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Sample records for swedish dairy farms

  1. Variation in carbon footprint of milk due to management differences between Swedish dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksson, Maria; Flysjö, Anna Maria; Cederberg, Christel

    2011-01-01

    To identify mitigation options to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from milk production (i.e. the carbon footprint (CF) of milk), this study examined the variation in GHG emissions among dairy farms using data from previous CF studies on Swedish milk. Variations between farms in these produc....../unit DMI) can be used as a rough key performance indicator for predicting CF reductions. However, it must be borne in mind that feeds have different CF due to where and how they are produced....

  2. Risk factors associated with on-farm mortality in Swedish dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvåsen, K.; Jansson Mörk, M.; Dohoo, I. R.

    2014-01-01

    Dairy cow mortality (unassisted death and euthanasia) has increased, worldwide and in Sweden. On-farm mortality indicates suboptimal herd health or welfare and causes financial loss for the dairy producer. The objective of this study was to identify cow-level risk factors associated with on......). The effects of potential risk factors on on-farm cow mortality were analysed using a Weibull proportional hazard model with a gamma distributed frailty effect common to cows within herd. The event of interest (failure) was euthanasia or unassisted death. An observation was right censored if the cow...

  3. Precision Dairy Farming 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, C.; Steeneveld, W.

    2016-01-01

    The supply of new innovative precision dairy farming technologies is steadily increasing. It aims to help farmers to be more labour efficient and to support them in their daily management decisions. At the same time, since many technologies are developed from an engineering perspective, adoption of

  4. Psychosocial work environment among employed Swedish dairy and pig farmworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstrup, Christina; Lundqvist, Peter; Pinzke, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychosocial work environment for employed dairy and pig farmworkers in southern Sweden and to identify potential risk factors related to the psychosocial work environment for the development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Thirty-seven workers on 10 dairy farms and 30 workers on 10 pig farms participated in the study. The study was based on a Swedish translation of the short version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) for analyses of self-perceived psychosocial work environment and the general Nordic questionnaire for analyses of self-perceived MSDs. In general, the psychosocial work environment was assessed as "good" by both the dairy and pig farmworkers. However, the dairy and pig farmworkers experienced lower work demands, poorer general and mental health, and poorer vitality (physical and mental strength, vigor, and energy) compared to other occupations. Furthermore, the results indicated that the quality of leadership, feedback, and social support at work were poorer at the dairy farms than at the pig farms. No significant risk factors related to the psychosocial work environment were identified for MSDs in "the back" and in the "upper extremities." This study indicates that the psychosocial work environment for the dairy and pig farmworkers may well be improved in order to promote these workplaces as attractive and healthful. This especially seems to be the case concerning the quality of leadership, feedback, and social support at work for the dairy farmworkers. Furthermore, the present study suggests the probability that physical factors are more likely to lead to MSDs among employed livestock workers than factors related to the psychosocial work environment.

  5. Caring Dairy: A Sustainable Dairy Farming Initiative in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calker, van K.J.; Hooch Antink, R.H.J.; Beldman, A.C.G.; Mauser, A.

    2005-01-01

    Interest in the concept of sustainability in dairy farming has grown as a result of the continuous pressure on farm incomes, occurrence of animal diseases with a major impact on the image of dairy farming, concerns about animal welfare, and environmental problems caused by agriculture. There are,

  6. ECONOMICS OF DAIRY FARMING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Bor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study dairy farming activities in Turkey are employed to prove that small-scale agricultural production is disappearing rapidly due to costly investment and mechanization needs. For that purpose the cost structure and the investment needs in starting a dairy farm are analyzed. The results show that the capital requirements of building a dairy farm with optimal capacity are hard to reach for small farmers unless a system of marketing and production agricultural cooperatives and/or institutions are organized.

  7. Role of Women Workers at Dairy Farms in Banyumas District

    OpenAIRE

    Mastuti, S; Hidayat, NN

    2009-01-01

    Dairy farm is one of promising to increase the household income. Dairy farm generally involve all the household members. The research was aimed to: 1) know contribution of work duration of women woker to the total duration of work in dairy farm; 2) identify contribution of women income to the total income of dairy farm; 3) determine factors that influence contribution of income of women to the total income of dairy farm. Three sub districts were taken as area sample using purposive sampling...

  8. Dairy farming and dairy industry in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beldman, A.; Berkum, van S.; Kortstee, H.; Zijlstra, J.

    2017-01-01

    Iran is a country with a long dairy tradition. Dairy production has increased to a level of about 9bn kg of milk per year. The ambition in the sector is to further increase production and to improve the quality of the milk to be able to export. Based on the analysis of available data and on a field

  9. Benchmarking nutrient use efficiency of dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, W.; Groen, E.A.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Hennart, S.; Stilmant, D.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The nutrient use efficiency (NUE) of a system, generally computed as the amount of nutrients in valuable outputs over the amount of nutrients in all inputs, is commonly used to benchmark the environmental performance of dairy farms. Benchmarking the NUE of farms, however, may lead to biased

  10. Composition and enzymatic activity in bulk milk from dairy farms with conventional or robotic milking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johansson, Monika; Lundh, Åse; Vries, de Ruben; Sjaunja, Kerstin Svennersten

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the studies reported in this research communication was to investigate differences in composition and enzymatic activities in bulk milk samples provided from Swedish dairy farms with different management systems, i.e. automated (AMS) and conventional milking systems (CMS). A bulk

  11. Value-Added Dairy Products from Grass-Based Dairy Farms: A Case Study in Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingbin; Parsons, Robert; Colby, Jennifer; Castle, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    On-farm processing of value-added dairy products can be a way for small dairy farms to diversify production and increase revenue. This article examines characteristics of three groups of Vermont farmers who have grass-based dairy farms--those producing value-added dairy products, those interested in such products, and those not interested in such…

  12. Costs of Producing Biogas at Dairy Farms in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebrezgabher, S.A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    By 2020, Dutch dairy chains envisage to be self-sufficient with regard to energy used by dairy farms and dairy processors. This would require dairy farms to produce 25 PJ per year, possibly by a combination of wind, solar and biogas. This paper focuses on biogas. To evaluate the project’s viability

  13. Dutch, Hungarian and German dairy farms technical efficiency comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovacs, K.; Emvalomatis, G.

    2011-01-01

    The abolishment of the dairy quota system in the EU is expected to increase competition across dairy farms in Europe. Assuming a common price for milk in the EU, only the most efficient farms will survive in the new environment. The main objective of the paper is to compare dairy farms in Germany,

  14. Protein efficiency in intensive dairy production: a Swedish example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swensson, Christian; Lindmark-Månsson, Helena; Smedman, Annika; Henriksson, Maria; Modin Edman, Anna-Karin

    2017-11-01

    Animal agriculture has been criticised in terms of its sustainability from several perspectives. Ruminants such as dairy cows can transform inedible, low-quality protein in roughage and by-products from the food industry into the high-quality protein found in milk and meat. Evaluation of the protein conversion efficiency of dairy production from a sustainability and resource perspective must be based on the proportion of the animal feed edible to humans. A relevant metric is thus edible feed protein conversion ratio (eFPCR), i.e. human-edible protein output in cow's milk per unit human-edible protein input in feed. In this study, eFPCR was calculated for five regionally adapted and realistic feed rations fed to Swedish dairy cows producing different annual milk yields typical for high-yielding, intensive dairy production. All scenarios except one showed a protein efficiency ratio of >1 for human-edible protein. Thus, depending on the composition of their diet, most Swedish dairy cows can convert human-inedible protein into edible, high-value protein. However, higher milk yield led to a decrease in eFPCR, regardless of diet. Dairy cows in high-yielding, intensive production systems such as those used in Sweden have the capacity to convert low-value inedible protein into high-value edible protein. However, a minor part of the dairy cow diet is edible for humans and this fraction must be minimised to justify dairy production. These results are in line with previous findings on protein conversion efficiency and add scientific input to the debate on sustainable food systems and sustainable diets. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Modeling Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farms requires a comprehensive approach that integrates the impacts and interactions of all important sources and sinks. This approach requires some form of modeling. Types of models commonly used include empirical emission factors, pr...

  16. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how

  17. Water footprinting of dairy farming in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murphy, E.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Holden, N.M.; Shalloo, L.; Curran, T.P.; Upton, J.

    2017-01-01

    In the context of global water scarcity, water footprints have become an important sustainability indicator for food production systems. To improve the water footprint of the dairy sector, insight into freshwater consumption of individual farms is required. The objective of this study was to

  18. Labour organisation on robotic milking dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonck, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    1. Research issues

    The research described in this dissertation is focused on the effects of the integration of the milking robot in a dairy farm on the labour organisation at operational and tactical level. Attention was paid

  19. Antimicrobial use on Canadian dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, V; McClure, J T; Léger, D; Dufour, S; Sheldon, A G; Scholl, D T; Barkema, H W

    2012-03-01

    Antimicrobial use (AMU) data are critical for formulating policies for containing antimicrobial resistance. The present study determined AMU on Canadian dairy farms and characterized variation in AMU based on herd-level factors such as milk production, somatic cell count, herd size, geographic region and housing type. Drug use data were collected on 89 dairy herds in 4 regions of Canada, Alberta, Ontario, Québec, and the Maritime provinces (Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia) for an average of 540 d per herd. Dairy producers and farm personnel were asked to deposit empty drug containers into specially provided receptacles. Antimicrobial use was measured as antimicrobial drug use rate (ADUR), with the unit being number of animal defined-daily doses (ADD)/1,000 cow-days. Antimicrobial drug use rates were determined at farm, region, and national level. Combined ADUR of all antimicrobial classes was 14.35 ADD/1,000 cow-days nationally. National level ADUR of the 6 most commonly used antimicrobial drug classes, cephalosporins, penicillins, penicillin combinations, tetracyclines, trimethoprim-sulfonamide combinations, and lincosamides were 3.05, 2.56, 2.20, 1.83, 0.87, and 0.84 ADD/1,000 cow-days, respectively. Dairy herds in Ontario were higher users of third-generation cephalosporins (ceftiofur) than in Québec. Alberta dairy herds were higher users of tetracyclines in comparison to Maritimes. Antimicrobial drug use rate was higher via systemic route as compared with intramammary and other routes of administration (topical, oral, and intrauterine). The ADUR of antimicrobials used intramammarily was higher for clinical mastitis treatment than dry cow therapy. For dry cow therapy, penicillin ADUR was greater than ADUR of first-generation cephalosporins. For clinical mastitis treatment, ADUR of intramammary penicillin combinations was greater than ADUR of cephapirin. Herd-level milk production was positively associated with overall ADUR, ADUR of

  20. Gross revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Benni, N; Finger, R

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how output prices and yields contributed to revenue risk over 3 different periods: the whole period (1990-2009), the first decade (1990-1999), and the second decade (1999-2009). In addition, the effect of expected changes in animal-based support for roughage-consuming cattle and price volatility on revenue risk was evaluated using a simulation model. Prices were the main contributor to revenue risk, even if the importance of yield risk increased over time. Swiss dairy producers can profit from natural hedge but market deregulation and market liberalization have reduced the natural hedge at the farm level. An increase in price volatility would substantially increase revenue risk and would, together with the abandonment of direct payments, reduce the comparative advantage of dairy production for risk-averse decision makers. Depending on other available risk management strategies, price risk management instruments might be a valuable solution for Swiss dairy producers in the future. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Training needs of farm women in dairy farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durgga Rani V. And Subhadra M.R.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in Thrissur taluk of Thrissur district to assess the training needs of farm women engaged in dairy farming. It was found that out of the five major farm operations studied, the farm women needed training the most in housing. The minor operations preferred the most for knowledge need were proper design of cattle shed, selection of breeds, compounding balanced feed using locally available ingredients, vaccination and banking and insurance. As for skill need, construction of scientific low cost cattle shed, selection of breeds, compounding balanced feed using locally available ingredients, symptoms of common diseases and banking and insurance were preferred the most. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 221-223

  2. Milk yield, udder health and reproductive performance in Swedish organic and conventional dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Nils; Emanuelson, Ulf

    2009-11-01

    Organic dairy farming is an expanding segment of the dairy sector where cow management differs from the conventional model in many respects. Thus, a comparative evaluation of disease and welfare status in organically and conventionally managed dairy cows is required. Assessment of milk yield, udder health and reproductive performance (RP) was done in 20 organically and 20 conventionally managed Swedish dairy herds. In accordance with earlier findings we confirmed lower milk yield in organic cows. Udder health and RP were chosen as indicators of animal health in view of their clinical relevance and the availability of appropriate data bases providing good background knowledge for further animal health assessment. No obvious differences were found in the investigations of somatic cell count (SCC) profiles or time to veterinary-treated cases of mastitis between organically and conventional managed cows. Pregnancy success at first insemination, an appropriate measurement of RP with biological interpretation and background, did not reveal any difference between management types, whereas the hazard rate-ratio (HR) of having a calving-interval was significantly lower (HR=0.71) in organically managed cows. The calving-interval is an important financial determinator in dairy production, but it is not considered an optimal indicator of biologic relevance as it partially reflects farmer decisions. In conclusion, the organically managed cows in this study did not differ from conventionally managed cows in udder health or RP, with the exception of calving interval.

  3. Role of Women Workers at Dairy Farms in Banyumas District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mastuti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farm is one of promising to increase the household income. Dairy farm generally involve all the household members. The research was aimed to: 1 know contribution of work duration of women woker to the total duration of work in dairy farm; 2 identify contribution of women income to the total income of dairy farm; 3 determine factors that influence contribution of income of women to the total income of dairy farm. Three sub districts were taken as area sample using purposive sampling method based on number of dairy farm that utilize women as worker in their farm activities. Sixty seven famers were taken as respondents is this research. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine factors that influence contribution of income of women to the total income. The result showed that: 1 contribution of working duration of women was 25,24 percent; 2 contribution of income of women was Rp 2,762,755.96: and 3 partially, contribution of income of women was influenced by farm scale and dependency ratio. In conclusion, women wokers have contribution on the total duration of work and income; and dairy farm scale and Dependency Ratio influencing contribution of women income. (Animal Production 11(1: 40-47 (2009 Key Words: dairy farm, duration of work, income, role of women

  4. Prevalence and Fingerprinting of Listeria monocytogenes Strains Isolated from Raw Whole Milk in Farm Bulk Tanks and in Dairy Plant Receiving Tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Waak, Elisabet; Tham, Wilhelm; Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise

    2002-01-01

    The incidence of Listeria species in raw whole milk from farm bulk tanks and from raw milk in storage at a Swedish dairy plant was studied. Listeria monocytogenes was found in 1.0% and Listeria innocua was found in 2.3% of the 294 farm bulk tank (farm tank) milk specimens. One farm tank specimen contained 60 CFU of L. monocytogenes ml−1. L. monocytogenes was detected in 19.6% and L. innocua was detected in 8.5% of the milk specimens from the silo receiving tanks at the dairy (dairy silos). Mo...

  5. A survey of bacteria found in Belgian dairy farm products

    OpenAIRE

    N'Guessan, Elise; Godrie, Thérèse; De Laubier, Juliette; Ringuet, Mélanie; Sindic, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Description of the subject. Due to the potential hazards caused by pathogenic bacteria, farm dairy production remains a challenge from the point of view of food safety. As part of a public program to support farm diversification and short food supply chains, farm dairy product samples including yogurt, ice cream, raw-milk butter and cheese samples were collected from 318 Walloon farm producers between 2006 and 2014. Objectives. Investigation of the microbiological quality of the Belgian da...

  6. Investigation of Dairy Farm Silage Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, C. S.; Blake, D. R.; Yang, M. M.; Dehart, J.

    2009-12-01

    California’s Central Valley is one of the most ozone polluted areas in the United States. For better understanding of the sources of this increasing tropospheric ozone concentration, an experiment was conducted on a dairy farm located in the central valley area. Dairy farm silage is a suspected source of tropospheric ozone due to recent findings of ethanol emissions resulting from the fermentation process that occurs during the preparation of silage. However, a silage pile consists of three main layers and each layer has different physical and chemical properties. During the distribution period, the inner layer is most exposed. This experiment was focused on wheat silage, and different layers of the individual silage pile were tested to investigate their emissions. Samples were collected using air canisters and analyzed via FID gas chromatography in the University of California Irvine Rowland/Blake Lab. The samples collected did reveal ethanol concentrations, and a difference was observed between the layers of the silage pile. The dry outer layer of the pile had a smaller amount of gaseous emissions than the inner “moist” section of the pile. Additionally, an unexpected peak in the inner layer’s chromatogram showed a propyl alcohol concentration of 28,000 ppbv in comparison to an ethanol concentration of 15,000 ppbv. Propyl alcohol has a higher Maximum Incremental Reactivity (MIR) value, than that of ethanol. MIR is a numerical value assigned to compounds based on their ozone forming potential. Therefore, a high concentration of propyl alcohol in silage is probable to be a contributor to the tropospheric ozone concentration in the atmosphere. The information provided by this research experiment can induce further research on dairy farm emissions. Continuing this research could potentially provide scientific information required to create regulations.

  7. Factors influencing energy demand in dairy farming | Kraatz | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of energy utilization is one of the key indicators for developing more sustainable agricultural practices. Factors influencing the energy demand in dairy farming are the cumulative energy demand for feed-supply, milk yield as well as the replacement rate of cows. The energy demand of dairy farming is ...

  8. Dairy production in some selected integrated farms in Sokoto State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of eight integrated farms in four local government areas of Sokoto state in north-western Nigeria revealed the following about dairy production on such farms:breed of cattle kept, Sokoto Gudali, Friesian, and Sahiwal; average dairy herd size,69.4 head; husbandry system was largely semi-intensive; milking was ...

  9. Groundwater quality on dairy farms in central South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Water quality, groundwater, E. coli, coliforms, nitrate, hardness, dairy farms. INTRODUCTION. Dairy farming is the ... source of pollution through nutrient enrichment of streams and groundwater which may, in turn, .... an increased use of soap (Rubenowitz-Lundin and Hiscock,. 2013). The groundwater on many ...

  10. Vacuum Pump System Optimization Saves Energy at a Dairy Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-08-01

    In 1998, S&S Dairy optimized the vacuum pumping system at their dairy farm in Modesto, California. In an effort to reduce energy costs, S&S Dairy evaluated their vacuum pumping system to determine if efficiency gains and energy savings were possible.

  11. Energy demand on dairy farms in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, J; Humphreys, J; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; French, P; Dillon, P; De Boer, I J M

    2013-10-01

    Reducing electricity consumption in Irish milk production is a topical issue for 2 reasons. First, the introduction of a dynamic electricity pricing system, with peak and off-peak prices, will be a reality for 80% of electricity consumers by 2020. The proposed pricing schedule intends to discourage energy consumption during peak periods (i.e., when electricity demand on the national grid is high) and to incentivize energy consumption during off-peak periods. If farmers, for example, carry out their evening milking during the peak period, energy costs may increase, which would affect farm profitability. Second, electricity consumption is identified in contributing to about 25% of energy use along the life cycle of pasture-based milk. The objectives of this study, therefore, were to document electricity use per kilogram of milk sold and to identify strategies that reduce its overall use while maximizing its use in off-peak periods (currently from 0000 to 0900 h). We assessed, therefore, average daily and seasonal trends in electricity consumption on 22 Irish dairy farms, through detailed auditing of electricity-consuming processes. To determine the potential of identified strategies to save energy, we also assessed total energy use of Irish milk, which is the sum of the direct (i.e., energy use on farm) and indirect energy use (i.e., energy needed to produce farm inputs). On average, a total of 31.73 MJ was required to produce 1 kg of milk solids, of which 20% was direct and 80% was indirect energy use. Electricity accounted for 60% of the direct energy use, and mainly resulted from milk cooling (31%), water heating (23%), and milking (20%). Analysis of trends in electricity consumption revealed that 62% of daily electricity was used at peak periods. Electricity use on Irish dairy farms, therefore, is substantial and centered around milk harvesting. To improve the competitiveness of milk production in a dynamic electricity pricing environment, therefore, management

  12. Parasite control practices on Swedish horse farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison David A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virtually all horses are infected with helminth parasites. For some decades, the control of parasites of Swedish horses has been based on routine treatments with anthelmintics, often several times per year. Since anthelmintic resistance is becoming an increasing problem it is essential to develop more sustainable control strategies, which are adapted to different types of horse management. The aim of this study was to obtain information on practices used by Swedish horse owners for the control of endoparasites. Methods A questionnaire with 26 questions about management practices and parasite control routines was posted to 627 randomly selected horse establishments covering most types of horse management in Sweden. Results The response rate was good in all categories of respondents (66–78%. A total of 444 questionnaires were used in the analyses. It was found that virtually all horses had access to grazing areas, usually permanent. Generally, pasture hygiene was infrequently practiced. Thirty-six percent of the respondents clipped or chain harrowed their pastures, whereas weekly removal of faeces from the grazing areas was performed by 6% of the respondents, and mixed or rotational grazing with other livestock by 10%. The number of anthelmintic treatments per year varied from 1–8 with an average of 3.2. Thirty-eight percent considered late autumn (Oct-Dec to be the most important time for deworming. This finding, and an increased use of macrocyclic lactones in the autumn, suggests a concern about bot flies, Gasterophilus intestinalis. Only 1% of the respondents stated that faecal egg counts (FEC were performed on a regular basis. The relatively high cost of FEC analyses compared to purchase of anthelmintics was thought to contribute to the preference of deworming without a previous FEC. From the study it was evident that all categories of horse owners took advice mainly from veterinarians. Conclusion The results show that

  13. Parasite control practices on Swedish horse farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Eva Osterman; Rautalinko, Erik; Uggla, Arvid; Waller, Peter J; Morrison, David A; Höglund, Johan

    2007-09-26

    Virtually all horses are infected with helminth parasites. For some decades, the control of parasites of Swedish horses has been based on routine treatments with anthelmintics, often several times per year. Since anthelmintic resistance is becoming an increasing problem it is essential to develop more sustainable control strategies, which are adapted to different types of horse management. The aim of this study was to obtain information on practices used by Swedish horse owners for the control of endoparasites. A questionnaire with 26 questions about management practices and parasite control routines was posted to 627 randomly selected horse establishments covering most types of horse management in Sweden. The response rate was good in all categories of respondents (66-78%). A total of 444 questionnaires were used in the analyses. It was found that virtually all horses had access to grazing areas, usually permanent. Generally, pasture hygiene was infrequently practiced. Thirty-six percent of the respondents clipped or chain harrowed their pastures, whereas weekly removal of faeces from the grazing areas was performed by 6% of the respondents, and mixed or rotational grazing with other livestock by 10%. The number of anthelmintic treatments per year varied from 1-8 with an average of 3.2. Thirty-eight percent considered late autumn (Oct-Dec) to be the most important time for deworming. This finding, and an increased use of macrocyclic lactones in the autumn, suggests a concern about bot flies, Gasterophilus intestinalis. Only 1% of the respondents stated that faecal egg counts (FEC) were performed on a regular basis. The relatively high cost of FEC analyses compared to purchase of anthelmintics was thought to contribute to the preference of deworming without a previous FEC. From the study it was evident that all categories of horse owners took advice mainly from veterinarians. The results show that routines for endoparasite control can be improved in many horse

  14. Planning of dairy farm and dairy plant based ecotourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnyoto, A. S.; Tama, I. P.; Tantrika, C. F. M.

    2017-06-01

    One of a dairy production company producing pasteurized milk and yoghurt drink, whose brand has widely known in East Java, has a factory plant in Batu City, one of tourism destinations in Indonesia. Behind the factory plant, there is a vacant land with an estimated total area of 2.3 ha and a vacant cowshed which had not been used for cattle ranching. Because of that, the company planned to develop the vacant land as a dairy farm and plant based ecotourism. In addition, dairy farm and dairy plant based tourism attractions are still rarely found in Batu. Thus, the first aim of this study was to analyse the potencies of the company that related to future plans of ecotourism built. The second aim was to set up the strategies that can be done in order to actualize the ecotourism project. The next aim was to plan the ecotourism, especially the facilities planning and the facilities arrangement on the vacant land. Strategic management approach was used to analyse the potencies and to determine the strategies. To select the proper facilities, tourists were asked to give appraisal by using questionnaire. Appraisal result was mapped onto four quadrants spatial map to see advantages and shortcomings of each facility along with choosing the right facilities to be built. Those facilities and tourist activities were compared with ecotourism criteria to make sure that the facilities were appropriate to provide not only entertainment but also ecotourism function. To arrange the chosen facilities, the step in Systematic Layout Planning were conducted to generate a propose layout of facilities arrangement. Based on potencies analysis, in Internal-External matrix, the company current position was on quadrant 2 (grow and build), with the most appropriate strategy was intensive or integrative. The proposed strategies were to build the new infrastructure, to renovate cowshed, and to add new tourism facilities on the land. There were 11 selected facilities based on MDS. Moreover, based

  15. Evaluating expansion strategies for startup European Union dairy farm businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, R; Shalloo, L; Pierce, K M; Horan, B

    2013-06-01

    A stochastic whole-farm simulation model was used to examine alternative strategies for new entrant dairy farmers to grow and develop dairy farm businesses in the context of European Union (EU) milk quota abolition in 2015. Six alternative strategies were compared: remain static, natural growth expansion, waiting until after EU milk quota abolition to expand, a full-scale expansion strategy without milk quotas and not incurring super levy penalties, a full-scale expansion strategy with milk quotas and incurring super levy penalties, and once-a-day milking until EU milk quota abolition, followed by full-scale expansion. Each discrete whole farm investment strategy was evaluated over a 15-yr period (2013-2027) using multiple financial stability and risk indicators, including overall discounted farm business profitability, net worth change, return on investment, and financial risk. The results of this study indicate that, although associated with increased risk, dairy farm expansion will ensure the future profitability of the farm business. Within the context of EU milk quotas until 2015, the most attractive expansion strategy is to increase cow numbers while avoiding super levy fines using once-a-day milking techniques, increasing to the full capacity of the dairy farm once milk quotas are removed. In contrast, the results also indicate that dairy farms that remain static will experience a significant reduction in farm profitability in the coming year due to production cost inflation. Cash flow deficits were observed during the initial year of expansion and, therefore, rapidly expanding dairy farm businesses require a significant cash reserve to alleviate business risk during the initial year of expansion. The results of this analysis also indicate that dairy farm businesses that expand using lower cost capital investments and avoid milk quota super levy fines significantly reduce the financial risks associated with expansion. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science

  16. Risk-based audit selection of dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Velthuis, A.G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Dairy farms are audited in the Netherlands on numerous process standards. Each farm is audited once every 2 years. Increasing demands for cost-effectiveness in farm audits can be met by introducing risk-based principles. This implies targeting subpopulations with a higher risk of poor process

  17. Reducing non-allocative costs on Danish dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mogens; Jacobsen, Brian H.; Hansen, Lars C.E.

    1993-01-01

    inefficiencies are far more important for dairy farms than inefficiencies due to sub-optimal farm size. Non-proportional reductions are shown to be as important as reductions due to scale economies. The paper closes with a discussion of the implications for farm policy and management practice....

  18. Determinants of technical efficiency among dairy farms in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, V E; Solís, D; del Corral, J

    2010-01-01

    The US dairy sector is facing structural changes including a geographical shift in dairy production and a tendency toward the implementation of more intensive production systems. These changes might significantly affect farm efficiency, profitability, and the long-term economic sustainability of the dairy sector, especially in more traditional dairy production areas. Consequently, the goal of this study was to examine the effect of practices commonly used by dairy farmers and the effect of intensification on the performance of the farms. We used a sample of 273 Wisconsin dairy farms to estimate a stochastic production frontier simultaneously with a technical inefficiency model. The empirical analysis showed that at a commercial level the administration of bovine somatotropin hormone to lactating cows increased milk production. In addition, we found that production exhibits constant returns to scale and that farm efficiency is positively related to farm intensification, the level of contribution of family labor in the farm activities, the use of a total mixed ration feeding system, and milking frequency. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of dairy farm management regime on swallow (Hirundo rustica) abundance in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbe, S.K.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Aim To identify differences in Swallow abundance between organically and conventionally managed dairy farms, by examining three factors: farm buildings, food availability and farmer attitudes to Swallows. Methods Organic and conventional dairy farm holdings were compared in pairwise fashion. On

  20. Nutrient management strategies on Dutch dairy farms: an empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondersteijn, C.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Key Words: MINAS; nitrogen surplus; phosphate surplus; nutrient efficiency; nutrient productivity; financial consequences; strategic management; perceived environmental uncertainty; nutrient management planning; dairy farming; The Netherlands.

    Agricultural nutrients are a

  1. Micro-economic panel data models for Dutch dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords:micro-economic models, panel data, GMM, CAP reform, dairy farmingIn The Netherlands, thedairy sector is the largest agricultural sub-sector based on both gross production value and number of

  2. Effects of switching between production systems in dairy farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alvarez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing intensification of dairy farming in Europe has sparked an interest in studying the economic consequences of this process. However, empirically classifying farms as extensive or intensive is not a straightforward task. In recent papers, Latent Class Models (LCM have been used to avoid an ad-hoc split of the sample into intensive and extensive dairy farms. A limitation of current specifications of LCM is that they do not allow farms to switch between different productive systems over time. This feature of the model is at odds with the process of intensification of the European dairy industry in recent decades. We allow for changes of production system over time by estimating a single LCM model but splitting the original panel into two periods, and find that the probability of using the intensive technology increases over time. Our estimation proposal opens up the possibility of studying the effects of intensification not only across farms but also over time.

  3. Participatory farm management adaptations to reduce environmental impact on commercial pilot dairy farms in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, J.; Keulen, van H.; Schils, R.L.M.; Aarts, H.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Regulations in the Netherlands with respect to nutrient use force dairy farmers to improve nutrient management at the whole-farm level. On experimental farm ‘De Marke’, a coherent set of simple measures at farm level has been implemented, which has resulted in a drastic reduction in input of

  4. Farm-specific factors affecting the choice between conventional and organic dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, C.

    2003-01-01

    Organic dairy farming in the Netherlands is a growing sector. This paper investigates the impact of a number of economic and farm-specific variables on the choice between conventional and organic farming. Based on expected utility maximization, a theoretical framework is developed that explicitly

  5. Ecologically sustainable development in dairy farms II: Nutrient cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Mexico, there is not a specific regulation dealing with manure and wastewater in confined livestock farms. In the case of dairy farms that have agricultural areas for the production of forage crops, there are some "Good Management Practices", focused on the use of manure as a source of nitrogen a...

  6. Benchmarking the environmental performance of dairy farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, Wenjuan

    2017-01-01

    Milk production has a major impact on the environment and competes increasingly for scarce resources. As the demand for milk is expected to increase, these issues are likely to worsen. Benchmarking the environmental performance of dairy farming systems offers the opportunity to identify best farm

  7. Assessment of performance of smallholder dairy farms in Kenya: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of the study was to estimate the technical and cost efficiencies of smallholder dairy farms in Kenya (Embu and Meru counties). Methodology and results: Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey from 135 (96 in Embu and 39 Meru) randomly sampled farms using semi-structured ...

  8. Investment appraisal of technology innovations on dairy farm electricity consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upton, J.; Murphy, M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Shalloo, L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an investment appraisal for milk-cooling, water-heating, and milk-harvesting technologies on a range of farm sizes in 2 different electricity-pricing environments. This was achieved by using a model for electricity consumption on dairy farms. The model simulated

  9. Demonstration farms and technology transfer: the case of the Lincoln University dairy farm

    OpenAIRE

    Pangborn, M.C.; Woodford, K.B.; Nuthall, P. L.

    2011-01-01

    In 2001, Lincoln University and six commercial, education and research partners established a 161 hectare dairy farm (milking platform) and formed the South Island Dairy Development Centre (SIDDC) to demonstrate ‘best practice’ for South Island dairy farmers. In 2008, to assess the impact of the Lincoln University Dairy Farm (LUDF), a survey was sent to 622 farmers located in the LUDF extension catchment. Responses totalled 146 (24% response rate). The mean age of respondents was 45 years...

  10. Is experience on a farm an effective approach to understanding animal products and the management of dairy farming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Mariko; Osada, Masahiro; Ishioka, Katsumi; Matsubara, Takako; Momota, Yutaka; Yumoto, Norio; Sako, Toshinori; Kamiya, Shinji; Yoshimura, Itaru

    2014-03-01

    The understanding of animal products and dairy farming is important for the promotion of dairy farming. Thus, to examine the effects of farm experience on the understanding of animal products and the management of dairy farming, the interaction between students and dairy cows was investigated in groups of first-year veterinary nursing students in 2011 and 2012 (n = 201). These students included 181 women and 20 men. Nine items about dairy cows were presented in a questionnaire. The survey was performed before and after praxis on the educational farm attached to the authors' university. After praxis on the farm, increases occurred in the number of positive responses to the items involving the price of milk, dairy farming and the taste of milk. For these items, a significant difference (P animal products and dairy farming. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. The influence of restricting nitrogen losses of dairy farms on dairy cattle breeding goals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steverink, M.H.A.; Groen, A.F.; Berentsen, P.B.M.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate the influence of environmental legislation to restrict nitrogen losses on dairy cattle breeding goals. Linear programming was used to model a dairy farm, including multiple restrictions on product output and production factor input. Management was

  12. Effects of EU dairy policy reform for Dutch dairy farming : a primal approach using GMM estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, D.L.; Peerlings, J.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper estimates a production function for milk using a generalised method of moments estimator to avoid the endogeneity problem. Using the first-order conditions for profit maximisation, the economic effects for individual Dutch dairy farms of the 2003 EU dairy policy reform are analysed. With

  13. Consumers' Motivations and Dairy Production Beliefs Regarding Participation in an Educational Dairy Farm Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFollette, Lindsay K.; Knobloch, Neil A.; Schutz, Michael M.; Brady, Colleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Exploratory discriminant analysis was used to determine the extent adult consumers' interest motivation to participate in a free educational dairy farm event and their beliefs of the dairy industry could correctly classify the respondents' predicted participation in a nonformal educational event. The most prominent conclusion of the study was that…

  14. Nitrogen management on experimental dairy farm 'De Marke': farming system, objectives &results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, G.J.; Oenema, J.; Keulen, van H.

    2001-01-01

    In the sandy regions of the Netherlands, high nutrient surpluses from dairy farming harm the environment. Government policy aims at reducing nutrient losses to acceptable levels. To explore possibilities and to generate sufficient and accurate information for dairy farmers to reduce surpluses,

  15. Nutrient flows in lowland dairy farms in the Italian Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Bassanino; Dario Sacco; Annalisa Curtaz; Mauro Bassignana; Carlo Grignani

    2011-01-01

    A traditional dairy production system is still common today in the mountain environment of the Italian Alps, enhancing the economic valorisation of milk through the production of quality cheese such as Fontina PDO (Protected Designation of Origin), and favouring the agro-environmental management of marginal areas. This type of dairy system depends mainly on summer grazing: farmers set up the farm stock on the basis of the high-altitude grassland areas available. For the rest of the year, the ...

  16. Impacts of changing water price and availability on irrigated dairy farms in northern Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Christie K.M.; Armstrong, Dan P.; Doyle, Peter T.; Malcolm, Bill

    2004-01-01

    Farming systems throughout the Murray-Darling Basin are under increasing scrutiny from the perspective of ecological sustainability of farm and catchment systems. In northern Victoria, the dairy industry is a major user of water, and contributes to the environmental issues. Changes in irrigation water price, availability and policy will invariably impact on the viability of dairy farming in this region, but the diversity of dairy farm systems suggests that the impact will vary between farms. ...

  17. Dairy Tool Box Talks: A Comprehensive Worker Training in Dairy Farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, Maristela; Carroll, Heidi; Foos, Rebecca; Erickson, Tracey; Garcia, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Today's dairies are growing rapidly, with increasing dependence on Latino immigrant workers. This requires new educational strategies for improving milk quality and introduction to state-of-the-art dairy farming practices. It also creates knowledge gaps pertaining to the health of animals and workers, mainly due to the lack of time and language barriers. Owners, managers, and herdsmen assign training duties to more experienced employees, which may not promote "best practices" and may perpetuate bad habits. A comprehensive and periodic training program administered by qualified personnel is currently needed and will enhance the sustainability of the dairy industry. Strategic management and employee satisfaction will be achieved through proper training in the employee's language, typically Spanish. The training needs to address not only current industry standards but also social and cultural differences. An innovative training course was developed following the same structure used by the engineering and construction industries, giving farm workers basic understanding of animal care and handling, cow comfort, and personal safety. The "Dairy Tool Box Talks" program was conducted over a 10-week period with nine sessions according to farm's various employee work shifts. Bulk milk bacterial counts and somatic cell counts were used to evaluate milk quality on the three dairy farms participating in the program. "Dairy Tool Box Talks" resulted in a general sense of employee satisfaction, significant learning outcomes, and enthusiasm about the topics covered. We conclude this article by highlighting the importance of educational programs aimed at improving overall cross-cultural training.

  18. Effect of farming system changes on life cycle assessment indicators for dairy farms in the Italian Alps.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penati, C.; Sandrucci, A.; Tamburini, A.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In some Alpine areas dairy farming is going through a process of intensification with significant changes in farming systems. The aim of this study was to investigate environmental performance of a sample of 31 dairy farms in an Alpine area of Lombardy with different levels of intensification. A

  19. Short communication: Dairy farm borehole water quality in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most dairy farm effluent is discharged onto pastures and land by irrigation and poses a risk of enriching groundwater including borehole drinking water. Nitrate, coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli), in particular, may cause disease in humans and animals drinking contaminated water. The aim of this study was to obtain an ...

  20. Dairy farm wastewater treatment by an advanced pond system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craggs, R J; Tanner, C C; Sukias, J P S; Davies-Colley, R J

    2003-01-01

    Waste stabilisation ponds (WSPs) have been used for the treatment of dairy farm wastewater in New Zealand since the 1970s. The conventional two pond WSP systems provide efficient removal of wastewater BOD5 and total suspended solids, but effluent concentrations of other pollutants including nutrients and faecal bacteria are now considered unsuitable for discharge to waterways. Advanced Pond Systems (APS) provide a potential solution. A pilot dairy farm APS consisting of an Anaerobic pond (the first pond of the conventional WSP system) followed by three ponds: a High Rate Pond (HRP), an Algae Settling Pond (ASP) and a Maturation Pond (which all replace the conventional WSP system facultative pond) was evaluated over a two year period. Performance was compared to that of the existing conventional dairy farm WSP system. APS system effluent quality was considerably higher than that of the conventional WSP system with respective median effluent concentrations of BOD5: 34 and 108 g m(-3), TSS: 64 and 220 g m(-3), NH4-N: 8 and 29 g m(-3), DRP: 13 and 17 g m(-3), and E. coli: 146 and 16195 MPN/100 ml. APS systems show great promise for upgrading conventional dairy farm WSPs in New Zealand.

  1. Implementing biosecurity measures on dairy farms in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, R G; Sayers, G P; Mee, J F; Good, M; Bermingham, M L; Grant, J; Dillon, P G

    2013-08-01

    Dairy farms in Ireland are expanding in preparation for a new era of unrestricted milk production with the elimination of the European Union (EU) production quotas in 2015. Countries experiencing a changing agricultural demographic, including farm expansion, can benefit from documenting the implementation of on-farm biosecurity. The objectives of this study were to document and describe influences on biosecurity practices and related opinions on dairy farms. A representative response rate of 64% was achieved to a nationwide telesurvey of farmers. A 20% discrepancy was found between self-declared and truly 'closed' herds indicating a lack of understanding of the closed herd concept. Although >72% of farmers surveyed considered biosecurity to be important, 53% stated that a lack of information might prevent them from improving their biosecurity. Logistic regression highlighted regional, age, and farm-size related differences in biosecurity practices and opinions towards its implementation. Farmers in the most dairy cattle dense region were three times more likely to quarantine purchased stock than were their equivalents in regions where dairy production was less intense (P=0.012). Younger farmers in general were over twice as likely as middle-aged farmers to implement biosecurity guidelines (P=0.026). The owners of large enterprises were almost five times more likely to join a voluntary animal health scheme (P=0.003), and were over three times more likely to pay a premium price for health accredited animals (P=0.02) than were those farming small holdings. The baseline data recorded in this survey will form the basis for more detailed sociological and demographic research which will facilitate the targeting of future training of the farming community in biosecurity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A survey of bacteria found in Belgian dairy farm products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N'Guessan, E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Due to the potential hazards caused by pathogenic bacteria, farm dairy production remains a challenge from the point of view of food safety. As part of a public program to support farm diversification and short food supply chains, farm dairy product samples including yogurt, ice cream, raw-milk butter and cheese samples were collected from 318 Walloon farm producers between 2006 and 2014. Objectives. Investigation of the microbiological quality of the Belgian dairy products using the guidelines provided by the European food safety standards. Method. The samples were collected within the framework of the self-checking regulation. In accordance with the European Regulation EC 2073/2005, microbiological analyses were performed to detect and count Enterobacteriaceae, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Results. Even when results met the microbiological safety standards, hygienic indicator microorganisms like E. coli and S. aureus exceeded the defined limits in 35% and 4% of butter and cheese samples, respectively. Unsatisfactory levels observed for soft cheeses remained higher (10% and 2% for S. aureus and L. monocytogenes respectively than those observed for pressed cheeses (3% and 1% and fresh cheeses (3% and 0% (P ≥ 0.05. Furthermore, the percentages of samples outside legal limits were not significantly higher in the summer months than in winter months for all mentioned bacteria. Conclusions. This survey showed that most farm dairy products investigated were microbiologically safe. However, high levels of hygiene indicators (e.g., E. coli in some products, like butter, remind us of applying good hygienic practices at every stage of the dairy production process to ensure consumer safety.

  3. Helminth infections on organic dairy farms in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orjales, I.; Mezo, M.; Miranda, M.

    2017-01-01

    exposure, respectively. The study findings demonstrate that helminth infection in organic dairy farming is similar or even lower than previous data reported from conventional farming. Special attention should be paid to the impact of these infections on milk production......., but similar to data reported from conventional farming in the same area. The prevalence rate of C. daubneyi infection was higher than previous data mirroring an increase of the prevalence that was also reported in other European countries in recent years. Specific antibodies against O. ostertargi were......The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of the major helminth infections affecting organic dairy cattle in northern Spain. Milk and faecal samples were obtained from 443 milking cows. Ostertagia ostertargi and Fasciola hepatica exposure was assessed by detection of specific antibodies...

  4. Sustainability of dairy farming location in the auckland region, new zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, Toshio

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the author discussed about distribution and locational changes of factory and town milk supply dairy farms in the Auckland region and tried to make clear sustainability of dairy farming location. The location of factory milk supply dairy farms expanded outward and moved out to peripheral areas of this region, because dairying environments were deteriorating with the development of subdivision, the increase of property tax and the expansion of residential areas. Although the prop...

  5. Investment decisions on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, D.L.; Gardebroek, C.

    2005-01-01

    In this research we estimate investment equations for both buildings and machinery for Dutch dairy farmers producing under a quota regime. In the investment equations the impact of capital adjustment costs and external finance costs is taken into account. Moreover, potential sample selection bias in

  6. FIRM HOUSEHOLD INTERRELATIONSHIPS ON DUTCH DAIRY FARMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ELHORST, JP

    1994-01-01

    In this article an agricultural household model is developed in which production and consumption decisions are non-separable. On the basis of this model the importance of coupling production and consumption decisions is investigated for the Dutch dairy sector both before and after the introduction

  7. Economic consequences of mastitis and withdrawal of milk with high somatic cell count in Swedish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C; Østergaard, Søren; Emanuelson, U

    2010-01-01

    Herd, was used to study the effects of mastitis in a herd with 150 cows. Results given the initial incidence of mastitis (32 and 33 clinical and subclinical cases per 100 cow-years, respectively) were studied, together with the consequences of reducing or increasing the incidence of mastitis by 50%, modelling...... no clinical mastitis (CM) while keeping the incidence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) constant and vice versa. Six different strategies to withdraw milk with high SCC were compared. The decision to withdraw milk was based on herd-level information in three scenarios: withdrawal was initiated when the predicted......The main aim was to assess the impact of mastitis on technical and economic results of a dairy herd under current Swedish farming conditions. The second aim was to investigate the effects obtained by withdrawing milk with high somatic cell count (SCC). A dynamic and stochastic simulation model, Sim...

  8. Costs of Producing Biogas at Dairy Farms in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomie A. Gebrezgabher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available By 2020, Dutch dairy chains envisage to be self-sufficient with regard to energy used by dairy farms and dairy processors. This would require dairy farms to produce 25 PJ per year, possibly by a combination of wind, solar and biogas. This paper focuses on biogas. To evaluate the project’s viability we estimated the expected technical and financial performance of 4 types of business models, i.e. “CHP-farm”, “CHP-large”, “green gas” and “central upgrading of green gas”. Data stem from among others 23 biogas plants in the Netherlands. Anticipating that CHP-models and green gas models occur with a likelihood of 40% and 60% respectively, the total number of biogas plants would amount to 232 (1% of dairy farms, including a total of 5 million tons of manure per year (14% of all cattle manure in the Netherlands and annual government subsidies of Euro 295 million. Aggregated annual profits are expected to be positive, but over the project’s total life time there is an expected deficit of Euro 262. For this to change costs of feedstocks or digestate disposal costs would for instance have to go down. Also fully switching to green gas models dampens the deficit. Results are used in current stakeholders debates on the organization of an “energy neutral dairy chain” in the Netherlands. Further analyses incorporating uncertainty around key technical and economic parameters including financial impacts of CO2-reductions are underway.

  9. Efficiency of dairy production on a family farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Grgić

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of economic efficiency of dairyproduction on a family farm with 14 dairy cows in the breeding stock, and with average production from 3.206 to 3.407 lit. of milk annually. On the basis of survey data for three-year period from 1998 to 2000, economic indicators were calculated, as well as the cost price of milk, income and the revenue of total production and per production head. In the family farm with an average annual sale from 2.827 to 2.972 lit. of milk per head, total revenue has been realized from 44.884 to 47.695 kuna and the profit from 606 to 8.515 kuna. Revenues per production head were from 5.655 to 6.495 kuna and the profitfrom 177 to 726 kuna. The milk cost price in the analyzed period was 1.71, 1.66 and 1.69 kn. per lit, and the profit per liter of milk was 0.06, and 0.21 kn. Basic economic indicators point out on efficiency of dairy production for the investigated farm on the stated production level. The biggest influence on the dairy production efficiency on the farm, regarding the cost price structure, has been registered from the costs of fodder production, while the favorable parity of the cost price and producer-sale price of milk determines the increase in dairy production efficiency and income from dairy production in the analyzed period.

  10. Adoption of Indigenous Dairy Management Practices among Tribal Farm Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chigasil M. Sangma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted among the tribal farm women of West Garo Hills District of Meghalaya, India with the objective to determine the extent of adoption of indigenous dairy management practices. Proportionate random sampling was used in selection of 120 respondents. Practices having rationality for adoption of indigenous dairy management practices were collected and the data were analyzed using percentage analysis. The findings revealed that majority of the respondents adopted care and management of dry and pregnant cows. This was followed by adoption of other practices viz.., selection of breed and feeding, care during and after calving and milking technique

  11. Shallow groundwater quality on dairy farms with irrigated forage crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, Thomas; Davis, Harley; Mathews, Marsha C.; Meyer, Roland D.

    2002-04-01

    California's dairies are the largest confined animal industry in the state. A major portion of these dairies, which have an average herd size of nearly 1000 animal units, are located in low-relief valleys and basins. Large amounts of liquid manure are generated and stored in these dairies. In the semi-arid climate, liquid manure is frequently applied via flood or furrow irrigation to forage crops that are grown almost year-round. Little is known about the impact of manure management practices on water quality of the extensive alluvial aquifers underlying these basins. The objective of this work is to assess nitrate and salt leaching to shallow groundwater in a relatively vulnerable hydrogeologic region and to quantify the impact from individual sources on dairies. The complex array of potential point and nonpoint sources was divided into three major source areas representing farm management units: (1) manure water lagoons (ponds); (2) feedlot or exercise yard, dry manure, and feed storage areas (corrals); and (3) manure irrigated forage fields (fields). An extensive shallow groundwater-monitoring network (44 wells) was installed in five representative dairy operations in the northeastern San Joaquin Valley, CA. Water quality (electrical conductivity, nitrate-nitrogen, total Kjehldahl nitrogen) was observed over a 4-year period. Nitrate-N, reduced nitrogen and electrical conductivity (EC, salinity) were subject to large spatial and temporal variability. The range of observed nitrate-N and salinity levels was similar on all five dairies. Average shallow groundwater nitrate-N concentrations within the dairies were 64 mg/l compared to 24 mg/l in shallow wells immediately upgradient of these dairies. Average EC levels were 1.9 mS/cm within the dairies and 0.8 mS/cm immediately upgradient. Within the dairies, nitrate-N levels did not significantly vary across dairy management units. However, EC levels were significantly higher in corral and pond areas (2.3 mS/cm) than in

  12. Genetic parameters for rennet- and acid-induced coagulation properties in milk from Swedish Red dairy cows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gustavsson, Frida; Glantz, Maria; Poulsen, N. A; Wadsö, Lars; Stålhammar, Hans; Andrén, Anders; Lindmark-Månsson, Helena; Larsen, L.B; Paulsson, Marie; Fikse, Freddy

    2014-01-01

    .... The aim of the present study was therefore to estimate genetic parameters for milk coagulation properties, including both rennet-and acid-induced coagulation, in Swedish Red dairy cattle using genomic relationships...

  13. Genetic parameters for rennet- and acid-induced coagulation properties in milk from Swedish Red dairy cows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gustavsson, F; Glantz, M; Poulsen, N A; Wadsö, L; Stålhammar, H; Andrén, A; Lindmark Månsson, H; Larsen, L B; Paulsson, M; Fikse, W F

    2014-01-01

    .... The aim of the present study was therefore to estimate genetic parameters for milk coagulation properties, including both rennet- and acid-induced coagulation, in Swedish Red dairy cattle using genomic relationships...

  14. Efficiency of dairy farms participating and not participating in veterinary herd health management programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Marjolein; Hogeveen, Henk; Kooistra, Sake R; van Werven, Tine; Tauer, Loren W

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares farm efficiencies between dairies who were participating in a veterinary herd health management (VHHM) program with dairies not participating in such a program, to determine whether participation has an association with farm efficiency. In 2011, 572 dairy farmers received a

  15. Short Communication: Effectiveness of tools provided by a dairy company on the udder health of Dutch dairy farms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Velthuis, A.G.J.; Hogeveen, H.

    2014-01-01

    A Dutch dairy company initiated a quality system to support dairy farmers to improve sustainability on their farm. Improvement of udder health is defined by the dairy company as one of the sustainability items. A part of that quality system is to offer farmers 3 tools to improve the udder health

  16. Hydrogeologic controls on water quality at a university dairy farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, L. D.; Hunter, R. W.; Lee, J.

    2010-12-01

    Dairy farms typically produce large quantities of manure and other waste products which are often stored or treated in lagoons and then applied to local fields as fertilizer. Contamination of nearby streams by dairy farm wastes through surface runnoff, drainage tile discharge, direct release of wastes or inundation of waste storage facilities during seasonal flooding have long been recognized as major environmental concerns. However, much less attention has been paid to fate and transport of dairy wastes in the subsurface and their potential impact on water quality in aquifers or in groundwater discharge to streams. One of the challenges in evaluating the environmental impact of dairy operations is that there are relatively few field research sites where all of the potential pathways for waterborne transport of dairy wastes are monitored and quantititatively evaluated. There are even fewer sites where extensive baseline water quality monitoring programs were established prior to operation of the dairy. This is essential to distinguish between environmental impacts from dairy operations and other nearby sources, such as beef production and human sewage from septic fields. This talk describes the development of a an integrated hydrogeologic/hydrologic site assessment and groundwater/surface water quality monitoring program at the University of Tennessee - Little River Dairy Farm, located near Townsend, TN. The dairy is currently under construction and the first cows are expected to arrive in late 2010. Hydrologic/hydrogeologic investigations of streams and groundwater at the site have been underway for more than 3 years, and these are expected to provide background data for assessing impacts of dairy wastes and for testing the effectiveness of different management practises. The lower half of the ~180 ha site consists of low-relief fields used for row crops, which are underlain by 4 - 8 m of alluvial deposits (mainly interbedded silt and fine-grained sands) on top of

  17. Nutrient flows in lowland dairy farms in the Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Bassanino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A traditional dairy production system is still common today in the mountain environment of the Italian Alps, enhancing the economic valorisation of milk through the production of quality cheese such as Fontina PDO (Protected Designation of Origin, and favouring the agro-environmental management of marginal areas. This type of dairy system depends mainly on summer grazing: farmers set up the farm stock on the basis of the high-altitude grassland areas available. For the rest of the year, the livestock is housed on the farm lowland, consequently reaching high stocking rates. Since grassland areas are limited in size here, animal feeding is largely based on acquired forages. In order to study the environmental sustainability of the lowland farm areas, agronomic management, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P farm-gate balances were calculated for 22 livestock farms in the Valle d’Aosta region. Lowland surfaces show a quite high variability, with an average value of 6.8 ha. An unbalanced stocking rate referred to the lowland is common showing an average value of 5.7 L.U. ha-1, but reaching a maximum of 26.8 L.U. ha-1. Lowland milk production is approximately 1700 kg per L.U. per year, but some farms could reach 3500 kg per L.U. The feed efficiency varies from 1.1 to 4.7 kg milk per kg feed, depending on the farm feeding strategy. The average N farm-gate balance is equal to 75 kg N ha-1. The two main input components are represented by purchased hay and feed, both showing the highest variability between farms. The output data also differ substantially between farms. The manure sold is the most important output component and represents 70% of the total output on average. The P farm gate balance surplus is equal to 6 kg ha-1, but more than 25% of the farms considered show a negative value. The surpluses calculated in this work can be compared with the values belonging to a distribution calculated for bovine farms under different management and

  18. Work organization on smallholder dairy farms: a process unique to each farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostiou, Nathalie; Cialdella, Nathalie; Vazquez, Vincent; Müller, Artur Gustavo; Le Gal, Pierre-Yves

    2015-10-01

    The way smallholder farms organize and carry out work impacts their ability to secure their livelihoods and meet growing demand for agricultural products. This study investigates the way dairy family farms in Brazil manage their workforce to achieve their objectives of production and income. Fifteen smallholder farms were surveyed using the QuaeWork method to understand the work organization on each farm. A high diversity of workloads was found, but these do not appear to be strictly related to the farms' production systems. The high variability of workloads is linked to the available workforce, technical choices, and the delegation of tasks to an external workforce. Farmers can decrease their workload by adopting milking mechanization, silage, hiring labor, and increasing the duration of the work day. Work organization depends on a farmer's personal choices, rendering the whole issue of workforce management a process unique to each farm.

  19. RESEARCH ON MILK COST, RETURN AND PROFITABILITY IN DAIRY FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to the relationship between milk cost in terms of material cost and labor cost and estimate theinfluence of these costs on returns coming from milk and profitability in 5 small dairy farms from the SouthernRomania. The main economic indicators taken into consideration were: material cost, Xi, (feeding cost, replacingheifer, equipment and shed depreciation, electricity and water cost, fuel and lubricants cost , labour cost, Y, andincome coming from milk, Z. The Cobb-Douglas regression function Z= a xα yβ was used to determine the variationof the studied economic indicators and relationships between them. Taking into account the close relationshipbetween income from marketed milk and material cost and labor cost, it is enough to use it as the only criterion infarm classification. Profitability in dairy farms depends both on cost input and milk output as well as milk marketprice.

  20. Characteristics of organic dairy farm types in seven European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Vanlierde, A.; Grelet, C.; Gengler, Nicolas; Ferris, C.; Sorensen, M.T.; Höglund, J; Carter, F; Santoro, A; Hermans, K.; Hostens, M.; Dardenne, P; Dehareng, F.

    2016-01-01

    The current context leads to more and more efficient and rational animal productions. The objective of the “Genotype plus Environment” project (G plus E) is to support novel phenotyping approaches to provide large scale phenotypes for a genomic study and contributing to the sustainability of dairy cow production systems. In this framework, 3 European farms (AFBI-UK, UCD-IRL, AU-DK) collected observations (weight, body condition score, uterine health, residual feed intake, lameness,…) and samp...

  1. Economic and environmental consequences of technical and institutional change in Dutch dairy farming.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentsen, P.B.M.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Renkema, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    A linear programming model of a dairy farm was used to explore the future for different types of Dutch dairy farms under different scenarios. The scenarios are consistent sets of changing factors that are considered external at farm level. The factors included are technical, such as efficiency of

  2. Seroprevalence of brucellosis among dairy farm workers in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel E Cervera-Hernández

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the seroprevalence and associated factors for brucellosis among dairy farm workers. Materials and methods. We performed a secondary analysis of a data set and sera from a previous cross-sectional study in a dairy farm. Sera were tested for Brucella spp. antibodies by the slide agglutination test. Seropositivity was defined as a titer ≥1:40; recent infection was titers ≥1:160. Results. We tested 331 human sera. Seroprevalence of brucellosis was 18.1% (60/331; 95% CI 14.1-22.7; 13.3% of them (8/60; 95% CI 5.9 - 24.5 corresponded to recent infection. Highexposure occupation (calf caretaker; OR 3.3; 95%CI 1.1 – 9.7, daily hours in contact with cows (OR 1.1; 95%CI 1.03 – 1.2, and living on-site (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.1 – 4.4 remained inde- pendently associated with seropositivity. Conclusions. We found a high seroprevalence of brucellosis among dairy farm workers, as well as a significant association among those with prolonged and close contact with cattle.

  3. Perceived environmental uncertainty in Dutch dairy farming: The effect of external farm context on strategic choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondersteijn, C.J.M.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the way in which dairy farmers perceive their environment (PE), i.e., the external context of their farm, and the uncertainty (PEU) this poses to them. The environment is defined using the STEP concept (society, technology, economy and politics) and Porter¿s five forces model.

  4. Including spatial data in nutrient balance modelling on dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Maricke; van Middelaar, Corina; Stoof, Cathelijne; Oenema, Jouke; Stoorvogel, Jetse; de Boer, Imke

    2017-04-01

    The Annual Nutrient Cycle Assessment (ANCA) calculates the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) balance at a dairy farm, while taking into account the subsequent nutrient cycles of the herd, manure, soil and crop components. Since January 2016, Dutch dairy farmers are required to use ANCA in order to increase understanding of nutrient flows and to minimize nutrient losses to the environment. A nutrient balance calculates the difference between nutrient inputs and outputs. Nutrients enter the farm via purchased feed, fertilizers, deposition and fixation by legumes (nitrogen), and leave the farm via milk, livestock, manure, and roughages. A positive balance indicates to which extent N and/or P are lost to the environment via gaseous emissions (N), leaching, run-off and accumulation in soil. A negative balance indicates that N and/or P are depleted from soil. ANCA was designed to calculate average nutrient flows on farm level (for the herd, manure, soil and crop components). ANCA was not designed to perform calculations of nutrient flows at the field level, as it uses averaged nutrient inputs and outputs across all fields, and it does not include field specific soil characteristics. Land management decisions, however, such as the level of N and P application, are typically taken at the field level given the specific crop and soil characteristics. Therefore the information that ANCA provides is likely not sufficient to support farmers' decisions on land management to minimize nutrient losses to the environment. This is particularly a problem when land management and soils vary between fields. For an accurate estimate of nutrient flows in a given farming system that can be used to optimize land management, the spatial scale of nutrient inputs and outputs (and thus the effect of land management and soil variation) could be essential. Our aim was to determine the effect of the spatial scale of nutrient inputs and outputs on modelled nutrient flows and nutrient use efficiencies

  5. Risk perception and management in smallholder dairy farming in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebreegziabher, K.; Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T.

    2014-01-01

    Empirical studies on smallholder dairy farmers' risk perceptions and management strategies have still received little attention in agricultural research of developing countries. This study focuses on farmers' risk perception and management strategies of smallholder dairy farms in urban and

  6. Effect of Supplemental Feeding with Glycerol or Propylene Glycol in Early Lactation on the Fertility of Swedish Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomander, H; Gustafsson, H; Frössling, J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this field study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol (GLY) or propylene glycol (PG) during early lactation on the fertility of Swedish dairy cows. Within 17 commercial dairy herds, 798 cows were randomized to three groups that were daily fed supplements...

  7. Dairy Tool Box Talks: a comprehensive worker training in dairy farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Rovai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Today’s dairies are growing rapidly, with increasing dependence on Latino immigrant workers. This requires new educational strategies for improving milk quality and introduction to state-of-the-art dairy farming practices. It also creates knowledge gaps pertaining to the health of animals and workers, mainly due to lack of time and language barriers. Owners, managers and herdsmen assign training duties to more experienced employees, which may not promote ‘best practices’ and may perpetuate bad habits. A comprehensive and periodic training program administered by qualified personnel is currently needed and will enhance the sustainability of the dairy industry. Strategic management and employee satisfaction will be achieved through proper training in the employee’s language, typically Spanish. The training needs to address not only current industry standards but also social and cultural differences. An innovative training course was developed following the same structure used by the engineering and construction industries, giving farm workers basic understanding of animal care and handling, cow comfort and personal safety. The Dairy Tool Box Talks program was conducted over a ten week period with nine 30-minute sessions according to farm’s various employee work shifts. Bulk milk bacterial counts and somatic cell count were used to evaluate milk quality on the three dairy farms participating in the program.Dairy Tool Box Talks resulted in a general sense of employee satisfaction, significant learning outcomes, and enthusiasm about the topics covered. We conclude this article by highlighting the importance of educational programs aimed at improving overall cross-cultural training.

  8. Economic analysis of dairy cattle farms in east Mediterranean region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    YILMAZ, Hilal; Gül,Mevlüt; Akkoyun, Selcan; Parlakay, Oguz; Bilgili, Mehmet Emin; Vurarak, Yasemin; HIZLI, Hatice; Kilicalp, Numan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to calculate costs of milk production, gross production value, gross margin, absolute profit, and relative profit of dairy cattle farms located in the provinces of east Mediterranean region of Turkey. Primary data were collected from 148 dairy cattle farms designated using the Neyman Stratified Sampling method through surveys. Dairy farms were classified into four groups according to the number of cows. The data belong to the 2012 production season. A si...

  9. Technology Adoption and Technical Efficiency: Organic and Conventional Dairy Farms in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos D. Mayen; Joseph V. Balagtas; Corinne E. Alexander

    2010-01-01

    We compare productivity and technical efficiency of organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States. We address self-selection into organic farming by using propensity score matching and explicitly test the hypothesis that organic and conventional farms employ a single, homogeneous technology. Utilizing the 2005 Agricultural Resource Management Survey on Dairy Costs and Returns Report (ARMS) data, we reject the homogeneous technology hypothesis and find that the organic dairy techno...

