WorldWideScience

Sample records for swedish chimney sweeps

  1. Diagnostic Measurement at Chimney Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radim JANALÍK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the solution of heat penetration through the body of a chimney based on the measurements of output temperatures of flue gases coming out of a chimney and their dew point, in order to determine the minimum flue gas temperature at the bag filter inlet.

  2. Cutaneous melanoma: hints from occupational risks by anatomic site in Swedish men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gomez, B; Pollan, M; Gustavsson, P; Plato, N; Aragones, N; Lopez-Abente, G

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To improve knowledge of the epidemiology of melanoma by comparing occupational risks of cutaneous melanoma (CM) by anatomic site in Swedish workers. Methods: Male workers employed in 1970 and living in the country in 1960 were followed up from 1971 to 1989 using the Swedish Registers of Death and Cancer. A more specifically exposed subcohort included men reporting the same occupation in 1960 and 1970. For each location, occupational risk ratios (RRs) were extracted from Poisson regression models adjusted by age, period, town size, and geographical area. To diminish the influence of socioeconomic factors, intrasector analyses, comparing only jobs belonging to the same occupational sector, were performed. Risk patterns for different locations were compared. Results: High RRs for different sites were found among workers exposed to UV sources (dentists, physiotherapists, and lithographers), and sun exposed workers (harbour masters, and lighthouse/related work). Risk excesses were seen in fur tailors, tanners/fur dressers, patternmakers/cutters, electrical fitters/wiremen, telephone/telegraph installers/repairmen, and some glass/pottery/tile workers. Results for lower and upper limbs were significantly correlated but somewhat independent of those found in thorax, the most frequent location. Correlation between head/neck and thorax was moderate. Specific risk excesses were found for rolling mill workers in head/neck, for chimney sweeps in upper limbs, and for aircraft pilots/navigators/flight engineers in lower limbs. Conclusions: High RRs in the trunk among occupations with UV exposure from artificial sources suggest an effect not restricted to exposed sites. An unusual distribution of cases and RRs in chimney sweeps, rolling-mill, or glass/pottery/tile workers suggests local effects of exposures. The not previously reported risk excess in this job and in fur related processes, and the RR in electrical fitters and telephone/telegraph installers deserve further

  3. Sweeping the State Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas

    The thesis describes the sweep-line method, a newly developed reduction method for alleviating the state explosion problem inherent in explicit-state state space exploration. The basic idea underlying the sweep-line method is, when calculating the state space, to recognise and delete states...... that are not reachable from the currently unprocessed states. Intuitively we drag a sweep-line through the state space with the invariant that all states behind the sweep-line have been processed and are unreachable from the states in front of the sweep-line. When calculating the state space of a system we iteratively...

  4. Industrial chimney monitoring - contemporary methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszowska, Olga; Gruchlik, Piotr; Mika, Wiesław

    2018-04-01

    The paper presents knowledge acquired during the monitoring of a flue-gas stack, performed as part of technical and scientific surveillance of mining activity and its impact on industrial objects. The chimney is located in an area impacted by mining activity since the 1970s, from a coal mine which is no longer in existence. In the period of 2013-16, this area was subject to mining carried out by a mining entrepreneur who currently holds a license to excavate hard coal. Periodic measurements of the deflection of the 113-meter chimney are performed using conventional geodetic methods. The GIG used 3 methods to observe the stack: landbased 3D laser scanning, continuous deflection monitoring with a laser sensor, and drone-based visual inspections. The drone offered the possibility to closely inspect the upper sections of the flue-gas stack, which are difficult to see from the ground level.

  5. Industrial chimney monitoring - contemporary methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaszowska Olga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents knowledge acquired during the monitoring of a flue-gas stack, performed as part of technical and scientific surveillance of mining activity and its impact on industrial objects. The chimney is located in an area impacted by mining activity since the 1970s, from a coal mine which is no longer in existence. In the period of 2013-16, this area was subject to mining carried out by a mining entrepreneur who currently holds a license to excavate hard coal. Periodic measurements of the deflection of the 113-meter chimney are performed using conventional geodetic methods. The GIG used 3 methods to observe the stack: landbased 3D laser scanning, continuous deflection monitoring with a laser sensor, and drone-based visual inspections. The drone offered the possibility to closely inspect the upper sections of the flue-gas stack, which are difficult to see from the ground level.

  6. Toward a Heat Recovery Chimney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Pan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide population increase and subsequent surge in energy demand leads electricity producers to increase supply in an attempt to generate larger profit margins. However, with Global Climate Change becoming a greater focus in engineering, it is critical for energy to be converted in as environmentally benign a way as possible. There are different sustainable methods to meet the energy demand. However, the focus of this research is in the area of Waste Heat Recovery. The waste heat stored in the exiting condenser cooling water is delivered to the air flow through a water-air cross flow heat exchanger. A converging thermal chimney structure is then applied to increase the velocity of the airflow. The accelerated air can be used to turn on the turbine-generator installed on the top the thermal chimney so that electricity can be generated. This system is effective in generating electricity from otherwise wasted heat.

  7. Cache Oblivious Distribution Sweeping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, G.S.; Fagerberg, R.

    2002-01-01

    We adapt the distribution sweeping method to the cache oblivious model. Distribution sweeping is the name used for a general approach for divide-and-conquer algorithms where the combination of solved subproblems can be viewed as a merging process of streams. We demonstrate by a series of algorith...

  8. Inclined solar chimney for power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panse, S.V.; Jadhav, A.S.; Gudekar, A.S.; Joshi, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Solar energy harnessing using inclined face of high mountains as solar chimney. → Solar chimneys with structural stability, ease of construction and lower cost. → Mathematical model developed, using complete (mechanical and thermal) energy balance. → Can harness wind power also, as wind velocities at mountain top add to power output. → Air temperature and velocity increase, as air rises in inclined chimney. - Abstract: The present concept of solar chimney is a tall vertical chimney constructed at the center of a large area, which is the collector. This creates questions about stability and economic viability of the chimney and also demands elaborate engineering techniques for constructing a tall chimney. We suggest geometry of 'Inclined Solar Chimney' (ISC), which is constructed along the face of a high rising mountain, on which maximum solar insolation is incident throughout the year. The chimney and the collector get merged here. This makes the structure stable, cost effective and easy for construction. A mathematical model has been developed considering the total energy balance. It predicts the temperature and velocity and kinetic power of the emerging air draft for some chosen values of other parameters. The model also shows the proportion in which absorbed solar energy is divided into different forms, and hence predicts the dependence of kinetic of emerging air draft upon dimensions of the chimney and properties of materials used. Further, it is shown that external winds enhance the kinetic power of the emerging air. Thus ISC can also harness the wind energy, available at the top of the mountain.

  9. Experimentally Identify the Effective Plume Chimney over a Natural Draft Chimney Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Chu, C. M.; Tahir, A. M.; Ismail, M. A. bin; Misran, M. S. bin; Ling, L. S.

    2017-07-01

    The demands of energy are in increasing order due to rapid industrialization and urbanization. The researchers and scientists are working hard to improve the performance of the industry so that the energy consumption can be reduced significantly. Industries like power plant, timber processing plant, oil refinery, etc. performance mainly depend on the cooling tower chimney’s performance, either natural draft or forced draft. Chimney is used to create sufficient draft, so that air can flow through it. Cold inflow or flow reversal at chimney exit is one of the main identified problems that may alter the overall plant performance. The presence Effective Plume Chimney (EPC) is an indication of cold inflow free operation of natural draft chimney. Different mathematical model equations are used to estimate the EPC height over the heat exchanger or hot surface. In this paper, it is aim to identify the EPC experimentally. In order to do that, horizontal temperature profiling is done at the exit of the chimneys of face area 0.56m2, 1.00m2 and 2.25m2. A wire mesh screen is installed at chimneys exit to ensure cold inflow chimney operation. It is found that EPC exists in all modified chimney models and the heights of EPC varied from 1 cm to 9 cm. The mathematical models indicate that the estimated heights of EPC varied from 1 cm to 2.3 cm. Smoke test is also conducted to ensure the existence of EPC and cold inflow free option of chimney. Smoke test results confirmed the presence of EPC and cold inflow free operation of chimney. The performance of the cold inflow free chimney is increased by 50% to 90% than normal chimney.

  10. Psychology and photography: chimneys dreaming and chimneys warriors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilde Giani Gallino

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article covers two aspects related to Psychology and Art. The first aspect concerns the similarities found between photography and various Schools of experimental psychology. For instance, the scientists of Psychology of ethological theory, and Non-verbal communication (NVC, observe with particular methodologies the non-verbal messages that animals and humans transmit to their peers through expressions, posture, gestures. The same is done by photographers (those who use the “camera” with a good knowledge of the medium and a “photographic  eye” when they look around, careful to catch an expression, any unusual attitude, or a gesture of friendship. Another School of psychology, the Gestalpsychologie (Gestalt: form, figure, configuration, attributes a decisive value to the perception of space, the foreground and the background, the perspective and vanishing points, the contrast between black and white. All aspects that effectively interest psychologists just as much as photographers. Finally, the second aspect relates to the art of Antony Gaudì and makes some hypothesis about the personality and behavior of the great architect, with regard to the construction of two houses, "Casa Batllo" and "Casa Mila": particularly because of the configuration or Gestalt of the "chimneys" that dominate the two buildings. In this study, cooperate each other psychological analysis and the art of photography. The last enables us to study also the details of the work of Gaudì, as can be seen in the pictures of this essay.

  11. Automatic sweep circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    An automatically sweeping circuit for searching for an evoked response in an output signal in time with respect to a trigger input is described. Digital counters are used to activate a detector at precise intervals, and monitoring is repeated for statistical accuracy. If the response is not found then a different time window is examined until the signal is found

  12. Automatic sweep circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Donald J.

    1980-01-01

    An automatically sweeping circuit for searching for an evoked response in an output signal in time with respect to a trigger input. Digital counters are used to activate a detector at precise intervals, and monitoring is repeated for statistical accuracy. If the response is not found then a different time window is examined until the signal is found.

  13. Performance of a solar chimney by varying design parameters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumirai, T

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available the design of solar chimneys to ensure optimal performance. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the performance of an example solar chimney by varying the design parameters and examining their effects on the interior ventilation performance... chimney by varying design parameters Tichaona Kumirai, Researcher, Built Environment CSIR Jan-Hendrik Grobler, DPSS CSIR Dr D.C.U. Conradie, Senior researcher, Built Environment CSIR 1 Introduction Trombe walls and solar chimneys are not widely...

  14. Measurement of chimney dimensions and development of special tools for installation of in-chimney bracket in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yeong Garp; Ryu, J. S.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, Y. S; Lee, B. H.

    2000-06-01

    The in-chimney bracket is a structure which supports the guide tubes of irradiation facilities at the irradiation sites of CT, IR1, IR2, OR4 and/or OR5 in HANARO core to reduce the flow-induced vibration and the dynamic response to seismic load. It horizontally supports the middle part of lthe irradiation facilities for CT/IR sites in addition to the robot arms which had already been installed at the reactor pool liner to support the top of the facilities, and supports the top of the guide tubes for OR sites. For these purposes, the in-chimney bracket was installed in the chimney using four siphoning holes located at 70 cm below the chimney top. It is necessary to measure the dimensions of chimney before the design of in-chimney bracket because there must be manufacturing tolerances and the deformation of the chimney due to the load of the system pipes. To implement this, various special tools had been developed to measure the as-built dimensions of the chimney at the elevation of the siphoning holes, and measured the chimney dimensions and the eccentricity of the chimney center from the reactor core center. Also, a special tool was developed for the installation of the in-chimney bracket by remote operating at the pool top 10 meters apart from the chimney. The installation procedures were established through the enough installation rehearsal using the installation tool and the dummhy chimney which was fabricated to the same dimensions of the real chimney, and the installation interference problems were resolved through the preliminaly installation to the reactor chimney. Finally, the in-chimey bracket was successfully installed at the reactor chimney and is well being used for the irradiation test since the installation on May 16, 2000

  15. The effects of opening areas on solar chimney performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, L. S.; Rahman, M. M.; Chu, C. M.; Misaran, M. S. bin; Tamiri, F. M.

    2017-07-01

    To enhance natural ventilation at day time, solar chimney is one of the suitable options for topical country like Malaysia. Solar chimney creates air flow due to stack effect caused by temperature difference between ambient and inside wall. In the solar chimney, solar energy is harvested by the inner wall that cause temperature rise compare to ambient. Therefore, the efficiency of the solar chimney depends on the availability of solar energy as well as the solar intensity. In addition, it is very hard to get good ventilation at night time by using a solar chimney. To overcome this problem one of the suitable valid option is to integrate solar chimney with turbine ventilator. A new type of solar chimney is designed and fluid flow analyzed with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. The aim of CFD and theoretical study are to investigate the effect of opening areas on modified solar chimney performance. The inlet and outlet area of solar chimney are varied from 0.0224m2 to 0.6m2 and 0.1m2 to 0.14m2 respectively based on the changes of inclination angle and gap between inner and outer wall. In the CFD study the constant heat flux is considered as 500W/m2. CFD result shows that there is no significant relation between opening areas and the air flow rate through solar chimney but the ratio between inlet and outlet is significant on flow performance. If the area ratio between inlet and outlet are equal to two or larger, the performance of the solar chimney is better than the solar chimney with ratio lesser than two. The solar chimney performance does not effect if the area ratio between inlet and outlet varies from 1 to 2. This result will be useful for design and verification of actual solar chimney performance.

  16. Evaluation of corrosion attack of chimney liners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blahetová M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The case study of chimney liner corrosion addresses three specific cases of damage of chimney systems from of stainless steels. These systems were used for flue of gas arising from the combustion of brown coal in small automatic boilers, which are used for heating. Detailed analyzes implied that the cause of devastating corrosion of the steel AISI 316 and 304 steel (CSN 17349, 17241 was particularly high content of halides (chlorides and fluorides, which caused a severe pitting corrosion, which led up to the perforation of the liner material. Simultaneous reduction of the thickness of the used sheets was due to by the general corrosion, which was caused by the sulfur in the solid fuel. The condensation then led to acid environment and therefore the corrosion below the dew point of the sulfuric acid has occurred. All is documented by metallographic analysis and microanalysis of the corrosion products.

  17. The Canadian residential duct and chimney survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fugler, D.

    2003-12-01

    A study was conducted in 1989 to better understand the thermal performance of ducts and chimneys in houses. The objective was to address the problems associated with insufficient airflow and backdrafting of combustion gases resulting from malfunctioning fans, furnaces and fireplaces. The Duct Test Rig was used to measure and recorded airflows and heat losses in a variety of ducts and chimneys in a representative mix of houses in Vancouver, Kelowna, Winnipeg, Calgary, Toronto, London, Montreal, Quebec City, Halifax, Fredericton and Ottawa. Bath, kitchen, clothes dryer and central vacuum exhaust fans were tested to determine how performance is affected by fan age, accumulations of dust, grease, bugs and installation methods. Results indicate that there is no statistical difference between axial or centrifugal fans. The greatest problem appeared to be with low flows, high leakage rates, and poor conditions of bathroom fans. Many kitchen fans were found to be blocked at the inlet by cooking grease. The exhaust flows depended greatly on the condition of the backdraft damper. Dryer exhaust airflow was typically less than the 75 L/s specified by manufacturers, but even old dryers performed relatively well. All types of chimneys were tested for different positive hood pressures, airflow lost through leakage, and thermal characteristics. Airflow was found to vary depending on the type and area of the flue and the presence of a cap. For heating systems, the low duct efficiency was due mostly to duct leakage, radiation losses and restrictive ducts and registers. The findings of this testing program are still valid today. 3 tabs.

  18. Rio Blanco: nuclear operations and chimney reentry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, W.R.; Guido, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    Rio Blanco was the third experiment in the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Plowshare Program to develop technology to stimulate gas production from geologic formations not conducive to production by conventional means. The project was sponsored by CER Geonuclear Corporation, with the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory providing the explosives and several technical programs, such as spall measurement. Three nuclear explosives specifically designed for this application were detonated simultaneously in a minimum-diameter emplacement well using many commercially available but established-reliability components. The explosive system performed properly under extreme temperature and pressure conditions. Emplacement and stemming operations were designed with the aim of simplifying both the emplacement and reentry and fully containing the detonation products. An integrated command and control system was used with communication to all three explosives through a single coaxial cable. Reentry and the initial production testing are completed. To date 98 million standard ft 3 of chimney gas have been produced. (auth)

  19. Enhancement of natural ventilation in buildings using a thermal chimney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Ho [University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Strand, Richard K. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2009-06-15

    A new module was developed for and implemented in the EnergyPlus program for the simulation and determination of the energy impact of thermal chimneys. This paper describes the basic concepts, assumptions, and algorithms implemented into the EnergyPlus program to predict the performance of a thermal chimney. Using the new module, the effects of the chimney height, solar absorptance of the absorber wall, solar transmittance of the glass cover and the air gap width are investigated under various conditions. Chimney height, solar absorptance and solar transmittance turned out to have more influence on the ventilation enhancement than the air gap width. The potential energy impacts of a thermal chimney under three different climate conditions are also investigated. It turned out that significant building cooling energy saving can be achieved by properly employing thermal chimneys and that they have more potential for cooling than for heating. In addition, the performance of a thermal chimney was heavily dependent on the climate of the location. (author)

  20. Solar chimney for natural ventilation: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhrubo, Abir Ahsan; Alam, Chowdhury Sadid; Rahman, Md. Mustafizur; Islam, A. K. M. Sadrul

    2017-06-01

    In the 21st century the talk of the time has been proper use of renewable energy sources due to the continuous depletion of non-renewable energy sources and global warming as a result of combustion of fossil fuels. The energy situation in the 3rd world countries is even worse. The continuous industrial development in the 1st world countries is hugely responsible for global temperature increase and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions which badly affect the countries like Bangladesh. As of April 2016, the electricity generation capacity of Bangladesh was 12,399 MW to which only 60% of the total population have access to. The shortage of electricity during the summer season makes life very difficult. Cooling of buildings requires a large quantity of energy in the summer. An alternative cooling system can reduce the dependency on electricity. This paper specially deals with a passive cooling system that reduces pressure on the electricity supply and focuses on renewable energy sources. Here a different process engineering has been discussed which incorporates Earth-to-Air Heat Exchangers with solar collector enhanced solar chimney system. In this study natural ventilation of buildings, using solar chimney system is reviewed extensively. Experimentally it has already been observed that sufficient temperature drop takes place 2-3 m within the undisturbed ground, which can work as a heat sink for ambient air if passed through and can lead to attaining comfort zone at a confined location. During peak hours of summer this kind of system may work as a very efficient cooling system and reduces extra load on electricity supply.

  1. Analyser of sweeping electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strasser, A.

    1993-01-01

    The electron beam analyser has an array of conductors that can be positioned in the field of the sweeping beam, an electronic signal treatment system for the analysis of the signals generated in the conductors by the incident electrons and a display for the different characteristics of the electron beam

  2. View Factor of Solar Chimneys by Monte Carlo Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba Mir; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2017-01-01

    in the chimney base to generate electricity or ventilation of buildings. A part of the solar radiation is absorbed by solar collector directly, which is greater than which reflected by collector to the tower. But this amount of reflection can enhance the efficiency of the system. Determining more precise view......A typical solar chimney power plant (SCPP) system mainly contains three components, namely, solar collector, tower and turbine. The collector heats up ambient air entering to the system by buoyancy force. Updraft airflow is then generated in the chimney and drives the pressure-staged turbine...

