leadership strategies in the doctrinal assumptions of the U.S. Army leadership concept. The components of the U.S. Army leadership requirements model are be tested against the Cameron’s (2012) model of positive leadership strategies including: building a positive work climate; fostering positive relationships among the members of an organisation; establishing and promoting positive communication and manifesting the meaningfuln...

  15. Some Particularities in the Doctrine of the Trinity as Found in the Works of Christian Arabic Authors

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    Oleg Davydenkov

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This articles examines the Trinitarian theology of Christian Arab-speaking medieval theologians. The author explains that there are differences in the way the doctrine of the Trinity is presented by these theologians and by the way it is handled by their Greek and Latin counterparts. He devotes special attention to the question regarding the influence of Islamic philosophy and theology on the Trinitarian theology of these Arabic speaking Christians

  16. The Manifestations of Positive Leadership Strategies in the Doctrinal Assumptions of the U.S. Army Leadership Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Lis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to identify the manifestations of positive leadership strategies in the doctrinal assumptions of the U.S. Army leadership concept. The components of the U.S. Army leadership requirements model are be tested against the Cameron’s (2012 model of positive leadership strategies including: building a positive work climate; fostering positive relationships among the members of an organisation; establishing and promoting positive communication and manifesting the meaningfulness of work.

  17. Evolución doctrinal y jurisprudencial de la teoría del dominio del hecho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Hernández Esquivel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Sumario: i. introducción. ii. Breve rastreo jurisprudencial y doctrinal sobre el dominio del hecho. iii. algunas consideraciones sobre la autoría mediata por “dominio de la voluntad en virtud de estructuras organizadas de poder” y la jurisprudencia colombiana. iV. Delito de infracción de deber y el denominado interviniente. Tratamiento jurisprudencial

  18. Restoring the Nexus of History-Theory-Doctrine in Military Thought: Implications for the Republic of Korea Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    interaction between past 16 Walter E. Kretchik, U.S. Army Doctrine; From the American Revolution to the War on Terror (Lawrence, KS: University Press...by the French Revolution and the Scientific Revolution , Clausewitz studied historical examples of Fredrick the Great and Napoleon, then attempted to...especially influenced by the ideas of the German Romantic Movement embodied in Immanuel Kant.30 Clausewitz believed that theory does not to provide

  19. A Dip into the World of Particles for Swedish Teachers

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    For three full days, forty-one Swedish secondary school physics teachers were introduced to the rudiments of the particle physics. This series of courses is celebrating its tenth anniversary. The Swedish teachers followed lectures, visited CERN experiments... ... and analysed the latest DELPHI data. 'I am sure that, as in previous years, many of these teachers will return to CERN with their students. It is an excellent way of encouraging young people to orient themselves towards physics.' Staffan Hörnberg, Vice President of the International Centre for Education and Development, is enthusiastic about the repercussions of the teaching programme for Swedish teachers that he organises with CERN physicist, Richard Jacobsson. For the tenth consecutive year, this series of introductory courses to particle physics was a success. Forty-one teachers came from schools all over Sweden to take part in lectures and visits on the theme of particle physics, its methods of investigation, and its applications. San...

  20. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The total production of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 65.6 TWh during 2002, which is a decrease compared to 2001. The energy capability factor for the 11 Swedish reactors averaged 80.8%. The PWRs at Ringhals averaged 87.6%, while the BWRs, not counting Oskarshamn 1, reached 89.2%. No events, which in accordance to conventions should be reported to IAEA, have occurred during 2002. Operational statistics are presented for each Swedish reactor. The hydroelectric power was 66 TWh, 16% lower than 2000. Wind power contributed 0.5 TWh, and remaining production sources, mainly from solid fuel plants combined with district heating, contributed 10.9 TWh. The electricity generation totalled 143 TWh, considerably less than the record high 2001 figure of 158.7 TWh. The preliminary figures for export were 14.8 TWh and and for import 20.1 TWh.

  1. THE SCHOOL OF AHL AL-SUNNAH WA AL-JAMA`AH AND THE ATTACHMENT OF INDONESIAN MUSLIMS TO ITS DOCTRINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauzan Saleh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The doctrine of Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama`ah has been exploited by two major Muslim organizations in Indonesia, NU and Muhammadiyah, as the theological basis in determining their religious identity and rituals. Although these organizations claim that all Muslims should adhere to the doctrines of Ahl al-Sunnah, they have never clearly defined that term. This paper discusses in detail the meaning of the term followed by an examination of the ways in which those two Muslim organizations attach themselves to this doctrine. This paper argues that, although the NU links itself to this doctrine, it is still necessary to critically examine to what extent its members apply the doctrines of Ahl al-Sunnah in their daily life. Muhammadiyah, on the other hand, is not obsessed with the claim of being faithful to the doctrines of Ahl al-Sunnah, although its constitution mentions that they advocate theological creeds which are evidently in line with the precepts of Ahl al-Sunnah.

  2. 4-Nonylphenol and bisphenol A in Swedish food and exposure in Swedish nursing women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllenhammar, Irina; Glynn, Anders; Darnerud, Per Ola; Lignell, Sanna; van Delft, Rob; Aune, Marie

    2012-08-01

    4-Nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) are phenolic substances used in high volumes by the industry. Studies on cells and in experimental animals have shown that both these compounds can be classified as estrogenic hormone disrupters. Information about the exposure of humans to NP and BPA is still scarce, especially regarding levels in human blood. The first aim of this study was to investigate possible sources of NP and BPA exposure from food, by analyzing the levels of NP and BPA from a Swedish food market basket, based on the Swedish per capita food consumption. A second aim was to investigate blood serum levels of NP and BPA, as well as NP-ethoxylates, among young women in Sweden (n=100). Moreover, associations between food consumption and blood NP and BPA levels were studied. In food, NP was to some extent found at levels above limit of quantification (LOQ 20 ng/g fresh weight) in fruits, cereal products, vegetables, and potatoes. BPA levels above LOQ (2 ng/g fresh weight) were found in fish, meats, potatoes, and dairy products. The estimated mean intakes per capita were (medium bound) 27 μg NP/day and 3.9 μg BPA/day, showing that food is a source of BPA and NP in the general Swedish population. In blood serum, free NP above limit of detection (LOD 0.5 ng/g) was detected in 46% of the study participants while detectable levels of total NP (LOD 0.8 ng/g) were observed in 43%. The corresponding percentages for BPA were 25% and 22%, respectively. The results indicate that there is a continuous source of exposure to NP and BPA that is high enough for free NP and BPA to be detected in some consumers. Among the participants with quantifiable levels of free and total NP (n=38), 85% (median, range: 38-112%) of the NP was present as free NP. For BPA 76% (49-109%) was detected as free BPA (n=15). All women had levels of ethoxylates of NP below LOD (0.1-0.7 ng/g). A significantly higher total consumption of fruits and vegetables was reported in questionnaires by