  10. Pseudomonas spp.: contamination sources in bulk tanks of dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M.C. Vidal

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study focused on isolating Pseudomonas spp. during milking process in ten dairy farms with manual and mechanical milking systems during dry and rainy seasons, and evaluating DNA homology and patterns of distribution between isolates, in order to identify main sources of milk contamination by Pseudomonas spp. A total of 167 isolates of Pseudomonas spp. were obtained from water, milkers’ hands, cows’ teats, teat cups, cooling tanks and raw milk. Bacteria of Pseudomonas spp. genus were isolated from 85 and 82 sampling points in dairy farms with manual and mechanical milking system, respectively. A significant difference (p=0.02 on Pseudomonas spp. isolation was observed among samples of surface of cows’ teats before and after pre-dipping, but no significant difference (p>0.05 was observed among milking systems or seasons. The possibility of the same Pseudomonas spp. patterns are distributed in different farms and seasons using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP technique was demonstrated. Milkers’ hands, surface of cows’ teats, teat cups and cooling tanks were associated with raw milk contamination with Pseudomonas spp. on farms with manual and mechanical milking system, showing that regardless of the type of milking system and season, proper hygiene procedures of equipment, utensils and workers’ hands are essential to avoid contamination of the milk and, therefore, improve milk quality.

  11. Characterisation of dairy soiled water in a survey of 60 Irish dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minogue D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farming in Ireland generates an effluent known as dairy soiled water (DSW, which consists of a relatively dilute mixture of cow faeces, urine, spilt milk and detergents that is typically applied to grassland. However, relatively little is known about the volumes generated, nutrient content and management factors that influence volume and concentration. Sixty dairy farms that had a separate storage tank for storing DSW were selected for this study. The spatial distribution of the farms reflected the spatial distribution of dairy cows across the 26 counties of the Republic of Ireland, with each farm representing between 10,000 and 20,000 dairy cows. Samples were analysed for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, ammonium N (NH4-N, total nitrogen (TN, potassium (K, phosphorus (molybdate-reactive and total (MRP and TP and dry matter (DM content. Management characteristics and parlour properties were quantified. Factors influencing volume and concentration of DSW were determined using mixed model multiple regression analysis. On average, 9784 l (standard error 209 l of DSW, including rainfall, was produced cow−1 year−1 and this contained significant quantities of total N, P and K (587, 80 and 568 mg l−1, respectively. A typical Irish dairy farm stocked at 1.9 cows ha−1 could therefore supply approximately 13, 2 and 12 kg ha−1 of total N, P and K, respectively, across the farm, annually to meet some of the nutrient requirements for herbage production and potentially replace some of the synthetic fertilizer use. Seventy one percent of samples were within the regulated concentration limits of soiled water for BOD (<2500 mg l−1, rising to 87% during the closed period for slurry spreading (mid October to mid-late January, while 81% were within the concentration limits for DM (<1% DM, rising to 94% during the closed period. The efficiency of a milking parlour (cows per unit, time taken plays a key role in determining the volume of DSW generated

  12. Use of homeopathy in organic dairy farming in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjales, Inmaculada; López-Alonso, Marta; Rodríguez-Bermúdez, Ruth; Rey-Crespo, Francisco; Villar, Ana; Miranda, Marta

    2016-02-01

    Organic farming principles promote the use of unconventional therapies as an alternative to chemical substances (which are limited by organic regulations), with homeopathy being the most extensive. Traditionally, Spain has had little faith in homeopathy but its use in organic farming is growing. Fifty-six Spanish organic dairy farmers were interviewed to obtain what we believe to be the first data on the use of homeopathy in organic dairy cattle in Spain. Only 32% of farms use some sort of alternative therapy (16.1% homeopathy, 10.7% phytotherapy and 5.3% using both therapies) and interestingly, a clear geographical pattern showing a higher use towards the East (similar to that in the human population) was observed. The main motivation to use homeopathy was the need to reduce chemical substances promoted by organic regulations, and the treatment of clinical mastitis being the principle reason. The number of total treatments was lower in farms using homeopathy compared with those applying allopathic therapies (0.13 and 0.54 treatments/cow/year respectively) and although the bulk SCC was significantly higher (p farms (161,826 and 111,218 cel/ml, respectively) it did not have any negative economical penalty for the farmer and milk quality was not affected complying with the required standards; on the contrary homeopathic therapies seems to be an alternative for reducing antibiotic treatments, allowing farmers to meet the organic farming principles. Copyright © 2015 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Organic farming without fossil fuels - life cycle assessment of two Swedish cases

    OpenAIRE

    Sundberg, C; Kimming, M.; Nordberg, Å.; Baky, A; Hansson, P.-A.

    2013-01-01

    Organic agriculture is dependent on fossil fuels, just like conventional agriculture, but this can be reduced by the use of on-farm biomass resources. The energy efficiency and environmental impacts of different alternatives can be assessed by life cycle assessment (LCA), which we have done in this project. Swedish organic milk production can become self-sufficient in energy by using renewable sources available on the farm, with biogas from manure as the main energy source. Thereby greenhouse...

  14. Short communication: Lipolytic activity on milk fat by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae strains commonly isolated in Swedish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidanarachchi, Janak K; Li, Shengjie; Lundh, Åse Sternesjö; Johansson, Monika

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the lipolytic activity on milk fat of 2 bovine mastitis pathogens, that is, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. The lipolytic activity was determined by 2 different techniques, that is, thin-layer chromatography and an extraction-titration method, in an experimental model using the most commonly occurring field strains of the 2 mastitic bacteria isolated from Swedish dairy farms. The microorganisms were inoculated into bacteria-free control milk and incubated at 37°C to reflect physiological temperatures in the mammary gland. Levels of free fatty acids (FFA) were analyzed at time of inoculation (t=0) and after 2 and 6h of incubation, showing significant increase in FFA levels. After 2h the FFA content had increased by approximately 40% in milk samples inoculated with Staph. aureus and Strep. agalactiae, and at 6h the pathogens had increased FFA levels by 47% compared with the bacteria-free control milk. Changes in lipid composition compared with the bacteria-free control were investigated at 2 and 6h of incubation. Diacylglycerols, triacylglycerols, and phospholipids increased significantly after 6h incubation with the mastitis bacteria, whereas cholesterol and sterol esters decreased. Our results suggest that during mammary infections with Staph. aureus and Strep. agalactiae, the action of lipases originating from the mastitis pathogens will contribute significantly to milk fat lipolysis and thus to raw milk deterioration. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dairy farm size restructuring in Poland and Hungary : quantitative and qualitative approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonini, A.; Jongeneel, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The Polish and (in a more limited way) Hungarian dairy farm sectors are analyzed. Farm size reconfiguration in Hungary may proceed faster than in Poland, because the starting distribution is less fragmentized than the Polish one

  16. Environmental Sustainability and Economic Benefits of Dairy Farm Biogas Energy Production: A Case Study in Umbria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Biancamaria Torquati; Sonia Venanzi; Adriano Ciani; Francesco Diotallevi; Vincenzo Tamburi

    2014-01-01

    .... The production of energy from biogas in a dairy farm can provide a good opportunity for sustainable rural development, augmenting the farm's income from traditional sources and helping to reduce...

  17. Farm-Specific Risk Analysis in Dairy Farming: A Case Study from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Kizilay

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to determine the socio-economic characteristics of dairy farmers in Antalya, in Turkey, calculate the gross income, variable costs and gross margin of dairy farms, determine the probability distributions of consequences for alternative decisions to enable dairy farmers as decision makers to make a good and well-informed choice, to determine cross effects of milk prices variations on the productive strategy of dairy farms. The data were gathered via face to face interviews in Korkuteli, Dosemealtı, Elmalı, Manavgat and Serik counties of Antalya province in Turkey. The survey study was conducted with 80 farmers, who were member of Dairy Cow Breaders Union, in the 2011 production period. In this study, on the basis of previous experience, dairy farmers assigned minimum, maximum and most likely values of milk price and yield over the next period of 5 years. Then, triangular and cumulative distributions were defined by using these values. Moreover, Monte Carlo Stochastic Simulation model was developed to obtain distribution of expected gross margin per cow. The model and triangular and cumulative distributions were built in Excel with @Risk add-in software. The relationship of mean risk aversion coefficient, calculated by using negative exponential function, with both average gross margin and gross margin standard deviation values determined for each farm was examined. The results show that the relation between average gross margin and mean risk aversion coefficient was negative and significant at 5% level. But, although the relation between gross margin standard deviation and mean risk aversion coefficient was found to be negative, it was not significant at 5% level.

  18. Investment appraisal of technology innovations on dairy farm electricity consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, J; Murphy, M; De Boer, I J M; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; Berentsen, P B M; Shalloo, L

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an investment appraisal for milk-cooling, water-heating, and milk-harvesting technologies on a range of farm sizes in 2 different electricity-pricing environments. This was achieved by using a model for electricity consumption on dairy farms. The model simulated the effect of 6 technology investment scenarios on the electricity consumption and electricity costs of the 3 largest electricity-consuming systems within the dairy farm (i.e., milk-cooling, water-heating, and milking machine systems). The technology investment scenarios were direct expansion milk-cooling, ice bank milk-cooling, milk precooling, solar water-heating, and variable speed drive vacuum pump-milking systems. A dairy farm profitability calculator was combined with the electricity consumption model to assess the effect of each investment scenario on the total discounted net income over a 10-yr period subsequent to the investment taking place. Included in the calculation were the initial investments, which were depreciated to zero over the 10-yr period. The return on additional investment for 5 investment scenarios compared with a base scenario was computed as the investment appraisal metric. The results of this study showed that the highest return on investment figures were realized by using a direct expansion milk-cooling system with precooling of milk to 15°C with water before milk entry to the storage tank, heating water with an electrical water-heating system, and using standard vacuum pump control on the milking system. Return on investment figures did not exceed the suggested hurdle rate of 10% for any of the ice bank scenarios, making the ice bank system reliant on a grant aid framework to reduce the initial capital investment and improve the return on investment. The solar water-heating and variable speed drive vacuum pump scenarios failed to produce positive return on investment figures on any of the 3 farm sizes considered on either the day and night

  19. Dairy producers' attitudes toward reproductive management and performance on Canadian dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis-Robichaud, J; Cerri, R L A; Jones-Bitton, A; LeBlanc, S J

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore Canadian dairy producers' attitudes toward reproductive performance and challenges they perceive to be related to reproduction and reproductive management practices. A survey in both English and French was developed, validated, and administered to Canadian dairy farmers between March and May 2014 to collect general farm, reproduction management, and reproductive performance data, as well as opinions and perceptions about different facets of reproduction. Associations between management practices and the perceived importance of reproduction were tested using a logistic regression model. Thematic network analysis was used to identify themes from the open-ended survey questions about challenges concerning reproduction. Finally, questions that were answered on a Likert scale were graphically represented using diverging stacked bar charts. A total of 832 questionnaires were completed online and by mail, which represents approximately 7% of all dairy farms in Canada. Respondents that ranked reproduction in lactating dairy cows as 1 of the 3 most important challenges faced on their farm (66%) were more likely to house their lactating cows in a tiestall and to have a lower herd annual 21-d pregnancy rate. Estrus detection and conception risk were 2 major themes raised and discussed by the respondents. Other concepts, including housing and milk production, were also perceived to affect estrus detection and conception risk. Whereas analysis of open-ended survey questions does not allow for quantification of the importance of different themes in the sample as a whole, it does show that respondents are aware of the multifactorial complexity of reproductive challenges on dairy farms. Improving performance was the main factor influencing decisions concerning reproduction for 80% of the respondents, and they adopted tools and technologies such as synchronization programs and automated activity monitoring systems to improve herd

  20. Associations of farm management practices with annual milk sales on smallholder dairy farms in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shauna Richards

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cows on smallholder dairy farms (SDF in developing countries such as Kenya typically produce volumes of milk that are well below their genetic potential. An epidemiological study was conducted to determine reasons for this low milk production, including limited use of best management practices, such as suboptimal nutritional management. Methods: An observational cross-sectional study of 111 SDF was performed in Nyeri County, Kenya in June of 2013 determining the effect of cow factors, farmer demographics and farm management practices on the volume of milk sold per cow per year (kg milk sold/cow. In particular, the effect of feeding high protein fodder trees and other nutritional management practices were examined. Results: Approximately 38% of farmers fed fodder trees, but such feeding was not associated with volume of milk sold per cow, likely due to the low number of fodder trees per farm. Volume of milk sold per cow was positively associated with feeding dairy meal during the month prior to calving, feeding purchased hay during the past year, deworming cows every 4 or more months (as opposed to more regularly, and having dairy farming as the main source of family income. Volume of milk sold per cow was negatively associated with a household size of >5 people and feeding Napier grass at >2 meters in height during the dry season. An interaction between gender of the principal farmer and feed shortages was noted; volume of milk sold per cow was lower when female farmers experienced feed shortages whereas milk sold per cow was unaffected when male farmers experienced feed shortages. Conclusions: These demographic and management risk factors should be considered by smallholder dairy farmers and their advisors when developing strategies to improve income from milk sales and animal-source food availability for the farming families.

  1. Resource use efficiency and farm productivity gaps of smallholder dairy farming in North-west Michoacán, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortez Arriola, J.; Groot, J.C.J.; Amendola Massiotti, R.D.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Mariscal Aguayo, D.V.; Tittonell, P.A.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Smallholder dairy farms that intensify production risk resource degradation and increased dependence on external feeds and fertilizers due to lack of knowledge and appropriate technology, which undermines farm productivity and profitability. Here we analyze underlying causes at farm level of such

  2. Improving Milk Quality for Dairy Goat Farm Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cyrilla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate factors affecting goat’s milk quality, consumer’s satisfaction to goat’s milk, and technical responses associated with goat’s milk quality. Three farms having more than 100 dairy goats were purposively selected for the study. Thirty consumers were determined by using judgement sampling techniques to assess the satisfaction of consumer to goat’s milk quality. Data were analyzed by using fishbone diagram and House of Quality matrix. The study revealed that milk quality produced by dairy goat farms met the standard quality of milk composition namely; specific gravity, total solid, fat, protein, and total solid non-fat. The main factors affecting goat milk quantity and quality were the quality of does, pregnancy status, number of kids per birth, shape and size of the udder, lactation length, and the health status of the goat. The attributes of goat’s milk that were able to achieve customer’s satisfaction targets were nutritional content, packaging size, and goat milk color. Technical responses that were major concern in ensuring goat’s milk quality included goat breed quality and health conditions, skills and performances of farmers and employees, feed quality, farm equipment hygiene and completeness, cleanliness, and hygiene of livestock housing and environment. Technical response on livestock health condition was the first priority to be improved.

  3. Pathogens in Dairy Farming: Source Characterization and Groundwater Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwill, E. R.; Watanabe, N.; Li, X.; Hou, L.; Harter, T.; Bergamaschi, B.

    2007-12-01

    Intense animal husbandry is of growing concern as a potential contamination source of enteric pathogens as well as antibiotics. To assess the public health risk from pathogens and their hydrologic pathways, we hypothesize that the animal farm is not a homogeneous diffuse source, but that pathogen loading to the soil and, therefore, to groundwater varies significantly between the various management units of a farm. A dairy farm, for example, may include an area with calf hutches, corrals for heifers of various ages, freestalls and exercise yards for milking cows, separate freestalls for dry cows, a hospital barn, a yard for collection of solid manure, a liquid manure storage lagoon, and fields receiving various amounts of liquid and solid manure. Pathogen shedding and, hence, therapeutic and preventive pharmaceutical treatments vary between these management units. We are implementing a field reconnaissance program to determine the occurrence of three different pathogens ( E. coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter) and one indicator organism ( Enterococcus) at the ground-surface and in shallow groundwater of seven different management units on each of two farms, and in each of four seasons (spring/dry season, summer/irrigation season, fall/dry season, winter/rainy season). Initial results indicate that significant differences exist in the occurrence of these pathogens between management units and between organisms. These differences are weakly reflected in their occurrence in groundwater, despite the similarity of the shallow geologic environment across these sites. Our results indicate the importance of differentiating sources within a dairy farm and the importance of understanding subsurface transport processes for these pathogens.

  4. Risk factors for clinical Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium infection on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, J.; Wilpshaar, H.; Frankena, K.; Bartels, C.; Barkema, H.W.

    2002-01-01

    Risk factors for outbreaks in 1999 of clinical Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium infection on dairy farms were studied in a matched case–control study with 47 case farms and 47 control farms. All 47 case farms experienced a clinical outbreak of salmonellosis which was confirmed

  5. GRAZING BEHAVIOUR OF DAIRY COWS ON MOUNTAIN FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. VOŘÍŠKOVÁ

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The etological observation was provided on a dairy herd (65 Czech Fleckvieh and 51 Holstein cows on a low-input mountain farm during the pasture season (April – October 2008. The milking was provided two-times a day in the stalls. The 24-hours observations were made four-times: in June, July, September and October, in 10- minutes intervals. The cows spent 25 to 38 % of a day on average by feeding and 18 to 22 % on average by moving (stalls – pasture movements took about half of this period. The resting time consisting of chewing was found unsufficient and took 29 % to 40 % of a day on average. Better comfort of cows given by an improved milking technology and a more effective grazing management connected with longer time spent by resting is suggested to achieve higher milk yields on the farm.

  6. Economic-environmental modelling of Dutch dairy farms incorporating technical and institutional change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentsen, P.B.M.

    1999-01-01

    Circumstances in Dutch dairy farming are changing continuously. The general objective in this thesis was to develop and apply a method to enlighten the consequences of these changing circumstances for dairy farms. The research was started with the development of a linear programming model

  7. Strategies to reduce electricity consumption on dairy farms : an economic and environmental assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upton, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to assess how, and to what extent, do managerial and technology changes affect electricity consumption, associated costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of dairy farms. Dairy farms in Ireland are expected to expand in the future, due to policy incentives and the

  8. Characterizing sources of nitrate leaching from an irrigated dairy farm in Merced County, California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, van der M.L.; Harter, T.; Leijnse, A.; Mathews, M.C.; Meyer, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    Dairy farms comprise a complex landscape of groundwater pollution sources. The objective of our work is to develop a method to quantify nitrate leaching to shallow groundwater from different management units at dairy farms. Total nitrate loads are determined by the sequential calibration of a

  9. Effects of animal productivity on the costs of complying with environmental legislation in Dutch dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentsen, P.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    Effects of animal productivity on the costs of complying with environmental legislation in Dutch dairy farming P. B. M. Berentsen, Farm Management Group, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen, The Netherlands Available online 20 November 2003. Abstract Dutch dairy farmers have to

  10. The Cost Function Structure of Dutch Dairy Farms: Effects of Quota abolition and Price Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samson, G.S.; Gardebroek, C.; Jongeneel, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates potential impacts on milk production of Dutch dairy farms if feed prices increase, milk prices decrease and milk quotas are abolished. A quadratic cost function is estimated using panel data on individual dairy farms of the Dutch FADN. Marginal costs and revenues are

  11. Chain cooperation as a critical success factor in Smart Dairy Farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokhorst, C.; Wulfse, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    The Dutch Smart Dairy Farming (SDF) consortium works on proof of concept and on development of sensors, IT infrastructure, decision models and work instructions designed to support dairy farmers and farm advisors in extending the lifespan of their cows. Various companies (chain partners Friesland

  12. The dairy control and management system in the robotic milking farm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devir, S.

    1995-01-01


    The research and development described in this thesis was directed towards the technical and managerial integration of the milking robot into the dairy farm. First a concept and tools for the milking robot dairy farm were developed. A set of parameters was introduced which

  13. Applying ontologies in the dairy farming domain for big data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoosel, J.P.C.; Spek, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    In the Dutch SmartDairyFarming project, main dairy industry organizations like FrieslandCampina, AgriFirm and CRV work together on better decision support for the dairy farmer on daily questions around feeding, insemination, calving and milk production processes. This paper is concerned with the

  14. Failure and preventive costs of mastitis on Dutch dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soest, Felix J S; Santman-Berends, Inge M G A; Lam, Theo J G M; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-10-01

    Mastitis is an important disease from an economic perspective, but most cost assessments of mastitis include only the direct costs associated with the disease (e.g., production losses, culling, and treatment), which we call failure costs (FC). However, farmers also invest time and money in controlling mastitis, and these preventive costs (PC) also need to be taken into account. To estimate the total costs of mastitis, we estimated both FC and PC. We combined multiple test-day milk records from 108 Dutch dairy farms with information on applied mastitis prevention measures and farmers' registration of clinical mastitis for individual dairy cows. The aim was to estimate the total costs of mastitis and to give insight into variations between farms. We estimated the average total costs of mastitis to be €240/lactating cow per year, in which FC contributed €120/lactating cow per year and PC contributed another €120/lactating cow per year. Milk production losses, discarded milk, and culling were the main contributors to FC, at €32, €20, and €20/lactating cow per year, respectively. Labor costs were the main contributor to PC, next to consumables and investments, at €82, €34, and €4/lactating cow per year, respectively. The variation between farmers was substantial, and some farmers faced both high FC and PC. This variation may have been due to structural differences between farms, different mastitis-causing pathogens, the time at which preventive action is initiated, stockmanship, or missing measures in PC estimates. We estimated the minimum FC to be €34 per lactating cow per yr. All farmers initiated some preventive action to control or reduce mastitis, indicating that farmers will always have mastitis-related costs, because mastitis will never be fully eradicated from a farm. Insights into both the PC and FC of a specific farm will allow veterinary advisors and farmers to assess whether current udder health strategies are appropriate or whether there

  15. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CALF MORTALITY ON DAIRY FARMS IN KUWAIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. RAZZAQUE, M. BEDAIR, S. ABBAS AND T. AL-MUTAWA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this study was to investigate the economic impact of mortality of pre-weaned calves on dairy cattle enterprise in Kuwait. Cost/benefit analysis model was applied to two different situations: in the first situation, a baseline scenario, field survey data without intervention using 1,280 newborn calves was used in first calving season. In the second situation, the intervention scenario (improved management, 665 newborn calves were used in second calving season during the following year. Calving seasons extended for 7 months from September to March. Calf performance studies were conducted from birth to weaning. Economic model was constructed on Microsoft Excel and used to evaluate the impact of calf mortality on calf enterprise. Results showed that gross margins increased from 13 to 35% as a result of implementation of intervention measures during the second calving season over baseline scenario. A significant correlation between increased veterinary expenses and an increase in revenues (r2 = 0.65, P<0.05 was observed. If the intervention measures such as colostrum feeding, nutrition and hygiene had not been implemented, the farms would have lose income from 12 to 51% of the gross revenues. Net income was influenced by costs of feeds, veterinary services and laborers. Discounted cash flow studies on a whole farm basis revealed that the impact of interventions was small (0-3%. Calf mortality could not be isolated from whole farm for assessing its impact on dairy farm economics. Economic studies demonstrated the cost/benefits of using the improved techniques of calf rearing.

  16. Cost of Milk and Marketing Margins in Dairy Farms of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunoz, Meral; Altintas, Gulcin; Akcay, Yasar

    The study is based on the cost of milk and marketing margins in dairy farms in Tokat-Turkey with the help of primary data collected randomly from 62 farmers. In the study it was determined that milk production in dairy farms was relatively profitable in domestic (1.34), cross-bred (1.29) and culture (1.58) dairy cattle. It was found that marketing margins of milk were 183.33% for domestic, cross-breed and culture dairy cattle. As a result, although there were some structural problems for dairy farms such as high input prices, lack of cooperation among producers and long marketing chains between producers and retailers, it can be still perceived that the dairy farming can be one of the most important income sources for the farmers of rural provinces of Tokat-Turkey. Furthermore it should be stated that current livestock policy need to be regulated.

  17. Farm level survey of spore-forming bacteria on four dairy farms in the Waikato region of New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tanushree B; Brightwell, Gale

    2017-08-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the occurrence and diversity of economically important spore-forming bacteria in New Zealand dairy farm systems. Farm dairy effluent (FDE) collected from Waikato dairy farms were tested for the presence of spore-forming bacteria, using a new culture-based methodology followed by genomic analysis. An enrichment step in which samples were inoculated in cooked meat glucose starch broth under anaerobic conditions, aided in the differential isolation of Bacillus and Clostridium species. Furthermore, the use of molecular methods such as ERIC genotyping, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis identified different spore-forming bacteria present in FDE. C. sporogenes signature PCR gave further information on the phylogenetic relationship of the different Clostridium spp. isolated in this study. In total 19 Bacillus spp., 5 Paenibacillus spp. and 17 Clostridium spp. were isolated from farm dairy effluent. Sequence types similar to economically important food spoilage bacteria viz: C. butyricum, C. sporogenes and members of the Paenibacillus Genus were isolated from all four farms, whereas, sequence types similar to potential toxigenic, B. cereus, C. perfringens, C. butyricum, and C. botulinum were found on at least three of the farms. Sampling of farm dairy effluent provides a good indicator of farm level prevalence of bacterial load as it is used to irrigate dairy pasture in New Zealand. This study highlights the presence of various spore-forming bacteria in dairy waste water and indicates the implementation of good hygienic farm practices and dairy waste effluent management. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Cow- and farm-level risk factors for lameness on dairy farms with automated milking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westin, R; Vaughan, A; de Passillé, A M; DeVries, T J; Pajor, E A; Pellerin, D; Siegford, J M; Witaifi, A; Vasseur, E; Rushen, J

    2016-05-01

    Lameness is a major concern to animal health and welfare within the dairy industry. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence of lameness in high-producing cows on farms with automated milking systems (AMS) and to identify the main risk factors for lameness at the animal and farm level. We visited 36 AMS farms across Canada and Michigan. Farm-level factors related to stall design, bedding use, flooring, and stocking rates were recorded by trained observers. Cows were scored for lameness, leg injuries, body condition (BCS), and body size (hip width and rump height; n=1,378; 25-40 cows/farm). Mean herd prevalence of clinical lameness was 15% (range=2.5-46%). Stall width relative to cow size and parity was found to be the most important factor associated with lameness. Not fitting the average stall width increased the odds of being lame 3.7 times in primiparous cows. A narrow feed alley [<430cm; odds ratio (OR)=1.9], obstructed lunge space (OR=1.7), a low BCS (OR=2.1 for BCS ≤2.25 compared with BCS 2.75-3.0), and presence of hock lesions (OR=1.6) were also identified as important risk factors for lameness. Only 1 of 36 farms had stalls of adequate width and length for the cows on their farm. For lameness prevention, it can be concluded that more emphasis needs be placed on either building stalls of appropriate width or selecting for smaller-framed cows that fit the existing stalls. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Carbon footprints of organic dairying in six European countries—real farm data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hietala, Sanna; Smith, Laurence; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2015-01-01

    and United Kingdom. A total of 34 farms were analysed. The assessment was carried out using an attributional approach with system boundaries from cradle to farm gate. In relation to dairy production, a functional unit of 1 kg of energy corrected milk was used. The results gave an average of 1.32 kg CO2......Dairy farming is the largest agricultural contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in Europe. In this study, the carbon footprint of organic dairying was evaluated by means of a life cycle assessment, based on real farm data from six European countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Italy...

  20. Diversity of Clostridium perfringens toxin-genotypes from dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohler, Svenja; Klein, Guenter; Hoedemaker, Martina; Scheu, Theresa; Seyboldt, Christian; Campe, Amely; Jensen, Katharina Charlotte; Abdulmawjood, Amir

    2016-08-30

    Clostridium (C.) perfringens is the causative agent of several diseases in animals and humans, including histotoxic and enteric infections. To gain more insight into the occurrence of its different toxin-genotypes in dairy herds, including those toxin genes previously associated with diseases in cattle or humans, 662 isolates cultivated from feces, rumen content and feed collected from 139 dairy farms were characterized by PCR (detecting cpa, cpb, iap, etx, cpe, and both allelic variants of cpb2). Isolates from feces were assigned to type A (cpa positive, n = 442) and D (cpa and etx positive, n = 2). Those from rumen content (n = 207) and feed (n = 13) were all assigned to type A. The consensus and atypical variants of the cpb2 gene were detected in 64 (14.5 %) and 138 (31.22 %) of all isolates from feces, and 30 (14.5 %) and 54 (26.1 %) of all isolates from rumen content, respectively. Both allelic variants of cpb2 occurred frequently in animals without signs of acute enteric disease, whereby the atypical variant dominated. Five (0.8 %) of all type A isolates were positive for the cpe gene. Therefore, the present study indicates that dairy cows are no primary source for potentially human pathogenic enterotoxin gene positive strains.

  1. What is the benefit of organically-reared dairy cattle? Societal perception towards conventional and organic dairy farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inken Christoph-Schulz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, current systems in agriculture and food production have been topic in public discussions. Especially modern animal husbandry seems not to match consumers’ or societal needs any longer. This paper concentrates on the society’s perspective regarding dairy farming in general and diverting perceptions and expectations with respect to dairy cattle either reared organically or reared conventionally. It aims to give orientation to farmers as well as policymakers about the societal point of view of dairy farming.Six focus groups were carried out in three German cities to capture the scope of opinions and expectations among the population. Three of those groups consisted of participants buying mainly organic food while the other three comprised citizens buying mainly conventional food.With respect to society’s perception of today’s dairy farming results showed that participants put emphasis on the following topics: the space for each cow was considered as insufficient and not species-appropriate, assumed application of medications as too high, and in particular the prophylactic use of antibiotics as problematic.Asked about perceived differences between organic versus conventional farming it became obvious that organic in contrast to the conventional farming was perceived as more species-appropriate. More or less, all previously criticized aspects seem to be regarded as irrelevant in organic farming. Some participants showed a very romantic view of organic dairy farming. The most critical point was an assumed high rate of rogue traders among organic farmers.

  2. Dairy cattle management, health and welfare in smallholder farms: An organic farming perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odhong, Charles; Wahome, Raphael; Vaarst, Mette

    2015-01-01

    livestock production practices as specified by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements and the East Africa Organic Product Standard. A longitudinal study of 24 farms was conducted to document and assess management practices and their potential effect on animal health and welfare......Organic production principles aim at achieving good animal health and welfare of livestock. The objective of the present study was to investigate animal management, health and welfare in smallholder dairy farms in Kenya, Africa, and to be able to give recommendations which can guide organic...... type, aspects of the housing system, farm characteristics, and management routines. The average herd size was 3.15 in Kiambu and 3.91 in Kajiado, with all the cows’ zero-grazed. Seventy five percent of the cubicles were small (less than 2.50m2). Many of the farmers sprayed their animals weekly (47...

  3. Coxiella burnetii in bulk tank milk samples from dairy goat and dairy sheep farms in The Netherlands in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brom, R; van Engelen, E; Luttikholt, S; Moll, L; van Maanen, K; Vellema, P

    2012-03-24

    In 2007, a human Q fever epidemic started, mainly in the south eastern part of The Netherlands with a suspected indirect relation to dairy goats, and, to a lesser degree, to dairy sheep. This article describes the Q fever prevalences in Dutch dairy goat and dairy sheep bulk tank milk (BTM) samples, using a real-time (RT) PCR and ELISA. Results of BTM PCR and ELISA were compared with the serological status of individual animals, and correlations with a history of Q fever abortion were determined. When compared with ELISA results, the optimal cut-off value for the RT-PCR was 100 bacteria/ml. In 2008, there were 392 farms with more than 200 dairy goats, of which 292 submitted a BTM sample. Of these samples, 96 (32.9 per cent) were PCR positive and 87 (29.8 per cent) were ELISA positive. All farms with a history of Q fever abortion (n=17) were ELISA positive, 16 out of 17 were also PCR positive. BTM PCR or ELISA positive farms had significantly higher within-herd seroprevalences than BTM negative farms. In the south eastern provinces, the area where the human Q fever outbreak started in 2007, a significantly larger proportion of the BTM samples was PCR and ELISA positive compared to the rest of The Netherlands. None of the BTM samples from dairy sheep farms (n=16) were PCR positive but three of these farms were ELISA positive. The higher percentage of BTM positive farms in the area where the human Q fever outbreak started, supports the suspected relation between human cases and infected dairy goat farms.

  4. The heat stress for workers employed in a dairy farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marucci

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The italian dairy production is characterized by high heterogeneity. The typology quantitatively more important (80% of national production is represented by cow’s milk cheeses (Grana Padano cheese, string cheese, Parmesan cheese, etc.,while the cheese from buffalo’s milk (especially string cheese such as mozzarella and cheese from sheep and goats represents respectively 4% and 8% of the national dairy production, and are linked to specific regional contexts. Some phases of the cycle of milk processing occur at certain temperatures that not are comfortable for the operator also in relation to possible problems due to thermal shock. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of heat stress on workers operating in a dairy for processing of buffalo milk. The research was conducted at a dairy farm located in the province of Viterbo, Italy, during the spring-summer period. To carry out the research were detected major climatic parameters (air temperature, relative humidity, mean radiant temperature, air velocity and the main parameters of the individual operators (thermal insulation provided by clothing and the energy expenditure required from the work done by employees in the work areas investigated. Subsequently were calculated main indices of heat stress assessment provided by the main technical standards. In particular have been calculated Predicted Mean Vote (PMV and Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD in moderate environments, provided by the UNI EN ISO 7730 and the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT in severe hot environments required by UNI EN 27243. The results show some phases of risk from heat stress and possible solutions to improve the safety of the operators.

  5. The heat stress for workers employed in a dairy farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Marucci

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Italian dairy production is characterized by high heterogeneity. The typology quantitatively more important (80% of national production is represented by cow’s milk cheeses (Grana Padano cheese, string cheese, Parmesan cheese, etc., while the cheese from buffalo’s milk (especially string cheese such as mozzarella and cheese from sheep and goats represents respectively 4% and 8% of the national dairy production, and are linked to specific regional contexts. Some phases of the cycle of milk processing occur at certain temperatures that are not comfortable for the workers also in relation to possible problems due to thermal shock. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of heat stress on workers operating in a dairy for processing of buffalo milk. The research was conducted at a dairy farm located in the province of Viterbo, Italy, during the spring-summer period. To carry out the research were detected major climatic parameters (air temperature, relative humidity, mean radiant temperature, air velocity and the main parameters of the individual operators (clothing thermal insulation and the energy expenditure required from the work done by employees. Subsequently, main indices of heat stress assessment provided by the main technical standards were calculated. In particular have been calculated predicted mean vote and predicted percentage of dissatisfied in moderate thermal environments (environments in which the objective, in the design and management phases, is to achieve the thermal comfort, provided by the UNI EN ISO 7730 and the wet bulb globe temperature in severe hot environments (environments in which you must protect the health of workers required by UNI EN ISO 27243. The results show some phases of risk from heat stress especially during times of test in which the internal air temperature exceeds the threshold of 30°C and possible solutions to improve the safety of the operators.

  6. Endocrine Measurements and Calving Performance of Swedish Red and White and Swedish Holstein Dairy Cattle with Special Respect to Stillbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson H

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available During 3 consecutive calving seasons, calving performance, placental characteristics and endocrine profiles of total 98 pregnancies of late pregnant Swedish Red and White (SRB and Swedish Holstein (SLB dairy heifers and cows, were investigated. Ninety-four singleton pregnancies and 4 sets of twins were recorded. In animals with singleton pregnancy, 8 stillbirths, 7 weak calves, 3 premature parturitions and 1 abortion were registered. In the SLB heifers, 19% of stillbirth (5/26 were observed, while 5% (2/42 were noted for the SRB heifers. One stillborn calf derived from the SRB cows and none was found from the SLB cows. In the heifers and cows delivering a normal living calf with unassisted parturition, the placentome thickness monitored by ultrasonography was constant towards the end of pregnancy. The numbers of foetal cotyledons varied individually between animals but in total, fewer cotyledons were found in the foetal membranes of the SRB animals than in the SLB animals (69 ± 19 vs. (88 ± 29 (p 2α metabolite (PG-metabolite, cortisol, oestrone sulphate (E1SO4 and pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAGs were not different by breeds and parities. In animals carrying stillbirth, higher levels of E1SO4 were found in 3 SRB animals and 1 SLB heifer, whereas lower levels of E1SO4 were recorded in 3 SLB heifers during the last week of pregnancy, compared to the profiles found in animals with unassisted parturition. Additionally, the levels of PAGs remained low and constant in 1 SRB cow (delivering a stillborn calf, 1 SRB heifer (giving birth prematurely, 4 animals (carrying twins and 1 aborting SRB cow. Our results show a very high rate of stillbirth in especially SLB heifers and deviating profiles of E1SO4 and PAGs in animals with impaired parturition were recorded.

  7. [The economic margins of activities of a bovine practitioner on dairy farms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Genugten, A J M; van Haaften, J A; Hogeveen, H

    2011-11-01

    Because of lower margins and market liberalisation veterinarians and farmers are increasingly negotiating rates. Therefore, the margins of veterinarians are under pressure. In addition, the sales if drugs, performance of operations or giving of advice are more and more separated. These developments give veterinarians uncertainty about the profitability of their activities for dairy farmers. Not much is known about margins on veterinary activities on dairy farms. Moreover, it is interesting to see how much margins of the bovine practitioner differ between veterinary practises and dairy farms. In this study, invoices for bovine activities of 14 veterinary practises were combined with milk production registration data of the dairy farms of these practices. This way, the gross margin per bovine practitioner could be studied for the different veterinary practise. Moreover the relation between gross margin and specification of the veterinary practise could be studied. Finally, the gross margin per dairy farm and the factors that influenced this gross margin were studied. The most important result was the observation that the gross margin per bovine practitioner was dependent on the number of dairy farms per practitioner, the margin on drugs and the region of the veterinary practise. The size of the veterinary practise, the share of the dairy farming within the practise and the source of the gross margin (drugs, time or operations) did not influence the gross margin. Variables that explained the gross margin per dairy farm were, amongst others, the number of dairy cows, the milk production level of the farms and participation in PIR-DAP (a system to support the veterinarians herd health and management program). There is no relation of gross margin per dairy farm and the veterinary practise or region.

  8. Prevalence of brucellosis in dairy cattle from the main dairy farming regions of Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchia, Massimo; Di Provvido, Andrea; Ippoliti, Carla; Kefle, Uqbazghi; Sebhatu, Tesfaalem T; D'Angelo, Annarita; De Massis, Fabrizio

    2013-04-23

    In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT). A total of 2.77%(417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% - 3.05%) of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucellaspecies, with a variable and generally low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% - 5.80%), followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% - 2.50%) and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% - 2.20%) regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control.

  9. Prevalence of brucellosis in dairy cattle from the main dairy farming regions of Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Scacchia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT and positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT. A total of 2.77%(417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% – 3.05% of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucellaspecies, with a variable and generally low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% – 5.80%, followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% – 2.50% and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% – 2.20% regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control.

  10. Temporal and spatial water use on irrigated and nonirrigated pasture-based dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, C D; Horne, D; Singh, R; Kuhn-Sherlock, B; Scarsbrook, M R

    2017-08-01

    Robust information for water use on pasture-based dairy farms is critical to farmers' attempts to use water more efficiently and the improved allocation of freshwater resources to dairy farmers. To quantify the water requirements of dairy farms across regions in a practicable manner, it will be necessary to develop predictive models. The objectives of this study were to compare water use on a group of irrigated and nonirrigated farms, validate existing water use models using the data measured on the group of nonirrigated farms, and modify the model so that it can be used to predict water use on irrigated dairy farms. Water use data were collected on a group of irrigated dairy farms located in the Canterbury, New Zealand, region with the largest area under irrigation. The nonirrigated farms were located in the Manawatu region. The amount of water used for irrigation was almost 52-fold greater than the amount of all other forms of water use combined. There were large differences in measured milking parlor water use, stock drinking water, and leakage rates between the irrigated and nonirrigated farms. As expected, stock drinking water was lower on irrigated dairy farms. Irrigation lowers the dry matter percentage of pasture, ensuring that the amount of water ingested from pasture remains high throughout the year, thereby reducing the demand for drinking water. Leakage rates were different between the 2 groups of farms; 47% of stock drinking water was lost as leakage on nonirrigated farms, whereas leakage on the irrigated farms equated to only 13% of stock drinking water. These differences in leakage were thought to be related to regional differences rather than differences in irrigated versus nonirrigated farms. Existing models developed to predict milking parlor, corrected stock drinking water, and total water use on nonirrigated pasture-based dairy farms in a previous related study were tested on the data measured in the present research. As expected, these models

  11. Consequences and economics of metritis in Iranian Holstein dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnani, A; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Cabrera, V E

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to describe the risk factors, incidence, and productive and reproductive consequences of metritis in dairy cows, and (2) to estimate the financial losses associated with metritis using data gathered from 4 Holstein dairy farms in Isfahan, Iran. Calving records from March 2008 to December 2013, comprising 43,488 calvings, were included in the data set. The effects of metritis on productive and reproductive performance were analyzed using a mixed linear model for primiparous and multiparous cows separately and in an overall data set (all cows combined), whereas risk factors on metritis incidence were examined using a multivariable logistical regression model for the overall data set. The incidence of metritis per cow per year was 13.2% on average and ranged from 9.0 to 15.8%. Results of logistic regression analysis demonstrated that calving year, parity number, calving season, twinning, dystocia, and retained placenta were significantly associated with the occurrence of metritis, whereas previous metritis incidence did not show an association. Greatest odds of metritis occurred in first-parity cows that calved in winter and had retained placenta, twinning, and dystocia in recent years. A case of metritis significantly reduced the 305-d milk yield in primiparous and multiparous cows and overall, but had no significant effects on 305-d fat and protein percentages in either primiparous or multiparous cows. Overall, a case of metritis reduced 305-d milk yield by 129.8±41.5kg/cow per lactation. The negative reproductive effects due to metritis were smaller and nonsignificant for primiparous cows compared with multiparous cows. Overall, a case of metritis increased days open and number of insemination per conception by 16.4±1.2 and 0.1±0.0 per cow per lactation, respectively. Among the individual farms, metritis costs ranged from $146.4 to $175.7 with a mean of $162.3/case. The model to calculate metritis costs proposed here could

  12. Gendered Resource Access and Utilisation in Swedish Family Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Andersson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gendered relations in resource access and farming are two important intersecting themes of gender studies in a northern rural context. However, conventional analysis and perceptions of the economy conceal the contribution of women within families, in businesses and in the labor market. This article demonstrate the significance of capital to farming women’s engagement with agriculture using a Swedish case study, based on descriptive analyses of data from the Federation of Swedish Farmers. To disclose the embodiment of family farming, gendered control of land, business activities and farm incomes is analyzed. On this empirical basis, we argue for reconstitution of farm-related entrepreneurial research, rural development policies and rural gender studies from a new material feminist approach. Access to resources, typically land, together with social forces and embodied experiences constitute the basis of strategic focus and agency. We demonstrate that acknowledgement of access to resources in the research process and in the understanding of social relations, resistance and situated knowledge are essential.

  13. Sustainability evaluation of automatic and conventional milking systems on organic dairy farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudshoorn, Frank W; Kristensen, Troels; van der Zijpp, A J

    2012-01-01

    , and social acceptability, i.e., its contribution to sustainable development. The objective of this research, therefore, was to evaluate sustainability of AMS use on organic dairy farms in Denmark, by comparing results of a set of sustainability indicators for nine farms using AMS with nine farms using...... conventional milking systems (CMS). Sustainability indicators were quantified for economic performance of the farm, on-farm eutrophication, on-farm biodiversity, animal welfare (including health), grazing time, milk composition and labour time. Milk yield per cow per year was higher for AMS farms (9021 kg...... this quantification of selected sustainability indicators it can be concluded that organic dairy farms using AMS, in spite of the substantial decrease in grazing time, show the potential of economic and environmental sustainable development within the range of herd sizes investigated (65–157 cows per farm). Even...

  14. Assessing the sustainability of EU dairy farms with different management systems and husbandry practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leach, Katharine; Gerrard, Catherine; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad

    on farm management practices collected in face to face interviews with farmers were entered and the tool then calculated a composite score for each of 11 separate “spurs” or dimensions contributing to sustainability. The results can be used to stimulate discussion between farmers and point to areas where......The EU funded SOLID project supports research which will contribute to the competitiveness of organic and low input dairy systems, and increase their sustainability. There are many aspects of the sustainability of dairy farms, relating to economic, environmental and social dimensions, and methods...... of animal husbandry can affect all of these. A UK spreadsheet based tool for rapid assessment of the whole farm was adapted for application on a range of organic and low input dairy farms across the EU. This tool was used to assess approximately ten organic dairy farms in each of four EU countries. Data...

  15. Effects of stored feed cropping systems and farm size on the profitability of Maine organic dairy farm simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshide, A K; Halloran, J M; Kersbergen, R J; Griffin, T S; DeFauw, S L; LaGasse, B J; Jain, S

    2011-11-01

    United States organic dairy production has increased to meet the growing demand for organic milk. Despite higher prices received for milk, organic dairy farmers have come under increasing financial stress due to increases in concentrated feed prices over the past few years, which can make up one-third of variable costs. Market demand for milk has also leveled in the last year, resulting in some downward pressure on prices paid to dairy farmers. Organic dairy farmers in the Northeast United States have experimented with growing different forage and grain crops to maximize on-farm production of protein and energy to improve profitability. Three representative organic feed systems were simulated using the integrated farm system model for farms with 30, 120, and 220 milk cows. Increasing intensity of equipment use was represented by organic dairy farms growing only perennial sod (low) to those with corn-based forage systems, which purchase supplemental grain (medium) or which produce and feed soybeans (high). The relative profitability of these 3 organic feed systems was strongly dependent on dairy farm size. From results, we suggest smaller organic dairy farms can be more profitable with perennial sod-based rather than corn-based forage systems due to lower fixed costs from using only equipment associated with perennial forage harvest and storage. The largest farm size was more profitable using a corn-based system due to greater economies of scale for growing soybeans, corn grain, winter cereals, and corn silages. At an intermediate farm size of 120 cows, corn-based forage systems were more profitable if perennial sod was not harvested at optimum quality, corn was grown on better soils, or if milk yield was 10% higher. Delayed harvest decreased the protein and energy content of perennial sod crops, requiring more purchased grain to balance the ration and resulting in lower profits. Corn-based systems were less affected by lower perennial forage quality, as corn silage

  16. PHOSPHORUS-BASED NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT PLANNING ON DAIRY/POULTRY FARMS: IMPLICATIONS FOR ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS

    OpenAIRE

    YANG Xiao; Bosch, Darrell J.; Nordberg, Tone; Wolfe, Mary Leigh

    2000-01-01

    The effects of phosphorus (P)-based nutrient management plans on economic and environmental risks of dairy and dairy-poultry farms in Virginia were evaluated. Phosphorus-based nutrient management plans can greatly reduce P runoff risk but also reduce farmers' returns. P-based plans cause greater reductions in returns and P runoff on the dairy-poultry farm than on the dairy only farm.

  17. Risk factors for displaced abomasum or ketosis in Swedish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengärde, L; Hultgren, J; Tråvén, M; Holtenius, K; Emanuelson, U

    2012-03-01

    Risk factors associated with high or low long-term incidence of displaced abomasum (DA) or clinical ketosis were studied in 60 Swedish dairy herds, using multivariable logistic regression modelling. Forty high-incidence herds were included as cases and 20 low-incidence herds as controls. Incidence rates were calculated based on veterinary records of clinical diagnoses. During the 3-year period preceding the herd classification, herds with a high incidence had a disease incidence of DA or clinical ketosis above the 3rd quartile in a national database for disease recordings. Control herds had no cows with DA or clinical ketosis. All herds were visited during the housing period and herdsmen were interviewed about management routines, housing, feeding, milk yield, and herd health. Target groups were heifers in late gestation, dry cows, and cows in early lactation. Univariable logistic regression was used to screen for factors associated with being a high-incidence herd. A multivariable logistic regression model was built using stepwise regression. A higher maximum daily milk yield in multiparous cows and a large herd size (p=0.054 and p=0.066, respectively) tended to be associated with being a high-incidence herd. Not cleaning the heifer feeding platform daily increased the odds of having a high-incidence herd twelvefold (pketosis in Swedish dairy herds. These results confirm the importance of housing, management and feeding in the prevention of metabolic disorders in dairy cows around parturition and in early lactation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Biogas production on dairy farms: A Croatia case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Bilandžija

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the differences in the production and composition of biogas as well as the quality of digested residue from anaerobic digestion of the raw materials generated by dairy farms in Croatia, investigations were undertaken in the biogas laboratory facility of the Faculty of Agriculture. The investigated raw materials were: dairy manure, corn silage, haylage and equal-measure mix (1/3 of all raw materials. For each substrate, three runs of experiments were performed with the same overall hydraulic retention time (40 days and temperature of digestion (35 °C in mesophilic conditions. The investigations found that the most efficient production of biogas was from corn silage. As for biogas composition, it was acceptable in all investigated samples both in energy and environmental terms. Digested residues, which are mildly alkaline, have low dry matter content. About 70 % of dry matter content is organic. On the basis of N:P:K analysis and the analysis of biogenic elements values and heavy metal values, it can be concluded that digested residues of all input raw materials can be used in agricultural production.

  19. Neospora caninum - Associated Abortions in Slovak Dairy Farm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Špilovská

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is considered one of the major causes of repeated abortions in livestock. This study aimed to determine the seropositivity to N. caninum using indirect ELISA and the influence of the infection on the occurrence of abortions in selected dairy herd in Slovakia.Blood samples were obtained from 490 cattle over a period of two years and were tested for N. caninum antibodies using indirect ELISA.The presence of specific antibodies in the herd was detected in 118 (24.1% cows. According to selected groups; 117 (41.0% cows with a history of abortion, 65 (43.3% heifers and 223 (2.2% cows without abortions were tested positive to Neospora. Vertical transmission of N. caninum dominated in examined herd and the relative risk (RR of dam-daughter seropositivity in progenies of seropositive mothers was 2.1 times higher than in progenies of seronegative dams. Molecular analyses of aborted foetuses of seropositive mothers showed the presence of Neospora DNA. However, 23 (28.1% of heifers born to seronegative cows were seropositive, indicating also the postnatal transmission of the infection from the environment.Study revealed significant correlation between the presence of specific antibodies and the occurrence of abortions, the risk of abortion in seropositive animals was 3.8 times higher than in seronegative ones. Incorrect farm management contributed to spread and circulation of neosporosis in entire dairy herd what could significantly impair the reproduction and economic parameters of breeding.

  20. Cultivation of microalgae in dairy farm wastewater without sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jinfeng; Zhao, Fengmin; Cao, Youfu; Xing, Li; Liu, Wei; Mei, Shuai; Li, Shujun

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the feasibility of cultivating microalgae in dairy farm wastewater. The growth of microalgae and the removal rate of the nutrient from the wastewater were examined. The wastewater was diluted 20, 10 and 5 times before applied to cultivate microalgae. A 5 dilution yielded 0.86 g/L dry weight in 6 days with a relative growth rate of 0.28 d(-1), the 10×dilution gave 0.74 g/L and a relative growth rate of 0.26 d(-1) while the 20×dilution 0.59 g/L and a relative growth rate 0.23 d(-1). The nutrients in the wastewater could be removed effectively in different diluted dairy wastewater. The greatest dilution (20×) showed the removal rates: ammonia, 99.26%; P, 89.92%; COD, 84.18%. A 10×dilution removal% was: ammonia 93; P 91 and COD 88. The 5× dilution removal% was: ammonia 83; P 92; COD 90.

  1. Occupational health characteristics of women on dairy farms in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Ginger D; Brasier, Kathryn J; Henning, George F; Radhakrishna, Rama B; Jayarao, Bhushan M

    2010-01-01

    Women play a significant role in Pennsylvania production agriculture, thereby exposing themselves to occupational health risks. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to assess the incidence of health conditions with a possible zoonotic origin in this underserved population. A written survey was sent to a stratified, random sample of dairy farms in Pennsylvania (n = 3709) using a modified version of the Dillman method. In addition to demographic data, the survey was used to collect information on the occurrence of zoonotic diseases, gastrointestinal illnesses, respiratory problems, dermatoses, and women's reproductive health issues. Of the 624 respondents, 10.4% (n = 65) reported that they had contracted a disease from an animal. Interestingly, only 9 respondents indicated that they had suffered from foodborne illnesses in the past year including salmonellosis (n = 1), campylobacteriosis (n = 1), and gastroenteritis due to Escherichia coli (n = 1). A risk factor associated with difficulty breathing was the lack of use of a breathing mask, whereas ventilation in the free stall area appeared to offer a protective effect. Difficulty breathing was reported by 9.8% (n = 61) of the respondents. Risk factors associated with skin disorders included raising fruits and/or vegetables, raising swine, and not wearing gloves when milking. The findings of the study suggest that many of the illnesses and conditions could have been acquired by working with dairy animals and their environment. Based on the findings of this study, additional investigations on the causes and prevention of these illnesses are warranted.

  2. Epidemiological surveillance in dairy farms in the Pastaza province of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Ruano, M; Lam Romero, F V; Benítez Jiménez, D; Ríos Núñez, S; Vargas Burgos, J C; Quinteros Pozo, R; Rodríguez Villafuerte, X

    2016-12-01

    A survey was carried out on dairy cattle farms in Pastaza province to analyse the degree of compliance with epidemiological surveillance activities (based on the main technical aspects in Ecuador's Guide to Good Dairy Farming Practices) and to assess the reduction of the risk of introducing disease into dairy cattle. Visits were made to 70 dairy and dual-purpose beef/dairy farms, where the survey was conducted to evaluate technical aspects relating to epidemiological surveillance and the risk of introducing disease. In only one of the nine areas of application covered in the guide was compliance with technical requirements greater than 70%: milking and milk handling (78.59%). In the following areas, a compliance rate of 40-65% was achieved: records and traceability; siting of livestock farms and infrastructure, facilities and equipment; use and quality of water and animal feed; and management of veterinary products and agricultural pesticides. In the remaining areas, the compliance rate was less than 20%. On average, there was only 27.96% compliance with the technical elements evaluated. The results show that current guidelines for good dairy farming practices can be used to evaluate basic aspects of epidemiological surveillance and of the reduction of the risk of introducing disease into dairy farms. They also reveal shortcomings in these aspects in the Amazonian province of Pastaza, which need to be addressed appropriately to reduce their negative impact on animal health. © OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health), 2016.

  3. Short communication: planning considerations for on-farm dairy processing enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S M; Chaney, E A; Bewley, J M

    2013-07-01

    Across the world, more dairy producers are considering on-farm dairy processing to add value to the milk produced on their farms. Dairy producers may bottle milk or process their milk into cheese, ice cream, butter, yogurt, or cream. The primary objective of this research was to establish a series of sound factors or indicators of success for those considering on-farm processing. A survey was employed to collect opinions and advice from managers of on-farm processing enterprises. Surveys were distributed online (n=120), with 31 surveys returned, accounting for a 25.8% response rate. Most (64%) respondents had been involved in on-farm dairy processing for less than 10 yr. Sixty-one percent of respondents attained a positive cash flow in 1 to 3 yr. The primary products manufactured were cheese (69%), milk (59%), ice cream (31%), yogurt (25%), and butter (21%). Factors influencing the decision to start an on-farm dairy processing enterprise included commodity milk prices (61%), desire to work with the public (41%), an opportunity to promote the dairy industry (39%), a desire to maintain or expand a small family operation (29%), and product differentiation (16%). Respondents cited dealing with regulations (26%), product marketing (19%), manufacturing technicalities (19%), and securing funding (17%) as the most difficult parts of starting the business. Open-ended responses provided by the respondents of this survey were also documented to give future dairy producers advice. The most common advice to future on-farm processors was to work on realistic business plans, develop and follow realistic budgets, and observe and use market surveys within the industry. These results provide a useful array of information for future on-farm dairy processing enterprises. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dairy farm cost efficiency in leading milk-producing regions in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczyński, T; Klepacka, A M; Revoredo-Giha, C; Florkowski, W J

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines the cost efficiency of dairy farms in 2 important regions of commercial milk production in Poland (i.e., Wielkopolskie and Podlaskie). Both regions gained importance following the market-driven resource allocation mechanism adopted after Poland's transition to the market economy in 1989 and accession to the European Union (EU) in 2004. The elimination of the dairy quota system in the EU in 2015 offers new expansion opportunities. The analysis of trends in cow numbers, milk production, and yield per cow shows different patterns of expansion of the dairy sector in the 2 regions. We selected dairy farm data from the Farm Accounts Data Network database for both regions and applied the cost frontier estimation model to calculate the relative cost-efficiency index for the period 2004 to 2009. The indexes compare each farm in the sample to the most efficient dairy farm in each region separately. Additionally, the top 5% of dairy farms with the highest relative cost efficiency index from each region were compared in terms of production costs with published results from a study using the representative farm approach. The comparison of results from 2 different studies permits a conclusion that Wielkopolskie and Podlaskie dairy farms are able to compete with farms from the 4 largest milk-producing countries in the EU. Although both regions can improve yields per cow, especially Podlaskie, both regions are likely to take advantage of the expansion opportunities offered by the 2015 termination of the milk quota system. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Techno-economical Analysis of Rooftop Grid-connected PV Dairy Farms; Case Study of Urmia University Dairy Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikbakht, A. M.; Aste, N.; Sarnavi, H. J.; Leonforte, F.

    2017-08-01

    The global trends indicate a growing commitment to renewable energy development because of declining fossil fuels and environmental threats. Moreover, the global demographic growth coupled with rising demands for food has escalated the rate of energy consumption in food section. This study aims to investigate the techno-economic impacts of a grid-connected rooftop PV plan applied for a educational dairy farm in Urmia university, with total estimated annual electrical energy consumption of 18,283 kWh, located at the north west part of Iran. Based on the current feed-in tariff and tremendously low electricity price in agriculture section in Iran, the plants with size ranged from 14.4 to 19.7 kWp (initial investment ranged from 26,000 to 36,000 USD) would be satisfied economically.

  6. Zoonotic transmission of Cryptosporidium meleagridis on an organic Swedish farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverlås, Charlotte; Mattsson, Jens G; Insulander, Mona; Lebbad, Marianne

    2012-10-01

    We believe that we present the first evidence of zoonotic transmission of the bird parasite, Cryptosporidium meleagridis. Despite being the third most common cause of human cryptosporidiosis, an identified zoonotic source has not been reported to date. We found Cryptosporidium oocysts in pigs, sheep/goats, hens and broiler chickens on a farm with suspected zoonotic transmission. By DNA analysis we identified C. meleagridis in samples from one human, three chickens and one hen. Sequencing of the ssrRNA and 70kDa Heat Shock Protein (HSP) genes showed identical C. meleagridis sequences in the human and chicken samples, which is evidence of zoonotic transmission. The HSP70 sequence was unique. Copyright © 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Forecasting Production Losses at a Swedish Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Production loss due to icing has been identified as a problem both when siting turbines in cold climates, and when making forecasts of energy production for wind park management and energy markets. The Makkonen icing model (Makkonen, 2000), driven by output from the WRF mesoscale model, has been...... shown to predict periods of icing at a wind farm in northern Sweden (Davis et al, 2012) with improved skill compared to persistence and threshold models. Based on these results, we have developed a statistical model to estimate the loss of production at the wind park due to these icing periods. We...... compared this statistical model with a simpler method that does not rely on a physical icing model. In that method meteorological icing is identified as periods when WRF forecasts clouds and the temperature is below freezing. During these periods it is assumed that there is no production from the turbines...

  8. Using Spline Regression in Semi-Parametric Stochastic Frontier Analysis: An Application to Polish Dairy Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard; Henningsen, Arne

    this approach to the Polish dairy sector and use a panel data set of Polish dairy farms from the years 2004-2010. The Polish dairy sector has changed considerably since the integration of Poland in the European Union: the number of dairy producers decreased by one third and the average herd size increased from...... efficiency of Polish dairy farms contributes to the insight into this dynamic process. Furthermore, we compare and evaluate the results of this spline-based semi-parametric stochastic frontier model with results of other semi-parametric stochastic frontier models and of traditional parametric stochastic...... Henningsen, A. , Kumbhakar, S. C. (2009), Semiparametric Stochastic Frontier Analysis: An Application to Polish Farms During Transition, Paper presented at the (EWEPA) in Pisa, Italy. Kumbhakar S. C., Park, B. U., Simar, L. Tsionas E. G. (2007), Nonparametric Stochastic Frontiers: A Local Maximum Likelihood...

  9. On-farm methane measurements during milking correlate with total methane production by individual dairy cows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garnsworthy, P C; Craigon, J; Hernandez-Medrano, J H; Saunders, N

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether measurement of methane emissions by individual dairy cows during milking could provide a useful technique for monitoring on-farm methane emissions...

  10. Optimal dairy farm adjustments to increased utilization of corn distillers dried grains with solubles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schmit, T. M; Boisvert, R. N; Enahoro, D; Chase, L. E

    2009-01-01

    ...{at}cornell.edu The purpose of this paper was to identify effective dairy farm management adjustments related to recent structural changes in agricultural commodity markets because of expanded biofuels production...

  11. Milk microbiological profile of four dairy farms from São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Adna Crisleia Rodrigues Monção; Juliana Rodrigues Pozzi Arcaro; Thiago Pereira Motta; Lívia Castelani; Thamires Martins; Adriana Frizzarin; Heloisa Azevedo; Cláudia Rodrigues Pozzi

    2012-01-01

    The concern in milk quality, milk production, and in animals’ welfare is in constant increase. Mastitis is recognized as the main disease affecting dairy animals because of changing in milk composition and reduction in milk production. In Brazil, the highest incidence of mastitis is related to infectious agents. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of pathogenic microorganisms in milk produced by 60 cows from four dairy farms (15 cows/farm) located at Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Milk sa...

  12. DAIRY FARM PLANNING FOR THE RECEIPE OF EU RULES ON THE HYGIENE OF FODDSTUFFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Brajon

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A shift promoted by Regione Toscana have arranged productive dairy farm guidelines for the application of Reg. CE 852/2004. The document defines risk assessment management and obligation. For guidelines drafting we used: dairy production system flowchart, chemical, physical, microbiological risk, and check list. Milk dairy production was divided into four stages: animal health and welfare, nutrition and watering regime, environment, milking hygiene and milk storage.

  13. A REGIONAL COMPARISON OF FARM COSTS AND RETURNS AMONG TOP DAIRY PRODUCERS

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Harry M.; Morehart, Mitchell J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare costs and returns of the top dairy producers in the Upper Midwest to those in other major dairy regions of the U.S. The analysis is based on the 1989 Farm Costs and Returns Survey conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The top dairy farmers are defined in several ways, including: (1) highest returns to capital and management, (2) lowest total cash costs, and (3) highest milk marketings per cow.