  3. Cooperative Research Twin Trawl Sweep Comparison Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The "Twin-Trawl Sweep Efficiency Study" was intended to compare the sweep efficiency and selectivity of the NEFSC standardized bottom trawl to that of a standardized...

  4. Variants of Moreau's sweeping process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, A.H.; Manchanda, P.

    2001-07-01

    In this paper we prove the existence and uniqueness of two variants of Moreau's sweeping process -u'(t) is an element of Nc (t) (u(t)), where in one variant we replace u(t) by u'(t) in the right-hand side of the inclusion and in the second variant u'(t) and u(t) are respectively replaced by u''(t) and u'(t). (author)

  5. Seismic response Analyses of Hanaro in-chimney bracket structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Han; Ryu, J.S.; Cho, Y.G.; Lee, H.Y.; Kim, J.B.

    1999-05-01

    The in-chimney bracket will be installed in the upper part of chimney, which holds the capsule extension pipes in upper one-third of length. For evaluating the effects on the capsules and related reactor structures, ANSYS finite element analysis model is developed and the dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The seismic response anlayses of in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures of HANARO under the design earthquake response spectrum loads of OBE (0.1 g) and SSE (0.2 g) are performed. The maximum horizontal displacements of the flow tubes are within the minimum half gaps between close flow tubes, it is expected that these displacement will not produce any contact between neighbor flow tubes. The stress values in main points of reactor structures and in-chimney bracket for the seismic loads are also within the ASME Code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is much less than 1.0. So, any damage on structural integrity is not expected when an in-chimney bracket is installed to upper part of the reactor chimney. (author). 12 refs., 24 tabs., 37 figs

  6. Dynamic wind interference effects between high chimneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruscheweyh, H.; Traetner, A.

    2000-01-01

    In an extensive wind tunnel study vortex-induced cross-wind vibrations of chimneys in a row and in grouped arrangements have been investigated. Most of the model tests have been executed in the subcritical Reynolds number range. In order to indicate the influence of the Reynolds number, some tests have been executed at simulated transcritical Reynolds number range in the large wind tunnel NKl in Dresden. It could be shown, that the exciting forces at stacks in a row and in grouped arrangements are multiple larger in the subcritical range than in the transcritical range and cannot be transferred to full-scale concrete stacks. On the contrary the variation of the Strouhal number versus distance ratio is less influenced by the Reynolds number. It could be verified, that the diameter ratio d 2 /d 1 of the luff-side stack to the lee-side stack is of major importance. A recommendation for the estimation of vortex-induced vibrations of concrete stacks in a row and in grouped arrangements could be developed from the results with simulated transcritical Reynolds number. Strouhal number factors, ψ s , and exciting force factors, ψ lat , could be evaluated in dependency of the distance ratio a/d 1 of the stacks. A proposal for practical application is given in Fig. 10 and 11. It is compared with the proposal for stacks in a row which is given in the German Standard DIN 4133 for steel stacks. (orig.) [de

  7. Swedish projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunell, J.

    1993-01-01

    The main sources of the financing of Swedish research on gas technology are listed in addition to names of organizations which carry out this research. The titles and descriptions of the projects carried out are presented in addition to lists of reports published with information on prices. (AB)

  8. Sweep time performance of optic streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhebin; Yang Dong; Zhang Huige

    2012-01-01

    The sweep time performance of the optic streak camera (OSC) is of critical importance to its application. The systematic analysis of full-screen sweep velocity shows that the traditional method based on the averaged velocity and its nonlinearity would increase the uncertainty of sweep time and can not reflect the influence of the spatial distortion of OSC. A elaborate method for sweep time has been developed with the aid of full-screen sweep velocity and its uncertainty. It is proved by the theoretical analysis and experimental study that the method would decrease the uncertainty of sweep time within 1%, which would improve the accuracy of sweep time and the reliability of OSC application. (authors)

  9. The gas chimney formation during the steam explosion premixing phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, M.

    2001-01-01

    The crucial part in isothermal premixing experiment simulation is the correct prediction of the gas chimney, which forms when the spheres penetrate into water. The first simulation results with the developed original combined multiphase model showed that the gas chimney starts to close at the wrong place at the top of the chimney and not in the middle, like it was observed in the experiments. To find the physical explanation for this identified weakness of our numerical model a comprehensive parametric analysis (mesh size, initial water-air surface thickness, water density, momentum coupling starting position) has been performed. It was established that the reason for the unphysical gas chimney closing at the top could be the gradual air-water density transition in the experiment model, since there is due to the finite differences description always a transition layer with intermediate phases density over the pure water phase. It was shown that this difference between our numerical model and the experiment can be somewhat compensated if the spheres interfacial drag coefficient at the upmost mesh plane of the unphysical air-water transition layer is artificially risen. On this way a more correct gas chimney formation can be obtained.(author)

  10. Experimental investigations of a chimney-dependent solar crop dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afriyie, J.K.; Nazha, M.A.A.; Rajakaruna, H. [School of Engineering and Technology, De Montfort University, Queens Building, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Forson, F.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana)

    2009-01-15

    An experimental investigation into the performance of a solar crop dryer with solar chimney and no air preheating is described. Tests were first performed on the cabinet dryer, using a normal chimney. The trials were repeated with a solar chimney. Still with the solar chimney, further trials were carried out with the roof of the drying chamber inclined further to form a tent dryer. The described tests include no-load tests for airflow rate measurements and drying tests, with cassava as the crop. Air velocities, temperatures, ambient relative humidity and the drop in crop moisture contents at different stages of the drying process are also presented. The effects of the various configurations described above on the drying process are deduced and discussed while comparing the experimental results with one another. In addition, the performance of the dryer in relation to other natural convection dryers is discussed. The results show that the solar chimney can increase the airflow rate of a direct-mode dryer especially when it is well designed with the appropriate angle of drying-chamber roof. However, the increase in flow rate only increases the drying rate when the relative humidity (RH) of the ambient air is below a certain mark (60% for cassava). (author)

  11. Corrosion at system chimneys made of CrNi-steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajonk, Gunther [Institute of Materials Testing of Northrhine-Westfalia, D-44285 Dortmund (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Names like 'chimney' und 'funnel' usually identify flue gas devices made of bricks. Much less known is the fact that chimney elements are still manufactured from alloys. The following article describes the particular demands ruled by legislation on building pro-ducts, just as the consequences resulting from corrosion loads by flue gas condensates. Difficulties caused by manufacturing and construction are primarily discussed. Furthermore a test procedure is introduced that allows to catch and correlate corrosion loads and technical designs systematically to corrosion behaviour and service life of flue gas devices. For the first time a tool for active quality assurance has been given by this test rig allowing to recognize construction errors systematically. This way, manufacturers of system chimneys and flue liners are enabled to optimize their products applications going ahead to the respective requests of the market. (authors)

  12. TIME CALIBRATED OSCILLOSCOPE SWEEP CIRCUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, V.L.; Carstensen, H.K.

    1959-11-24

    An improved time calibrated sweep circuit is presented, which extends the range of usefulness of conventional oscilloscopes as utilized for time calibrated display applications in accordance with U. S. Patent No. 2,832,002. Principal novelty resides in the provision of a pair of separate signal paths, each of which is phase and amplitude adjustable, to connect a high-frequency calibration oscillator to the output of a sawtooth generator also connected to the respective horizontal deflection plates of an oscilloscope cathode ray tube. The amplitude and phase of the calibration oscillator signals in the two signal paths are adjusted to balance out feedthrough currents capacitively coupled at high frequencies of the calibration oscillator from each horizontal deflection plate to the vertical plates of the cathode ray tube.

  13. Experimental and numerical analysis of pollutant dispersion from a chimney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said, N.M.; Mhiri, H. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Tunisie (Tunisia). Laboratorie de Mecanique des Fluides et Thermique; Le Palec, G.; Bournot, P. [UNIMECA, Marseille (France). Institut de Mecanique de Marseille, Equipe IMFT

    2005-03-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to extract and characterize the underlying organized motions, i.e. coherent structures, within the near-wake region of a turbulent round jet discharged perpendicularly from a chimney into a crossflow. This flow has been found to be quite complex owing to its three-dimensional nature and the interactions between several flow regions. Analyses of the underlying coherent structures, which play an important role in the physics of the flow, are still rare and mostly based on flow-visualization techniques. Using a PIV technique, we examined the wake regions of the chimney and plume at levels near the top of the chimney. The complex geometry of these structures in the wake of the plume as well as their interaction with the plume as it bends over after emission is discussed. In this paper we describe the Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex structures, the downwash phenomena and the effect of the height of the chimney. Extensive wind tunnel experimental results are presented and compared with numerical simulation. A good level of agreement was found between the results of flow visualization and numerical simulation. (author)

  14. A performance analysis of solar chimney thermal power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Dabbas Awwad Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the solar chimney performance theoretically (techno-economic. A mathematical model was developed to estimate the following parameter: Power output, Pressure drop across the turbine, the max chimney height, Airflow temperature, and the overall efficiency of solar chimney. The mathematical model was validated with experimental data from the prototype in Manzanares power. It can be concluded that the differential pressure of collector-chimney transition section in the system, is increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity. The specific system costs are between 2000 Eur/kW and 5000 Eur/kW depending on the system size, system concept and storage size. Hence, a 50 MWe solar thermal power plant will cost 100-250 Eur million. At very good sites, today’s solar thermal power plants can generate electricity in the range of 0.15 Eur/kWh, and series production could soon bring down these costs below 0.10 Eur /kWh.

  15. Research on gas transport in chimneys: a progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearst, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the AGRINI and TIERRA experiments have led us to study three general topics: collapse phenomenology, CO 2 content measurement, and gas transport in chimneys. Our results so far are fragmentary, but we have been able to come to some tentative conclusions: (1) a layer of strong material between depths of 24 and 32 m, and perhaps some relatively strong material deeper, may have caused the AGRINI crater shape. This layer was absent at the nearby LABAN and CROWDIE events. We were unable to locate the layer with a surface penetrometer or surface seismic methods, but it may be possible to measure strength vs depth in situ by examining the penetration depth of a projectile. (2) We can probably improve our knowledge of the in situ CO 2 content by calibrating a commercial carbon/oxygen logging system for NTS conditions. (3) It is possible to measure the response of the gas in a chimney to changes in atmospheric pressure. There can be significantly different gas transport in chimneys with the same pressure response, depending on the porosity and the distribution of the porosity. It is possible to perform an inexpensive experiment to study the gas transport in an existing chimney

  16. Swedish projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunell, J.

    1992-01-01

    A description is given of research activities, concerning heating systems, which were carried out in Sweden during 1991. The main subject areas dealt with under the gas technology group within the area of heating systems were catalytic combustion, polyethylene materials, and gas applications within the paper and pulp industries. A list is given of the titles of project reports published during 1991 and of those begun during that year. Under the Swedish Centre for Gas Technology (SGC), the main areas of research regarding gas applications were polyethylene materials, industrial applications and the reduction of pollutant emissions. A detailed list is given of research projects which were in progress or proposed by March 1992 under the heating system gas technology research group in Sweden. This list also presents the aims and descriptions of the methods, etc. (AB)

  17. Measurement of particles at wood combustion - comparison of measurements in chimney and dilution tunnel; Partikelmaetning vid vedeldning - Jaemfoerelse mellan provtagning i skorsten och spaedtunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryde, Daniel; Johansson, Linda

    2007-07-01

    According to the European standard EN 303-5, particle emissions are measured during testing of wood fired boilers. However, it is possible to measure these emissions using any established method. This may contribute to uncertainties when comparing data from boilers measured with different methods. In this project, particle emission measurements in hot gases in chimney (Swedish method) and in a dilution tunnel (Norwegian method) are compared.The value of the ratio between particulate emissions (PM) measured in the dilution tunnel and PM measured in the chimney varied between 2 and 10, while the specific CO emission was 4 - 140 g/kg dry wood supplied. The more unfavourable combustion conditions, the larger difference between the measurement methods was seen. Furthermore, different measurements at the same case were more scattered at poor combustion conditions. Consequently, it is very important to consider if particle emission data have been measured in the chimney or in a dilution tunnel when using emission data from domestic wood combustion

  18. The computational optimization of heat exchange efficiency in stack chimneys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Goch, T.A.J.

    2012-02-15

    For many industrial processes, the chimney is the final step before hot fumes, with high thermal energy content, are discharged into the atmosphere. Tapping into this energy and utilizing it for heating or cooling applications, could improve sustainability, efficiency and/or reduce operational costs. Alternatively, an unused chimney, like the monumental chimney at the Eindhoven University of Technology, could serve as an 'energy channeler' once more; it can enhance free cooling by exploiting the stack effect. This study aims to identify design parameters that influence annual heat exchange in such stack chimney applications and optimize these parameters for specific scenarios to maximize the performance. Performance is defined by annual heat exchange, system efficiency and costs. The energy required for the water pump as compared to the energy exchanged, defines the system efficiency, which is expressed in an efficiency coefficient (EC). This study is an example of applying building performance simulation (BPS) tools for decision support in the early phase of the design process. In this study, BPS tools are used to provide design guidance, performance evaluation and optimization. A general method for optimization of simulation models will be studied, and applied in two case studies with different applications (heating/cooling), namely; (1) CERES case: 'Eindhoven University of Technology monumental stack chimney equipped with a heat exchanger, rejects heat to load the cold source of the aquifer system on the campus of the university and/or provides free cooling to the CERES building'; and (2) Industrial case: 'Heat exchanger in an industrial stack chimney, which recoups heat for use in e.g. absorption cooling'. The main research question, addressing the concerns of both cases, is expressed as follows: 'what is the optimal set of design parameters so heat exchange in stack chimneys is optimized annually for the cases in which a

  19. Value and limitations of chimney grafts to treat arch lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangialardi, N; Ronchey, S; Malaj, A; Fazzini, S; Alberti, V; Ardita, V; Orrico, M; Lachat, M

    2015-08-01

    The endovascular debranching with chimney stents provides a minimally invasive alternative to open surgery with readily available devices and has extended the option of endoluminal therapy into the realm of the aortic arch. But a critical observation at the use of this technique at the aortic arch is important and necessary because of the lack of long-term results and long term patency of the stents. Our study aims to review the results of chimney grafts to treat arch lesions. A systematic health database search was performed in December 2014 according to the Prisma Guidelines. Papers were sought through a meticulous search of the MEDLINE database (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MA) using the Pubmed search engine. Twenty-two articles were eligible for detailed analysis and data extraction. A total of 182 patients underwent chimney techniques during TEVAR (Thoracic Endovascular Aneurysm Repair). A total of 217 chimney grafts were implanted: 36 to the IA, 1 to the RCCA, 91 to the LCCA and 89 to the LSA. The type of stent-graft used for TEVAR was described in 132 patients. The type and name of chimney graft was described in 126 patients. In 53 patients information was limited to the type. Primary technical success, defined as a complete chimney procedure was achieved in 171 patients (98%). In 8 patients it was not clearly reported. The overall stroke rate was 5.3%. The overall endoleak rate, in those papers were it was clearly reported, was 18.4% (31 patients); 23(13,6%) patients developed a type IA endoleak, 1 patient (0.6%) developed type IB endoleak and 7 patients (4.1%) developed a type II endoleak The total endovascular aortic arch debranching technique represent a good option to treat high-risk patients, because it dramatically reduces the aggressiveness of the procedure in the arch. Many concerns are still present, mainly related to durability and material interaction during time. Long-term follow-up is exceptionally important in light of the

  20. Thermal effects of divertor sweeping in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesley, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, thermal effects of magnetically sweeping the separatrix strike point on the outer divertor target of the International Thermonuclear Fusion Reactor (ITER) are calculated. For the 0. 2 Hz x ± 12 cm sweep scenario proposed for ITER operations, the thermal capability of a generic target design is found to be slightly inadequate (by ∼ 5%) to accommodate the full degree of plasma scrape-off peaking postulated as a design basis. The principal problem identified is that the 5 s sweep period is long relative to the 1. 4 s thermal time constant of the divertor target. An increase of the sweep frequency to ∼ 1 Hz is suggested: this increase would provide a power handling margin of ∼ 25% relative to present operational criteria

  1. Southwest Energy Efficiency Project (SWEEP) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, Howard [Southwest Energy Efficiency Project (SWEEP), Boulder, CO (United States); Meyers, Jim [Southwest Energy Efficiency Project (SWEEP), Boulder, CO (United States)

    2018-01-29

    SWEEP worked with Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) programs to foster greater energy efficiency throughout the Southwest. SWEEP accomplished this through a combination of analysis and support; preparation and distribution of materials on best practice technologies, policies and programs; and technical assistance and information dissemination to states and municipalities in the southwest supporting BTO, AMO, OWIP for advancement of efficiency in products and practices. These efforts were accomplished during the period 2012 through 2017.

  2. Soft shoulders ahead: spurious signatures of soft and partial selective sweeps result from linked hard sweeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrider, Daniel R; Mendes, Fábio K; Hahn, Matthew W; Kern, Andrew D

    2015-05-01

    Characterizing the nature of the adaptive process at the genetic level is a central goal for population genetics. In particular, we know little about the sources of adaptive substitution or about the number of adaptive variants currently segregating in nature. Historically, population geneticists have focused attention on the hard-sweep model of adaptation in which a de novo beneficial mutation arises and rapidly fixes in a population. Recently more attention has been given to soft-sweep models, in which alleles that were previously neutral, or nearly so, drift until such a time as the environment shifts and their selection coefficient changes to become beneficial. It remains an active and difficult problem, however, to tease apart the telltale signatures of hard vs. soft sweeps in genomic polymorphism data. Through extensive simulations of hard- and soft-sweep models, here we show that indeed the two might not be separable through the use of simple summary statistics. In particular, it seems that recombination in regions linked to, but distant from, sites of hard sweeps can create patterns of polymorphism that closely mirror what is expected to be found near soft sweeps. We find that a very similar situation arises when using haplotype-based statistics that are aimed at detecting partial or ongoing selective sweeps, such that it is difficult to distinguish the shoulder of a hard sweep from the center of a partial sweep. While knowing the location of the selected site mitigates this problem slightly, we show that stochasticity in signatures of natural selection will frequently cause the signal to reach its zenith far from this site and that this effect is more severe for soft sweeps; thus inferences of the target as well as the mode of positive selection may be inaccurate. In addition, both the time since a sweep ends and biologically realistic levels of allelic gene conversion lead to errors in the classification and identification of selective sweeps. This

  3. Piping systems, containment pre-stressing and steel ventilation chimney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuessi, U.

    1996-01-01

    Units 5 and 6 of NPP Kozloduy have been designed initially for seismic levels which are considered too low today. In the frame of an IAEA Coordinated Research Programme, a Swiss team has been commissioned by Natsionalna Elektricheska Kompania, Sofia, to analyse the relevant piping system, the containment prestressing and the steel ventilation chimney and to recommend upgrade measures for adequate seismic capacity where applicable. Seismic input had been specified by and agreed upon earlier by IAEA experts. The necessary investigations have been performed in 1995 and discussed with internationally recognized experts. The main results may be summarized as follows: Upgrades are necessary at different piping sy ports (additional snubbers or viscous dampers). These fixes can be done easily at low cost. The containment prestressing tendons are adequately designed for the specified load combinations. However, unfavourable construction features endanger the reliability. It is therefore strongly recommended to replace the tendons stepwise and to upgrade the existing monitoring system. Finally, the steel ventilation chimney may not withstand a seismic event, however the containment and diesel generator building will not be destroyed at possible impact by the chimney. On the other hand the roof of the main building has to be reinforced partially. It is recommended to continue the project for 1996 and 1997 to implement the upgrade measures mentioned above, to analyse the remaining piping systems and to consolidate all results obtained by different research groups of the IAEA programme with respect to piping systems including components and tanks

  4. D0 - Chimney Lead Quench Detection, Beta Solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, A.T.

    1993-01-01

    The voltage drop across the superconducting chimney lead is sensed to detect a quench. The return sense lead is mounted outside the chimney. The return sense lead and the superconducting chimney wire form a loop with area A ∼ 1.7 m 2 (information from R. Ru. cinski). Changing flux through area A will induce a voltage in the sense loop and could cause false quench detection. Assume that the field through A changes 1 kGauss (0.1 Wb/m 2 ) in 10 -3 sec. The induced voltage is then: e = d0/dt = dBA/dt and e = 0.1 x 1.7/10 -3 = 170 V. This is probably a very pessimistic estimate, but it shows that we have to watch out. Changes of 100 Gauss in 100 msec (CDF experience?) are probably more likely and cause: e = 0.01 x 1.7/10 -2 ∼ 1.7 V noise. This noise is still too high because trip levels are planned to sit at ∼50 mV? It is practically impossible to predict what the real noise values would be, but I expect them to be in the order of 1 to 10 V. This is more than we can handle and I would expect nuisance trips.