  3. AN APPLICATION OF DOCTRINE OF NECESSITY: PREVIOUS CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY OF NEPAL AND ITS TIME EXTENSION TO AVOID CONSTITUTIONAL UNCERTAINTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Pd. Jayshwal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate issues in relation of constitutional doctrine which had potential debate among the jurists of Nepal for the issues of time extension. The paper will also argue some weaknesses in the constituent assembly and their role expected by the people of Nepal. This paper will discuss about the evolution of constitution in Nepal, its features, the principle of Constitutionalism embodied in Nepalese constitution. This paper will further argue about the legitimacy of Doctrine of Necessity and its application in Nepal. In last, this paper will show the possibility of constitutional uncertainty by newly elected constituent assembly.   Penulisan ini dalam rangka mengkaji doktrin konstitusional yang tengah ramai diperdebatkan oleh para ahli hukum di Nepal, khususnya berkaitan dengan isu mengenai perpanjangan waktu. Melalui tulisan ini, terdapat temuan yang menunjukkan beberapa kelemahan yang ada dalam majelis konstituate Nepal di samping peran-perannya sebagaimana yang diharapkan oleh rakyat Nepal. Tulisan ini membahas pula mengenai evolusi konstitusi Nepal sebagaimana diwujudkan dalam prinsip-prinsip konstitusionalism yang dianut oleh Konstitusi Nepal. Lebih lanjut, berkaitan dengan legitimasi dari Doctrin of Necessity dan penerapannya di Nepal. Pada akhirnya, tulisan ini akan memberikan gambaran mengenai kemungkinan ketidakpastian secara konstitusional berkaitan dengan kondisi majelis konstituante yang baru saja terpilih.

  4. The end of ambivalence and the triumph of pragmatism? Franco-British defence cooperation and European and Atlantic defence policy traditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostermann, F.

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the Franco-British rapprochement in security and defence cooperation under Nicolas Sarkozy, Gordon Brown and David Cameron from 2008 to 2012. While in the past British Atlanticism and the French Europeanist tradition had stood in the way of close bilateral cooperation, the

  5. The Intrinsic Normativity of Law in Light of Kant`s Doctrine of Right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ruhi Demiray

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper claims that a particular interpretation of Kant`s legal-political philosophy, as it is presented in his Doctrine of Right, provides us with the much needed resolution to the question of the normativity of law, precisely because it brings in a perspective that avoids both positivism and ethicism. This particular interpretation follows a strategy of argumentation that I call the “argument for the intrinsic normativity of law”, i.e., the argument that law is defined and justified on its own grounds, without any need to refer to ethics, or rational/enlightened self-interest. This argument highlights the concept of legal person with the innate right to freedom as the necessary presupposition of legal practices, and sets forth a fundamental sense of justice inherent to the concept of law that consists in the reciprocal recognition of legal personality. In the end, I come up with a distinctive conception of law that I formulate as a last resort of normativity in the face of a conflict wherein an ethical solution does not appeal to all parties.

  6. The diagnosis of psychopathy: Why psychiatrists and psychologists need to know ethical doctrines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alečković-Nikolić Mila S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the problem of the nature of the most difficult nosologic psychopathological diagnosis - psychopathy in all its features, the neurological and psychological, the social and the political. The paper also analyzes the analogy: the character of the society vis-à vis the character of the individual. In the second part, this work develops the concept of psychopathy as a general 'picture of the world,' a period of time and the community, with special reference to the harsh financial Darwinism and the Serbian society today (2014. The conclusion of the paper is that it is impossible to diagnose any disease as psychopathy if the psychiatric and psychological analysis does not include an analysis of sociologists, pedagogues, and especially psychologists of morality and ethicists. Finally, the attitude of the author is that every psychiatrist and psychologist who meet with psychopathy and judge it absolutely needs to know the most important ethical doctrine (deontology and utilitarianism, their opposition, as well as their consequences.

  7. IBN SINA AND THE ROOTS OF THE SEVEN DOCTRINES OF PRESERVATION OF HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Murad Ahmad; Raza, Fauzia; Khan, Iqbal Akhtar

    2015-01-01

    Ibn Sina, the most eminent Muslim physician, illuminative philosopher, great thinker and a versatile genius is regarded as the "Father of Early Modern Medicine" and as the "Father of Clinical Pharmacology". The "Kitab al-Qanun fi-al-Tibb", commonly known as the "Canon Medicinae" is the most important of his medical works and, at the same time, the most carefully preserved treasury both in original Arabic and in the initial Latin version. It is the final codification of all Greco-Arabic medical thoughts up to his time, enriched and modified with his own scientific experimentations and independent observations. It is considered "The First Textbook of Medicine on the Earth". The "Canon" surpassed the books of Hippocrates and Galen and remained supreme for more than six centuries, in the West. Ibn Sina described "Seven Doctrines" for Preservation of Health, based on the Mudawa Salookia, in his magnum opus. The roots of these principles can be traced, to a significant extent, to Egyptian Medicine, Hebrew Medicine, Greek Medicine, Roman Medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine, Ancient Persian Medicine, Ayurvedic Medicine (Hindu Medicine) and Islamic Medicine.

  8. The Social Effects of Neoliberalism. The Shock Doctrine in Russia, China and Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIAN-ŞTEFAN DUMITRESCU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Initially, the theoretical foundation of the International Monetary Fund was inspired by the economic vision of John Maynard Keynes, who argued that the state may resuscitate economic life when it undergoes a downturn. If the state proved unable to restart its national economy, the International Monetary Fund would intervene, and it would not only grant loans meant to revive the economy, but also recommend infrastructure investments, the decrease of interest rates in order to resume crediting and the reduction of taxes in order to decrease the pressure on the private sector in a quasi-immovable economy. In the 1980s, Keynesian ideas were withdrawn from the theoretical foundation of the International Monetary Fund and replaced by the neo-liberal vision. According to the new economic philosophy, the International Monetary Fund would grant loans only if the states in need reduced their budget deficits, increased taxes and interest rates. In other words, instead of boosting economic activity the new IMF practices were restricting it even more. In the rest of the work we will present, using the social constructivism paradigm and the strategic identity concept, the social consequences of neo-liberal ideas in Russia, China and Romania. The shock doctrine is the state of social disorder imposed from outside, as a result of the political gap between the states of the world.

  9. El tratamiento del pluralismo doctrinal desde el liberalismo político de John Rawls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Fernández Manzano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de la pluralidad axiológica de las sociedades contemporáneas y empleando como instrumental el tratamiento del pluralismo que hace John Rawls, reflexionamos en torno a la viabilidad del establecimiento de un horizonte político cuya meta fuera compatibilizar la legítima diversidad con el establecimiento de patrones comunes a todos. Para ello se revisa la distinción entre lo político y lo doctrinal y las exigencias del punto de vista excluyente en la medida en que sirven como base para la tolerancia entre diferentes. A continuación se rebaten los planteamientos de los enfoques perfeccionistas y comunitaristas y se defiende la posibilidad de un acuerdo general reductivamente político compatible con la apertura de espacios no dirigidos dentro de la sociedad civil en los que los individuos pueden unirse para defender colectivamente sus intereses legítimos a salvo de la interferencia estatal.