  14. Estimation of risk management effects on revenue and purchased feed costs on US dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadrich, Joleen C; Johnson, Kamina K

    2015-09-01

    Variations in milk and feed prices directly affect dairy farm risk management decisions. This research used data from the 2010 US Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Resource Management Surveys phase III dairy survey to examine how risk management tools affected revenues and expenses across US dairy farms. The survey was sent to 26 states and collected information on costs and returns to individual dairy farms. This research used the information from milk sales, crops sales, feed expenses, and farm and operator characteristics, as well as the use of risk management tools. Matching methodology was used to evaluate the effect of 5 independent risk management tools on revenues and expenses: selling milk to a cooperative, using a commodity contract to sell grain, feeding homegrown forage at a basic and intensive level, and use of a nutritionist. Results showed that dairy farms located in the Midwest and East benefit from selling milk to a cooperative and using commodity contracts to sell grain. Across the United States, using a nutritionist increased total feed costs, whereas a feeding program that included more than 65% homegrown forages decreased total feed costs. Results point to benefits from educational programming on risk management tools that are region specific rather than a broad generalization to all US dairy farmers. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. European organic dairy farmers’ preference for animal health management within the farm management system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van F.J.S.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2015-01-01

    The expertise and knowledge of veterinary advisors on improving animal health management is key towards a better herd health status. However, veterinary advisors are not always aware of the goals and priorities of dairy farmers. To dairy farmers animal health is only one aspect of farm management

  16. Carbon footprint from dairy farming system: comparison between Holstein and Jersey cattle in Italian circumstances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Riva, A.; Kristensen, Troels; De Marchi1, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) of milk production at farm gate considering two dairy cattle breeds, Holstein Friesian (HF) and Jersey (JE). Using Italian inventory data the emissions of CO2eq per kg ECM for dairy herds of HF and JE breed were estimated...

  17. Technological Innovation in Dutch Cattle Breeding and Dairy Farming, 1850-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bieleman, J.

    2005-01-01

    This article attempts to present the broad outlines of technological change in Dutch cattle breeding and dairy farming over the last 150 years. After 1850, Dutch dairy farmers and cattle breeders profited from the rapidly increasing opportunities offered by expanding foreign markets. Herd book

  18. The Economics and Productivity of Organic versus Non-organic U.S. Dairy Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Nehring, Richard; Gillespie, Jeffrey; Hallahan, Charles; Sauer, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    We estimate a production function for U.S. dairy farming to examine the productivity of organic and non-organic dairy production by system and size. Across organic/non-organic systems and size classes, size is the major determinant of competitiveness based on various measures of productivity and returns to scale.

  19. Economic Efficiency of U.S. Organic Versus Conventional Dairy Farms: Evidence from 2005 and 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Nehring, Richard F.; Gillespie, Jeffrey M.; Hallahan, Charles B.; Sauer, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    We estimate an input distance function for U.S. dairy farming to examine the competitiveness of organic and non-organic dairy production by system and size. Across organic/non-organic systems and size classes, size is the major determinant of competitiveness based on various measures of productivity and returns to scale.

  20. An economic comparison of typical dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah; Hemme, Torsten

    2009-08-01

    Population growth, urbanisation and increased per capita milk consumption are main reasons for recent increasing milk demand in Africa. Due to globalisation, it is important to know how competitive various production systems are, especially as most governments promote local production and disfavour dairy imports. The TIPI-CAL (Technology Impact, Policy Impact Calculations model) was used to analyse and compare costs and returns of predominant dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon. Results show that, as farms grew larger in size, family resources (especially land and labour) became insufficient and there was need for their acquisition from external sources. Though extensive dairy farming systems had the lowest cost of milk production (<20 US-$ per 100 kg milk), their input productivities and milk yields were lower, leading to very low net cash returns from dairying. Large intensive farms in South Africa had relatively low costs (<30 US-$ per 100 kg milk) and a high Return on Investment (ROI) due to a higher efficiency of input utilisation. It was concluded that, intensification of dairy farming and simultaneously increasing the scale of production will greatly increase productivity of farm inputs, thus recommended for development of the dairy sector in African countries.

  1. OILSEEDS AS A PERSPECTIVE IN THE NUTRITION ON DAIRY FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Süli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades many researches were made to change the milk product food’s composition. The production of better fat-compound milk and dairy products became a goal in the name of health conscious nutrition. Our researches were motivated by non-adequate milk fat’s compound. With the optimal supplement of the feed can be increased the proportion of the polyunsaturated fatty acids and can decreased the unsaturated fatty acids. The object of our experiment to study the effect of natural-based feed additives, such as oilseeds (whole linseed, extruded linseed, whole rapeseed on the fatty acid composition of milk fat. Further information was gained about of oilseeds in specific amounts to be fitted into technology of an intensive dairy farm in practice. The feed supplements were whole, untreated rapeseed and linseed and cold extruded linseed as a part of total mixed ration. The level of the processing of feed supplements affected the fatty acid composition of milk fat. The effect of full fat linseed feed supplement was more significant than that of the cold extruded linseed, in the increase of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, with special regard to the increase of the α-linolenic acid proportion. Out of the full fat oilseeds the feeding of full fat rapeseed did not result in a considerable change in the fatty acid composition of milk fat. After applying full fat linseed as feed supplement, the proportion of α-linolenic acid, a conjugated linoleic acid, an eicosadienoic acid and a docosapentaenoic acid increased in the fatty acid composition of milk fat, while the concentration of many saturated fatty acids reduced

  2. Effect of farming strategies on environmental impact of intensive dairy farms in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerci, Matteo; Bava, Luciana; Zucali, Maddalena; Sandrucci, Anna; Penati, Chiara; Tamburini, Alberto

    2013-08-01

    Agriculture and animal husbandry are important contributors to global emissions of greenhouse (GHG) and acidifying gases. Moreover, they contribute to water pollution and to consumption of non-renewable natural resources such as land and energy. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology allows evaluation of the environmental impact of a process from the production of inputs to the final product and to assess simultaneously several environmental impact categories among which GHG emissions, acidification, eutrophication, land use and energy use. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate, using the LCA methodology, the environmental impact of milk production in a sample of 41 intensive Italian dairy farms and to identify, among different farming strategies, those associated with the best environmental performances. The functional unit was 1 kg Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM). Farms showed characteristics of high production intensity: FPCM, expressed as tonnes per hectare, was 30·8±15·1. Total GHG emission per kg FPCM at farm gate was 1·30±0·19 kg CO2 eq. The main contributors to climate change potential were emissions from barns and manure storage (50·1%) and emissions for production and transportation of purchased feeds (21·2%). Average emission of gases causing acidification to produce 1 kg FPCM was 19·7±3·6 g of SO2 eq. Eutrophication potential was 9·01±1·78 ${\\rm PO}_{\\rm 4}^{{\\rm 3} -} {\\rm eq}.$ per kg FPCM on average. Farms from this study needed on average 5·97±1·32 MJ per kg FPCM from non-renewable energy sources. Energy consumption was mainly due to off-farm activities (58%) associated with purchased factors. Land use was 1·51±0·25 m2 per kg FPCM. The farming strategy based on high conversion efficiency at animal level was identified as the most effective to mitigate the environmental impact per kg milk at farm gate, especially in terms of GHG production and non-renewable energy use per kg FPCM.

  3. Comparison of milk protein composition and rennet coagulation properties in native Swedish dairy cow breeds and high-yielding Swedish Red cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Nina A; Glantz, Maria; Rosengaard, Anette K; Paulsson, Marie; Larsen, Lotte B

    2017-11-01

    exploited in niche dairy products. In milk from Swedish Mountain cows, levels of ionic calcium seemed to be more important for rennet-induced gel firmness than variation in the relative protein profile. In Swedish Red, lower protein content as well as higher fraction of αS2-CN and lower fraction of αS1-CN 9P were related to NC milk. Further, a decrease in the frequency of the composite β-κ-CN genotype A2A2/AA through selective breeding could have a positive effect on milk coagulation properties. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of Dutch dairy farms using sensor systems for cow management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeneveld, W; Hogeveen, H

    2015-01-01

    To improve cow management in large dairy herds, sensors have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. Recently, the number of dairy farms using sensor systems has increased. It is not known, however, to what extent sensor systems are used on dairy farms, and the reasons why farmers invest or not in sensor systems are unclear. The first objective of this study was to give an overview of the sensor systems currently used in the Netherlands. The second objective was to investigate the reasons for investing or not investing in sensor systems. The third objective was to characterize farms with and without sensor systems. A survey was developed to investigate first, the reasons for investing or not in sensor systems and, then, how the sensor systems are used in daily cow management. The survey was sent to 1,672 Dutch dairy farmers. The final data set consisted of 512 dairy farms (response rate of 30.6%); 202 farms indicated that they had sensor systems and 310 farms indicated that they did not have sensor systems. A wide variety of sensor systems was used on Dutch dairy farms; those for mastitis detection and estrus detection were the most-used sensor systems. The use of sensor systems was different for farms using an automatic milking system (AMS) and a conventional milking system (CMS). Reasons for investing were different for different sensor systems. For sensor systems attached to the AMS, the farmers made no conscious decision to invest: they answered that the sensors were standard in the AMS or were bought for reduced cost with the AMS. The main reasons for investing in estrus detection sensor systems were improving detection rates, gaining insights into the fertility level of the herd, improving profitability of the farm, and reducing labor. Main reasons for not investing in sensor systems were economically related. It was very difficult to characterize farms with and without sensor systems. Farms

  5. Probability of and risk factors for introduction of infectious diseases into Dutch SPF dairy farms : a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaik, van G.; Schukken, Y.H.; Nielen, M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Barkema, H.W.; Benedictus, G.

    2002-01-01

    A 2-year cohort study was conducted to investigate the probability of disease introduction into Dutch dairy farms. The farms were tested regularly for diseases and were visited biannually to collect management data. Ninety-five specific pathogen-free (SPF) dairy farms were selected from a database

  6. Digesters and demographics: identifying support for anaerobic digesters on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, D J; Roberts, M C; Ernst, S C; Thraen, C S

    2010-11-01

    The dairy industry in the United States is amidst a long-running trend toward fewer, larger dairy farms. This development has created a backlash in some communities over concerns such as odor, waste management, and environmental degradation. Separately, anaerobic digestion has advanced as a waste management technology that potentially offers solutions to some of these issues, providing odor control and a combustible biogas among other things. These digesters require significant capital investments. Voluntary consumer premiums for the renewable energy produced have been used in some instances as a means to move adoption of such systems toward financial feasibility. This project employed a survey to measure Ohio consumers' willingness to pay a premium for renewable energy produced by anaerobic digesters on dairy farms. Cluster analysis was used to segment consumers by willingness to pay, age, education, income, self-identified political inclination, and a composite variable that served as a proxy for respondents' environmental stewardship. Four distinctive groups emerged from the data. Older, less educated respondents were found to have the least amount of support for digesters on dairy farms, whereas politically liberal, environmentally proactive respondents demonstrated the strongest support. Well-educated, affluent respondents and young respondents fell between these 2 groups. Most large dairy farms are generally met with fairly negative responses from their local communities; in contrast, this research finds some popular support for anaerobic digestion technology. Going forward, establishing a positive link between support for anaerobic digesters and for their use on large dairies could open up a new route for less-contested large dairy farm developments. Evaluation of community demographics could become an important part of finding an optimal location for a large dairy farm. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  7. Benchmarking the economic, environmental and societal performance of Dutch dairy farms aiming at internal recycling of nutrients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolman, M.A.; Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Mollenhorst, H.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Several dairy farms in the Netherlands aim at reducing their environmental impact by improving the internal nutrient cycle (INC) at farm level. Practices to improve nutrient cycling at these INC farms, however, might not only reduce the environmental impact on-farm, but alter also the off-farm

  8. A study on bovine brucellosis in an organized dairy farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bhanu Rekha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the status of bovine brucellosis in an organized dairy with a past history of Brucella abortions and where Brucella control measures including test and removal, calf-hood vaccination (already present adult animals were not vaccinated, use of semen obtained from a screened bull and general hygienic measures helps in the control of brucellosis in the farm have been implemented for the past four years.Materials and Methods: A total of 195 samples including 89 blood samples, 89 serum samples and 17 milk samples were collected and analysed by isolation and identification, Polymerase chain Reaction (PCR, Milk Ring Test (MRT, Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT, Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT and Enzyme Linked Immnuno-Sorbent assay ELISA.Results: On analysis, all the 89 blood and 17 milk samples turned out to be negative for culture and PCR. MRT and ELISA tests on all the 17 milk samples and STAT on all the 89 serum samples were also negative. The percent positives for Brucella antibodies in serum samples were 4.5 and 6.7 by RBPT and ELISA, respectively. Of the 17 vaccinated animals, 14 were negative by all the Brucella antigen and antibody diagnostic tests employed. Amongst the three vaccinated animals, one animal was positive by RBPTand I-ELISAand, two animals were positive by I-ELISAalone. On the other hand, of the 72 nonvaccinated animals, 65 were negative by all the diagnostic tests employed, three animals were positive by RBPTand 4 animals were positive by I-ELISA. Conclusion: The results of our study indicated that a combination of RBPT and I-ELISA can be successfully used for screening for brucellosis when the prevalence is low. Implementation of control measures including test and removal of the affected, calf-hood vaccination, use of semen obtained from a screened bull and general hygienic measures help in the control of brucellosis in the farm.

  9. The Economic Returns to Membership of a Dairy Discussion Group: Evidence from the Irish National Farm Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Hennessy, Thia C.; Lapple, Doris; Newman, Carol F.

    2011-01-01

    In December 2009 the Irish Department of Agriculture launched the Dairy Efficiency Programme. The Programme, which is operated through a series of discussion groups, is designed to promote technology transfer to dairy farmers. Drawing on National Farm Survey data from 2009, the purpose of this paper is to quantify the economic return to membership of dairy discussion groups. An endogenous switching regression model is specified for over 300 dairy farms to assess the impact of discussion group...

  10. Creating a model to detect dairy cattle farms with poor welfare using a national database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, C; Haskell, M J; Nunes, T; Stilwell, G

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether dairy farms with poor cow welfare could be identified using a national database for bovine identification and registration that monitors cattle deaths and movements. The welfare of dairy cattle was assessed using the Welfare Quality(®) protocol (WQ) on 24 Portuguese dairy farms and on 1930 animals. Five farms were classified as having poor welfare and the other 19 were classified as having good welfare. Fourteen million records from the national cattle database were analysed to identify potential welfare indicators for dairy farms. Fifteen potential national welfare indicators were calculated based on that database, and the link between the results on the WQ evaluation and the national cattle database was made using the identification code of each farm. Within the potential national welfare indicators, only two were significantly different between farms with good welfare and poor welfare, 'proportion of on-farm deaths' (pdatabase welfare indicators could be used to distinguish farms with good welfare from farms with poor welfare, we created a model using the classifier J48 of Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis. The model was a decision tree based on two variables, 'proportion of on-farm deaths' and 'calving-to-calving interval', and it was able to correctly identify 70% and 79% of the farms classified as having poor and good welfare, respectively. The national cattle database analysis could be useful in helping official veterinary services in detecting farms that have poor welfare and also in determining which welfare indicators are poor on each particular farm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development and application of a multi-attribute sustainability function for Dutch dairy farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calker, van K.J.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Romero, C.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Sustainability in dairy farming is determined by using aspects (economic, social and ecological). Per aspect a number of measurable attributes is selected. Difficulty for determining the sustainability of farming systems is the combination of the different attribute measures into a sustainability

  12. Effect of sensor systems on production, health, reproduction and economics on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Sensor systems for oestrus and disease detection are increasingly used on dairy farms. It is, however, not known whether using sensor systems also improves production, health, reproduction and economic performance of the farm. The first objective of this study is to investigate the effect of

  13. Detector : knowledge-based systems for dairy farm management support and policy analysis : methods and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennen, W.H.G.J.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes new methods and knowledge-based systems for the analysis of technical and economic accounting data from the year-end records of individual dairy farms to support the management and, after adaptation, for policy analysis.

    A new method for farm comparison, the

  14. Monitoring GHG from manure stores on organic and conventional dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneath, R.W.; Beline, F.; Hilhorst, M.A.; Peu, P.

    2006-01-01

    Organic farming methods are claimed to be more environmentally friendly than conventional methods and the EU MIDAIR project had an overall aim to compare emissions from organic dairy farming with conventional methods of milk production. Manure stores are the second largest source of methane

  15. Mastitis incidence and milk quality in organic dairy farms which use suckling systems in calf rearing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.P.; Smolders, E.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    In order to identify important factors influencing animal health and general disease resistance, detailed qualitative and quantitative farm data were collected from 99 organic dairy farms in the Netherlands. Mastitis incidence and milk quality were focal points of the data collection. In this paper

  16. Comparing risk in conventional and organic dairy farming in the Netherlands: An empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentsen, P.B.M.; Kovacs, K.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to contribute to the understanding of why most dairy farmers do not convert to organic farming. Therefore, the objective of this research was to assess and compare risks for conventional and organic farming in the Netherlands with respect to gross margin and the underlying

  17. Assessing the impact of changes in the electricity price structure on dairy farm energy costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upton, J.R.; Murphy, M.; Shalloo, L.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to provide information on the changes in electricity consumption and costs on dairy farms, through the simulation of various electricity tariffs that may exist in the future and how these tariffs interact with changes in farm management (i.e. shifting the milking operation to an

  18. Low prevalence of Salmonella in Swedish dairy herds highlight differences between serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ågren, Estelle C C; Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna; Wahlström, Helene; Emanuelson, Ulf; Frössling, Jenny

    2016-03-01

    Legislated Salmonella control in Sweden has been in place since the 1960s. The purpose of this study was to investigate presence of Salmonella antibodies in dairy cattle herds and to provide a basis for decisions on how surveillance and control can be improved. Bulk milk samples from all Swedish dairy herds (n=4 683) were analysed with two different ELISAs; one detecting antibodies against Salmonella Dublin (Dublin ELISA), and one detecting antibodies against several of the serotypes causing bovine salmonellosis including S. Dublin (Bovine ELISA). Information about herds, i.e. geographical location, local animal density, number of test positive herds within 5km, animal trade and herd size, was based on register data. The results confirm a very low prevalence of Salmonella in Swedish dairy herds throughout the country with the exception of an island in the southeast. The test positive herds split into two groups; 41 herds (1%) positive in the Dublin ELISA, and 101 herds (2%) positive in the Bovine ELISA but negative in the Dublin ELISA. Geographical location of positive herds, and comparison of the results of the screening with serotypes previously isolated from some of the herds, indicated that the first group represents herds presently or previously infected with S. Dublin while the second group represents herds presently or previously infected with other serotypes. Differences in serological status between herds in different regions, of different size, with different animal purchase patterns et cetera, were tested using logistic regression. Presence of positive herds within 5km was significantly associated to testing positive. For herds testing positive in the Dublin ELISA, significant associations were also seen with herd size. Purchase of animals during the last year was not significantly associated with the outcome in the final models. We conclude that for future surveillance, the Bovine ELISA can be used to help in identifying infected herds, and the Dublin

  19. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine coronavirus in Swedish organic and conventional dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Cecilia; Emanuelson, Ulf; Ohlson, Anna; Alenius, Stefan; Fall, Nils

    2015-01-13

    Infections with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine coronavirus (BoCV) are endemic to the cattle populations in most countries, causing respiratory and/or enteric disease. It has been demonstrated that herds can remain free from these infections for several years also in high prevalence areas. Organically managed (OM) dairy herds have been shown to have lower seroprevalence of both viruses compared to conventionally managed (CM) herds. The objective of this study was to challenge the hypothesis of a lower occurrence of BRSV and BoCV in OM compared to CM dairy herds. In November 2011, May 2012 and May 2013 milk samples from four homebred primiparous cows were collected in 75 to 65 OM and 69 to 62 CM herds. The antibody status regarding BRSV and BoCV was analysed with commercial indirect ELISAs. Herds were classified as positive if at least one individual sample was positive. The prevalence of positive herds ranged from 73.4% to 82.3% for BRSV and from 76.8% to 85.3% for BoCV among OM and CM herds, over the three sampling occasions. There was no statistically significant difference between OM and CM herds at any sampling occasion. The incidence risk of newly infected herds did not differ statistically between OM and CM herds at any sampling occasion, neither for BRSV nor for BoCV. The incidence of herds turning sero-negative between samplings corresponded to the incidence of newly infected. Bulk tank milk (BTM) samples were also sampled in the herds and analysed. Several herds were negative on individual samples but positive in BTM. Herd-level data on production, health and reproduction were retrieved from VÄXA Sweden and the study herds were representative of the source population. There was no difference in prevalence of or incidence risk for BRSV or BoCV between Swedish OM and CM herds. Because the incidence of herds becoming seropositive was balanced by herds becoming seronegative it should be possible to lower the prevalence of these two

  20. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in a dairy cattle farm and a research farm in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adwoa Asante-Poku

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB and to identify the mycobacterial species causing BTB in a dairy farm and research farm. Six hundred and eighty-five cattle were screened for BTB by using the Comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CTT. Positive reactors were slaughtered and carcasses were taken for isolation of mycobacterial species. This was followed by speciation of isolates using both standard conventional and molecular assays. Seventeen of the cattle were positive by CTT, giving a crude BTB prevalence of 2.48% among cattle from the two farms. Six of the 17 samples (35.30% yielded positive acid-fast bacilli cultures and three of the isolates were identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC, which were sub-divided into two Mycobacterium tuberculosis sensu scrito (Mtb and one Mycobacterium africanum; the remaining three were Mycobacterium other than tuberculoisis (MOTT. Spoligotyping further characterised the two Mtb isolates as Ghana (spoligotype Data Base 4 number 53 and Latin American Mediterranean (LAM, whilst spoligotyping and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP analysis typed the M. africanum as West African 1. Microseq 500 analysis identified two of the MOTT as Mycobacterium flavescens and Mycobacterium Moriokaense respectively, whilst the remaining one could not be identified. This study observed the prevalence of bovine TB among cattle from two farms in Ghana as 2.48% and confirms the public health importance of M. africanum as a pathogen in Ghana. 

  1. How do farm models compare when estimating greenhouse gas emissions from dairy cattle production?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Nicholas John; Özkan, Şeyda; de Haan, M

    2018-01-01

    The European Union Effort Sharing Regulation (ESR) will require a 30% reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2030 compared with 2005 from the sectors not included in the European Emissions Trading Scheme, including agriculture. This will require the estimation of current and future...... from four farm-scale models (DairyWise, FarmAC, HolosNor and SFARMMOD) were calculated for eight dairy farming scenarios within a factorial design consisting of two climates (cool/dry and warm/wet)×two soil types (sandy and clayey)×two feeding systems (grass only and grass/maize). The milk yield per...

  2. Typologies of dairy farms with automatic milking system in northwest Spain and farmers’ satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Castro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of the dairy farms that installed an automatic milking system (AMS. A survey of 38 dairy farms with AMS, in Galicia (Spain, collected information on quantitative and qualitative variables. Following elimination of redundant variables, categorical principal component analysis identified 4 factors accounting for 43.7% of the total variance. Using these factors, the farms studied were subjected to hierarchical cluster analysis which differentiated 4 types of farms: (A farms with more leisure and quality of life where the AMS covered the expectations of farmers (29%; (B farms that removed cows more often due to AMS and farmers with more stress (34%; (C farms with little leisure and farmers with no successor (21%; (D large farms with many fulltime employees (FTE where the AMS had covered farmer’s expectations the least (11%. Generally the farms were based on a family structure with a high percentage of FTE. With the adoption of AMS these farms sought to increase milk production, save labour and have more flexibility. With 87% of farms with free cow traffic the activity that took the most of the farmer’s time was fetching cows for milking (1 h/day. Nearly 58% of farmers were completely satisfied with their AMS, although this value reached 91% in farms with herd sizes below the average which were better adapted to the use of one AMS.

  3. Farm and cow-level prevalence of bovine digital dermatitis on dairy farms in Taranaki, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D A; Heuer, C; Laven, R; Vink, W D; Chesterton, R N

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to investigate the herd and cow-level prevalence of bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) in dairy farms in the northern Taranaki region of New Zealand, and to identify whether there was any spatial clustering of herds with the disease. A survey of 224 dairy farms in the northern Taranaki region of New Zealand was undertaken from September 2014 to February 2015. Following training in robust criteria to confirm BDD visually, a technician inspected the rear feet of every milking cow on the farms during milking. The identity of cows with lesions and the feet involved were recorded. The proportion of cows affected among the inspected population (cow-level prevalence), the proportion of a herd affected (farm-level prevalence), and proportion of farms with ≥1 cow with lesions, were calculated. A bivariate K function analysis was then used to assess whether farms with ≥1 cow with lesions were clustered, after accounting for the distribution of the farms involved in the study. Bovine digital dermatitis lesions were observed on 143/224 (63.8 (95% CI=57.5-70.1)%) farms. Within-farm prevalence was 0% on 81 (36.2%) farms, between >0 and cow-level prevalence was 707/60,455 (1.2 (95% CI=0.9-3.0)%), and on affected farms was 707/41,116 (1.7 (95% CI=1.4-2.1)%). In affected cows, 268/707 (37.9%) had a lesion on left foot only, 262/707 (37.1%) on the right foot only and 177/707 (25.0%) on both feet. The K function analysis showed no evidence of clustering of farms with BDD. Bovine digital dermatitis was widespread among the survey farms, but there was no evidence that there was any clustering of herds with BDD. The cow-level prevalence on affected farms was much lower than reported elsewhere. Although the prevalence at the cow level was low, if these data are representative of other regions of New Zealand, BDD could easily become a major problem on dairy farms in New Zealand, as has been observed in other countries.

  4. Projecting carbon footprint of Canadian dairy farms under future climate conditions with the integrated farm system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy farms are an important sector of Canadian agriculture, and there is an on-going effort to assess their environmental impact. In Canada, like many northern areas of the world, climate change is expected to increase agricultural productivity. This will likely come along with changes in environme...

  5. Relating the carbon footprint of milk from Irish dairy farms to economic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, D; Hennessy, T; Moran, B; Shalloo, L

    2015-10-01

    Mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of milk or the carbon footprint (CF) of milk is a key issue for the European dairy sector given rising concerns over the potential adverse effects of climate change. Several strategies are available to mitigate GHG emissions, but producing milk with a low CF does not necessarily imply that a dairy farm is economically viable. Therefore, to understand the relationship between the CF of milk and dairy farm economic performance, the farm accountancy network database of a European Union nation (Ireland) was applied to a GHG emission model. The method used to quantify GHG emissions was life cycle assessment (LCA), which was independently certified to comply with the British standard for LCA. The model calculated annual on- and off-farm GHG emissions from imported inputs (e.g., electricity) up to the point milk was sold from the farm in CO2-equivalent (CO2-eq). Annual GHG emissions computed using LCA were allocated to milk based on the economic value of dairy farm products and expressed per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The results showed for a nationally representative sample of 221 grass-based Irish dairy farms in 2012 that gross profit averaged € 0.18/L of milk and € 1,758/ha and gross income was € 40,899/labor unit. Net profit averaged € 0.08/L of milk and € 750/ha and net income averaged € 18,125/labor unit. However, significant variability was noted in farm performance across each financial output measure. For instance, net margin per hectare of the top one-third of farms was 6.5 times higher than the bottom third. Financial performance measures were inversely correlated with the CF of milk, which averaged 1.20 kg of CO2-eq/kg of FPCM but ranged from 0.60 to 2.13 kg of CO2-eq/kg of FPCM. Partial least squares regression analysis of correlations between financial and environmental performance indicated that extending the length of the grazing season and increasing milk production

  6. Dairy farm impacts of fencing riparian land: pasture production and farm productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Sharon R; Melland, Alice R; Dorling, Lianne

    2013-11-30

    Dairy farmers are encouraged to restrict stock access by fencing riparian zones to reduce stream pollution and improve biodiversity. Many farmers are reluctant to create fenced riparian zones because of the perceived loss of productive pasture. Anecdotal reports indicate that pasture production in fenced areas is especially valued during summer months when water stress is likely to limit pasture growth in other areas of the farm. We measured pasture production, botanical composition, soil moisture, and fertility in Riparian (within 20 m of the riverbank), Flat (greater than 20 but less than 50 m from the riverbank), and Hill (elevated) areas on three commercial dairy farms from October 2006 to November 2007 in south eastern Australia. Riparian and Flat areas produced significantly more pasture, with on average approximately 25% more dry matter per ha grown in these areas compared with Hill paddocks. Percentage ryegrass was 14% lower on Hill slopes compared with Riparian and Flat areas and was compensated for by only a 5% increase in other grass species. Significant seasonal effects were observed with the difference in pasture production between Hill, and Riparian and Flat areas most pronounced in summer, due to soil moisture limitations on Hill paddocks. To examine potential productivity impacts of this lost pasture, we used a questionnaire-based survey to interview the farmers regarding their farm and riparian management activities. The additional pasture that would have been available if the riverbanks were not fenced to their current widths ranged from 6.2 to 27.2 t DM for the 2006/2007 year and would have been grown on 0.4-3.4% of their milking area. If this pasture was harvested instead of grazed, the farmers could have saved between $2000 and $8000 of their purchased fodder costs in that year. By fencing their riparian areas to 20 m for biodiversity benefits, between 2.2% and 9.8% of their milking area would be out of production amounting to about $16

  7. The use of bulk tank milk samples to monitor trends in antimicrobial resistance on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Anna Catharina B; Champagne, Staci C; Finger, Regina M; Sischo, William M

    2007-01-01

    The routine monitoring of bacteria obtained from bulk tank milk (BTM) may be an important tool for detecting farm-level trends in antimicrobial resistance on dairy farms. This study describes and compares antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica (Salmonella) and Escherichia coli recovered from dairy BTM. BTM from more than 400 dairies in a dairy-intense region of California were sampled eight times at 2- to 3-month intervals over a 29-month period. From Salmonella positive and Salmonella negative herds any one Salmonella and three E. coli isolates per sample were tested for susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials. The prevalence of multiple drug resistant (MDR) E. coli was assessed in relation to Salmonella on the farm, farm size, season, MDR Salmonella, and serovar. At each sampling period, 10-21% and 54-77% of the dairy farms were positive for Salmonella and E. coli, respectively. The most commonly recovered Salmonella serovars were Montevideo (33%), Typhimurium (14%), Dublin (13%), and Give (11%). Two-thirds, respectively, of 478 Salmonella and 1577 E. coli isolates were pan-susceptible. The antimicrobial resistance patterns of MDR Salmonella tended to be serovar dependent and were different from the antimicrobial resistance patterns of MDR E. coli. MDR E. coli were more likely to be recovered from dairies with MDR Salmonella. There were no associations between MDR E. coli and season, Salmonella serovar detected in the BTM, or dairy herd size. Bulk milk E. coli and Salmonella could be valuable to monitor the dynamics of antimicrobial resistance in dairy milk production.

  8. Performance analysis of photovoltaic plants installed in dairy cattle farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remo Alessio Malagnino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric production from renewable resources, such as solar photovoltaic (PV, is playing an increasingly essential role in the agricultural industry because of the progressive increase in the energy price from fossil fuels and the simultaneous decrease in the income deriving from farming activities. A central issue in the sustainable diffusion of PV technologies is represented by the actual energy efficiency of a PV system. For these reasons, a performance analysis has been carried out in order to assess the potentials offered by different PV plants within a defined geographical context with the aim of investigating the impact of each component has on the PV generator global efficiency and defining the main technical parameters that allow to maximise the annual specific electric energy yield of an architectonically integrated plant, installed in a dairy house, compared to a ground-mounted plant. The annual performances of three grid connected PV plants installed in the same dairy cattle farm have been analysed: two are architectonically integrated plants - i.e., a rooftop unidirectional and a multi-field systems (both 99 kWp - and the other is a ground-mounted plant (480 kWp. Furthermore, the electrical performances, estimated by the photovoltaic geographical information system (PVGIS, developed by the EU Joint Research Centre, and by an analytical estimation procedure (AEP, developed on the basis of a meteo-climatic database related to the records of the nearest weather station and integrated by the components’ technical specifications, have been compared with the actual yields. The best annual performance has been given by the ground-mounted PV system, with an actual increase of 26% and in the range of 6÷12% according to different estimations, compared to the integrated systems, which were globally less efficient (average total loss of 26÷27% compared to 24% of the ground-mounted system. The AEP and PVGIS software estimates showed a good

  9. The impact of the local dairy cattle farm toward the river water quality in Gunungpati Subdistrict Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Widiastuti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available People’s awareness on the living environment nowadays is not yet comes up to the dairy-farmer community. In fact, the dairy-farm subsector contributes load pollution in the form of waste. The waste that is produced by a dairy-farm can be in the form of solid waste and liquid waste. There is still no cultivation effort toward the wastes in a traditional dairy-farmyet, thus most of the wastes are disposed to the closest river, so that in the surrounding dairy farm area is frequently found pollution toward the water quality. The aim of this study is to identify the effect of environment pollution that is caused by local dairy farm in Gunungpati Sub-district, especially toward the river water and residents’ well. The result of this study in Nangkasawit Village before and after the dairy farm was build was still under the quality standard for the third rate water quality. In Plalangan Village, the water quality was also under the quality standard, except for COD concentration. In the Sumurejo Village there was an upturn tendency on the observation value, but the water quality was under the quality standard, except for Fe concentration. Based on the Biodiversity Index before and after the dairy farm was established in Nangkasawit, Plalangan, and Sumurejo were 2.22, 1.49, 2.11, 1.90, 1.78, and 1.88, respectively. It means that Nangkasawit showed no pollution before the dairy farm was established, while there was a medium pollution after the dairy farm establishment.  In Plalangan, the water was clear, but it was light polluted after the dairy farm was established. In Sumurejo, before and after the dairy farm establishment the water was light category pollution.

  10. The dairy industry: a brief description of production practices, trends, and farm characteristics around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douphrate, David I; Hagevoort, G Robert; Nonnenmann, Matthew W; Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Reynolds, Stephen J; Jakob, Martina; Kinsel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The global dairy industry is composed of a multitude of countries with unique production practices and consumer markets. The global average number of cows per farm is about 1-2 cows; however, as a farm business model transitions from sustenance to market production, the average herd size, and subsequent labor force increases. Dairy production is unique as an agricultural commodity because milk is produced daily, for 365 days per year. With the introduction of new technology such as the milking parlor, the global industry trend is one of increasing farm sizes. The farm sizes are the largest in the United States; however, the European Union produces the most milk compared with other global producers. Dairy production is essential for economic development and sustainable communities in rural areas. However, the required capital investment and availability of local markets and labor are continued challenges. Due to farm expansion, international producers are faced with new challenges related to assuring food safety and a safe working environment for their workforce. These challenges exist in addition to the cultural and language barriers related to an increasing dependence on immigrant labor in many regions of the world. Continued success of the global dairy industry is vital. Therefore, research should continue to address the identification of occupational risk factors associated with injuries and illnesses, as well as develop cost-effective interventions and practices that lead to the minimization or elimination of these injuries and illnesses on a global scale, among our valuable population of dairy producers and workers.

  11. Risk Factors for Developing Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders during Dairy Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohammad Taghavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dairy farming work involves frequent use of poor postures. These postures may increase the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders among dairy workers. Objective: To assess postural load during performance of various tasks related to dairy farming. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a dairy farm in Iran. In order to assess postural load, tasks related to dairy farming were divided into 3 categories: feeding, milking, and manure disposal. Each task was then divided into its constituent work subdivisions (tasks. Finally, the working posture for each work subdivision was evaluated using Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA. Results: Based on the results from the REBA score, the poorest risk scores (risk level 4 were associated with the following tasks: (1 manure disposal, (2 filling feed bags, and (3 pouring milk into a bucket. Other tasks such as filling corn containers, pouring corn into the milling machine, preparing the feed, pouring food into mangers, attaching the milking machine, and pouring milk from a bucket into a tank imposed high risk (risk level 3. The risk for the tasks of washing and disinfecting the udders were assessed as medium risks. Conclusion: The risk levels associated with most of the tasks on the studied farm were unacceptably high. Therefore, it is essential to implement ergonomic interventions to reduce risk levels of the tasks.

  12. A multivariate and stochastic approach to identify key variables to rank dairy farms on profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzori, A S; Tedeschi, L O; Cannas, A

    2013-05-01

    The economic efficiency of dairy farms is the main goal of farmers. The objective of this work was to use routinely available information at the dairy farm level to develop an index of profitability to rank dairy farms and to assist the decision-making process of farmers to increase the economic efficiency of the entire system. A stochastic modeling approach was used to study the relationships between inputs and profitability (i.e., income over feed cost; IOFC) of dairy cattle farms. The IOFC was calculated as: milk revenue + value of male calves + culling revenue - herd feed costs. Two databases were created. The first one was a development database, which was created from technical and economic variables collected in 135 dairy farms. The second one was a synthetic database (sDB) created from 5,000 synthetic dairy farms using the Monte Carlo technique and based on the characteristics of the development database data. The sDB was used to develop a ranking index as follows: (1) principal component analysis (PCA), excluding IOFC, was used to identify principal components (sPC); and (2) coefficient estimates of a multiple regression of the IOFC on the sPC were obtained. Then, the eigenvectors of the sPC were used to compute the principal component values for the original 135 dairy farms that were used with the multiple regression coefficient estimates to predict IOFC (dRI; ranking index from development database). The dRI was used to rank the original 135 dairy farms. The PCA explained 77.6% of the sDB variability and 4 sPC were selected. The sPC were associated with herd profile, milk quality and payment, poor management, and reproduction based on the significant variables of the sPC. The mean IOFC in the sDB was 0.1377 ± 0.0162 euros per liter of milk (€/L). The dRI explained 81% of the variability of the IOFC calculated for the 135 original farms. When the number of farms below and above 1 standard deviation (SD) of the dRI were calculated, we found that 21

  13. Comparing risk in conventional and organic dairy farming in the Netherlands: an empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berentsen, P B M; Kovacs, K; van Asseldonk, M A P M

    2012-07-01

    This study was undertaken to contribute to the understanding of why most dairy farmers do not convert to organic farming. Therefore, the objective of this research was to assess and compare risks for conventional and organic farming in the Netherlands with respect to gross margin and the underlying price and production variables. To investigate the risk factors a farm accountancy database was used containing panel data from both conventional and organic representative Dutch dairy farms (2001-2007). Variables with regard to price and production risk were identified using a gross margin analysis scheme. Price risk variables were milk price and concentrate price. The main production risk variables were milk yield per cow, roughage yield per hectare, and veterinary costs per cow. To assess risk, an error component implicit detrending method was applied and the resulting detrended standard deviations were compared between conventional and organic farms. Results indicate that the risk included in the gross margin per cow is significantly higher in organic farming. This is caused by both higher price and production risks. Price risks are significantly higher in organic farming for both milk price and concentrate price. With regard to production risk, only milk yield per cow poses a significantly higher risk in organic farming. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A longitudinal cohort study of acute puerperal metritis cases in Swedish dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordell, Anna; Unnerstad, Helle Ericsson; Nyman, Ann; Gustafsson, Hans; Båge, Renée

    2016-11-10

    Acute puerperal metritis affects cows during the early postpartum period and causes fever, fetid vaginal discharge and general depression. The disease is severe and treatment with antimicrobials is often required. This study followed 79 Swedish dairy cows with acute puerperal metritis with registered treatment and outcome in terms of recovery. Bacteria isolated from the uterus and their susceptibility to penicillin were studied. Clinical cases were assigned by participating practitioners who examined the cows, performed uterine swab sampling, decided treatment and provided information about cow health and calving conditions. Fertility and culling data were collected from the official Swedish milk and health recording scheme. Recovery from disease was defined in four levels; as a cow that survived 1 or 4 months, was inseminated and subsequently became pregnant. Intervals from dates of first and latest calving to insemination date were studied. The most common bacterial findings were a mixed culture of Escherichia coli and bacteria such as Gram positive cocci, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Clostridium spp. or Trueperella pyogenes. The Gram positive cocci, Pasteurella spp. and F. necrophorum were generally susceptible to penicillin. The majority of cows (70%) were treated with penicillin in accordance with the Swedish policy on treatment of metritis while 19% were treated with tetracycline and 8% were not treated with antimicrobials. Recovery rates were similar between treatments. Besides "calving to last insemination" interval (CLI) that was 5 days shorter than the national mean, fertility was slightly reduced compared to national means. "Calving to first insemination" interval (CFI) was 4 days longer than national mean and number of inseminations/cow increased from 1.9 to 2.1. Escherichia coli culture positive cows did not become pregnant to the same extent as cows without E. coli in the uterus (P = 0.046). Twin births resulted in a longer CFI (P = 0.034). The

  15. The relation between input-output transformation and gastrointestinal nematode infections on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voort, M; Van Meensel, J; Lauwers, L; Van Huylenbroeck, G; Charlier, J

    2016-02-01

    Efficiency analysis is used for assessing links between technical efficiency (TE) of livestock farms and animal diseases. However, previous studies often do not make the link with the allocation of inputs and mainly present average effects that ignore the often huge differences among farms. In this paper, we studied the relationship between exposure to gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections, the TE and the input allocation on dairy farms. Although the traditional cost allocative efficiency (CAE) indicator adequately measures how a given input allocation differs from the cost-minimising input allocation, they do not represent the unique input allocation of farms. Similar CAE scores may be obtained for farms with different input allocations. Therefore, we propose an adjusted allocative efficiency index (AAEI) to measure the unique input allocation of farms. Combining this AAEI with the TE score allows determining the unique input-output position of each farm. The method is illustrated by estimating efficiency scores using data envelopment analysis (DEA) on a sample of 152 dairy farms in Flanders for which both accountancy and parasitic monitoring data were available. Three groups of farms with a different input-output position can be distinguished based on cluster analysis: (1) technically inefficient farms, with a relatively low use of concentrates per 100 l milk and a high exposure to infection, (2) farms with an intermediate TE, relatively high use of concentrates per 100 l milk and a low exposure to infection, (3) farms with the highest TE, relatively low roughage use per 100 l milk and a relatively high exposure to infection. Correlation analysis indicates for each group how the level of exposure to GI nematodes is associated or not with improved economic performance. The results suggest that improving both the economic performance and exposure to infection seems only of interest for highly TE farms. The findings indicate that current farm recommendations

  16. Estimating the effect of mastitis on the profitability of Irish dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, U; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Begley, N; McCoy, F; O'Brien, B; O'Grady, L; Shalloo, L

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this paper was to estimate the effect of the costs of mastitis on the profitability of Irish dairy farms as indicated by various ranges of bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC). Data were collected from 4 sources and included milk production losses, cases treated, and on-farm practices around mastitis management. The Moorepark Dairy Systems Model, which simulates dairying systems inside the farm gate, was used to carry out the analysis. The cost components of mastitis that affect farm profitability and that were included in the model were milk losses, culling, diagnostic testing, treatment, veterinary attention, discarded milk, and penalties. Farms were grouped by 5 BMSCC thresholds of ≤ 100,000, 100,001-200,000, 200,001-300,000, 300,001-400,000, and > 400,000 cells/mL. The ≤ 100,000 cells/mL threshold was taken as the baseline and the other 4 thresholds were compared relative to this baseline. For a 40-ha farm, the analysis found that as BMSCC increased, milk receipts decreased from €148,843 at a BMSCC 400,000 cells/mL. In addition, as BMSCC increased, livestock receipts increased by 17%, from €43,304 at a BMSCC 400,000 cells/mL. This reflected the higher replacement rates as BMSCC increased and the associated cull cow value. Total farm receipts decreased from €192,147 at the baseline ( 400,000 cells/mL. Total farm costs increased as BMSCC increased, reflecting treatment, veterinary, diagnostic testing, and replacement heifer costs. At the baseline, total farm costs were €161,085, increasing to €177,343 at a BMSCC > 400,000 cells/mL. Net farm profit decreased as BMSCC increased, from €31,252/yr at the baseline to €11,748/yr at a BMSCC > 400,000 cells/mL. This analysis highlights the impact that mastitis has on the profitability of Irish dairy farms. The analysis presented here can be used to develop a "cost of mastitis" tool for use on Irish dairy farms to motivate farmers to acknowledge the scale of the problem, realize the value

  17. Cultivation of algae consortium in a dairy farm wastewater for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farm wastewaters are potential resources for production of microalgae biofuels. A study was conducted to evaluate the capability of production of biodiesel from consortium of native microalgae culture in dairy farm treated wastewater. Native algal strains were isolated from dairy farm wastewaters collection tank (untreated wastewater as well as from holding tank (treated wastewater. The consortium members were selected on the basis of fluorescence response after treating with Nile red reagent. Preliminary studies of two commercial and consortium of ten native strains of algae showed good growth in wastewaters. A consortium of native strains was found capable to remove more than 98% nutrients from treated wastewater. The biomass production and lipid content of consortium cultivated in treated wastewater were 153.54 t ha−1 year−1 and 16.89%, respectively. 72.70% of algal lipid obtained from consortium could be converted into biodiesel.

  18. Efficiency Measurement in Greek Dairy Farms: Stochastic Frontier vs. Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Psychoudakis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Parametric Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA and non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA have become very popular in the analysis of productive efficiency. This paper undertakes a comparison of the SFA and the constant returns to scale (CRS and variable returns to scale (VRS output-oriented DEA models, based on a sample of 165 dairy farms in Greece. However, the aim of this paper is not only to compare estimates of technical efficiency obtained from two approaches, but also to produce efficiency data about the farms studied, which have implications for agricultural policy to improve dairy production. The results indicate that there is a potential for increasing production in the dairy farms through improved efficiency.

  19. Technical efficiency and technology adoption: a study of organic farming in the French dairy sector

    OpenAIRE

    Latruffe, Laure; Nauges, Celine; Desjeux, Yann

    2014-01-01

    AgriBio3 PEPP « Rôle de la Performance Economique des exploitations et des filières, et des Politiques Publiques, dans le développement de l’AB »; Using original survey data from France we study the importance of technical efficiency as a potential determinant of farm conversion to organic farming in the dairy sector. We run a two-stage analysis. In the first stage we calculate technical efficiency of farms when they were conventional (including organic farms before they convert) as well as t...

  20. Assessment of performance of smallholder dairy farms in Kenya: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-02-02

    Feb 2, 2015 ... that any efforts towards reducing land sub-division and promotion of enterprise specialization could increase milk affordability. Key words: smallholder dairy, cost and technical efficiency, ..... (1) A. Situational analysis of the dairy sub-sector. Nairobi, Kenya. Moran, J., 2009. Business management for tropical.

  1. Mastitis pathogens prevalent in dairy cattle at Magadu farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kanamycin and Norfloxacin showed to be the best drugs of choice for treatment. The economic losses due to reduction in milk yield, changes in milk composition and discarded milk are serious burden to the dairy industry. Mastitis can be subclinical, therefore, it is important to screen dairy animal frequently to determine the ...

  2. A Long-Term Study of Neospora caninum Infection in a Swedish Dairy Herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uggla Arvid

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A longitudinal study was performed in a Swedish dairy herd where Neospora caninum had been isolated from a stillborn calf. Starting in autumn 1994, blood samples from all female animals in the herd were collected once yearly until 1999. The sera were analysed for presence of IgG1 antibodies to N. caninum by the iscom ELISA, and by an avidity ELISA to establish the timing of infection. In addition, data on reproductive performance were compiled. During the study the percentage of seropositive female animals increased from 63% to 87%. In 1994 a large number of young animals tested seropositive although their dams were seronegative, indicating that a transmission of the parasite other than the vertical had recently occurred. Low avidity values supported this assumption. The annual abortion rate increased from a mean of 2% before the initiation of the study to 9% in 1994–1998. During the same time, as judged by the avidity data, a large proportion of the animals shifted from being recently to being chronically infected. The source of the external infection in the herd could not be identified.

  3. Methanogenic Population and CH4 Production in Swedish Dairy Cows Fed Different Levels of Forage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnürer, A.; Arthurson, V.; Bertilsson, J.

    2012-01-01

    Methanogenic community structure, methane production (CH4), and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles were investigated in Swedish dairy cows fed a diet with a forage/concentrate ratio of 500/500 or 900/100 g/kg of dry matter (DM) of total DM intake (DMI). The rumen methanogenic population was evaluated using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis, 16S rRNA gene libraries, and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Mean CH4 yields did not differ (P > 0.05) between diets, being 16.9 and 20.2 g/kg DMI for the 500/500 and 900/100 diets, respectively. The T-RFLP analysis revealed that populations differed between individual cows and that each individual population responded differently to the diets. The 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed that Methanobrevibacter spp. dominated for both diets. CH4 production was positively correlated with a dominance of sequences representing T-RFs related to Methanobrevibacter thaueri, Methanobrevibacter millerae, and Methanobrevibacter smithii relative to Methanobrevibacter ruminantium and Methanobrevibacter olleyae. Total numbers of methanogens and total numbers of Methanobacteriales were significantly higher with the 500/500 diet (P cows. PMID:22752163

  4. Grazing dairy cows in North-West Europe : Economic farm performance and future developments with emphasis on the Dutch situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijs, J.W.; Daatselaar, C.H.G.; Helming, J.F.M.; Jager, J.H.; Beldman, A.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    The dairy sector is an important contributor to food production, economic activity and land use in the European Union. Grazing has long been a traditional element of dairy farming in the EU. Current developments in the dairy sector appear to result in a decline in grazing. The World Society for the

  5. Energy and Carbon Impact of Precision Livestock Farming Technologies Implementation in the Milk Chain: From Dairy Farm to Cheese Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Todde

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Precision Livestock Farming (PLF is being developed in livestock farms to relieve the human workload and to help farmers to optimize production and management procedure. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the consequences in energy intensity and the related carbon impact, from dairy farm to cheese factory, due to the implementation of a real-time milk analysis and separation (AfiMilk MCS in milking parlors. The research carried out involved three conventional dairy farms, the collection and delivery of milk from dairy farms to cheese factory and the processing line of a traditional soft cheese into a dairy factory. The AfiMilk MCS system installed in the milking parlors allowed to obtain a large number of information related to the quantity and quality of milk from each individual cow and to separate milk with two different composition (one with high coagulation properties and the other one with low coagulation properties, with different percentage of separation. Due to the presence of an additional milkline and the AfiMilk MCS components, the energy requirements and the related environmental impact at farm level were slightly higher, among 1.1% and 4.4%. The logistic of milk collection was also significantly reorganized in view of the collection of two separate type of milk, hence, it leads an increment of 44% of the energy requirements. The logistic of milk collection and delivery represents the process which the highest incidence in energy consumption occurred after the installation of the PLF technology. Thanks to the availability of milk with high coagulation properties, the dairy plant, produced traditional soft cheese avoiding the standardization of the formula, as a result, the energy uses decreased about 44%, while considering the whole chain, the emissions of carbon dioxide was reduced by 69%. In this study, the application of advance technologies in milking parlors modified not only the on-farm management but mainly the

  6. Modelling the interactions between C and N farm balances and GHG emissions from confinement dairy farms in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prado, A; Mas, K; Pardo, G; Gallejones, P

    2013-11-01

    There is world-wide concern for the contribution of dairy farming to global warming. However, there is still a need to improve the quantification of the C-footprint of dairy farming systems under different production systems and locations since most of the studies (e.g. at farm-scale or using LCA) have been carried out using too simplistic and generalised approaches. A modelling approach integrating existing and new sub-models has been developed and used to simulate the C and N flows and to predict the GHG burden of milk production (from the cradle to the farm gate) from 17 commercial confinement dairy farms in the Basque Country (northern Spain). We studied the relationship between their GHG emissions, and their management and economic performance. Additionally, we explored some of the effects on the GHG results of the modelling methodology choice. The GHG burden values resulting from this study (0.84-2.07 kg CO2-eq kg(-l) milk ECM), although variable, were within the range of values of existing studies. It was evidenced, however, that the methodology choice used for prediction had a large effect on the results. Methane from the rumen and manures, and N2O emissions from soils comprised most of the GHG emissions for milk production. Diet was the strongest factor explaining differences in GHG emissions from milk production. Moreover, the proportion of feed from the total cattle diet that could have directly been used to feed humans (e.g. cereals) was a good indicator to predict the C-footprint of milk. Not only were some other indicators, such as those in relation with farm N use efficiency, good proxies to estimate GHG emissions per ha or per kg milk ECM (C-footprint of milk) but they were also positively linked with farm economic performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Variation in enteric methane emissions among cows on commercial dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M J; Potterton, S L; Craigon, J; Saunders, N; Wilcox, R H; Hunter, M; Goodman, J R; Garnsworthy, P C

    2014-09-01

    Methane (CH4) emissions by dairy cows vary with feed intake and diet composition. Even when fed on the same diet at the same intake, however, variation between cows in CH4 emissions can be substantial. The extent of variation in CH4 emissions among dairy cows on commercial farms is unknown, but developments in methodology now permit quantification of CH4 emissions by individual cows under commercial conditions. The aim of this research was to assess variation among cows in emissions of eructed CH4 during milking on commercial dairy farms. Enteric CH4 emissions from 1964 individual cows across 21 farms were measured for at least 7 days/cow using CH4 analysers at robotic milking stations. Cows were predominantly of Holstein Friesian breed and remained on the same feeding systems during sampling. Effects of explanatory variables on average CH4 emissions per individual cow were assessed by fitting a linear mixed model. Significant effects were found for week of lactation, daily milk yield and farm. The effect of milk yield on CH4 emissions varied among farms. Considerable variation in CH4 emissions was observed among cows after adjusting for fixed and random effects, with the CV ranging from 22% to 67% within farms. This study confirms that enteric CH4 emissions vary among cows on commercial farms, suggesting that there is considerable scope for selecting individual cows and management systems with reduced emissions.

  8. Assessment of herd management on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiglbauer, K E; Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Richert, R; Schukken, Y H; Ruegg, P L; Gamroth, M

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate management characteristics on organic and similarly sized conventional dairy farms located in New York, Wisconsin, and Oregon. Data from 192 organic farms (ORG), 64 conventional nongrazing farms (CON-NG), and 36 conventional grazing farms (CON-GR) were collected during farm visits and were size-matched and analyzed. The average lactation number of animals on ORG and CON-GR farms was 2.6 lactations, which was greater than that on CON-NG farms (2.3 lactations). A greater percentage of first-lactation heifers were found on conventional farms than on ORG farms. Facilities used by adult animals, including housing and milking facilities, did not differ among the grazing systems. Cattle on conventional farms were fed approximately twice as much grain as cattle on ORG farms and had greater milk production. Little difference was found for the average reported somatic cell count and standard plate count, suggesting that milk quality is not dependent on grazing system. Milking procedures were similar across all 3 grazing systems, indicating that an industry standard now exists for milking and that milk quality problems will need to be addressed with other management problems in mind. Although some disease prevention measures were commonly utilized on ORG farms, such as keeping a closed herd and having a written record of treatments administered to the animals, the use of outside support and vaccinations were found to be less prevalent on organic farms than on conventional farms. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. New Zealand Dairy Farming: Milking Our Environment for All Its Worth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Kyleisha J.; Joy, Michael K.; Death, Russell G.

    2015-09-01

    Over the past two decades there have been major increases in dairy production in New Zealand. This increase in intensity has required increased use of external inputs, in particular fertilizer, feed, and water. Intensified dairy farming thus incurs considerable environmental externalities: impacts that are not paid for directly by the dairy farmer. These externalities are left for the wider New Zealand populace to deal with, both economically and environmentally. This is counter-intuitive given the dairy industry itself relies on a `clean green' image to maximize returns. This is the first nationwide assessment of some of the environmental costs of the recent increase of dairy intensification in New Zealand. Significant costs arise from nitrate contamination of drinking water, nutrient pollution to lakes, soil compaction, and greenhouse gas emissions. At the higher end, the estimated cost of some environmental externalities surpasses the 2012 dairy export revenue of NZ11.6 billion and almost reaches the combined export revenue and dairy's contribution to Gross Domestic Product in 2010 of NZ5 billion. For the dairy industry to accurately report on its profitability and maintain its sustainable marketing label, these external costs should be reported. This assessment is in fact extremely conservative as many impacts have not been valued, thus, the total negative external impact of intensified dairying is probably grossly underestimated.

  10. Parasites in dairy cattle farms in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Pascoeti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation among type and size of the farms related to the management of production and especially the presence and control of parasites. Materials and methods. To accomplish the above, 65 farms were used: 56 of semi-extensive system (cows in pastures, classified as low density farms (n=15, up to 15/cows, medium density farms (n=20; between 16-30/cows and large density farms (n=21; over 31/cows. It was also included nine farms freestall system (n=9; confinement, over 70 cows as part of the study population. Results. In the farms visited for the study can be noticed that the farms that had the higher level of technological improvement in managements practice were properties in high level (3 and freestall (4. In most of the farms there were observed the presence of ticks and flies, regardless of density of farms. Feces samples collected from 650 cows (n=10/farm, and analyzed using McMaster showed that 191 cows were positive for parasites. The presence of antibodies in bulk milk tank occurred in 36 (55.38%; CI95% 42-67 to Neospora caninum of the studied farms. Conclusions. We also conclude that N. caninum is present in cattle herds in Western Santa Catarina, and may be linked to reproductive problems in cows.

  11. Impact of farm modernity on the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in dairy farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marescaux, Alexia; Degano, Bruno; Soumagne, Thibaud; Thaon, Isabelle; Laplante, Jean-Jacques; Dalphin, Jean-Charles

    2016-02-01

    Dairy farming is associated with an excess of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The dairy industry has been changing for the past three decades with larger, more efficient farms and potentially less exposure to agents involved in COPD development. However, the impact of farm modernisation on COPD prevalence is unknown. We studied respiratory symptoms, respiratory function by spirometry and tobacco smoking in 575 male dairy farmers working either in traditional or in modern farms in the French Doubs region. COPD was defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criterion (forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) system for the animals (model 2). The prevalence of COPD in dairy farmers was 12.0 ± 2.7% (GOLD), and 5.6 ± 4.1% (LLN definition). By multivariate analysis using the LLN definition, tobacco smoking (OR (95% CI) 3.96 (1.53 to 10.3) and 3.42 (1.32 to 8.84) for models 1 and 2, respectively) and characteristics of traditional farms (1.97 (1.02 to 4.47) and 5.20 (1.73 to 15.64) for models 1 and 2, respectively) were associated with higher COPD prevalence. Working in a traditional farm plus current smoking had an additive effect on COPD prevalence in model 1 and a synergistic effect in model 2. These findings support a positive impact of farm modernity on COPD prevalence in dairy farmers. Occupational and smoking-related risk factors are of nearly the same magnitude. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Dairy Herd Mastitis Program in Argentina: Farm Clusters and Effects on Bulk Milk Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Vissio1*, SA Dieser2, CG Raspanti2, JA Giraudo1, CI Bogni2, LM Odierno2 and AJ Larriestra1

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has been conducted to characterize dairy farm clusters according to mastitis control program practiced among small and medium dairy producer from Argentina, and also to evaluate the effect of such farm cluster patterns on bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC. Two samples of 51 (cross-sectional and 38 (longitudinal herds were selected to identify farm clusters and study the influence of management on monthly BMSCC, respectively. The cross-sectional sample involved the milking routine and facilities assessment of each herd visited. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to find the most discriminating farm attributes in the cross sectional sample. Afterward, the herd cluster typologies were identified in the longitudinal sample. Herd monthly BMSCC average was evaluated during 12 months fitting a linear mixed model. Two clusters were identified, the farms in the Cluster I applied a comprehensive mastitis program in opposite to Cluster II. Post-dipping, dry cow therapy and milking machine test were routinely applied in Cluster I. In the longitudinal study, 14 out of 38 dairy herds were labeled as Cluster I and the rest were assigned to Cluster II. Significant difference in BMSCC was found between cluster I and II (60,000 cells/mL. The present study showed the relevance and potential impact of promoting mastitis control practices among small and medium sized dairy producers in Argentina.

  13. Dairy farm demographics and management factors that played a role in the re-emergence of brucellosis on dairy cattle farms in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukana, Andrew; Gummow, B

    2017-08-01

    Little is published on risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis in Pacific island communities. The 2009 re-emergence of bovine brucellosis in Fiji enabled us to do an interview-based questionnaire survey of 81 farms in the Wainivesi locality of the Tailevu province on the main island of Fiji to investigate what risk factors could have played a role in the re-emergence of the disease. The survey was conducted on 68 farms that had no positive cases of bovine brucellosis and on 13 farms in the same area where cattle had returned a positive result to the Brucella Rose Bengal test. Descriptive statistical methods were used to describe the demographic data while univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to evaluate the association between the selected risk factors and the presence of brucellosis on the farms at the time of the outbreak. The demographics of Fijian dairy farms are presented in the article and the biosecurity implications of those farming systems are discussed. Two risk factors were strongly associated with farms having brucellosis, and these were history of reactor cattle to brucellosis and or bovine tuberculosis on the farm (OR = 29, P ≤ 0.01) and farms that practised sharing of water sources for cattle within and with outside farms (OR = 39, P ≤ 0.01). Possible reasons why these were risk factors are also discussed. The potential risks for human health was also high as the use of personal protective equipment was low (15%). A high proportion of farmers (62%) could not recognise brucellosis thus contributing to the low frequency of disease reports (44%) made. The article also highlights other important risk factors which could be attributed to farming practices in the region and which could contribute to public health risks and the re-emergence of diseases.