  5. Evaluation of a stack: A concrete chimney with brick liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, J.R.; Amin, J.A.; Porthouse, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A 200 ft. tall stack, consisting of a concrete chimney with an independent acid proof brick liner built in the 1950's, serving the Separations facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS), was evaluated for the performance category 3 (PC3) level of Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) effects. The inelastic energy absorption capacity of the concrete chimney was considered in the evaluation of the earthquake resistance, in particular, to compute the F μ factor. The calculated value of F μ exceeded 3.0, while the seismic demand for the PC3 level, using an F μ value of 1.5, was found to be less than the capacity of the concrete chimney. The capacity formulation of ACI 307 was modified to incorporate the effect of an after design opening on the tension side. There are considerable uncertainties in determining the earthquake resistance of the independent brick liner. The critical liner section, located at the bottom of the breeching opening, does not meet the current recommendations. A discussion is provided for the possible acceptable values for the ''Moment Reduction Factor'', R w or F μ for the liner. Comments are provided on the comparison of stack demands using response spectra (RS) versus time history (TH) analysis, with and without soil structure interaction (SSI) effects

  6. Power generation from wind turbines in a solar chimney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, Tudor [Graduate Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States); Agarwal, Ramesh K. [William Palm Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. A solar chimney generates an upward draft of wind inside a tower and a shroud around the wind turbine. There are numerous empty silos on farms in the U.S. that can be converted to solar chimneys with minor modifications at modest cost. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of these silos/chimneys for generating wind power. The study is conducted through analytical/computational approach by employing the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. Computations are performed for five different geometric configurations consisting of a turbine, a cylindrical silo, and/or a venturi and/or a diffuser using the dimensions of typical silos and assuming Class 3 wind velocity. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and a two equation realizable {kappa}-{epsilon} model are employed in the calculations, and the turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. The power coefficient (Cp) and generated power are calculated for the five cases. Consistent with recent literature, it was found that the silos with diffusers increase the Cp beyond Betz’s limit significantly and thus the generated power. It should be noted that Cp is calculated by normalizing it by the turbine area swept by the wind. This study shows the potential of using abandoned silos in the mid-west and other parts of the country for localized wind power generation.

  7. Seismic decoupling of an explosion centered in a granite chimney rubble -- scaled experiment results. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, C. [Science & Engineering Associates, Inc., Santa Fe, NM (United States); Miller, S.; Florence, A.; Fogle, M.; Kilb, D.

    1991-12-01

    This report describes the small scale evaluation of the feasibility of significant decoupling by siting an explosion in granite rubble. The chimney characteristics scaled to laboratory dimensions were those of the PILE DRIVER event. The scaled charges were of 1 KT and 8KT in the PILE DRIVER chimney. The measure of the effect was the velocity field history in the granite outside the chimney volume with the chimney rubble and with no rubble. A number of chimney sizes and shapes were studied. The explosion process was modeled via two-din=mensional, finite-difference methods used for prediction of velocity histories at the Nevada Test Site. The result was that both the spectral shape and the magnitude of the transmitted shock wave were drastically altered. The chimney geometry was as important as the rubble characteristics.

  8. Investigation of Spiral and Sweeping Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Douglas; Poinsatte, Philip; Ameri, Ali; Culley, Dennis; Raghu, Surya; Shyam, Vikram

    2015-01-01

    Surface infrared thermography, hotwire anemometry, and thermocouple surveys were performed on two new film cooling hole geometries: spiral/rifled holes and fluidic sweeping holes. The spiral holes attempt to induce large-scale vorticity to the film cooling jet as it exits the hole to prevent the formation of the kidney shaped vortices commonly associated with film cooling jets. The fluidic sweeping hole uses a passive in-hole geometry to induce jet sweeping at frequencies that scale with blowing ratios. The spiral hole performance is compared to that of round holes with and without compound angles. The fluidic hole is of the diffusion class of holes and is therefore compared to a 777 hole and Square holes. A patent-pending spiral hole design showed the highest potential of the non-diffusion type hole configurations. Velocity contours and flow temperature were acquired at discreet cross-sections of the downstream flow field. The passive fluidic sweeping hole shows the most uniform cooling distribution but suffers from low span-averaged effectiveness levels due to enhanced mixing. The data was taken at a Reynolds number of 11,000 based on hole diameter and freestream velocity. Infrared thermography was taken for blowing rations of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 at a density ration of 1.05. The flow inside the fluidic sweeping hole was studied using 3D unsteady RANS.

  9. Solar chimney power generation project - The case for Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketlogetswe, Clever; Seabe, Omphemetse O.; Fiszdon, Jerzy K.

    2008-01-01

    Import of a huge proportion of electrical energy from the Southern African Power Pool, and the geographical location and population distribution of Botswana stimulated the need to consider renewable energy as an alternative to imported power. The paper describes a systematic experimental study on a mini-solar chimney system. Particular attention is given to measurements of air velocity, temperature and solar radiation. The results for the selected 5 and 6 clear days of October and November, respectively, are presented. These results enable the relationship between average insolation, temperature difference and velocity for selected clear days to be discussed. (author)

  10. 29 CFR 1926.854 - Removal of walls, masonry sections, and chimneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., girders, and similar structural supports shall be cleared of all loose material as the masonry demolition... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Removal of walls, masonry sections, and chimneys. 1926.854....854 Removal of walls, masonry sections, and chimneys. (a) Masonry walls, or other sections of masonry...

  11. Experimental investigation of a small solar chimney in the south of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj, Achouri El; Noureddine, Settou; Mabrouk, Drid Momamed; Belkhir, Negrou; Soumia, Rahmouni

    2018-05-01

    The solar chimney power plant (SCPP) is an economical device for the production of solar electricity. Among the parameters influencing the efficiency of the solar chimney are the dimensions, namely: Height and diameter of the chimney and diameter and height of the collector. In order to give our contribution we have established a prototype of a solar chimney which allows us to take a real vision on the influence of the geometrical parameters on the air flow under the collector and next the production efficiency of the solar chimney in the south of Algeria. In this study, we take different values of the height and diameter of the tower and of the height of the collector entrance. The results obtained show the remarkable influence of the geometrical parameters on the flow velocity afterwards on the energy produced.

  12. Swedish Disarmament Policy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    NPIHP Partners Host Conference on Swedish Disarmament Policy Dec 05, 2012 The Nuclear Proliferation International History Project is pleased to announce a conference on Swedish nuclear disarmament policy, organized and hosted by Stockholm University on 26 november 2012. Organized by Stockholm University Professor Thomas Jonter, Emma Rosengren, Goran Rydeberg, and Stellan Andersson under the aegis of the Swedish Disarmament Resaerch Project, the conference featured keynote addresses by Hans Bl...

  13. Techno-economic optimization for the design of solar chimney power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Babkir

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Chimney height and collector area of different designs were optimized. • Simple actual and minimum payback periods were developed. • Comparative assessment was conducted for different designs configuration. • Effects of uncertain parameters on the payback period were studied. - Abstract: This paper aims to propose a methodology for optimization of solar chimney power plants taking into account the techno-economic parameters. The indicator used for optimization is the comparison between the actual achieved simple payback period for the design and the minimum possible (optimum) simple payback period as a reference. An optimization model was executed for different twelve designs in the range 5–200 MW to cover reinforced concrete chimney, sloped collector, and floating chimney. The height of the chimney was optimized and the associated collector area was calculated accordingly. Relationships between payback periods, electricity price, and the peak power capacity of each power plant were developed. The resulted payback periods for the floating chimney power plants were the shortest compared to the other studied designs. For a solar chimney power plant with 100 MW at electricity price 0.10 USD/kWh, the simple payback period for the reference case was 4.29 years for floating chimney design compared to 23.47 and 16.88 years for reinforced concrete chimney and sloped collector design, respectively. After design optimization for 100 MW power plant of each of reinforced concrete, sloped collector, and floating chimney, a save of 19.63, 2.22, and 2.24 million USD, respectively from the initial cost of the reference case is achieved. Sensitivity analysis was conducted in this study to evaluate the impacts of varied running cost, solar radiation, and electricity price on the payback periods of solar chimney power plant. Floating chimney design is still performing after applying the highest ratio of annual running cost to the annual revenue. The

  14. Nonadiabatic exchange dynamics during adiabatic frequency sweeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, Thomas M

    2016-04-01

    A Bloch equation analysis that includes relaxation and exchange effects during an adiabatic frequency swept pulse is presented. For a large class of sweeps, relaxation can be incorporated using simple first order perturbation theory. For anisochronous exchange, new expressions are derived for exchange augmented rotating frame relaxation. For isochronous exchange between sites with distinct relaxation rate constants outside the extreme narrowing limit, simple criteria for adiabatic exchange are derived and demonstrate that frequency sweeps commonly in use may not be adiabatic with regard to exchange unless the exchange rates are much larger than the relaxation rates. Otherwise, accurate assessment of the sensitivity to exchange dynamics will require numerical integration of the rate equations. Examples of this situation are given for experimentally relevant parameters believed to hold for in-vivo tissue. These results are of significance in the study of exchange induced contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Solar Wind Earth Exchange Project (SWEEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-28

    highly charged ions of the solar wind. The main challenge in predicting the resultant photon flux in the X-ray energy bands is due to the...Newton, an X-ray astronomical observatory. We use OMNI solar wind conditions, heavy ion composition data from ACE, the Hodges neutral hydrogen model...of SWEEP was to compare theoretical models of X-ray emission in the terrestrial magnetosphere caused by the Solar Wind Charge Exchange

  16. Automatically sweeping dual-channel boxcar integrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.; Patterson, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    An automatically sweeping dual-channel boxcar integrator has been developed to automate the search for a signal that repeatedly follows a trigger pulse by a constant or slowly varying time delay when that signal is completely hidden in random electrical noise and dc-offset drifts. The automatically sweeping dual-channel boxcar integrator improves the signal-to-noise ratio and eliminates dc-drift errors in the same way that a conventional dual-channel boxcar integrator does, but, in addition, automatically locates the hidden signal. When the signal is found, its time delay is displayed with 100-ns resolution, and its peak value is automatically measured and displayed. This relieves the operator of the tedious, time-consuming, and error-prone search for the signal whenever the time delay changes. The automatically sweeping boxcar integrator can also be used as a conventional dual-channel boxcar integrator. In either mode, it can repeatedly integrate a signal up to 990 times and thus make accurate measurements of the signal pulse height in the presence of random noise, dc offsets, and unsynchronized interfering signals

  17. Chimney Effect Assessment of the Double-skin Facade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Zhong-zhu; LI Peng; CHOW Tin-tai; REN Jian-xing; WANG Wen-huan

    2009-01-01

    The mathematic model of heat transfer through ventihted double glazing was verified with themeasured data,which were from a test chamber equipped with glass face temperature,solar radiation,ambient temperature,and wind speed measurement facility.Mter the model validation,the double-skin facade assess-ment was carried out through simulation with ESP-r software integrating thermal simulation and air low net work module.The air flow situation in the air gap was analyzed on the basis of the hourly air velocity simulation data within typical winter week,summer week,spring week and autumn week.The differences of chimney ef-fect in different seasons were discussed,and the thermal loads resulted from the ventilated and unventihted dou-ble skin facade were presented.

  18. ChEVAS: Combining Suprarenal EVAS with Chimney Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torella, Francesco, E-mail: f.torella@liverpool.ac.uk [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool Vascular & Endovascular Service (United Kingdom); Chan, Tze Y., E-mail: tze.chan@rlbuht.nhs.uk; Shaikh, Usman, E-mail: usman.shaikh@rlbuht.nhs.uk [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); England, Andrew, E-mail: a.england@salford.ac.uk [University of Salford, Department of Radiography (United Kingdom); Fisher, Robert K., E-mail: robert.fisher@rlbuht.nhs.uk [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool Vascular & Endovascular Service (United Kingdom); McWilliams, Richard G., E-mail: richard.mcwilliams@rlbuht.nhs.uk [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Endovascular sealing with the Nellix{sup ®} endoprosthesis (EVAS) is a new technique to treat infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms. We describe the use of endovascular sealing in conjunction with chimney stents for the renal arteries (chEVAS) in two patients, one with a refractory type Ia endoleak and an expanding aneurysm, and one with a large juxtarenal aneurysm unsuitable for fenestrated endovascular repair (EVAR). Both aneurysms were successfully excluded. Our report confirms the utility of chEVAS in challenging cases, where suprarenal seal is necessary. We suggest that, due to lack of knowledge on its durability, chEVAS should only been considered when more conventional treatment modalities (open repair and fenestrated EVAR) are deemed difficult or unfeasible.

  19. Preliminary Study of Solar Chimney Assisted Cooling System for SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Il; Park, Seong Jun; Lee, Young Hyeon; Park, Hyo Chan; Park, Youn Won [BEES Inc., KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, the possibility of application for a complete passive final heat removal system using a solar chimney power plant for SMART NPP was estimated. Additionally the size of the cooling system was approximately calculated under the some assumptions. In order to estimate the applicability of SCPP as a complete passive secondary cooling system for SMART, we try to calculate the size of heat exchanger and simulate SCPP performance. As a result, it was found that SCPP could be coupled with SMART and some of waste heat could be recovered into electricity without any change in SCPP size. The related all parameters satisfying the constraint of the final heat removal system for SMART were calculated. Using the constraint of the amount of heat to be removed from SMART, two kinds of SCPP performances were analyzed; one for a stand alone SCPP in Fig 8(a) and second for SCPP with SMART in Fig 8(b)

  20. Full scale monitoring of the twin chimneys of the rovinari power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayati I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with the structural identification and monitoring of two twin chimneys in very close arrangement. Due to twin arrangement, important interference effects are expected to modify the chimney response to wind action, causing vortex shedding and state-dependent excitation associated to the oscillatory motion of the leeward chimney, in and out of the windward chimney wake. The complexity of the physics of this problem is increased by the dependency of the aerodynamics of circular cylinders on Reynolds number; however, there is a weakness of literature about cylinders behaviour at critical and super-critical range of Reynolds number, due to experimental limitations. Also the International Committee on Industrial Chimneys (CICIND does not provide, at present, any specific technical guideline about twin chimneys whose interaxis distance is less or equal two times the diameter, as in this case. For this reason a Tuned Mass Damper (TMD has been installed in order to increase the damping of the chimney, as merely suggested. This work aims at assessing the effectiveness of the installed TMD and characterizing the tower dynamic behaviour itself due to the wind excitation, as well as providing full scale measurements for twin cylinders configuration at high Reynolds numbers.

  1. Effect of solar chimney inclination angle on space flow pattern and ventilation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassiouny, Ramadan; Korah, Nader S.A. [Department of Mechanical Power Engineering and Energy, Minia University, Minia 61111 (Egypt)

    2009-02-15

    The solar chimney is a simple and practical idea that is applied to enhance space natural ventilation. The chimney could be vertical or inclined. The chimney inclination angle is an important parameter that greatly affects space flow pattern and ventilation rate. In the present study, the effect of chimney inclination angle on air change per hour and indoor flow pattern was numerically and analytically investigated. A numerical simulation using Ansys, a FEM-based code, was used to predict flow pattern. Then the results were compared with published experimental measurements. A FORTRAN program was developed to iteratively solve the mathematical model that was obtained through an overall energy balance on the solar chimney. The analytical results showed that an optimum air flow rate value was achieved when the chimney inclination is between 45 and 70 for latitude of 28.4 . The numerically predicted flow pattern inside the space supports this finding. Moreover, in the present study a correlation to predict the air change per hour was developed. The correlation was tested within a solar intensity greater than or equal to 500 W/m{sup 2}, and chimney width from 0.1 m to 0.35 m for different inclination angles with acceptable values. (author)

  2. Numerical investigation on thermal and fluid dynamic behaviors of solar chimney building systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manca, O.; Nardini, S.; Romano, P.; Mihailov, E.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Buildings as big energy-consuming systems require large amount of energy to operate. Globally, buildings are responsible for approximately 40% of total world annual energy consumption. Sustainable buildings with renewable energy systems are trying to operate independently without consumption of conventional resources. Renewable energy is a significant approach to reduce resource consumption in sustainable building. A solar chimney is essentially divided into two parts, one - the solar air heater (collector) and second - the chimney. Two configurations of solar chimney are usually used: vertical solar chimney with vertical absorber geometry, and roof solar chimney. For vertical solar chimney, vertical glass is used to gain solar heat. Designing a solar chimney includes height, width and depth of cavity, type of glazing, type of absorber, and inclusion of insulation or thermal mass. Besides these system parameters, other factors such as the location, climate, and orientation can also affect its performance. In this paper a numerical investigation on a prototypal solar chimney system integrated in a south facade of a building is presented. The analysis is carried out on a three-dimensional model in air flow and the governing equations are given in terms of k-s turbulence model. Two geometrical configurations are investigated: 1) a channel with vertical parallel walls and 2) a channel with principal walls one vertical and the other inclined. The problem is solved by means of the commercial code Ansys-Fluent and the results are performed for a uniform wall heat flux on the vertical wall is equal to 300 and 600 W/m2. Results are given in terms of wall temperature distributions, air velocity and temperature fields and transversal profiles in order to evaluate the differences between the two base configurations and thermal and fluid dynamic behaviors. Further, the ground effect on thermal performances is examined. key words: mathematical modeling, solar chimney

  3. Design and measured performance of a solar chimney for natural-circulation solar-energy dryers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekechukwu, O.V.; Norton, B.

    1995-10-01

    The design and construction of a solar chimney which was undertaken as part of a study on natural-circulation solar-energy dryers is reported. The experimental solar chimney consists of a 5.3m high and 1.64m diameter cylindrical polyethylene-clad vertical chamber, supported structurally by steel framework and draped internally with a selectively-absorbing surface. The performance of the chimney which was monitored extensively with and without the selective surface in place (to study the effectiveness of this design option) is also reported. (author). 14 refs, 7 figs

  4. Swedish Government Minister at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research recently visited CERN. The Swedish Minister was greeted by Swedish scientists working at CERN. Signing of the Swedish Computing Memorandum of Understanding. Pär Omling, Director-General of the Swedish Research Council (left), and Jos Engelen, CERN’s Chief Scientific Officer. Lars Leijonborg, the Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research, was welcomed to CERN by Director-General Robert Aymar on 10 March. After an introduction to the Laboratory’s activities, the Minister was given guided tours of the control room, the ATLAS surface hall and experiment cavern and the adjoining LHC tunnel. Mr Leijonborg was then greeted by Swedish scientists and given an overview of the Swedish research programme at CERN. Five Swedish university groups are taking part in LHC research. Swedish universities are notably involved in the manufacture of parts for the sub-detectors of AT...