  10. Marriage and family in view of the doctrine of the covenant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakobus M. Vorster

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available New emerging paradigms in Western culture have produced a new ethic. Not only social ethics in general but the ethics of marriage and family life are changing rapidly. This new ethic has inter alia a strong bearing on marriage and family life, relationships explained by traditional Christian ethics. The traditional idea of heterosexual official marriages is challenged by new forms of civil relationships such as cohabitation, temporary relationships and civil unions between gay couples. Scholars even speak of the postmodernist marriage that, according to them, differs entirely from the traditional Christian idea of marriage. This article focuses on the concepts of marriage and family life against the background of the emerging postmodern and post-secular ethic and its consequences for the traditional view of marriage as a biblical institution. The central theoretical argument is that the concept of marriage in the biblical testimony should be defined and developed within the doctrine of the covenant and that such as view, with certain modifications, can still provide ethical directives and new perspectives on marital life for Christians today. Keywords: Marriage; Covenant; Post Modernism: Secular; Family

  11. Brazil's Rendition of the 'Responsibility to Protect' Doctrine: Promising or Stillborn Diplomatic Proposal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Tuffi Saliba

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has actively participated in the debate around the ‘Responsibility to Protect’ (R2P doctrine. More recently, Brazil has even proposed what it believes to be a new approach—the ‘Responsibility while Protecting’ (RwP corollary to R2P. By launching its own rendition for R2P, Brazil has attempted to reinforce the role of the UN Security Council in two different ways: First, in restricting the use of force on the grounds of ‘Responsibility to Protect,’ which, according to Brazilian diplomatic reasoning, would hinge upon a multilateral assessment of the situation — a condition expected to considerably diminish the arbitrariness in decision making with respect to the use of force.  Second, Brazil aimed to highlight the necessity of reform in the UNSC, since, from a Brazilian viewpoint, the decisions of this organ must be representative in order to discharge new tasks assigned to it. Notwithstanding, Brazil's diplomatic proposal has arguably failed to gain massive support from the countries that compose the UN Security Council political establishment and seems now to be forgotten. This paper aims to provide an account on the Brazilian reaction to “Responsibility to Protect” and its first consequences.

  12. Pharmacist-patient communication in Swedish community pharmacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Erika; Ingman, Pontus; Ahmed, Ban

    2014-01-01

    of prescribed medicines at Swedish community pharmacies. METHOD: Non-participant observations and audio recordings were used as data-collecting methods. The content of the dialog was categorized into 2 deductively decided main categories-medicinal and non-medicinal issues-and 12 inductively decided...... in Swedish community pharmacies. Forty percent of the dialog concerns non-medical issues and almost half of the encounter was silent. CONCLUSION: Medicines are an essential treatment method in healthcare, and pharmaceutical expertise is available to patients who enter a community pharmacy. The results...

  13. Microcins in action: amazing defence strategies of Enterobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebuffat, Sylvie

    2012-12-01

    Probably the oldest and most widespread antimicrobial strategy in living organisms is the use of antimicrobial peptides. Bacteria secrete such defence peptides, termed bacteriocins, that they use for microbial competitions. Microcins are bacteriocins of less than 10 kDa produced by Escherichia coli and related enterobacteria through the ribosomal pathway. They are synthesized as linear precursors, which can further undergo complex post-translational modifications resulting from dedicated maturation enzymes encoded in the microcin gene clusters, and are processed by proteolytic cleavage. Microcins exert potent bactericidal activities that use subtle and clever mechanisms to cross outer and inner membranes of Gram-negative bacteria. To cross the outer membrane, siderophore-microcins hijack receptors involved in iron acquisition. The lasso-peptide microcin J25, which is characterized by a knotted arrangement where the C-terminal tail is threaded through an N-terminal macrolactam ring, uses a hydroxamate siderophore receptor and the inner-membrane protein SbmA for import in sensitive bacteria, where it inhibits bacterial transcription through binding to RNAP (RNA polymerase). Microcin C produced as a heptapeptide adenylate, requires an outer-membrane porin and an inner-membrane ABC (ATP-binding-cassette) transporter to reach the cytoplasm of target bacteria, where it is processed by proteases into a non-hydrolysable aspartyl-adenylate analogue. Therefore, despite showing different killing mechanisms and the absence of any structural homology, microcins have the common characteristic to use Trojan horse strategies to destroy their competitors. They offer new and promising tracks for further design and engineering of novel efficient antibiotics.

  14. Effectiveness evaluation of flood defence structures in different geomorphological contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Stefano; Pazzi, Veronica; Fanti, Riccardo

    2017-04-01

    The flood risk in different geomorphological contexts of two less developed countries are investigated in order to evaluate the efficacy of the existing flood defence structures. In particular, a recent floodplain crossed by a wide meandering river and a narrow mountain valley flowed by creek with a torrential regime have been chosen for such analysis in North Albania and central Mexico, respectively. Both areas have been affected by disastrous floods in past years with considerable damages to properties and people. Some safety countermeasures have been performed over time, even if in a non-systematic way. For this reason, the current inclination to flood risk was assessed by means of a freeware software designed to perform one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic modelling for a full network of natural and anthropic channels (HEC-RAS software by Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System). This new analyses take into account: i) the natural morphological variability along the river path, ii) the anthropic interventions on the fluvial dynamics, iii) the landscape appearance after the soil exploitation in the past years, and iv) all the changes induced by an exceeded informal urbanization. The reconstruction of the river and bordering areas geometric data was carried out according to the physical characteristics of the local environment: a bathymetric survey and near-river DGPS acquisitions for the open spaces of the Albanian floodplain, and traditional topographic methods for the highly vegetated Mexican valley. In both cases, the results show that the existing works are, on their own, poorly efficient in containing the predictable floods. Albanians levees seem underdimensioned, while the channelling works are too narrow to contain large amounts of water and solid transport as typical of the Mexican study area. Evidently, a new territorial planning is required in these areas, and some projects are now in place. However, it would be desirable that local authorities

  15. A Defence of Constructionism: Philosophy as Conceptual Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Floridi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a broad account and a defence of constructionism, both as a metaphilosophical approach and as a philosophical methodology, with some references to the philosophical tradition that has inspired it, the so-called «maker’s knowledge» tradition. The main thesis defended is that Plato’s «user’s knowledge tradition» should be complemented, if not replaced, by a constructionist approach to philosophical problems in general and to knowledge in particular. To put it simply, an epistemic agent knows something when that agent is able to build (reproduce, simulate, model, construct etc. that something and plug the obtained information in the correct network of relations that account for it. Or in even more intuitive terms, an agent qualifies as an epistemic agent not when she is a passive user of some information, but when she is a critical producer of it. Her epistemic expertise increases in relation to the scope and depth of the questions that is able to ask and answer on a particular topic. The maker’s knowledge is knowledge of the ontology of the semantic artefact and this is a fundamental epistemological lesson we can learn from poietic disciplines such as computer science and economics. So constructionism shifts the focus away from the mimetic, passive and declarative knowledge that something is the case, in order to concentrate more on the poietic, interactive and practical knowledge of something being the case, that is, of semantic artefacts. Once applied to the interpretation of philosophy itself, constructionism suggests adding conceptual engineering to conceptual analysis as a fundamental method.