  14. Impact of preparing for OSHA local emphasis program inspections of New York dairy farms: Case studies and financial cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, Anne M; Vargha, Marybeth; Tallman, Nancy; Scribani, Melissa B; Kelsey, Timothy W

    2016-03-01

    OSHA inspection of dairy farms began in July 1, 2014 in New York State. As of September 2014, a total of eight farms were randomly selected for inspection. This case study addresses how dairy farm managers prepared for these inspections, and identifies farm level costs preparing for inspection and/or being inspected. Four farms that were OSHA inspected and 12 farms that were not inspected were included in this mixed method evaluation using a multimodal (telephone, email, or mail) survey. Descriptive analysis was carried out using frequencies, proportions, means, and medians. Overall, the impact of OSHA inspections was positive, leading to improved safety management and physical changes on the farm and worker trainings, although the farmers' perspectives about OSHA inspection were mixed. The cost of compliance was low relative to estimated overall production costs. Clarifications and engineering solutions for specific dairy farm hazard exposures are needed to facilitate compliance with OSHA regulations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Role of input self-sufficiency in the economic and environmental sustainability of specialised dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebacq, T; Baret, P V; Stilmant, D

    2015-03-01

    Increasing input self-sufficiency is often viewed as a target to improve sustainability of dairy farms. However, few studies have specifically analysed input self-sufficiency, by including several technical inputs and without only focussing on animal feeding, in order to explore its impact on farm sustainability. To address this gap, our work has three objectives as follows: (1) identifying the structural characteristics required by specialised dairy farms located in the grassland area to be self-sufficient; (2) analysing the relationships between input self-sufficiency, environmental and economic sustainability; and (3) studying how the farms react to a decrease in milk price according to their self-sufficiency degree. Based on farm accounting databases, we categorised 335 Walloon specialised conventional dairy farms into four classes according to their level of input self-sufficiency. To this end, we used as proxy the indicator of economic autonomy - that is, the ratio between costs of inputs related to animal production, crop production and energy use and the total gross product. Classes were then compared using multiple comparison tests and canonical discriminant analysis. A total of 30 organic farms - among which 63% had a high level of economic autonomy - were considered separately and compared with the most autonomous class. We showed that a high degree of economic autonomy is associated, in conventional farms, with a high proportion of permanent grassland in the agricultural area. The most autonomous farms used less input - especially animal feeding - for a same output level, and therefore combined good environmental and economic performances. Our results also underlined that, in a situation of decrease in milk price, the least autonomous farms had more latitude to decrease their input-related costs without decreasing milk production. Their incomes per work unit were, therefore, less impacted by falling prices, but remained lower than those of more

  16. On-farm methane measurements during milking correlate with total methane production by individual dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Garnsworthy, P. C.; Craigon, J.; Hernandez-Medrano, J.H.; Saunders, N.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether measurement of methane emissions by individual dairy cows during milking could provide a useful technique for monitoring on-farm methane emissions. To quantify methane emissions from individual cows on farm, we developed a novel technique based on sampling air released by eructation during milking. Eructation frequency and methane released per eructation were used to estimate methane emission rate. For 82 cows, methane emission rate durin...

  17. RESEARCH ON MILK COST, RETURN AND PROFITABILITY IN DAIRY FARMING

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-01-01

    The paper aimed to the relationship between milk cost in terms of material cost and labor cost and estimate theinfluence of these costs on returns coming from milk and profitability in 5 small dairy...

  18. The heat stress for workers employed in a dairy farm

    OpenAIRE

    Marucci, A; D. Marucci; D. Monarca; Cecchini, M.; Colantoni, A; Di Giacinto, S.; A. Cappuccini

    2013-01-01

    The italian dairy production is characterized by high heterogeneity. The typology quantitatively more important (80% of national production) is represented by cow’s milk cheeses (Grana Padano cheese, string cheese, Parmesan cheese, etc.),while the cheese from buffalo’s milk (especially string cheese such as mozzarella ) and cheese from sheep and goats represents respectively 4% and 8% of the national dairy production, and are linked to specific regional contexts. Some phases of the cycle of m...

  19. Intensive dairy farming systems from Holland and Brazil: SWOT analyse comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Augusto Cortêz Passetti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Intensive systems of milk production in Brazil and Holland are compared by SWOT analysis. Twenty-one farms, 10 in Wageningen, central region of Holland, and 11 in Castro, central-eastern region of the state of Paraná, Brazil, were sampled. Data were retrieved from semi-structured interviews with the owners or people responsible for dairy activities, using a questionnaire guide and a digital recorder. After results were analysed, a table was elaborated representing the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and risks for each country. Dairy farms in Holland were uniform, or rather, small and medium-sized farms with high production. It has also been observed that Dutch farms have several problems due to high intensification, for example, hoof diseases with great economic loss. In the case of Brazilian dairy farms, several types of systems and degrees were detected. Brazilian production in the region analysed features a higher quantity than that in Holland, with less intensity when compared to that on Dutch farms.

  20. Parameters affecting the environmental impact of a range of dairy farming systems in Denmark, Germany and Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerci, Matteo; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Bava, L.

    2013-01-01

    The environmental impact of 12 dairy farms in Denmark, Germany and Italy was evaluated using an LCA approach and the most important parameters influencing their environmental sustainability were identified. The farms represent different production methods (organic vs. conventional), summer feeding...... of conventional soymeal in the feed concentrate. There were strong and positive correlations between the four impact categories, and overall the results indicate that improving greenhouse gas emissions would improve the general environmental sustainability of the dairy farm. The land occupation was lowest...

  1. Characterization of the dairy farm environment in Great Britain and the effect of the farm environment on cow life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, M J; Brotherstone, S; Lawrence, A B; White, I M S

    2007-11-01

    Dairy farms vary a great deal in the feeding and management systems that are used. These differences affect the performance of the cows, and some genotypes may be affected more than others. If effects of such genotype-by-environment interactions (GxE) are large, then farmers must be made aware of them to make informed breeding decisions. To investigate GxE, a classification system for farm environments was developed based on national- and fine-level data from dairy herds across the United Kingdom. The national data included herd and yield characteristics and local weather information. The fine-level data included information on feeding and management systems on farms, and was obtained from survey results from 778 farms. A principal components analysis of the surveys identified 2 major dimensions characterizing the data. The first dimension explained 14.6% of the variation and was related to the level of production intensity. The second dimension explained 11.5% of the variation and was related to climate. Information on milk yield, herd characteristics, and climate was then extracted from national databases for the survey farms. A canonical correlation analysis was used to relate the survey data to the variables extracted from the national data set to determine the most relevant variables. The canonical correlation between the chosen sets of national data and survey variables was 0.62. This environmental classification was then used to determine how the farm environment affects the life span of dairy cows. The life span of the daughters of 1,000 sires was related to the type of farm environment. The daughters of a majority of sires showed a "plastic" response, with increased life span in less intensive farms. The daughters of a smaller number of sires showed a more generalized response, with life span being less affected by the environment. This GxE suggested that sires vary in the sensitivity of their daughters to different farm environments. This variation in

  2. Relationship between dairy cow genetic merit and profit on commercial spring calving dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsbottom, G; Cromie, A R; Horan, B; Berry, D P

    2012-07-01

    Because not all animal factors influencing profitability can be included in total merit breeding indices for profitability, the association between animal total merit index and true profitability, taking cognisance of all factors associated with costs and revenues, is generally not known. One method to estimate such associations is at the herd level, associating herd average genetic merit with herd profitability. The objective of this study was to primarily relate herd average genetic merit for a range of traits, including the Irish total merit index, with indicators of performance, including profitability, using correlation and multiple regression analyses. Physical, genetic and financial performance data from 1131 Irish seasonal calving pasture-based dairy farms were available following edits; data on some herds were available for more than 1 year of the 3-year study period (2007 to 2009). Herd average economic breeding index (EBI) was associated with reduced herd average phenotypic milk yield but with greater milk composition, resulting in higher milk prices. Moderate positive correlations (0.26 to 0.61) existed between genetic merit for an individual trait and average herd performance for that trait (e.g. genetic merit for milk yield and average per cow milk yield). Following adjustment for year, stocking rate, herd size and quantity of purchased feed in the multiple regression analysis, average herd EBI was positively and linearly associated with net margin per cow and per litre as well as gross revenue output per cow and per litre. The change in net margin per cow per unit change in the total merit index was €1.94 (s.e. = 0.42), which was not different from the expectation of €2. This study, based on a large data set of commercial herds with accurate information on profitability and genetic merit, confirms that, after accounting for confounding factors, the change in herd profitability per unit change in herd genetic merit for the total merit index is

  3. Short communication: Effectiveness of tools provided by a dairy company on udder health in Dutch dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeneveld, W; Velthuis, A G J; Hogeveen, H

    2014-03-01

    A Dutch dairy company initiated a quality system to support dairy farmers to improve sustainability on their farm. Improvement of udder health is defined by the dairy company as one of the sustainability items. A part of that quality system is to offer farmers 3 tools to improve the udder health status of the herd. The first tool is an Udder Health Workshop at which farmers make a farm-specific action plan to improve the udder health situation in their herd. The second tool is the Udder Health Navigator, which is an internet-based program to gain insight in the actual udder health situation at the farm. The third tool is the Udder Health Checklist, which is available on the internet and it identifies farm-specific risks for udder health problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of these tools in improving udder health. The bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) was used as the measure of herd udder health performance. In total, 605 farms attended the Udder Health Workshop, 988 farms completed the Udder Health Navigator, and 1,855 farms completed the Udder Health Checklist in 2012. Information on BMSCC records (2 records per month) was available for 12,782 Dutch dairy farms during the years 2011 and 2012. For every farm, the average BMSCC of all months during the years 2012 and 2011 were calculated. This resulted in 306,768 average monthly observations of the BMSCC. Subsequently, all months after the completion of one of the tools were assigned a 1, and all other months were assigned a 0. A statistical analysis was carried out to compare the average monthly BMSCC of the farms that completed one or more tools with farms that did not complete one of the tools. Both completing the Udder Health Navigator and the Udder Health Checklist had a significant association with a lower average monthly BMSCC. The effect of the Udder Health Navigator and Udder Health Checklist on the BMSCC were greater in herds with a BMSCC in 2011 of 200,000 to 250,000 cells

  4. Optimization of dairy based farming agricultural in critical land area of Yogyakarta Special Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elan Masbula

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A study has been done to provide a conceptual basis for the development of agricultural system in critical land area in Yogyakarta Special Teritory as the smallest production unit to (1 determine optimum dairy farming based agriculture for the area and income maximization on either farmer own inputs or with CAFlTAL aid provided by a funding party, (2 to develop a model for developing farming system based on dairy farming in critical land area in Yogyakarta Special Teritory.Methods being used multistage problem solving approach to the problem encountered in farming system as practiced in Glagaharjo Village, Sub District of Cangkringan, Sleman with Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA and Agro-ecosystem Analysis as diagnostic activities. Farm record keeping and survey to fourty respondents purposively selected were then conducted. Using Linear Programming (LPM, a normative solution, under the imposed constraints for each activity, was obtained to see development effectivity of dairy based farming agricultural system. The result indicated that land resources had not managed optimally. Out of an average possession of 1,5 ha dry land, only 0,6 ha was cultivated, leading to relativelly low yield and income. Optimum dairy farming agriculture migh be an option to develop the area. Dairy farm Cooperative Agency (Model of Scenario I can play important role to improve farmer income. With an average of 1,5 ha dry land and an average of 3 Animal Unit raised would optimized the resources allocation and income of Rp.20,385,340 for a period of eight years. The income rnigh be further increased to Rp.36,176,070 for similar production period with soft loan provided by ventura fund (Model of Scenario ll to optimize land resources and family labor force use and a farmer was able to raised an average of 4 Animal Unit. If as being planned - such as scheme is adopted by 1,400 farmer, 230 worker will be employed in the first years. Employement need is increasing with time and

  5. SIMS(DAIRY): a modelling framework to identify sustainable dairy farms in the UK. Framework description and test for organic systems and N fertiliser optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prado, A; Misselbrook, T; Chadwick, D; Hopkins, A; Dewhurst, R J; Davison, P; Butler, A; Schröder, J; Scholefield, D

    2011-09-01

    Multiple demands are placed on farming systems today. Society, national legislation and market forces seek what could be seen as conflicting outcomes from our agricultural systems, e.g. food quality, affordable prices, a healthy environmental, consideration of animal welfare, biodiversity etc., Many of these demands, or desirable outcomes, are interrelated, so reaching one goal may often compromise another and, importantly, pose a risk to the economic viability of the farm. SIMS(DAIRY), a farm-scale model, was used to explore this complexity for dairy farm systems. SIMS(DAIRY) integrates existing approaches to simulate the effect of interactions between farm management, climate and soil characteristics on losses of nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon. The effects on farm profitability and attributes of biodiversity, milk quality, soil quality and animal welfare are also included. SIMS(DAIRY) can also be used to optimise fertiliser N. In this paper we discuss some limitations and strengths of using SIMS(DAIRY) compared to other modelling approaches and propose some potential improvements. Using the model we evaluated the sustainability of organic dairy systems compared with conventional dairy farms under non-optimised and optimised fertiliser N use. Model outputs showed for example, that organic dairy systems based on grass-clover swards and maize silage resulted in much smaller total GHG emissions per l of milk and slightly smaller losses of NO(3) leaching and NO(x) emissions per l of milk compared with the grassland/maize-based conventional systems. These differences were essentially because the conventional systems rely on indirect energy use for 'fixing' N compared with biological N fixation for the organic systems. SIMS(DAIRY) runs also showed some other potential benefits from the organic systems compared with conventional systems in terms of financial performance and soil quality and biodiversity scores. Optimisation of fertiliser N timings and rates showed a

  6. Micro-economic analysis of alternative policies for Dutch dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boots, M.

    1999-01-01

    The dairy sector is to a large extent influenced and restricted by environmental and agricultural policies. These policies are often very detailed in nature and oriented at the farm level. That is, policy measures and regulations, such as taxes and support payments often depend on local

  7. Improving nitrogen management on grassland on commercial pilot dairy farms in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Keulen, van H.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE), the ratio of N output and N input, is rather low on dairy farms with high stocking densities and high N input on grassland resulting in high N losses to the environment. This study describes and analyses the development and variation in N management on grassland on

  8. Improving grassland management on commercial pilot dairy farms: the role of intensive coaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, J.; Hilhorst, G.J.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, more than 60% of agricultural land is used for dairy farming. Grass is the most important crop, followed by maize silage. To explore possibilities to increase nutrient-use efficiency and reduce nutrient losses, the method of prototyping a combination of system modelling and

  9. Assessing food safety concepts on the dairy farm: the case of chemical hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeeva, N.I.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Adaptive conjoint analysis was used to elicit farmers' and experts' preferences for attributes of improving food safety with respect to chemical hazards on the dairy farm. Groups of respondents were determined by cluster analysis based on similar farmers' and experts' perceptions of food safety

  10. On-farm feeding interventions to increase milk production in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanapat, Metha; Foiklang, Suban; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Paoinn, Chainarong; Ampapon, Thiwakorn; Norrapoke, Thitima; Kang, Sungchhang

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of tropical legume (Phaseolus calcaratus) mixed with ruzi grass feeding on the performance of lactating dairy cows. Eighty-eight lactating dairy cows from 22 smallholder dairy farms northeast of Thailand were assigned to respective dietary treatments according to a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD). Four cows were selected from each farm and were allocated into two different feeding groups as follows: ruzi grass and P. calcaratus mixed with ruzi grass (1:1 ratio), respectively. All cows were fed with roughage ad libitum with 1:2 ratio of concentrate diet to milk yield. The results revealed that total dry matter intake, ruminal volatile fatty acids, and ammonia nitrogen concentration were enhanced when cows were fed with P. calcaratus mixed with ruzi grass (P milk production and milk protein in this study. Importantly, an economical assessment showed that milk income and the profit from milk sale were significantly greater in cows fed the mixture of roughage than those from the non-mixed group. This study concluded that high-quality roughage as tropical legume mixed with ruzi grass at the ratio of 1:1 brought out the remarkable and practical implementation for smallholder dairy farms, and the intervention was practical and deserving of more on-farm intervention.

  11. Practices to Reduce Milk Carbon Footprint on Grazing Dairy Farms in Southern Uruguay: Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon footprint (CF) is an increasingly relevant indicator to estimate the impact of a product on climate change. This study followed international guidelines to quantify the CF of milk produced on 24 dairy farms in Uruguay. Cows were grazed all year and supplemented with concentrate feeds. These d...

  12. Diversity of Bacterial Biofilm Communities on Sprinklers from Dairy Farm Cooling Systems in Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahum Y Shpigel

    Full Text Available On dairy farms in hot climates worldwide, cows suffer from heat stress, which is alleviated by the use of water cooling systems. Sprinklers and showerheads are known to support the development of microbial biofilms, which can be a source of infection by pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of microbial biofilms in dairy cooling systems, and to analyze their population compositions using culture-independent technique, 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Biofilm samples were collected on eight dairy farms from 40 sprinklers and the microbial constituents were identified by deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. A total of 9,374 operational taxonomic units (OTUs was obtained from all samples. The mean richness of the samples was 465 ± 268 OTUs which were classified into 26 different phyla; 76% of the reads belonged to only three phyla: Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Although the most prevalent OTUs (Paracoccus, Methyloversatilis, Brevundimonas, Porphyrobacter, Gp4, Mycobacterium, Hyphomicrobium, Corynebacterium and Clostridium were shared by all farms, each farm formed a unique microbial pattern. Some known potential human and livestock pathogens were found to be closely related to the OTUs found in this study. This work demonstrates the presence of biofilm in dairy cooling systems which may potentially serve as a live source for microbial pathogens.

  13. The impact of cooling ponds in North Central Texas on dairy farm performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomaszewski, M.A.; Haan, de M.H.A.; Thompson, J.A.; Jordan, E.R.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether measurable differences existed between farms with and without cooling ponds. Data from Dairy Herd Improvement records for 1999 through 2002 were obtained on 42 herds located in North Central Texas. Nineteen herds had installed cooling ponds,

  14. Epidemiology of 3rd generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli on dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy cattle have been identified as a reservoir for 3rd generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant Escherichia coli. We previously identified 3GC-resistant E. coli from manure composite samples of calves and cows in a survey of 80 farms in Pennsylvania. Resistant strains were most frequently isolated...

  15. Ontology Matching for Big Data Applications in the Smart Dairy Farming Domain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoosel, J.P.C.; Bekkum, M.A. van; Evert, F.K. van

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the use of ontologies for combining different sensor data sources to enable big data analysis in the dairy farming domain. We have made existing data sources accessible via linked data RDF mechanisms using OWL ontologies on Virtuoso and D2RQ triple stores. In addition, we have

  16. Nitrogen efficiency of Dutch dairy farms : A shadow cost system approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhard, S.; Thijssen, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the cost efficiency and nitrogen efficiency of an unbalanced panel of Dutch dairy farms. Nitrogen efficiency is defined as the ratio of minimal to observed use of nitrogen (N-containing inputs), conditional on output and quasi-fixed inputs. Nitrogen efficiency is computed in

  17. Assessment of the Bacteriological Quality of Milk at Dairy Farms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to assess the sanitary standards of dairy farm as well as individual breeding areas in Jimma town, evaluate the hygienic practices of milk handlers and ... Standard laboratory procedures including gram staining, culture and biochemical tests were employed to identify potential bacterial pathogens.

  18. Managing health risks on small dairy farms in Kenya | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Many cattle carry Cryptosporidium, an organism causing gastrointestinal illness with diarrhea that can be dangerous for both humans and animals. Preventing and managing this disease places a heavy burden on hospitals and veterinarians. IDRC-supported research into health hazards on smallholder dairy farms in a ...

  19. Immigrant dairy workers' perceptions of health and safety on the farm in America's Heartland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebman, Amy King; Juarez-Carrillo, Patricia Margarita; Reyes, Iris Anne Cruz; Keifer, Matthew Charles

    2016-03-01

    Dairy farming is dangerous. Yearly, farms grow fewer and larger by employing immigrant workers, who have limited industrial agriculture experience and safety and health training. We examined results of five focus groups with 37 Hispanic, immigrant dairy workers. Analysis followed a grounded theory approach and employed ATLAS.ti. Reported injury experience affirmed the hazardous nature of dairy. Some workers received appropriate worker compensation benefits, whereas others were instructed to deny work-relatedness. Some employers covered medical injury costs out-of-pocket, whereas others did not. Cows were a major injury source. Pressure to work and weather were noted as injury risk factors. Worker compensation was poorly understood, and immigration status and fear of deportation influenced injury and hazard reporting. Injury management practices range from benevolent to threatening. Workers compensation is poorly understood and undocumented status is an occupational hazard. We underscore the need for further research and immigration policy change. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. PRODUCTIVE IMPACT OF THE GREEN FORAGE SUPPLY USAGE AT THE DAIRY FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA MOISE

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the importance of the crop structure as a tool to maximize efficiency in the conceiving of the green forage supply scheme in a dairy farm. Several apects are necessary to consider for proper green forage utilization by the cattle, as follows: climatic conditions, proper field operations for each crop, optimal harvest date, and farm technical and economical resources. With a high degree of succulence, green forage and derived products (silage, haylage, present addvantages as compared to hay, having superior indices of nutritive value and palatability. A green forage supply scheme was applied on an area of 188 ha taking into account dairy cattle biological traits. Crop structure was as follows: forage maize, Sudan grass, Italian ryegrass, new lucern and old lucerne, and orchardgrass. Insuring the required superior green forage for the dairy cattle according to forage rations, represents one of the main techniques to maximize milk production and to minimize milk production cost.

  1. Animal Health and Welfare Planning in Organic Dairy Cattle Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Winckler, Christoph; Roderick, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Continuous development is needed within the farm to reach the goal of good animal health and welfare in organic livestock farming. The very different conditions between countries call for models that are relevant for different farming types and can be integrated into local practice and be relevant...... for each type of farming context. This article reviews frameworks, principles and practices for animal health and welfare planning which are relevant for organic livestock farming. This review is based on preliminary analyses carried out within a European project (acronym ANIPLAN) with participants from...... as well as animal health and welfare professionals (veterinarians and advisors) is paramount. This paper provides an overview of some current animal health and welfare planning initiatives and explains the principles of animal health and welfare planning which are being implemented in ANIPLAN partner...

  2. Short communication: Survey of animal-borne pathogens in the farm environment of 13 dairy operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, J D; Aceto, H W; Rankin, S C; Dou, Z

    2013-09-01

    A survey was conducted on 13 dairies to determine the occurrence of 5 animal-borne pathogens (Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter jejuni, Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, and Cryptosporidium parvum) and their distributions across farm elements (feces, bedding, milk filters, stored manure, field soil, and stream water). Presence of C. parvum was measured only in feces and stored manure. All but one farm were positive for at least one pathogen species, and 5 farms were positive for 3 species. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was detected on 6 farms and in all farm elements, including milk filters. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was detected on 10 of 13 farms and in all farm elements except for milk filters. Salmonella enterica and C. jejuni were detected at lower frequencies and were not identified in soil, stream water, or milk filters on any of the 13 farms. Cryptosporidium parvum was detected in feces but not in stored manure. Stored manure had the highest occurrence of pathogens (73%), followed by feces (50%), milk filters, bedding, soil, and water (range from 23 to 31%). Association of pathogen presence with farm management factors was examined by t-test; however, the small number of study farms and samples may limit the scope of inference of the associations. Pathogens had a higher prevalence in maternity pen bedding than in calf bedding, but total pathogen occurrence did not differ in calf compared with lactating cow feces or in soils with or without manure incorporation. Herd size and animal density did not appear to have a consistent effect on pathogen occurrence. The extent of pathogen prevalence and distribution on the farms indicates considerable public health risks associated with not only milk and meat consumption and direct animal contact, but also potential dissemination of the pathogens into the agroecosystem. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of the 2003 CAP Reform on Investments of Dutch Dairy Farms Simulations with a Household Production Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peerlings, J.H.M.; Ooms, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops a non-separable household production model capable of analyzing the effects of the 2003 CAP reform, and especially EU farm payments, on individual Dutch dairy farms. Model results show that the 2003 CAP reform farm payments do not fully compensate the income loss caused by the

  4. Economic and environmental evaluation of three goal-vision based scenarios for organic dairy farming in Denmark.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, F.W.; Sorensen, C.A.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the sustainability of future organic dairy farming systems in Denmark, by evaluating the economic and environmental consequences of three scenarios at the farm level based on different visions of future sustainability leading to different farm-based goals.

  5. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Q fever in goats on commercial dairy goat farms in the Netherlands, 2009-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schimmer, B.; Luttikholt, S.; Hautvast, J.L.A.; Graat, E.A.M.; Vellema, P.; Duynhoven, van Y.T.H.P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goat farms in the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for farm and goat seropositivity before mandatory vaccination started. We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum

  6. Impact of animal health and welfare planning on medicine use, herd health and production in European organic dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivemeyer, S.; Smolders, E.A.A.; Brinkmann, J.; Gratzer, E.; Hansen, B.; Henriksen, B.I.F.; Huber, J.; Leeb, C.; March, S.; Mejdell, C.; Nicholas, P.; Roderick, S.; Stöger, E.; Vaarst, M.; Whistance, L.K.; Winckler, C.; Walkenhorst, M.

    2012-01-01

    Achieving and maintaining high herd health and welfare status and low veterinary medicine inputs are important aims in organic livestock farming. Therefore, an on-farm intervention study (CORE Organic ANIPLAN) was conducted on 128 organic dairy farms in seven European countries aiming at minimising

  7. Reducing the environmental impact of methane emissions from dairy farms by anaerobic digestion of cattle waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón, E; Salter, A M; Castrillón, L; Heaven, S; Fernández-Nava, Y

    2011-08-01

    Four dairy cattle farms considered representative of Northern Spain milk production were studied. Cattle waste was characterised and energy consumption in the farms was inventoried. Methane emissions due to slurry/manure management and fuel consumption on the farms were calculated. The possibility of applying anaerobic digestion to the slurry to minimise emissions and of using the biogas produced to replace fossil fuels on the farm was considered. Methane emissions due to slurry management (storage and use as fertiliser) ranged from 34 to 66kg CH(4)cow(-1)year(-1) for dairy cows and from 13 to 25kg CH(4)cow(-1)year(-1) for suckler calves. Cattle on these farms are housed for most of the year, and the contribution from emissions from manure dropped in pastures is insignificant due to the very low methane conversion factors. If anaerobic digestion were implemented on the farms, the potential GHG emissions savings per livestock unit would range from 978 to 1776kg CO(2)eq year(-1), with the main savings due to avoided methane emissions during slurry management. The methane produced would be sufficient to supply digester heating needs (35-55% of the total methane produced) and on-farm fuel energy requirements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Land use response to agricultural policy and market movement on Finnish dairy-farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. NIEMI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Economic Research, PO Box 3, FIN-00411 Helsinki, Finland, e-mail: jarkko.niemi@mtt.fi This study estimates an econometric model for land allocation on Finnish dairy-farms in 1989-1997. Land allocation equations are estimated jointly with the demand of purchased feeds and the supply for milk. The model is used to test how agricultural policy reforms have changed land allocation, animal feeding, and the supply for milk on Finnish dairy-farms. The results suggest that land allocations respond inelastically to the changes in income subsidies paid through the land areas. The use of feed concentrates in milk cows' diet has increased mainly because feed concentrate prices have decreased, rather than through the effects of acreage-based income subsidies on land allocations. At the same time, feed grain production has decreased. Farm size has an important effect on dairy-farm land use. Farmers, who have expanded milk production, have specialised in roughage production. The diet of cows has been intensified by purchasing more feed concentrates. The results also suggest that tradable milk quotas have allowed for a significant re-allocation of milk output between farms. The milk output turned out to be endogenous over the period of tradable milk quotas (1994-1997.;

  9. Impact of expenditures for veterinary services and medical supplies on dairy farm productivity and profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G Y; McSweeny, W T

    1993-01-15

    The value of the marginal product (VMP) for veterinary services and medical supplies (VETMED), and the profit maximizing level of VETMED were estimated for dairy producers. Data from the Pennsylvania Farmers Association-Dairy Farm Business Analysis system during the years of 1986 to 1990 were used to evaluate the functional relationship between production and expenditures for VETMED. Other input variables examined were man-year equivalents of labor, asset values, value of feed fed, and culling rate. Data were screened to reflect economically viable dairy farms in Pennsylvania, and 173 such farms participated for each of the 5 years analyzed. The VMP was estimated for 1990. Profit maximizing levels for VETMED were estimated for 1990 holding other input variables at their mean values. Mean expenditures for VETMED were $2,606/farm, or $43/cow in 1990. The VMP for VETMED was estimated to be $3.22 or $4.98, depending on the method of calculation. In other words, the marginal dollar spent on VETMED generated $3.22 ($4.98) in additional revenue from milk production. The profit maximizing level of expenditures for VETMED was $138/cow, substantially more than the mean, indicating the potential for farms in this data set to improve profitability through additional expenditures on VETMED.

  10. Is the Modern High Potential Dairy Cow Suitable for Organic Farming Conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harðarson Grétar H

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available It is not acceptable to compromise animal welfare in any system of farming. Feeding should be aimed at meeting the nutritional requirements at the various stages of production. This paper deals with the detrimental effects that organic, extensive or low input farming systems may have on the energy status in early lactation of the high potential dairy cow. Bovine ketosis is the most important disease resulting from insufficient energy intake in early lactation. It is also important to realize that ketosis is a part of the so-called periparturient disease complex, which includes milk fever, mastitis, retained placenta, endometritis and poor fertility also. All these diseases are interrelated and reflect to a large extent the nutritional status of the animal. If organic dairy farming is to be successful the breeding programmes have to divert from selection for high yields as a main goal, to more emphasis on a flatter lactation curve, less production diseases and longevity.

  11. Diversity in the dry land mixed system and viability of dairy sheep farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Rivas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Castilla La Mancha is a Spanish region where sheep farming system is traditionally pasture-based. Recently, this territory has undergone a recession of dairy sheep activity, which changed the type and intensity of land utilization and led to environmental and landscape degradation. The present study analyzed the diversity and viability of dairy sheep of mixed systems. Multivariate analysis was conducted on 157 dairy sheep farms, factor analysis selected 3 productivity factors (level of intensification, land use, size and family labour, and cluster analysis classified farms into three groups. Group 1, smallholders – with the smallest size (405.5 ewes and 564.7 ha, lowest area in ownership (1.5%, and agriculture activity (6.5% crops area: family farms (90.8% highly dependent on external inputs. Group 2, large-scale farms (1058.7 ewes and 1755.1 ha – with the lowest stocking rate (0.14 livestock unit/ha and productivity: nonfamily farms (39.1% with low area in ownership (4.1% and agriculture activity (7.6%. Group 3, mixed-technified – with the highest levels of technology and least use of family labour (27.0%: large-scale farms (1387.4 ewes and 955.8 ha, combining milk production with agricultural activities (55.7% crops area, with the highest area in ownership (63.1% and the best productivity performance. In conclusion, the dry land mixed system of Castilla La Mancha showed diversity of farms. Improving viability requires a systemic approach where the key tool is grazing, allowing the mixed system to be consolidated as a model that enhances the positive impact of livestock on the environment in the Mediterranean basin.

  12. Islands of dairy in a sea of sugarcane: the future of family dairy farming in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteiro Novo, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    The future of family farming is a matter of debate, especially because of the far-reaching economic and political changes that are occurring. One vision is that family farms will disappear because they are less efficient than large-scale industrial farming enterprises. Others foresee that they will

  13. Gross margin insurance on Dutch dairy and fattening pig farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van Marcel; Meuwissen, Miranda

    2017-01-01

    Fluctuations of input and output prices are major reasons causing volatile gross margins in livestock production. There are large historic differences in the period 2001-2015 between the dairy sector and fattening pig sector in volatility. Relatively large fluctuations in gross margins were observed

  14. Propanol in maize silage at Danish dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence maize silage containing propanol, the seasonal variation in propanol content of maize silage, and correlations between propanol and other fermentation products in maize silage collected from 20 randomly selected Danish dairy far...

  15. Veterinary advisory practice and sustainable production on dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Oenema, O.; Boersema, S.; Cannas da Silva, J.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of ‘sustainable livestock production’ has greatly developed over the past decades. Currently, a certain degree of consensus has been reached. The concept comprises four major components: economy, ecology, society, and ethics. Dairy farmers, especially those with grassland-based

  16. Bayesian networks for mastitis management on dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, Wilma|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833169; van der Gaag, Linda|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073468517; Barkema, H.W.; Hogeveen, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126322864

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript presents the idea of providing dairy farmers with probability distributions to support decisions on mastitis management and illustrates its feasibility by two applications. Naive Bayesian networks were developed for both applications. The networks in the first application were used

  17. A mechanistic model for electricity consumption on dairy farms: definition, validation, and demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, J; Murphy, M; Shalloo, L; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; De Boer, I J M

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to define and demonstrate a mechanistic model that enables dairy farmers to explore the impact of a technical or managerial innovation on electricity consumption, associated CO2 emissions, and electricity costs. We, therefore, (1) defined a model for electricity consumption on dairy farms (MECD) capable of simulating total electricity consumption along with related CO2 emissions and electricity costs on dairy farms on a monthly basis; (2) validated the MECD using empirical data of 1yr on commercial spring calving, grass-based dairy farms with 45, 88, and 195 milking cows; and (3) demonstrated the functionality of the model by applying 2 electricity tariffs to the electricity consumption data and examining the effect on total dairy farm electricity costs. The MECD was developed using a mechanistic modeling approach and required the key inputs of milk production, cow number, and details relating to the milk-cooling system, milking machine system, water-heating system, lighting systems, water pump systems, and the winter housing facilities as well as details relating to the management of the farm (e.g., season of calving). Model validation showed an overall relative prediction error (RPE) of less than 10% for total electricity consumption. More than 87% of the mean square prediction error of total electricity consumption was accounted for by random variation. The RPE values of the milk-cooling systems, water-heating systems, and milking machine systems were less than 20%. The RPE values for automatic scraper systems, lighting systems, and water pump systems varied from 18 to 113%, indicating a poor prediction for these metrics. However, automatic scrapers, lighting, and water pumps made up only 14% of total electricity consumption across all farms, reducing the overall impact of these poor predictions. Demonstration of the model showed that total farm electricity costs increased by between 29 and 38% by moving from a day and night tariff to a flat

  18. Groundwater quality on dairy farms in central South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Almost all farms were noncompliant for hardness in both sampling years. T-tests revealed significant changes from 2009 to 2013 for pH (t = 2.580; p = 0.006), hardness (t = 2.197; p = 0.016) and potassium (K) (t = 1.699; p = 0.0468). For hardness, approximately 45% of the farms in 2009, and 57% in 2013, posed a health risk ...

  19. ALPINE FARM SCALE INVESTIGATIONS OF THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PRODUCTIVE SYSTEM AND QUALITY OF DAIRY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segato S.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Alpine dairy farming is shifted from an extensive activity based on pasture and low genetic merit cow to an intensive system with specialized breeds and increasing level of concentrate as a supplement in the diet. As a main consequence, a lower echo-compatibility could determine adverse externalities on environment and quality of dairy products. Considering 18 dairy farming located in the mountain area of Veneto Region (Italy, the Environmental Summarizing Indicator (ESI was estimated by using agronomic and dairying variables. Results indicated that variability of ESI was manly due to productive performance of dairy cows probably because there was a lack of information in the assessment of pasture characteristics. However, higher level of ESI were closely related to the increase of N-phile species and/or less attractive vegetation for grazing cows, even if the indicator seems to explain only a limited part of the variability of the phenomenon. The increase of ESI values seemed to lead to a loss of nutritive value of milk because of the incidence of health favourable fatty acids was reduced.

  20. Impact of precision livestock farming on work and human-animal interactions on dairy farms. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hostiou, N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. With increasing herd sizes and decreasing workforce availability, precision livestock farming (PLF is being developed in the dairy sector to facilitate herd monitoring. A desire to reduce the drudgery of repetitive tasks is another factor contributing to the adoption of PLF. This study, based on a review of the scientific literature, focuses on the impact of PLF on the profession and work organization of dairy farmers. Literature. Time savings are observed because robots and sensors take on recurrent physical tasks (milking, feeding while simplifying the monitoring of animals (heat, health problems, etc.. Farmers appreciate the additional flexibility in organizing their work. The information provided can reduce the mental workload due to the anticipation of events (insemination, health problems. However, the mental workload can sometimes be increased due to the complexity of the information involved in managing the multiple alarms or alerts and equipment failures. The relationship between farmers and their animals is also modified. Conclusions. Precision livestock farming can have a positive impact on dairy farmers' work and can be attractive for young people. However, if the tools are not adapted to farmers' needs and skills, PLF can also lead to negative impacts on farmers and animals. It is therefore critical to consider the different dimensions of farmers' work to facilitate their adoption of these new technologies.

  1. Molecular Epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis on Dairy Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingling; Katani, Robab; Schilling, Megan; Kapur, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of severe chronic intestinal inflammatory disease in ruminants, termed Johne's disease, and can infect many other animal species, including humans. MAP has a long incubation period prior to manifestation of clinical signs including diarrhea, weight loss, and loss of production. MAP has a high prevalence in dairy herds and results in considerable adverse impacts on animal health and productivity throughout the world. Recent investigations have leveraged the characterization of the MAP genome for the development of powerful new molecular techniques for MAP strain differentiation. These approaches are providing key insights into the epidemiology and transmission of MAP on and between dairy herds. We summarize the state of the art for MAP diagnostics and strain differentiation and our current knowledge of mechanisms of within- and between-herd transmission of MAP, along with future needs for the development of rational MAP infection control programs.

  2. Short communication: Determination of Salmonella clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) diversity on dairy farms in Wisconsin and Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehnes, C A; Rehberger, T G; Barrangou, R; Smith, A H

    2014-10-01

    Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica is a foodborne pathogen able to cause disease in both humans and animals. Diverse serovars of this pathogen exist, some of which are host specific, causing a range of clinical symptoms from asymptomatic infection through morbidity and mortality. According to a 2007 survey by the USDA National Animal Health Monitoring System, fecal shedding of Salmonella from healthy cows occurs on 39.7% of dairy farms in the United States. Certain serovars are frequently isolated from dairy farms and the majority of isolates from the National Animal Health Monitoring System study were represented by 5 serovars; however, genotypic diversity was not examined. The objective of this study was to determine the diversity of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) loci in Salmonella collected from 8 dairy farms with a previous history of salmonellosis. None of the cows or calves sampled on 2 of the 8 dairy farms were shedding Salmonella, although Salmonella was detected in a cow bedding sample on 1 of these farms. Salmonella populations were discrete on each farm, according to CRISPR typing, with the exception of an Anatum var. 15+ type on farms 5 and 6 and the Montevideo type on farms 1 and 2. One to 4 distinct CRISPR genotypes were identified per farm. The CRISPR typing differed within serovars, as Montevideo, Anatum var. 15+, and Muenster serovars had no overlap of spacer content, even on the same farm, reflecting between- and within-serovar genetic diversity. The dynamic nature of Salmonella populations was shown in a farm that was sampled longitudinally over 13.5 mo. Changes in serovar from 3,19:-:z27 to Montevideo was observed between the first sampling time and 8 mo later, with concomitant change in CRISPR alleles. The results indicate that Salmonella strains present in smaller dairy herds (<500 head) are specific to that farm and new Salmonella strains may emerge over time. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science

  3. Livestock disease threats associated with intensification of pastoral dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Ij; Westwood, Ct; Playford, Mc

    2008-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of the changes in the pasture-based dairy systems of New Zealand and Australia that may influence the health of cattle. There are relatively few available data that can be used to quantify the effects of increased intensification of milk production on the health of cattle. There is evidence that increased production increases the risk of mastitis and culling for udder health. Increased risks of mastitis with treatment with somatotropin support these findings; however, the risk of mastitis may decrease with increased milking frequency. Larger herds with greater stocking density should increase the risk for infectious disease, but evidence to support this contention is sparse. Very intensive grazing patterns associated with higher grass yields achieved using better cultivars and greater use of fertilisers favour nematode parasites. There is some evidence of anthelmintic resistance in both nematodes and liver fluke. Veterinarians will need to be aware of the potential for these to reduce the productivity of cattle. There have been benefits of improved nutrition on the efficiency of energy use for dairy production. Diseases such as bloat and ketosis appear to be of lower prevalence. It also appears that mineral nutrition of pasture-fed cattle is being better addressed, with gains in the control of milk fever, hypomagnesaemia and trace-element deficiencies. However, acidosis is a condition with a high point prevalence in pasture-based dairy systems where cows are fed supplements; one study in Australia found a point prevalence of approximately 11% of cows with acidosis. There is evidence from this study that the neutral detergent fibre (NDF) in pasture-based diets may need to be higher than 30% of the diet to maintain rumen stability. Laminitis and acidosis are different conditions with a similar pathogenesis, specifically highly fermentable diets. The prevalence of lameness was 28% in herds in Australia, suggesting that this condition

  4. On-farm methane measurements during milking correlate with total methane production by individual dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnsworthy, P C; Craigon, J; Hernandez-Medrano, J H; Saunders, N

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether measurement of methane emissions by individual dairy cows during milking could provide a useful technique for monitoring on-farm methane emissions. To quantify methane emissions from individual cows on farm, we developed a novel technique based on sampling air released by eructation during milking. Eructation frequency and methane released per eructation were used to estimate methane emission rate. For 82 cows, methane emission rate during milking increased with daily milk yield (r = 0.71), but varied between individuals with the same milk yield and fed the same diet. For 12 cows, methane emission rate recorded during milking on farm showed a linear relationship (R² = 0.79) with daily methane output by the same cows when housed subsequently in respiration chambers. For 42 cows, the methane emission rate during milking was greater on a feeding regimen designed to produce high methane emissions, and the increase compared with a control regimen was similar to that observed for cows in respiration chambers. It was concluded that, with further validation, on-farm monitoring of methane emission rate during milking could provide a low-cost reliable method to estimate daily methane output by individual dairy cows, which could be used to study variation in methane, to identify cows with low emissions, and to test outcomes of mitigation strategies. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Comprehensive Energy Analysis and Related Carbon Footprint of Dairy Farms, Part 1: Direct Energy Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Todde

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cattle farms are continuously developing more intensive systems of management which require higher utilization of durable and not-durable inputs. These inputs are responsible of significant direct and indirect fossil energy requirements which are related to remarkable emissions of CO2. This study aims to analyze direct energy requirements and the related carbon footprint of a large population of conventional dairy farms located in the south of Italy. A detailed survey of electricity, diesel and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG consumptions has been carried out among on-farm activities. The results of the analyses showed an annual average fuel consumption of 40 kg per tonne of milk, while electricity accounted for 73 kWh per tonne of milk produced. Expressing the direct energy inputs as primary energy, diesel fuel results the main resource used in on-farm activities, accounting for 72% of the total fossil primary energy requirement, while electricity represents only 27%. Moreover, larger farms were able to use more efficiently the direct energy inputs and reduce the related emissions of carbon dioxide per unit of milk produced, since the milk yield increases with the herd size. The global average farm emissions of carbon dioxide equivalent, due to all direct energy usages, accounted for 156 kg CO2-eq per tonne of Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM, while farms that raise more than 200 heads emitted 36% less than the average value. In this two-part series, the total energy demand (Part 1 + Part 2 per farm is mainly due to agricultural inputs and fuel consumption, which have the largest quota of the annual requirements for each milk yield class. These results also showed that large size farms held lower CO2-eq emissions when referred to the mass of milk produced.

  6. Prevalence of mastitis in dairy cows from smallholder farms in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simbarashe Katsande

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical and clinical mastitis and the associated factors in cows from selected smallholder dairy farms in Zimbabwe. Physical examinations were conducted on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis. Composite milk samples were collected from all lactating cows for bacterial culture and somatic cell counting. Cows were categorised as clinical if they exhibited clinical features of mastitis, or sub-clinical if no apparent signs were present but they had a positive bacterial isolation and a somatic cell count of at least 300 x 103 cells/mL. Farm-level factors were obtained through a structured questionnaire. The association of mastitis and animal- and herd-level factors were analysed using logistic regression. A total of 584 animals from 73 farms were tested. Overall, 21.1%(123/584 had mastitis, 16.3%(95/584 had sub-clinical mastitis and 4.8% (28/584 had clinical mastitis. Herd-level prevalence was 49.3%. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (27.6%,  Escherichia coli (25.2%,  Staphylococcus aureus(16.3%, Klebsiella spp. (15.5% and Streptococcus spp. (1.6% were the most common isolates. In individual cows, pure dairy herds (OR = 6.3 and dairy crosses (OR = 3.1 were more likely to have mastitis compared to Mashona cows. Farms that used pre-milking teat dipping were associated with reduced mastitis prevalence. Further research is needed on the prevalence of mastitis and a comparison of data for both smallholder and commercial dairy farms in all regions of Zimbabwe should be undertaken.

  7. Does animal welfare influence dairy farm efficiency? A two-stage approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allendorf, J J; Wettemann, P J C

    2015-11-01

    This article investigated how process-based animal welfare indicators (PAI) affected the technical efficiency of German dairy farms. A sample of 115 North-Rhine Westphalian dairy farms was used to estimate their technical efficiency with data envelopment analysis. A censored regression model was then applied to quantify the effects of PAI on technical efficiency. The results indicated that in particular a higher percentage of cow losses, a higher replacement rate, and a longer calving interval had, at their respective mean, a negative marginal effect on the technical efficiency of the sample farms. In contrast, a lower age of first calving, a higher in-milk performance, and a higher somatic cell count were positively correlated with technical efficiency. Some of the PAI followed a polynomial trend (i.e., their influence on technical efficiency did not have a constant sign, and levels for minimum/maximum technical efficiency were present). The minimum efficiency score at constant returns to scale was obtained when farmers had cow losses of 0.4%, a calving interval of 430d, and a cell count of 146,000 per milliliter. However, maximum technical efficiency was obtained at a milk yield of 9,796 kg per cow and year. The corresponding amounts in case of technical efficiency under variable returns to scale were at a similar level, except that milk yield showed a positive linear influence on technical efficiency. Moreover, technical efficiency under variable returns to scale was positively correlated with the fat content of milk. The lowest level of technical efficiency was reached at a fat content of 4.1%. Subsequently, we found that efficient dairy farms did not always correspond with recommended values concerning animal welfare criteria. Finally, the results showed that the assumption of a monotone effect direction of PAI on farm efficiency was inappropriate, and that this issue would need to be addressed in future research. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science

  8. A questionnaire study of associations between potential risk factors and salmonella status in Swedish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ågren, Estelle C C; Frössling, Jenny; Wahlström, Helene; Emanuelson, Ulf; Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    In this study associations between potential risk factors and salmonella status in Swedish dairy herds were investigated. A case-control study design was used, including existing as well as new cases. Herds were assigned a salmonella status on the basis of antibody analysis of bulk milk samples. Information on potential risk factors was collected from registry data and from farmers via a questionnaire. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between salmonella status and potential risk factors. In addition, multivariate analysis with Additive Bayesian Network (ABN) modelling was performed to improve understanding of the complex relationship between all the variables. Because of the difficulty in identifying associations between potential risk factors and infections with low prevalence and a large regional variation, exposure of potential risk factors in the high-prevalence region (Öland) were compared to exposure in other regions in Sweden. In total 483 of 996 (48%) farmers responded to the questionnaire, 69 herds had test-positive bulk milk samples. The strongest association with salmonella status was 'presence of salmonella test-positive herds salmonella status were also seen between 'feeding calves residue milk only' (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.6), 'certified organic herds' (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-4.9) and 'frequently seeing signs of rodents' (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.13-0.97). The ABN model showed associations between Öland and four of the variables: salmonella status, presence of test-positive herds salmonella by other studies. The study confirms the importance of local transmission routes for salmonella, but does not identify specific components in this local spread. Therefore, it supports the use of a broad biosecurity approach in the prevention of salmonella. In Öland, some potential risk factors are more common than in other parts of Sweden. Theoretically these could contribute to the spread of salmonella, but this

  9. The effect of feed demand on greenhouse gas emissions and farm profitability for organic and conventional dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Lukas; Menzel, Friederike; Bahrs, Enno

    2014-12-01

    The reduction of product-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in milk production appears to be necessary. The reduction of emissions on an individual farm might be highly accepted by farm owners if it were accompanied by an increase in profitability. Using life cycle assessments to determine the product carbon footprints (PCF) and farm-level evaluations to record profitability, we explored opportunities for optimization based on analysis of 81 organic and conventional pasture-based dairy farms in southern Germany. The objective of the present study was to detect common determining factors for low PCF and high management incomes (MI) to achieve GHG reductions at the lowest possible operational cost. In our sample, organic farms, which performed economically better than conventional farms, produced PCF that were significantly higher than those produced by conventional farms [1.61 ± 0.29 vs. 1.45 ± 0.28 kg of CO₂ equivalents (CO₂eq) per kg of milk; means ± SD)]. A multiple linear regression analysis of the sample demonstrated that low feed demand per kilogram of milk, high grassland yield, and low forage area requirements per cow are the main factors that decrease PCF. These factors are also useful for improving a farm's profitability in principle. For organic farms, a reduction of feed demand of 100 g/kg of milk resulted in a PCF reduction of 105 g of CO₂eq/kg of milk and an increase in MI of approximately 2.1 euro cents (c)/kg of milk. For conventional farms, a decrease of feed demand of 100 g/kg of milk corresponded to a reduction in PCF of 117 g of CO₂eq/kg of milk and an increase in MI of approximately 3.1 c/kg of milk. Accordingly, farmers could achieve higher profits while reducing GHG emissions. Improved education and training of farmers and consultants regarding GHG mitigation and farm profitability appear to be the best methods of improving efficiency under traditional and organic farming practices.

  10. Impact of animal health and welfare planning on medicine use, herd health and production in European organic dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivemeyer, S; Smolders, G; Brinkmann, J

    2012-01-01

    Achieving and maintaining high herd health and welfare status and low veterinary medicine inputs are important aims in organic livestock farming. Therefore, an on-farm intervention study (CORE Organic ANIPLAN) was conducted on 128 organic dairy farms in seven European countries aiming at minimising...... medicine use through animal health and welfare planning (AHWP). Medicine use (excluding complementary treatments such as homeopathic remedies) was assessed as the total number of treatments and as the number of treatments of various disease categories (udder, fertility, metabolism, locomotion and others...... be regarded as a feasible approach to minimising medicine use without the impairment of production and herd health under several organic dairy farming conditions in Europe....

  11. Risk factors for hazard of release from salmonella-control restriction on Swedish cattle farms from 1993 to 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boqvist, S; Vågsholm, I

    2005-09-30

    In Sweden, only a few cattle farms are infected with salmonella each year and this can be attributed to the Swedish salmonella control programme. All findings of salmonella in animals, feed and food of animal origin are notifiable and restrictions are always put on infected herds until they have been cleaned up from the infection. However, there has been concern about increasing costs for clean-up of salmonella-infected farms as well as increasing length of the restriction periods. Our aim was to investigate potential risk factors associated with the length of restriction periods on Swedish cattle farms between 1993 and late 2002. All 112 cattle farms that were notified to the Swedish Board of Agriculture as infected with salmonella during the study period, were included in this longitudinal and retrospective study. The putative risk factors were analysed using the proportional-hazards model. There was a lower hazard for release from salmonella control restrictions after the European Union (EU) accession in 1995, and/or change of testing from one to two negative herd tests for release of restrictions (hazard ratio (HR)=0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.38, 0.84), for every additional number of 100 cows (HR=0.83; CI=0.7, 0.97), if rodents and/or wild birds were abundant (HR=0.5, CI=0.27, 0.98) and if there was more than one farm site in the company (HR=0.47, CI=0.28, 0.81).

  12. Coupling Dairy Manure Storage with Injection to Improve Nitrogen Management: Whole-Farm Simulation Using the Integrated Farm System Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. W. Duncan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of livestock manure to farm soils represents a priority nutrient management concern in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Historically, strong emphasis has been placed on adding manure storage to dairy operations, with the recognition that manure application methods can be improved. The Integrated Farm System Model was used to simulate manure management on a typical Pennsylvania dairy farm (100 milking cows, 80 ha. Converting the operation from daily haul to 6 mo of storage with broadcast application did not substantially change nitrogen (N losses to the environment. However, switching to manure injection conserved ammonium N and improved manure N use efficiency by crops, even though it increased N leaching by 27% with 6-mo storage and 13% with 12-mo storage. Increasing manure storage from 6 to 12 mo with manure injection reduced nitrate N leaching by 38%, due to better timing of manure application to crop growth, but lowered annual net returns. Overall, manure injection and 6 mo of storage resulted in the best combination of profit and environmental outcome.

  13. Determining farm effects attributable to the introduction and use of a dairy management information system in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomaszewski, M.A.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2000-01-01

    Yearly production and reproduction data on dairy farms in The Netherlands were obtained to determine whether management information systems significantly improved herd performance variables (management information systems (MIS) effects). The analysis included 357 adopters of a management information

  14. Dutch dairy farms after milk quota abolition: Economic and environmental consequences of a new manure policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klootwijk, C W; Van Middelaar, C E; Berentsen, P B M; de Boer, I J M

    2016-10-01

    The abolition of the Dutch milk quota system has been accompanied by the introduction of a new manure policy to limit phosphate production (i.e., excretion via manure) on expanding dairy farms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of these recent policy changes on the farm structure, management, labor income, nitrogen and phosphate surpluses, and greenhouse gas emissions of an average Dutch dairy farm. The new manure policy requires that any increase in phosphate production be partly processed and partly applied to additional farmland. In addition, phosphate quotas have been introduced. Herein, we used a whole-farm optimization model to simulate an average farm before and after quota abolition and introduction of the new manure policy. The objective function of the model maximized labor income. We combined the model with a farm nutrient balance and life-cycle assessment to determine environmental impact. Based on current prices, increasing the number of cows after quota abolition was profitable until manure processing or additional land was required to comply with the new manure policy. Manure processing involved treatment so that phosphate was removed from the national manure market. Farm intensity in terms of milk per hectare increased by about 4%, from 13,578kg before quota abolition to 14,130kg after quota abolition. Labor income increased by €505/yr. When costs of manure processing decreased from €13 to €8/t of manure or land costs decreased from €1,187 to €573/ha, farm intensity could increase up to 20% until the phosphate quota became limiting. Farms that had already increased their barn capacity to prepare for expansion after milk quota abolition could benefit from purchasing extra phosphate quota to use their full barn capacity. If milk prices increased from €355 to €420/t, farms could grow unlimited, provided that the availability of external inputs such as labor, land, barn capacity, feed, and phosphate quota at current

  15. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae in bulk tank milk from German dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenthal, Sabrina; Akineden, Ömer; Usleber, Ewald

    2016-12-05

    Although the dairy farm environment is a known source of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria, surveillance data on ESBL in the milk production chain are still scarce. This study aimed at estimating the dimensions of the problem for public health and animal welfare by surveying ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in raw bulk tank milk in Germany. Samples from 866 dairy farms, comprising about 1% of the total number of dairy farms in Germany, were first screened for presence of cefotaxime-resistant bacteria by selective enrichment. Suspect colonies were identified phenotypically and further characterized by biochemical and molecular methods, including analysis of resistance genes and clonal diversity in ESBL-producing isolates. Bulk tank milk from 82 (9.5%) farms yielded Enterobacteriaceae with confirmed ESBL-production. The most frequent ESBL-producing species was Escherichia coli (75.6%), followed by Citrobacter spp. (9.6%), Enterobacter cloacae (6.1%), and Klebsiella oxytoca (3.7%), a few isolates belonged to other species within the genera Hafnia, Raoutella and Serratia. The majority of isolates (95.1%) harbored the β-lactamase blaCTX-M gene, which has gained increased importance among ESBL-producing strains worldwide; the CTX-M group 1 was found to be the dominating (88.4%) phylogenetic group. All ESBL-positive Escherichia coli isolates were clonally heterogeneous, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The results from this survey demonstrate that ESBL-producing bacteria are distributed widely in the dairy farm environment in Germany. Therefore, raw milk is a potential source of exposure for the consumer, which is of increasing importance considering the trend of farmer-to-consumer direct marketing. Furthermore, dairy farm staff have an increased likelihood of exposure to ESBL-producing bacteria. Finally, ESBL-producing bacteria may also be transferred via waste milk to calves, thus further spreading antibiotic resistance in the

  16. Optimal dairy farm adjustments to increased utilization of corn distillers dried grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, T M; Boisvert, R N; Enahoro, D; Chase, L E

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to identify effective dairy farm management adjustments related to recent structural changes in agricultural commodity markets because of expanded biofuels production and other market factors. We developed a mathematical programming model of a representative dairy farm in New York State to estimate the effects of changes in the relative prices of important feed components on farm profitability, identify optimal adjustments for on-farm feed production, crop sales, and dairy rations that account for expanded utilization of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), and point out potential implications of these adjustments on whole-farm nutrient planning. We mapped out an effective farm-level demand curve for DDGS by varying DDGS prices relative to other primary feed ingredients, which allowed us to compare DDGS utilization at alternative market conditions. Had the relative prices of major feed ingredients remained at their historical averages, our results suggest that there is only modest potential for feeding DDGS through supplementation in rations for dry cows and heifers as a substitute for soybean meal. However, the relatively lower DDGS prices experienced in 2008 imply an expanded optimal use of DDGS to include rations for lactating cows at 10% of the total mixed ration. Despite these expanded opportunities for DDGS at lower prices, the effects on farm net returns were modest. The most important considerations are perhaps those related to changes in the phosphorus (P) levels in the dairy waste. We showed that including moderate levels of DDGS (10%) in rations for lactating cows did not significantly increase P excretion. However, if the rations for dry cows and heifers were supplemented with DDGS, P excretion did increase, resulting in sizable increases of plant-available phosphorus applied to cropland well beyond crop nutrient requirements. Although our results show that it is economically optimal for the dairy producer to

  17. Investigation of an outbreak of Taenia saginata cysts (cysticercus bovis) in dairy cattle from two farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, A M J; Heath, D D; Morley, C M; Dorny, P

    2011-03-10

    The paper describes the epidemiological investigation carried out on two dairy farms with cattle infected with Taenia saginata cysts. On the first affected farm it was estimated using Bayesian techniques that approximately 65% of 1400 mixed-age cattle were infected with Taenia saginata cysts. The investigation aimed to determine potential exposure pathways of cattle to Taenia saginata with a view to finding the human source of infection and to describe the epidemiology of the outbreak on the affected farms. In order to determine potential exposure pathways, investigation was centred on how feed or water could have been contaminated with eggs. The plausibility of pathways was determined by examining the spatial and temporal association between factors related to the pathway and the prevalence of infection in cattle strata. We describe the investigation carried out on affected farms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Neolithic dairy farming at the extreme of agriculture in northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramp, Lucy J E; Evershed, Richard P; Lavento, Mika; Halinen, Petri; Mannermaa, Kristiina; Oinonen, Markku; Kettunen, Johannes; Perola, Markus; Onkamo, Päivi; Heyd, Volker

    2014-09-22

    The conventional 'Neolithic package' comprised animals and plants originally domesticated in the Near East. As farming spread on a generally northwest trajectory across Europe, early pastoralists would have been faced with the challenge of making farming viable in regions in which the organisms were poorly adapted to providing optimal yields or even surviving. Hence, it has long been debated whether Neolithic economies were ever established at the modern limits of agriculture. Here, we examine food residues in pottery, testing a hypothesis that Neolithic farming was practiced beyond the 60th parallel north. Our findings, based on diagnostic biomarker lipids and δ(13)C values of preserved fatty acids, reveal a transition at ca 2500 BC from the exploitation of aquatic organisms to processing of ruminant products, specifically milk, confirming farming was practiced at high latitudes. Combining this with genetic, environmental and archaeological information, we demonstrate the origins of dairying probably accompanied an incoming, genetically distinct, population successfully establishing this new subsistence 'package'.

  19. Milk Hygiene in Commercial Dairy Farms in South Eastern Botswana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NVL) on somatic cell counts (SCC), milk ring test (MRT), resazurin test (RST), coliform test (CFT) and Escherichia coli tect (ECT). In general, farms where machine-milking was used recorded the highest SCC, CFT and ECT counts than where ...

  20. Veterinary herd health management programs on dairy farms in the Netherlands: Use, execution, and relations on farmers characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, M.; Werven, van T.; Hogeveen, H.; Kremer, W.D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Veterinary herd health management (VHHM) programs are of growing importance to the dairy industry; they support farmers in the shift from curative to preventive health management, caused by increased herd sizes and quality standards in dairy farming. Farmers participating in VHHM are visited every 4

  1. Organization of crop and animal production in dairy farms localised in three chosen regions of lubelskie voivodeship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Bojarszczuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of organization of crop and animal production in dairy farms localised in three regions in Lubelskie voivodeship was presented in the paper. The data source was questionnaire research. The study was trained in 145 farms. The provided analysis showed that cereals had significantly share in pattern system in tested farms. Researched farms are differentiated of occupied differentiation of cropping pattern and density livestock between farms localised in different regions of Lubelskie voivodeship caused different level of intensity of organization animal and crops production. The differentiation of indicators was especially significant between farms in Krasnystaw and Ryki.

  2. Design and Simulation of Dairy Farm Photovoltaic System for a Rural Area in Tlemcen, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soufi Aicha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable energy in agriculture is a research knows that considerable development in the last decade. In this paper we scrutinized optimal sizing of solar array and battery in a stand-alone photovoltaic (SPV system to provide the required electricity for a dairy cow farm located in Terny Beni hdiel in Tlemcen, Algeria. Solar radiation data measured in an hourly time-series format are used based on 22 years. Average between 1983 and 2005. The PVSYST software tool was used for simulation of the system. The study is addressed to loads in the small dairy farm with energy consumption levels of around 121 kWh per day. The stand-alone PV system consists of a Solar panel, DC-DC Converter, Maximum Power Point Tracker, DC/AC Inverter, and Battery.

  3. Optimal location of centralized biodigesters for small dairy farms: A case study from the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Mukherjee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion technology is available for converting livestock waste to bio-energy, but its potential is far from fully exploited in the United States because the technology has a scale effect. Utilization of the centralized anaerobic digester (CAD concept could make the technology economically feasible for smaller dairy farms. An interdisciplinary methodology to determine the cost minimizing location, size, and number of CAD facilities in a rural dairy region with mostly small farms is described. This study employs land suitability analysis, operations research model and Geographical Information System (GIS tools to evaluate the environmental, social, and economic constraints in selecting appropriate sites for CADs in Windham County, Connecticut. Results indicate that overall costs are lower if the CADs are of larger size and are smaller in number.

  4. Dermatological alterations in women working on dairy farm: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Regina Cezar Vaz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to identify dermatological alterations due to the work carried out by women on dairy farms and presents an intervention process on dermatology health with women working in these locations. It is a quasi-experimental study, in an intervention form, in which each subject is independent. It was performed with 20 women working on a dairy farm in Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, between July and October 2011. Most (60% women identified dermatological changes due to the work. During the intervention, dermatological care action was focused on. The knowledge of these results offers valuable information for those who teach and advice people about dermatological care in rural working places, where such rates of occurrence are high.

  5. Cool roofs with high solar reflectance for the welfare of dairy farming animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santunione, G.; Libbra, A.; Muscio, A.