  5. Swedish Energy Research 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Swedish Energy Research 2009 provides a brief, easily accessible overview of the Swedish energy research programme. The aims of the programme are to create knowledge and skills, as needed in order to commercialise the results and contribute to development of the energy system. Much of the work is carried out through about 40 research programmes in six thematic areas: energy system analysis, the building as an energy system, the transport sector, energy-intensive industries, biomass in energy systems and the power system. Swedish Energy Research 2009 describes the overall direction of research, with examples of current research, and results to date within various thematic areas and highlights

  6. Investigating Microbial Habitats in Hydrothermal Chimneys using Ti-Thermocouple Arrays: Microbial Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagé, A.; Tivey, M. K.; Stakes, D. S.; Bradley, A. M.; Seewald, J. S.; Wheat, C. G.; Reysenbach, A.

    2004-12-01

    In order to examine the changes that occur in the microbial community composition as a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney develops, we deployed Ti-thermocouple arrays over high temperature vents at two active sites of the Guaymas Basin Southern Trough. Chimney material that precipitated around the arrays was recovered after 4 and 72 days. Chimney material that precipitated prior to deployment of the arrays was also recovered at one of the sites (Busted Shroom). Culture-independent analysis based on the small subunit rRNA sequence (cloning and DGGE) was used to determine the microbial diversity associated with subsamples of each chimney. The original Busted Shroom chimney (BSO) was dominated by members of the Crenarchaeota Marine Group I, a group of cosmopolitan marine Archaea, ɛ -Proteobacteria, and γ -Proteobacteria, two divisions of Bacteria that are common to deep-sea vents. The 4 days old Busted Shroom chimney (BSD1) was dominated by members of the Methanocaldococcaceae, hyperthermophilic methanogens, and the 72 days old chimney (BSD2) by members of the Methanosarcinaceae, mesophilic and thermophilic methanogens. At the second site, Toadstool, the 72 days old chimney material that had precipitated around the array (TS) revealed the dominance of sequences from uncultured marine Archaea, the DHVE group I and II, and from the ɛ -Proteobacteria. Additionally, sequences belonging to the Methanocaldococcaceae and Desulfurococcaceae were recovered next to thermocouples that were at temperatures of 109° C (at Busted Shroom) and 116° C (at Toadstool), respectively. These temperatures are higher than the upper limit for growth of cultured representatives from each family.

  7. [Negligent homicide caused by exhaust gas escaping from a manipulated chimney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Ingo; Varchmin-schultheiss, Karin; Schmeling, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    A chimney built and operated according to the instructions is supposed to ensure that the combustion gases coming from the fireplace can escape safely. If the operational reliability is impaired, this presents a risk of acute poisoning. The report deals with a negligently caused carbon monoxide poisoning of a married couple as a consequence of improper installation of a cover of the chimney opening. Various causes of fatal poisoning due to defective exhaust systems are discussed in connection with the presented case report.

  8. The Balkan Theme in The Secret of Chimneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham St. John Stott

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In The Secret of Chimneys (1925 Agatha Christie uses the all too familiar Balkan stereotypes of backwardness and brigandage, but not – as was usually the case at the time – as an Other to illustrate British virtue, but as a mirror to British vice. It is Britain, not the fictional Herzoslovakia, that is a nation of brigands. Herzoslovakia remains relatively unknown, as none of the novel’s scenes take place there, but it is described by disinterested observers as democratic and prosperous. In London, however, the Foreign Office plans to overthrow its government to secure oil rights promised by a royal heir-in-exile to a London-based financial consortium. Keywords: Christie, Balkans, Romania, oil, brigandsAgatha Christie’s The Secret of Chimneys (1925 has been faulted for being on the one hand a frothy mix of Anthony Hope and P. G. Wodehouse (Thompson 143 and on the other a mishmash of popular ethnic, national and regional stereotypes – including those of the Balkans (Todorova 122. It is, however, a far more subtle work than such accounts suggest. Though the influence of Hope and Wodehouse can certainly be seen in the novel’s story of princes in disguise (reminiscent of The Prisoner of Zenda and a country house setting that would have reminded readers of Blandings, its main plot addresses an important theme –and in exploring it Christie takes the Balkans very seriously. Oil has been found in the Republic of Herzoslovakia and the Foreign Office, represented by George Lomax, has secured the pledge of the exiled Prince Michael Obolovitch “to grant certain oil concessions” to a consortium led by Herman Isaacstein if the Obolovitchs are restored to power. In other words: to secure those concessions the British Government has committed itself to the overthrow of Herzoslovakia’s government. The Foreign Office’s interest in the Balkans might not have surprised Christie’s readers. The Anglo-Iranian Oil Company had held a monopoly on

  9. Detection and reconstruction of freeform sweeps

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael

    2014-05-01

    We study the difficult problem of deciding if parts of a freeform surface can be generated, or approximately generated, by the motion of a planar profile through space. While this task is basic for understanding the geometry of shapes as well as highly relevant for manufacturing and building construction, previous approaches were confined to special cases like kinematic surfaces or "moulding" surfaces. The general case remained unsolved so far. We approach this problem by a combination of local and global methods: curve analysis with regard to "movability", curve comparison by common substring search in curvature plots, an exhaustive search through all planar cuts enhanced by quick rejection procedures, the ordering of candidate profiles and finally, global optimization. The main applications of our method are digital reconstruction of CAD models exhibiting sweep patches, and aiding in manufacturing freeform surfaces by pointing out those parts which can be approximated by sweeps. © 2014 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Modeling and characteristics analysis of hybrid cooling-tower-solar-chimney system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Zheng; He, Suoying

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A 3-D model for hybrid cooling-tower-solar-chimney system is developed. • The inclusion of heat exchangers into solar chimney boosts the power output. • The huge jump in power output is at the expense of heat dissipation capacity. • The heat exchanger as second heat source has greater impact on system performance. - Abstract: The hybrid cooling-tower-solar-chimney system (HCTSC), combining solar chimney with natural draft dry cooling tower, generates electricity and dissipates waste heat for the coupled geothermal power plant simultaneously. Based on a developed 3-D model, performance comparisons between the HCTSC system, solar chimney and natural draft dry cooling tower were performed in terms of power output of turbine and heat dissipation capacity. Results show that compared to the traditional solar chimney with similar geometric dimensions, HCTSC system can achieve over 20 times increase in the power output of turbine. However, this huge jump in power output is at the expense of heat dissipation capacity, which may lead to the malfunction of the coupled thermal power plant. By increasing the heat transfer area of the heat exchanger, the HCTSC system can manage to recover its heat dissipation capacity

  11. The “all'antica” shape of Venetian chimneys: the obelisk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Lupo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main façade of some of the most important palaces built in Venice along the Grand Canal in the 16th and 17th centuries is crowned by two tall obelisks. The rich architectural Venetian historiography considers them as ornaments. Instead, in origin – as is demonstrated in this essay – they were used as chimneys: the shape of an obelisk is the translation into the "all'antica" style of the, well-known, "Carpaccio" chimney. In the development of the Venetian architectural culture referring to "Antiquity", the problem of architectural chimneys developed in two different ways: the first tried, with every artifice, to remove the chimney from the view of the facade; the second conceived an architectural paradigm where the chimney became a fundamental element of the composition. The two opposite solution now face each other on the Grand Canal, and highlight two different ways of conceiving the principles of "utilitas" and "venustas”.   Key words: Venice, Venetian Palaces, Renaissance, Treatises, Chimney

  12. Advanced endografting techniques: snorkels, chimneys, periscopes, fenestrations, and branched endografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansagra, Kartik; Kang, Joseph; Taon, Matthew-Czar; Ganguli, Suvranu; Gandhi, Ripal; Vatakencherry, George; Lam, Cuong

    2018-04-01

    The anatomy of aortic aneurysms from the proximal neck to the access vessels may create technical challenges for endovascular repair. Upwards of 30% of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) have unsuitable proximal neck morphology for endovascular repair. Anatomies considered unsuitable for conventional infrarenal stent grafting include short or absent necks, angulated necks, conical necks, or large necks exceeding size availability for current stent grafts. A number of advanced endovascular techniques and devices have been developed to circumvent these challenges, each with unique advantages and disadvantages. These include snorkeling procedures such as chimneys, periscopes, and sandwich techniques; "homemade" or "back-table" fenestrated endografts as well as manufactured, customized fenestrated endografts; and more recently, physician modified branched devices. Furthermore, new devices in the pipeline under investigation, such as "off-the-shelf" fenestrated stent grafts, branched stent grafts, lower profile devices, and novel sealing designs, have the potential of solving many of the aforementioned problems. The treatment of aortic aneurysms continues to evolve, further expanding the population of patients that can be treated with an endovascular approach. As the technology grows so do the number of challenging aortic anatomies that endovascular specialists take on, further pushing the envelope in the arena of aortic repair.

  13. Sweeping at the Martin boundary of a fine domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Kadiri, Mohamed; Fuglede, Bent

    2016-01-01

    We study sweeping on a subset of the Riesz-Martin space of a fine domain in R n   (n≥2), both with respect to the natural topology and the minimal-fine topology, and show that the two notions of sweeping are identical.......We study sweeping on a subset of the Riesz-Martin space of a fine domain in R n   (n≥2), both with respect to the natural topology and the minimal-fine topology, and show that the two notions of sweeping are identical....

  14. Metagenome reveals potential microbial degradation of hydrocarbon coupled with sulfate reduction in an oil-immersed chimney from Guaymas Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eHe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys contain a high diversity of microorganisms, yet the metabolic activity and the ecological functions of the microbial communities remain largely unexplored. In this study, a metagenomic approach was applied to characterize the metabolic potential in a Guaymas hydrothermal vent chimney and to conduct comparative genomic analysis among a variety of environments with sequenced metagenomes. Complete clustering of functional gene categories with a comparative metagenomic approach showed that this Guaymas chimney metagenome was clustered most closely with a chimney metagenome from Juan de Fuca. All chimney samples were enriched with genes involved in recombination and repair, chemotaxis and flagellar assembly, highlighting their roles in coping with the fluctuating extreme deep-sea environments. A high proportion of transposases was observed in all the metagenomes from deep-sea chimneys, supporting the previous hypothesis that horizontal gene transfer may be common in the deep-sea vent chimney biosphere. In the Guaymas chimney metagenome, thermophilic sulfate reducing microorganisms including bacteria and archaea were found predominant, and genes coding for the degradation of refractory organic compounds such as cellulose, lipid, pullullan, as well as a few hydrocarbons including toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene were identified. Therefore, this oil-immersed chimney supported a thermophilic microbial community capable of oxidizing a range of hydrocarbons that served as electron donors for sulphate reduction under anaerobic conditions.

  15. Computational studies on the effect of geometric parameters on the performance of a solar chimney power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Sandeep K.; Prasad, Deepak; Ahmed, M. Rafiuddin

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: This work is aimed at optimizing the geometry of the major components of a solar chimney power plant using ANSYS-CFX. The collector inlet opening, collector height, collector outlet diameter, the chimney throat diameter and the chimney divergence angle were varied for the same chimney height and collector diameter and the performance of the plant was studied in terms of the available power and an optimum configuration was obtained. The temperature and velocity variations in the collector and along the chimney height were also studied. - Highlights: • Geometry of the major components of a solar chimney power plant optimized using CFX. • Collector inlet opening, height, outlet diameter, chimney throat diameter, and the chimney divergence angle were varied. • Temperature and velocity variations and available power were obtained for different configurations. • Optimum values of collector outlet height and diameter and the divergence angle were obtained. - Abstract: A solar chimney power plant (SCPP) is a renewable-energy power plant that transforms solar energy into electricity. The SCPP consists of three essential elements – solar air collector, chimney tower, and wind turbine(s). The present work is aimed at optimizing the geometry of the major components of the SCPP using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software ANSYS-CFX to study and improve the flow characteristics inside the SCPP. The overall chimney height and the collector diameter of the SCPP were kept constant at 10 m and 8 m respectively. The collector inlet opening was varied from 0.05 m to 0.2 m. The collector outlet diameter was also varied from 0.6 m to 1 m. These modified collectors were tested with chimneys of different divergence angles (0°–3°) and also different chimney inlet openings of 0.6 m to 1 m. The diameter of the chimney was also varied from 0.25 m to 0.3 m. Based on the CFX computational results, the best configuration was achieved using the chimney

  16. The sweep-line state space exploration method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars M.; Mailund, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    . The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, we provide a coherent presentation of the sweep-line theory and the many variants of the method that have been developed over the past 10 years since the basic idea of the method was conceived. Second, we survey a selection of case studies where the sweep...

  17. A Generalised Sweep-Line Method for Safety Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2002-01-01

    The recently developed sweep-line method exploits progress present in many concurrent systems to explore the full state space of the system while storing only small fragments of the state space in memory at a time. A disadvantage of the sweep-line method is that it relies on a monotone and global...

  18. A Compositional Sweep-Line State Space Exploration Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Michael; Mailund, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    State space exploration is a main approach to verification of finite-state systems. The sweep-line method exploits a certain kind of progress present in many systems to reduce peak memory usage during state space exploration. We present a new sweep-line algorithm for a compositional setting where...

  19. Optimizing of solar chimney performance using electrohydrodynamic system based on array geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghalamchi, Mehrdad; Kasaeian, Alibakhsh; Ghalamchi, Mehran; Fadaei, Niloufar; Daneshazarian, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Three different electrohydrodynamic layouts are applied in the solar chimney pilot. • Effective parameters of electrohydrodynamic is represented in every layout. • The air velocity and heat transfer were increased outstandingly. • The temperature distribution in the absorber surface and the fluid is investigated. • The performance and the efficiency of the solar chimney pilot are increased. - Abstract: The effect of the electrohydrodynamic system with various electrode layouts on a solar chimney pilot is investigated experimentally. A pilot setup was constructed which consisted of a chimney with 3 m height and 3 m collector diameter. The purpose of this research was to enhance the solar chimney performance with the electrohydrodynamic system for the parallel, radial, and symmetric layouts. By using of corona wind, the outlet fluid temperature is increased, and the outlet absorber is decreased. For the three layouts, the most growth in the outlet fluid temperature is 14 °C, which is observed in the parallel layout. Also, in the parallel array, the most outlet absorber temperature drop is 7 °C. The results show that parallel layout with six electrodes and 3 cm spacing between the electrodes has the best performance. Also, various hours of the day are studied and the best time for turning on the electrohydrodynamic system is 1:00 p.m. The electrohydrodynamic system makes an increase in the fluid velocity from 1.7 to 2.3 m s −1 , and this growth improves the performance about 28%.

  20. Optimization of a combined solar chimney for desalination and power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asayesh, Mohammad; Kasaeian, Alibakhsh; Ataei, Abtin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • One dimensional code is developed for simulation of a hybrid solar chimney. • The code is validated using experimental data of a simple solar chimney. • Partial coverage of the collector area by the desalination system is more beneficial. • The optimal configuration of the combined system is found using PSO algorithm. - Abstract: Large footprint and very low efficiency are main disadvantages of solar chimneys. To resolve this, solar desalination system has been added under the collector of a solar chimney power plant. Generally the collector ground is completely covered by the desalination pond but here it is shown that more benefit can be achieved by partial occupation of the collector area. This is performed by implementing the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm in conjunction with a one dimensional simulation code. The code is first validated using data of a laboratory scale solar chimney. Then, optimization results show that for a collector diameter of 250 m and tower height of 200 m, a solar pond located between radii 85 and 125 m of the collector can maximize the outcome of the combined system. Generally, dimensions of the desalination system depend on local cost of building the system and price of electricity and fresh water produced.

  1. An analytical and numerical study of solar chimney use for room natural ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassiouny, Ramadan; Koura, Nader S.A. [Department of Mechanical Power Engineering and Energy, Minia University, Minia 61111 (Egypt)

    2008-07-01

    The solar chimney concept used for improving room natural ventilation was analytically and numerically studied. The study considered some geometrical parameters such as chimney inlet size and width, which are believed to have a significant effect on space ventilation. The numerical analysis was intended to predict the flow pattern in the room as well as in the chimney. This would help optimizing design parameters. The results were compared with available published experimental and theoretical data. There was an acceptable trend match between the present analytical results and the published data for the room air change per hour, ACH. Further, it was noticed that the chimney width has a more significant effect on ACH compared to the chimney inlet size. The results showed that the absorber average temperature could be correlated to the intensity as: (T{sub w} = 3.51I{sup 0.461}) with an accepted range of approximation error. In addition the average air exit velocity was found to vary with the intensity as ({nu}{sub ex} = 0.013I{sup 0.4}). (author)

  2. Vibration test report for in-chimney bracket and instrumented fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Yoon, D. B.; Cho, Y. G.; Ahn, G. H.; Lee, J. H.; Park, J.H

    2000-10-01

    The vibration levels of in-chimney bracket structure which is installed in reactor chimney and instrumented fuel assembly(Type-B Bundle) are investigated under the steady state normal operating condition of the reactor. For this purpose, 4 acceleration data on the guide tube of the instrumented fuel assembly and in-chimney bracket structures subjected to fluid induced vibration are measured. For the analysis of the vibration data, vibration analysis program which can perform basic time and frequency domain analysis, is prepared, and its reliability is verified by comparing the analysis results with those of commercial analysis program(I-DEAS). In time domain analysis, maximum amplitudes, and RMS values of accelerations and displacements from the measured vibration signal, are obtained. The frequency components of the vibration data are analyzed by using the frequency domain analysis. These analysis results show that the levels of the measured vibrations are within the allowable level, and the low frequency component near 10 Hz is dominant in the vibration signal. For the evaluation of the structural integrity on the in-chimney bracket and related structures including the instrumented fuel assembly, the static analysis for ANSYS finite element model is carried out. These analysis results show that the maximum stresses are within the allowable stresses of the ASME code, and the maximum displacement of the top of the flow tube is within the displacement limit. Therefore any damage on the structural integrity is not expected when the irradiation test is performed using the in-chimney bracket.

  3. Vibration test report for in-chimney bracket and instrumented fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Yoon, D. B.; Cho, Y. G.; Ahn, G. H.; Lee, J. H.; Park, J.H.

    2000-10-01

    The vibration levels of in-chimney bracket structure which is installed in reactor chimney and instrumented fuel assembly(Type-B Bundle) are investigated under the steady state normal operating condition of the reactor. For this purpose, 4 acceleration data on the guide tube of the instrumented fuel assembly and in-chimney bracket structures subjected to fluid induced vibration are measured. For the analysis of the vibration data, vibration analysis program which can perform basic time and frequency domain analysis, is prepared, and its reliability is verified by comparing the analysis results with those of commercial analysis program(I-DEAS). In time domain analysis, maximum amplitudes, and RMS values of accelerations and displacements from the measured vibration signal, are obtained. The frequency components of the vibration data are analyzed by using the frequency domain analysis. These analysis results show that the levels of the measured vibrations are within the allowable level, and the low frequency component near 10 Hz is dominant in the vibration signal. For the evaluation of the structural integrity on the in-chimney bracket and related structures including the instrumented fuel assembly, the static analysis for ANSYS finite element model is carried out. These analysis results show that the maximum stresses are within the allowable stresses of the ASME code, and the maximum displacement of the top of the flow tube is within the displacement limit. Therefore any damage on the structural integrity is not expected when the irradiation test is performed using the in-chimney bracket

  4. Analysis of Foundation of Tall R/C Chimney Incorporating Flexibility of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalekshmi, B. R.; Jisha, S. V.; Shivashankar, R.