  16. Eales′ disease: Oxidant stress and weak antioxidant defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Eales′ disease (ED is an idiopathic retinal periphlebitis characterized by capillary non-perfusion and neovascularization. In addition to the existing system, a new staging system has been proposed by Saxena et al . Immunological, molecular biological and biochemical studies have indicated the role of human leucocyte antigen, retinal S antigen autoimmunity, Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome, free radical damage and possibly hyperhomocysteinemia in its etiopathogenesis, which appears multifactorial. Oxidant stress has been shown by increase in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (lipid oxidation in the vitreous, erythrocytes, platelets, and monocytes. A decrease in vitamins E and C both in active and healed vasculitis, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase showed a weakened antioxidant defence. Epiretinal membrane from patients of ED who underwent surgery showed, by immunolocalization, presence of carboxy methyl lysine, an advanced glycation end product formed by glycoxidation and is involved in angiogenesis. OH· free radical accumulation in monocytes has been directly shown by electron spin resonance spectrometry. Free radical damage to DNA and of protein was shown by the accumulation of 8 hydroxy 2 deoxyguanosine (in leucocytes and nitrotyrosine (in monocytes, respectively. Nitrosative stress was shown by increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in monocytes in which levels of iron and copper were increased while those of zinc decreased. A novel 88 kDa protein was found in serum and vitreous in inflammatory condition and had antioxidant function. Platelet fluidity was also affected. Oral, methotrexate in low dosage (12.5 mg/week for 12 weeks as well as oral vitamin E (400 IU and C (500 mg daily for 8 weeks are reported to have beneficial effects.

  17. Induced defences alter the strength and direction of natural selection on reproductive traits in common milkweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K A; Cory, K A; Johnson, M T J

    2017-06-01

    Evolutionary biologists have long sought to understand the ecological processes that generate plant reproductive diversity. Recent evidence indicates that constitutive antiherbivore defences can alter natural selection on reproductive traits, but it is unclear whether induced defences will have the same effect and whether reduced foliar damage in defended plants is the cause of this pattern. In a factorial field experiment using common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L., we induced plant defences using jasmonic acid (JA) and imposed foliar damage using scissors. We found that JA-induced plants experienced selection for more inflorescences that were smaller in size (fewer flowers), whereas control plants only experienced a trend towards selection for larger inflorescences (more flowers); all effects were independent of foliar damage. Our results demonstrate that induced defences can alter both the strength and direction of selection on reproductive traits, and suggest that antiherbivore defences may promote the evolution of plant reproductive diversity. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. Crowd-out of defence and health spending: is Israel different from other industrialised nations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David

    2013-04-22

    Does high defence spending limit the growth of public health investment? Using comparative data from 31 OECD countries between 1980 and 2010, we find little evidence that defence crowds out public health spending. Whether measured in terms of long-term levels or short-term changes, per capita defence and health spending positively and significantly correlate. To investigate the possibility that countries with high security needs such as Israel exhibit differing patterns, we also compare crowd-out among countries experiencing violent conflicts as well as current high military-spending countries. We observed a greater positive correlation between changes in health and defence spending among conflict-countries (r = 0.65, p military spending countries, Israel's politicians reduced defence spending while increasing health expenditure during its recent recession. These analyses reveal that while Israel's politicians have chronically underinvested in public health, there are modest steps being taken to rectify the country's unique and avoidable crowding out of public health from its high military spending.

  19. Light acclimation, retrograde signalling, cell death and immune defences in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpiński, Stanisław; Szechyńska-Hebda, Magdalena; Wituszyńska, Weronika; Burdiak, Paweł

    2013-04-01

    This review confronts the classical view of plant immune defence and light acclimation with recently published data. Earlier findings have linked plant immune defences to nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR)-dependent recognition of pathogen effectors and to the role of plasma membrane-localized NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase (AtRbohD), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and salicylic acid (SA). However, recent results suggest that plant immune defence also depends on the absorption of excessive light energy and photorespiration. Rapid changes in light intensity and quality often cause the absorption of energy, which is in excess of that required for photosynthesis. Such excessive light energy is considered to be a factor triggering photoinhibition and disturbance in ROS/hormonal homeostasis, which leads to cell death in foliar tissues. We highlight here the tight crosstalk between ROS- and SA-dependent pathways leading to light acclimation, and defence responses leading to pathogen resistance. We also show that LESION SIMULATING DISEASE 1 (LSD1) regulates and integrates these processes. Moreover, we discuss the role of plastid-nucleus signal transduction, photorespiration, photoelectrochemical signalling and 'light memory' in the regulation of acclimation and immune defence responses. All of these results suggest that plants have evolved a genetic system that simultaneously regulates systemic acquired resistance (SAR), cell death and systemic acquired acclimation (SAA). © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Leaf Colour as a Signal of Chemical Defence to Insect Herbivores in Wild Cabbage (Brassica oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jonathan P; Foster, Rosie; Wilkins, Lucas; Osorio, Daniel; Hartley, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    Leaf colour has been proposed to signal levels of host defence to insect herbivores, but we lack data on herbivory, leaf colour and levels of defence for wild host populations necessary to test this hypothesis. Such a test requires measurements of leaf spectra as they would be sensed by herbivore visual systems, as well as simultaneous measurements of chemical defences and herbivore responses to leaf colour in natural host-herbivore populations. In a large-scale field survey of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea) populations, we show that variation in leaf colour and brightness, measured according to herbivore spectral sensitivities, predicts both levels of chemical defences (glucosinolates) and abundance of specialist lepidopteran (Pieris rapae) and hemipteran (Brevicoryne brassicae) herbivores. In subsequent experiments, P. rapae larvae achieved faster growth and greater pupal mass when feeding on plants with bluer leaves, which contained lower levels of aliphatic glucosinolates. Glucosinolate-mediated effects on larval performance may thus contribute to the association between P. rapae herbivory and leaf colour observed in the field. However, preference tests found no evidence that adult butterflies selected host plants based on leaf coloration. In the field, B. brassicae abundance varied with leaf brightness but greenhouse experiments were unable to identify any effects of brightness on aphid preference or performance. Our findings suggest that although leaf colour reflects both levels of host defences and herbivore abundance in the field, the ability of herbivores to respond to colour signals may be limited, even in species where performance is correlated with leaf colour.

  1. Inquiry into ’Personnel Wastage Rates in the Australian Defence Force’. (Second Submission to Defence Sub-Committee of the Joint Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    QANTAS . Of the 110 pilot separations in 1986-87 36 were officers who joined QANTAS as pilots to continue their flying career. Of the likely 130 pilot...separations for 1987-88, about 52 are expected to join QANTAS . The Minister for Defence Science and Personnel is having discussions \\%ith QANTAS aimed at...A number of matters are still outstanding, including the greater use of QANTAS pilots in the RAAF Reserve and the timings of QANTAS training courses

  2. Barriers to Business Model Innovation in Swedish Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Sivertsson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Swedish agricultural companies, especially small farms, are struggling to be profitable in difficult economic times. It is a challenge for Swedish farmers to compete with imported products on prices. The agricultural industry, however, supports the view that through business model innovation, farms can increase their competitive advantage. This paper identifies and describes some of the barriers Swedish small farms encounter when they consider business model innovation. A qualitative approach is used in the study. Agriculture business consultants were interviewed. In a focus group led by the researchers, farmers discussed business model innovation, including the exogenous and endogenous barriers to such innovation. The paper concludes many barriers exist when farmers consider innovation of agricultural business models. Some barriers are caused by human factors, such as individuals’ attitudes, histories, and traditions. Other barriers are more contextual in nature and relate to a particular industry or company setting. Still other barriers, such as government regulations, value chain position, and weather, are more abstract. All barriers, however, merit attention when Swedish agricultural companies develop new business models.