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring livestock welfare in dairy farming promotes the production capacity of the animals in terms of both quantity and quality. In welfare conditions, the animals can produce at their full potential. For the dairy cattle the most debilitating period of the year is summer, when the stress arising from overheating induces physiological alterations that compromise the animals’ productivity. In this study, the summer discomfort of dairy animals is primarily quantified and the production loss is quantified versus the Temperature Humidity Index (THI), which correlates the values of temperature and relative humidity to the thermal stress. In order to reduce or eliminate such thermal stress, it is then proposed to coat the roof of the stables with a paint having high solar reflectance and thermal emittance, that is a cool roof product. This type of roofing solution can considerably limit the overheating of stables caused by solar radiation, thus providing a positive impact on the animals’ welfare and improving significantly their productivity in summer.

  6. Spatial patterns of recorded mastitis incidence and somatic cell counts in Swedish dairy cows: implications for surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Wolff

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical mastitis (CM is the most common veterinary treated disease in Swedish dairy cattle. To investigate if the distribution of veterinary registered cases of CM in Sweden follows that of the spatial distribution of cows with high somatic cell counts (SCCs, the spatial distribution of CM odds was estimated from available records and compared with udder health measures based on measurements of SCC derived from official milk recording. The study revealed areas with significantly lower odds for CM but with a high proportion of cows with a poor udder health score, suggesting an under-reporting of CM. We also found areas of significantly higher odds for CM despite a low proportion of cows with a poor udder health score, suggestive of over-treatment of mastitis. The results should enable targeted studies of reasons for discrepancies, e.g. farmers’ and veterinarians’ attitudes to mastitis treatment and disease recording in areas with a deficit or excess of registered CM cases. High quality disease records for dairy cattle are of interest not only for the dairy management but also for disease surveillance, monitoring of use of antibiotics and food safety purposes.

  7. Economic analysis of automatic flood irrigation for dairy farms in northern Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Dan P.; Ho, Christie K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Interest in automatic flood irrigation is strong, given the labour and lifestyle benefits it can provide. An economic analysis of three automated flood irrigation systems for a dairy farm in northern Victorian indicated that automatic irrigation can be a profitable labour saving investment in many cases. However, profitability was sensitive to the amount and value of the labour saved. Pneumatic and timer systems were good investments regardless of the area they were installed to service. The ...

  8. Environmental occurrence and shallow ground water detection of the antibiotic monensin from dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, N.; Harter, T.H.; Bergamaschi, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals used in animal feeding operations have been detected in various environmental settings. There is a growing concern about the impact on terrestrial and aquatic organisms and the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of microorganisms. Pharmaceutical use in milking cows is relatively limited compared with other livestock operations, except for the ionophore monensin, which is given to lactating cows as a feed. By weight, monensin can be the most significant antibiotic used in a dairy farm. This study investigates the potential of monensin to move from dairy operations into the surrounding ground water. Using two dairy farms in California as study sites, we twice collected samples along the environmental pathway-from flush lanes, lagoon waters, and shallow ground water beneath the dairies and beneath its associated manured fields. Monensin concentrations were determined using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with positive electrospray ionization. Monensin was detected in all of the flush lane and lagoon water samples. Theoretical maximum concentration estimated from the actual dosing rate and the theoretical excretion rate assuming no attenuation was one order of magnitude greater than observed concentrations, suggesting significant attenuation in the manure collection and storage system. Monensin was also detected, at levels ranging from 0.04 to 0.39 microg L(-1), in some of the ground water samples underneath the production area of the dairy but not from the adjacent manured fields. Concentrations in ground water immediately downgradient of the lagoons were one to two orders of magnitude lower than the concentrations detected in lagoons, suggesting attenuation in the subsurface. The data suggest the possibility of monensin transport into shallow (2-5 m) alluvial ground water from dairy management units, including manure storage lagoons and freestalls occupied by heifers, lactating cows, and dry cows.

  9. Predictors of early cessation of dairy farming in the French Doubs province: 12-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounchetrou, Ibrahim Njoya; Monnet, Elisabeth; Laplante, Jean-Jacques; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Thaon, Isabelle

    2012-02-01

    A healthy worker effect due to respiratory disability has been noted in the farming population, but other factors may also interfere. Little has been published about factors influencing the early cessation of work in self-employed dairy farmers. Two hundred and nineteen dairy farmers were included from a cohort constituted in eastern France in 1993-1994 with a 12-year follow-up. Spirometric data, personal, and farm characteristics were registered. Cox models with delayed entry in which age was the time-scale were applied to identify the baseline predictive factors of the early cessation of dairy farming. Working in a modern farm was protective against early cessation of dairy farming (hazard ratio: 0.36 [95% CI: 0.16-0.81]), especially in men. Having asthma was a predictive factor of early cessation, especially in women (hazard ratio: 16.12 [95% CI: 3.28-79.12]). The most predictive factors of early cessation of dairy farming were health related in women and farm related in men. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Dairy farm wastewater treatment using horizontal subsurface flow wetlands with Typha domingensis and different substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierano, María Celeste; Maine, María Alejandra; Panigatti, María Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of different substrates in the performance of a horizontal flow constructed wetland employed in dairy farm wastewater treatment. Typha domingensis was chosen for this study due to its high productivity and efficiency in nutrient removal. Fifteen microcosm-scale reactors simulating horizontal flow constructed wetlands were disposed in a greenhouse in triplicate. Five substrates (river gravel, gravel, LECA, river gravel + zeolite and gravel + zeolite) were evaluated. Real effluent with previous treatment was used. Dairy farm effluents favoured T. domingensis growth, probably due to their high nutrient concentrations. The treatments with the different substrates studied were efficient in the treatment of the dairy farm effluent obtaining ammonium ([Formula: see text]) and total phosphorus (TP) removals between 88-99% and 86-99%, respectively. Removal efficiencies were significantly higher in treatments using LECA and combined substrate (gravel + zeolite). After treatment, the quality of the final effluent was significantly improved. Outlet effluent complied with regulations and could be discharged into the environment.

  11. Improving Health Care for Spanish-Speaking Rural Dairy Farm Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckheit, Caledonia; Pineros, Dwan; Olson, Ardis; Johnson, Deborah; Genereaux, Stephen

    Dartmouth Geisel Migrant Health (DGMH) is a medical student group that provides on-site health services for Spanish-speaking dairy workers in rural Vermont and New Hampshire in conjunction with a federally qualified health center (FQHC). This project was undertaken to evaluate and improve the services provided by DGMH and the FQHC and to refine understanding of the target population. We surveyed 25 workers at 6 collaborating dairy farms to identify health priorities and concerns and perceived barriers and facilitators to health care for these workers. Surveys were administered over 2 weeks in July 2015. Interpreter-mediated appointment and sliding-fee-scale data from a period 7 months that spanned survey administration were also assessed. Diabetes and hypertension were the most common health concerns. Thirty-two percent of participants reported 10 or more days of depressed mood in the past month. Insurance and language were the most common barriers to health care and employers and on-site clinics were the most common facilitators. Appointments most often addressed women's health, gastrointestinal problems, health maintenance, diabetes, and back pain. Thirty FQHC sliding-fee-scale applications were completed by workers. These Spanish-speaking dairy-farm workers have many health concerns and perceive substantial barriers to health care. Collaboration between medical students, a rural FQHC, and farm employers provides important services that facilitate health care access among this population. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  12. PROFIT FUNCTION ANALYSIS OF DAIRY CATTLE FARMING IN GETASAN AND WEST UNGARAN DISTRICTS, SEMARANG REGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. Haloho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of the production factors on the profit of thedairy cattle farming business in Semarang regency. The research was conducted during July-September2012. The method used was a survey method. The sampling technique used multistage random samplingmethod. The selected locations (Getasan and West Ungaran District were deliberately selected becausethey had the highest population of dairy cattle. Respondents were dairy cattle farmers who were drawnrandomly as many as 80 respondents. The measured variables were profit, cost of forage, cost ofconcentrate, cost of labor, capital and farm experience. The data were analyzed descriptively andstatistically. Data were analyzed using the profit function Output Unit Price Cobb-Douglas. Multiplelinear regression was used in the study. The research showed that the factors of production inputssimultaneously significantly affected farmers profit (P<0.05. Forage cost, concentrate feed cost, andcapital partially affected on farmer profit (P<0.05. The average production cost was IDR1,661,827/year. The average profit was IDR 2,399,453/month. The average revenue was IDR737.625/month with an average of lactation cattle scale ownership was 2.4 head/farmer. According tothe result, dairy cattle’s farming in Semarang Regency was profitable.

  13. Modeling small-scale dairy farms in central Mexico using multi-criteria programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Arreola, D; Kebreab, E; France, J

    2006-05-01

    Milk supply from Mexican dairy farms does not meet demand and small-scale farms can contribute toward closing the gap. Two multi-criteria programming techniques, goal programming and compromise programming, were used in a study of small-scale dairy farms in central Mexico. To build the goal and compromise programming models, 4 ordinary linear programming models were also developed, which had objective functions to maximize metabolizable energy for milk production, to maximize margin of income over feed costs, to maximize metabolizable protein for milk production, and to minimize purchased feedstuffs. Neither multi-criteria approach was significantly better than the other; however, by applying both models it was possible to perform a more comprehensive analysis of these small-scale dairy systems. The multi-criteria programming models affirm findings from previous work and suggest that a forage strategy based on alfalfa, ryegrass, and corn silage would meet nutrient requirements of the herd. Both models suggested that there is an economic advantage in rescheduling the calving season to the second and third calendar quarters to better synchronize higher demand for nutrients with the period of high forage availability.

  14. A survey of Neospora caninum-associated bovine abortion in large dairy farms of Mashhad, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmi, G R; Zarea, H; Naseri, Z

    2010-05-01

    Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan protozoon causing abortion in cattle worldwide. The present study was designed to assess the importance of this parasite for causing abortion in dairy farms in the Mashhad area of Iran. Of the aborted bovine fetuses, 151 were collected from dairy farms between 2006 and 2008. First, brain samples were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of N. caninum DNA, diagnosis was complemented with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fetal serology (ELISA). Twenty-two (14.5%) of bovine fetuses were considered to be infected with N. caninum with at least one diagnostic technique being positive. PCR yielded 18 (11.9%) positive out of 151 brain samples. Only 52 brain samples were suitable for IHC examination, and N. caninum organism was detected in six (11.5%) of these 52 brain samples. Fetal fluids (n = 151) were assessed with a N. caninum-ELISA, resulting in 15 (9.9%) seropositive fetal fluids samples. In the present study, a good agreement was observed between PCR and ELISA, and a fair agreement between PCR and IHC. The results indicated that abortion due to N. caninum infection is prevalent among large-size dairy farms in the Mashhad area of Iran, and that different complementary diagnostic techniques should be used to increase the chance to detect N. caninum.

  15. Farm factors associated with reducing Cryptosporidium loading in storm runoff from dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W A; Lewis, D J; Pereira, M D G; Lennox, M; Conrad, P A; Tate, K W; Atwill, E R

    2008-01-01

    A systems approach was used to evaluate environmental loading of Cryptosporidium oocysts on five coastal dairies in California. One aspect of the study was to determine Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations and loads for 350 storm runoff samples from dairy high use areas collected over two storm seasons. Selected farm factors and beneficial management practices (BMPs) associated with reducing the Cryptosporidium load in storm runoff were assessed. Using immunomagnetic separation (IMS) with direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) analysis, Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected on four of the five farms and in 21% of storm runoff samples overall. Oocysts were detected in 59% of runoff samples collected near cattle less than 2 mo old, while 10% of runoff samples collected near cattle over 6 mo old were positive. Factors associated with environmental loading of Cryptosporidium oocysts included cattle age class, 24 h precipitation, and cumulative seasonal precipitation, but not percent slope, lot acreage, cattle stocking number, or cattle density. Vegetated buffer strips and straw mulch application significantly reduced the protozoal concentrations and loads in storm runoff, while cattle exclusion and removal of manure did not. The study findings suggest that BMPs such as vegetated buffer strips and straw mulch application, especially when placed near calf areas, will reduce environmental loading of fecal protozoa and improve stormwater quality. These findings are assisting working dairies in their efforts to improve farm and ecosystem health along the California coast.

  16. Biogas Production in Dairy Farming in Indonesia: A Challenge for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatmiko Wahyudi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biogas plays an important role in supporting and ensuring the dairy farming sector remains sustainable. Biogas technology is not only as a method to dispose dairy farming waste but also benefiting economically, socially and environmentally. Biogas technology has been introduced since 1970s and many biogas programmes have been implemented in Indonesia. However compare to other countries like China and India, the dissemination of biogas technology in Indonesia runs quite slowly. There are several factors such as financial, policies and people’s perception hindering biogas use regarding the increase of biogas plants installed in Indonesia. In addition, many installed biogas plants are non-functional due to inadequate maintenance causing users stop to operate biogas plants and influencing potential users to reject adopting the technology. This paper provides an overview of biogas production sustainability which consists of five sustainability dimensions: technical, economic, social, environmental and organizational/institutional sustainability. Understanding the biogas sustainability helps stakeholders to realize that in order to promote biogas technology many sectors must be developed and many institutions must be involved and cooperated. The sustainability of biogas will determine the success of biogas dissemination particularly in dairy farming in the future. 

  17. The Potential Role of Direct and Indirect Contacts on Infection Spread in Dairy Farm Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalini, Silvano; Zarenghi, Luca; Ricchi, Matteo; Bolzoni, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Animals’ exchanges are considered the most effective route of between-farm infectious disease transmission. However, despite being often overlooked, the infection spread due to contaminated equipment, vehicles, or personnel proved to be important for several livestock epidemics. This study investigated the role of indirect contacts in a potential infection spread in the dairy farm network of the Province of Parma (Northern Italy). We built between-farm contact networks using data on cattle exchange (direct contacts), and on-farm visits by veterinarians (indirect contacts). We compared the features of the contact structures by using measures on static and temporal networks. We assessed the disease spreading potential of the direct and indirect network structures in the farm system by using data on the infection state of farms by paratuberculosis. Direct and indirect networks showed non-trivial differences with respect to connectivity, contact distribution, and super-spreaders identification. Furthermore, our analyses on paratuberculosis data suggested that the contributions of direct and indirect contacts on diseases spread are apparent at different spatial scales. Our results highlighted the potential role of indirect contacts in between-farm disease spread and underlined the need for a deeper understanding of these contacts to develop better strategies for prevention of livestock epidemics. PMID:28125610

  18. The Potential Role of Direct and Indirect Contacts on Infection Spread in Dairy Farm Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Rossi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Animals' exchanges are considered the most effective route of between-farm infectious disease transmission. However, despite being often overlooked, the infection spread due to contaminated equipment, vehicles, or personnel proved to be important for several livestock epidemics. This study investigated the role of indirect contacts in a potential infection spread in the dairy farm network of the Province of Parma (Northern Italy. We built between-farm contact networks using data on cattle exchange (direct contacts, and on-farm visits by veterinarians (indirect contacts. We compared the features of the contact structures by using measures on static and temporal networks. We assessed the disease spreading potential of the direct and indirect network structures in the farm system by using data on the infection state of farms by paratuberculosis. Direct and indirect networks showed non-trivial differences with respect to connectivity, contact distribution, and super-spreaders identification. Furthermore, our analyses on paratuberculosis data suggested that the contributions of direct and indirect contacts on diseases spread are apparent at different spatial scales. Our results highlighted the potential role of indirect contacts in between-farm disease spread and underlined the need for a deeper understanding of these contacts to develop better strategies for prevention of livestock epidemics.

  19. Integration of ecosystem services into the carbon footprint of milk of South German dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Kiefer, Lukas; Menzel, Friederike; Bahrs, Enno

    2015-04-01

    Allocation of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) is challenging especially when multi-functionality of dairy farms, which do not only produce milk but also meat is considered. Moreover, some farms fulfill a wide range of additional services for society such as management of renewable natural resources as well as preservation of biodiversity and cultural landscapes. Due to the increasing degradation of ecosystems many industrialized as well as developing countries designed payment systems for environmental services. This study examines different allocation methods of GHG for a comparatively large convenience sample of 113 dairy farms located in grassland-based areas of southern Germany. Results are carbon footprints of 1.99 kg CO2eq/kg of fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM) on average if "no allocation" for coupled products is performed. "Physical allocation" results in 1.53 kg CO2eq/kg FPCM and "conventional economic allocation" in 1.66 kg CO2eq/kg FPCM on average if emissions are apportioned between milk and meat. Economic allocation which includes ecosystem services for society based on the farm net income as a new aspect in this study results in a carbon footprint of 1.5 kg CO2eq/kg FPCM on average. System expansion that puts greater emphasis on coupled beef production accounts for a carbon footprint of 0.68 kg CO2eq/kg FPCM on average. Intense milk production systems with higher milk yields show better results based on "no allocation", "physical allocation" and "conventional economic allocation". By contrast, economic allocation, which takes into account ecosystem services favors extensive systems, especially in less favored areas. This shows that carbon footprints of dairy farms should not be examined one-dimensionally based on the amount of milk and meat that is produced on the farm. Rather, a broader perspective is necessary that takes into account the multi-functionality of dairy farms especially in countries where a wide

  20. An operational method for the evaluation of resource use and environmental impacts of dairy farms by life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, Hayo M G; Kanyarushoki, Claver; Corson, Michael S

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes and applies EDEN-E, an operational method for the environmental evaluation of dairy farms based on the life cycle assessment (LCA) conceptual framework. EDEN-E requires a modest amount of data readily available on-farm, and thus can be used to assess a large number of farms at a reasonable cost. EDEN-E estimates farm resource use and pollutant emissions mostly at the farm scale, based on-farm-gate balances, amongst others. Resource use and emissions are interpreted in terms of potential impacts: eutrophication, acidification, climate change, terrestrial toxicity, non-renewable energy use and land occupation. The method distinguishes for each total impact a direct component (impacts on the farm site) and an indirect component (impacts associated with production and supply of inputs used). A group of 47 dairy farms (41 conventional and six organic) was evaluated. Expressed per 1000kg of fat-and-protein-corrected milk, total land occupation was significantly larger for organic than for conventional farms, while total impacts for eutrophication, acidification, climate change, terrestrial toxicity, and non-renewable energy use were not significantly different for the two production modes. When expressed per ha of land occupied all total impacts were significantly larger for conventional than organic farms. This study largely confirms previously published findings concerning the effect of production mode on impacts of dairy farms. However, it strikingly reveals that, for the set of farms examined, the contribution of production mode to overall inter-farm variability of impacts was minor relative to inter-farm variability within each of the two production modes examined. The mapping of impact variability through EDEN-E opens promising perspectives to move towards sustainable farming systems by identifying the structural and management characteristics of the farms presenting the lowest impacts.

  1. Fair Oaks Dairy Farms Cellulosic Ethanol Technology Review Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Wold; Robert Divers

    2011-06-23

    At Fair Oaks Dairy, dried manure solids (''DMS'') are currently used as a low value compost. United Power was engaged to evaluate the feasibility of processing these DMS into ethanol utilizing commercially available cellulosic biofuels conversion platforms. The Fair Oaks Dairy group is transitioning their traditional ''manure to methane'' mesophilic anaerobic digester platform to an integrated bio-refinery centered upon thermophilic digestion. Presently, the Digested Manure Solids (DMS) are used as a low value soil amendment (compost). United Power evaluated the feasibility of processing DMS into higher value ethanol utilizing commercially available cellulosic biofuels conversion platforms. DMS was analyzed and over 100 potential technology providers were reviewed and evaluated. DMS contains enough carbon to be suitable as a biomass feedstock for conversion into ethanol by gasification technology, or as part of a conversion process that would include combined heat and power. In the first process, 100% of the feedstock is converted into ethanol. In the second process, the feedstock is combusted to provide heat to generate electrical power supporting other processes. Of the 100 technology vendors evaluated, a short list of nine technology providers was developed. From this, two vendors were selected as finalists (one was an enzymatic platform and one was a gasification platform). Their selection was based upon the technical feasibility of their systems, engineering expertise, experience in commercial or pilot scale operations, the ability or willingness to integrate the system into the Fair Oaks Biorefinery, the know-how or experience in producing bio-ethanol, and a clear path to commercial development.

  2. Quantifying the Effect of Discussion Group Membership on Technology Adoption and Farm Profit on Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Thia; Heanue, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Participatory extension, specifically farm discussion groups, has become a very popular form of agricultural extension in Ireland. The purpose of this article is to assess its effectiveness in promoting the adoption of new technologies and improving farm profit. Design/Methodology/Approach: Following a review of the background and theory…

  3. The sociocultural sustainability of livestock farming: an inquiry into social perceptions of dairy farming.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, B.K.; Oosting, S.J.; Bock, B.B.; Wiskerke, J.S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, the scale and intensity of livestock farming have increased significantly. At the same time, Western societies have become more urbanised and fewer people have close relatives involved in farming. As a result, most citizens have little knowledge or direct experience of what

  4. Survey on antimicrobial residues in raw milk and antimicrobial use in dairy farms in the Emilia-Romagna region, Italy

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    Andrea Serraino

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This survey investigated the antimicrobials most commonly used in dairy herds and antimicrobial residues most frequently detected in milk to evaluate the suitability of rapid screening tests to determine antimicrobial residues in milk. The investigation was carried out in 45 dairy herds consulting the farm administration records and in a national dairy industry collecting milk from almost all the dairy farms studied. Data were recorded on: i treatments with drugs containing antimicrobials during the 12 months prior to the visit; ii antimicrobial active substances present in the drugs; iii data from routine controls to detect antimicrobial residues (52,771 samples. The antimicrobial classes most commonly used were penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, sulphonamides, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides and lyncosamides; the most frequently used antimicrobial not belonging to any of the previous groups was riphaximin. Sixty-four samples collected from milk trucks yielded antimicrobial residues exceeding the detection limit of the screening test used: sulphonamide residues were the most prevalent (3.4%, followed by tetracycline (0.3% and penicillins and cephalosporins (0.03%. The antimicrobial classes most commonly used on dairy farms are the same as the residues most frequently detected in milk. The association of several commercially available rapid test kits proved satisfactory for determination of the veterinary antimicrobial drugs most used on dairy farms but at least five kits are required. Therefore, knowledge of the most frequently used veterinary drugs and periodic monitoring are required for the dairy industry to develop a targeted and effective control plan.

  5. Efficiency of use of imported magnesium, sulfur, copper, and zinc on Idaho dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, A N; Hazen, W; Ellsworth, J W

    2007-06-01

    Six commercial dairies from south central Idaho were surveyed to estimate the whole-farm surpluses of magnesium (Mg), sulfur (S), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). Mineral imports and exports were monitored in a 12-mo period and samples from the diets, feeds, feces, urine, and manure were collected at regular farm visits. Soils from manure-amended fields were sampled in the spring and fall. In all cases, the largest import of Mg, S, Cu, and Zn to the dairy was with purchased feeds, from 91 (S) to 97% (Zn) of all imports. The major mineral export item was manure [from 60% (S) to 89% (Cu) of all exports] and forages, in the case of a dairy with a large land base. Export with milk represented on average only 8.6, 25, 2.1, and 11% (Mg, S, Cu, and Zn, respectively) of all exports. Thus, the conversion of the imported feed Mg, S, Cu, and Zn into milk was rather low (on a whole-farm scale): 5.6, 11, 1.4, and 5.2%, respectively. Concentrations of Mg, Cu, and Zn in the lactating cow diets from the participating dairies exceeded National Research Council (2001) recommendations on average by 85, 34, and 73%, respectively, which contributed to the inefficient use of imported minerals. Whole-farm Mg surplus varied from 4 to 54 t/yr (3 to 19 kg/cow per year). The efficiency of use of imported Mg varied from 27 to 88%. Sulfur surpluses were from 9 to 52 t/yr (12 to 40 kg/cow per year). Copper and Zn surpluses were also significant (average of 59 and 585 kg/yr and 0.05 and 0.4 kg/cow per year, respectively). The average efficiency of use of imported S, Cu, and Mg was 44, 62, and 56%, respectively and, as with Mg, varied significantly among the dairies. The results from this study suggest that reduction in the concentration of dietary Mg, Cu, and Zn is potentially the most efficient way of reducing overall excretions and whole-farm surpluses of these minerals.

  6. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Neospora caninum in small dairy farms in central Chile

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    Luis Hervé-Claude1

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide information about seroprevalence and risk factors of Neospora caninum infection in bovines of central Chile. Material and Methods. The study population are small dairy farms that are part of a Government Technical Support Service (SAT in the O´Higgins region in central Chile. Sera samples were collected from milking cows and analyzed by a commercial ELISA kit. Additionally, a questionnaire was applied to farmers to identify risk factors through logistic regression. Results. The farm level prevalence was found to be 67%, and within farms seroprevalence 55%. Abortion history (p= 0.037, OR=5.09, dogs feed source (p= 0.0429, OR=6, cattle drinking water source (p=0.034, OR=4.5 and abortions management (p=0.017, OR=7.43 were found as significant risk factors for infection. Conclusion. There is a high N. caninum seroprevalence in small SAT´s dairy farms in O´Higgins region. These results highlight the need of improving N. caninum surveillance, and the development of preventive measures to avoid losses related with this disease.

  7. Analysis of reproductive performance of lactating cows on large dairy farms using machine learning algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraviello, D Z; Weigel, K A; Craven, M; Gianola, D; Cook, N B; Nordlund, K V; Fricke, P M; Wiltbank, M C

    2006-12-01

    The fertility of lactating dairy cows is economically important, but the mean reproductive performance of Holstein cows has declined during the past 3 decades. Traits such as first-service conception rate and pregnancy status at 150 d in milk (DIM) are influenced by numerous explanatory factors common to specific farms or individual cows on these farms. Machine learning algorithms offer great flexibility with regard to problems of multicollinearity, missing values, or complex interactions among variables. The objective of this study was to use machine learning algorithms to identify factors affecting the reproductive performance of lactating Holstein cows on large dairy farms. This study used data from farms in the Alta Genetics Advantage progeny-testing program. Production and reproductive records from 153 farms were obtained from on-farm DHI-Plus, Dairy Comp 305, or PCDART herd management software. A survey regarding management, facilities, labor, nutrition, reproduction, genetic selection, climate, and milk production was completed by managers of 103 farms; body condition scores were measured by a single evaluator on 63 farms; and temperature data were obtained from nearby weather stations. The edited data consisted of 31,076 lactation records, 14,804 cows, and 317 explanatory variables for first-service conception rate and 17,587 lactation records, 9,516 cows, and 341 explanatory variables for pregnancy status at 150 DIM. An alternating decision tree algorithm for first-service conception rate classified 75.6% of records correctly and identified the frequency of hoof trimming maintenance, type of bedding in the dry cow pen, type of cow restraint system, and duration of the voluntary waiting period as key explanatory variables. An alternating decision tree algorithm for pregnancy status at 150 DIM classified 71.4% of records correctly and identified bunk space per cow, temperature for thawing semen, percentage of cows with low body condition scores, number of

  8. Within-Farm Changes in Dairy Farm-Associated Salmonella Subtypes and Comparison to Human Clinical Isolates in Michigan, 2000-2001 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habing, Greg G.; Manning, Shannon; Bolin, Carole; Cui, Yuehua; Rudrik, James; Dietrich, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Temporal changes in the distribution of Salmonella subtypes in livestock populations may have important impacts on human health. The first objective of this research was to determine the within-farm changes in the population of subtypes of Salmonella on Michigan dairy farms that were sampled longitudinally in 2000-2001 and again in 2009. The second objective was to determine the yearly frequency (2001 through 2012) of reported human illnesses in Michigan associated with the same subtypes. Comparable sampling techniques were used to collect fecal and environmental samples from the same 18 Michigan dairy farms in 2000-2001 and 2009. Serotypes, multilocus sequence types (STs), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) banding patterns were identified for isolates from 6 farms where >1 Salmonella isolate was recovered in both 2000-2001 and 2009. The distribution of STs was significantly different between time frames (P Salmonella were due to recovery of MDR subtypes of S. enterica serotypes Senftenberg and Typhimurium in 2000-2001 and genetically distinct, pansusceptible subtypes of the same serotypes in 2009. The annual frequency of human illnesses between 2001 and 2012 with a PFGE pattern matching a bovine strain decreased for patterns recovered from dairy farms in 2000-2001 and increased for patterns recovered in 2009. These data suggest important changes in the population of Salmonella on dairy farms and in the frequency of human illnesses associated with cattle-derived subtypes. PMID:26070676

  9. Prioritisation of farm scale remediation efforts for reducing losses of nutrients and faecal indicator organisms to waterways: a case study of New Zealand dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, R M; de Klein, C A M; Muirhead, R W

    2008-06-01

    The international competitiveness of the New Zealand (NZ) dairy industry is built on low cost clover-based systems and a favourable temperate climate that enables cows to graze pastures mostly all year round. Whilst this grazed pasture farming system is very efficient at producing milk, it has also been identified as a significant source of nutrients (N and P) and faecal bacteria which have contributed to water quality degradation in some rivers and lakes. In response to these concerns, a tool-box of mitigation measures that farmers can apply on farm to reduce environmental emissions has been developed. Here we report the potential reduction in nutrient losses and costs to farm businesses arising from the implementation of individual best management practices (BMPs) within this tool-box. Modelling analysis was carried out for a range of BMPs targeting pollutant source reduction on case-study dairy farms, located in four contrasting catchments. Due to the contrasting physical resources and management systems present in the four dairy catchments evaluated, the effectiveness and costs of BMPs varied. Farm managements that optimised soil Olsen P levels or used nitrification inhibitors were observed to result in win-win outcomes whereby nutrient losses were consistently reduced and farm profitability was increased in three of the four case study farming systems. Other BMPs generally reduced nutrient and faecal bacteria losses but at a small cost to the farm business. Our analysis indicates that there are a range of technological measures that can deliver substantial reductions in nutrient losses to waterways from dairy farms, whilst not increasing or even reducing other environmental impacts (e.g. greenhouse gas emissions and energy use). Their implementation will first require clearly defined environmental goals for the catchment/water body that is to be protected. Secondly, given that the major sources of water pollutants often differed between catchments, it is

  10. Environmental impacts of innovative dairy farming systems aiming at improved internal nutrient cycling: A multi-scale assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, W; Kros, J; Dolman, M A; Vellinga, Th V; de Boer, H C; Gerritsen, A L; Sonneveld, M P W; Bouma, J

    2015-12-01

    Several dairy farms in the Netherlands aim at reducing environmental impacts by improving the internal nutrient cycle (INC) on their farm by optimizing the use of available on-farm resources. This study evaluates the environmental performance of selected INC farms in the Northern Friesian Woodlands in comparison to regular benchmark farms using a Life Cycle Assessment. Regular farms were selected on the basis of comparability in terms of milk production per farm and per hectare, soil type and drainage conditions. In addition, the environmental impacts of INC farming at landscape level were evaluated with the integrated modelling system INITIATOR, using spatially explicit input data on animal numbers, land use, agricultural management, meteorology and soil, assuming that all farms practised the principle of INC farming. Impact categories used at both farm and landscape levels were global warming potential, acidification potential and eutrophication potential. Additional farm level indicators were land occupation and non-renewable energy use, and furthermore all farm level indicators were also expressed per kg fat and protein corrected milk. Results showed that both on-farm and off-farm non-renewable energy use was significantly lower at INC farms as compared with regular farms. Although nearly all other environmental impacts were numerically lower, both on-farm and off-farm, differences were not statistically significant. Nitrogen losses to air and water decreased by on average 5 to 10% when INC farming would be implemented for the whole region. The impact of INC farming on the global warming potential and eutrophication potential was, however, almost negligible (<2%) at regional level. This was due to a negligible impact on the methane emissions and on the surplus and thereby on the soil accumulation and losses of phosphorus to water at INC farms, illustrating the focus of these farms on closing the nitrogen cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  11. Competitiveness of Dairy Farms In Northern Europe: A Cross-Country analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Jansik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The milk sector has received much attention in Europe due to the abolition of milk quotas in 2015 and its potential effect on the geographical distribution of milk production across countries. As a way of assessing the competitive advantage of Nordic EU countries, we investigated the productivity level and productivity growth of milk farms across eight countries of the Baltic Sea region from 1995 to 2010. We found considerable discrepancy in the productivity performance of dairy farms across countries. TFP growth rates indicate that, at farm level, the competitive positions of the older EU members are stable, and that there is no catching up from the newer EU entrants. We offer explanations for this evolution based on the different patterns of structural change followed by the studied countries.

  12. Potential airborne microbial hazards for workers on dairy and beef cattle farms in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr M.M. Abd-Elall

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the concentration and frequency distribution of certain airborne micro-organisms on cattle farms and their potential health hazards to farm workers. The samples (60 air samples and 240 hand and nasal swabs from cattle farm workers were collected from ten cattle farms (five dairy barns and five beef sheds located in the Sharkia Governorate of Egypt. Air samples were collected for microbiological examination in liquid media using an all-glass impinger whereas those for fungal examination were placed on agar plates using slit air samplers (aeroscopes. The results showed that the overall means of total culturable bacterial and fungal counts were lower in the air of dairy cattle barns than in beef cattle sheds. Identification of the isolated bacteria revealed the recovery of the following species (from dairy cattle barns versus beef cattle sheds: Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.7% vs 36.7%, S. saprophyticus (20% vs 33.3%, S. aureus (10% vs 16.7%, Enterococcus faecalis (23.3% vs 26.7%, Enterobacter agglomerans (23.3 vs 13.3%, Escherichia coli, (16.7% vs 26.7%, Klebsiella oxytoca, (10% vs 16.7%, K. pneumoniae (3.3% vs 0%, Proteus rettegri (6.7% vs 13.3%, P. mirabilis (10% vs 10%, P. vulgaris (3.3% vs 6.7%, Pseudomonas species (6.7% vs 16.7%, respectively. Mycological examination of air samples revealed the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus (46.7% vs 63.3%, A. niger (20% vs 36.7%, A. flavus (13.3% vs 26.7%, Penicillium citrinum (16.7% vs 23.3%, P. viridicatum (13.3% vs 6.7%, P. capsulatum (3.3% vs 0%, Cladosporium spp. (30% vs 56.7%, Alternaria spp. (13.3 vs 23.3%, Mucor spp. (6.7% vs 16.7%, Fusarium spp. (3.3% vs 10%, Absidia spp. (6.7% vs 10%, Curvilaria spp. (10% vs 3.3%, Rhizopus spp. (6.7% vs 13.3%, Scopulariopsis (3.3% vs 6.7%, Epicoccum spp. (0% vs 3.4% and yeast (13.3% vs 20%, respectively. In addition, microbiological examinations of farm workers revealed heavy contamination of their hands and noses with

  13. Whole farm impact of biogas generation and use on a New York dairy farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: The USDA and the dairy industry have set a goal for reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 25% by 2020. Many mitigation strategies are required to meet this goal, but the use of anaerobic digesters for biogas production is considered to be an important component. Anaerobic digestion removes ...

  14. Opportunities for reducing environmental emissions from forage-based dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Misselbrook

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern dairy production is inevitably associated with impacts to the environment and the challenge for the industry today is to increase production to meet growing global demand while minimising emissions to the environment. Negative environmental impacts include gaseous emissions to the atmosphere, of ammonia from livestock manure and fertiliser use, of methane from enteric fermentation and manure management, and of nitrous oxide from nitrogen applications to soils and from manure management. Emissions to water include nitrate, ammonium, phosphorus, sediment, pathogens and organic matter, deriving from nutrient applications to forage crops and/or the management of grazing livestock. This paper reviews the sources and impacts of such emissions in the context of a forage-based dairy farm and considers a number of potential mitigation strategies, giving some examples using the farm-scale model SIMSDAIRY. Most of the mitigation measures discussed are associated with systemic improvements in the efficiency of production in dairy systems. Important examples of mitigations include: improvements to dairy herd fertility, that can reduce methane and ammonia emissions by up to 24 and 17%, respectively; diet modification such as the use of high sugar grasses for grazing, which are associated with reductions in cattle N excretion of up to 20% (and therefore lower N losses to the environment and potentially lower methane emissions, or reducing the crude protein content of the dairy cow diet through use of maize silage to reduce N excretion and methane emissions; the use of nitrification inhibitors with fertiliser and slurry applications to reduce nitrous oxide emissions and nitrate leaching by up to 50%. Much can also be achieved through attention to the quantity, timing and method of application of nutrients to forage crops and utilising advances made through genetic improvements.

  15. Milk microbiological profile of four dairy farms from São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Adna Crisleia Rodrigues Monção

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The concern in milk quality, milk production, and in animals’ welfare is in constant increase. Mastitis is recognized as the main disease affecting dairy animals because of changing in milk composition and reduction in milk production. In Brazil, the highest incidence of mastitis is related to infectious agents. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of pathogenic microorganisms in milk produced by 60 cows from four dairy farms (15 cows/farm located at Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Milk samples from each teat were collected fortnight in sterile tubes, previously identified, during two months. In each herd 240 samples were obtained, except on the farm A, where an extra collection was done, in a total amount of 300 samples. On the farm A, the sampling was done in a period of transition between the dry and rainy season. On the farm B, samples were collected mostly in the season of high temperatures. On the farm C the collections were made over a period of heat and humidity. On the farm D, on a period of warmer temperatures and reduced rainfall. The isolation and identification of microorganisms were conducted at Laboratory of Milk Quality from Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa, São Paulo, Brazil. Aliquots of 100 mL of milk were grown on plates with 5% sheep blood agar. After incubation, they were used for the production of catalase and Gram stain. Gram positive and catalase positive samples were classified as Corynebacterium spp. (Coryne.. Gram positive cocci and catalase negative samples were classified as Streptococcus spp. (Strepto.. Milk were then proceeded to coagulase test in rabbit plasma. Gram-positive cocci, catalase positive and coagulase-negative were classified as Staphylococcus coagulase-negative (SCN. Gram positive, catalase positive and coagulase positive samples were subsequently subjected to biochemical tests: mannitol salt agar, maltose, trehalose, and acetoin production. Strains that were positive for these tests were

  16. Improving Nutrient Efficiency as a Strategy to Reduce Nutrient Surpluses on Dairy Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J.M. Ondersteijn

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Dutch nutrient policy aims at reducing leaching of agricultural nutrients by internalizing the negative externalities associated with inefficient nutrient use. This is done by taxation of nitrogen and phosphate surpluses that exceed a hectare-based threshold of maximum-allowed surpluses. One management strategy farmers may use to reduce the nutrient surpluses on their farms is to improve the nutrient efficiency of the agricultural production process. This study employs Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA to calculate nitrogen and phosphate efficiencies and an overall nutrient efficiency measure for a 3-year panel of 114 Dutch dairy farms. Subsequent analyses show the impact of both farm intensity and nutrient efficiency on the nitrogen and phosphate surpluses. It appears that farm intensity has a positive effect on efficiency, but efficiency and intensity exert opposite influences on nutrient surpluses. This is especially the case for nitrogen. The magnitude of a possible reduction of nitrogen surpluses through a strategy of efficiency improvement is therefore limited by the intensity of the farming system, unless the technology with which nutrients are used by the farming system can be further improved or input/output ratios will be altered.

  17. Improving nutrient efficiency as a strategy to reduce nutrient surpluses on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondersteijn, C J; Lansink, A G; Giesen, G W; Huirne, R B

    2001-10-24

    Dutch nutrient policy aims at reducing leaching of agricultural nutrients by internalizing the negative externalities associated with inefficient nutrient use. This is done by taxation of nitrogen and phosphate surpluses that exceed a hectare-based threshold of maximum-allowed surpluses. One management strategy farmers may use to reduce the nutrient surpluses on their farms is to improve the nutrient efficiency of the agricultural production process. This study employs Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to calculate nitrogen and phosphate efficiencies and an overall nutrient efficiency measure for a 3-year panel of 114 Dutch dairy farms. Subsequent analyses show the impact of both farm intensity and nutrient efficiency on the nitrogen and phosphate surpluses. It appears that farm intensity has a positive effect on efficiency, but efficiency and intensity exert opposite influences on nutrient surpluses. This is especially the case for nitrogen. The magnitude of a possible reduction of nitrogen surpluses through a strategy of efficiency improvement is therefore limited by the intensity of the farming system, unless the technology with which nutrients are used by the farming system can be further improved or input/output ratios will be altered.

  18. Cystic echinococcosis in cattle dairy farms: spatial distribution and epidemiological dynamics

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    Antonio Scala

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A study monitoring cystic echinococcosis (CE in adult dairy cattle from intensive livestock farms located in the municipality of Arborea (Sardinia, Italy was carried out between 2012 and 2015. A retrospective study of veterinary reporting forms of post-mortem inspections in 10 different Italian slaughterhouses was also performed. In addition, data on viability and molecular characterisation of hydatid cysts removed from parasitised organs in cattle was carried out. A geographical information system (GIS with data layers of the study area and the geo-referenced points of 160 cattle farms was constructed. CE was found in 21.9% (35/160 of the surveyed farms. The retrospective study revealed that 0.05% (13/23,656 of adult slaughtered animals (over one year of age from Arborea had tested positive to CE. The results stratified per year showed the following CE prevalences: 0.09% (5/5673 in 2012; 0.02% (1/5682 in 2013; 0.08% (5/6261 in 2014; and 0.03% (2/6040 in 2015 (χ2 with 3 degrees of freedom=3.81; P=0.282. The E. granulosus sensu stricto (formerly called G1 or sheep strain was detected in all cysts subjected to molecular analysis. The GIS analysis showed that CE is fairly resilient in the Arborea territory where most of cattle farms are located, while a small cluster of cases was found located in the southeastern part of Arborea, close to districts where sheep farms are situated. The present survey reports the presence of CE in Sardinian dairy cattle intensive farms and suggests that the parasitic pressure of CE in the island continues to be very strong.

  19. Cost structure and profitability of Assaf dairy sheep farms in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milán, M J; Frendi, F; González-González, R; Caja, G

    2014-01-01

    Twenty dairy sheep farms of Assaf breed, located in the Spanish autonomous community of Castilla y León and included in a group receiving technical support, were used to study their production cost structure and to assess their economic profitability during 2009. On average, farms had 89.2±38.0 ha (own, 38%), 592±63 ewes, yielded 185.9±21.1×10(3) L/yr (i.e., 316±15 L/ewe), and were attended by 2.3±0.2 annual working units (family, 72%). Total annual income was €194.4±23.0×10(3)/yr (€1.0=$1.3) from milk (78.6%), lamb (13.2%), culled ewes (0.5%), and other sales (0.8%, wool and manure), and completed with the European Union sheep subsidy (6.9%). Total costs were €185.9±19.0×10(3)/yr to attend to feeding (61.6%), labor (18.2%), equipment maintenance and depreciation (7.6%), finances (3.0%), animal health (2.5%), energy, water and milking supplies (2.2%), milk recording (0.5%), and other costs (4.4%; assurances, shearing, association fees, and so on). Mean dairy sheep farm profit was €8.5±5.8×10(3)/yr (€7.4±8.3/ewe) on average, and varied between -€40.6 and €81.1/ewe among farms. Only 60% of farms were able to pay all costs, the rest had negative balances. Nevertheless, net margin was €31.0±6.5×10(3)/yr on average, varying between €0.6 and €108.4×10(3)/yr among farms. In this case, without including the opportunity costs, all farms had positive balances. Total annual cost (TAC; €/ewe) and total annual income (TAI; €/ewe) depended on milk yield (MY; L/ewe) and were TAC=161.6 + 0.502 MY (R(2)=0.50), and TAI=78.13 + 0.790 MY (R(2)=0.88), respectively, with the break-even point being 291 L/ewe. Conversely, farm TAC (€/yr) and farm TAI (€/yr) were also predicted as a function of the number of ewes (NOE) per flock, as TAC=18,401 + 282.8 NOE (R(2)=0.89) and TAI=330.9 NOE (R(2)=0.98), with the break-even point being 383 ewes/flock. Finally, according to the increasing trend expected for agricultural commodity prices, it was

  20. Implications of feed concentrate reduction in organic grassland-based dairy systems: a long-term on-farm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiber, F; Schenk, I K; Maeschli, A; Ivemeyer, S; Zeitz, J O; Moakes, S; Klocke, P; Staehli, P; Notz, C; Walkenhorst, M

    2017-11-01

    In response to increasing efforts for reducing concentrate inputs to organic dairy production in grassland-rich areas of Europe, a long-term study was conducted, which assessed the impacts of concentrate reductions on cows' performance, health, fertility and average herd age. In total, 42 Swiss commercial organic dairy cattle farms were monitored over 6 years ('Y0', 2008/09 until 'Y5', 2013/14). In comparison with overall data of Swiss herdbooks (including conventional and organic farms), the herds involved in the project had lower milk yields, similar milk solids, shorter calving intervals and higher average lactation numbers. During the first 3 project years farmers reduced the concentrate proportion (i.e. cereals, oilseeds and grain legumes) in the dairy cows' diets to varying degrees. In Y0, farms fed between 0% and 6% (dietary dry matter proportion per year) of concentrates. During the course of the study they changed the quantity of concentrates to voluntarily chosen degrees. Retrospectively, farms were clustered into five farm groups: Group '0-conc' (n=6 farms) already fed zero concentrates in Y0 and stayed at this level. Group 'Dec-to0' (n=11) reduced concentrates to 0 during the project period. Groups 'Dec-strong' (n=8) and 'Dec-slight' (n=12) decreased concentrate amounts by >50% and organic dairy farms, affected neither milk composition, nor fertility and veterinary treatments. Milk yields tended to decline, but at a low rate per saved kilogram of concentrate.

  1. Stochastic bio-economic modeling of mastitis in Ethiopian dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getaneh, Abraham Mekibeb; Mekonnen, Sefinew Alemu; Hogeveen, Henk

    2017-03-01

    Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland that is considered to be one of the most frequent and costly diseases in the dairy industry. Also in Ethiopia, bovine mastitis is one of the most frequently encountered diseases of dairy cows. However, there was no study, so far, regarding the costs of clinical mastitis and only two studies were reported on costs of subclinical mastitis. Presenting an appropriate and complete study of the costs of mastitis will help farmers in making management decisions for mastitis control. The objective of this study was to estimate the economic effects of mastitis on Ethiopian market-oriented dairy farms. Market-oriented dairy farming is driven by making profits through selling milk in the market on a regular basis. A dynamic stochastic Monte-Carlo simulation model (bio-economic model) was developed taking into account both clinical and subclinical mastitis. Production losses, culling, veterinarian costs, treatment, discarded milk, and labour were the main cost factors which were modeled in this study. The annual incidence of clinical mastitis varied from 0 to 50% with a mean annual incidence of 21.6%, whereas the mean annual incidence of subclinical mastitis was 36.2% which varied between 0 and 75%. The total costs due to mastitis for a default farm size of 8 lactating cows were 6,709 ETB per year (838 ETB per cow per year). The costs varied considerably, with 5th and 95th percentiles of 109 ETB and 22,009 ETB, respectively. The factor most contributing to the total annual cost of mastitis was culling. On average a clinical case costs 3,631 ETB, varying from 0 to 12,401, whereas a sub clinical case costs 147 ETB, varying from 0 to 412. The sensitivity analysis showed that the total costs at the farm level were most sensitive for variation in the probability of occurrence of clinical mastitis and the probability of culling. This study helps farmers to raise awareness about the actual costs of mastitis and motivate them to timely

  2. HACCP-based quality risk management approach to udder health problems on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordhuizen, Jptm; Cannas da Silva, J

    2009-04-01

    Against the background of prevailing udder health problems on dairy farms, this paper discusses a new approach to mastitis control. Current udder health control programmes, such as the 'five-point plan', are highlighted and their drawbacks indicated. The concept and principles of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) are introduced. The eight core elements of this concept are dealt with by using the example of a dairy herd with a mastitis problem due to Staphylococcus aureus. The various steps to be taken in the development of a HACCP-based quality risk management programme are illustrated through the application of core elements. Finally, it is shown that the HACCP key words, structure, organisation, planning, communication and formalisation; which do not frequently appear in conventional herd health and production management programmes can contribute to better udder health. The role of the veterinarian can be paramount and of added value, if he/she is willing to invest in new knowledge and skills, such as the HACCP concept, farm economics, animal nutrition, and particularly the role of coach to the dairy farmer in the implementation of preventative measures in relation to udder health.

  3. HACCP-based quality risk management approach to udder health problems on dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noordhuizen JPTM

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Against the background of prevailing udder health problems on dairy farms, this paper discusses a new approach to mastitis control. Current udder health control programmes, such as the 'five-point plan', are highlighted and their drawbacks indicated. The concept and principles of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP are introduced. The eight core elements of this concept are dealt with by using the example of a dairy herd with a mastitis problem due to Staphylococcus aureus. The various steps to be taken in the development of a HACCP-based quality risk management programme are illustrated through the application of core elements. Finally, it is shown that the HACCP key words, structure, organisation, planning, communication and formalisation; which do not frequently appear in conventional herd health and production management programmes can contribute to better udder health. The role of the veterinarian can be paramount and of added value, if he/she is willing to invest in new knowledge and skills, such as the HACCP concept, farm economics, animal nutrition, and particularly the role of coach to the dairy farmer in the implementation of preventative measures in relation to udder health.

  4. The consequences of noise-induced hearing loss on dairy farm communities in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canton, Karen; Williams, Warwick

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) or noise injury (NI) affects individuals and others of dairy farm communities in New Zealand. Using "grab" or opportunistic sampling at DairyNZ discussion groups and a recreational function, a survey questionnaire was completed by 74 participants from two dairy farming communities in New Zealand. Self-reported hearing difficulties were highlighted by 48% (42) of the 74 participants. The effects of NI on individuals and others included communication difficulties leading to the development of coping strategies, social isolation; decreased employment opportunities, loss of productivity, and increased effort and adjustments by family and work colleagues. Frustration, anxiety, stress, resentment, depression, and fatigue are also negative consequences that may contribute to a loss of quality of life and contribute to further health costs. Increased lateness, absenteeism, sickness and other behavioral aspects were not expressed as normal issues in the workplace, as the majority of the individuals are/were self-employed or working in a family business. This study shows that each year in New Zealand NI results in significant negative social, psychological, and economic consequences for those individuals affected, along with their families, friends, and work colleagues.

  5. The effects of farm size and organic farming on diversity of birds, pollinators, and plants in a Swedish landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfrage, Kristina; Björklund, Johanna; Salomonsson, Lennart

    2005-12-01

    This study compares diversity and abundance of birds plus abundance of butterflies, bumblebees and herbaceous plants between six small farms (farms (>135 ha arable land) in Roslagen in southeastern Sweden. Two of the large and four of the small farms were organic. Large-scale landscape mosaic and underlying bedrock were similar for all farms. Statistical analysis was performed using box-plots on medians and analysis of variance on mean values. More than twice as many bird species and territories, butterflies, and herbaceous plant species, and five times more bumblebees were found on the small compared to the large farms. The largest differences were found between small organic and large conventional farms. Differences were also noted between small and large organic farms: 56% more bird species were found on small organic than on large organic farms, although none of the farms used any pesticides. We therefore argue that the consideration of organic agriculture's effect on biodiversity should include factors affected by farm size.

  6. Greenhouse gas balance of mountain dairy farms as affected by grassland carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Sara; Corazzin, Mirco; Romanzin, Alberto; Bovolenta, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies on milk production have often focused on environmental impacts analysed using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. In grassland-based livestock systems, soil carbon sequestration might be a potential sink to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) balance. Nevertheless, there is no commonly shared methodology. In this work, the GHG emissions of small-scale mountain dairy farms were assessed using the LCA approach. Two functional units, kg of Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM) and Utilizable Agricultural Land (UAL), and two different emissions allocations methods, no allocation and physical allocation, which accounts for the co-product beef, were considered. Two groups of small-scale dairy farms were identified based on the Livestock Units (LU) reared: 30 LU (HLU). Before considering soil carbon sequestration in LCA, performing no allocation methods, LLU farms tended to have higher GHG emission than HLU farms per kg of FPCM (1.94 vs. 1.59 kg CO2-eq/kg FPCM, P ≤ 0.10), whereas the situation was reversed upon considering the m(2) of UAL as a functional unit (0.29 vs. 0.89 kg CO2-eq/m(2), P ≤ 0.05). Conversely, considering physical allocation, the difference between the two groups became less noticeable. When the contribution from soil carbon sequestration was included in the LCA and no allocation method was performed, LLU farms registered higher values of GHG emission per kg of FPCM than HLU farms (1.38 vs. 1.10 kg CO2-eq/kg FPCM, P ≤ 0.05), and the situation was likewise reversed in this case upon considering the m(2) of UAL as a functional unit (0.22 vs. 0.73 kg CO2-eq/m(2), P ≤ 0.05). To highlight how the presence of grasslands is crucial for the carbon footprint of small-scale farms, this study also applied a simulation for increasing the forage self-sufficiency of farms to 100%. In this case, an average reduction of GHG emission per kg of FPCM of farms was estimated both with no allocation and with physical allocation, reaching 27

  7. Assessing agro-environmental performance of dairy farms in northwest Italy based on aggregated results from indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudino, Stefano; Goia, Irene; Grignani, Carlo; Monaco, Stefano; Sacco, Dario

    2014-07-01

    Dairy farms control an important share of the agricultural area of Northern Italy. Zero grazing, large maize-cropped areas, high stocking densities, and high milk production make them intensive and prone to impact the environment. Currently, few published studies have proposed indicator sets able to describe the entire dairy farm system and their internal components. This work had four aims: i) to propose a list of agro-environmental indicators to assess dairy farms; ii) to understand which indicators classify farms best; iii) to evaluate the dairy farms based on the proposed indicator list; iv) to link farmer decisions to the consequent environmental pressures. Forty agro-environmental indicators selected for this study are described. Northern Italy dairy systems were analysed considering both farmer decision indicators (farm management) and the resulting pressure indicators that demonstrate environmental stress on the entire farming system, and its components: cropping system, livestock system, and milk production. The correlations among single indicators identified redundant indicators. Principal Components Analysis distinguished which indicators provided meaningful information about each pressure indicator group. Analysis of the communalities and the correlations among indicators identified those that best represented farm variability: Farm Gate N Balance, Greenhouse Gas Emission, and Net Energy of the farm system; Net Energy and Gross P Balance of the cropping system component; Energy Use Efficiency and Purchased Feed N Input of the livestock system component; N Eco-Efficiency of the milk production component. Farm evaluation, based on the complete list of selected indicators demonstrated organic farming resulted in uniformly high values, while farms with low milk-producing herds resulted in uniformly low values. Yet on other farms, the environmental quality varied greatly when different groups of pressure indicators were considered, which highlighted the

  8. A 4-year intervention to increase adoption of safer dairy farming work practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Larry J; Brunette, Christopher M; Karsh, Ben-Tzion; Taveira, Alvaro D; Josefsson, K Gunnar

    2011-03-01

    Traumatic and musculoskeletal injury rates have been high in dairy farming compared to other industries. Previous work has shown that social marketing efforts can persuade farm managers to adopt practices that reduce injury hazards compared to traditional practices if the new practices maintain profits. The intervention disseminated information to 4,300 Northeast Wisconsin dairy farm managers about three safer and more profitable production practices (barn lights, silage bags, and calf feed mixing sites) using information channels that these managers were known to rely on. We evaluated rolling, independent, community-based samples, at baseline and then again after each of four intervention years. We also evaluated samples from Maryland's 1,200 dairy farms after the second through the fourth year of the intervention. Maryland dairy managers read many of the same nationally distributed print mass media that we used in the intervention and so were a "partially exposed" comparison group. The intervention to disseminate information about the innovations was successful. In comparisons before and after the intervention, Wisconsin managers reported getting more information about calf sites from public events and equipment dealers, about silage bags from other farmers and equipment dealers, and about barn lights from public events, other farmers, equipment dealers, consultants, and electrical suppliers. Wisconsin managers also reported getting more information than Maryland managers from public events for barn lights and silage bags. During years three and four, the intervention managed to sustain, but not improve, earlier increases in adoption and awareness from the first 2 years. After adjusting for farm manager and operation variables, intervention years was associated with increased Wisconsin manager adoption of two of three practices in comparisons between the baseline and the fourth intervention year: barn lights (odds ratio = 5.58, 95% confidence interval = 3

  9. Study on the practices of silage production and utilization on Brazilian dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, T F; do Rêgo, A C

    2014-03-01

    Dairy farmers across Brazil were invited to participate in a study on silage production and utilization practices. Two hundred sixty farmers filled out a questionnaire, which was made available on a website. The questionnaire consisted of 14 questions, including information about the characteristics of the herd (n=3), the crop(s) used in the ensiling process, the use of additives, the harvest (n=3), the type of silo (n=1), aspects related to sealing (n=2), and management practices applied during feed-out (n=3). Farmers were also asked a final question about the main barriers they faced when producing and using silage. The main dairy-producing regions of Brazil had a strong influence on the number of participants. The profiles of farmers were heterogeneous and divided into 5 groups, which was considered a positive attribute of the study, allowing better analysis and assessment of current circumstances. Corn was the most widely grown crop for silage. Sorghum, tropical grasses, and sugarcane were the other species most cited. Additives were used by a small number of farmers (27.7%). Approximately 40% of farmers still depended on loaned equipment or outsourced services. The pull-type forage harvester was the main piece of equipment used on dairy farms (90.4%). Only 54.6% of respondents answered that they sharpen their harvester knives daily. Horizontal silos (bunker and stack) were the structures most commonly used to store silage. Most farmers sealed silos with double-sided plastic film (black-on-white) and with soil. However, almost one-fifth of all farmers still use black plastic. Manual removal of silage from the silos was practiced at most farms (i.e., the lack of equipment was also reflected in the stage of silage utilization). Disposal of spoiled silage before inclusion in the livestock feed was not a common practice on the farms. The main barriers encountered on the farms were lack of equipment, lack of manpower, and climatic variations. The results of this

  10. Assessing circumstances and causes of dairy cow death in Italian dairy farms through a veterinary practice survey (2013-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, Francesca; Angelucci, Alessandra; Lorenzi, Valentina; Bolzoni, Luca; Bertocchi, Luigi

    2017-02-01

    A questionnaire survey about on farm dairy cow mortality was carried out among veterinary practitioners in Italy between January 2013 and May 2014. The study aimed at investigating the main circumstances of death in dairy cows (euthanasia, emergency slaughter or unassisted death), the primary causes and the risk factors of death. Out of 251 dead cows involved (across 137 farms), 54.6% died assisted and 45.4% were found dead. The main causes of death were metabolic/digestive disorders (22.3%) and mastitis/udder problems (17.1%), while in 14.7% of all cases, reasons of death were unknown. From the univariable generalised linear mixed models, dry cows showed a significantly higher odds to die unassisted compared to lactating cows (OR=3.2); dry cows also had higher odds of dying from unknown reasons (OR=11.7). Season was not significantly related to the risk of dying unassisted and for unknown reasons, but during the summer (characterised by hot and muggy weather in Northern Italy) cows died mostly for problems at calving. 54.2% of cows died during the first 30days in milk (DIM). Half of the multiparous cows that died, died in the first 29.5 DIM, while half of the primiparous cows that died, died in the first 50 DIM. Results pointed out that, especially in dry cows, around calving and during the summer, some failure in management practices and daily inspections may occur. Improvements should be done in monitoring activities and in recognising early symptoms of diseases among stockperson. In addition, in case of diagnosed diseases with poor prognosis, euthanasia procedures should be implemented to prevent cows from dying unassisted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of dairy husbandry practices and farm types on raw milk quality collected by different categories of dairy processors in the Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Bogue, Joe; Gómez, Carlos; Vargas, Jorge; Le Gal, Pierre-Yves

    2014-12-01

    In developing countries, milk quality is often mismanaged in relation to husbandry practices, collection logistics, and the production of small batches. This paper investigates how the management of milk quality from farm to dairy processor impacts on both chemical and hygienic indicators, in a context characterized by farm scale diversity, the co-existence of formal and informal markets, and high milk demand. It is based on an analysis of the chemical and hygienic quality of milk samples collected over a 12-month period from 20 farms and three dairy processors. Data from the farmers' husbandry practices and the logistics of milk collection were also collected. A large range of quality profiles and farming practices were observed. This diversity is explained by rainfall and temperature pattern, farm size which affects hygienic quality, and lack of efficient logistics between farms and dairy processors. The findings indicate that in a context of high demand for milk and poor private and public regulations, milk quality is impacted upon by poor stakeholders' management practices.

  12. Genetic parameters for rennet- and acid-induced coagulation properties in milk from Swedish Red dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, F; Glantz, M; Poulsen, N A; Wadsö, L; Stålhammar, H; Andrén, A; Lindmark Månsson, H; Larsen, L B; Paulsson, M; Fikse, W F

    2014-01-01

    Milk coagulation is an important processing trait, being the basis for production of both cheese and fermented products. There is interest in including technological properties of these products in the breeding goal for dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was therefore to estimate genetic parameters for milk coagulation properties, including both rennet- and acid-induced coagulation, in Swedish Red dairy cattle using genomic relationships. Morning milk samples and blood samples were collected from 395 Swedish Red cows that were selected to be as genetically unrelated as possible. Using a rheometer, milk samples were analyzed for rennet- and acid-induced coagulation properties, including gel strength (G'), coagulation time, and yield stress (YS). In addition to the technological traits, milk composition was analyzed. A binary trait was created to reflect that milk samples that had not coagulated 40min after rennet addition were considered noncoagulating milk. The cows were genotyped by using the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Almost 600,000 markers remained after quality control and were used to construct a matrix of genomic relationships among the cows. Multivariate models including fixed effects of herd, lactation stage, and parity were fitted using the ASReml software to obtain estimates of heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations. Heritability estimates (h(2)) for G' and YS in rennet and acid gels were found to be high (h(2)=0.38-0.62) and the genetic correlations between rennet-induced and acid-induced coagulation properties were weak but favorable, with the exception of YSrennet with G'acid and YSacid, both of which were strong. The high heritability (h(2)=0.45) for milk coagulating ability expressed as a binary trait suggests that noncoagulation could be eliminated through breeding. Additionally, the results indicated that the current breeding objective could increase the frequency of noncoagulating milk and

  13. A case study of the carbon footprint of milk from high-performing confinement and grass-based dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, D; Capper, J L; Garnsworthy, P C; Grainger, C; Shalloo, L

    2014-03-01

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is the preferred methodology to assess carbon footprint per unit of milk. The objective of this case study was to apply an LCA method to compare carbon footprints of high-performance confinement and grass-based dairy farms. Physical performance data from research herds were used to quantify carbon footprints of a high-performance Irish grass-based dairy system and a top-performing United Kingdom (UK) confinement dairy system. For the US confinement dairy system, data from the top 5% of herds of a national database were used. Life-cycle assessment was applied using the same dairy farm greenhouse gas (GHG) model for all dairy systems. The model estimated all on- and off-farm GHG sources associated with dairy production until milk is sold from the farm in kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2-eq) and allocated emissions between milk and meat. The carbon footprint of milk was calculated by expressing GHG emissions attributed to milk per tonne of energy-corrected milk (ECM). The comparison showed that when GHG emissions were only attributed to milk, the carbon footprint of milk from the Irish grass-based system (837 kg of CO2-eq/t of ECM) was 5% lower than the UK confinement system (884 kg of CO2-eq/t of ECM) and 7% lower than the US confinement system (898 kg of CO2-eq/t of ECM). However, without grassland carbon sequestration, the grass-based and confinement dairy systems had similar carbon footprints per tonne of ECM. Emission algorithms and allocation of GHG emissions between milk and meat also affected the relative difference and order of dairy system carbon footprints. For instance, depending on the method chosen to allocate emissions between milk and meat, the relative difference between the carbon footprints of grass-based and confinement dairy systems varied by 3 to 22%. This indicates that further harmonization of several aspects of the LCA methodology is required to compare carbon footprints of contrasting dairy systems. In

  14. Increases of Antibiotic Resistance in Excessive Use of Antibiotics in Smallholder Dairy Farms in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Suriyasathaporn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial isolates from both quarter teat-tip swabs and their quarter milk samples were evaluated in smallholder dairy farms in northern Thailand with excessive use of antibiotics (HIGH compared with normal use (NORM. Results from teat-tip swab samples showed that the percentage of Bacillus spp. resistance to overall antibiotics was significantly lower in the NORM group than that of the HIGH group, whereas, the resistance percentage of coagulase-negative staphylococci in the NORM group was higher than that of the HIGH one. The overall mastitis-causing bacteria isolated from milk samples were environmental streptococci (13.8%, coagulase-negative staphylococci (9.9%, Staphylococcus aureus (5.4%, and Corynebacterium bovis (4.5%. Both staphylococci and streptococci had significantly higher percentages of resistance to cloxacillin and oxacillin in the HIGH group when compared to the NORM one. An occurrence of vancomycin-resistant bacteria was also observed in the HIGH group. In conclusion, the smallholder dairy farms with excessive use of antibiotics had a higher probability of antibiotic-resistant pattern than the farms with normal use.