    2017-09-01

    Three dimensional Finite Element (FE) analysis was carried out for 100 and 400 m high R/C chimneys having piled annular raft and annular raft foundations considering the flexibility of soil subjected to across-wind load. Stiffness of supporting soil and foundation were varied to evaluate the significance of Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI). The integrated chimney-foundation-soil system was analysed by finite element software ANSYS based on direct method of SSI assuming linear elastic material behaviour. FE analyses were carried out for two cases of SSI namely, (1) chimney with annular raft foundation and (2) chimney with piled annular raft foundation. The responses in raft such as bending moments and settlements were evaluated for both the cases and compared to those obtained from the conventional method of analysis of annular raft foundation. It is found that the responses in raft vary considerably depending on the stiffness of the underlying soil and the stiffness of foundation. Piled raft foundations are better suited for tall chimneys to be constructed in loose or medium sand.

  5. Swedish Cleantech Opportunities 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    A market overview from the Swedish Energy Agency. 'Cleantech (short for clean technologies) refers to energy and environmentally friendly related technologies. Global demand for this kind of products continues to grow and cleantech can thus generate new jobs, growth and tax revenues. The Swedish Energy Agency is active in the energy segment of cleantech and support companies in their early stages of development. This market overview outlines the current status of the sector, in Sweden and globally. It also presents business leaders and innovators in this field.'

  6. Swedish Cleantech Opportunities 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    A market overview from the Swedish Energy Agency. 'Cleantech (short for clean technologies) refers to energy and environmentally friendly related technologies. Global demand for this kind of products continues to grow and cleantech can thus generate new jobs, growth and tax revenues. The Swedish Energy Agency is active in the energy segment of cleantech and support companies in their early stages of development. This market overview outlines the current status of the sector, in Sweden and globally. It also presents business leaders and innovators in this field.'

  7. Validation experiments of the chimney model for the operational simulation of hydrogen recombiners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Berno

    2013-01-01

    The calculation program REKO-DIREKT allows the simulation of the operational behavior of a hydrogen recombiner during accidents with hydrogen release. The interest is focused on the interaction between the catalyst insertion and the chimney that influences the natural ventilation and thus the throughput through the recombiner significantly. For validation experiments were performed with a small-scale recombiner model in the test facility REKO-4. The results show the correlation between the hydrogen concentration at the recombiner entrance, the temperature on catalyst sheets and the entrance velocity using different chimney heights. The entrance velocity increases with the heights of the installed chimney that influences the natural ventilation significantly. The results allow the generation of a wide data base for validation of the computer code REKO-DIREKT.

  8. 3D NUMERICAL STUDY OF FLOW IN A SOLAR CHIMNEY POWER PLANT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHAR TAYEBI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Heat transfer process and fluid flow in a Solar Chimney Power Plant System (SCPPS are investigated numerically. As simulation object we use the Spanish prototype plant. The calculative model and boundary conditions in calculation are introduced. Boussinesq model was chosen in the natural convection processus, Discrete Ordinate radiation model was employed for radiation. The principal factors that influence on the performance of the Solar Chimney have been analysed. The effects on the flow of the Solar Chimney which caused by solar radiation intensity have been simulated. The calculated results are compared and are approximately equivalent to the relative experimental data of the Manzanares prototype. It can be concluded that the temperature difference between the inlet and outlet of collector, as well as the air velocity in the collector of the system, is increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity and the pressure throughout system is negative value.

  9. Experimental and Numerical Studies of Solar Chimney for Ventilation in Low Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zha, Xinyu; Zhang, Jun; Qin, Menghao

    2017-01-01

    As an effective way to protect environment and save energy in buildings, passive ventilation method has generated intense interest for improving indoor thermal environment in recent years. Among these passive ventilation solutions, design of solar chimney in buildings is a promising approach...... the performance of a full-scale solar chimney in a real building in East-ern China. The measured performance is compared with theoretical calculation and numerical simulation. In a solar chimney of 6.2m length, 2.8m width and 0.35m air gap, the experimental results show that air flow rate of 70.6 m3/h~1887.6 m3/h...... can be achieved during the daytime in the testing day. Comparing measured value with theoretical value, the flow rate is generally lower than the theoretical value. By data analysis, the suggested discharge coefficient Cd of solar energy in real engineering project is 0.51. With the use...

  10. Selective sweeps in growing microbial colonies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolev, Kirill S; Müller, Melanie J I; Murray, Andrew W; Nelson, David R; Karahan, Nilay; Hallatschek, Oskar

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary experiments with microbes are a powerful tool to study mutations and natural selection. These experiments, however, are often limited to the well-mixed environments of a test tube or a chemostat. Since spatial organization can significantly affect evolutionary dynamics, the need is growing for evolutionary experiments in spatially structured environments. The surface of a Petri dish provides such an environment, but a more detailed understanding of microbial growth on Petri dishes is necessary to interpret such experiments. We formulate a simple deterministic reaction–diffusion model, which successfully predicts the spatial patterns created by two competing species during colony expansion. We also derive the shape of these patterns analytically without relying on microscopic details of the model. In particular, we find that the relative fitness of two microbial strains can be estimated from the logarithmic spirals created by selective sweeps. The theory is tested with strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for spatial competitions with different initial conditions and for a range of relative fitnesses. The reaction–diffusion model also connects the microscopic parameters like growth rates and diffusion constants with macroscopic spatial patterns and predicts the relationship between fitness in liquid cultures and on Petri dishes, which we confirmed experimentally. Spatial sector patterns therefore provide an alternative fitness assay to the commonly used liquid culture fitness assays. (paper)

  11. Selective sweeps in growing microbial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Kirill S.; Müller, Melanie J. I.; Karahan, Nilay; Murray, Andrew W.; Hallatschek, Oskar; Nelson, David R.

    2012-04-01

    Evolutionary experiments with microbes are a powerful tool to study mutations and natural selection. These experiments, however, are often limited to the well-mixed environments of a test tube or a chemostat. Since spatial organization can significantly affect evolutionary dynamics, the need is growing for evolutionary experiments in spatially structured environments. The surface of a Petri dish provides such an environment, but a more detailed understanding of microbial growth on Petri dishes is necessary to interpret such experiments. We formulate a simple deterministic reaction-diffusion model, which successfully predicts the spatial patterns created by two competing species during colony expansion. We also derive the shape of these patterns analytically without relying on microscopic details of the model. In particular, we find that the relative fitness of two microbial strains can be estimated from the logarithmic spirals created by selective sweeps. The theory is tested with strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for spatial competitions with different initial conditions and for a range of relative fitnesses. The reaction-diffusion model also connects the microscopic parameters like growth rates and diffusion constants with macroscopic spatial patterns and predicts the relationship between fitness in liquid cultures and on Petri dishes, which we confirmed experimentally. Spatial sector patterns therefore provide an alternative fitness assay to the commonly used liquid culture fitness assays.

  12. Planetesimal formation by sweep-up coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windmark, Fredrik; Birnstiel, Til; Ormel, Chris W.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.

    2013-07-01

    The formation of planetesimals is often accredited to collisional sticking of dust grains in the protoplanetary disk. The exact process is however unknown, as collisions between larger aggregates tend to lead to fragmentation or bouncing rather than sticking. These growth barriers tend to halt the dust growth already at millimeters or centimeters in size, which is far below the kilometer-sizes that are needed for gravity to aid in the accretion. To study how far dust coagulation can proceed, we have developed a new collision model based on the latest laboratory experiments, and have used it together with a dust-size evolution code capable of resolving all grain interactions in the protoplanetary disk. We find that for the general dust population, bouncing and fragmenting collisions prevent the growth above millimeter-sizes. However, a small number of lucky particles can grow larger than the rest by only interacting at low, sticky velocities. As they grow, they become increasingly resilient to fragmentation caused by the small grains. In this way, two populations are formed: One which remains small due to the collisional barriers, and one that continues to grow by sweeping up the smaller grains around them.

  13. Hydrologic processes and radionuclide distribution in a cavity and chimney produced by the Cannikin nuclear explosion, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claassen, H.C.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis of hydraulic, chemical, and radiochemical data obtained in the vicinity of the site of a nuclear explosion (code-named Cannikin, 1971), on Amchitka Island, Alaska, was undertaken to describe the hydrologic processes associated with the saturation of subsurface void space produced by the explosion. Immediately after detonation of the explosive, a subsurface cavity was created surrounding the explosion point. This cavity soon was partly filled by collapse of overburden, producing void volume in a rubble chimney extending to land surface and forming a surface-collapse sink. Surface and groundwater immediately began filling the chimney but was excluded for a time from the cavity by the presence of steam. When the steam condensed, the accumulated water in the chimney flowed into the cavity region, picking up and depositing radioactive materials along its path. Refilling of the chimney voids then resumed and was nearly complete about 260 days after the explosion. The hydraulic properties of identified aquifers intersecting the chimney were used with estimates of surface-water inflow, chimney dimensions, and the measured water-level rise in the chimney to estimate the distribution of explosion-created porosity in the chimney, which ranged from about 10 percent near the bottom to 4 percent near the top. Chemical and radiochemical analyses of water from the cavity resulted in identification of three aqueous phases: groundwater, surface water, and condensed steam. Although most water samples represented mixtures of these phases, they contained radioactivity representative of all radioactivity produced by the explosion

  14. Optimization of a solar chimney design to enhance natural ventilation in a multi-storey office building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gontikaki, M.; Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Hoes, P.

    2010-01-01

    Natural ventilation of buildings can be achieved with solar-driven, buoyancy-induced airflow through a solar chimney channel. Research on solar chimneys has covered a wide range of topics, yet study of the integration in multi-storey buildings has been performed in few numerical studies, where

  15. Structural Integrity Evaluation of an New In-Chimney Bracket Structures for HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Cho, Yeong Garp; Lee, Jung Hee; Jung, Hoan Sung; Seo, Choon Gyo; Shin, Jin Won

    2007-12-15

    In HANARO are there provided three hexagonal irradiation holes (CT, IR1 and IR2) in the central region of the core while four circular irradiation holes (OR3 {approx} OR6) in the outer core. There exist two types of irradiation facilities: uninstrumented or instrumented. The uninstrumented irradiation facility is little influenced by the coolant flow. But the dynamic behavior by the flow-induced vibration (FIV) and seismic loads is expected to largely occur in case of the instrumented test facility due to the long guide tube to protect the instrumentation cables. To suppress this dynamic behavior of the facility, the in-chimney bracket was designed. As a supplementary supporting structure for irradiation facility, this bracket will hold guide tubes whose holding position of the instrumented facility in CT or IR is the middle part of the instrumented facility between the hole spider and the robot arm already provided in the reactor pool liner. On the while, the bracket will grip the upper part of the guide tube when it is applied to hold the instrumented facility loaded in OR sites. Therefore it is believed that the irradiation test can be successfully conducted since this bracket can reduce the FIV and dynamic response to seismic load as well. In new in-chimney bracket, IR1 is reserved for IPS(In-Pile Section) so only CT/IR2 guide tubes are supported by CT/IR clamp units and the shape of In-chimney bracket is redesigned. For evaluating the structural integrity on the new in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures, ANSYS finite element analysis model is developed and the dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The seismic response analyses of new in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures of HANARO under the design earthquake response spectrum loads of OBE(0.1g) and SSE(0.2g) are performed. The response shows that the stress values for main points on the reactor structures and the new in-chimney bracket for seismic loads are within the ASME Code limits

  16. Sweeping a persisting superconducting magnet with a transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, G.F.; Alexander, P.W.; Ihas, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    A method for sweeping a persisting superconducting magnet is described. The field sweep is achieved by including in the superconducting loop of the magnet a coil which acts as the secondary coil of a transformer. Variation of the current in the primary coil of the transformer, controlled from outside the cryostat, causes the field-sweeping action through flux-linking with the superconducting loop. Compared to directly changing the current in a magnet, this technique improves control by the ratio of the magnet's inductance to the transformer's inductance. The advantages of using an all-metal vacuum-tight superconducting feedthrough are discussed. (author)

  17. An Algorithm for Parallel Sn Sweeps on Unstructured Meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautz, Shawn D.

    2002-01-01

    A new algorithm for performing parallel S n sweeps on unstructured meshes is developed. The algorithm uses a low-complexity list ordering heuristic to determine a sweep ordering on any partitioned mesh. For typical problems and with 'normal' mesh partitionings, nearly linear speedups on up to 126 processors are observed. This is an important and desirable result, since although analyses of structured meshes indicate that parallel sweeps will not scale with normal partitioning approaches, no severe asymptotic degradation in the parallel efficiency is observed with modest (≤100) levels of parallelism. This result is a fundamental step in the development of efficient parallel S n methods

  18. Linkages between mineralogy, fluid chemistry, and microbial communities within hydrothermal chimneys from the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. J.; Ver Eecke, H. C.; Breves, E. A.; Dyar, M. D.; Jamieson, J. W.; Hannington, M. D.; Dahle, H.; Bishop, J. L.; Lane, M. D.; Butterfield, D. A.; Kelley, D. S.; Lilley, M. D.; Baross, J. A.; Holden, J. F.

    2016-02-01

    Rock and fluid samples were collected from three hydrothermal chimneys at the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge to evaluate linkages among mineralogy, fluid chemistry, and microbial community composition within the chimneys. Mössbauer, midinfrared thermal emission, and visible-near infrared spectroscopies were utilized for the first time to characterize vent mineralogy, in addition to thin-section petrography, X-ray diffraction, and elemental analyses. A 282°C venting chimney from the Bastille edifice was composed primarily of sulfide minerals such as chalcopyrite, marcasite, and sphalerite. In contrast, samples from a 300°C venting chimney from the Dante edifice and a 321°C venting chimney from the Hot Harold edifice contained a high abundance of the sulfate mineral anhydrite. Geochemical modeling of mixed vent fluids suggested the oxic-anoxic transition zone was above 100°C at all three vents, and that the thermodynamic energy available for autotrophic microbial redox reactions favored aerobic sulfide and methane oxidation. As predicted, microbes within the Dante and Hot Harold chimneys were most closely related to mesophilic and thermophilic aerobes of the Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria and sulfide-oxidizing autotrophic Epsilonproteobacteria. However, most of the microbes within the Bastille chimney were most closely related to mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobes of the Deltaproteobacteria, especially sulfate reducers, and anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaea. The predominance of anaerobes in the Bastille chimney indicated that other environmental factors promote anoxic conditions. Possibilities include the maturity or fluid flow characteristics of the chimney, abiotic Fe2+ and S2- oxidation in the vent fluids, or O2 depletion by aerobic respiration on the chimney outer wall.

  19. Air quality and residential wood combustion - application of the model system SIMAIRrwc for some Swedish municipalities; Luftkvalitet och smaaskalig biobraensleeldning. Tillaempningar av SIMAIRved foer naagra kommuner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omstedt, Gunnar; Andersson, Stefan; Johansson, Christer; Loefgren, Bengt-Erik

    2008-11-15

    SIMAIRrwc is a Web based evaluation tool for meeting the EU directive on air pollution limits in residential areas using wood combustion. The background is a four-year research program (2001-2004) called Biomass Combustion Health and Environment. Some conclusions from this program were that emissions from small scale wood combustion can influence human health mainly due to high emitting old wood stoves during cold weather conditions and that the air quality in such areas can improve significantly if old wood stoves were replaced by modern wood boilers attached to a storage tank or with a pellet boiler. SIMAIRrwc is based on the same principles as SIMAIRroad, which is a Web based evaluation tool for road traffic i.e. coupled model system using different models on local, urban and regional geographical scales, best available emission data, but at the same time presented in a very simplified way. In this project SIMAIRrwc has been applied in five different Swedish municipalities. The aim has been to apply and improve the model in cooperation with the municipalities. The conclusions from the project are: Small scale wood combustions in residential areas are local problems which sometimes include only a few houses and/or wood-burners. Air quality problems related to the EU directive are mainly due to particles. Combinations of residential areas with wood combustion and emissions from nearby dense traffic roads might give rise to bad air quality. Actions require knowledge about individual equipment which needs information from the local chimney sweeps. The best way to identify problem areas is to use model calculations. If model calculations indicate risks of exceeding air quality limits, then new calculations should be made with improved input data taking into account for example information of district heating or other installations that can effect the emissions. Before actions are taken it may also be useful to make measurements. The measurement site can then be

  20. Procedures for waste management from street sweeping and stormwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Street sweeping and storm water system cleaning activities are conducted regularly by ODOT to comply with NPDES permit requirements and to ensure roadway safety. Once collected, these materials are classified as solid waste and require cost-effective...

  1. Characterization of Residuals Collected from Street Sweeping Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Street sweeping is a routine roadway maintenance activity conducted by the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT). It also provides an added benefit as a non-structural stormwater best management practice implemented by VDOT to meet total maxim...

  2. A beam sweeping system for the Fermilab antiproton production target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniosek, F.M.

    1993-08-01

    In the Main Injector era beam intensities high enough to damage the antiproton production target will be available. In order to continue to operate with a tightly-focused primary beam spot on the target, and thus maintain yield, it will be necessary to spread the hot spot on the target by use of a beam sweeping system. This report summarizes the requirements for such a system, and addresses the issues involved in the design of a sweeping system

  3. Seismic chimneys in the Southern Viking Graben - Implications for palaeo fluid migration and overpressure evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstens, Jens; Berndt, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Detailed understanding of natural fluid migration systems is essential to minimize risks during hydrocarbon exploration and to evaluate the long-term efficiency of the subsurface storage of waste water and gas from hydrocarbon production as well as CO2. The Southern Viking Graben (SVG) hosts numerous focused fluid flow structures in the shallow (expressions of vertical fluid conduits are variously known as seismic chimneys or pipes. Seismic pipes are known to form large clusters. Seismic chimneys have so far been described as solitary structures. Here, we show that the study area in the SVG hosts more than 46 large-scale vertical chimney structures, which can be divided in three categories implying different formation processes. Our analysis reveals that seal-weakening, formation-wide overpressure and the presence of free gas are required to initiate the formation of vertical fluid conduits in the SVG. The presence of numerous vertical fluid conduits implies inter-stratigraphic hydraulic connectivity, which significantly affects the migration of fluids in the subsurface. Chimney structures are important for understanding the transfer of pore pressure anomalies to the shallow parts of the basin.

  4. A Simple and Efficient RNA Extraction Method from Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Chimney Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Hisashi; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Hirai, Miho; Mino, Sayaka; Sawayama, Shigeki; Takai, Ken; Nakagawa, Satoshi

    2017-12-27

    RNA-based microbiological analyses, e.g., transcriptome and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, require a relatively large amount of high quality RNA. RNA-based analyses on microbial communities in deep-sea hydrothermal environments often encounter methodological difficulties with RNA extraction due to the presence of unique minerals in and the low biomass of samples. In the present study, we assessed RNA extraction methods for deep-sea vent chimneys that had complex mineral compositions. Mineral-RNA adsorption experiments were conducted using mock chimney minerals and Escherichia coli total RNA solution, and showed that detectable RNA significantly decreased possibly due to adsorption onto minerals. This decrease in RNA was prevented by the addition of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs), salmon sperm DNA, and NaOH. The addition of STPP was also effective for RNA extraction from the mixture of E. coli cells and mock chimney minerals when TRIzol reagent and the RNeasy column were used, but not when the RNeasy PowerSoil total RNA kit was used. A combination of STPP, TRIzol reagent, the RNeasy column, and sonication resulted in the highest RNA yield from a natural chimney. This indirect extraction procedure is simple, rapid, inexpensive, and may be used for large-scale RNA extraction.