  3. galenicals in modern medicine: focus on swedish bitters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Galenicals were very popular in clinical medicine till late 1960s at which time the pharmaceutical industry revolutionized drug research and production. Almost four decades later, old but useful galenicals such as SWEDISH BITTERS® have been rediscovered and registered in conformity with Food and Drug Administration ...

  4. The communicative and critical health literacy scale--Swedish version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wångdahl, Josefin M; Mårtensson, Lena I

    2014-02-01

    Health literacy (HL) is an important determinant for health and a valuable health indicator within public health. As such, it is a significant outcome variable of health promotion efforts. Valid and reliable instruments are needed to evaluate health promotion interventions and to assess levels of HL in a population. One of the few measurements of communicative and critical HL is the Japanese Communicative and Critical Health Literacy scale (C & C HL scale). To make it possible to use this instrument in Sweden, the C & C HL scale was translated into Swedish and different aspects of validity, including test-retest reliability, of the translated version were tested. After translation and back-translation, The Swedish C & C HL scale was tested for content validity and test-retest reliability. Data were collected from a committee consisting of public health experts and bilingual people, and from a test group of 35 persons. The Swedish C & C HL scale was understandable and showed evidence of content validity. The test-retest confirmed that it was stable over time, percentage agreements for the items ranging from 66% to 89% (M = 74%). The Swedish C & C HL scale is equivalent to the Japanese C & C HL scale in terms of language and content. The items cover the major aspects of communicative and critical HL and are understandable and stable over time, i.e., reliable.

  5. LANDSAT language at our reach. First Swedish satellite. Civilization detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, D. L.; Bravo, V.

    1981-01-01

    Information on the use of LANDSAT data by Argentina is presented. Details on a Swedish satellite to be completed in 1984 and to be called VIKING are reported. Attempts to contact other civilizations in space by the use of radiotelescopes are discussed.

  6. Breaking bad habits by education - smoking dynamics among Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellsson, Gustav; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus

    2011-07-01

    In a dynamic Two-Part Model (2 PM), we find the effect of previous smoking on the participation decision to be decreasing with education among Swedish women, i.e. more educated are less state dependent. However, we do not find an analogous effect of education on the conditional intensity of consumption. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Swedish Lower Secondary School Teachers' Perceptions and Experiences Regarding Homework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Limin; Kristoffersson, Margaretha

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates homework in Swedish lower secondary schools: teachers' perceptions and experiences about it and their understanding of its potentials and challenges for students' learning and development. Data collected through an online survey (N = 201) mixed standardized questions and open questions. Descriptive statistics and…

  8. Syllable reduction and articulation rates in Danish, Norwegian and Swedish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilton, N.H.; Schüppert, Anja; Gooskens, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation compares articulation rates of phonological and phonetic syllables in Norwegian, Swedish and Danish to investigate differences in degrees of syllable deletion (reduction) among these three languages. For the investigation two sets of data are used: one consisting of recorded

  9. A Swedish Mutual Support Society of Problem Gamblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binde, Per

    2012-01-01

    Mutual support societies for problem gamblers have existed in Sweden for 20 years. They have helped more people with gambling problems than any other institution inside or outside the Swedish health care system. This paper outlines the background of these societies and describes the meetings of one of them. Data come from interviews with members…

  10. Effective Mathematics Teaching in Finnish and Swedish Teacher Education Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmi, Kirsti; Ryve, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article explores effective mathematics teaching as constructed in Finnish and Swedish teacher educators' discourses. Based on interview data from teacher educators as well as data from feedback discussions between teacher educators and prospective teachers in Sweden and Finland, the analysis shows that several aspects of the recent…

  11. The perception of aquaculture on the Swedish West Coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste E.; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Risén, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Efforts are on the way on the Swedish West Coast to develop the capacity for cultivation of marine resources, notably of kelps. Given that this is a region of great natural and national heritage, public opposition to marine developments has been identified as a possible risk factor. This survey...

  12. Self-medication with antibiotics in a Swedish general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, E; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM; Lundborg, CS

    To assess the extent of antibiotic self-medication in a Swedish population, a postal questionnaire was distributed to 1000 randomly selected subjects. The antibiotics used were in all but 3 cases reported to have been obtained with a prescription. Thus, prescribers are the primary target for

  13. A Perspective on Diversity, Equality and Equity in Swedish Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Olof; Davis, Anna; Geijer, Luule

    2007-01-01

    This study presents policy and theory as they apply to diversity, equality and equity in Swedish social and educational policy. All education in Sweden should, according to the curriculum (Lpo 94, 1994, p. 5) be of equivalent value, irrespective of where in the country it is provided and education should be adapted to each pupil's circumstances…

  14. Focal F0 peak shape and sentence mode in Swedish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert; Buanzur, Tuarik C.; Niebuhr, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Shape characteristics of rising-falling accentual F0 peaks of Stockholm Swedish Accent I words in narrow focus are studied in a corpus of 287 read sentences. The corpus includes statements and three types of polar questions. Results reveal a clear effect of sentence mode on the shape of the accen...

  15. Understandings of Climate Change Articulated by Swedish Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmqvist Olander, Mona; Olander, Clas

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated beliefs about climate change among Swedish secondary school students at the end of their K-12 education. An embedded mixed method approach was used to analyse 51 secondary school students' written responses to two questions: (1) What implies climate change? (2) What affects climate? A quantitative analysis of the responses…

  16. Swedish Schools and Gender Equality in the 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, as in many countries before Sweden, boys' academic achievements are getting considerable attention as the big gender issue. The Swedish gender equality policy that was put on the agenda in the 1970s is now associated with extreme discussions. This study aims to explore how gender equality was discussed in the 1970s, in connection with…

  17. The civic integrationist turn in Danish and Swedish school politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, Christian; Jensen, Kristian Kriegbaum

    2017-01-01

    , yet with different styles and content. Citizenship education in Denmark concentrates on reproducing a historically derived core of cultural values and knowledge to which minorities are expected to assimilate, while the Swedish model subscribes to a pluralist view that stresses mutual adaptation...