  15. Increases of Antibiotic Resistance in Excessive Use of Antibiotics in Smallholder Dairy Farms in Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyasathaporn, W.; Chupia, V.; Sing-Lah, T.; Wongsawan, K.; Mektrirat, R.; Chaisri, W.

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial isolates from both quarter teat-tip swabs and their quarter milk samples were evaluated in smallholder dairy farms in northern Thailand with excessive use of antibiotics (HIGH) compared with normal use (NORM). Results from teat-tip swab samples showed that the percentage of Bacillus spp. resistance to overall antibiotics was significantly lower in the NORM group than that of the HIGH group, whereas, the resistance percentage of coagulase-negative staphylococci in the NORM group was higher than that of the HIGH one. The overall mastitis-causing bacteria isolated from milk samples were environmental streptococci (13.8%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (9.9%), Staphylococcus aureus (5.4%), and Corynebacterium bovis (4.5%). Both staphylococci and streptococci had significantly higher percentages of resistance to cloxacillin and oxacillin in the HIGH group when compared to the NORM one. An occurrence of vancomycin-resistant bacteria was also observed in the HIGH group. In conclusion, the smallholder dairy farms with excessive use of antibiotics had a higher probability of antibiotic-resistant pattern than the farms with normal use. PMID:25049697

  16. Identifying sources of metal exposure in organic and conventional dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alonso, M; Rey-Crespo, F; Herrero-Latorre, C; Miranda, M

    2017-10-01

    In humans the main route of exposure to toxic metals is through the diet, and there is therefore a clear need for this source of contamination to be minimized, particularly in food of animal origin. For this purpose, the various sources of toxic metals in livestock farming (which vary depending on the production system) must be taken into account. The objectives of the present study were to establish the profile of metal exposure in dairy cattle in Spain and to determine, by chemometric (multivariate statistical) analysis, any differences between organic and conventional systems. Blood samples from 522 cows (341 from organic farms and 181 from conventional farms) were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine the concentrations of 14 elements: As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn. In conventional systems the generally high and balanced trace element concentrations in the mineral-supplemented concentrate feed strongly determined the metal status of the cattle. However, in organic systems, soil ingestion was an important contributing factor. Our results demonstrate that general information about the effects of mineral supplementation in conventional farming cannot be directly extrapolated to organic farming and special attention should be given to the contribution of ingestion of soil during grazing and/or ingestion of soil contaminated forage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Life Cycle Assessment of integrated dairy farm-greenhouse systems in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Siduo; Bi, Xiaotao Tony; Clift, Roland

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anticipated environmental benefits from integrating a dairy farm and a greenhouse; the integration is based on anaerobic digestion of manures to produce biogas energy, biogenic CO2, and digested slurry. A full Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been conducted on six modeled cases applicable in British Columbia, to evaluate non-renewable energy consumption, climate change, acidification, eutrophication, respiratory effects and human toxicity. Compared to conventional practice, an integrated system has the potential to nearly halve eutrophication and respiratory effects caused by inorganic emissions and to reduce non-renewable energy consumption, climate change, and acidification by 65-90%, while respiratory effects caused by organic emissions become negative as co-products substitute for other materials. Co-digestion of other livestock manures, greenhouse plant waste, or food and food processing waste with dairy manure can further improve the performance of the integrated system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Occurrence, genotyping, shiga toxin genes and associated risk factors of E. coli isolated from dairy farms, handlers and milk consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadallah, M A; Ahmed, H A; Merwad, A M; Selim, M A

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of the current study were to determine the occurrence and genotypes of E. coli in dairy farms, workers and milk consumers and to evaluate risk factors associated with contamination of milk in dairy farms. Molecular characterization of shiga toxin associated genes and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) finger printing of E. coli from different sources were also studied. Paired milk samples and rectal swabs from 125 dairy cows, rectal swabs from 82 calves and hand swabs from 45 dairy workers from five dairy farms were collected. In addition, 100 stool samples from 70 diarrheic and 30 healthy humans were collected and examined for the presence of E. coli. E. coli was isolated from milk (22.4%), dairy cattle feces (33.6%), calf feces (35.4%), dairy worker hand swabs (11.1%) and stools of milk consumers (2%, from diarrheic patients only). Only stx1 was identified in seven of 12 E. coli O125 isolated from different sources. High genetic diversity was determined (Simpson's index of diversity, D = 1) and E. coli O125 isolates were classified into 12 distinct profiles, E1-E12. The dendrogram analysis showed that two main clusters were generated. Mastitis in dairy cows was considered a risk factor associated with contamination of the produced milk with E. coli. The isolation of E. coli from rectal swabs of dairy cows and calves poses a zoonotic risk through consumption of unpasteurized contaminated dairy milk. Educational awareness should be developed to address risks related to consumption of raw milk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of metabolic profiles in dairy cattle in tropical and subtropical countries on smallholder dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, D A; Goodger, W J; Garcia, M; Perera, B M; Wittwer, F

    1999-01-27

    Metabolic profile testing has generally been used as part of a multidisciplinary approach for dairy herds in temperate climates. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of the technique for identifying constraints on productivity in small herds in environments less favorable for milk production. Metabolites tested were chosen for stability in the sample after collection of blood, ease of analysis and practical knowledge of the meaning of the results. Blood levels of five different metabolites in low-producing dairy cows belonging to smallholders in tropical and subtropical environments were measured. The study involved 13 projects with 80 cows in each, carried out in six Latin American, six Asian, and one southern European countries. Data were also collected on feeding, body condition score (BCS) and weight change, parasitism, and reproduction. In Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Philippines, Uruguay, and Venezuela, globulin levels were high in > 17% of cows sampled on each occasion. Globulin levels were also high in Turkey and Vietnam on one or more occasions. In Paraguay, 49% of cows had high globulin levels at two to three months after calving. These results suggest that inflammatory disease was present to a potentially important degree, although this was not always investigated and not always taken into account. In all countries except Mexico and Venezuela, high beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels before calving in many cows highlighted the presence of condition loss in late pregnancy, an important potential constraint on productivity and fertility. Fewer cows showed high BHB levels in lactation, whereas change in BCS and weight was more sensitive for measuring negative energy balance. Urea concentrations were low in only small numbers of cows suggesting that dietary protein shortages were not common. Albumin values were low mainly in cows where globulin values were high and, hence, did not generally provide additional information. The exception was in China where

  20. Parasite control practices on pasture-based dairy farms in the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemhoff, Yris; Danaher, Martin; Andrew Forbes; Morgan, Eric; Mulcahy, Grace; Power, Clare; Sayers, Ríona

    2014-08-29

    Dictyocaulus viviparus, Ostertagia ostertagi (nematode parasites), and Fasciola hepatica (trematode parasite) result in productivity losses on dairy farms and impact on animal health through clinical and sub-clinical disease. Parasite control in livestock systems is largely based on the use of chemoprophylactic agents (anthelmintics), grazing management, or a combination of both. The objective of this study was to document current parasite control measures employed by Irish dairy farmers in a predominantly pasture-based livestock system. A questionnaire survey of 312 geographically representative farmers was completed in 2009 with a follow up survey completed in 2011. Statistical analysis highlighted significant differences in chemoprophylactic usage between 2009 and 2011. In particular, an increase in the use of albendazole for both trematode (19% in 2009 to 36% in 2011) and nematode (30% in 2009 to 58% in 2011) control was observed. This was most likely due to flukicide restrictions introduced in the Republic of Ireland in 2010 for dairy animals. Logistic regression highlighted regional differences in chemoprophylactic use. Farmers in southern parts of Ireland, an area with good quality soil, less rainfall, and a higher density of dairy farms than other regions, were approximately half as likely to dose for F. hepatica and were more likely (OR>2.0) to use albendazole for both nematode and fluke control. Approximately 30% of respondents who used a chemoprophylactic treatment for nematodes, used a product which was 'unsuitable for purpose' (e.g. ivermectin for the treatment of F. hepatica), highlighting the need for increased awareness, continuing research, and regionally targeted education tools regarding optimal parasite control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Dairy farmers' perceptions toward the implementation of on-farm Johne's disease prevention and control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, C; Jansen, J; Roth, K; Kastelic, J P; Adams, C L; Barkema, H W

    2016-11-01

    Implementation of specific management strategies on dairy farms is currently the most effective way to reduce the prevalence of Johne's disease (JD), an infectious chronic enteritis of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). However, dairy farmers often fail to implement recommended strategies. The objective of this study was to assess perceptions of farmers participating in a JD prevention and control program toward recommended practices, and explore factors that influence whether or not a farmer adopts risk-reducing measures for MAP transmission. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 dairy farmers enrolled in a voluntary JD control program in Alberta, Canada. Principles of classical grounded theory were used for participant selection, interviewing, and data analysis. Additionally, demographic data and MAP infection status were collected and analyzed using quantitative questionnaires and the JD control program database. Farmers' perceptions were distinguished according to 2 main categories: first, their belief in the importance of JD, and second, their belief in recommended JD prevention and control strategies. Based on these categories, farmers were classified into 4 groups: proactivists, disillusionists, deniers, and unconcerned. The first 2 groups believed in the importance of JD, and proactivists and unconcerned believed in proposed JD prevention and control measures. Groups that regarded JD as important had better knowledge about best strategies to reduce MAP transmission and had more JD risk assessments conducted on their farm. Although not quantified, it also appeared that these groups had more JD prevention and control practices in place. However, often JD was not perceived as a problem in the herd and generally farmers did not regard JD control as a "hot topic" in communications with their herd veterinarian and other farmers. Recommendations regarding how to communicate with farmers and motivate various

  2. Improving efficiency assessments using additive data envelopment analysis models: an application to contrasting dairy farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Diomedes Soteriades

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Applying holistic indicators to assess dairy farm efficiency is essential for sustainable milk production. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA has been instrumental for the calculation of such indicators. However, ‘additive’ DEA models have been rarely used in dairy research. This study presented an additive model known as slacks-based measure (SBM of efficiency and its advantages over DEA models used in most past dairy studies. First, SBM incorporates undesirable outputs as actual outputs of the production process. Second, it identifies the main production factors causing inefficiency. Third, these factors can be ‘priced’ to estimate the cost of inefficiency. The value of SBM for efficiency analyses was demonstrated with a comparison of four contrasting dairy management systems in terms of technical and environmental efficiency. These systems were part of a multiple-year breeding and feeding systems experiment (two genetic lines: select vs. control; and two feeding strategies: high forage vs. low forage, where the latter involved a higher proportion of concentrated feeds where detailed data were collected to strict protocols. The select genetic herd was more technically and environmentally efficient than the control herd, regardless of feeding strategy. However, the efficiency performance of the select herd was more volatile from year to year than that of the control herd. Overall, technical and environmental efficiency were strongly and positively correlated, suggesting that when technically efficient, the four systems were also efficient in terms of undesirable output reduction. Detailed data such as those used in this study are increasingly becoming available for commercial herds through precision farming. Therefore, the methods presented in this study are growing in importance.

  3. Whole farm impact of anaerobic digestion and biogas use on a New York dairy farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion of manure for biogas production is one of many options for reducing the carbon footprint of milk production. This process reduces greenhouse gas emissions but increases the potential nitrogen and phosphorus losses from the farm. An anaerobic digester component was added to the In...

  4. Using models to establish the financially optimum strategy for Irish dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruelle, E; Delaby, L; Wallace, M; Shalloo, L

    2018-01-01

    Determining the effect of a change in management on farm with differing characteristics is a significant challenge in the evaluation of dairy systems due to the interacting components of complex biological systems. In Ireland, milk production is increasing substantially following the abolition of the European Union milk quota regime in 2015. There are 2 main ways to increase the milk production on farm (within a fixed land base): either increase the number of animals (thus increasing the stocking rate) or increase the milk production per animal through increased feeding or increased lactation length. In this study, the effect of increased concentrate feeding or an increase in grazing intensity was simulated to determine the effect on the farm system and its economic performance. Four stocking rates (2.3, 2.6, 2.9, and 3.2 cow/ha) and 5 different concentrate supplementation strategies (0, 180, 360, 600, and 900 kg of dry matter/lactation) resulting in 20 different scenarios were evaluated across different milk, concentrate, and silage purchase prices. Each simulation was run across 10 yr of meteorological data, which had been recorded over the period 2004 to 2013. Three models-the Moorepark and St Gilles grass growth model, the pasture-based herd dynamic milk model, and the Moorepark dairy systems model-were integrated and applied to simulate the different scenarios. Overall, this study has demonstrated that the most profitable scenario was a stocking rate of 2.6 cow/ha with a concentrate supplementation of 600 kg of dry matter/cow. The factor that had the greatest influence on profitability was variability of milk price. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  5. Prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis and quality of milk on smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.H. Mdegela

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted during October and November 2006 on 69 smallholder dairy farms with lactating cows in Mvomero and Njombe districts Tanzania, to determine the prevalence of mastitis and to assess the milk quality on the study farms. Clinical mastitis was investigated using clinical changes of udder and milk at animal level. Cow-side California Mastitis Test (CMT and microbiological cultures were used to assess subclinical mastitis at quarter level. Milk quality was determined on bulk milk samples at herd level using alcohol and acidity tests, butter fat content, total solids, ash content as well as Delvotest® for antimicrobial residues. Overall prevalence of clinical mastitis at herd level in both districts was 21.7 % (n = 69. Based on CMT, prevalence of subclinical mastitis at animal level was 51.6 % (n = 91. Prevalence of bacterial isolates at animal level was 35.2 % (n = 91 while for fungal it was 16.7 % (n = 90. Based on CMT results, prevalence of subclinical mastitis at quarter level was 30 % (n = 353, while for bacteria and fungi it was 16 % and 6 % respectively. Contamination of milk with antimicrobial residues was 4.5 % (n =67. The milk quality parameters for most of the milk samples were within acceptable levels. Findings in this study have demonstrated high prevalence of subclinical mastitis that may contribute to low productivity of dairy cattle in both districts. About 20 % of CMT subclinical cases had no involvement of microbial pathogens that suggested the need for minimal interventions with antimicrobial agents. These findings call for use of udder disinfectants and improved milking hygiene as intervention strategies to control mastitis on the smallholder dairy farms in Tanzania.

  6. Influence of automatic feeding systems on design and management of dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Da Borso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, many dairy farmers have actively advanced their farms toward automation. Automatic concentrate dispensers and automatic milking systems have been utilised for years, and several manufacturers have introduced automatic feeding systems (AFS. AFSs allow for the increase in frequency of feed distribution with significant advantages in terms of health and production. Furthermore, they provide a reduction of man labour related to preparation of feed, distribution, and propelling the ration closer to the feeding rack. The present research was focused on the monitoring of a dairy farm, located in the Veneto region of Italy, during the transition from a conventional feeding system (CFS, based on a tractor operated mixing wagon, to an automatic system equipped with stationary feeding hoppers, mixing unit, and distribution wagon operating on rail. The article reports a comparative analysis of the structural modifications required for the adoption of AFS, including an analysis of the AFS/CFS systems based on their functionality, energy, and man labour requirements. In the case study, AFS represented an affordable way to reduce covered area of the housings, as a result of the reduction in width of foraging lane and the reduction of manger front length. In addition, AFS demonstrated a reduction in labour requirements and improvement of quality and consistency of work when feeding total mixed ration. Finally, the research was addressed to study dairy cow behaviour. A method for monitoring the feeding, resting, and standing indexes was applied to the CFS farm. As a preliminary result of this activity, a positive correlation between cow resting activity and milk production was discovered.

  7. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus in dairy farms, abattoir and humans in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Takele; Hayishe, Halefom; Gizaw, Fikru; Beyi, Ashenafi Feyisa; Abunna, Fufa; Mammo, Bedaso; Ayana, Dinka; Waktole, Hika; Abdi, Reta Duguma

    2017-04-28

    Staphylococcus species cause mastitis and wound infection in livestock and food poisoning in humans through ingestion of contaminated foods, including meat and dairy products. They are evolving pathogens in that they readily acquire drug resistance, and multiple drug-resistant (MDR) isolates are increasing in human and veterinary healthcare. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of Staphylococci and their drug resistance in dairy farms and abattoir settings of Addis Ababa. In this cross-sectional study, 193 samples of milk, meat, equipment and humans working in the dairy farms and abattoir were collected (dairy farms = 72 and abattoir sources = 121). Staphylococcus isolation and identification at the species level was done according to ISO-6888-3 using biochemical characteristics. An antimicrobial susceptibility test was conducted for 43 of the isolates using 15 antimicrobial agents commonly used for humans and livestock by the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method following CLSI guidelines. Staphylococcus organism were isolated from 92 (47.7%) of the total 193 samples, 50% in the dairy farms and 46.3% in the abattoir. The isolated species were S. aureus (n = 31; 16.1%), S. intermedius (n = 21; 10.9%), S. hyicus (n = 16; 8.3%), and coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CNS) (n = 24; 12.4%). Gentamycin was effective drug as all isolates (n = 43; 100%) were susceptible to it and followed by kanamycin (n = 39; 90.7%). However, the majority of the isolates showed resistance to penicillin-G (95.3%), nalidixic acid (88.4%), cloxacillin (79.1%), vancomycin (65.1%) and cefoxitin (55.8%). Of the 15 S. aureus tested for drug susceptibility, 73.3% of them were phenotypically resistant to vancomycin (VRSA) and all of the 15 isolates showed multi-drug resistance (MDR) to >3 drugs. Also, all of the tested CNS (100%), S. hyicus (100%) and the majority of S. intermedius isolates (88.9%) developed MDR. Alarmingly, the Staphylococcus isolates

  8. Understanding Swedish dairy farmers’ view on breeding goals - ethical aspects of longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röcklinsberg, H.; Gamborg, Christian; Gjerris, Mickey

    2016-01-01

    What values underlie farmers’ choice of breeding goals? Typical dairy breeding goals cover production traits (e.g. yield, feed conversion, and lactation curve) and functional traits (e.g. leg health, fertility and calving ability). One central and multifunctional trait correlated to all these tra......What values underlie farmers’ choice of breeding goals? Typical dairy breeding goals cover production traits (e.g. yield, feed conversion, and lactation curve) and functional traits (e.g. leg health, fertility and calving ability). One central and multifunctional trait correlated to all...

  9. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus containing mecC in Swedish dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unnerstad Helle Ericsson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hitherto, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has not been detected in Swedish cattle. However, due to the report of mecC, a novel homologue to the mecA gene, there was reason to re-evaluate susceptibility results from strain collections of Staphylococcus aureus and test suspected isolates for the presence of mecC. Findings Bovine isolates of S. aureus with elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactams were retrospectively tested for presence of mecC. In four of the isolates mecC was detected. Conclusion In Sweden, this is the first finding of MRSA in cattle and the first detection of MRSA harbouring mecC of domestic animal origin. MRSA in animal populations has implications as a potential reservoir with risk for spread to humans. Occurrence of MRSA among Swedish cattle appears still very limited.

  10. Multiresidue screening of milk withheld for sale at dairy farms in central New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R. V.; Siler, J. D.; Bicalho, R. C.; Warnick, L. D.

    2015-01-01

    Many of the drugs commonly used in lactating dairy cows result in residues in the milk, prohibiting its sale for human consumption. Milk withheld for sale because of drug treatment or from cows with high somatic cell counts is commonly called “waste milk.” One-third of dairy farms in the United States use waste milk to feed preweaned dairy calves. Limited information is currently available on the effect of this practice on the selection and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Pooled waste milk samples were collected from 34 dairy farms in central New York State with the objective of detecting the presence and quantity of drug residues in these samples. Samples were collected and refrigerated using ice packs and then stored at 4°C upon arrival at the Cornell laboratory (Ithaca, NY). Screening for β-lactam, tetracycline, and sulfonamide residues in the milk was performed using commercial enzyme-linked receptor-binding assay (SNAP) tests (Idexx Laboratories Inc., Westbrook, ME). Samples with a positive SNAP test were selected for screening using a multiresidue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The SNAP tests revealed that 75, 14.3, and 7.1% of waste milk samples (n = 34) contained β-lactam, tetracycline, and sulfamethazine residues, respectively. Of the samples sent for LC-MS/MS (n = 28), half had detectable quantities of drug residues. The most prevalent drugs detected by LC-MS/MS were ceftiofur (39.2%; mean ± SE concentration = 0.151 ± 0.042 μg/mL), penicillin G (14.2%; mean ± SE concentration = 0.008 ± 0.001 μg/mL), and ampicillin (7.1%; mean ± SE concentration = 0.472 ± 0.43 μg/mL). In addition, one sample had detectable concentrations of oxytetracycline and one sample had detectable concentrations of sulfadimethoxine. These results provide insight on drug residues present in waste milk from select farm in upstate New York, and additionally indicate the need for additional studies targeting on-farm

  11. H2A Biomethane Model Documentation and a Case Study for Biogas From Dairy Farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saur, G.; Jalalzadeh, A.

    2010-12-01

    The new H2A Biomethane model was developed to estimate the levelized cost of biomethane by using the framework of the vetted original H2A models for hydrogen production and delivery. For biomethane production, biogas from sources such as dairy farms and landfills is upgraded by a cleanup process. The model also estimates the cost to compress and transport the product gas via the pipeline to export it to the natural gas grid or any other potential end-use site. Inputs include feed biogas composition and cost, required biomethane quality, cleanup equipment capital and operations and maintenance costs, process electricity usage and costs, and pipeline delivery specifications.

  12. Livestock tracking in dairy farms: comparative study and design of a new solution

    OpenAIRE

    Peña Company, Mireia

    2016-01-01

    This document is a research work about livestock tracking products used in dairy farms. It contains a comparative study of the existing solutions that are currently commercialised as well as the design of a new solution. The comparative study has been focused on cow activity measurement systems. Their main function is to help the farmer detect the arrival of the oestrus periods of the cows, which is necessary to know when a cow must be inseminated in order to get pregnant and thus optimize th...

  13. Research Concerning Standard Gross Margin Depending on Yield in Dairy Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Pirvutoiu; Agatha Popescu

    2012-01-01

    The paper aimed to establish gross margin for three levels of milk yield/cow/year under the condition of Romania:V1-4,000 kg, V2-5,000 kg and V3-6,000 kg. The technical data were collected from three dairy farms and theeconomic calculations were based on the EU methodology taking into consideration prices of the year 2011.Thefollowing indicators were determined for each level of milk yield: gross product, variable cost and gross margin. Theestimates for gross margin/cow were Lei 1,927 for the...

  14. Comparative analysis of the diversity of aerobic spore-forming bacteria in raw milk from organic and conventional dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coorevits, An; De Jonghe, Valerie; Vandroemme, Joachim; Reekmans, Rieka; Heyrman, Jeroen; Messens, Winy; De Vos, Paul; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2008-06-01

    Bacterial contamination of raw milk can originate from different sources: air, milking equipment, feed, soil, faeces and grass. It is hypothesized that differences in feeding and housing strategies of cows may influence the microbial quality of milk. This assumption was investigated through comparison of the aerobic spore-forming flora in milk from organic and conventional dairy farms. Laboratory pasteurized milk samples from five conventional and five organic dairy farms, sampled in late summer/autumn and in winter, were plated on a standard medium and two differential media, one screening for phospholipolytic and the other for proteolytic activity of bacteria. Almost 930 isolates were obtained of which 898 could be screened via fatty acid methyl ester analysis. Representative isolates were further analysed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and (GTG)(5)-PCR. The majority of aerobic spore-formers in milk belonged to the genus Bacillus and showed at least 97% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with type strains of Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus subtilis and with type strains of species belonging to the Bacillus cereus group. About 7% of all isolates may belong to possibly new spore-forming taxa. Although the overall diversity of aerobic spore-forming bacteria in milk from organic vs. conventional dairy farms was highly similar, some differences between both were observed: (i) a relatively higher number of thermotolerant organisms in milk from conventional dairy farms compared to organic farms (41.2% vs. 25.9%), and (ii) a relatively higher number of B. cereus group organisms in milk from organic (81.3%) and Ureibacillus thermosphaericus in milk from conventional (85.7%) dairy farms. One of these differences, the higher occurrence of B. cereus group organisms in milk from organic dairy farms, may be linked to differences in housing strategy between the two types of dairy farming. However, no plausible clarification was found for

  15. INTEGRATION AND LOGISTIC ACTIVITIES BASED ON DAIRY FARMS IN THE MAZOWSZE AND PODLASIE REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bórawski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate and assess integration and logistic activities in dairy farms operating in the FADN regions of Mazovia and Podlasie. The study used primary data from studies conducted by the author in 2013 on a target group of 100 households. The investigated population of farms was divided in terms of the number of cows in the following groups of up to 10 cows (9 households, 11–20 cows (27 households, 21–30 cows (31 households, 31–40 cows (14 households and above 40 cows (19 households. The study used the survey method using questionnaire interviews. The research shows that farmers most frequently collaborated on the joint use of equipment and supplies of agricultural inputs. In contrast, farmers in the study frequently sold products to processing companies or intermediaries.

  16. Integrated Farm System Model Version 4.3 and Dairy Gas Emissions Model Version 3.3 Software development and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modeling routines of the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM version 4.2) and Dairy Gas Emission Model (DairyGEM version 3.2), two whole-farm simulation models developed and maintained by USDA-ARS, were revised with new components for: (1) simulation of ammonia (NH3) and greenhouse gas emissions gene...

  17. A participatory approach to design monitoring indicators of production diseases in organic dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, J E; Fourichon, C; Madouasse, A; Sjöström, K; Emanuelson, U; Bareille, N

    2016-06-01

    Production diseases have an important negative effect on the health and welfare of dairy cows. Although organic animal production systems aim for high animal health levels, compliance with European organic farming regulations does not guarantee that this is achieved. Herd health and production management (HHPM) programs aim at optimizing herd health by preventing disease and production problems, but as yet they have not been consistently implemented by farmers. We hypothesize that one reason is the mismatch between what scientists propose as indicators for herd health monitoring and what farmers would like to use. Herd health monitoring is a key element in HHPM programs as it permits a regular assessment of the functioning of the different components of the production process. Planned observations or measurements of these components are indispensable for this monitoring. In this study, a participatory approach was used to create an environment in which farmers could adapt the indicators proposed by scientists for monitoring the five main production diseases on dairy cattle farms. The adaptations of the indicators were characterized and the farmers' explanations for the changes made were described. The study was conducted in France and Sweden, which differ in terms of their national organic regulations and existing advisory services. In both countries, twenty certified organic dairy farmers and their animal health management advisors participated in the study. All of the farmers adapted the initial monitoring plan proposed by scientists to specific production and animal health situation on their farm. This resulted in forty unique and farm-specific combinations of indicators for herd health monitoring. All but three farmers intended to monitor five health topics simultaneously using the constructed indicators. The qualitative analysis of the explanations given by farmers for their choices enabled an understanding of farmers' reasons for selecting and adapting

  18. From Invention to Innovation: Risk Analysis to Integrate One Health Technology in the Dairy Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Andrea; Boselli, Carlo; Amatiste, Simonetta; Ninci, Simone; Frazzoli, Chiara; Dragone, Roberto; De Rossi, Alberto; Grasso, Gerardo; Mantovani, Alberto; Brajon, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Current Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) approaches mainly fit for food industry, while their application in primary food production is still rudimentary. The European food safety framework calls for science-based support to the primary producers’ mandate for legal, scientific, and ethical responsibility in food supply. The multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary project ALERT pivots on the development of the technological invention (BEST platform) and application of its measurable (bio)markers—as well as scientific advances in risk analysis—at strategic points of the milk chain for time and cost-effective early identification of unwanted and/or unexpected events of both microbiological and toxicological nature. Health-oriented innovation is complex and subject to multiple variables. Through field activities in a dairy farm in central Italy, we explored individual components of the dairy farm system to overcome concrete challenges for the application of translational science in real life and (veterinary) public health. Based on an HACCP-like approach in animal production, the farm characterization focused on points of particular attention (POPAs) and critical control points to draw a farm management decision tree under the One Health view (environment, animal health, food safety). The analysis was based on the integrated use of checklists (environment; agricultural and zootechnical practices; animal health and welfare) and laboratory analyses of well water, feed and silage, individual fecal samples, and bulk milk. The understanding of complex systems is a condition to accomplish true innovation through new technologies. BEST is a detection and monitoring system in support of production security, quality and safety: a grid of its (bio)markers can find direct application in critical points for early identification of potential hazards or anomalies. The HACCP-like self-monitoring in primary production is feasible, as well as the biomonitoring of

  19. From Invention to Innovation: Risk Analysis to Integrate One Health Technology in the Dairy Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lombardo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Current Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP approaches mainly fit for food industry, while their application in primary food production is still rudimentary. The European food safety framework calls for science-based support to the primary producers’ mandate for legal, scientific, and ethical responsibility in food supply. The multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary project ALERT pivots on the development of the technological invention (BEST platform and application of its measurable (biomarkers—as well as scientific advances in risk analysis—at strategic points of the milk chain for time and cost-effective early identification of unwanted and/or unexpected events of both microbiological and toxicological nature. Health-oriented innovation is complex and subject to multiple variables. Through field activities in a dairy farm in central Italy, we explored individual components of the dairy farm system to overcome concrete challenges for the application of translational science in real life and (veterinary public health. Based on an HACCP-like approach in animal production, the farm characterization focused on points of particular attention (POPAs and critical control points to draw a farm management decision tree under the One Health view (environment, animal health, food safety. The analysis was based on the integrated use of checklists (environment; agricultural and zootechnical practices; animal health and welfare and laboratory analyses of well water, feed and silage, individual fecal samples, and bulk milk. The understanding of complex systems is a condition to accomplish true innovation through new technologies. BEST is a detection and monitoring system in support of production security, quality and safety: a grid of its (biomarkers can find direct application in critical points for early identification of potential hazards or anomalies. The HACCP-like self-monitoring in primary production is feasible, as well as the

  20. From Invention to Innovation: Risk Analysis to Integrate One Health Technology in the Dairy Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Andrea; Boselli, Carlo; Amatiste, Simonetta; Ninci, Simone; Frazzoli, Chiara; Dragone, Roberto; De Rossi, Alberto; Grasso, Gerardo; Mantovani, Alberto; Brajon, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Current Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) approaches mainly fit for food industry, while their application in primary food production is still rudimentary. The European food safety framework calls for science-based support to the primary producers' mandate for legal, scientific, and ethical responsibility in food supply. The multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary project ALERT pivots on the development of the technological invention (BEST platform) and application of its measurable (bio)markers-as well as scientific advances in risk analysis-at strategic points of the milk chain for time and cost-effective early identification of unwanted and/or unexpected events of both microbiological and toxicological nature. Health-oriented innovation is complex and subject to multiple variables. Through field activities in a dairy farm in central Italy, we explored individual components of the dairy farm system to overcome concrete challenges for the application of translational science in real life and (veterinary) public health. Based on an HACCP-like approach in animal production, the farm characterization focused on points of particular attention (POPAs) and critical control points to draw a farm management decision tree under the One Health view (environment, animal health, food safety). The analysis was based on the integrated use of checklists (environment; agricultural and zootechnical practices; animal health and welfare) and laboratory analyses of well water, feed and silage, individual fecal samples, and bulk milk. The understanding of complex systems is a condition to accomplish true innovation through new technologies. BEST is a detection and monitoring system in support of production security, quality and safety: a grid of its (bio)markers can find direct application in critical points for early identification of potential hazards or anomalies. The HACCP-like self-monitoring in primary production is feasible, as well as the biomonitoring of live

  1. Water Use and Conservation on a Free-Stall Dairy Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne L. Le Riche

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Livestock watering can represent as much as 20% of total agricultural water use in areas with intensive dairy farming. Due to an increased emphasis on water conservation for the agricultural sector, it is important to understand the current patterns of on-farm water use. This study utilized in situ water meters to measure the year-round on-farm pumped water (i.e., blue water on a ~419 lactating cow confined dairy operation in Eastern Ontario, Canada. The average total water use for the farm was 90,253 ± 15,203 L day−1 and 33,032 m3 annually. Water use was divided into nutritional water (68%, parlour cleaning and operation (14%, milk pre-cooling (15%, barn cleaning, misters and other uses (3%. There was a positive correlation between total monthly water consumption (i.e., nutritional water and average monthly temperature for lactating cows, heifers, and calves (R2 = 0.69, 0.84, and 0.85, respectively. The blue water footprint scaled by milk production was 6.19 L kg−1 milk or 6.41 L kg−1 fat-and-protein corrected milk (FPCM including contributions from all animal groups and 5.34 L kg−1 milk (5.54 L kg−1 FPCM when excluding the water consumption of non-lactating animals. By applying theoretical water conservation scenarios we show that a combination of strategies (air temperature reduction, complete recycling of milk-cooling water, and modified cow preparation protocol could achieve a savings of 6229 m3 annually, a ~19% reduction in the total annual water use.

  2. Giardia and Cryptosporidium on dairy farms and the role these farms may play in contaminating water sources in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budu-Amoako, E; Greenwood, S J; Dixon, B R; Barkema, H W; McClure, J T

    2012-01-01

    Cattle represent a reservoir for Giardia and Cryptosporidium and may contaminate water sources. To determine the distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia on dairy farms and in water bodies near the farms. FARMS AND WATER SOURCES: Twenty dairy farms and 20 wells and 13 surface water samples associated with dairy farms. Proportions of samples positive for Cryptosporidium or Giardia were determined by a direct immunofluorescence assay. Fecal and water samples were taken at different times. Thirty-two (95% CI: 29-35%) and 14% (95% CI: 12-17%) of fecal samples, and 100 (95% CI: 96-100) and 55% (95% CI: 32-77%) of herds, were positive for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, respectively. Giardia duodenalis assemblage E was detected in high proportions (90%) of fecal samples. Cryptosporidium bovis predominated (51%) in all cattle. C. andersoni predominated in adult cattle (53%), whereas the predominant species in animals < 2 months and 2-6 months was C. bovis, respectively. Only calves < 2 months of age were positive for C. parvum. In 46% (95% CI: 19-75%) and 85% (95% CI: 55-98%) of surface water, concentrations of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were higher in downstream, than in upstream, locations of farms, whereas only 1 groundwater sample was positive for Cryptosporidium. This sample of dairy cattle was predominantly infected with nonzoonotic species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, or both. More studies are needed to determine if the presence of Giardia or Cryptosporidium in surface water was associated with shedding in animals from nearby farms. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Feeding strategies on certified organic dairy farms in Wisconsin and their effect on milk production and income over feed costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, C A; Wattiaux, M; Dutreuil, M; Gildersleeve, R; Keuler, N S; Cabrera, V E

    2014-07-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to analyze and categorize certified organic Wisconsin dairy farms based on general farm characteristics and feeding strategies during the course of 2010, and (2) to evaluate herd milk production and income over feed costs (IOFC). An on-site survey containing sections on farm demographics, feeding, grazing, and economics was conducted on 69 farms (12.6% survey response rate). A nonhierarchical clustering method using 9 variables related to general farm characteristics, feed supplementation, and grazing was applied to partition the farms into clusters. A scree plot was used to determine the most appropriate number of clusters. Dry matter intake was approximated based on farmer-reported total amounts of feed consumed (feed offered less refusals). Milk production was evaluated using reported milk rolling herd averages (RHA). Income over feed costs was calculated as milk sales minus feed expenses. The farms in clusters 1 (n=8) and 3 (n=32), the large and small high-input farms, respectively, included more feed ingredients in their lactating cow diets and relied more heavily on concentrates than farms in other clusters. Cows on these farms were predominantly Holstein. Clusters 1 and 3 had the highest RHA (6,878 and 7,457 kg/cow per year, respectively) and IOFC ($10.17 and $8.59/lactating cow per day, respectively). The farms in cluster 2 (n=5) were completely seasonal, extremely low-input farms that relied much more heavily on pasture as a source of feed, with 4 out of the 5 farms having all of their operated land in pasture. Farms in cluster 2 relied on fewer feeds during both the grazing and nongrazing seasons compared with farms in the other clusters. These farms had the lowest RHA and IOFC at 3,632 kg/cow per year and $5.76/lactating cow per day, respectively. Cluster 4 (n=24), the partly seasonal, moderate-input, pasture-based cluster, ranked third for RHA and IOFC (5,417 kg/cow per year and $5.92/lactating cow per day

  4. Molecular detection of the index case of a subclinical Salmonella Kentucky epidemic on a dairy farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, B J; Allard, M; Brown, E; Hovingh, E; Karns, J S; van Kessel, J S

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella enterica commonly colonizes the intestinal tract of cattle and is a leading cause of foodborne illness. A previously described investigation into the prevalence of S. enterica on a dairy farm revealed an 8-year-long asymptomatic S. enterica epidemic caused by serotypes Cerro and Kentucky in the lactating herd. To investigate the source of the S. Kentucky strains, the genomes of two S. Kentucky isolates were sequenced; one collected prior to the epidemic (2004) and one collected during the epidemic (2010). Comparative genomic analysis demonstrated significant polymorphisms between the two strains. PCR primers targeting unique and strain-specific regions were developed, and screening of the archived isolates identified the index case of the asymptomatic S. Kentucky epidemic as a heifer that was raised off-site and transported onto the study farm in 2005. Analysis of isolates collected from all heifers brought onto the farm demonstrated frequent re-introduction of clones of the epidemic strain suggesting transmission of pathogens between farms might occur repeatedly.

  5. Reduced Medication in Organic Farming with Emphasis on Organic Dairy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennedsgaard Torben W

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Medication is an important focus area in organic animal husbandry. The combination of goals relating to improved animal welfare and reduced use of chemicals in general creates a common wish to reduce medication. Based on data from current Danish research projects in organic dairy farming, one specific organic medication pattern or policy cannot be described. The disease treatment pattern is influenced by many factors, e.g. the interaction with colleagues, veterinarians and agricultural advisors. No significant difference could be found with regard to incidence of mastitis treatments or somatic cell counts in 27 organic and 57 conventional herds. A marked tendency to shorter treatment periods in relation to mastitis treatments was described for organic farms in comparison with conventional farms (1.9 days versus 3.2 days (5 organic and 7 conventional herds. In a study of development of health advisory service in organic herds, the dialogue between farmer, veterinarian and agricultural cattle advisor changed the treatment pattern markedly during a period of 6 months. Among important future challenges for veterinarians in organic farming is pointed at the constructive, open, and critical interaction with the single organic farmer as well as the organic animal husbandry system in general.

  6. Dissemination and persistence of Pseudomonas spp. in small-scale dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Michele Nucera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at collecting data on presence, dissemination and persistence of Pseudomonas in small-scale dairy farms. Six farms (located in Piedmont were visited three times over 2014: 116 waters (wells and different faucets/pipes and 117 environmental samples (milking equipments and drains were collected. Enumeration of Pseudomonadaceae was performed, 3-5 colonies/samples were selected for identification via 16SrDNA/oprI polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and typed by enterobacterial-repetitive- intergenic-consensus (ERIC-PCR. Pseudomonadaceae were detected in 77% of samples. No statistical differences were found among proportions of positives across farms, sample typologies and seasons. Most isolates were Pseudomonas fluorescens (45%, and ERIC-PCR showed 32 persistent types diffused across farms. All in all, Pseudomonas spp. represents a challenge, considering its presence over time in water as well as in teat cups, indicating a continuous source of contamination. Moreover, persistency of strains may indicate biofilm-formation and/or sanitisers resistance, therefore emphasising the role of primary production for preventing milk contamination by Pseudomonas spp.

  7. Steroid estrogens, conjugated estrogens and estrogenic activity in farm dairy shed effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadd, Jennifer B., E-mail: j.gadd@niwa.co.n [Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Tremblay, Louis A., E-mail: tremblayl@landcareresearch.co.n [Landcare Research, PO Box 40, Lincoln, 7640 (New Zealand); Northcott, Grant L., E-mail: grant.northcott@plantandfood.co.n [Plant and Food Research, Private Bag 3123, Waikato Mail Centre, Hamilton 3240 (New Zealand)

    2010-03-15

    Agricultural wastes are a source of steroid estrogens and, if present, conjugated estrogens may add to the estrogen load released to soil and aquatic environments. Dairy shed effluent samples were collected from 18 farms for analysis of steroid estrogens by GC-MS, conjugated estrogens by LC-MS-MS, and estrogenic activity by E-screen in vitro bioassay. 17alpha-estradiol was found at highest concentrations (median 730 ng l{sup -1}), followed by estrone (100 ng l{sup -1}) and 17beta-estradiol (24 ng l{sup -1}). Conjugated estrogens (estrone-3-sulfate, 17alpha-estradiol-3-sulfate and 17beta-estradiol-3,17-disulfate) were measured in most samples (12-320 ng l{sup -1}). Median estrogenic activity was 46 ng l{sup -1} 17beta-estradiol equivalents. Conjugated estrogens contributed up to 22% of the total estrogen load from dairy farming, demonstrating their significance. Steroid estrogens dominated overall estrogenic activity measured in the samples. Significantly, 17alpha-estradiol contributed 25% of overall activity, despite potency 2% that of 17beta-estradiol, highlighting the importance in environmental risk assessments of this previously neglected compound. - In rural ecosystems, 17alpha-estradiol and conjugated estrogens are significant sources of environmental estrogens from agricultural wastes.

  8. Frequency of infection by Neospora caninum in wild rodents associated with dairy farms in Aguascalientes, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Esparza, L; Macías, L; Ramos-Parra, M; Morales-Salinas, E; Quezada, T; Cruz-Vázquez, C

    2013-01-16

    The purpose of this study was to detect the presence of Neospora caninum in tissues from wild rodents associated with dairy farms in Aguascalientes, Mexico. Individuals from Mus musculus, Rattus novergicus and Spermophilus variegatus were caught in dairy farms with history of positive status to N. caninum. A total of 33 rodents were caught from which samples were taken of brain, spinal cord, liver and heart and were tested with nested PCR and Immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results obtained with PCR showed that M. musculus had 77% (10/13) positive samples to N. caninum, S. variegatus had 71% (10/14) and R. novergicus had 50% (3/6). The results obtained with IHC showed that 15% (2/13) of M. musculus individuals were positive, while 43% (6/14) of S. variegatus and 33% (2/6) R. novergicus were also positive. This is the first report of the presence of N. caninum in S. variegatus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Oleaginous Microalgae from Dairy Farm Wastewater for Biodiesel Production: Isolation, Characterization and Mass Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zheng; Fang, Xiao-Peng; Li, Xiao-Yang; Zhou, Zhi-Gang

    2018-02-01

    Producing biodiesel from microalgae grown in wastewater is environment-friendly and cost-effective. The present study investigated the algae found in wastewater of a local dairy farm for their potential as biodiesel feedstocks. Thirteen native algal strains were isolated. On the basis of morphology and 16S/18S rRNA gene sequences, one strain was identified to be a member of cyanobacteria, while other 12 strains belong to green algae. After screening, two Scenedesmus strains out of the 13 microalgae isolates demonstrated superiority in growth rate, lipid productivity, and sedimentation properties, and therefore were selected for further scale-up outdoor cultivation. Both Scenedesmus strains quickly adapted to the outdoor conditions, exhibiting reasonably good growth and strong anti-contamination capabilities. In flat-plate photobioreactors (PBRs), algal cells accumulated predominantly neutral lipids that accounted for over 60% of total lipids with almost 70% being triacylglycerol. In addition, Scenedesmus obliquus had a high content of monounsaturated fatty acids, of which the amount of oleic acid (C18:1) was up to 27.11%. Based on these findings, the dairy farm wastewater-isolated Scenedesmus strains represent promising sources of low-cost, high-quality oil for biofuel production.

  10. The Effect of Socio-Economic Factors on Adoption of Innovations in Dairy Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun Yener

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted with the aim of determining the social and economic factors which are effective on the adoption of new technologies at dairy farms in the province of Konya. The data used in the research was obtained on a volunteer basis by questionnaire technique from 128 dairy farms determined with stratified sampling method that is one of random sampling method. 51.56% of enterprises investigated were high innovators and 48.44% of enterprises were low innovators. In conclusion, it was determined that the milk yield, enterprise income, education of enterpriser, family size, number of animals, existence of land, case of receiving services of consultancy and frequency of using mass media tools made positive contributions to adoption of innovations by enterprises in the research field. But the training level decreased as the age of enterpriser increased in the research field. This case retards the adoption process of innovations and deescalates the use of new technologies in the enterprises. The young farmers come to the forefront in the adoption and implementation of innovations.

  11. The influence on biogas production of three slurry-handling systems in dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiano Coppolecchia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Handling systems can influence the production of biogas and methane from dairy farm manures. A comparative work performed in three different Italian dairy farms showed how the most common techniques (scraper, slatted floor, flushing can change the characteristics of collected manure. Scraper appears to be the most neutral choice, as it does not significantly affect the original characteristics of manure. Slatted floor produces a manure that has a lower methane potential in comparison with scraper, due to: a lower content of volatile solids caused by the biodegradation occurring in the deep pit, and a lower specific biogas production caused by the change in the characteristics of organic matter. Flushing can produce three different fluxes: diluted flushed manure, solid separated manure and liquid separated manure. The diluted fraction appears to be unsuitable for conventional anaerobic digestion in completely stirred reactors (CSTR, since its content of organic matter is too low to be worthwhile. The liquid separated fraction could represent an interesting material, as it appears to accumulate the most biodegradable organic fraction, but not as primary substrate in CSTR as the organic matter concentration is too low. Finally, the solid-liquid separation process tends to accumulate inert matter in the solid separated fraction and, therefore, its specific methane production is low.

  12. Short communication: Evaluation of bulk tank milk microbiological quality of nine dairy farms in Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, B E; Lewis, M J; Boonyayatra, S; Maxwell, M L; Saxton, A; Oliver, S P; Almeida, R A

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bulk tank milk (BTM) quality of 9 East Tennessee dairy farms and to determine its relationship with selected quality milk parameters. Bulk tank milk samples (n=1,141) were collected over a 42-mo period (June 2006 through November 2009) from farms, based on their preliminary incubation count (PIC) history. Parameters of BTM quality evaluated in this study included somatic cell count (SCC), standard plate count (SPC), PIC, laboratory pasteurization count (LPC), Staphylococcus spp. count, Streptococcus spp. count, and coliform count. Strong correlations between SPC and Streptococcus spp. counts (0.72) and between SPC and PIC (0.70) were found. However, moderate correlations were seen among other milk quality parameters. In addition, seasonal variations for some milk quality parameters were noted. For example, milk quality parameters such as SCC, SPC, LPC, and coliform count were significantly higher in summer, whereas Streptococcus spp. counts were significantly higher in winter. No seasonal variation in PIC or Staphylococcus spp. counts was observed. Summarizing, results from this investigation showed the importance of using several bacterial counts (SCC, SPC, PIC, LPC, Streptococcus spp. count, Staphylococcus spp. count, and coliform counts) as simultaneous indicators of milk quality. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Occupational health behaviors and habits of women on dairy farms in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Ginger D; Brasier, Kathryn J; Henning, George F; Radhakrishna, Rama B; Jayarao, Bhushan M

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine what tasks women perform, behaviors that could result in exposure to zoonotic disease, and preventative measures practiced by women on dairy farms. A written survey was sent to a stratified, random sample of dairy farms in Pennsylvania (n = 3709) using a modified version of the Dillman method. The tasks most commonly performed by the respondents (n = 624) included milking (70.8%), feeding (60.6%), and cleaning stalls (42.6%). The use of personal protective equipment was infrequent. Gloves were always worn when milking by 32.7%. More respondents, 96.5%, changed their clothes at least sometimes before working in the barn as compared to when leaving the barn. Handwashing was always performed by 86.7% after assisting with delivering calves, whereas 71.1% always washed their hands after milking. Eating and drinking in the barn were practiced by 45.0% and 72.0%, respectively. Veterinary obstetric drugs were administered by 28.2% of the respondents. Most of the respondents, 89.7%, indicated that they felt they had minimal to no risk of contracting a disease from the animals with which they worked.

  14. Productive, economic and environmental effects of optimised feeding strategies in small-scale dairy farms in the Highlands of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Velarde-Guillén

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since most dairy production in developing countries comes from small farms, there is scope to reduce their contribution to greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. In the highlands of Mexico, the limitations in these systems are high feeding costs. This paper assessed the production, economics and estimated methane emissions from traditional feeding strategies (TFS in 22 small-scale dairy farms compared to optimised feeding strategies (OFS evaluated through on-farm research in eight participating farms in the dry (DS and in the rainy (RS seasons. Results were analysed with a completely randomized design. There were no differences (P>0.05 in milk fat, body condition score (BCS or live weight between TFS and OFS, but there was higher (P

  15. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Q fever in goats on commercial dairy goat farms in the Netherlands, 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schimmer Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goat farms in the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for farm and goat seropositivity before mandatory vaccination started. We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum sampling and a farm questionnaire. Per farm, median 21 goats were sampled. A farm was considered positive when at least one goat tested ELISA positive. Results In total, 2,828 goat serum samples from 123 farms were available. Farm prevalence was 43.1% (95%CI: 34.3%-51.8%. Overall goat seroprevalence was 21.4% (95%CI: 19.9%-22.9% and among the 53 positive farms 46.6% (95%CI: 43.8%-49.3%. Multivariable logistic regression analysis included 96 farms and showed that farm location within 8 kilometres proximity from a bulk milk PCR positive farm, location in a municipality with high cattle density (≥ 100 cattle per square kilometre, controlling nuisance animals through covering airspaces, presence of cats or dogs in the goat stable, straw imported from abroad or unknown origin and a herd size above 800 goats were independent risk factors associated with Q fever on farm level. At animal level almost identical risk factors were found, with use of windbreak curtain and artificial insemination as additional risk factors. Conclusion In 2009-2010, the seroprevalence in dairy goats in the Netherlands increased on animal and farm level compared to a previous study in 2008. Risk factors suggest spread from relatively closely located bulk milk-infected small ruminant farms, next to introduction and spread from companion animals, imported straw and use of artificial insemination. In-depth studies investigating the role of artificial insemination and bedding material are needed, while simultaneously general biosecurity measures should be updated, such as avoiding companion animals and vermin entering the stables, next to advice on farm stable constructions on

  16. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Q fever in goats on commercial dairy goat farms in the Netherlands, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goat farms in the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for farm and goat seropositivity before mandatory vaccination started. We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum sampling and a farm questionnaire. Per farm, median 21 goats were sampled. A farm was considered positive when at least one goat tested ELISA positive. Results In total, 2,828 goat serum samples from 123 farms were available. Farm prevalence was 43.1% (95%CI: 34.3%-51.8%). Overall goat seroprevalence was 21.4% (95%CI: 19.9%-22.9%) and among the 53 positive farms 46.6% (95%CI: 43.8%-49.3%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis included 96 farms and showed that farm location within 8 kilometres proximity from a bulk milk PCR positive farm, location in a municipality with high cattle density (≥ 100 cattle per square kilometre), controlling nuisance animals through covering airspaces, presence of cats or dogs in the goat stable, straw imported from abroad or unknown origin and a herd size above 800 goats were independent risk factors associated with Q fever on farm level. At animal level almost identical risk factors were found, with use of windbreak curtain and artificial insemination as additional risk factors. Conclusion In 2009-2010, the seroprevalence in dairy goats in the Netherlands increased on animal and farm level compared to a previous study in 2008. Risk factors suggest spread from relatively closely located bulk milk-infected small ruminant farms, next to introduction and spread from companion animals, imported straw and use of artificial insemination. In-depth studies investigating the role of artificial insemination and bedding material are needed, while simultaneously general biosecurity measures should be updated, such as avoiding companion animals and vermin entering the stables, next to advice on farm stable constructions on how to prevent introduction

  17. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Q fever in goats on commercial dairy goat farms in the Netherlands, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmer, Barbara; Luttikholt, Saskia; Hautvast, Jeannine L A; Graat, Elisabeth A M; Vellema, Piet; Duynhoven, Yvonne T H P van

    2011-12-30

    The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goat farms in the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for farm and goat seropositivity before mandatory vaccination started. We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum sampling and a farm questionnaire. Per farm, median 21 goats were sampled. A farm was considered positive when at least one goat tested ELISA positive. In total, 2,828 goat serum samples from 123 farms were available. Farm prevalence was 43.1% (95%CI: 34.3%-51.8%). Overall goat seroprevalence was 21.4% (95%CI: 19.9%-22.9%) and among the 53 positive farms 46.6% (95%CI: 43.8%-49.3%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis included 96 farms and showed that farm location within 8 kilometres proximity from a bulk milk PCR positive farm, location in a municipality with high cattle density (≥ 100 cattle per square kilometre), controlling nuisance animals through covering airspaces, presence of cats or dogs in the goat stable, straw imported from abroad or unknown origin and a herd size above 800 goats were independent risk factors associated with Q fever on farm level. At animal level almost identical risk factors were found, with use of windbreak curtain and artificial insemination as additional risk factors. In 2009-2010, the seroprevalence in dairy goats in the Netherlands increased on animal and farm level compared to a previous study in 2008. Risk factors suggest spread from relatively closely located bulk milk-infected small ruminant farms, next to introduction and spread from companion animals, imported straw and use of artificial insemination. In-depth studies investigating the role of artificial insemination and bedding material are needed, while simultaneously general biosecurity measures should be updated, such as avoiding companion animals and vermin entering the stables, next to advice on farm stable constructions on how to prevent introduction and minimize airborne

  18. Prediction of Fecal Nitrogen and Fecal Phosphorus Content for Lactating Dairy Cows in Large-scale Dairy Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QU Qing-bo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate efficient and sustainable manure management and reduce potential pollution, it's necessary for precise prediction of fecal nutrient content. The aim of this study is to build prediction models of fecal nitrogen and phosphorus content by the factors of dietary nutrient composition, days in milk, milk yield and body weight of Chinese Holstein lactating dairy cows. 20 kinds of dietary nutrient composition and 60 feces samples were collected from lactating dairy cows from 7 large-scale dairy farms in Tianjin City; The fecal nitrogen and phosphorus content were analyzed. The whole data set was divided into training data set and testing data set. The training data set, including 14 kinds of dietary nutrient composition and 48 feces samples, was used to develop prediction models. The relationship between fecal nitrogen or phosphorus content and dietary nutrient composition was illustrated by means of correlation and regression analysis using SAS software. The results showed that fecal nitrogen(FN content was highly positively correlated with organic matter intake(OMI and crude fat intake(CFi, and correlation coefficients were 0. 836 and 0. 705, respectively. Negative correlation coefficient was found between fecal phosphorus(FP content and body weight(BW, and the correlation coefficient was -0.525. Among different approaches to develop prediction models, the results indicated that determination coefficients of multiple linear regression equations were higher than those of simple linear regression equations. Specially, fecal nitrogen content was excellently predicted by milk yield(MY, days in milk(DIM, organic matter intake(OMI and nitrogen intake(NI, and the model was as follows:y=0.43+0.29×MY+0.02×DIM+0.92×OMI-13.01×NI (R2=0.96. Accordingly, the highest determination coefficient of prediction equation of FP content was 0.62, when body weight(BW, phosphorus intake(PI and nitrogen intake(NI were combined as predictors. The prediction

  19. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Brazilian Dairy Farms and Identification of Novel Sequence Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C J B; Tiao, N; de Sousa, F G C; de Moura, J F P; Santos Filho, L; Gebreyes, W A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic diversity and anti-microbial resistance among staphylococci of dairy herds that originated from Paraiba State, north-eastern Brazil, a region where such studies are rare. Milk samples (n = 552) were collected from 15 dairy farms. Isolates were evaluated for anti-microbial susceptibility by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Confirmation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was performed using multiplex PCR targeting mecA and nuc genes in addition to phenotypic assay based on PBP-2a latex agglutination. Clonal relatedness of isolates was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) genotyping. Staphylococci were detected in 269 (49%) of the samples. Among these, 65 (24%) were S. aureus. The remaining 204 isolates were either coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 188; 70%) or coagulase positive other than S. aureus (n = 16; 6%). Staphylococci were cultured in seven (35%) of the 20 hand swab samples, from which five isolates were S. aureus. The isolates were most commonly resistant against penicillin (43%), ampicillin (38%) and oxacillin (27%). The gene mecA was detected in 21 S. aureus from milk and in one isolate from a milker's hand. None of the isolates were resistant to vancomycin. PFGE findings showed high clonal diversity among the isolates. Based on MLST, we identified a total of 11 different sequence types (STs 1, 5, 6, 83, 97, 126, 1583, 1622, 1623, 1624 and 1625) with four novel STs (ST1622-ST1625). The findings show that MRSA is prevalent in milk from semi-extensive dairy cows in north-eastern Brazil, and further investigation on its extent in various types of milk production systems and the farm-to-table continuum is warranted. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC398 obtained from humans and animals on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessler, Andrea T; Olde Riekerink, Richard G M; Rothkamp, Anja; Kadlec, Kristina; Sampimon, Otlis C; Lam, Theo J G M; Schwarz, Stefan

    2012-11-09

    In this study MRSA isolates from dairy farms were investigated for their genetic relationships and antimicrobial susceptibility. In total, 125 MRSA isolates from 26 dairy farms were studied, including isolates from milk samples (n=46), dairy cattle (n=24), calves (n=6), dust samples from pig (n=16) and veal calf sheds (n=1), dogs (n=2), a horse, a sheep and humans (n=28). CC398-specific PCRs, spa typing, SCCmec typing and ApaI macrorestriction analysis were conducted. Susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution. All 125 isolates belonged to CC398. Eight spa types (t011, t108, t034, t567, t1184, t1451, t2287 and t3934) were detected. SCCmec elements of types IV (n=48) and V (n=67) were identified with 10 isolates being non-typeable. Six main macrorestriction patterns - with up to 23 sub-patterns - and twelve resistance patterns were identified. Sixty-eight isolates showed a multiresistance phenotype. Farm-by-farm analysis revealed different scenarios: in some farms, the MRSA CC398 isolates from dairy cattle, humans, pig sheds and/or sheep were indistinguishable suggesting an interspecies exchange of the same MRSA CC398 subtype. In other farms, several MRSA CC398 subtypes were detected in different host species/sources with occasionally even more than one MRSA CC398 subtype from the same host species/source. These latter results may suggest that either different MRSA subtypes associated with humans or animals have been imported into the respective farm or that one MRSA CC398 strain has undergone diversification, reflected by more or less expanded changes in PFGE patterns, spa type or resistance pattern, during colonization of different hosts on the same farm. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Limitations of on-site dairy farm regulatory debits as milk quality predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borneman, Darand L; Stiegert, Kyle; Ingham, Steve

    2015-03-01

    In the United States, compliance with grade A raw fluid milk regulatory standards is assessed via laboratory milk quality testing and by on-site inspection of producers (farms). This study evaluated the correlation between on-site survey debits being marked and somatic cell count (SCC) or standard plate count (SPC) laboratory results for 1,301 Wisconsin grade A dairy farms in 2012. Debits recorded on the survey form were tested as predictors of laboratory results utilizing ordinary least squares regression to determine if results of the current method for on-site evaluation of grade A dairy farms accurately predict SCC and SPC test results. Such a correlation may indicate that current methods of on-site inspection serve the primary intended purpose of assuring availability of high-quality milk. A model for predicting SCC was estimated using ordinary least squares regression methods. Step-wise selected regressors of grouped debit items were able to predict SCC levels with some degree of accuracy (adjusted R2=0.1432). Specific debit items, seasonality, and farm size were the best predictors of SCC levels. The SPC data presented an analytical challenge because over 75% of the SPC observations were at or below a 25,000 cfu/mL threshold but were recorded by testing laboratories as at the threshold value. This classic censoring problem necessitated the use of a Tobit regression approach. Even with this approach, prediction of SPC values based on on-site survey criteria was much less successful (adjusted R2=0.034) and provided little support for the on-site survey system as a way to inform farmers about making improvements that would improve SPC. The lower level of correlation with SPC may indicate that factors affecting SPC are more varied and differ from those affecting SCC. Further, unobserved deficiencies in postmilking handling and storage sanitation could enhance bacterial growth and increase SPC, whereas postmilking sanitation will have no effect on SCC because

  2. Effects of mussel farms on the benthic nitrogen cycle on the Swedish west coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, MS; Engström, P; Lindahl, O

    2012-01-01

    . Furthermore, more total particulate organic N deposited at farm stations was recycled into the water column compared to at reference stations (~45 versus ~13%), indicating an increased release of dissolved inorganic N from sediment below the mussel farms. At one station (M2) with the highest increase...... increased below the mussel lines at all 3 farms. Effects of increased sedimentation rates were revealed by sediment profile imaging and were highest at Stn M2. These effects increased significantly with time of farm operation, indicating the accumulation of organic matter within sediments over time...