  5. Analysis of Solar Chimneys in Different Climate Zones - Case of Social Housing in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Vaca, Luis; Almaguer, Manuel; Martínez-Gómez, Javier; Lobato, Andrea; Palme, Massimo

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this research is to simulate the performance of a solar chimney located in different macro-zones in Ecuador. The proposed solar chimney model was simulated using a python script in order to predict the temperature distribution and the mass flow over time. The results obtained were firstly compared with experimental data for dry-warm climate. Then, the model was evaluated and tested in real weather conditions: dry-warm, moist-warm and rainy-cold. In addition, the assumed chimney dimensions were chosen according to the literature for the studied conditions. In spite of evaluating the best nightly ventilation, different chimney wall materials were tested: solid brick, common brick and reinforced concrete. The results showed that concrete in a dry-warm climate, a metallic layer on the gap with solid brick in a moist-warm climate and reinforced concrete in a rainy cold climate used for the absorbent wall improve the thermal inertia of the social housing.

  6. Economic analysis of power generation from floating solar chimney power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xinping; Yang, Jiakuan; Xiao, Bo; Wang, Fen

    2009-01-01

    Solar chimney thermal power technology that has a long life span is a promising large-scale solar power generating technology. This paper performs economic analysis of power generation from floating solar chimney power plant (FSCPP) by analyzing cash flows during the whole service period of a 100 MW plant. Cash flows are influenced by many factors including investment, operation and maintenance cost, life span, payback period, inflation rate, minimum attractive rate of return, non-returnable subsidy rate, interest rate of loans, sale price of electricity, income tax rate and whether additional revenue generated by carbon credits is included or not. Financial incentives and additional revenue generated by carbon credits can accelerate the development of the FSCPP. Sensitivity analysis to examine the effects of the factors on cash flows of a 100 MW FSCPP is performed in detail. The results show that the minimum price for obtaining minimum attractive rate of return (MARR) of 8% reaches 0.83 yuan (kWh) -1 under financial incentives including loans at a low interest rate of 2% and free income tax. Comparisons of economics of the FSCPP and reinforced concrete solar chimney power plant or solar photovoltaic plant are also performed by analyzing their cash flows. It is concluded that FSCPP is in reality more economical than reinforced concrete solar chimney power plant (RCSCPP) or solar photovoltaic plant (SPVP) with the same power capacity. (author)

  7. Numerical analysis on the performance of solar chimney power plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guoliang; Ming Tingzhen; Pan Yuan; Meng Fanlong; Zhou Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Power generating technology based on renewable energy resources will definitely become a new trend of future energy utilization. Numerical simulations on air flow, heat transfer and power output characteristics of a solar chimney power plant model with energy storage layer and turbine similar to the Spanish prototype were carried out in this paper, and mathematical model of flow and heat transfer for the solar chimney power plant system was established. The influences of solar radiation and pressure drop across the turbine on the flow and heat transfer, output power and energy loss of the solar chimney power plant system were analyzed. The numerical simulation results reveal that: when the solar radiation and the turbine efficiency are 600 W/m 2 and 80%, respectively, the output power of the system can reach 120 kW. In addition, large mass flow rate of air flowing through the chimney outlet become the main cause of energy loss in the system, and the collector canopy also results in large energy loss.

  8. Preliminary work for stage 2 decommissioning of B16 pile chimney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, E.M.; Mathews, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    Planning of the second stage of decommissioning of the two pile chimneys at Sellafield started while work was underway on the first stage, which involved removal of the sections above the filters. The second stage requires the removal of all radio-active parts and the dismantling of the filter and diffuser sections, and has to be completed by 1997. The planning involved studying the many possible options and their effects on both radiological and industrial safety. This decommissioning project employs a high proportion of civil engineering and construction techniques, which are then developed to eliminate the hazards from radioactive dusts, and to minimise the effect of radiation on operatives working on the project. Much of this equipment is modified forms of standard construction equipment and includes cutting equipment and remotely operated vehicles. The initial phases of the work involve: provision of a waste packaging and access building; provision of temporary ventilation systems to control the dust generated by the work, cutting of 3 m square access doorway through the 1.5 m thick reinforced concrete wall of the chimney; provision of Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) to act as a tool carrier for lining stripping work; removal of the thermal lining from the floor and lower walls of the chimney, and installation of precast concrete walls which separate the pile reactor core from the chimney flue. (author)

  9. A Cost Effective Desalination Plant Using a Solar Chimney with Recycled Aluminum Can Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singuru Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the work was to use solar energy for desalination of water. A solar chimney desalination system, which includes the solar chimney, solar collector, evaporation system, and passive condenser, was designed and built. The air enters into collector and gets heated and released at the bottom of chimney. Due to draught effect dry air goes upward. The air is humidified by spraying salt water into the hot air stream using a mistifier at the middle of chimney. Then, the partial vapours contained in the air are condensed to give desalinated water. The performance of the integrated system including power and potable water production was estimated and the results were discussed. With a 3.4 m height setup, experimental test rig was capable of evaporating 3.77 L water daily condensing 2.3 L water. It is compact in nature as it is easy to assemble and dissemble. It can be used for purifying rain water in summer under rain water harvesting. Because of using country wood, recycled Al cans, and GI sheet in fabrication, it is lower in cost.

  10. Seafloor geological studies of active gas chimneys offshore Egypt (central Nile Fan).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupre, S.; Woodside, J.M.; Foucher, J.-P.; de Lange, G.; Mascle, J.; Boetius, A.; Mastalerz, V.; Stadnitskaia, A.; Ondreas, H.; Huguen, C.; Harmegnies, F.; Gontharet, S.; Loncke, L; Deville, E.; Niemann, H.; Omoregie, E.; Olu-Le Roy, K; Fiala-Medioni, A.; Dahlmann, A.; Caprais, J.-C.; Prinzhofer, A.; Sibuet, M.; Pierre, C.

    2007-01-01

    Four mud volcanoes of several kilometres diameter named Amon, Osiris, Isis, and North Alex and located above gas chimneys on the Central Nile Deep Sea Fan, were investigated for the first time with the submersible Nautile. One of the objectives was to characterize the seafloor morphology and the

  11. The Swedish Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    2012-01-01

    The main characteristics of ‘the Swedish model’ are arguably related to the country's knowledge-intensive industry and its advanced welfare state. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the historical development of these two features of the Swedish economy. The first part looks at industrial...... development, highlighting both the reasons for the rapid industrialization in the late 19th century and the subsequent shift from raw materials to human capital and knowledge as the main competitive advantages. The second part turns to the development of welfare state, stressing the gradual increase...... in benefits and coverage as well as the emphasis on universal rather than means-tested benefits. The final part suggests some policy conclusions for today's developing countries and emerging economies....

  12. The swedish challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tregouet, R.

    2006-01-01

    Sweden decided to be the first country without petroleum for 2020. The author presents the major energy policy axis implemented by the swedish government to delete the part of the produced energy by the petroleum: development of the renewable energies, research programs of the transportation sector concerning the alternative fuels for the motors, energy efficiency and development of the biomass to replace the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  13. Hydrothermal chimneys and Sulphide mineralised breccias from the Kolbeinsey and the Mohns Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygård, T. E.; Bjerkgård, T.; Kelly, D.; Thorseth, I.; Pedersen, R. B.

    2003-04-01

    An inactive hydrothermal ventsite was discovered at the Kolbeinsey Ridge, (68^o56'N,17^o12'W) during the SUBMAR-99 cruise. The field is located in the neovolcanic sone at the flat top of a circular volcano at 900 m water depth. Two major fields contain about 30 chimneys. The top of one chimney was collected for further research. The mineralogy of the chimney is dominated by sphalerite, silica and barite, with minor amounts of galena and pyrrhotite, an assemblage which suggest a formation temperature white smokers [1]. The outer part of the chimney is enriched in LREE and shows a large positive Eu-anomaly compared to the inner parts of the chimney. Variation in Ce-anomaly reflects varying degrees of seawater infiltration during mineral precipitation. The first formed minerals in the lower part, and the outer part of the chimney appears to contain the most seawater-affected minerals. The Ag content of sphalerite may be as high as 1 wt%, but is restricted to small domains especially around fluid channels. A zonation in the Fe/Zn ratio of sphalerite is observed across fluid channels, suggesting variations in the fluid composition with time. The Pb-content of the chimney is extremely high, with up to 10 wt% in some sphalerite grains, and the bulk values are as high as 10 000 ppm. These high values suggest that sediments may have been present in the reaction zone of this hydrothermal system. Sulphide mineralised breccias were recovered by dredging the northern fault wall of the Mohns Ridge at 72^o39,33'N, 02^o40,87'E, during the SUBMAR-2000 cruise. The breccias exhibit several progressive stages of hydrothermal alteration: 1) the least altered parts are composed of partly altered basalt clasts and some chlorite, 2) more strongly altered samples mainly consist of quarts in a chlorite matrix, 3) and the most heavily mineralised parts contain secondary quarts and chalcopyrite. The final hydrothermal stage recorded by the breccias involved oxidation of chalcopyrite and

  14. Experimental and numerical characterization of wind-induced pressure coefficients on nuclear buildings and chimney exhausts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricciardi, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.ricciardi@irsn.fr; Gélain, Thomas; Soares, Sandrine

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Experiments on scale models of nuclear buildings and chimney exhausts were performed. • Pressure coefficient fields on buildings are shown for various wind directions. • Evolution of pressure coefficient vs U/W ratio is given for various chimney exhausts. • RANS simulations using SST k–ω turbulence model were performed on most studied cases. • A good agreement is overall observed, with Root Mean Square Deviation lower than 0.15. - Abstract: Wind creates pressure effects on different surfaces of buildings according to their exposure to the wind, in particular at external communications. In nuclear facilities, these effects can change contamination transfers inside the building and can even lead to contamination release into the environment, especially in damaged (ventilation stopped) or accidental situations. The diversity of geometries of facilities requires the use of a validated code for predicting pressure coefficients, which characterize the wind effect on the building walls and the interaction between the wind and chimney exhaust. The first aim of a research program launched by the French Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), was therefore to acquire experimental data of the mean pressure coefficients for different geometries of buildings and chimneys through wind tunnel tests and then to validate a CFD code (ANSYS CFX) from these experimental results. The simulations were performed using a steady RANS approach and a two-equation SST k–ω turbulence model. After a mesh sensitivity study for one configuration of building and chimney, a comparison was carried out between the numerical and experimental values for other studied configurations. This comparison was generally satisfactory, averaged over all measurement points, with values of Root Mean Square Deviations lower than 0.15 for most cases.

  15. A study of the various baffles used in the Marcoule chimneys and the search for a new model (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassany, J.; Salaun-Penquer, G.

    1961-01-01

    The baffle placed at the top of a chimney determines the shape of the smoke pall for low exit-velocities. The G. 1 type baffle was studied taking into account the characteristics of its collar: totally hollow - partially hollow - solid; on a ribbed chimney or on a plain chimney. The Pu type baffle was also tested. The search for a new type of baffle was limited to variants of the blade - type baffle: - a porous envelope device; - a cone - shaped device and - a deflector of the cupel type. Only the blade-type baffle was rejected, efficient solutions are proposed using the other types or their combinations. (authors) [fr

  16. Sweep devices for picosecond image-converter streak cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunin, B.; Miehe, J.A.; Sipp, B.; Schelev, M.Ya.; Serduchenko, J.N.; Thebault, J.

    1979-01-01

    Four different sweep devices based on microwave tubes, avalanche transistors, krytrons, and laser-triggered spark gaps are treated in detail. These control circuits are developed for picosecond image-converter cameras and generate sweep pulses providing streak speeds in the range of 10 7 to 5x10 10 cm/sec with maximum time resolution better than 10 -12 sec. Special low-jitter triggering schemes reduce the jitter to less than 5x10 -11 sec. Some problems arising in the construction and matching of the sweep devices and image-streak tube are discussed. Comparative parameters of nanosecond switching elements are presented. The results described can be used by other authors involved in streak camera development

  17. Development of sealing plug for sweep gas line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Taiji; Yamada, Hirokazu; Saitoh, Takashi; Nakamichi, Masaru; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2004-03-01

    On the irradiation capsule for neutron irradiation test of the tritium breeder, the sealing plug is necessary to prevent a leak of tritium gas when the tritium breeder is picked up from the irradiation capsule after irradiation test. However, the general valve and plug cannot apply to sealing of the sweep gas line because of the following factors, the neutron irradiation effect, limited space in the irradiation capsule, high sealing efficiency, simple method and operation for control. Therefore, the sealing plug for sweep gas line has to be developed. This paper reports the development of the sealing plug for sweep gas line and the operating procedure of the sealing plug in the irradiation capsule. (author)

  18. Single-sweep spectral analysis of contact heat evoked potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine M; Graversen, Carina; Frøkjaer, Jens B

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The cortical response to nociceptive thermal stimuli recorded as contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs) may be altered by morphine. However, previous studies have averaged CHEPs over multiple stimuli, which are confounded by jitter between sweeps. Thus, the aim was to assess single-sweep ch......AIMS: The cortical response to nociceptive thermal stimuli recorded as contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs) may be altered by morphine. However, previous studies have averaged CHEPs over multiple stimuli, which are confounded by jitter between sweeps. Thus, the aim was to assess single...... by 13% (P = 0.04) and 9% (P = 0.007), while the beta and gamma bands were increased by 10% (P = 0.006) and 24% (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: The decreases in the delta and theta band are suggested to represent a decrease in the pain specific morphology of the CHEPs, which indicates a diminished pain response...

  19. Solar chimney: A sustainable approach for ventilation and building space conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal, S.,

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The residential and commercial buildings demand increase with rapidly growing population. It leads to the vertical growth of the buildings and needs proper ventilation and day-lighting. The natural air ventilation system is not significantly works in conventional structure, so fans and air conditioners are mandatory to meet the proper ventilation and space conditioning. Globally building sector consumed largest energy and utmost consumed in heating, ventilation and space conditioning. This load can be reduced by application of solar chimney and integrated approaches in buildings for heating, ventilation and space conditioning. It is a sustainable approach for these applications in buildings. The authors are reviewed the concept, various method of evaluation, modelings and performance of solar chimney variables, applications and integrated approaches.

  20. Low-Field Bi-Skyrmion Formation in a Noncentrosymmetric Chimney Ladder Ferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, R.; Yu, X. Z.; White, J. S.; Shibata, K.; Kaneko, Y.; Tatara, G.; Rønnow, H. M.; Tokura, Y.; Seki, S.

    2018-01-01

    The real-space spin texture and the relevant magnetic parameters were investigated for an easy-axis noncentrosymmetric ferromagnet Cr11 Ge19 with Nowotny chimney ladder structure. Using Lorentz transmission electron microscopy, we report the formation of bi-Skyrmions, i.e., pairs of spin vortices with opposite magnetic helicities. The quantitative evaluation of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) proves that the magnetic dipolar interaction plays a more important role than the DMI on the observed bi-Skyrmion formation. Notably, the critical magnetic field value required for the formation of bi-Skyrmions turned out to be extremely small in this system, which is ascribed to strong easy-axis anisotropy associated with the characteristic helix crystal structure. The family of Nowotny chimney ladder compounds may offer a unique material platform where two distinctive Skyrmion formation mechanisms favoring different topological spin textures can become simultaneously active.

  1. Plasma turbulence measured by fast sweep reflectometry on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clairet, F.; Vermare, L.; Leclert, G.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally devoted to electron density profile measurement we show that fast frequency sweeping reflectometry technique can bring valuable and innovative measurements onto plasma turbulence. While fast frequency sweeping technique is traditionally devoted to electron density radial profile measurements we show in this paper how we can handle the fluctuations of the reflected signal to recover plasma density fluctuation measurements with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Large size turbulence related to magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) activity and the associated magnetic islands can be detected. The radial profile of the micro-turbulence, which is responsible for plasma anomalous transport processes, is experimentally determined through the fluctuation of the reflected phase signal. (authors)

  2. Plasma turbulence measured by fast sweep reflectometry on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clairet, F.; Vermare, L.; Heuraux, S.; Leclert, G.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally devoted to electron density profile measurement we show that fast frequency sweeping reflectometry technique can bring valuable and innovative measurements onto plasma turbulence. While fast frequency sweeping technique is traditionally devoted to electron density radial profile measurements we show in this paper how we can handle the fluctuations of the reflected signal to recover plasma density fluctuation measurements with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Large size turbulence related to magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) activity and the associated magnetic islands can be detected. The radial profile of the micro-turbulence, which is responsible for plasma anomalous transport processes, is experimentally determined through the fluctuation of the reflected phase signal

  3. 3D flow visualizations by means of laser beam sweeps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenel, J.P.; Porcar, R.; Diemunsch, G.

    1987-01-01

    A method in which two-dimensional aperiodic or periodic sweeps are used to produce three-dimensional light sweeps makes possible the quasi-simultaneous recording of different specific planes of a flow, or the characterization of a fluid without revolution symmetry. The optical device consists of two scanners (whose axes are orthogonal) set into a telescope, allowing fine focusing of the light sheets in the study zone. The method also allows visualizations on skewed surfaces, particularly those of flows without a cylindrical geometry; it is applicable from low velocity, as in heat convection, to supersonic velocity, as in the analysis of a nonaxisymmetric ejector. 8 references

  4. The role of leak air in a double-wall chimney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenegger, Klaus; Hebenstreit, Babette; Pointner, Christian; Schmidl, Christoph; Höftberger, Ernst

    2015-06-01

    In modern buildings with tight shells, often room-independent air supply is required for proper operation of biomass stoves. One possibility to arrange this supply is to use a double-wall chimney with flue gas leaving through the pipe and fresh air entering through the annular gap. A one-dimensional quasi-static model based on balance equations has been developed and compared with experimental data. Inclusion of leak air is crucial for reproduction of the experimental results.

  5. Uranium prospecting in alkaline mountain chimneys of Serra Negra and Salitre - Minas Gerais, Brasil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Filho, J.G.C.

    1974-01-01

    The occurence of radioactive minerals such as apatite and pyrochlore, in the alkaline chimneys of Serra Negra and Salitre (Minas Gerais, Brazil), is discussed. Also mentioned are other minerals of interest associated with the alkaline magma such as columbite, fluorite, monazite, zircon, baddeleyite, etc, which in favourable conditions may occur in deposits of great economical value, and which may present high contents of rare earths, thorium and uranium

  6. Performance analysis of conventional and sloped solar chimney power plants in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Fei; Zhao Liang; Li Huashan; Guo Liejin

    2013-01-01

    The solar chimney power plant (SCPP) has been accepted as one of the most promising approaches for future large-scale solar energy applications. This paper reports on a heat transfer model that is used to compare the performance of a conventional solar chimney power plant (CSCPP) and two sloped solar chimney power plants (SSCPPs) with the collector oriented at 30° and 60°, respectively. The power generation from SCPPs at different latitudes in China is also analyzed. Results indicate that the larger solar collector angle leads to improved performance in winter but results in lower performance in summer. It is found that the optimal collector angle to achieve the maximum power in Lanzhou, China, is around 60°. Main factors that influence the performance of SCPPs also include the system height and the air thermophysical characteristics. The ground energy loss, reflected solar radiation, and kinetic loss at the chimney outlet are the main energy losses in SCPPs. The studies also show SSCPPs are more suitable for high latitude regions in Northwest China, but CSCPPs are suggested to be built in southeastern and eastern parts of China with the combination to the local agriculture. - Highlights: ► The optimum collector angle for maximum power generation is 60° in Lanzhou. ► Main parameters influencing performances are the system height and air property. ► Ground loss, reflected loss and outlet kinetic loss are the main energy losses. ► The sloped styles are suitable for Northwest China. ► The conventional styles are suitable for Southeast and East China.