  18. Implementing Test Enhanced Learning: Swedish Teacher Students' Perception of Quizzing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyroos, Mikaela; Schéle, Ingrid; Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola

    2016-01-01

    Given previous findings on test enhanced learning, the present study examined the implementation of this practice in terms of quizzing, during the progress of a course. After completing the university course, 88 Swedish teacher students were asked to answer an adapted Retrieval Practice and Test Anxiety Survey. The results showed that students…

  19. Swedish Preschool Leadership--Supportive of Music or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This study uses observations and interviews to investigate how the leadership at three Swedish preschools in Sweden has impacted the didactic choices made. Two of these preschools use music as a tool for stimulating language and social development, while the third preschool serves as a comparison. The inspiration that the leadership has brought to…

  20. Patterns of Authority in Swedish Higher Education and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andren, Carl-Gustaf

    1983-01-01

    The current structure of governance and decision making in Swedish higher education and the effects of recent national reform on perceived and actual autonomy at the central, regional, and local levels are discussed. An initial desire for more decentralized decision making has turned to increasing demand for more guidance by central organizations.…

  1. Bacterial Colonization and the Development of Intestinal Defences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Ning Shi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In humans, intestinal defences develop during gestation and, at full term, have the capacity to respond in an appropriate manner to infectious agents and foreign antigens. Before an active protective response can occur, however, the gut must first be exposed to colonizing bacteria. Colonization with diverse intestinal microbes is necessary for the development of important gut defenses such as the synthesis and secretion of polymeric immunoglobulin A and the generation of a balanced T helper (Th cell response. Insights into normal immune physiological development of the gut have been made by studying the germ-free animal and intestinal defenses. These studies have provided insights into the physiology of immune responses. Two important immunological functions are the secretion of polymeric immunoglobulin A to protect the intestinal surface against harmful stimuli and inhibition of the systemic response to commensal bacteria and food proteins (eg, oral tolerance to prevent chronic inflammation. Neither function exists in the germ-free state, but rapidly develops after conventionalization (colonization of the germ-free animal. In the present review, the importance of bacterial colonization on the appearance of normal mucosal immune function and to the clinical consequences of inadequate colonization to the development of disease will be discussed. For example, excessive Th2 activity can lead to atopy, whereas Th1 predominance is found in conditions such as Helicobacter pylori gastritis and Crohn's disease. With the eradication of infectious diseases in developed countries in the past three decades, the incidence of atopic and autoimmune diseases has increased. This epidemiological observation has been explained by the 'hygiene hypothesis', which suggests that a reduction in microbial burden by public health measures has contributed to an immunological imbalance in the intestine. A family of pattern recognition receptors (Toll-like receptors on gut

  2. Doctrine of "Fair Price” by Thomas Aquinas: background, laws of development and specific interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nureev Rustem, M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated premises of origin and patterns of development of the doctrine of “fair price” Aquinas. Showing contradictions exchange of agricultural products to urban goods and services, resulting in a developed feudalism. For agricultural products incoming to the city market, the situation was characterized as the free competition, while medieval guild tried to create a monopoly conditions for the production and sale of its products, which objectively leads to distortion of prices. Under these conditions, the development of the problem of "fair price" becomes extremely important. The paper shows how scholasticism using theological methodology, trying to solve this problem. Greed condemned, was considered evil and sin of avarice considered the source of all evils. This tradition goes back to the interpretation of the Gospel of Matthew John Chrysostom. Alexander Halensis one of the first attempted rehabilitation of commercial activities and even tried to criticize the position of the Pseudo-Chrysostom that the merchant is not pleasing to God. In the "sum of all theology" Alexander Halensis wrote that moral qualities profits depend on the circumstances of 6: 1. From the person selling (which allowed the laity, the monks are not allowed; 2. His intentions (satisfaction or desire for profit; 3. The method of sale (by fair means or fraud; 4. Time of trade (on weekdays or holidays, designed for prayer or service of God; 5. Selling place (in the market or in holy places; 6. Relationship to the buyers (which is expressed in the level - excessive or normal - the selling price. Analyzes the rationale arguments to grounding the doctrine of "fair price", show the evolution of the concept during XII - XIV centuries, as well as its relationship with the teachings of the scholastics on the percentage. The paper deals with various estimates of the concept of "fair value" of Thomas Aquinas, resulting in the history of economic thought. Critically

  3. DOCTRINAL AND IDEOLOGICAL PARADIGM OF THE CONSERVATISM IN THE WESTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Gjorshoski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an illustration of certain specifications in the conservative discourse in a certain European western countries. Each one of the countries from the western hemisphere has its particular peculiarities that determine the usage of the political operation by the conservative parties. Certainly, the complexity of the conservative ideology study has been enriching with the perception of the most basic practices in the political activity of the right parties in some western countries. This paper consists of a short definition about the conservatism followed by its primary and secondary principles. Then, continues to an individual cases in a three highly developed European countries where as a sample are taken the most significant parties in the conservative and Christian Democrat ideology. The conservatism as a political ideology has been formed in the middle of the XVII century as a resistance towards the shifts and the challenges that were under influence of the enlightenment, industrialization and the urbanization. If the conservatism as a political theory, ideology and practice originates from the countries with foregoing activities, logically emerges a need to study their characteristics. The author’s intention is to represent the traits creating the content of that ideology and activity, what are the distinction marks that would be the most appealing of the certain country, as well as to prove the link with the parties from the conservative family on a European level. The study of the conservatism as a political ideology in the modern ideological- doctrinal spectrum would be certainly impossible if there is no closer look to those paradigms.

  4. The compleat lawyer--medical law as practical reasoning: doctrine, empiricism, and engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Margot Brazier has modelled the relationship between legal scholarship and health care practice--an evidence-based approach to doing good in the real world through the application of the discipline of law. No ivory tower academic, but a good citizen. This paper explores the expression of her comprehensive contribution in an academic paper and a policy review. She has shown how law needs to take into account the realities of the clinic when considering the plausibility of various claims for the doctrine of informed consent. She has also demonstrated how discipline could be brought to bear on policy-making, where in the Surrogacy Review she prioritised empirical evidence over preconceptions: evidence-based policy not policy-based evidence as modern consultation documents too often elicit. Margot Brazier has also provided a role model for academic lawyers' contribution to the public good; not only through ensuring the proper administration of the law (as chair of the Animal Procedures Committee for the Home Office), but also in shaping a cathartic response to public concerns as Chair of the Retained Organ Commission. She did not set out to establish a grand theory of medical law, but rather has built an approach that has enriched its practice and has had a lasting impact on those working in the field. In her hands, law is a tool for improving the practice of health care. Efficient practice precedes the theory of it; methodologies presuppose the application of the methods, of the critical investigation of which they are the products. It was because Aristotle found himself and others reasoning now intelligently and now stupidly and it was because Izaak Walton found himself and others angling sometimes effectively and sometimes ineffectively that both were able to give their pupils the maxims and prescriptions of their arts.

  5. The French bioethics public consultation and the anonymity doctrine: empirical ethics and normative assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spranzi, Marta; Brunet, Laurence

    2015-03-01

    The French bioethics laws of 1994 contain the principles of the anonymity and non commodification of all donations of body parts and products including gametes in medically assisted reproduction. The two revisions of the law, in 2004 and 2011 have upheld the rule. In view of the latest revision process, the French government organized a large public consultation in 2009 ("Etats généraux de la bioéthique"). Within the event a "consensus conference" was held in Rennes about different aspects of assisted reproduction (access, anonymity, gratuity and surrogacy). In what follows we shall first describe the anonymity clause for gamete donations in the French law and the debates surrounding it. We shall then analyse the procedure used for the 2009 public consultation and the related consensus conference, as well as its upshot concerning the anonymity doctrine. In this respect we shall compare the citizens' own recommendations on the gamete anonymity issue and its translation in the consultation's final report drafted by a philosopher mandated by the organizing committee. Whereas the final report cited some fundamental ethical arguments as reason for upholding the provisions of the law-most notably the refusal of the 'all biological' approach to reproductive issues-citizens were more careful and tentative in their position although they also concluded that for pragmatic reasons the anonymity rule should continue to hold. We shall argue that the conservative upshot of the public consultation is due to some main underlying presuppositions concerning the citizens' role and expertise as well as to the specific design of the consensus conference. Our conclusion will be that public consultations and consensus conferences can only serve as an empirical support for devising suitable bioethics norms by using second-order normative assumptions.