  3. High herd-level prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Western Canadian dairy farms, based on environmental sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R; Barkema, H W; De Buck, J; Slomp, M; Flaig, J; Haupstein, D; Pickel, C; Orsel, K

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes chronic progressive enteritis in ruminants. The pathogen is present in most countries with modern dairy production, causing substantial economic losses for the industry. The objectives of this study were to estimate dairy herd prevalence of MAP in the Western Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, and to determine whether herd size and housing system (tie-stall versus freestall or loose housing) affected the risk of a herd testing positive for MAP. Six environmental samples were collected on 360 Alberta farms (60% of registered producers) and on 166 Saskatchewan dairy farms (99%). In total, 47% of the sampled farms in Alberta and 53% of the sampled farms in Saskatchewan had at least one environmental sample that was MAP culture positive and were, therefore, defined as infected. Sensitivity of environmental sampling was estimated using 3 subsequent annual tests performed on 82 farms. Because laboratory protocols were continuously improved throughout the project, the sensitivity increased over time. Therefore, a mean of the sensitivity estimates weighted on sampling year was constructed; this resulted in sensitivities of 68 and 69% for Alberta and Saskatchewan, respectively. Implementing those estimates in an approximate Bayesian computation model resulted in a true herd prevalence of 68% (95% probability interval: 60-80%) for Alberta and 76% (95% probability interval: 70-85%) for Saskatchewan. Herds with >200 cows had 3.54 times higher odds of being environmental sample positive and had more positive samples than herds with <50 cows (neither province nor housing system affected those results). In conclusion, the majority of Alberta and Saskatchewan dairy farms were infected with MAP and larger herds were more often MAP positive than smaller herds. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. What Difference Does a Visit Make? Changes in Animal Welfare Perceptions after Interested Citizens Tour a Dairy Farm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Ann Ventura

    Full Text Available Citizens' concerns about farm animal welfare are often dismissed on the assumption that they are not well informed about farming practices. We conducted exploratory surveys of interested citizens (n = 50 before and after a self-guided tour of a 500-head dairy farm. 'Before' survey questions explored perceptions, concerns, and values about dairy cattle farming and welfare, in addition to a short knowledge-based quiz on dairy cattle husbandry. An 'after' survey explored the extent to which these constructs shifted after the tour. Before, most participants correctly answered quiz questions about general feeding and housing practices, but scores were low on questions about specific practices such as cow-calf separation. Participants considered several elements as necessary for a 'good' life for dairy cattle: fresh food and water, pasture access, gentle handling, space, shelter, hygiene, fresh air and sunshine, social companions, absence of stress, health, and safety from predators. These elements reflect a diverse conception of animal welfare that incorporates values for physical and mental well-being, natural living, and humane care. The visit had a mixed effect on perceptions of whether dairy cows had a 'good' life, improving perceptions for a quarter of participants, worsening perceptions in a third, with no shift in the remaining participants. The visit appeared to mitigate some concerns (e.g., provision of adequate food and water, gentle humane care while reinforcing or eliciting others (e.g., lack of pasture access, early cow-calf separation. Moreover, animal welfare-relevant values held by participants (e.g., natural living, care appeared to play an important role in influencing perceptions of farm practices. These results suggest that education and exposure to livestock farming may resolve certain concerns, but other concerns will likely persist, especially when practices conflict with deeply held values around animal care.

  5. Use and environmental occurrence of pharmaceuticals in freestall dairy farms with manured forage fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Naoko; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Loftin, Keith A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Harter, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Environmental releases of antibiotics from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are of increasing regulatory concern. This study investigates the use and occurrence of antibiotics in dairy CAFOs and their potential transport into first-encountered groundwater. On two dairies we conducted four seasonal sampling campaigns, each across 13 animal production and waste management systems and associated environmental pathways: application to animals, excretion to surfaces, manure collection systems, soils, and shallow groundwater. Concentrations of antibiotics were determined using on line solid phase extraction (OLSPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) for water samples, and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) LC/MS/MS with ESI for solid samples. A variety of antibiotics were applied at both farms leading to antibiotics excretion of several hundred grams per farm per day. Sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and their epimers/isomers, and lincomycin were most frequently detected. Yet, despite decades of use, antibiotic occurrence appeared constrained to within farm boundaries. The most frequent antibiotic detections were associated with lagoons, hospital pens, and calf hutches. When detected below ground, tetracyclines were mainly found in soils, whereas sulfonamides were found in shallow groundwater reflecting key differences in their physicochemical properties. In manure lagoons, 10 compounds were detected including tetracyclines and trimethoprim. Of these 10, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethazine, and lincomycin were found in shallow groundwater directly downgradient from the lagoons. Antibiotics were sporadically detected in field surface samples on fields with manure applications, but not in underlying sandy soils. Sulfadimethoxine and sulfamethazine were detected in shallow groundwater near field flood irrigation gates, but at highly attenuated levels.

  6. Improving the reproductive efficiency by zoo-technical methods at a dairy farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, F; Gábor, G; Mézes, M; Váradi, E; Ozsvári, L; Sasser, R G; Abonyi-Tóth, Zs

    2006-04-01

    This trial was conducted on a Hungarian dairy farm between July 2001 and December 2004. The objective of this work was to improve the reproductive efficiency with relatively high milk production. At the beginning of this trial blood and fodder samples were taken for checking the metabolic status of the animals in order to determine their health condition. The nutritive value of the daily ration for all groups met with the requirements of the Hungarian National Standard and almost all serum metabolic parameters differed between the milking and pregnant animals. Early pregnancy detection (by ultrasound) and ovulation synchronizing methods were introduced to optimize reproductive performance. The oestrus cycle was also checked by ultrasound and open cows were treated by the appropriate method in order to inseminate them as soon as possible. Efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) followed by a single prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) and Ovsynch treatment was similar (30.8% and 29%) and less effective than AI after natural heat detection (37.1%). Provsynch (Pre-synch followed by Ovsynch) was the most effective ovulation synchronization method (conception rate=42.6%; pmilk production increased between 2002 and 2004 by approximately 600 kg per cow, the calving period decreased by 20 days and the number of AIs per pregnancy was also improved (0.8 AI per conception). These findings are really beneficial economically because the decrease in the calving interval returns profit for the dairy farms; one open day costs euro2.5/cow. Economical analysis showed a high profit ratio from the reproductive 'investment' on this farm. Every invested euro yielded approximately euro10.

  7. Linking water quality trends with land use intensification in dairy farming catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P.; Western, Andrew W.; Hannah, Murray C.

    2013-01-01

    SummaryAgriculture, particularly pastoral based dairying, has intensified significantly in the past two decades. There are mounting concerns that this intensification could be linked to declining environmental quality. This paper analyses changes in water quality in three catchments in south-west Victoria, Australia, where the dominant land use has been dairying for the past 21 years and where the intensity of milk production has increased, driven by changes in farming systems and imports of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in various forms. We aimed to investigate if water quality has changed over that period and if such changes were related to the intensity of land use at the catchment scale. Three adjoining catchments were investigated which are different in terms of hydrology, biochemistry and land use proportions. Statistical analysis of continuous datasets showed that concentrations of N and P changed over the 21 year period. There were notable links between the intensification of milk production and increasing concentrations of N and P in streams from 1990 to 2000. The influence varied between catchments possibly due to hydrological differences that in turn influence biogeochemistry. From 2000 to 2011, there is some evidence this link may be starting to become decoupled due to various changes in farming systems, although it is difficult to specify which changes have had the greatest effect. The outcome of the close links between production intensification and water quality is that without fundamental changes to the farming systems, or without physical changes implemented in the catchment such as more effective riparian buffers or treatment wetlands, increases in agricultural intensity may lead to further degradation of water quality. Through this study the importance of investigating multiple water quality parameters and land use datasets to understand catchment functioning has been highlighted.

  8. Detection of presumptive Bacillus cereus in the Irish dairy farm environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Connell A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to isolate potential Bacillus cereus sensu lato (B. cereus s.l. from a range of farm environments. Samples of tap water, milking equipment rinse water, milk sediment filter, grass, soil and bulk tank milk were collected from 63 farms. In addition, milk liners were swabbed at the start and the end of milking, and swabs were taken from cows’ teats prior to milking. The samples were plated on mannitol egg yolk polymyxin agar (MYP and presumptive B. cereus s.l. colonies were isolated and stored in nutrient broth with 20% glycerol and frozen at -80 °C. These isolates were then plated on chromogenic medium (BACARA and colonies identified as presumptive B. cereus s.l. on this medium were subjected to 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA sequencing. Of the 507 isolates presumed to be B. cereus s.l. on the basis of growth on MYP, only 177 showed growth typical of B. cereus s.l. on BACARA agar. The use of 16S rRNA sequencing to identify isolates that grew on BACARA confirmed that the majority of isolates belonged to B. cereus s.l. A total of 81 of the 98 isolates sequenced were tentatively identified as presumptive B. cereus s.l. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was carried out on milk and soil isolates from seven farms that were identified as having presumptive B. cereus s.l. No pulsotype was shared by isolates from soil and milk on the same farm. Presumptive B. cereus s.l. was widely distributed within the dairy farm environment.

  9. Comparison of antibiotic resistance of udder pathogens in dairy cows kept on organic and on conventional farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, M; Perreten, V; Doherr, M G; Schaeren, W; Schällibaum, M; Blum, J W

    2006-03-01

    There has been a rapid rise in the emergence of multi-drug-resistant pathogens in the past 10 to 15 yr and some bacteria are now resistant to most antimicrobial agents. Antibiotic use is very restricted on Swiss organic dairy farms, and a purely prophylactic use, such as for dry cow mastitis prevention, is forbidden. A low prevalence of antibiotic resistance in organic farms can be expected compared with conventional farms because the bacteria are infrequently or not exposed to antibiotics. The occurrence of antibiotic resistance was compared between mastitis pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, nonaureus staphylococci, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis) from farms with organic and conventional dairy production. Clear differences in the percentage of antibiotic resistance were mainly species-related, but did not differ significantly between isolates from cows kept on organic and conventional farms, except for Streptococcus uberis, which exhibited significantly more single resistances (compared with no resistance) when isolated from cows kept on organic farms (6/10 isolates) than on conventional farms (0/5 isolates). Different percentages were found (albeit not statistically significant) in resistance to ceftiofur, erythromycin, clindamycin, enrofloxacin, chloramphenicol, penicillin, oxacillin, gentamicin, tetracycline, and quinupristin-dalfopristin, but, importantly, none of the strains was resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid or vancomycin. Multidrug resistance was rarely encountered. The frequency of antibiotic resistance in organic farms, in which the use of antibiotics must be very restricted, was not different from conventional farms, and was contrary to expectation. The antibiotic resistance status needs to be monitored in organic farms as well as conventional farms and production factors related to the absence of reduced antibiotic resistance in organic farms need to be evaluated.

  10. THE DIMENSION OF COOPERATIVISM AND DAIRY CATTLE FARMING IN GETASAN VILLAGE, SEMARANG REGENCY, CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gayatri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to explore the role of cooperativism in dairy cattle farming in Getasan village,Semarang Regency, Central Java Province. Spearman Rank Correlation test was used to determine therelationship between cooperativism and the performance of dairy cattle farming. Based on the results ofthe Spearman Rank correlation test, feeds and feeding practices were significantly correlated withsharing of knowledge and information and sharing of resources. However, no significant relationshipwas found between participation in decision making and feeds and feeding practices. Meanwhile, therewere significant relationships amog sharing of knowledge and information, sharing of resources, andparticipation in decision making and milk production in Getasan Village. The dairy health asperformance indicator of dairy cattle farming, sharing of knowledge and information was the onlysignificant factor. Sharing of resources and participation in decision making had no significantrelationship with dairy health. As regards marketing, the test showed that sharing of knowledge andinformation, sharing of resources, and participation in decision making were significantly relatedfactors. This study indicated that cooperativism may provide opportunities for farmers to accessservices, information and resources that will allow them to improve their capacities in these areas. Thisstudy also proposed some recommendations that the cooperatives should promote activities encouraginggreater cooperation and mutual understanding among the members. Skills trainings and education forempowerment should be conducted to encourage participation in decision making.

  11. Nitrogen efficiency of eastern Canadian dairy herds: Effect on production performance and farm profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadul-Pacheco, L; Pellerin, D; Chouinard, P Y; Wattiaux, M A; Duplessis, M; Charbonneau, É

    2017-08-01

    Nitrogen efficiency (milk N/dietary N; NE) can be used as a tool for the nutritional, economic, and environmental management of dairy farms. The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of herds with varying NE and assess the effect on farm profitability. One hundred dairy herds located in Québec, Canada, comprising on average 42 ± 18 cows in lactation were visited from October 2014 to June 2015. Feed intake was measured over 24 h. Samples of each feedstuff were taken and sent to a commercial laboratory for analysis of chemical composition. Feeding management and feed prices were recorded. Milk yield was recorded and milk samples were collected over 2 consecutive milkings. Fat, protein, and milk urea N were analyzed. Balances of metabolizable protein (MP; MP supply - MP requirements) and rumen degradable protein (RDP; RDP supply - RDP requirement) were calculated. A hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted and allowed grouping the farms by their NE. Four clusters were identified with an average NE of 22.1 (NE22), 26.9 (NE27), 30.0 (NE30), and 35.8% (NE36). Herds in clusters NE30 and NE36 were fed diets with greater concentrations of starch, net energy for lactation, and nonfiber carbohydrates than those in the other 2 clusters. Moreover, the average proportion of corn silage was lower for herds in cluster NE22 compared with NE30 and NE36 (8.23 vs. 31.8 and 31.3% of total forages, respectively). In addition, crude protein of the diets declined from an average of 16.0 to 14.9% with increasing NE among clusters. Average dry matter intake declined from 26.1 to 22.5 kg/d as NE of clusters increased. Herds in cluster NE22 had lower yields of milk (28.7 vs. 31.8 kg/d), fat (1.15 vs. 1.29 kg/d), and protein (0.94 vs. 1.05 kg/d) than the other clusters. Also, milk urea N was greater for farms in cluster NE22 (13.2 mg/dL) than for farms in the other clusters (11.4 mg/dL). Furthermore, MP and RDP balances decreased from 263.2 to -153.7 g/d and from 594.7 to

  12. Innovative technology and sustainable development of organic dairy farming : the case of automatic milking systems in Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, F.W.

    2009-01-01

    Development of organic dairy farming in Denmark is characterized by up-scaling, increasing productivity and automation. Increasing discussion on compliance with organic principles and sustainability has been forwarded. Automatic milking systems (AMS) are part of this development and have been

  13. Metabolic Profile and Inflammatory Responses in Dairy Cows with Left Displaced Abomasum Kept under Small-Scaled Farm Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenja Klevenhusen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Left displaced abomasum (LDA is a severe metabolic disease of cattle with a strong negative impact on production efficiency of dairy farms. Metabolic and inflammatory alterations associated with this disease have been reported in earlier studies, conducted mostly in large dairy farms. This research aimed to: (1 evaluate metabolic and inflammatory responses in dairy cows affected by LDA in small-scaled dairy farms; and (2 establish an Animals 2015, 5 1022 association between lactation number and milk production with the outcome of metabolic variables. The cows with LDA had lower serum calcium (Ca, but greater concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA and beta-hydroxy-butyrate (BHBA, in particular when lactation number was >2. Cows with LDA showed elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, and serum amyloid A (SAA, regardless of lactation number. In addition, this study revealed strong associations between milk yield and the alteration of metabolic profile but not with inflammation in the sick cows. Results indicate metabolic alterations, liver damage, and inflammation in LDA cows kept under small-scale farm conditions. Furthermore, the data suggest exacerbation of metabolic profile and Ca metabolism but not of inflammation and liver health with increasing lactation number and milk yield in cows affected by LDA.

  14. Effect of electricity tariffs and cooling technologies on dairy farm electricity consumption, related costs and greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upton, J.R.; Shalloo, L.; Murphy, M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide insight into the variations in dairy farm electricity costs across five electricity tariffs. The effect of four milk cooling scenarios is also simulated to illustrate the effect of technologies on the electricity consumption, related costs and CO2 emissions of a

  15. The use of Machine Learning techniques to predict farm size change: an implementation in the Dutch Dairy sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudendag, D.A.; Szlávik, Z.; Veen, van der H.B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of several machine learning techniques in order to predict dairy farm size change in the Netherlands. The work presented is part of a larger effort to improve an agricultural model, called the Financial Economic Simulation (FES) model. The FES model simulates midterm

  16. Operational nitrogen fertilizer management in dairy farming systems: identification of criteria and derivation of fertilizer application rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellinga, T.V.; Andre, G.; Schils, R.L.M.; Oenema, O.

    2004-01-01

    Fertilizer-nitrogen (N) management is a decisive factor in grass-based, intensive dairy farming, as it strongly influences economic and environmental performance but little attention has been paid to providing guidance on N-fertilizer management at an operational level to meet these criteria of

  17. Indicators for on-farm self-assessment of animal welfare – Example: dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Zapf

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The “on-farm self-assessment” specified by the Animal Welfare Act from 2014 requires the livestock keeper to assess and monitor appropriate animal-based measures (“animal welfare indicators” with the aim to achieve higher individual responsibility of livestock keepers for the well-being of their animals. The assessment serves to raise awareness among livestock keepers and to enable them to identify any weaknesses existing. As the Animal Welfare Act does not contain any secondary legislation, there has so far been a lack of more precise provisions regarding the content and scope of the self-assessment system. In order to identify appropriate indicators which address the most important animal welfare problems known from practice, around 50 experts have selected indicators for assessing animal welfare with regard to reliability, validity and practicability. In on-farm self-assessment, the sets of largely animal-based indicators selected for cattle, pigs and poultry (hens and turkeys should be surveyed and evaluated as completely as possible. Integration into farm management systems is recommended. This paper exemplarily presents the set of indicators proposed for dairy cattle.

  18. A comparison between longitudinal shedding patterns of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Dublin on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, M; McLaren, I; Clifton-Hadley, F A; Liebana, E; Wales, A D; Davies, R H

    2012-08-25

    Salmonella in cattle herds may behave as epidemic or endemic infections. An intensive longitudinal sampling study across all management groups and ages on six dairy farms in the UK was used to examine patterns of Salmonella shedding, following the prior identification of either Salmonella Dublin (SD) (three farms) or Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) (three farms) on the premises in the context of clinical salmonellosis. Individual faeces, pooled faeces and environmental samples (total 5711 samples), taken approximately every six weeks for 15-24 weeks, were cultured for Salmonella. SD was detected at low frequency (on any visit, 0.5-18.3 per cent of samples positive) and most consistently in calves. By contrast, ST was isolated at higher frequency (on any visit, 6.8-75 per cent of samples positive), and in higher numbers, up to 10(7) cfu/g faeces. Significantly more samples from calves were positive for ST than were positive for SD (50.6 per cent v 3.1 per cent; P < 0.001), which was also true for milking cows (46.3 per cent v 4.4 per cent; P < 0.001). The differences could help to explain the different patterns of bovine infection classically associated with these two serovars in the UK. No consistent effect upon shedding was seen among the ST-infected herds following vaccination.

  19. Application of HACCP principles to control visitor health threats on dairy farms open to the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barten, M; Noordhuizen, J P M; Lipman, L J A

    2008-10-01

    An increasing number of Dutch dairy farmers have diversified their activities, often opening their farm up to visitors (tourist accommodation, farm shop, contact with livestock, etc). It is essential to prevent these visitors from having accidents or becoming ill, which could result in financial claims and might harm the reputation of the agricultural sector. This article describes how the hazard analysis critical control points concept and principles (HACCP) can be applied to these activities and integrated with on-farm operational herd health and production management programmes.

  20. Using a whole farm model to determine the impacts of mating management on the profitability of pasture-based dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukes, P C; Burke, C R; Levy, G; Tiddy, R M

    2010-08-01

    An approach to assessing likely impacts of altering reproductive performance on productivity and profitability in pasture-based dairy farms is described. The basis is the development of a whole farm model (WFM) that simulates the entire farm system and holistically links multiple physical performance factors to profitability. The WFM consists of a framework that links a mechanistic cow model, a pasture model, a crop model, management policies and climate. It simulates individual cows and paddocks, and runs on a day time-step. The WFM was upgraded to include reproductive modeling capability using reference tables and empirical equations describing published relationships between cow factors, physiology and mating management. It predicts reproductive status at any time point for individual cows within a modeled herd. The performance of six commercial pasture-based dairy farms was simulated for the period of 12 months beginning 1 June 2005 (05/06 year) to evaluate the accuracy of the model by comparison with actual outcomes. The model predicted most key performance indicators within an acceptable range of error (residualprofitability of changes in farm "set-up" (farm conditions at the start of the farming year on 1 June) and mating management from 05/06 to 06/07 year. Among the six farms simulated, the 4-week calving rate emerged as an important set-up factor influencing profitability, while reproductive performance during natural bull mating was identified as an area with the greatest opportunity for improvement. The WFM presents utility to explore alternative management strategies to predict likely outcomes to proposed changes to a pasture-based farm system. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of changing freestall area on lameness, lying time, and leg injuries on dairy farms in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Emily; Barkema, Herman W; Pajor, Edmond A; Solano, Laura; Pellerin, Doris; Orsel, Karin

    2017-08-01

    Cow comfort is of increasing importance in the dairy industry, due to an increased focus on animal welfare. However, whether producer changes to the cows' environment affect cow comfort has not been well characterized. Our objectives were to: (1) quantify the effect of freestall area changes on the prevalence of lameness, leg injuries, and average lying time; and (2) compare cow comfort outcomes on farms that had never had an assessment of cow comfort to farms that had had a previous assessment of cow comfort. A sample of 60 Holstein-Friesian cows were selected on each of 15 farms that made changes to the freestall area after an assessment of cow comfort (change, CHG); 15 farms that did not make changes to the freestall area after an assessment of cow comfort (no change, NC); and 14 farms that had yet to be evaluated (new farms, NF). Cows in NC and NF were lame 1.50 and 1.71 times more often, respectively, than cows on CHG farms. Additionally, daily lying time was 0.33 and 0.62 h/d lower in NC and NF, respectively, than on CHG farms. The prevalence of hock and knee injuries was not different among the 3 groups of farms. No differences were detected in the parameters of interest when comparing NF with NC farms; therefore, we concluded that the NC group was not biased by a previous assessment of cow comfort. Farms in the CHG group had a lower prevalence of lame cows and greater lying time than the NC and NF groups. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Management and design of hospital pens relative to behavior of the compromised dairy cow: A questionnaire survey of Iowa dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Herskin, Mette S.; Gorden, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    management of hospital pens, as well as decisions concerning humane endpoints when euthanasiais considered. The survey was sent to 300 Iowa dairy farmers including organic, large (>500 cows) andordinary (≤500 cows) dairy farms, with overall response rate of 41%. Eighty-two percent of respondentshad...... on best prac-tices for housing and management of compromised cows. The purpose of this study was to providedescriptive information about management and husbandry practices of compromised cows on dairyfarms in Iowa. A questionnaire-based survey was designed to examine demographic information, designand...... that are soon to calve (35%), dry cows (15%), or other cattle (8%), including heifers, calvesand bulls. Half of the farms had standard management protocols for non-ambulatory cows. Calving diffi-culties, injury, milk fever, lameness and displaced abomasum were the most frequently cited conditionsfor moving cows...

  3. Seroepidemiological study of Neospora caninum infection in dogs found in dairy farms and urban areas of Aguascalientes, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Vázquez, C; Medina-Esparza, L; Marentes, A; Morales-Salinas, E; Garcia-Vázquez, Z

    2008-10-20

    The objective of this study was to describe the seroepidemiology of Neospora caninum infection in dogs in close contact with dairy cattle and dogs from urban areas of Aguascalientes, Mexico, as well as to estimate the possible association between age, gender and size of these groups and seroprevalence. Sera were obtained from samples of 152 dogs in dairy farms and 116 in the urban area, and were subjected to ELISA test. General seroprevalence reached 32%, while the seroprevalence in farm dogs (41%) was significantly higher than in dogs from the urban area (20%) (p<0.05). Regarding age groups, general seroprevalence was greater among dogs between 11 and 15 years of age (67%) remaining equal between males and females (32 and 31%, respectively). Nevertheless, females resident in farms had a higher seroprevalence (42%) than female resident in the urban area. Regarding size, large-sized animals had greater seroprevalence in farms (58%), while in the urban area medium-sized animals were those that had the highest seroprevalence (27%). It was found that dairy farm dogs had a higher risk of infection (OR=2.79; p=0.0004), and that in said group, the age range from <1 to 5 years of age was identified as a risk factor (OR=3.11, p=0.001).

  4. Short communication: survey of fresh cow management practices of dairy cattle on small and large commercial farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuwieser, W; Iwersen, M; Gossellin, J; Drillich, M

    2010-03-01

    The objective was to conduct a survey of current fresh cow management practices that have an effect on health and diseases postpartum considering different herd sizes of commercial dairy farms. A mail survey regarding aspects of the fresh cow program including general management issues, calving, diseases, and veterinary service was conducted utilizing a convenience sample. A total of 429 survey forms were returned (12.0% response rate) and could be used for final analysis. Only 21.6% of the farms had a designated fresh cow pen. Almost every farm executed some type of fresh cow examination. Only 18.5% of farm managers documented the observations. Most of the dairy managers used more or less subjective criteria such as general appearance (97.0%) and appetite (69.7%). Only a minority of the responding dairy managers monitored their fresh cows using objective (fever 33.6%) or semiquantitative measures (subclinical ketosis 2.8%; body condition score 36.4%). On most farms, the veterinarian visited the herd only if needed (72.6%). Most cases of retained fetal membranes were treated by manual removal (72.3%) and antibiotic pills (89.5%). Several challenges and opportunities were identified to improve cow management practices.

  5. Occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in dairy cattle herds, related swine farms, and humans in contact with herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, C; Cremonesi, P; Caprioli, A; Carfora, V; Ianzano, A; Barberio, A; Morandi, S; Casula, A; Castiglioni, B; Bronzo, V; Moroni, P

    2017-01-01

    In this study we investigated the circulation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 2 dairy cattle farms (farm A and B), previously identified as MRSA-positive in bulk tank milk samples, and epidemiologically related to swine farms. Collected specimens included quarter milk samples and nasal swabs from dairy cows, pig nasal swabs collected at both the farm and slaughterhouse level, environmental dust samples, and human nasal swabs from the farms' owners and workers. The prevalence of MRSA was estimated at the herd level by testing quarter milk samples. The prevalence of MRSA was 4.8% (3/63; 95% confidence interval=0-10.2%) and 60% (33/55; 95% confidence interval=47.05-72.95) in farm A and B, respectively. In farm A, MRSA was also isolated from humans, pigs sampled at both farm and slaughterhouse level, and from environmental samples collected at the pig facilities. The dairy cattle facilities of farm A tested negative for MRSA. In farm B, MRSA was isolated from environmental dust samples in both the cattle and pig facilities, whereas nasal swabs collected from cows and from humans tested negative. Sixty-three selected MRSA isolates obtained from different sources in farm A and B were genetically characterized by multilocus sequence typing, spa-typing, ribosomal spacer-PCR, and also tested for the presence of specific virulence genes and for their phenotypical antimicrobial susceptibility by broth microdilution method. Different clonal complex (CC) and spa-types were identified, including CC398, CC97, and CC1, CC already reported in livestock animals in Italy. The MRSA isolates from quarter milk of farm A and B mostly belonged to CC97 and CC398, respectively. Both lineages were also identified in humans in farm A. The CC97 and CC398 quarter milk isolates were also identified as genotype GTBE and GTAF by ribosomal spacer-PCR respectively, belonging to distinct clusters with specific virulence and resistance patterns. The GTBE and GTAF clusters also

  6. Etiological profile of bovine mastitis from dairy farms in the Western Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Gazzoni Jardim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Jardim J.G., Deminicis B.B., Peixoto E.C.T.M., Heinzen E.L. & Domingues P.F. [Etiological profile of bovine mastitis from dairy farms in the Western Paraná, Brazil.] Perfil etiológico da mastite bovina na bacia leiteira do oeste paranaense, Paraná, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(1:65-70, 2014. Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Agropecuárias, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Av. Alberto Lamego, 2000, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ 28013-600, Brasil. E-mail: jugazzoni@hotmail.com The aim of this study was evaluate the occurrence, infectious etiology and risk factors associated with mastitis in 331 dairy cows from sixteen farms located in the region of Marechal Cândido Rondon in the State of Paraná, Brazil. Both cows as the properties were selected of a non-random form and being selected 20% of lactation cows from each farm. The test for identification of subclinical mastitis was the California Mastitis Test and the diagnosis of the clinical mastitis was carried out by the observation of signs of inflammation in the udder and macroscopic changes in milk. Of lactating cows, 195 (60.77% were positive for mastitis and 93,75% of the farms analyzed had at least one positive animal. The etiologic agents isolated in a total of three hundred twenty-nine samples were Staphylococcus aureus (47.2%, Staphylococcus sp. (29.2%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae (18.1%, Streptococcus uberis (16,7%, Corynebaterium spp. (11,1% and Streptococcus intermedius (1.39%. Besides, was evaluated the interaction of the type of mechanical milking in function of the mastitis degree and the use of the disinfection of teats before and after milking was not interference in mastitis incidence, however, the accomplishment of the disinfection of teats before and after -dipping favored in the control of subclinical mastitis. We conclude that the significant occurrence of mastitis in herds is due to improper management conditions

  7. Udder health and risk factors for subclinical mastitis in organic dairy farms in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busato, A; Trachsel, P; Schällibaum, M; Blum, J W

    2000-04-28

    1+ were submitted for somatic cell counting (SCC), bacteriological examination and to test for antibiotic susceptibility. The SCC and germ-cell counts of monthly bulk-tank milk samples were available through Dairy Inspection and Advisory Services and milk production data of 567 herd-book cows were available from breeding associations. Possible individual and environmental predictors of subclinical mastitis were identified using logistic models adjusted for clustering of the data at herd and cow levels. Data were analyzed separately for cows from 7 to 100 and from 101 to 305 days post partum. Prevalences of subclinical mastitis at the quarter level were 21.2% for lactation period 7-100 days and 34.5% for 101-305 days post partum. The geometric mean SCC in bulk-tank milk samples was 85.6x10(3)cells/ml. Samples at 7-100 and 101-305 days post partum were positive for Staphylococcus aureus in 16.0 and 7.4%, for coagulase-negative Staphylococci in 51.5 and 50.6%, for Streptococcus agalactiae in 0.0 and 0.8%, for other Streptococci in 19.4 and 15.6%, for E. coli in 1.0 and 0.4%, and for Corynebacterium bovis in 25.7 and 45.1%, respectively. Risks of subclinical mastitis increased significantly with increasing days post partum and advancing age of cow. Cows that were sampled when staying in alpine dairies had considerably higher risks of subclinical mastitis than cows staying in home barns. Significantly lower risks of subclinical mastitis were observed in farms where CMT was performed regularly as a control measure. Bacteria in milk from cows with mastitis exhibited antibiotic resistance at a comparable frequency as found previously in conventional farms.

  8. Bovine mastitis and antibiotic resistance patterns in Selalle smallholder dairy farms, central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getahun, K; Kelay, B; Bekana, M; Lobago, F

    2008-05-01

    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of mastitis, identify the major bacterial pathogens and test the antimicrobial resistance of milk bacterial isolates in smallholder dairy farms in Selalle area, Ethiopia. A total of 109 smallholder dairy farms comprising 500 crossbred lactating cows were included. The prevalence of clinical mastitis at herd, cow and quarter level was 8.3% (n=9), 1.8% (n=9) and 0.51% (n=10), respectively, while that of sub-clinical mastitis was 54.7%, 22.3% and 10.1%, respectively. The univariate logistic regression showed that among the risk factors considered, presence of teat lesion, stage of lactation and parity number had significant effect on the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis. However, after multivariate analysis, only presence of teat lesion and stage of lactation had significant effect. The common isolates from the clinical mastitic quarters were St. agalactiae (30%, n=3) and St. dysgalactiae (30%, n=3), while from sub-clinical cases were S. aureus (42.6%, n=83), S. epidermidis (22.1%, n=43), St. agalactiae (12.8%, n=25) and St. uberis (10.3%, n=20). Staphylococcus intermedius and Streptococcus dysgalactiae were the species, which showed high level of susceptibility for most of the antimicrobials tested, while the remaining had varying levels of resistance for almost all the antimicrobials used. Among the antimicrobials employed, erythromycin and sulphonamide showed the lowest proportion of resistant isolates. Considering the possible significant economic losses that could be incurred by both clinical and sub-clinical mastitis, attention should be paid for further detailed investigations including the economic losses and benefits of interventions in the study area.

  9. Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence and associated risk factors in dairy and mixed cattle farms from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonero, Alfonso; Guzmán, Lucía T; Montaño, Karen; Torralbo, Alicia; Arenas-Montes, Antonio; Saa, Luis R

    2015-03-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterial agent for which ruminants are the main reservoir. An extensive cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of and associated risk factors for Q fever was performed in dairy and mixed (dairy-beef) cattle herds in Ecuador. A total of 2668 serum samples from 386 herds were analyzed using an ELISA. In addition, a questionnaire with 57 variables related to management, feeding, facilities, biosecurity and animal health was completed for every cattle farm. A Generalized Estimating Equations model was used to determine the factors associated with C. burnetii seropositivity. The true prevalence of C. burnetii seropositivity in dairy and mixed cattle from Ecuador reached 12.6% (CI95%: 11.3-13.9%). The herd prevalence was 46.9% (181/386) (CI95%: 41.9-51.9%), and the within herd prevalence ranged between 8% and 100% (mean: 25.0%; Q1: 12.5%, Q2: 25.0%, Q3: 37.5%). Four factors were included in the GEE model for C. burnetii seropositivity: age of the cattle (OR: 1.01; CI95%: 1.006-1.014), feeding of calves with milk replacers (OR: 1.94; CI95%: 1.1-3.3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus seropositivity (OR: 1.54; CI95%: 1.1-2.3), and disinfection of the umbilical cord (OR: 0.60; CI95%: 0.4-0.9). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Microbiological quality indicators in waters of dairy farms: detection of pathogens by PCR in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Diana Catalina; Pino, Nancy; Peñuela, Gustavo

    2012-06-15

    When contaminated water is used to wash the udders of dairy cattle and milking utensils, raw milk may become contaminated with pathogens. Washing with high quality water is essential to reduce the microbial contamination of milk. Furthermore, the wastewater generated in dairy herds also contains high populations of pathogens, antibiotics and nutrients that more often are thrown into the water bodies without any treatment. In this work, both supply water and wastewater from 20 dairy farms from Antioquia, Colombia was monitored for 10months to determine the presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Both Cryptosporidium and Fasciola were determined by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique in real time. The results showed that the supply water used for drinking and activities involving the herd, has high populations of Fasciola hepatica and Cryptosporidium parvum, with percentages of about 53.7% and 64.75% respectively. Additionally high populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella, Salmonella, total coliforms and Escherichia coli were found in both types of water, with values around 9.4×10(7), 2.1×10(7), 1.8×10(7), 1.9×10(10) and 1.5×10(10) UFC/100 ml respectively for the wastewater and 3.1×10(4), 1.9×10(4), 7.3×10(3), 1.2×10(5) and 6.2×10(3) UFC/100 ml for the supply water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Understanding the milk-to-feed price ratio as a proxy for dairy farm profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, C A

    2010-10-01

    This research examines the definition, historical pattern, and utility of the milk-to-feed price ratio (MF) as a measure of dairy farm profitability. The MF was generally an acceptable proxy of profitability in an annual sense from 1985 to 2006. The MF was steady at an average of 2.8 from 1985 to 2006 even as average annual milk price in nominal terms increased from $12 to $14/hundredweight. An alternative proxy for profitability is income over feed costs, which is measured in dollars per hundredweight. Comparison with an actual profit measure, rate of return on assets, is used to examine the appropriateness of the proxies. The volatility from 2007 to 2009 resulted in MF being a poor measure of profitability over that period. The implication is that MF is not the preferred measure of profitability when a significant change in the pattern of one or both price series occurs. Income over feed cost is a better measure of profitability in periods of volatility. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Regional asynchronicity in dairy production and processing in early farming communities of the northern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debono Spiteri, Cynthianne; Gillis, Rosalind E; Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Castells Navarro, Laura; Guilaine, Jean; Manen, Claire; Muntoni, Italo M; Saña Segui, Maria; Urem-Kotsou, Dushka; Whelton, Helen L; Craig, Oliver E; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Evershed, Richard P

    2016-11-29

    In the absence of any direct evidence, the relative importance of meat and dairy productions to Neolithic prehistoric Mediterranean communities has been extensively debated. Here, we combine lipid residue analysis of ceramic vessels with osteo-archaeological age-at-death analysis from 82 northern Mediterranean and Near Eastern sites dating from the seventh to fifth millennia BC to address this question. The findings show variable intensities in dairy and nondairy activities in the Mediterranean region with the slaughter profiles of domesticated ruminants mirroring the results of the organic residue analyses. The finding of milk residues in very early Neolithic pottery (seventh millennium BC) from both the east and west of the region contrasts with much lower intensities in sites of northern Greece, where pig bones are present in higher frequencies compared with other locations. In this region, the slaughter profiles of all domesticated ruminants suggest meat production predominated. Overall, it appears that milk or the by-products of milk was an important foodstuff, which may have contributed significantly to the spread of these cultural groups by providing a nourishing and sustainable product for early farming communities.

  13. Animal board invited review: precision livestock farming for dairy cows with a focus on oestrus detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottram, T

    2016-10-01

    Dairy cows are high value farm animals requiring careful management to achieve the best results. Since the advent of robotic and high throughput milking, the traditional few minutes available for individual human attention daily has disappeared and new automated technologies have been applied to improve monitoring of dairy cow production, nutrition, fertility, health and welfare. Cows milked by robots must meet legal requirements to detect healthy milk. This review focuses on emerging technical approaches in those areas of high cost to the farmer (fertility, metabolic disorders, mastitis, lameness and calving). The availability of low cost tri-axial accelerometers and wireless telemetry has allowed accurate models of behaviour to be developed and sometimes combined with rumination activity detected by acoustic sensors to detect oestrus; other measures (milk and skin temperature, electronic noses, milk yield) have been abandoned. In-line biosensors have been developed to detect markers for ovulation, pregnancy, lactose, mastitis and metabolic changes. Wireless telemetry has been applied to develop boluses for monitoring the rumen pH and temperature to detect metabolic disorders. Udder health requires a multisensing approach due to the varying inflammatory responses collectively described as mastitis. Lameness can be detected by walk over weigh cells, but also by various types of video image analysis and speed measurement. Prediction and detection of calving time is an area of active research mostly focused on behavioural change.

  14. Variation among individual dairy cows in methane measurements made on farm during milking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnsworthy, P C; Craigon, J; Hernandez-Medrano, J H; Saunders, N

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify on-farm variation between and within cows in methane emissions measured during milking, and to determine which factors are related to this variation. Methane emission rate during milking (MERm) was recorded at milking using methane analyzers installed in automatic (robotic) milking stations for 215 cows over a period of 5 mo. Between-cow variation in MERm (mean 2.07, SD 0.629 g/min), was greater than within-cow variation and was related to variation in body weight, milk yield, parity, and week of lactation. Estimation of daily methane emissions from MERm data, using an equation derived from comparisons with respiration chamber data, produced estimates that ranged from 278 to 456 g of CH₄/d and were commensurate with values predicted from metabolizable energy requirements for observed body weight and milk yield. It is concluded that methane emissions vary considerably between dairy cows housed under commercial conditions. This variation needs to be taken into account when performing inventories or testing mitigation strategies, but it might offer opportunities for genetic selection. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of selected animal observations and management practices used to assess welfare of calves and adult dairy cows on organic and conventional dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, M A; Richert, R M; Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Gamroth, M J; Schukken, Y H; Stiglbauer, K E; Ruegg, P L

    2014-07-01

    Differences in adoption of selected practices used in welfare assessment and audit programs were contrasted among organic (ORG; n=192) herds and similarly sized conventional grazing herds (CON-GR; n=36), and conventional nongrazing herds (CON-NG; n=64). Criteria from 3 programs were assessed: American Humane Association Animal Welfare Standards for Dairy Cattle, Farmers Assuring Responsible Management (FARM), and the Canadian Codes of Practice (CCP). Data were collected by trained study personnel during a herd visit and included information about neonatal care, dehorning, pain relief, calf nutrition, weaning, record keeping, use of veterinarians, and animal observations. Associations of management type (ORG, CON-GR, or CON-NG) with adoption of selected practice were assessed. Almost all farms (97%) met criteria suggested for age at weaning but fewer CON-NG farmers weaned calves at ≥5 wk of age compared with ORG and CON-GR farmers. Only 23% of farms met program requirements for use of pain relief during dehorning, and fewer CON-NG farmers used pain relief for calves after dehorning compared with ORG and CON-GR farmers. Calves on ORG farms were fed a greater volume of milk and were weaned at an older age than calves on CON-GR and CON-NG farms. Calves on CON-GR farms were dehorned at a younger age compared with calves on ORG and CON-NG farms. The calving area was shared with lactating cows for a larger proportion of ORG herds compared with conventional herds. About 30% of herds met welfare program criteria for body condition score but only about 20% met criteria for animal hygiene scores. The least proportion of cows with hock lesions was observed on ORG farms. Regular use of veterinarians was infrequent for ORG herds. Results of this study indicate that most of the organic and conventional farms enrolled in this study would have been unlikely to achieve many criteria of audit and assessment programs currently used in the US dairy industry. Copyright © 2014

  16. [Lactational incidences of production diseases in German Fleckvieh cows of six Bavarian dairy farms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijmholt, S; Müller, K; Leiding, C; Hoedemaker, M; Bollwein, H; Kaske, M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess lactation incidences of production diseases in German Fleckvieh cows. Investigations were carried out on six dairy farms (mean milk yield of herds 2008: 7834 ± 708kg milk [mean ± SD]) in Bavaria. All farms kept the cows in free stall barns and fed them a total or partial mixed ration based on grass silage and corn silage. In total, 116 cows and 58 heifers were examined daily for 14 days post partum and treated - if necessary - according to standard protocols. The acquisition of data for diseases in the further lactation was carried out by regular visits to the farm as well as communication with the herd manager and the farm veterinarian. Pluriparous cows suffered more frequently from production diseases (milk fever, retained placenta, clinical ketosis, abomasal displacement, metritis, endometritis, ovarian cysts, mastitis) than primiparous heifers: 33.3% and 46.4% of pluriparous and primiparous cows, respectively, remained clinically healthy, while 24.8% and 30.4%, respectively, suffered from one production disease during the first 2 weeks of lactation; more than one production disease was diagnosed in 41.9% and 23.2% of pluriparous and primiparous cows, respectively. The lactation incidences of production diseases varied considerably among pluriparous cows of the six farms: retained placenta 16.8 ± 13.2%, milk fever 15.1 ± 7.0%, clinical ketosis 16.8 ± 12.4%, metritis 3.8 ± 3.1%, abomasal displacement 1.1% (median 0.0; 0.0/0.0%), endometritis 11.7 ± 7.0%. Mastitis affected 56.0 ± 7.4% of the pluriparous cows, which experienced 1.7 mastitis episodes on average. At least one follicular cyst was diagnosed among 28.4 ± 8.6% of the cows. Lameness affected 18.5 ± 13.5% of pluriparous cows and heifers during the first 2 weeks of lactation. The lactation incidences of production diseases did not significantly differ from reference values reported for Holstein Friesian cows except the lower incidence of LDA among German

  17. Lameness detection via leg-mounted accelerometers on dairy cows on four commercial farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorup, V M; Munksgaard, L; Robert, P-E; Erhard, H W; Thomsen, P T; Friggens, N C

    2015-10-01

    Lameness in dairy herds is traditionally detected by visual inspection, which is time-consuming and subjective. Compared with healthy cows, lame cows often spend longer time lying down, walk less and change behaviour around feeding time. Accelerometers measuring cow leg activity may assist farmers in detecting lame cows. On four commercial farms, accelerometer data were derived from hind leg-mounted accelerometers on 348 Holstein cows, 53 of them during two lactations. The cows were milked twice daily and had no access to pasture. During a lactation, locomotion score (LS) was assessed on average 2.4 times (s.d. 1.3). Based on daily lying duration, standing duration, walking duration, total number of steps, step frequency, motion index (MI, i.e. total acceleration) for lying, standing and walking, eight accelerometer means and their corresponding coefficient of variation (CV) were calculated for each week immediately before an LS. A principal component analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between the variables. The effects of LS and farm on the principal components (PC) and on the variables were analysed in a mixed model. The first four PC accounted for 27%, 18%, 12% and 10% of the total variation, respectively. PC1 corresponded to Activity variability due to heavy loading by five CV variables related to standing and walking. PC2 corresponded to Activity level due to heavy loading by MI walking, MI standing and walking duration. PC3 corresponded to Recumbency due to heavy loading by four variables related to lying. PC4 corresponded mainly to Stepping due to heavy loading by step frequency. Activity variability at LS4 was significantly higher than at the lower LS levels. Activity level was significantly higher at LS1 than at LS2, which was significantly higher than at LS4. Recumbency was unaffected by LS. Stepping at LS1 and LS2 was significantly higher than at LS3 and LS4. Activity level was significantly lower on farm 3 compared with farms 1 and 2

  18. Farming strategies in organic dairy farming: Effects on breeding goal and choice of breed. An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.; Baars, T.; Saatkamp, H.W.; Weenink, D.; Roep, D.

    2009-01-01

    Organic farming principles give rise to multifunctionality: different activities are combined at farm level to create ecological and economic synergies. These principles do however allow for different operationalisations and different farm development strategies, for example with regard to the use

  19. A partial life cycle assessment approach to evaluate the energy intensity and related greenhouse gas emission in dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelia Murgia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farming is constantly evolving towards more intensive levels of mechanization and automation which demand more energy consumption and result in higher economic and environmental costs. The usage of fossil energy in agricultural processes contributes to climate change both with on-farm emissions from the combustion of fuels, and by off-farm emissions due to the use of grid power. As a consequence, a more efficient use of fossil resources together with an increased use of renewable energies can play a key role for the development of more sustainable production systems. The aims of this study were to evaluate the energy requirements (fuels and electricity in dairy farms, define the distribution of the energy demands among the different farm operations, identify the critical point of the process and estimate the amount of CO2 associated with the energy consumption. The inventory of the energy uses has been outlined by a partial Life Cycle Assessment (LCA approach, setting the system boundaries at the farm level, from cradle to farm gate. All the flows of materials and energy associated to milk production process, including crops cultivation for fodder production, were investigated in 20 dairy commercial farms over a period of one year. Self-produced energy from renewable sources was also accounted as it influence the overall balance of emissions. Data analysis was focused on the calculation of energy and environmental sustainability indicators (EUI, CO2-eq referred to the functional units. The production of 1 kg of Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM required on average 0.044 kWhel and 0.251 kWhth, corresponding to a total emission of 0.085 kg CO2-eq. The farm activities that contribute most to the electricity requirements were milk cooling, milking and slurry management, while feeding management and crop cultivation were the greatest diesel fuel consuming operation and the largest in terms of environmental impact of milk production (73% of

  20. Exposure to Inhalable Dust, Endotoxin, and Total Volatile Organic Carbons on Dairy Farms Using Manual and Automated Feeding Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basinas, Ioannis; Cronin, Garvin; Hogan, Victoria; Sigsgaard, Torben; Hayes, James; Coggins, Ann Marie

    2017-04-01

    Agricultural workers tend to have high exposures to organic dusts which may induce or exacerbate respiratory disorders. Studies investigating the effect of work tasks and farm characteristics on organic dust exposures among farm workers suggest that handling of animal feed is an important exposure determinant; however, the effect of the animal feeding system has not been explored in any detail. To measure the exposure of Irish dairy farmers to inhalable dust, endotoxin, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) during parlour work and to explore whether levels of exposure to these agents depend on the applied feeding system in the farms. Thirty-eight personal exposure measurements were collected from farmers across seven dairy farms. The farms used manual, loft, or semi-automated feeding systems. Information on worker tasks and farm characteristics was collected during the surveys. Associations between exposure concentrations and feeding systems, worker tasks, and other farm characteristics were explored in linear mixed-effect regression models with farmer identity treated as a random effect. Exposure concentrations were variable and had a geometric mean (GM; geometric standard deviation) of 1.5 mg m-3 (1.8) for inhalable dust and 128 EU m-3 (2.5) for endotoxin. More than 50% of the exposure measurements for endotoxin, and organic dust exceeded recommended health-based occupational exposure limits. Endotoxin levels were somewhat lower in farms using semi-automatic feeding systems when compared to those using manual feeding systems but in multivariate regression analysis associations were not statistically significant (β = -0.54, P = 0.4). Performance of activities related to handling and spreading of hay or straw was the strongest determinant for both inhalable dust and endotoxin exposure (β = 0.78, P ≤ 0.001; β = 0.72, P = 0.02, respectively). The level of dust exposure increased also as a consequence of a lower outdoor temperature, and higher ratio of

  1. Prevalence and genotypes of Giardia duodenalis in dairy and beef cattle in farms around Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehlinger, Fabienne D; Greenwood, Spencer J; O'Handley, Ryan; McClure, J Trenton; Coklin, Tatjana; Dixon, Brent R; de Boer, Melvin; Zwiers, Hester; Barkema, Herman W

    2011-09-01

    Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in dairy and beef cattle on farms around Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island (Canada) was determined by analyzing feces using direct immunofluorescence antibody microscopy. Genotypes were determined by 16S-rRNA sequencing. Fecal samples (n = 892) were collected from adult cattle in dairy tie-stall, dairy free-stall, and beef herds (10 herds each), and from calves (n = 183) from 11 dairy farms. Prevalence rates were 38% and 51% in cows and calves, respectively. Giardia duodenalis was present in all dairy herds, in 9/10 beef herds and in calves from 10/11 herds examined. Prevalence rates were 40% and 41% for cows in tie- and free-stall herds, respectively, and 27% for beef cows. Zoonotic Assemblage A was found in 12.2% of calves concomitantly infected with Assemblage E. All successfully sequenced samples (114/128) from cows corresponded to Assemblage E. Giardia duodenalis is highly prevalent in cattle herds in Prince Edward Island and Assemblage A in calves is a potential public health concern.

  2. Blood parameters in Swedish dairy herds with high or low incidence of displaced abomasum or ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengärde, Lena; Holtenius, Kjell; Emanuelson, Ulf; Hultgren, Jan; Niskanen, Rauni; Tråvén, Madeleine

    2011-10-01

    Sixty dairy herds were studied to investigate the association between long-term incidence of displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis and body condition score and blood profiles, including parameters estimating energy metabolism and hepatic lipidosis in the periparturient period and early lactation. Blood samples were taken around parturition and in early lactation from cows without apparent clinical symptoms of metabolic disorders. A difference in metabolism between high and low incidence herds was shown post-partum by a lower metabolic index (the revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index, RQUICKI), and tendencies for higher concentrations of glucose, insulin and non-esterified fatty acids in the high incidence herds. High incidence herds had more cows and produced on average 1400kg energy-corrected milk per cow per year more than the low incidence herds. No differences were found in parameters reflecting liver cell damage. In the first 3weeks post-partum the RQUICKI was a more sensitive marker of herds with a high incidence of displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis than any of the individual parameters, but further research is needed before practical applications of the RQUICKI can be foreseen. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Farm-level risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis in the dairy sector in Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebremariam, M K; Michel, A L; Nielen, M; Vernooij, J C M; Rutten, V P M G

    2017-03-22

    The aim of our study was to determine the association of selected potential risk factors with the presence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in dairy herds in Eritrea. A case-control study was conducted in the three major milk-producing regions of the country by stratified random sampling of 61 case and 65 control herds combined with completion of a standardized pretested questionnaire pertaining 36 relevant risk factors (variables). The variables were divided into two clusters, based on potential association with either "introduction" or "establishment" of BTB on the farms to elucidate association with incident or prevalent cases separately. Subsequent to univariable analysis of the 36 risk factors at herd level, 14 of these were offered to multivariable logistic regression models. Farms with higher numbers of cows, and those with concrete floors, were 3.6, and 7.5 times more at risk for presence of BTB, respectively, compared with their references. These findings will be useful as entry points for future informed decision-making towards BTB control and eradication programme in the country. © 2017 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Environmental Sustainability and Economic Benefits of Dairy Farm Biogas Energy Production: A Case Study in Umbria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biancamaria Torquati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Accelerating demand to reduce the environmental impact of fossil fuels has been driving widespread attention to renewable fuels, such as biogas. In fact, in the last decade numerous policy guidelines and laws regarding energy, the environment and agriculture have been issued to encourage the use of animal sewage as a raw material for the production of biogas. The production of energy from biogas in a dairy farm can provide a good opportunity for sustainable rural development, augmenting the farm’s income from traditional sources and helping to reduce the overall environmental impact of the energy sector. This paper investigates the trade-off between the environmental and economic benefits of an agro-energy farm in the Umbria region of Italy that employs livestock sewage and manure, dedicated energy crops (corn and triticale silage and olive waste. The environmental analysis was performed using the LCA methodology, while the economic investigation was carried out by reconstructing the economic balance of the agro-energetic supply chain based on the budgets of each activity performed. The LCA results show, on the one hand, the predominant weight of producing dedicated crops compared to all other processes in the supply chain and, on the other hand, a significant reduction in environmental impact compared to that caused by energy production from fossil fuels. Economic analysis revealed that the results depend significantly on what rate per kWh the government incentives guarantee to agricultural producers of renewable energy.

  5. On-FarmWelfare Assessment Protocol for Adult Dairy Goats in Intensive Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, Monica; Stilwell, George; Vieira, Ana; Barbieri, Sara; Canali, Elisabetta; Mattiello, Silvana

    2015-09-25

    Within the European AWIN project, a protocol for assessing dairy goats' welfareon the farm was developed. Starting from a literature review, a prototype includinganimal-based indicators covering four welfare principles and 12 welfare criteria was set up.The prototype was tested in 60 farms for validity, reliability, and feasibility. After testing theprototype, a two-level assessment protocol was proposed in order to increase acceptabilityamong stakeholders. The first level offers a more general overview of the welfare status,based on group assessment of a few indicators (e.g., hair coat condition, latency to thefirst contact test, severe lameness, Qualitative Behavior Assessment), with no or minimalhandling of goats and short assessment time required. The second level starts if welfareAnimals 2015, 5 935problems are encountered in the first level and adds a comprehensive and detailed individualevaluation (e.g., Body Condition Score, udder asymmetry, overgrown claws), supported byan effective sampling strategy. The assessment can be carried out using the AWIN Goatapp. The app results in a clear visual output, which provides positive feedback on welfareconditions in comparison with a benchmark of a reference population. The protocol maybe a valuable tool for both veterinarians and technicians and a self-assessment instrumentfor farmers.

  6. On-FarmWelfare Assessment Protocol for Adult Dairy Goats in Intensive Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Battini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the European AWIN project, a protocol for assessing dairy goats’ welfareon the farm was developed. Starting from a literature review, a prototype includinganimal-based indicators covering four welfare principles and 12 welfare criteria was set up.The prototype was tested in 60 farms for validity, reliability, and feasibility. After testing theprototype, a two-level assessment protocol was proposed in order to increase acceptabilityamong stakeholders. The first level offers a more general overview of the welfare status,based on group assessment of a few indicators (e.g., hair coat condition, latency to thefirst contact test, severe lameness, Qualitative Behavior Assessment, with no or minimalhandling of goats and short assessment time required. The second level starts if welfareAnimals 2015, 5 935problems are encountered in the first level and adds a comprehensive and detailed individualevaluation (e.g., Body Condition Score, udder asymmetry, overgrown claws, supported byan effective sampling strategy. The assessment can be carried out using the AWIN Goatapp. The app results in a clear visual output, which provides positive feedback on welfareconditions in comparison with a benchmark of a reference population. The protocol maybe a valuable tool for both veterinarians and technicians and a self-assessment instrumentfor farmers.

  7. Leptospirosis in three workers on a dairy farm with unvaccinated cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benschop, Jackie; Collins-Emerson, Julie; Maskill, Allie; O'Connor, Patrick; Tunbridge, Margaret; Yupiana, Yuni; Weston, Jenny

    2017-09-22

    We report a one-health investigation of three cases of leptospirosis on a dairy farm with unvaccinated cattle in New Zealand. The cases are discussed in the context of diagnostics, risk factors, persistence of symptoms and outbreak mitigation measures. Clinical and laboratory records from the human cases were reviewed and serological and molecular investigations were conducted into the Leptospira status of cattle and pigs on the farm. Cases presented early in their illness and all three were confirmed within seven days of onset of symptoms by urine PCR and within 18 days by convalescent MAT (two Hardjo-bovis, one Pomona). Cattle and pigs had serological evidence of recent infection with Hardjo-bovis/Pomona and Pomona/Copenhageni respectively. Pigs were slaughtered and cattle were vaccinated. Post-exposure prophylaxis was given to staff in-contact with the milking herd until the herd had antibiotic treatment at drying-off (approximately four months after the initial case). The utility of PCR testing for Leptospira DNA as both an early and rapid test for leptospirosis was demonstrated. Two of three cases reported persistence of symptoms at least six months after the acute episode and one of these remains unable to work. Risk mitigation measures such as post-exposure prophylaxis, animal vaccination, heightened clinical suspicion of leptospirosis and recognition of context specific risk factors (eg, effluent spreading) demonstrate the value of medical and veterinary experts working together.

  8. Research Concerning Standard Gross Margin Depending on Yield in Dairy Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Pirvutoiu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to establish gross margin for three levels of milk yield/cow/year under the condition of Romania:V1-4,000 kg, V2-5,000 kg and V3-6,000 kg. The technical data were collected from three dairy farms and theeconomic calculations were based on the EU methodology taking into consideration prices of the year 2011.Thefollowing indicators were determined for each level of milk yield: gross product, variable cost and gross margin. Theestimates for gross margin/cow were Lei 1,927 for the variant with the smallest milk yield, Lei 2,561 for the variantwith the middle yield and Lei 3,454 for the variant with the highest milk yield. As a conclusion, gross product andvariable cost were directly influenced by milk yield and the higher the milk yield, the higher gross margin andeconomic efficiency per cow. In order to increase farm financial performance expressed by gross margin and profit,farmers have to rise milk yield per cow using high productive animals, sufficient and high quality forages and keepproduction cost, mainly variable cost under control.

  9. Farm business and operator variables associated with bulk tank somatic cell count from dairy herds in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, Karen L; Lambert, Dayton M; Schexnayder, Susan; Krawczel, Peter; Fly, Mark; Garkovich, Lorraine; Oliver, Steve

    2017-11-01

    Mastitis is a worldwide problem in dairy cows and results in reduced milk production, the culling of cows, and other economic losses. Bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) over 200,000 cells/mL often indicates underlying subclinical mastitis in dairy herds. Several preventative measures that can be implemented to help improve the incidence of mastitis exist, but surveys find these practices not fully adopted by producers. The goal of this research was to analyze the farm and operator characteristics associated with BTSCC in dairy herds by analyzing a survey of dairy producers in the southeastern United States. We examined this region because it has experienced a decline in the number of dairy farms, dairy cows, and milk production over the past 2 decades. The southeast region is also associated with higher BTSCC levels than the national average. Dairy farms in Georgia, Mississippi, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia were surveyed. Producers were asked questions about the BTSCC at which they take action to address BTSCC, the information sources they use to learn about and manage BTSCC, farm structure and management characteristics, and attitudinal variables associated with profitability, managerial control, and planning horizon. Least squares regression was used to determine how these factors were associated with BTSCC levels across the 7-state region. Concern over mastitis, financial consequences of mastitis, and increased previous-year BTSCC were associated with higher current BTSCC levels. Obtaining information about mastitis from veterinarians and extension personnel, taking action against mastitis at a BTSCC less than 300,000 cells/mL, and perceived ability to control processes and mastitis incidence were associated with reduced BTSCC. We found average BTSCC was lower in North Carolina and Virginia. These results suggest that proactive producers (i.e., those that perceive they can control BTSCC and seek information from reliable

  10. Survey on animal welfare in nine hundred and forty three Italian dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Peli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The final results of a survey on welfare of dairy cows in 7 Italian Regions are presented. The study has been performed on 943 farms in southern and central Italy to highlight critical and strong points concerning animal welfare in dairy systems, by using direct and indirect criteria. To assess animal welfare, a checklist based on 303 parameters has been used; indirect criteria have been organised in 5 general areas concerning Farm management, Farming and housing systems, Environment, Feeding, Health and hygiene; other resource-based criteria were considered in 5 specific areas for the different productive categories (lactating cows, dry cows, pregnant heifers, cows comeback, calves up to 8 weeks and calves between 8 weeks and 6 months; finally, an Indicators section focused on animal based criteria. Parameters have been valued as conforming or not conforming on the basis of the current lesgislation on animal welfare, and in the other cases by the use of a semi-quantitative scale such as poor, satisfactory, good or very good referring to scientific literature and reports by the Animal Health and Animal Welfare panel of the European Food Safety Authority. Among the 249 examined parameters (54 criteria have been valued as descriptive, 15 showed a failure prevalence inferior to 1%; for the remaining parameters, the overall non-compliance prevalence on the whole sample ranged from a maximum of 67% to a minimum of 2%, showing an inverse proportionality correlation with the herd size. One hundred and ten parameters were judged as poor (96 or not in compliance with the rules in force (14 in more than 10% of the examined herds. The most common non-compliance aspects detected in the different areas concern calves management, staff training and prophylaxis programmes; staff training levels were inversely related to failure prevalences in almost all areas. The combination of direct and indirect criteria has allowed to fully embrace recommendations on the

  11. Effect of selenium on its content in milk and performance of dairy cows in ecological farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Horký

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the ecological farming is increasingly spread in the European Union. The aim of this relatively young farming method is a friendly approach to agricultural production with an emphasis to deliver healthy raw materials and food to final consumer. Selenium is included in an essential trace micronutrients which are necessary for the proper process of physiological reactions. It is a part of glutathione peroxidase, which is a powerful antioxidant. At present,  selenium-deficiency can occur in feed and food in central Europe. Selenium deficiency is one cause of the higher occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the experiment was to study whether the addition of selenium to the diet of dairy cows in ecological farming can increase its concentration in milk and affect quantitative (milk yield and quality (content of protein, fat, lactose, somatic cells and urea milk indicators. The experiment included twenty cows of Holstein breed. The first experimental group of cows (n = 10 was fed with selenium in an amount of 0.3 mg.kg-1 (as selenomethionine in the feed dose. The control group (n = 10 was not fed with the increased selenium in the feed dose. The basic feed dose contained 0.17 mg of Se/kg in the diet. For dairy cows, daily intake was of 20.5 kg of dry matter feed. The duration of the experiment was set at 45 days. The selenium concentration in milk was measured from 0.13 to 0.15 µg.mL-1 in the experimental group of cows during the evaluation. The control group of cows without the addition of selenium to the diet showed a selenium concentration below the detection limit. During the experiment, milk yield, lactose, fat and protein were not affected. A significant decrease (p <0.05 of somatic cells by 58% occurred in milk in the experimental group. The amount of urea was significantly lower in both groups in the experimental (by 52%; p <0.05 and control (50%; p <0.05. These results show that the addition of selenium may increase

  12. Phosphorus balance and use efficiency on 21 intensive grass-based dairy farms in the South of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailescu, E; Murphy, P N C; Ryan, W; Casey, I A; Humphreys, J

    2015-04-01

    Given the finite nature of global phosphorus (P) resources, there is an increasing concern about balancing agronomic and environmental impacts from P usage on dairy farms. Data from a 3-year (2009-2011) survey were used to assess farm-gate P balances and P use efficiency (PUE) on 21 intensive grass-based dairy farms operating under the good agricultural practice (GAP) regulations in Ireland. Mean stocking rate (SR) was 2·06 livestock units (LU)/ha, mean P surplus was 5·09 kg/ha, or 0·004 kg P/kg milk solids (MS), and mean PUE was 0·70. Phosphorus imports were dominated by inorganic fertilizer (7·61 kg P/ha) and feeds (7·62 kg P/ha), while exports were dominated by milk (6·66 kg P/ha) and livestock (5·10 kg P/ha). Comparison to similar studies carried out before the introduction of the GAP regulations in 2006 indicated that P surplus, both per ha and per kg MS, has significantly decreased (by 74 and 81%, respectively) and PUE increased (by 48%), mostly due to decreased inorganic fertilizer P import and improvements in P management. There has been a notable shift towards spring application of organic manures, indicating improved awareness of the fertilizer value of organic manures and good compliance with the GAP regulations regarding fertilizer application timing. These results suggested a positive impact of the GAP regulations on dairy farm P surplus and PUE, indicating an improvement in both environmental and economic sustainability of dairy production through improved resource use efficiencies. Such improvements will be necessary to achieve national targets of improved water quality and increased dairy production. Results suggest that optimizing fertilizer and feed P imports combined with improved on-farm P recycling are the most effective way to increase PUE. Equally, continued monitoring of soil test P (STP) and P management will be necessary to ensure that adequate soil P fertility is maintained. Mean P surplus was lower and PUE was much higher than

  13. Modelling worker physical health and societal sustainability at farm level: an application to conventional and organic dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calker, van K.J.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2007-01-01

    Farm-level modelling can be used to determine how farming systems and individual farm-management measures influence different sustainability indicators. Until now however, worker physical health and societal sustainability have been lacking in farm models. For this paper, we first selected

  14. How different farming systems respond to the continuously evolving European dairy market – a comparative case study of four different EU countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsøe, Martin Hvarregaard; Noe, Egon; Aubert, Pierre-Marie

    2017-01-01

    This Paper analyses how five different Eu-ropean farming systems have been influenced by the increasingly volatile milk market and the strategic re-sponse that has been adopted by farmers and the dairy sector....