  7. A Comparative Study of CFD Models of a Real Wind Turbine in Solar Chimney Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Gholamalizadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A solar chimney power plant consists of four main parts, a solar collector, a chimney, an energy storage layer, and a wind turbine. So far, several investigations on the performance of the solar chimney power plant have been conducted. Among them, different approaches have been applied to model the turbine inside the system. In particular, a real wind turbine coupled to the system was simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD in three investigations. Gholamalizadeh et al. simulated a wind turbine with the same blade profile as the Manzanares SCPP’s turbine (FX W-151-A blade profile, while a CLARK Y blade profile was modelled by Guo et al. and Ming et al. In this study, simulations of the Manzanares prototype were carried out using the CFD model developed by Gholamalizadeh et al. Then, results obtained by modelling different turbine blade profiles at different turbine rotational speeds were compared. The results showed that a turbine with the CLARK Y blade profile significantly overestimates the value of the pressure drop across the Manzanares prototype turbine as compared to the FX W-151-A blade profile. In addition, modelling of both blade profiles led to very similar trends in changes in turbine efficiency and power output with respect to rotational speed.

  8. Damage Identification and Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of a Historic Masonry Chimney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Giovanna Masciotta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the dynamic characterisation of a historical masonry chimney aimed at identifying the structural damage and assessing its seismic performance. The structure was severely damaged by a lightning accident and in-depth repair works were executed to re-instate its sound configuration. The case study is fully detailed, including the aspects of survey, inspection, diagnosis, and evolution of the dynamic properties of the system throughout the structural intervention. Considering the explicit dependence of the power spectral densities of measured nodal processes on their frequency content, a spectrum-driven algorithm is used to detect and locate the damage. The paper shows that the eigenparameters obtained from the decomposition of the response power spectrum matrix are sensitive to system’s changes caused by evolutionary damage scenarios, thereby resulting excellent indicators for assessing both the presence and position of structural vulnerabilities. The results are compared with the ones from other modal-based damage identification methods and the strengths/limitations of the tools currently available in literature are extensively discussed. Finally, based on the crack pattern surveyed before the repair works, the weakest links of the chimney are identified and the most meaningful collapse mechanisms are analysed to verify the seismic capacity of the structure. According to the results of the kinematic analysis, the chimney does withstand the maximum site peak ground acceleration.

  9. On the Influence of Collector Size on the Solar Chimneys Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Azawiey Sundus S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of solar chimney power plant system is highly influenced by the design geometries. The collector size is logically enhances the solar chimney performance, but the trend of enhancement is not yet investigated. In the present work, experimental and numerical investigations have been carried out to ascertain, in terms of qualitative and quantitative evaluation, the effect of the collector diameter. Daily thermal efficiency has been determined at four different collector diameter. Two different collector diameters, 3.0 and 6.0 m, have been investigated experimentally, and then scaled up, to 9.0 and 12.0 m, by numerical simulation using ANSYS-FLUENT®15 software. Results demonstrated that collector diameter has effectively influenced the system performance. Larger collector diameter imposed increase in the velocity, temperature and the daily average thermal efficiency of the system. From the experimental results, increasing the collector diameter from 3.0 to 6.0 m has increased the daily average thermal efficiency of the collector from 9.81 to 12.8. Simulation results at 800 W/m2 irradiation revealed that the velocity in the chimney have increased from 1.66 m/s at 3.0 m collector diameter to 2.34, 2.47 and 2.63 m/s for 6.0, 9.0 and 12.0 m collector diameters, respectively.

  10. Corporate Governance in the Swedish Banking Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Palmberg, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the corporate governance structure among Swedish banks. Who controls the Swedish banks and what characteristics does the Swedish banking sector have? Issues related to corporate governance such as ownership structure, board of directors and control-enhancing mechanisms will be studied. The Swedish banking law, how Swedish banks handled the financial crises and government measures to deal with the financial crisis is also analyzed.

  11. Provably optimal parallel transport sweeps on regular grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, M. P.; Adams, M. L.; Hawkins, W. D. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, 3133 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-3133 (United States); Smith, T.; Rauchwerger, L.; Amato, N. M. [Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, 3133 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-3133 (United States); Bailey, T. S.; Falgout, R. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States)

    2013-07-01

    We have found provably optimal algorithms for full-domain discrete-ordinate transport sweeps on regular grids in 3D Cartesian geometry. We describe these algorithms and sketch a 'proof that they always execute the full eight-octant sweep in the minimum possible number of stages for a given P{sub x} x P{sub y} x P{sub z} partitioning. Computational results demonstrate that our optimal scheduling algorithms execute sweeps in the minimum possible stage count. Observed parallel efficiencies agree well with our performance model. An older version of our PDT transport code achieves almost 80% parallel efficiency on 131,072 cores, on a weak-scaling problem with only one energy group, 80 directions, and 4096 cells/core. A newer version is less efficient at present-we are still improving its implementation - but achieves almost 60% parallel efficiency on 393,216 cores. These results conclusively demonstrate that sweeps can perform with high efficiency on core counts approaching 10{sup 6}. (authors)

  12. Provably optimal parallel transport sweeps on regular grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, M. P.; Adams, M. L.; Hawkins, W. D.; Smith, T.; Rauchwerger, L.; Amato, N. M.; Bailey, T. S.; Falgout, R. D.

    2013-01-01

    We have found provably optimal algorithms for full-domain discrete-ordinate transport sweeps on regular grids in 3D Cartesian geometry. We describe these algorithms and sketch a 'proof that they always execute the full eight-octant sweep in the minimum possible number of stages for a given P x x P y x P z partitioning. Computational results demonstrate that our optimal scheduling algorithms execute sweeps in the minimum possible stage count. Observed parallel efficiencies agree well with our performance model. An older version of our PDT transport code achieves almost 80% parallel efficiency on 131,072 cores, on a weak-scaling problem with only one energy group, 80 directions, and 4096 cells/core. A newer version is less efficient at present-we are still improving its implementation - but achieves almost 60% parallel efficiency on 393,216 cores. These results conclusively demonstrate that sweeps can perform with high efficiency on core counts approaching 10 6 . (authors)

  13. A new interpretation of distortion artifacts in sweep measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torras Rosell, Antoni; Jacobsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    The characterization of acoustical spaces by means of impulse response measurements is often biased by the nonlinear behavior of the loudspeaker used to excite the system under test. In this context the distortion immunity provided by the sweep technique has been investigated. The results show...

  14. Alternating direction transport sweeps for linear discontinuous SN method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, M.; Aykanat, C.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of Alternating Direction Transport Sweep (ADTS) method is investigated for spatially differenced Linear Discontinuous S N (LD-S N ) problems on a MIMD multicomputer, Intel IPSC/2. The method consists of dividing a transport problem spatially into sub-problems, assigning each sub-problem to a separate processor. Then, the problem is solved by performing transport sweeps iterating on the scattering source and interface fluxes between the sub-problems. In each processor, the order of transport sweeps is scheduled such that a processor completing its computation in a quadrant of a transport sweep is able to use the most recent information (exiting fluxes of neighboring processor) as its incoming fluxes to start the next quadrant calculation. Implementation of this method on the Intel IPSC/2 multicomputer displays significant speedups over the one-processor method. Also, the performance of the method is compared with those reported previously for the Diamond Differenced S N (DD-S N ) method. Our experimental experience illustrates that the parallel performance of both the ADTS LD- and DD-S N methods is the same. (orig.)

  15. Using temperature sweeps to investigate rheology of bioplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of research toward production of protein-based bioplastics, small amplitude oscillatory shear analyses were performed in the temperature sweep mode to examine protein blends in the presence of wheat flour and glycerol. The elastic modulus (G') of these samples was much higher than the visco...

  16. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981

  17. Continuous In Situ Measurements of Near Bottom Chemistry and Sediment-Water Fluxes with the Chimney Sampler Array (CSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, C. S.; Mendlovitz, H. P.; White, B. L.; Hoer, D.; Sleeper, K.; Chanton, J.; Wilson, R.; Lapham, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Chimney Sampler Array (CSA) was designed to measure in situ chemical and physical parameters within the benthic boundary layer plus methane and oxygen sediment-water chemical fluxes at upper slope sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The CSA can monitor temporal changes plus help to evaluate oceanographic and sub-seafloor processes that can influence the formation and stability of gas hydrates in underlying sediments. The CSA consists of vertical cylinders (chimneys) equipped with internal chemical sensors and with laboratory flume-calibrated washout rates. Chimney washout rates multiplied by chimney mean versus ambient concentrations allow calculation of net O2 and methane sediment-water fluxes. The CSA is emplaced on the seafloor by a ROVARD lander using a ROV for chimney deployments. The CSA presently includes two 30 cm diameter by 90 cm length cylinders that seal against the sediment with lead pellet beanbags; within each chimney cylinder are optode, conductivity and methane sensors. The CSA's data logger platform also includes pressure and turbidity sensors external to the chimneys along with an acoustic Doppler current meter to measure temporal variation in ambient current velocity and direction. The CSA was deployed aboard a ROVARD lander on 9/13/2010 in the northern Gulf of Mexico (Lat. 28 51.28440, Long. 088 29.39421) on biogeochemically active sediments within Block MC-118. A ROV was utilized for chimney deployment away from the ROVARD lander. The CSA monitored temporal changes in water column physical parameters, obtained near-bottom chemical data to compare with pore fluid and sediment core measurements and measured temporal variability in oxygen and methane sediment-water fluxes at two closely spaced stations at MC-118. A continuous, three-week data set was obtained that revealed daily cycles in chemical parameters and episodic flux events. Lower than ambient chimney dissolved O2 concentrations controlled by temporal variability in washout rates

  18. Innovation in Swedish Restaurant Franchises

    OpenAIRE

    Loikkanen, Jenny; Mazura, Jekaterina; Schrader, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Background – The franchising industry in Sweden has experienced a vast growth in the recent years, and it makes up a significant part of the Swedish economy. The restaurant industry accounts for a large amount of the Swedish franchises. Due to the dynamic business environment today, companies need to increasingly strive for improvement in order to sustain their competitive advantage and to enhance their performance. Innovation may be required, and franchises are no exceptions. However, due to...

  19. Hemodynamic and Anatomic Predictors of Renovisceral Stent-Graft Occlusion Following Chimney Endovascular Repair of Juxtarenal Aortic Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricarico, Rosamaria; He, Yong; Laquian, Liza; Scali, Salvatore T; Tran-Son-Tay, Roger; Beck, Adam W; Berceli, Scott A

    2017-12-01

    To identify anatomic and hemodynamic changes associated with impending visceral chimney stent-graft occlusion after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) with the chimney technique (chEVAR). A retrospective evaluation was performed of computed tomography scans from 41 patients who underwent juxtarenal chEVAR from 2008 to 2012 to identify stent-grafts demonstrating conformational changes following initial placement. Six subjects (mean age 74 years; 3 men) were selected for detailed reconstruction and computational hemodynamic analysis; 4 had at least 1 occluded chimney stent-graft. This subset of repairs was systematically analyzed to define the anatomic and hemodynamic impact of these changes and identify signature patterns associated with impending renovisceral stent-graft occlusion. Spatial and temporal analyses of cross-sectional area, centerline angle, intraluminal pressure, and wall shear stress (WSS) were performed within the superior mesenteric and renal artery chimney grafts used for repair. Conformational changes in the chimney stent-grafts and associated perturbations, in both local WSS and pressure, were responsible for the 5 occlusions in the 13 stented branches. Anatomic and hemodynamic signatures leading to occlusion were identified within 1 month postoperatively, with a lumen area 25 Pa/mm (p=0.03), and systolic WSS >45 Pa (p=0.03) associated with future chimney stent-graft occlusion. Chimney stent-grafts at increased risk for occlusion demonstrated anatomic and hemodynamic signatures within 1 month of juxtarenal chEVAR. Analysis of these parameters in the early postoperative period may be useful for identifying and remediating these high-risk stent-grafts.

  20. Acupuncture and/or sweeping of the fetal membranes before induction of labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bodil Birgitte; Knudsen, Birthe; Lyndrup, Jens

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture, and sweeping of the fetal membranes, as methods for induction of labor.......To evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture, and sweeping of the fetal membranes, as methods for induction of labor....

  1. Modeling and optimization of a novel solar chimney cogeneration power plant combined with solid oxide electrolysis/fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joneydi Shariatzadeh, O.; Refahi, A.H.; Abolhassani, S.S.; Rahmani, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposed a solar chimney cogeneration power plant combined with solid oxide fuel cell. • Conducted single-objective economic optimization of cycle by genetic algorithm. • Stored surplus hydrogen in season solarium to supply electricity in winter by SOFC. - Abstract: Using solar chimney in desert areas like El Paso city in Texas, USA, with high intensity solar radiation is efficient and environmental friendly. However, one of the main challenges in terms of using solar chimneys is poor electricity generation at night. In this paper, a new power plant plan is proposed which simultaneously generates heat and electricity using a solar chimney with solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide electrolysis cells. In one hand, the solar chimney generates electricity by sunlight and supplies a part of demand. Then, additional electricity is generated through the high temperature electrolysis which produces hydrogen that is stored in tanks and converted into electricity by solid oxide fuel cells. After designing and modeling the cycle components, the economic aspect of this power plant is considered numerically by means of genetic algorithm. The results indicate that, 0.28 kg/s hydrogen is produced at the peak of the radiation. With such a hydrogen production rate, this system supplies 79.26% and 37.04% of the demand in summer and winter respectively in a district of El Paso city.

  2. Swedish encapsulation station review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G.

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB's document 'Plan 1996'. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL's Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International's experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation

  3. Swedish encapsulation station review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G. [NAC International, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB`s document `Plan 1996`. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL`s Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International`s experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation 19 refs, 9 figs, 35 tabs

  4. A Parallel Sweeping Preconditioner for Heterogeneous 3D Helmholtz Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Poulson, Jack

    2013-05-02

    A parallelization of a sweeping preconditioner for three-dimensional Helmholtz equations without large cavities is introduced and benchmarked for several challenging velocity models. The setup and application costs of the sequential preconditioner are shown to be O(γ2N4/3) and O(γN logN), where γ(ω) denotes the modestly frequency-dependent number of grid points per perfectly matched layer. Several computational and memory improvements are introduced relative to using black-box sparse-direct solvers for the auxiliary problems, and competitive runtimes and iteration counts are reported for high-frequency problems distributed over thousands of cores. Two open-source packages are released along with this paper: Parallel Sweeping Preconditioner (PSP) and the underlying distributed multifrontal solver, Clique. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  5. Sweep-twist adaptive rotor blade : final project report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwill, Thomas D.

    2010-02-01

    Knight & Carver was contracted by Sandia National Laboratories to develop a Sweep Twist Adaptive Rotor (STAR) blade that reduced operating loads, thereby allowing a larger, more productive rotor. The blade design used outer blade sweep to create twist coupling without angled fiber. Knight & Carver successfully designed, fabricated, tested and evaluated STAR prototype blades. Through laboratory and field tests, Knight & Carver showed the STAR blade met the engineering design criteria and economic goals for the program. A STAR prototype was successfully tested in Tehachapi during 2008 and a large data set was collected to support engineering and commercial development of the technology. This report documents the methodology used to develop the STAR blade design and reviews the approach used for laboratory and field testing. The effort demonstrated that STAR technology can provide significantly greater energy capture without higher operating loads on the turbine.

  6. Design and simulation of a geothermal–solar combined chimney power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Fei; Li, Huashan; Ma, Qiuming; Zhao, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A geothermal–solar chimney power plant (GSCPP) is designed and analyzed. • Three different models, viz. full solar model, full geothermal model and geothermal–solar mode are compared. • Power generation under GSM is larger than the sum of FSM and FGM. • GSCPP can effectively solve the continuous operation problem of the SCPP. - Abstract: The solar chimney power plant (SCPP) is dominated by the solar radiation, and therefore its discontinuous operation is an unavoidable problem. In this paper, low temperature geothermal water is introduced into the SCPP for overcoming this problem. Based on a developed transient model, theoretical analyses are carried out to investigate the performance of the geothermal–solar chimney power plant (GSCPP) with main dimensions the same as the Manzanares prototype in Spain. Three operation models, viz. the full solar model, the full geothermal model and the geothermal–solar combined model are compared in typical summer and winter days and throughout the year. It is found that the GSCPP can attractively run in the GSM to deliver power continuously. Due to the ambient-dependant geothermal water outlet temperature, introducing the geothermal water makes greater contribution in winter days than in summer days, in the night than in the daytime. Power generation under GSM is larger than the sum of FSM and FGM. GSM is not the simple superposition of FSM and FGM, but makes better utilization of solar and geothermal energy. In addition, introducing high temperature and mass flow rate geothermal water can doubled and redoubled improve the GSCPP’s power capacity

  7. Solar chimney integrated with passive evaporative cooler applied on glazing surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Touma, Albert; Ghali, Kamel; Ghaddar, Nesreen; Ismail, Nagham

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the performance of a hybrid system applied on glazing surfaces for reducing the space cooling load and radiation asymmetry. The proposed system combines the principles of passive evaporative cooling with the natural buoyant flow in solar chimneys to entrain outdoor air and attenuate the window surface temperature. A predictive heat and mass transport model combining the evaporative cooler, glazing section, solar chimney and an office space is developed to study the system performance in harshly hot climates. The developed model was validated through experiments conducted in a twin climatic chamber for given ambient temperature, humidity, and solar radiation conditions. Good agreement was found between the measured and the predicted window temperatures and space loads at maximum discrepancy lower than 4.3%. The proposed system is applied to a typical office space to analyze its effectiveness in reducing the window temperature, the space load and radiation asymmetry, while maintaining the indoor comfort conditions. Results have shown that the system is reduced the space load by −19.8% and attenuated the radiation asymmetry significantly for office spaces having window-to-wall ratio of 40% in climate of Riyadh, KSA. The system performance diminished when applied in locations suffering from humid weather climates. - Highlights: • A passive evaporative-cooled solar chimney system is introduced to decrease window temperature. • A mathematical model is developed of the system to predict induce air flow and window surface temperature. • The model is validated with experiments in twin room climatic chamber and using artificial solar lamps. • The system reduces window maximum temperature by 5 °C in the hot dry climate of Riyadh, KSA. • It reduced the space load by 19.4% for office spaces at window-to-wall ratio of 40% in Riyadh, KSA.

  8. The frequency and level of sweep in mixed hardwood saw logs in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Hamner; Marshall S. White; Philip A. Araman

    2007-01-01

    Hardwood sawmills traditionally saw logs in a manner that either orients sawlines parallel to the log central axis (straight sawing) or the log surface (allowing for taper). Sweep is characterized as uniform curvature along the entire length of a log. For logs with sweep, lumber yield losses from straight and taper sawing increase with increasing levels of sweep. Curve...