  6. Review of Defence Plans in Europe: Current Status, Strengths and Opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Boeck, Steven; Van Hertem, Dirk; Das, Kaushik

    2016-01-01

    electricity market is causing an increase in flows on interconnections between different areas of the European power system. Furthermore the time needed to construct new infrastructure pushes Transmission System Operators (TSOs) to better utilize the installed infrastructure. As the power system is strongly...... interconnected, a contingency in one area can affect the whole power system and possibly lead to a wide area black out. Therefore adequate defence plans need to be designed and in place to handle these situations. This paper starts with an overview of the terminology used in defence plans. Subsequently...... the current status of defence plans in Europe and the preferred sequence of actions to mitigate contingencies, is given based on a survey conducted among several European TSOs. Furthermore his paper gives an overview of how the ongoing changes with renewables, phasor measurement units (PMUs), power flow...

  7. Families of returned defence force personnel: a changing landscape of challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berle, David; Steel, Zachary

    2015-08-01

    This paper aims to identify the key challenges experienced by the families of defence force personnel following deployment. We undertook a selective review of four post-deployment challenges to the families of defence force personnel: (1) changes to relationships; (2) changes to family member roles and responsibilities; (3) adjustment of children and parenting challenges; and (4) anger, family conflict and violence. Emerging issues in the area of post-deployment adjustment are also discussed. Empirical studies of post-deployment family adjustment are lacking. Each of the reviewed challenges can contribute to psychological difficulties and precipitate contact with mental health services. The challenges faced by defence force personnel when returning from deployment arise within a family context. Clinicians should thoroughly assess these factors in families following deployment, but also recognise family strengths and resilience to these challenges. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  8. The United Kingdom and the establishment of European Security and Defence Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Nicolae Cucu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available After the Labour Party came to power, Great Britain was actively implied in the negotiations and the decision-making processes that led to the construction of the European security and defence mechanism. The European Union’s new perspective regarding security and defence assumed after 1999 was mostly framed by British leaders who seized the inability of Europe to react during the Kosovo War. Although, at the beginning the United Kingdom reformed its internal mechanisms and assumed complex duties, the creation of European Security and Defence Policy did not abolish the North Atlantic security system, as Germans and French would have wanted. Beyond the United States mistrust, transatlantic cooperation continued, especially because of the UK which sought to strike the right balance between European theatre and the North-Atlantic one.

  9. Stakeholder Involvement in Swedish Nuclear Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden)

    2006-09-15

    character of site investigations may change. A different understanding of what should be subject to stakeholder involvement is now on the table, but how exactly this will influence the process is still too early to say. The group most visible so far, the Swedish NGO Office for Nuclear Waste Review (MKG), has published, however, a thorough review of SKB's RandD programme from 2004. In this it is obvious that the Group wants to focus on a more strict assessment of a proposed final repository in relation to the requirements stated in the Environmental Code, that the suitability of a site should be determined by its ability to protect human health and the environment, which places substantial demands upon the site chosen. Moreover, according the Code the best available technology should be used and alternative technology presented. According to MKG, SKB are not fulfilling these requirements in respect of the Environmental Code. The KBS method as well as the two sites in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar are not chosen in relation to these requirements (MKG 2005). MKG, therefore, seems unwilling to proceed on the assumption that a final repository should be sited in either Oesthammar or Oskarshamn, without detailed comparisons with other sites being carried out. In this paper we have tried to show the changing patterns of stakeholder involvement, and also that the current pattern, often mentioned as stable, is not naturally given. Many uncertainties could be listed, but what we know for sure is that the nature of stakeholder involvement at any moment in time always remains contingent and fluid. Who the major and minor stakeholders are; which opportunities they have to act, and on what issues are continually shifting matters. While things can appear to be proceeding in a relatively orderly step-by-step fashion, the reality of stakeholder involvement is that things are continually on the verge of turning out otherwise.

  10. ENERGY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE PRESENT CHALLENGES TO THE EUROPEAN COMMON SECURITY AND DEFENCE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel ANDRUSEAC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Common Security and Defence Policy is a part of the European Union’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP and establishes the policy framework for the institutional structures and military instruments which have to deal with the security challenges in Europe’s geopolitical neighborhood. The article aims to identify and analyze the role of energy as one of the present challenges to the European Common Security and Defence Policy in the context of the recent events in the world economy.

  11. Evolution of host innate defence: insights from Caenorhabditis elegans and primitive invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irazoqui, Javier E; Urbach, Jonathan M; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2010-01-01

    The genetically tractable model organism Caenorhabditis elegans was first used to model bacterial virulence in vivo a decade ago. Since then, great strides have been made in identifying the host response pathways that are involved in its defence against infection. Strikingly, C. elegans seems to detect, and respond to, infection without the involvement of its homologue of Toll-like receptors, in contrast to the well-established role for these proteins in innate immunity in mammals. What, therefore, do we know about host defence mechanisms in C. elegans and what can they tell us about innate immunity in higher organisms?

  12. Evolution of host innate defence: insights from C. elegans and primitive invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irazoqui, Javier E.; Urbach, Jonathan M.; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    2010-01-01

    Preface The genetically tractable model organism Caenorhabditis elegans was first used to model bacterial virulence in vivo a decade ago. Since then, great strides have been made in the identification of host response pathways that are involved in the defence against infection. Strikingly, C. elegans seems to detect and respond to infection without the involvement of its Toll-like receptor homologue, in contrast to the well-established role for these proteins in innate immunity in mammals. What, therefore, do we know about host defence mechanisms in C. elegans, and what can they tell us about innate immunity in higher organisms? PMID:20029447

  13. Amphimixis and the individual in evolving populations: does Weismann's Doctrine apply to all, most or a few organisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Karl J.; Kutschera, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    The German biologist August Weismann (1834-1914) proposed that amphimixis (sexual reproduction) creates variability for natural selection to act upon, and hence he became one of the founders of the Neo-Darwinian theory of biological evolution. He is perhaps best known for what is called "Weismann's Doctrine" or "Weismann's Barrier" (i.e. the irreversible separation of somatic and germ cell functionalities early during ontogeny in multicellular organisms). This concept provided an unassailable argument against "soft inheritance" sensu Lamarck and informed subsequent theorists that the only "individual" in the context of evolution is the mature, reproductive organism. Herein, we review representative model organisms whose embryology conforms to Weismann's Doctrine (e.g. flies and mammals) and those that do not (e.g. freshwater hydroids and plants) based on this survey and the Five Kingdoms of Life scheme; we point out that most species (notably bacteria, fungi, protists and plants) are "non-Weismannian" in ways that make a canonical definition of the "individual" problematic if not impossible. We also review critical life history functional traits that allow us to create a matrix of all theoretically conceivable life cycles (for eukaryotic algae, embryophytes, fungi and animals), which permits us to establish where this scheme Weismann's Doctrine holds true and where it does not. In addition, we argue that bacteria, the dominant organisms of the biosphere, exist in super-cellular biofilms but rarely as single (planktonic) microbes. Our analysis attempts to show that competition among genomic variants in cell lineages played a critical part in the evolution of multicellularity and life cycle diversity. This feature was largely ignored during the formulation of the synthetic theory of biological evolution and its subsequent elaborations.