  15. Results of an online questionnaire to survey calf management practices on dairy cattle breeding farms in Austria and to estimate differences in disease incidences depending on farm structure and management practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein-Jöbstl, Daniela; Arnholdt, Tim; Sturmlechner, Franz; Iwersen, Michael; Drillich, Marc

    2015-01-01

    .... The objective of this internet based survey was to describe calf management practices on registered dairy breeding farms in Austria and to estimate differences in calf disease incidences depending...

  16. The marketing of herd health and production management services on Dutch dairy farms: perceptions of dairy farmers and their veterinary surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    A questionnaire-based survey on veterinary herd health and production management services was conducted on 194 specialist dairy veterinarians and 466 dairy farmers. The farmers were randomly selected from greater than 6,000 farmer clients of the surveyed veterinarians. This paper reports these survey findings and the findings of an earlier survey conducted among the veterinarians. The survey included questions on the attributes of the service itself, the practitioners delivering the service, reasons for participation and the expected future of herd health and production management services. Reasons farmers participated in herd health and production management programmes included; access to routine screening of their herd; increasing profits; and receiving regular veterinary advice or solutions to remedy existing problems. Advantages of participation named included: good management support; higher profits; structural solutions to problems; and being better informed. Differences between farming styles were observed, pointing to the different needs and goals of farming styles. Farmers cited high costs and the time investment required as major disadvantages. The proportion of farmers citing these reasons was lower than expected by the veterinarians. In the future, preventive healthcare will be the main reason of farmers to participate. Farmers who are not using the service can potentially be encouraged to engage the services after gaining increased insight into the herd health and management service structure, the planning of activities, the cost-benefit of the service, veterinary surgeons being more co-operative with other farm advisors and veterinarians being more willing to pay attention to quality issues on the dairy farm. PMID:21851703

  17. Occurrence of Virulence Genes Associated with Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Isolated from Raw Cow’s Milk from Two Commercial Dairy Farms in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lesley-Anne Caine; Uchechukwu U. Nwodo; Okoh, Anthony I.; Roland N. Ndip; Ezekiel Green

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli remains a public health concern worldwide as an organism that causes diarrhea and its reservoir in raw milk may play an important role in the survival and transport of pathogenic strains. Diarrheagenic E. coli strains are diverse food-borne pathogens and causes diarrhea with varying virulence in humans. We investigated the prevalence of pathogenic E. coli in raw milk from two commercial dairy farms. Four hundred raw milk samples, 200 from each dairy farm, were screened for ...

  18. Insights into udder health and intramammary antibiotic usage on Irish dairy farms during 2003-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    More Simon J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract By international standards, Ireland is a relatively small dairy producer. However, the industry plays a critical role to the national economy, accounting for approximately 3% of national gross domestic product. This paper presents insights into udder health and intramammary antibiotic usage on Irish dairy farms during 2003-2010, based on data from several sources. Three data sources were used, including data on milk recording data, intramammary antibiotic sales and animal health assessment. The milk recording data included a single unadjusted herd-level somatic cell count (SCC value for each herd at each milk recording, being the arithmetic mean of cow-level SCC of each cow at that recording, weighted by cow-level yield. These data were used to calculate the percentage of herds each month where the unadjusted herd SCC exceeded 200,000 and 400,000 cells/mL. Two logistic generalised estimating-equations (GEE models were developed, the outcome variable being either the probability that the monthly SCC of a herd was greater than 400,000 cells/mL or less than or equal to 200,000 cells/mL. Spring herds had a lower probability of a high SCC (> 400,000 cells/mL during February to October compared to non-Spring herds but a higher probability between November to January. The odds of a high SCC were greater in 2005, 2006, 2009 and 2010 but less in 2007 and 2008 compared to 2004. Smaller herds had higher odds of having a high SCC compared to larger herds. We present the number of intramammary tubes and the quantity of active substance (kg sold annually in Ireland during 2003-2010. We infer an incidence of clinical mastitis of 54.0 cases per 100 cow-years at risk, assuming 4 tubes per treatment regime, one affected quarter per cow, tubes restricted to clinical cases only and 100% of treated cases considered new cases, based on data collected on sales of in-lactation intra-mammary antibiotics. With differing assumptions, this estimate varied between

  19. PHENOTYPIC PARAMETERS OF MILK PRODUCTION IN DAIRY ROMANIAN BLACK SPOTTED BREED FROM PETRESTI –ALBA FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELEONORA NISTOR

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the phenotypic parameters in 101 dairy cows belonging to Romanian Black Spotted breed, from Petresti-Alba farm. For milk, fat and protein yield, cows were milked twice a day for a complete lactation of at least 305 days, from 2005 to 2007. Dairy cattle are the main milk supplier, the world production being over 650,000,000 MT/year. This production provides 35% of the total animal protein for the human consumption. Milk composition is of extreme importance to the consumer from a nutritional point of view. In the herd of dairy Romanian Black Spotted breed, from Petresti-Alba, the average milk yield was 4600.32±97.52 kg. The milk fat yield obtained per cow was 180.87±3.81 kg, while protein yield was 155.61±3.16 kg.

  20. Oats (Avena strigosa) as winter forage for dairy cows in Vietnam: an on-farm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Paulo; Thang, Vu Q; Thu, Tran V; Trach, Nguyen X; Cuong, Vu C; Lecomte, Philippe; Richard, Didier

    2013-02-01

    In North Vietnam, during winter, alternative forage resources are needed to balance the feed ration of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of oat forage as a component of traditional winter roughage diets on feed intake, milk production and feeding cost in dairy cows. The study was conducted on-farm using 24 mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows. The feeding experiment consisted of two successive periods and two dietary treatments per period. Traditional basal diets included fresh tropical grasses, maize silage and hay. The oat forage had no effect on the dry matter intake of the basal diet, but the total crude protein intake was higher in cows fed with oat diets than in those fed with control diets. The yield of butterfat-corrected milk (FCM) was not significantly different between diets during period 1, but there was a trend (P = 0.078) of higher FCM yields in cows fed with the oat diet compared to those with control diet during period 2 (17.3 vs. 16.3 kg/day). The decline rate in milk yield was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in cows fed with control diets than in those fed with oat diets in both experimental periods. The total feeding cost of cows fed with oat diets was on average 12 % lower than those fed with control diets (P < 0.01). So, the oat forage is an important winter resource for cows in North Vietnam allowing higher milk yield whilst reducing feeding cost, compared to traditional roughage diets.

  1. Recycling manure as cow bedding: Potential benefits and risks for UK dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Katharine A; Archer, Simon C; Breen, James E; Green, Martin J; Ohnstad, Ian C; Tuer, Sally; Bradley, Andrew J

    2015-11-01

    Material obtained from physical separation of slurry (recycled manure solids; RMS) has been used as bedding for dairy cows in dry climates in the US since the 1970s. Relatively recently, the technical ability to produce drier material has led to adoption of the practice in Europe under different climatic conditions. This review collates the evidence available on benefits and risks of using RMS bedding on dairy farms, with a European context in mind. There was less evidence than expected for anecdotal claims of improved cow comfort. Among animal health risks, only udder health has received appreciable attention. There are some circumstantial reports of difficulties of maintaining udder health on RMS, but no large scale or long term studies of effects on clinical and subclinical mastitis have been published. Existing reports do not give consistent evidence of inevitable problems, nor is there any information on clinical implications for other diseases. The scientific basis for guidelines on management of RMS bedding is limited. Decisions on optimum treatment and management may present conflicts between controls of different groups of organisms. There is no information on the influence that such 'recycling' of manure may have on pathogen virulence. The possibility of influence on genetic material conveying antimicrobial resistance is a concern, but little understood. Should UK or other non-US farmers adopt RMS, they are advised to do so with caution, apply the required strategies for risk mitigation, maintain strict hygiene of bed management and milking practices and closely monitor the effects on herd health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Management and use of dairy cattle feed resources on smallholder certified organic pineapple farms in Central Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kiggundu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of exclusively organic diets that meet maintenance and production requirements of dairy cattle is a major limitation to production of premium organic products of animal origin. This study was therefore carried out to assess the use and availability of feed resources and the coping strategies used by farmers to overcome dry season feed shortages on 64 smallholder certified organic pineapple farms. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires and two focus group discussions. Majority of households were headed by males (62.9% while average age of respondents was 42.5 years. Farmers allocated more land (P<0.05 to organic pineapple production compared to livestock. Beside dairy cattle, farmers also kept chickens, goats and pigs. Tethering was the commonest cattle management system. Fifty three percent of respondents reported using both natural pastures and crop residues as major dairy cattle feed resources while only 19% reported using elephant grass. Banana peels (25.1% and sweet potato vines (24.7% were the most important crop residues fed to cattle. Farmers reported high cost of concentrates and scarcity of feeds as their biggest challenges in dairy cattle production. Of the respondents, 51.4% conserved feed for their cattle as fodder banks. As a coping strategy to feed shortages, majority (42.9% of farmer scavenged for feed resources from both organic certified and nonorganic neighbouring farms which is contrary to organic livestock farming standards. It was, therefore, concluded that management of livestock feeding in the study area fell short of the requirements for organic livestock feeding standards. Research to develop strategies that can use alternative on-farm feed resources through ensiling organic pineapple wastes during the dry season is recommended as a long term strategy to address feed challenges for organic livestock farmers.

  3. Feasibility and validity of animal-based indicators for on-farm welfare assessment of thermal stress in dairy goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, Monica; Barbieri, Sara; Fioni, Luna; Mattiello, Silvana

    2016-02-01

    This investigation tested the feasibility and validity of indicators of cold and heat stress in dairy goats for on-farm welfare assessment protocols. The study was performed on two intensive dairy farms in Italy. Two different 3-point scale (0-2) scoring systems were applied to assess cold and heat stress. Cold and heat stress scores were visually assessed from outside the pen in the morning, afternoon and evening in January-February, April-May and July 2013 for a total of nine sessions of observations/farm. Temperature (°C), relative humidity (%) and wind speed (km/h) were recorded and Thermal Heat Index (THI) was calculated. The sessions were allocated to three climatic seasons, depending on THI ranges: cold (65). Score 2 was rarely assessed; therefore, scores 1 and 2 were aggregated for statistical analysis. The amount of goats suffering from cold stress was significantly higher in the cold season than in neutral ( P < 0.01) and hot ( P < 0.001) seasons. Signs of heat stress were recorded only in the hot season ( P < 0.001). The visual assessment from outside the pen confirms the on-farm feasibility of both indicators: No constraint was found and time required was less than 10 min. Our results show that cold and heat stress scores are valid indicators to detect thermal stress in intensively managed dairy goats. The use of a binary scoring system (presence/absence), merging scores 1 and 2, may be a further refinement to improve the feasibility. This study also allows the prediction of optimal ranges of THI for dairy goat breeds in intensive husbandry systems, setting a comfort zone included into 55 and 70.

  4. Determining farm effects attributable to the introduction and use of a dairy management information system in The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Tomaszewski, M.A.; Asseldonk, M.A.P.M. van; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2000-01-01

    Yearly production and reproduction data on dairy farms in The Netherlands were obtained to determine whether management information systems significantly improved herd performance variables (management information systems (MIS) effects). The analysis included 357 adopters of a management information system and 357 herds were used as controls. The data comprised years 1987 through 1996, and included for the adopters both the 'before' and 'after' period. Panel data analysis enabled to estimate ...

  5. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in dairy calves from 11 farms in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coklin, Tatjana; Uehlinger, Fabienne D; Farber, Jeffrey M; Barkema, Herman W; O'Handley, Ryan M; Dixon, Brent R

    2009-03-23

    Cryptosporidium spp. are common intestinal protozoan parasites that infect a wide range of hosts, including humans and livestock, worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in dairy calves in Prince Edward Island, Canada, and the potential for transmission of this parasite between dairy calves and humans. Fecal samples were collected from 183 dairy calves from 11 farms in Prince Edward Island. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. infections in these animals was determined by examining for the presence of oocysts in the fecal samples, using immunofluorescence microscopy. Molecular characterization was done using a nested-PCR protocol to amplify fragments of the Cryptosporidium heat-shock protein 70 gene, followed by DNA sequencing. Ten calves (6.2%), representing 4 out of 11 farms tested, were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. DNA sequence analysis on five PCR positive samples demonstrated that Cryptosporidium parvum was the only species present in the calves tested, suggesting that there is a potential risk of zoonotic transmission between dairy calves and humans in this region.

  6. Status of mastitis as an emerging disease in improved and periurban dairy farms in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sachin; Gokhale, Suresh

    2006-10-01

    While reviewing present status of mastitis in India, results of investigations from periurban dairy farms on epidemiological, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, bacterial isolation, in vitro drug sensitivity, and treatment of subclinical mastitis have been presented. Mastitis, on account of its causing serious wastage and undesirable milk quality, is emerging as a major challenge among the others (like breeding improvement, nutrition management, control of infectious, tick-borne, blood, and internal parasitic diseases) in dairy development of tropics. Subclinical mastitis was found more important in India (varying from 10-50% in cows and 5-20% in buffaloes) than clinical mastitis (1-10%). The incidence was highest in Purebred Holsteins and Jerseys and lowest in local cattle and buffaloes. An investigation on 250 animals from periurban farms indicated that the monsoon season was more prone to subclinical mastitis than summer or winter, prevalence increased with higher lactation number and animals in 4th-5th month of lactation were found more susceptible (59.49%), hind quarters were found more affected (56.52%) than fore quarters (43.47%). The factors like herd size, agro climatic conditions of the region, variations in sociocultural practices, milk marketing, literacy level of the animal owner, system of feeding, and management were found important affecting the incidence of subclinical mastitis. Comparison of efficacy of different diagnostic techniques for subclinical mastitis, such as modified California mastitis test (MCMT), bromo thymol blue (BTB), modified whiteside test, trypsin inhibition test, milk pH, and electric conductivity indicated MCMT to be most sensitive (95.16%) and specific (98.02%) test. The antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed that most of the bacterial strains (gram positive, gram negative, and mixed) isolated from subclinical mastitis milk samples, were highly sensitive to enrofloxacin 53.91%, least sensitive to oxytetracycline 17

  7. Leverages for on-farm innovation from farm typologies? An illustration for family-based dairy farms in north-west Michoacán, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortez Arriola, J.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Amendola Massiotti, R.D.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Groot, J.C.J.; Tittonell, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on farm diversity provides insight into differences among farms, enables scaling from individual farm to farm population level and vice versa, and has been used in the definition of recommendation domains for introduction of novel technologies. Farm diversity can be broadly described in

  8. Economic evaluation of Johne's disease control programs implemented on six Michigan dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillars, R B; Grooms, D L; Wolf, C A; Kaneene, J B

    2009-08-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is an incurable, chronic infectious disease prevalent in dairy herds throughout the US and the world. The substantial economic losses caused by JD have been well documented. However, information on the costs of controlling the disease is limited, yet necessary, if producers are to make sound decisions regarding JD management. The purpose of this paper is to describe a method for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of management changes to control JD on infected dairy farms. A 5-year longitudinal study of six dairy herds infected with JD was performed. Each herd implemented a JD control program upon study enrollment. Prevalence of JD within each herd was monitored with annual testing of all adult cows using fecal culture and/or serum ELISA. Individual cow production and culling information was collected to estimate the annual economic losses caused by JD. An economic questionnaire was developed and administered to each herd annually to estimate costs directly attributable to the JD control program. Based on the costs of the control program, and using the losses to estimate the potential benefits of the control program, the net present value (NPV) of the control program was calculated for each herd during the study and projected into the future for a total of 20 years. The NPV was calculated for four different scenarios: (1) assuming a linear decline in losses beyond the observed period of the study with JD eradication by year 20 of the control program; (2) assuming losses and JD prevalence remain constant at the rate equal to that of the last observed year while continuing the control program; (3) assuming linear increase in losses at rate equal to that in scenario 1 with no control program; and (4) assuming losses remain constant at same level as the beginning of the study with no control plan implemented. The NPV varied greatly across the herds. For scenario 1, only three herds had a positive NPV; and only two herds had a positive NPV under

  9. Prevalence of lameness, claw lesions, and associated risk factors in dairy farms in Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, M B; Ramanoon, S Z; Mansor, R; Syed-Hussain, S S; Shaik Mossadeq, W M

    2017-08-31

    The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to estimate the prevalence of lameness, claw lesions, and associated risk factors in dairy farms in Selangor, Malaysia. The sample population was 251 lactating cows from 8 farms assessed for lameness and claw lesions by locomotion scoring and claw assessment respectively while specific animal-based measures were hypothesized as cow-level risk factors. The Wilcoxon rank test and logistic regression were applied to assess the prevalence of lameness, claw lesions, and association with potential risk factors, respectively. The prevalence of lameness was 19.1% ranging from 10.0 to 33.3% while 31.1% of cows had claw lesions and ranged from 16.3-40%. Claw lesions were recorded in 87.5% of the lame cows with highest being those affected with sole lesions (54.2%) and white line disease (61.2%). Overall, the occurrence of overgrown claws, sole lesions, white line disease, and digital dermatitis were 37, 18.2, 10.9, and 8.3%, respectively. More than one claw lesion per cow was present in 71.8% of the affected cows. Lameness was associated with early lactation (OR = 3.3; 95% CI 2-7), injured hocks (OR = 4.8; 95% CI 5-17), and dirty legs hygiene (OR = 2.6; 95% CI 1.3-6.2), whereas presence of claw lesions was associated with dirty legs hygiene (OR = 4.7; 95% CI 4-11) and overgrown claw (OR = 2.7; 95% CI 1.4-5.3). To reduce the prevalence of lameness, farmers need to improve the management of cows with overgrown claw, injured hocks, and cleanliness by establishing routine claw trimming and efficient stall design.

  10. Characterization of Bacillus cereus isolates from local dairy farms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yifang; Liu, Xiaoye; Dietrich, Richard; Märtlbauer, Erwin; Cao, Jie; Ding, Shuangyang; Zhu, Kui

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus cereus is an important opportunistic foodborne pathogen. In the present work, a total of 306 milk and environmental samples were collected from 10 local dairy farms in Beijing, China. Of the 92 B. cereus-like isolates, 88 and 4 belonged to B. cereus and B. thuringiensis, respectively. The prevalence of B. cereus isolates in bedding, feces, feed, liquid manure and raw milk was 93.3%, 78.9%, 41.2%, 100.0% and 9.8%, respectively. Three main toxin genes nhe, hbl and ces were detected with rates of 100.0%, 78.3% and 1.1%, but no strain harbored cytK1 The production of Nhe, Hbl and cereulide could be confirmed by specific monoclonal antibodies-based enzyme immunoassays in 94.6%, 70.7% and 1.1% of all isolates, respectively. Cytotoxicity tests were used to further corroborate the results of genetic and protein-based assays; 91.3% of the isolates showed cytotoxicity to Vero cells. All isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance against 17 antibiotics. All isolates were resistant to lincomycin, retapamulin, tiamulin and valnemulin, while two strains were susceptible to ampicillin and ceftiofur. A total of 16 isolated strains were resistant to tetracycline. Since spores of B. cereus are not inactivated during manufacturing of most milk products, contamination of milk with B. cereus on the farm level may represent a potential hazard, particularly with respect to emetic toxin-producing strains. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Dynamics of Escherichia coli Virulence Factors in Dairy Herds and Farm Environments in a Longitudinal Study in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertini, Elisabetta; Karns, Jeffrey S.; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S.; Cao, Huilin; Schukken, Ynte H.; Wolfgang, David R.; Smith, Julia M.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli or its associated virulence factors have been frequently detected in dairy cow manure, milk, and dairy farm environments. However, it is unclear what the long-term dynamics of E. coli virulence factors are and which farm compartments act as reservoirs. This study assessed the occurrence and dynamics of four E. coli virulence factors (eae, stx1, stx2, and the gamma allele of the tir gene [γ-tir]) on three U.S. dairy farms. Fecal, manure, water, feed, milk, and milk filter samples were collected from 2004 to 2012. Virulence factors were measured by postenrichment quantitative PCR (qPCR). All factors were detected in most compartments on all farms. Fecal and manure samples showed the highest prevalence, up to 53% for stx and 21% for γ-tir in fecal samples and up to 84% for stx and 44% for γ-tir in manure. Prevalence was low in milk (up to 1.9% for stx and 0.7% for γ-tir). However, 35% of milk filters were positive for stx and 20% were positive for γ-tir. All factors were detected in feed and water. Factor prevalence and levels, expressed as qPCR cycle threshold categories, fluctuated significantly over time, with no clear seasonal signal independent from year-to-year variability. Levels were correlated between fecal and manure samples, and in some cases autocorrelated, but not between manure and milk filters. Shiga toxins were nearly ubiquitous, and 10 to 18% of the lactating cows were potential shedders of E. coli O157 at least once during their time in the herds. E. coli virulence factors appear to persist in many areas of the farms and therefore contribute to transmission dynamics. PMID:25911478

  12. Cord blood cytokines are modulated by maternal farming activities and consumption of farm dairy products during pregnancy: the PASTURE Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfefferle, P.I.; Buchele, G.; Blumer, N.; Roponen, M.; Ege, M.J.; Krauss-Etschmann, S.; Genuneit, J.; Hyvarinen, A.; Hirvonen, M.R.; Lauener, R.; Pekkanen, J.; Riedler, J.; Dalphin, J.C.; Brunekreef, B.; Braun-Fahrlander, C.; von Mutius, E.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditional farming represents a unique model situation to investigate the relationship of early-life farm-related exposure and allergy protection. OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations between maternal farm exposures and cytokine production in cord blood (CB) mononuclear cells in a

  13. Manure nutrient application on a Chinese dairy farm with arable land: A case study based on Dutch experience of equilibrium fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, Roland W.; Buisonjé, de Fridtjof E.; Qiao, Wei; Dong, Ren Jie

    2017-01-01

    For a Chinese dairy farm with 2200 milking cows, the annual manure production and manure nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) were estimated. Gaseous nitrogen losses from cattle housing with scraped solid floors were based on on-farm measurements. Based on experiences from the Netherlands, nutrient

  14. CLUSTERS OF TASKS PERFORMED BY WASHINGTON STATE FARM OPERATORS ENGAGED IN SEVEN TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION--GRAIN, DAIRY, FORESTRY, LIVESTOCK, POULTRY, HORTICULTURE, AND GENERAL FARMING. REPORT NO. 27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LONG, GILBERT A.

    THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO OBTAIN UP-TO-DATE FACTS ABOUT CLUSTERS OF TASKS PERFORMED BY WASHINGTON STATE FARM OPERATORS ENGAGED PRIMARILY IN PRODUCING GRAIN, LIVESTOCK, DAIRY COMMODITIES, POULTRY, FOREST PRODUCTS, HORTICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND GENERAL FARMING COMMODITIES. FROM A RANDOM SAMPLE OF 267 FARMERS REPRESENTING THOSE CATEGORIES…

  15. American and German attitudes towards cow-calf separation on dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Gesa; Weary, Daniel M.; Spiller, Achim; von Keyserlingk, Marina A. G.

    2017-01-01

    Public concerns regarding the quality of life of farm animals are often focused on specific practices such as separating the cow and calf immediately after birth. The available scientific literature provides some evidence in support of this practice (including reduced acute responses to separation when it does occur), as well as evidence of disadvantages (such as increased risk of uterine disease in cows). The aim of this study is to systematically examine public views around this practice. Specifically, this study analyzes the views of American and German citizens to separation of cow and calf at birth using a quantitative segmentation approach. Although the majority of participants opposed early separation, a small proportion of our sample supported the practice. According to participants’ preference for early and later separation and their evaluation of different arguments for both practices, three clusters were identified. US participants were more likely to support early separation compared to German participants. The arguments presented for and against both practices caused different reactions in the three clusters, but did not appear to sway the opinions of most participants. The results show considerable opposition to the practice of early separation in large parts of the sample and suggest that the dairy industry should consider approaches to address this concern. PMID:28301604

  16. Panarchy Rules: Rethinking Resilience of Agroecosystems, Evidence from Dutch Dairy-Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk F. van Apeldoorn

    2011-03-01

    Simulations show that no alternative stable state for soil organic matter exists within a plausible range of fertilizer applications. The observed differences in soil organic matter content and nutrient use efficiency probably represent a time lag of long-term nonequilibrium system development. The resilience perspective proved to be especially insightful in addressing interacting long-term developments expressed in the panarchy. Panarchy created a heterogeneity of resources in the landscape providing local landscape-embedded opportunities for high N-efficiencies. Stopping the practice of grassland renewal will allow this ecological landscape embedded system to mature. In contrast, modern conventional dairy farms shortcut the adaptive cycle by frequent grassland renewals, resulting in high resilience and adaptability. This comes at the cost of long-term accumulated ecological capital of soil organic matter and transformability, thus reinforcing the incremental adaptation trap. Analysis of such a human dominated agroecosystem reveals that rather than alternative states, an alternative set of relationships within a multiscale setting applies, indicating the importance for embedding panarchy in the analysis of sustainable development goals in agroecosystems.

  17. Short communication: Effect of stocking rate on the economics of pasture-based dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, K A; Beca, D; Penno, J W; Lancaster, J A S; Roche, J R

    2011-05-01

    Data from a multiyear farm systems study evaluating the effect of stocking rate (SR) on pasture production and utilization, milk production per cow and per hectare, reproduction, and cow health were used to determine the economic implications of altering SR. The effect of SR was also evaluated relative to cow size and total feed available (comparative stocking rate; CSR), to account for differences in cow size and feed supplement availability. Milk production, gross revenue, operating expenses, and operating profit per cow all declined with increasing SR and CSR. In comparison, milk production, gross revenue, and operating expenses per hectare increased with increasing SR and CSR. These effects were irrespective of milk price. The effect of SR on operating profit and return on assets, however, was dependent on milk payment system. When payment was based on the economic value of milk fat and protein, operating profit and return on assets were quadratically associated with both SR and CSR, declining at an SR greater or less than 3.3 cows/ha and a CSR greater or less than 77 kg of body weight/t of feed dry matter available. In comparison, when milk payment was based on a fluid milk pricing system, profit per hectare increased linearly with increasing SR and CSR, but return on assets was not affected by SR or CSR. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sources of sediment and phosphorus in stream flow of a highly productive dairy farmed catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, R W; Wilcock, R J

    2007-01-01

    Both sediment and phosphorus (P) are important contaminants for surface water quality. Knowing the main sources of sediment and P loss within agricultural catchments enables mitigation practices to be better targeted. With this in mind seasonal loads of suspended sediment (SS), dissolved reactive P (DRP), total P (TP), and bioavailable P (BAP) were measured in a low gradient stream draining an intensively farmed New Zealand dairying catchment. Integrating in situ samplers were deployed to collect samples and the results merged with continuous flow data to calculate seasonal loads during 2005 through 2006. Flow rate, SS, and TP concentrations peaked in winter-spring and were lowest in summer-autumn. Concentrations of BAP in trapped sediment were greatest in autumn, contrasting with winter and spring when greater amounts of sediment were trapped, but with lower P enrichment. Analysis of (137)Cs and mixing model output showed that a major source of sediment and associated P in winter and spring was stream banks. Possible causes for this include trampling and destabilization by stock, channel straightening and sediment removal, and removal of riparian trees that stabilize banks. Modelling indicated that overland flow probably from topsoil (but could include sediment from lanes) contributed most sediment during summer and autumn. Remediation aimed at decreasing particulate P inputs to streams should focus on riparian protection measures, such as permanent stock exclusion and planting with shrubs and trees, ensuring runoff from lanes is minimized, and decreasing Olsen P to nearer optimum agronomic levels.

  19. Adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence for hygiene testing of rubber liners and tubes on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Ida Clemensson; Lundh, Åse; Sjaunja, Kerstin Svennersten; Cederholm, Marika

    2017-12-28

    Prevention of biofilm formation in milking equipment is important to ensure good hygiene quality of raw milk. Key factors to achieving good results are a successful cleaning procedure and a method to check the cleanliness of milking equipment surfaces. Adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence is a fast and easy method for investigating bacterial contamination of surfaces. However, previous studies on the potential of ATP bioluminescence to assess the hygiene status of milking equipment have been hampered by lack of a validated test procedure. The aim of this work was therefore to establish a test procedure for assessing the cleanliness of milking equipment using ATP bioluminescence, and apply the method on-farm to study the hygiene status of aging rubber material in milking equipment. In developing the test procedure, the effects of sampling location in tubes and liners, sampling of dry versus wet barrels, milking point in the parlor, and acid or alkali detergent on ATP values were investigated. The results showed that, to obtain reproducible results, replicate sampling from the same milking points in the parlor is important. For milk tubes, samples should preferably be taken from the milk meter side, for liners on the inside of the barrel. For best results, sampling should be performed after use of alkali detergent. No beneficial effect was observed of sampling dry liner barrels, so sampling in the standardized test procedure is performed directly after cleaning. The standardized test procedure was used on 3 different commercial farms and sampling was initiated after replacement of old rubber parts. On one of the farms, additional sampling was performed to evaluate total bacteria count and determine the association with ATP level. The results suggest that, provided an efficient cleaning procedure is used, the hygiene quality of milking equipment can be maintained during the recommended lifetime of the rubberware. However, due to occasional variation in cleaning

  20. Fresh-cow handling practices and methods for identification of health disorders on 45 dairy farms in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espadamala, A; Pallarés, P; Lago, A; Silva-Del-Río, N

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe fresh-cow handling practices and techniques used during fresh cow evaluations to identify postpartum health disorders on 45 dairy farms in California ranging from 450 to 9,500 cows. Fresh cow practices were surveyed regarding (a) grouping and housing, (b) scheduling and work organization, (c) screening for health disorders, and (d) physical examination methods. Information was collected based on cow-side observations and responses from fresh cow evaluators. Cows were housed in the fresh cow pen for 3 to 14 (20%), 15 to 30 (49%), or >31 (31%) d in milk. Fresh cow evaluations were performed daily (78%), 6 times a week (11%), 2 to 5 times a week (9%), or were not routinely performed (2%). There was significant correlation between the duration of fresh cow evaluations and the number of cows housed in the fresh pen. Across all farms, the duration of evaluations ranged from 5 to 240 min, with an average of 16 s spent per cow. During fresh cow checks, evaluators always looked for abnormal vaginal discharge, retained fetal membranes, and down cows. Dairies evaluated appetite based on rumen fill (11%), reduction of feed in the feed bunk (20%), rumination sensors (2%), or a combination of these (29%). Milk yield was evaluated based on udder fill at fresh cow checks (40%), milk flow during milking (11%), milk yield records collected by milk meters (2%), or a combination of udder fill and milk meters (5%). Depressed attitude was evaluated on 64% of the dairies. Health-monitoring exams for early detection of metritis were implemented on 42% of the dairies based on rectal examination (13%), rectal temperature (22%), or both (7%). Dairies implementing health-monitoring exams took longer to perform fresh cow evaluations. Physical examination methods such as rectal examination, auscultation, rectal temperature evaluation, and cow-side ketosis tests were used on 76, 67, 38, and 9% of dairies, respectively. Across dairies, we found large

  1. Occurrence of virulence genes associated with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolated from raw cow's milk from two commercial dairy farms in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Lesley-Anne; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Okoh, Anthony I; Ndip, Roland N; Green, Ezekiel

    2014-11-18

    Escherichia coli remains a public health concern worldwide as an organism that causes diarrhea and its reservoir in raw milk may play an important role in the survival and transport of pathogenic strains. Diarrheagenic E. coli strains are diverse food-borne pathogens and causes diarrhea with varying virulence in humans. We investigated the prevalence of pathogenic E. coli in raw milk from two commercial dairy farms. Four hundred raw milk samples, 200 from each dairy farm, were screened for the presence of fliCH7, eagR, ial, eagg, lt, and papC genes. In dairy farm A, 100 E. coli were identified based on culture, oxidase and Gram staining, while 88 isolates from dairy farm B were identified in the same manner. Gene detection showed fliCH7 27 (54%) to be the highest gene detected from farm A and lt 2 (4%) to be the lowest. The highest gene detected in dairy farm B was fliCH7 16 (43.2%) and papC 1 (2.7%) was the least. The amplification of pathogenic genes associated with diarrheagenic E. coli from cows' raw milk demonstrates that potentially virulent E. coli strains are widely distributed in raw milk and may be a cause of concern for human health.

  2. Occurrence of Virulence Genes Associated with Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Isolated from Raw Cow’s Milk from Two Commercial Dairy Farms in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley-Anne Caine

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli remains a public health concern worldwide as an organism that causes diarrhea and its reservoir in raw milk may play an important role in the survival and transport of pathogenic strains. Diarrheagenic E. coli strains are diverse food-borne pathogens and causes diarrhea with varying virulence in humans. We investigated the prevalence of pathogenic E. coli in raw milk from two commercial dairy farms. Four hundred raw milk samples, 200 from each dairy farm, were screened for the presence of fliCH7, eagR, ial, eagg, lt, and papC genes. In dairy farm A, 100 E. coli were identified based on culture, oxidase and Gram staining, while 88 isolates from dairy farm B were identified in the same manner. Gene detection showed fliCH7 27 (54% to be the highest gene detected from farm A and lt 2 (4% to be the lowest. The highest gene detected in dairy farm B was fliCH7 16 (43.2% and papC 1 (2.7% was the least. The amplification of pathogenic genes associated with diarrheagenic E. coli from cows’ raw milk demonstrates that potentially virulent E. coli strains are widely distributed in raw milk and may be a cause of concern for human health.

  3. Dairy farms typology and management of animal genetic resources in the peri-urban zone of Bamako (Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye Toure

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Facing growth in demand, dairy production in peri-urban areas of developing countries is changing rapidly. To characterise this development around Bamako (Mali, this study establishes a typology of dairy production systems with a special focus on animal genetic resources. The survey included 52 dairy cattle farms from six peri-urban sites. It was conducted in 2011 through two visits, in the dry and harvest seasons. The median cattle number per farm was 17 (range 5–118 and 42% of farmers owned cropland (8.3± 7.3 ha, minimum 1 ha, maximum 25 ha. Feeding strategy was a crucial variable in farm characterisation, accounting for about 85% of total expenses. The use of artificial insemination and a regular veterinary follow-up were other important parameters. According to breeders’ answers, thirty genetic profiles were identified, from local purebreds to different levels of crossbreds. Purebred animals raised were Fulani Zebu (45.8 %, Maure Zebu (9.2 %, Holstein (3.0 %, Azawak Zebu (1.3 %, Mere Zebu (0.5% and Kuri taurine (0.1 %. Holstein crossbred represented 30.5% of the total number of animals (19.0% Fulani-Holstein, 11.2% Maure-Holstein and 0.3% Kuri-Holstein. Montbéliarde, Normande and Limousin crossbreds were also found (6.6 %, 0.7% and 0.3 %, respectively. A multivariate analysis helped disaggregate the diversity of management practices. The high diversity of situations shows the need for consideration of typological characteristics for an appropriate intervention. Although strongly anchored on local breeds, the peri-urban dairy systems included a diversity of exotic cattle, showing an uncoordinated quest of breeders for innovation. Without a public intervention, this dynamic will result in an irremediable erosion of indigenous animal genetic resources.

  4. Towards an agroecological assessment of dairy systems: proposal for a set of criteria suited to mountain farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botreau, R; Farruggia, A; Martin, B; Pomiès, D; Dumont, B

    2014-08-01

    Ruminant production systems have been facing the sustainability challenge, namely, how to maintain or even increase production while reducing their environmental footprint, and improving social acceptability. One currently discussed option is to encourage farmers to follow agroecological principles, that is, to take advantage of ecological processes to reduce inputs and farm wastes, while preserving natural resources, and using this diversity to increase system resilience. However, these principles need to be made more practical. Here, we present the procedure undertaken for the collaborative construction of an agroecological diagnostic grid for dairy systems with a focus on the mountain farming relying on the use of semi-natural grasslands. This diagnosis will necessarily rely on a multicriteria evaluation as agroecology is based on a series of complementary principles. It requires defining a set of criteria, based on practices to be recommended, that should be complied with to ensure agroecological production. We present how such agroecological criteria were identified and organized to form the architecture of an evaluation model. As a basis for this work, we used five agroecological principles already proposed for animal production systems. A group of five experts of mountain production systems and of their multicriteria evaluation was selected, with a second round of consultation with five additional experts. They first split up each principle into three to four generic sub-principles. For each principle, they listed three to eight categories of state variables on which the fulfilment of the principle should have a positive impact (e.g. main health disorders for the integrated health management principle). State variables are specific for a given production, for example, dairy farms. Crossing principles with state variables enabled experts to build five matrices, with 75 cells relevant for dairy systems. In each cell, criteria are specific to the local context

  5. Discrepancies in Evaluating Farm Management Routines as Risk Factors of Raw Milk and Udder Hygiene in Selected Dairy Farms of Fars Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi MOHEBBI-FANI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The management practices relevant to bulk tank milk quality were studied in 29 dairy farms of Fars Province, Iran. Farm management practices were obtained by completion of a questionnaire and direct observation. Bulk milk was evaluated by performing standard plate count (SPC, preliminary incubation count (PIC, laboratory pasteurization count (LPC, coliform count (CC, somatic cell count (SCC and detection of the contagious mastitis agents. The farms were divided into low and high SPC groups (below and above 100,000 CFU/mL based on Iranian standards. Comparisons of the laboratory results between groups were done using two independent samples t-test. The relationships between the laboratory results were studied by Pearson’s correlation coefficients, all after logarithmic transformation. Associations of managerial risk factors (obtained by the questionnaire and one time of observation with laboratory results were investigated using two independent samples t-test. P-values 0.05. Strong correlations were detected between SPC and PIC, SPC and CC, and PIC and CC, but many of the well explained risk factors of undesired milk quality lacked any relation with high bacterial counts of raw milk. This could be due to the small number of the studied farms, almost similar faults in the farms, wrong answers of the employees to the questions and modification of the milking practices in the presence of an inspector. Infections with Staphylococcus aureus and Mycoplasma bovis could be potential problems in the studied farms, contributing to the elevation of SCC and/or SPC levels. Veterinary interventions could not be based on the questionnaire results. Direct and frequent observations of farm routines could be recommended.

  6. Impact of biogas digesters on wood utilisation and self-reported back pain for women living on rural Kenyan smallholder dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohoo, Carolyn; VanLeeuwen, John; Read Guernsey, Judith; Critchley, Kim; Gibson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Women living on rural Kenyan dairy farms spend significant amounts of time collecting wood for cooking. Biogas digesters, which generate biogas for cooking from the anaerobic decomposition of livestock manure, are an alternative fuel source. The objective of this study was to quantify the quality of life and health benefits of installing biogas digesters on rural Kenyan dairy farms with respect to wood utilisation. Women from 62 farms (31 biogas farms and 31 referent farms) participated in interviews to determine reliance on wood and the impact of biogas digesters on this reliance. Self-reported back pain, time spent collecting wood and money spent on wood were significantly lower (p biogas group, compared to referent farms. Multivariable linear regression showed that wood consumption increased by 2 lbs/day for each additional family member living on a farm. For an average family of three people, the addition of one cow was associated with increased wood consumption by 1.0 lb/day on biogas farms but by 4.4 lbs/day on referent farms (significant interaction variable - likely due to additional hot water for cleaning milk collection equipment). Biogas digesters represent a potentially important technology that can reduce reliance on wood fuel and improve health for Kenyan dairy farmers.

  7. Acute coccidiosis in an organic dairy farm in tropical region, Brazil

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    Mônica M. Florião

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Florião M.M., Lopes B. do B., Berto B.P. & Lopes C.W.G. Acute coccidiosis in an organic dairy farm in tropical region, Brazil. [Coccidiose aguda em uma fazenda de gado leiteiro orgânico na região tropical, Brasil.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(Supl.1:6-12, 2015. Curso de Pós- -Graduação em Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação em Agropecuária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, Km 7, Campus Seropédica, RJ 23897- 970, Brasil. E-mail: monicafloriao@hotmail.com Coccidiosis or bovine eimeriosis is an intestinal disease caused by species of the genus Eimeria Schneider, 1875. It is responsible for gastrointestinal disorders and in some cases, animals died, especially the young animals. The proposed organic management for the system was relevant in establishing the health of the studied herd. Only some of the animals had clinical signs of acute eimeriosis. In nursing calves clinical signs appeared at 30 days old, during the first period of the study (2013-2014, occurring shortly after abrupt change in management, when the amount of milk supplied to animals of this extract was reduced. The other two cases occurred during the second period of the study (2014-2015, after fire in the area of pastures, causing the batch of weaned calves come into pasture destined to cows, with such abrupt change in management developed clinical signs of acute eimeriosis. The most frequent species was E. zuernii in both extracts, followed by E. cylindrica in nursing calves, and E. bovis and E. bukidnonensis in the weaned calves. The recovery of the animals was performed with the return to the proposed organic management associated with use of homeopathic medication. In addition, the animals recovered their body weight gains established for Gir breed (zebu dairy cattle and its cross breeds.

  8. Degradation of cefquinome in spiked milk as a model for bioremediation of dairy farm waste milk containing cephalosporin residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, R A; Randall, L P; Bailey-Horne, V; Heinrich, K; Sharman, M; Brunton, L A; La Ragione, R M; Jones, J R

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this work were to develop a model of dairy farm waste milk and to investigate methods for the bioremediation of milk containing cefquinome residues. Unpasteurized milk and UHT milk that had both been spiked with cefquinome at a concentration of 2 μg ml(-1) were used as a model for waste milk containing cephalosporin residues. Adjustment of the spiked UHT milk to pH 10 or treatment with conditioned medium from bacterial growth producing cefotaximase, were the most effective methods for decreasing the cefquinome concentrations within 24 h. A large-scale experiment (10 l of cefquinome-spiked unpasteurized milk) suggested that fermentation for 22 h at 37°C followed by heating at 60°C for 2 h was sufficient to decrease cefquinome concentrations to below the limit of quantification (milk. Treatment of waste milk to decrease cephalosporin residue concentrations and also to kill bacteria prior to feeding to dairy calves could decrease the risk of selection for ESBL bacteria on dairy farms. © 2015 Crown copyright. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology. This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  9. Circulation of bovine viral diarrhea virus--1 (BVDV-1) in dairy cattle and buffalo farms in Ismailia Province, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltan, Mohamed Ahmed; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Elsheery, Mohamed Nagy; Elhaig, Mahmoud Mohy; Riley, Matthhew C; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2015-12-30

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is one of the most economically significant diseases in the bovine industry causing losses due to diarrhea, reproductive disorders, immunosuppression and mortalities. The aim of our investigation was to detect and subtype BVDV from calves on two dairy cattle and two buffalo farms in Ismailia province, Egypt as an indicator of BVDV infection status in the province. A total of 298 blood samples were collected and tested using an optimized one-step, real-time multiplex Taqman-based RT-PCR. All the positive samples by the multiplex real-time RT-PCR were tested using conventional RT-PCR to amplify multiple areas of the genome for further phylogenetic analysis and subtyping. Thirty one (10.4%) of the tested samples were positive for BVDV-1. Only three samples, all from a single dairy cattle farm, had enough viral RNA to be amplified by RT-PCR. The PCR products were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis revealed detection of BVDV-1b. The detected strain is closely related to worldwide BVDV-1b strains, making it difficult to trace its origin. Nucleotide and amino acid alignments of the E2 glycoprotein region of the detected strain with other BVDV-1b strains showed high divergence, with identity ranging from 81.3% to 93.6% and 85.3% to 93.6%, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the circulation of BVDV-1b in Egyptian dairy cattle populations.

  10. Prevalence and Bacterial Isolates of Mastitis in Dairy Farms in Selected Districts of Eastern Harrarghe Zone, Eastern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Gerema

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 to estimate the prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in lactating cows, to assess the associated risk factors, and to isolate the major bacterial pathogens in dairy farms in selected district of Eastern Harrarghe Zone, Eastern Ethiopia. The study was carried out in 384 dairy cows based on data collection, farm visit, animal examination, California mastitis test (CMT), and isolation bacterial pathogens using standard techniques. In the present study the overall mastitis at cow level was 247 (64.3%). The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis and quarter level prevalence for clinical and subclinical mastitis were 12.5% and 51.8% at cow level and 10.7% and 46.4% at quarter level, respectively. Clinically, 101 (6.6%) quarters which belong to 75 (19.5%) animals were found to be with blind teat. In the present study prevalence of mastitis was significantly associated with parity and age (p mastitis particularly the subclinical mastitis was major problem of dairy cows in the area and hence warrants serious attention. PMID:28352648

  11. Prevalence and Bacterial Isolates of Mastitis in Dairy Farms in Selected Districts of Eastern Harrarghe Zone, Eastern Ethiopia

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    Tesfaheywet Zeryehun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 to estimate the prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in lactating cows, to assess the associated risk factors, and to isolate the major bacterial pathogens in dairy farms in selected district of Eastern Harrarghe Zone, Eastern Ethiopia. The study was carried out in 384 dairy cows based on data collection, farm visit, animal examination, California mastitis test (CMT, and isolation bacterial pathogens using standard techniques. In the present study the overall mastitis at cow level was 247 (64.3%. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis and quarter level prevalence for clinical and subclinical mastitis were 12.5% and 51.8% at cow level and 10.7% and 46.4% at quarter level, respectively. Clinically, 101 (6.6% quarters which belong to 75 (19.5% animals were found to be with blind teat. In the present study prevalence of mastitis was significantly associated with parity and age (p<0.05. Bacteriological examination of milk sample revealed 187 isolates where coagulase negative Staphylococcus species (CNS (34.2% was the predominant species while Streptococcus faecalis (2.1% was identified as the least bacteria. The present study concluded that prevalence of mastitis particularly the subclinical mastitis was major problem of dairy cows in the area and hence warrants serious attention.

  12. Greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from production of compost bedding on a dairy farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingham, M A; VanderZaag, A C; Burtt, S; Baldé, H; Ngwabie, N M; Smith, W; Hakami, A; Wagner-Riddle, C; Bittman, S; MacDonald, D

    2017-12-01

    Recent developments in composting technology enable dairy farms to produce their own bedding from composted manure. This management practice alters the fate of carbon and nitrogen; however, there is little data available documenting how gaseous emissions are impacted. This study measured in-situ emissions of methane (CH 4 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), and ammonia (NH 3 ) from an on-farm solid-liquid separation system followed by continuously-turned plug-flow composting over three seasons. Emissions were measured separately from the continuously-turned compost phase, and the compost-storage phase prior to the compost being used for cattle bedding. Active composting had low emissions of N 2 O and CH 4 with most carbon being emitted as CO 2 -C and most N emitted as NH 3 -N. Compost storage had higher CH 4 and N 2 O emissions than the active phase, while NH 3 was emitted at a lower rate, and CO 2 was similar. Overall, combining both the active composting and storage phases, the mean total emissions were 3.9×10 -2 gCH 4 kg -1 raw manure (RM), 11.3gCO 2 kg -1 RM, 2.5×10 -4 g N 2 O kg -1 RM, and 0.13g NH 3 kg -1 RM. Emissions with solid-separation and composting were compared to calculated emissions for a traditional (unseparated) liquid manure storage tank. The total greenhouse gas emissions (CH 4 +N 2 O) from solid separation, composting, compost storage, and separated liquid storage were reduced substantially on a CO 2 -equivalent basis compared to traditional liquid storage. Solid-liquid separation and well-managed composting could mitigate overall greenhouse gas emissions; however, an environmental trade off was that NH 3 was emitted at higher rates from the continuously turned composter than reported values for traditional storage. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Streptococcus uberis isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis in Argentinean dairy farms

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    Mirta C Lasagno

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Streptococcus uberis isolated from subclinical mastitis (SCM cases, and to examine the possible association between both characteristics. A total of 32 S. uberis were isolated from 772 quarter milk samples (SCM > 250,000 cells/ml collected from 195 cows selected randomly from 18 dairy farms located in Argentina. The S. uberis strains were characterized phenotypically by the presence of virulence factors as plasminogen activator factor (PAF, hyaluronidase (HYA, capsule (CAP and CAMP factor, and were further characterized genotypically by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. S. uberis strains expressed plasminogen activator factor, hyaluronidase or capsule (65.5 %, 56.3 %, 59.4 %, respectively, but only 25 % of isolates were CAMP factor positive. Thirteen different virulence profiles were identified on the basis of the combination of virulence factors. Eighteen PFGE patterns with 90% of similarity were identified among 32 S. uberis. A great diversity of virulence profiles and PFGE patterns were present among dairy farms. S. uberis strains with the same PFGE pattern showed different virulence profiles. Bovine S. uberis strains causing SCM included in the present study showed heterogeneity in regard to their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, and the PFGE patterns are not associated with the virulence profiles.Caracterización fenotípica y genotípica de Streptococcus uberis aislados de mastitis bovina subclínica en tambos de Argentina. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar las características fenotípicas y genotípicas de Streptococcus uberis aislados de casos de mastitis subclínica (MSC y examinar la posible asociación entre ambas características. Un total de 32 cepas de S. uberis fueron aisladas de 772 muestras de leche de cuartos mamarios (MSC > 25 0000 células/ml colectadas de 195 vacas seleccionadas al azar pertenecientes a 18 tambos

  14. Accuracy and precision of total mixed rations fed on commercial dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, A D; LeBlanc, S J; McBride, B W; DeVries, T J

    2014-01-01

    Despite the significant time and effort spent formulating total mixed rations (TMR), it is evident that the ration delivered by the producer and that consumed by the cow may not accurately reflect that originally formulated. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine how TMR fed agrees with or differs from TMR formulation (accuracy), (2) determine daily variability in physical and chemical characteristics of TMR delivered (precision), and (3) investigate the relationship between daily variability in ration characteristics and group-average measures of productivity [dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk components, efficiency, and feed sorting] on commercial dairy farms. Twenty-two commercial freestall herds were visited for 7 consecutive days in both summer and winter months. Fresh and refusal feed samples were collected daily to assess particle size distribution, dry matter, and chemical composition. Milk test data, including yield, fat, and protein were collected from a coinciding Dairy Herd Improvement test. Multivariable mixed-effect regression models were used to analyze associations between productivity measures and daily ration variability, measured as coefficient of variation (CV) over 7d. The average TMR [crude protein=16.5%, net energy for lactation (NEL) = 1.7 Mcal/kg, nonfiber carbohydrates = 41.3%, total digestible nutrients = 73.3%, neutral detergent fiber=31.3%, acid detergent fiber=20.5%, Ca = 0.92%, p=0.42%, Mg = 0.35%, K = 1.45%, Na = 0.41%] delivered exceeded TMR formulation for NEL (+0.05 Mcal/kg), nonfiber carbohydrates (+1.2%), acid detergent fiber (+0.7%), Ca (+0.08%), P (+0.02%), Mg (+0.02%), and K (+0.04%) and underfed crude protein (-0.4%), neutral detergent fiber (-0.6%), and Na (-0.1%). Dietary measures with high day-to-day CV were average feed refusal rate (CV = 74%), percent long particles (CV = 16%), percent medium particles (CV = 7.7%), percent short particles (CV = 6.1%), percent fine particles (CV = 13%), Ca (CV = 7

  15. Cow hair allergen concentrations in dairy farms with automatic and conventional milking systems: From stable to bedroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlandt, A; Schierl, R; Heizinger, J; Dietrich-Gümperlein, G; Zahradnik, E; Bruckmaier, L; Sültz, J; Raulf, M; Nowak, D

    2016-01-01

    Bovine hair and dander are considered to be a notable risk factor for sensitization and allergic symptoms in occupationally exposed cattle farmers due to various IgE binding proteins. Farmers are suspected not only to be exposed during their work inside the stables but also inside their homes as allergens could be transferred via hair and clothes resulting in continued bovine allergen exposure in private areas. In recent years a new sensitive sandwich ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) test has been developed to measure the cow hair allergen (CHA) concentration in dust. The aim of the present study was to determine the CHA concentration in airborne and settled dust samples in stables and private rooms of dairy cattle farms with automatic milking systems (AM) and conventional milking systems (CM), also with respect to questionnaire data on farming characteristics. For this purpose different sampling techniques were applied, and results and practicability of the techniques were compared. Dust sampling was performed in the stable, computer room (only AM), changing room, living room and bedroom (mattress) of 12 dairy farms with automatic milking systems (AM group) and eight dairy farms with conventional milking systems (CM group). Altogether, 90 samples were taken by ALK filter dust collectors from all locations, while 32 samples were collected by an ion charging device (ICD) and 24 samples by an electronic dust fall collector (EDC) in computer rooms (AM) and/or changing and living rooms (not stables). The dust samples were extracted and analyzed for CHA content with a sandwich ELISA. At all investigated locations, CHA concentrations were above the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1 ng/ml dust extract. The median CHA concentrations in dust collected by ALK filters ranged from 63 to 7154 μg/g dust in AM farms and from 121 to 5627 μg/g dust in CM farms with a steep concentration gradient from stables to bedrooms. ICD sampling revealed median CHA contents of 112

  16. [Continuous ecopathological survey. 2. Typology of dairy cattle farms with high and low fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnouin, J; Paccard, P; Fayet, J C; Brochart, M; Bouvier, A

    1983-01-01

    Management characteristics were analysed in two groups of dairy herds (20 to 60 cows per herd) during a continuous eco-pathological survey, in relation to high and low fertility. 59.8% of the cows from the eleven high fertility herds were successfully inseminated at first service and 11.4% of the cows inseminated for the first time more than 40 days post-partum required 3 or more services. The corresponding values were 51.1 and 25.6% for the ten low fertility herds. Other reproductive criteria (calving-first service interval, disturbed oestrus cycles), which more depend on the reproduction management, were not different between the two groups. Feeding system greatly varied in the low fertility group. Frequent changes in diet composition, a longer period of "green" forages distribution (crucifers, grass silage) as well as less utilisation of concentrates are some of the reasons which can explain the low fertility. Calving occurred mainly from February to April in low fertility herds, at the transition from winter diets to grazing. Milk production was lower, 4 580 kg per cow and per year vs 5 520 kg for high fertility group. Milk production falls were more frequent and Holstein semen was less used. Tied housing conditions, and higher incidence of Fasciola hepatica and abomasal mematodes characterised low fertility herds; inversely, the clinical pathology appeared to be less frequent in this group. Soil manganese concentration was lower (16.3 ppm) in the low fertility group as compared to the other group (30.9 ppm); this could be explained by less schistose rocks where the low fertility farms are localized. In conclusion, the risk factors associated with low fertility may be attributed to: the composite system of feeding in addition to the use of "green" forages, a lack of proper programming with regards to the season of calving, and the high frequency of parasitic infestations, with special reference to liver fluke.

  17. Spore germination based assay for monitoring antibiotic residues in milk at dairy farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naresh; Raghu, Hirikyathanahalli Vishweswaraiah; Kumar, Abhishek; Haldar, Lopamudra; Khan, Alia; Rane, Sharmila; Malik, Ravinder Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Spore germination based assay involves the transformation of dormant spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus 953 into active vegetative cells. The inhibition of germination process specifically in presence of antibiotic residues was used as a novel approach for monitoring target contaminants in milk. The indicator organism i.e., B. stearothermophilus 953 was initially allowed to sporulate by seeding in sporulation medium and incubating at 55 °C for 18 ± 2 h. The spores exhibited a typical chain behavior as revealed through phase contrast microscopy. The minimal medium inoculated with activated spores was incubated at 64 °C for 2-3 h for germination and outgrowth in presence of specific germinant mixture containing dextrose, whey powder and skimmed milk powder added in specific ratio along with reconstituted milk as negative control and test milk samples. The change in color of the medium from purple to yellow was used as criteria for detection of antibiotic residues in milk. The efficiency of the developed assay was evaluated through a surveillance study on 228 samples of raw, pasteurized and dried milks and results were compared with AOAC approved microbial receptor assay. The presence of antibiotic level was 10.08 % at Codex maximum residual limit having false positive result only in 0.43 % of the samples. The results of the present investigation suggest that developed spore based assay can be a practical solution to dairy industry for its application at farm level, milk processing units, independent testing and R & D centres in order to comply with the legal requirements set by Codex.

  18. Farm-specific economic value of automatic lameness detection systems in dairy cattle: From concepts to operational simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Gucht, Tim; Saeys, Wouter; Van Meensel, Jef; Van Nuffel, Annelies; Vangeyte, Jurgen; Lauwers, Ludwig

    2018-01-01

    Although prototypes of automatic lameness detection systems for dairy cattle exist, information about their economic value is lacking. In this paper, a conceptual and operational framework for simulating the farm-specific economic value of automatic lameness detection systems was developed and tested on 4 system types: walkover pressure plates, walkover pressure mats, camera systems, and accelerometers. The conceptual framework maps essential factors that determine economic value (e.g., lameness prevalence, incidence and duration, lameness costs, detection performance, and their relationships). The operational simulation model links treatment costs and avoided losses with detection results and farm-specific information, such as herd size and lameness status. Results show that detection performance, herd size, discount rate, and system lifespan have a large influence on economic value. In addition, lameness prevalence influences the economic value, stressing the importance of an adequate prior estimation of the on-farm prevalence. The simulations provide first estimates for the upper limits for purchase prices of automatic detection systems. The framework allowed for identification of knowledge gaps obstructing more accurate economic value estimation. These include insights in cost reductions due to early detection and treatment, and links between specific lameness causes and their related losses. Because this model provides insight in the trade-offs between automatic detection systems' performance and investment price, it is a valuable tool to guide future research and developments. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Characteristics of dairy farms in the North-Eastern part of Italy: rations, milk yield and nutrients excretion

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    Stefano Schiavon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This survey was aimed to evaluate the characteristics of dairy farms in the North- Eastern part of Po valley in terms of ration composition, milk yield and N and P excretions. Eightynine farms, with Italian Holstein Friesian cows, were selected in order to cover different situations in term of farm size and milk yield (MY. MY and quality were obtained from the national database of functional controls. Each farm was visited in order to collect information about ingredients and chemical composition of rations used. Farms were classified in four groups differing for dietary crude protein density (LCP15.3% DM and for MY (LMY30 kg/d. N and P excretions were quantified by following a mass balance approach. Dietary crude protein content (CP was not correlated to milk yield (MY and quality. The estimated amounts of N excreted, discounted for 28% of N losses in atmosphere, were 78.5, 78.2, 87.2 and 89.1 kg/cow/year, and P excreted were 20.2, 18.6, 18.7 and 19.8 kg/cow/year for the LCPLMY, LCPHMY, HCPLMY, HCPHMY groups, respectively. On corn silage and cereals based rations, a dietary CP of 14.3% DM can support 31 kg MY/cow/day.

  20. TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF EFFLUENTS FROM A DAIRY FARM IN BUENOS AIRES PROVINCE, ARGENTINA

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    Claudia Dido

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops an alternative sanitation to the negative environmental impacts caused by the intensification of the production system and the inadequate management of waste from a dairy farm with 1050 cows, belonging to Trenque Lauquen, Buenos Aires Province of Argentina. Anaerobic digestion technology allows the biological degradation of organic material in an oxygen free environment and it is proposed to develop a treatment system that allows evaluation of the products obtained through electricity generation and biofertilizer. The working methodology includes an analysis of preliminary data from anaerobic digestion of cattle manure, characterization of the generated waste, the design of the treatment system and a technical economic analysis. This study shows that it is possible to reach the dairy sanitation with energy benefits developing a sustainable resource and environmental management