  14. Down-regulation of plant defence in a resident spider mite species and its effect upon con- and heterospecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Diogo P; Janssen, Arne; Dias, Teresa; Cruz, Cristina; Magalhães, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Herbivorous spider mites occurring on tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cope with plant defences in various manners: the invasive Tetranychus evansi reduces defences below constitutive levels, whereas several strains of T. urticae induce such defences and others suppress them. In the Mediterranean region, these two species co-occur on tomato plants with T. ludeni, another closely related spider mite species. Unravelling how this third mite species affects plant defences is thus fundamental to understanding the outcome of herbivore interactions in this system. To test the effect of T. ludeni on tomato plant defences, we measured (1) the activity of proteinase inhibitors, indicating the induction of plant defences, in those plants, and (2) mite performance on plants previously infested with each mite species. We show that the performance of T. evansi and T. ludeni on plants previously infested with T. ludeni or T. evansi was better than on clean plants, indicating that these two mite species down-regulate plant defences. We also show that plants attacked by these mite species had lower activity of proteinase inhibitors than clean plants, whereas herbivory by T. urticae increased the activity of these proteins and resulted in reduced spider mite performance. This study thus shows that the property of down-regulation of plant defences below constitutive levels also occurs in T. ludeni.

  15. Two thiadiazole compounds promote rice defence against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae by suppressing the bacterium's production of extracellular polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaoyu; Yu, Xiaoyue; Dong, Wenxia; Guo, Shijian; Xu, Shu; Wang, Jianxin; Zhou, Mingguo

    2015-10-01

    Thiazole, isothiazole, thiadiazole, and their derivatives are used to control various human, animal and plant diseases. In addition to having direct anti-microbial and anti-fungal properties, these compounds are thought to induce host defences, but the mechanism of defence induction remains poorly understood. This article reports that the thiadiazoles of zinc thiazole and bismerthiazol induce H2 O2 accumulation, up-regulation of defence-related genes, callose deposition and hypersensitive response-like cell death in rice leaves infected with Xanthomonas oryaze pv. oryzae (Xoo) strain ZJ173, but not in non-infected leaves. These defence responses in Xoo-infected leaves were suppressed by the exogenous application of catalase, which reduces H2 O2 accumulation. The application of extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) extracted from strain ZJ173 significantly compromised rice defence against ZJ173 with or without thiadiazole treatment. The EPS-deficient Xoo mutant ∆gumH triggered a stronger defence than its parent strain ZJ173. The thiadiazole treatments reduced EPS production by strain ZJ173, but not by the thiadiazole-resistant strain 2-1-1, which is thiadiazole resistant in vivo, but not in vitro; moreover, enhanced defence was not detected in thiadiazole-treated rice inoculated with 2-1-1. Based on these data, we infer that zinc thiazole and bismerthiazol promote rice defence against Xoo by inhibiting the production of bacterial EPS. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  16. The association between self-image and defence mechanisms in a group of adolescent patients receiving psychiatric treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treger, Bartosz; Matusiak, Feliks; Pilecki, Maciej; Rogoż, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between various areas of self-image and defence mechanisms in adolescents. The study included a division into groups according to whether or not they were receiving psychiatric treatment. Data were obtained from two groups: a clinical group (30 persons), consisting of adolescent patients of the Adolescent Inpatient Ward of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic and a control group (40 persons), adolescents attending upper secondary school. The Defence Style Questionnaire DSQ-40 and the Offer Self Image Questionnaire were used in the study. Results showed no differences, in the maturity levels of the defence mechanisms, between the two groups. Subjects from the clinical group had a significantly lower self-image of themselves than subjects from the control group.. In both groups, the use of mature defence mechanisms was accompanied by a positive self-image, while the use of less mature defence mechanisms was associated with a lower self-image. Comparison of the groups revealed different relationships between the aspects of self-image and used defence mechanisms, in particular the mechanism of projection. Number of significant correlations was greater in the clinical group. In the context of lower self-image, the study revealed the importance of such defence mechanisms as projection, acting out, somatization or schizoid fantasies. The obtained results seem to confirm a hypothesis that the assessment of the maturity of defence mechanisms in the period of adolescence is less clear and clinically useful.

  17. Radiocaesium in Swedish reindeer after the Chernobyl accident. Progress report to the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aahman, B. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Animal Breeding and Genetics

    1997-09-01

    The level of {sup 137}CS in freely grazing reindeer, and thus in reindeer pasture, continue to decrease, with an average T{sub ef} at 3.9 years from 1986/87 (the first year after the Chernobyl fallout) to 1996/97. The decline was more rapid during the first five years after the fallout than during the following five years. This, together with a tendency to a relatively slow decline in areas with mainly old fallout (from the nuclear weapon tests) indicate that radiocesium become more fixed in reindeer pasture with time. As a combined effect of the general decline and of different countermeasures, the transfer of radiocaesium via reindeer meat and the corresponding radiation dose to humans has been reduced with time. By different countermeasures, the total collective dose to the Swedish population, over a 10-year period following the Chernobyl accident, has been reduced with 676 manSv at a cost of 489 million SEK 7 refs, tabs

  18. From A Treatise on Money to the General Theory: John Maynard Keynes' Departure from the Doctrine of Forced Saving

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Ho-Po Crystal

    2013-01-01

    I examine John Maynard Keynes' struggle with the doctrine of the classical forced saving during the period 1924-1936 from when he worked on A Treatise on Money to the completion of his General Theory. The forced saving notion has been developed as a key mechanism of how monetary expansion results in wealth redistribution and change in production in the classical school. I primarily focus on the role of discussion and criticism in the development of Keynes' thought. I investigate what led John...

  19. Venezuela: from doctrine to dialogue to participation in the processes of regional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allor, D J

    1984-01-01

    . Neighborhood associations were mentioned in the decree, but their role was not formalized. This series of newly established bodies plays a role in both advisory and administrative processes. The advisory process begins at the lowest level, and local concerns are expressed upward through the hierarchy. The administrative process flows in the opposite direction. Participation remains highly formalized and is restricted to the participation of recognized leaders and organizations. For example, members of the Assembly of Participation include the state governor, representatives of municipal councils, and representatives of various industrial and commercial organizations. Despite the formal nature of the participation, the 1980 Decree clearly exhibited the trend toward decentralization predicted by John Freeman in his analysis of Venezuelan political structure and published in a book entitled "venezuela: From doctrine to Dialogue." Increased pressure will now be exerted for broader community participation in the development process, and eventually development planning will focus on the equitable distribution of development benefits rather than on the maximization of economic growth.

  20. Parasitism by Cuscuta pentagona sequentially induces JA and SA defence pathways in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin B. Runyon; Mark C. Mescher; Gary W. Felton; Consuelo M. De Moraes

    2010-01-01

    While plant responses to herbivores and pathogens are well characterized, responses to attack by other plants remain largely unexplored. We measured phytohormones and C18 fatty acids in tomato attacked by the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona, and used transgenic and mutant plants to explore the roles of the defence-related phytohormones salicylic...