  9. Lipschitz continuous data dependence of sweeping processes in BV spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Pavel; Roche, T.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 3 (2011), s. 637-650 ISSN 1531-3492 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/2315; GA MŠk LC06052 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : rate independence * discontinuous sweeping process * Kurzweil integral Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.921, year: 2011 http://aimsciences.org/journals/pdfs.jsp?paperID=5943&mode=full

  10. Early Results of Chimney Technique for Type B Aortic Dissections Extending to the Aortic Arch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chen [Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Department of General Surgery (China); Tang, Hanfei; Qiao, Tong; Liu, Changjian; Zhou, Min, E-mail: 813477618@qq.com [The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Department of Vascular Surgery, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital (China)

    2016-01-15

    ObjectiveTo summarize our early experience gained from the chimney technique for type B aortic dissection (TBAD) extending to the aortic arch and to evaluate the aortic remodeling in the follow-up period.MethodsFrom September 2011 to July 2014, 27 consecutive TBAD patients without adequate proximal landing zones were retrograde analyzed. Chimney stent-grafts were deployed parallel to the main endografts to reserve flow to branch vessels while extending the landing zones. In the follow-up period, aortic remodeling was observed with computed tomography angiography.ResultsThe technical success rate was 100 %, and endografts were deployed in zone 0 (n = 3, 11.1 %), zone 1 (n = 18, 66.7 %), and zone 2 (n = 6, 22.2 %). Immediately, proximal endoleaks were detected in 5 patients (18.5 %). During a mean follow-up period of 17.6 months, computed tomography angiography showed all the aortic stent-grafts and chimney grafts to be patent. Favorable remodeling was observed at the level of maximum descending aorta and left subclavian artery with expansion of true lumen (from 18.4 ± 4.8 to 25 ± 0.86 mm, p < 0.001 and 27.1 ± 0.62 to 28.5 ± 0.37 mm, p < 0.001) and depressurization of false lumen (from 23.7 ± 2.7 to 8.7 ± 3.8 mm, p < 0.001, from 5.3 ± 1.2 to 2.1 ± 2.1 mm, p < 0.001). While at the level of maximum abdominal aorta, suboptimal remodeling of the total aorta (from 24.1 ± 0.4 to 23.6 ± 1.5 mm, p = 0.06) and true lumen (from 13.8 ± 0.6 to 14.5 ± 0.4 mm, p = 0.08) was observed.ConclusionBased on our limited experience, the chimney technique with thoracic endovascular repair is demonstrated to be promising for TBAD extending to the arch with favorable aortic remodeling.

  11. Replacive sulfide formation in anhydrite chimneys from the Pacmanus hydrothermal field, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Catharina; Bach, Wolfgang; Plümper, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal flow within the oceanic crust is an important process for the exchange of energy and mass between the lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. Infiltrated seawater heats up and interacts with wall rock, causing mineral replacement reactions. These play a large role in the formation of ore deposits; at the discharge zone, a hot, acidic and metal-rich potential ore fluid exits the crust. It mixes with seawater and forms chimneys, built up of sulfate minerals such as anhydrite (CaSO4), which are subsequently replaced by sulfide minerals. Sulfide formation is related to fluid pathways, defined by cracks and pores in the sulfate chimney. Over time, these systems might develop into massive sulfide deposits. The big question is then: how is sulfate-sulfide replacement related to the evolution of rock porosity? To address this question, sulfide-bearing anhydrite chimneys from the Pacmanus hydrothermal field (Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea) were studied using X-ray tomography, EMPA, FIB-SEM and -TEM. The apparently massive anhydrite turns out highly porous on the micro scale, with sulfide minerals in anhydrite cleavage planes and along grain boundaries. The size of the sulfide grains relates to the pores they grew into, suggesting a tight coupling between dissolution (porosity generation) and growth of replacive minerals. Some of the sulfide grains are hollow and apparently used the dissolving anhydrite as a substrate to start growth in a pore. Another mode of sulfide development is aggregates of euhedral pyrite cores surrounded by colloform chalcopyrite. This occurrence implies that fluid pathways have remained open for some time to allow several stages of precipitation during fluid evolution. To start the replacement and to keep it going, porosity generation is crucial. Our samples show that dissolution of anhydrite occurred along pathways where fluid could enter, such as cleavage planes and grain boundaries. It appears that fluids ascending within the inner

  12. Retrieval columns of SO2 in industrial chimneys using DOAS passive in traverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicia Mejía, Rubén; de la Rosa Vázquez, José Manuel; Sosa Iglesias, Gustavo

    2011-10-01

    The optical Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) is a technique to measure pollutant emissions like SO2, from point sources and total fluxes in the atmosphere. Passive DOAS systems use sunlight like source. Measurements with such systems can be made in situ and in real time. The goal of this work is to report the implementation of hardware and software of a portable system to evaluate the pollutants emitted in the atmosphere by industrial chimneys. We show SO2 measurements obtained around PEMEX refinerys in Tula Hidalgo that enables the identification of their pollution degree with the knowledge of speed wind.

  13. Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair with Chimney and Snorkel Grafts: Indications, Techniques and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Rakesh P., E-mail: rpatel9@nhs.net [Northwick Park Hospital, Department of Vascular Radiology (United Kingdom); Katsargyris, Athanasios, E-mail: kthanassos@yahoo.com; Verhoeven, Eric L. G., E-mail: Eric.Verhoeven@klinikum-nuernberg.de [Klinikum Nuernberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (Germany); Adam, Donald J., E-mail: donald.adam@tiscali.co.uk [Heartlands Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (United Kingdom); Hardman, John A., E-mail: johnhardman@doctors.org.uk [Royal United Hospital Bath, Department of Vascular Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    The chimney technique in endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (Ch-EVAR) involves placement of a stent or stent-graft parallel to the main aortic stent-graft to extend the proximal or distal sealing zone while maintaining side branch patency. Ch-EVAR can facilitate endovascular repair of juxtarenal and aortic arch pathology using available standard aortic stent-grafts, therefore, eliminating the manufacturing delays required for customised fenestrated and branched stent-grafts. Several case series have demonstrated the feasibility of Ch-EVAR both in acute and elective cases with good early results. This review discusses indications, technique, and the current available clinical data on Ch-EVAR.

  14. Fast sweeping method for the factored eikonal equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomel, Sergey; Luo, Songting; Zhao, Hongkai

    2009-09-01

    We develop a fast sweeping method for the factored eikonal equation. By decomposing the solution of a general eikonal equation as the product of two factors: the first factor is the solution to a simple eikonal equation (such as distance) or a previously computed solution to an approximate eikonal equation. The second factor is a necessary modification/correction. Appropriate discretization and a fast sweeping strategy are designed for the equation of the correction part. The key idea is to enforce the causality of the original eikonal equation during the Gauss-Seidel iterations. Using extensive numerical examples we demonstrate that (1) the convergence behavior of the fast sweeping method for the factored eikonal equation is the same as for the original eikonal equation, i.e., the number of iterations for the Gauss-Seidel iterations is independent of the mesh size, (2) the numerical solution from the factored eikonal equation is more accurate than the numerical solution directly computed from the original eikonal equation, especially for point sources.

  15. Analysis of sweeping heat loads on divertor plate materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.

    1991-01-01

    The heat flux on the divertor plate of a fusion reactor is probably one of the most limiting constraints on its lifetime. The current heat flux profile on the outer divertor plate of a device like ITER is highly peaked with narrow profile. The peak heat flux can be as high as 30--40 MW/m 2 with full width at half maximum (FWHM) is in the order of a few centimeters. Sweeping the separatrix along the divertor plate is one of the options proposed to reduce the thermomechanical effects of this highly peaked narrow profile distribution. The effectiveness of the sweeping process is investigated parametrically for various design values. The optimum sweeping parameters of a particular heat load will depend on the design of the divertor plate as well as on the profile of such a heat load. In general, moving a highly peaked heat load results in substantial reduction of the thermomechanical effects on the divertor plate. 3 refs., 8 figs

  16. Performance Comparison of Sweeping/Steady Jet Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Damian; Mercier, Justin; Noca, Flavio; Gharib, Morteza

    2015-11-01

    Flow control through the use of steady jet actuators has been used on various aircraft models since the late 1950's. However, the focus of recent studies has shifted towards the use of sweeping jets (fluidic oscillators) rather than steady jet actuators. In this work, experiments using various jet actuator designs were conducted at GALCIT's Lucas Wind Tunnel on a NACA 0012 vertical tail model similar to that of the Boeing 767 vertical stabilizer at Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.5 to 1.2 million. The rudder angle was fixed at 20 degrees. A total of 32 jet actuators were installed along the wingspan perpendicular to the trailing edge and the rudder shoulder of the vertical stabilizer. It is known that these types of flow control prevent separation. However, the goal of this work is to compare different jet designs and evaluate their performance. Parameters such as the number of actuators, their volumetric flow, and the wind tunnel speed were varied. The lift generation capabilities of steady and sweeping jet actuators were then compared. Another set of experiments was conducted to compare a new sweeping jet actuator design with one of the standard versions. Supported by Boeing.

  17. The Swedish Energy Market 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-01

    The Swedish Energy Market, 2005 is an annual publication that presents information and statistics on the network based energy markets in Sweden, i.e. the markets for electricity, natural gas and district heating. It also provides an overview of the issues that have arisen on these markets during the second half of 2004 and the first half of 2005. Considerable work is being carried out in the EU on creating a single market for electricity and natural gas. This publication therefore describes expansion of the Swedish market towards a Nordic and a European market. The publication normally includes a theme chapter, describing some event of particular interest for the Swedish energy market during the year. This year, the theme chapter is devoted to the Storm Gudrun, which struck the south of the country at the beginning of January, and its effects on electricity supply throughout the country. The chapter is based on the report submitted to the Government by the Energy Markets Inspectorate in the spring of 2005, and also includes a summary of the Inspectorate's proposals for measures to improve the security of electricity transmission. Energy in Sweden, which is another of the Swedish Energy Agency's annual publications, provides information and statistics on the development of the entire Swedish energy system.

  18. The Swedish Energy Market 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    The Swedish Energy Market, 2005 is an annual publication that presents information and statistics on the network based energy markets in Sweden, i.e. the markets for electricity, natural gas and district heating. It also provides an overview of the issues that have arisen on these markets during the second half of 2004 and the first half of 2005. Considerable work is being carried out in the EU on creating a single market for electricity and natural gas. This publication therefore describes expansion of the Swedish market towards a Nordic and a European market. The publication normally includes a theme chapter, describing some event of particular interest for the Swedish energy market during the year. This year, the theme chapter is devoted to the Storm Gudrun, which struck the south of the country at the beginning of January, and its effects on electricity supply throughout the country. The chapter is based on the report submitted to the Government by the Energy Markets Inspectorate in the spring of 2005, and also includes a summary of the Inspectorate's proposals for measures to improve the security of electricity transmission. Energy in Sweden, which is another of the Swedish Energy Agency's annual publications, provides information and statistics on the development of the entire Swedish energy system

  19. Obstetric Thromboprophylaxis: The Swedish Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelle G. Lindqvist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstetric thromboprophylaxis is difficult. Since 10 years Swedish obstetricians have used a combined risk estimation model and recommendations concerning to whom, at what dose, when, and for how long thromboprophylaxis is to be administrated based on a weighted risk score. In this paper we describe the background and validation of the Swedish guidelines for obstetric thromboprophylaxis in women with moderate-high risk of VTE, that is, at similar or higher risk as the antepartum risk among women with history of thrombosis. The risk score is based on major risk factors (i.e., 5-fold increased risk of thromboembolism. We present data on the efficacy of the model, the cost-effectiveness, and the lifestyle advice that is given. We believe that the Swedish guidelines for obstetric thromboprophylaxis aid clinicians in providing women at increased risk of VTE with effective and appropriate thromboprophylaxis, thus avoiding both over- and under-treatment.

  20. A Solar Chimney for renewable energy production: thermo-fluid dynamic optimization by CFD analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelpare, S.; D'Alessandro, V.; Zoppi, A.; Costanzo, E.

    2017-11-01

    This paper analyzes the performance of a solar tower designed for renewable energy production. The Solar Chimney Power Plant (SCPP) involves technology that converts solar energy by means of three basic components: a large circular solar collector, a high tower in the center of the collector and a turbine generator inside the chimney. SCPPs are characterized by long term operational life, low maintenance costs, zero use of fuels, no use of water and no emissions of greenhouse gases. The main problem of this technology is the low energy global conversion coefficient due to the presence of four conversions: solar radiation > thermal energy > kinetic energy > mechanical energy > electric energy. This paper defines its starting point from the well known power plant of Manzanares in order to calibrate a numerical model based on finite volumes. Following that, a solar tower with reduced dimensions was designed and an analysis on various geometric parameters was conducted: on the inlet section, on the collector slope, and on the fillet radius among the SUPP sections. Once the optimal solution was identified, a curved deflectors able to induce a flow swirl along the vertical tower axis was designed.

  1. Effect of surface radiation on natural convection in an asymmetrically heated channel-chimney system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Zied; Derouich, Youssef; Laatar, Ali Hatem; Balti, Jalloul

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a more realistic numerical approach that takes into account the effect of surface radiation on the laminar air flow induced by natural convection in a channel-chimney system asymmetrically heated at uniform heat flux is used. The aim is to enrich the results given in Nasri et al. (Int J Therm Sci 90:122-134, 2015) by varying all the geometric parameters of the system and by taking into account the effect of surface radiation on the flows. The numerical results are first validated against experimental and numerical data available in the literature. The computations have allowed the determination of optimal configurations that maximize the mass flow rate and the convective heat transfer and minimize the heated wall temperatures. The analysis of the temperature fields with the streamlines and the pressure fields has helped to explain the effects of surface radiation and of the different thermo-geometrical parameters on the system performances to improve the mass flow rate and the heat transfer with respect to the simple channel. It is shown that the thermal performance of the channel-chimney system in terms of lower heated wall temperatures is little affected by the surface radiation. At the end, simple correlation equations have been proposed for quickly and easily predict the optimal configurations as well as the corresponding enhancement rates of the induced mass flow rate and the convective heat transfer.

  2. The use of a rubble chimney for denitrification of irrigation return waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Roy B; Kruger, Paul [Civil Engineering Department, Stanford University (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Biological denitrification has been proposed as a means of removing nitrates from waste waters to control eutrophication in receiving waters. A potential use for this method is the treatment of irrigation return waters containing high concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen, since direct discharge of such wastes may cause objectionable algal growth in the receiving waters. For example, the process may be used to treat agricultural waste waters in the San Joaquin Valley in California, where an estimated 580,000 acre-feet/year of return waters, containing 20 mg/l of nitrate-nitrogen, will require disposal by A.D. 2020. Two methods of biological denitrification are presently under study for possible use in the San Joaquin Valley. In one method nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by bacterial action in deep ponds; in the other method bacterial denitrification takes place in biological filters. In biological filters, bacteria are grown on columns of submerged stones. A possible alternative to the conventional construction of these filters is the creation of a rubble chimney by a contained nuclear explosion. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation of the feasibility of using a rubble chimney as a biological filter for denitrification. (author)

  3. Functional Assessment of the Hautmann Ileal Neobladder with Chimney Modification Using Uroflowmetry and a Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Seong Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary diversion reconstruction is essential after radical cystectomy and neobladder reconstruction is accepted as a fine option. This study included 51 patients, who underwent radical cystectomy with orthotopic neobladder reconstruction by a Hautmann ileal neobladder with chimney modification from 2006 to 2014. Functional outcomes were evaluated using a questionnaire and uroflowmetry. Perioperative complications were analyzed retrospectively. The mean follow-up period was 36.1 months. Eighty-six percent of patients voided without clean intermittent catheterization (CIC assistance. CIC was used 1-2x per day or every time they voided in 8% and 6% of patients, respectively, and 71% of patients were continent. The percentages of patients who used 1, 2, 3-4, and ≥5 pads per day were 15%, 6%, 2%, and 6%, respectively. Daytime and nighttime continence were achieved in 86% and 69% of patients, respectively. Daily mucus leakage was reported in 69% of patients. The mean maximum neobladder capacity, voided volume, postvoid residual volume, and maximum flow rate were 413.2 mL, 370.6 mL, 43.7 mL, and 20.8 mL/s, respectively. Eighteen early and 5 late complications developed in 13 and 5 patients, respectively. Reoperations were needed in 7 patients. The Hautmann ileal neobladder with chimney modification provided satisfactory results regarding functional outcomes.

  4. The use of a rubble chimney for denitrification of irrigation return waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Roy B.; Kruger, Paul

    1970-01-01

    Biological denitrification has been proposed as a means of removing nitrates from waste waters to control eutrophication in receiving waters. A potential use for this method is the treatment of irrigation return waters containing high concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen, since direct discharge of such wastes may cause objectionable algal growth in the receiving waters. For example, the process may be used to treat agricultural waste waters in the San Joaquin Valley in California, where an estimated 580,000 acre-feet/year of return waters, containing 20 mg/l of nitrate-nitrogen, will require disposal by A.D. 2020. Two methods of biological denitrification are presently under study for possible use in the San Joaquin Valley. In one method nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by bacterial action in deep ponds; in the other method bacterial denitrification takes place in biological filters. In biological filters, bacteria are grown on columns of submerged stones. A possible alternative to the conventional construction of these filters is the creation of a rubble chimney by a contained nuclear explosion. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation of the feasibility of using a rubble chimney as a biological filter for denitrification. (author)

  5. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A PROTOTYPE SOLAR UPDRAFT CHIMNEY IN ASWAN/EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Harte

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is part of a joint project funded by the Science and Technology Development Fund (STDF of the Arab republic of Egypt and the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF of the Federal Republic of Germany. Continuation of the use of fossil fuels in electricity production systems causes many problems such as: global warming, other environmental concerns, the depletion of fossil fuels reserves and continuing rise in the price of fuels. One of the most promising paths to solve the energy crisis is utilizing the renewable energy resources. In Egypt, high insolation and more than 90 percent available desert lands are two main factors that encourage the full development of solar power plants for thermal and electrical energy production. With an average temperature of about 40 °C for more than half of the year and average annual sunshine of about 3200 hours, which is close to the theoretical maximum annual sunshine hours, Aswan is one of the hottest and sunniest cities in the world. This climatic condition makes the city an ideal place for implementing solar energy harvesting projects from solar updraft tower. Therefore, a Solar Chimney Power Plant (SCPP is being installed at Aswan City. The chimney height is 20.0 m, its diameter is 1.0m and the collector is a four-sided pyramid, which has a side length of 28.5 m. A mathematical model is used to predict its performance. The model shows that the plant can produce a maximum theoretical power of 2 kW. Moreover, a CFD code is used to analyse the temperature and velocity distribution inside the collector, turbine and chimney at different operating conditions. Static calculations, including dead weight and wind forces on the solar updraft chimney and its solar collector, have been performed for the prototype. Mechanical loading and ambient impact on highly used industrial structures such as chimneys and masts cause lifetime-related deteriorations. Structural degradations occur not only from

  6. HB-Line Dissolution of Glovebox Floor Sweepings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.

    1998-02-01

    Two candidate flowsheets for dissolving glovebox floor sweepings in the HB-Line Phase I geometrically favorable dissolver have been developed.Dissolving conditions tested and modified during the laboratory program were based on the current processing scheme for dissolving high-fired Pu-238 oxide in HB-Line. Subsequent adjustments made to the HB-Line flowsheet reflected differences in the dissolution behavior between high-fired Pu-238 oxide and the MgO sand/PuF 4 /PuO 2 mixture in glovebox floor sweepings. Although both candidate flowsheets involved two separate dissolving steps and resulted incomplete dissolution of all solids, the one selected for use in HB-Line will require fewer processing operations and resembles the initial flowsheet proposed for dissolving sand, slag, and crucible material in F-Canyon dissolvers. Complete dissolution of glovebox floor sweepings was accomplished in the laboratory by initially dissolving between 55 and 65 degree in a 14 molar nitric acid solution. Under these conditions, partial dissolution of PuF 4 and complete dissolution of PuO 2 and MgO sand were achieved in less than one hour. The presence of free fluoride in solution,uncomplexed by aluminum, was necessary for complete dissolution of the PuO 2 .The remaining PuF 4 dissolved following addition of aluminum nitrate nonahydrate (ANN) to complex the fluoride and heating between 75 and 85 degree C for an additional hour. Precipitation of magnesium and/or aluminum nitrates could occur before, during, and after transfer of product solutions. Both dilution and/or product solution temperature controls may be necessary to prevent precipitation of these salts. Corrosion of the dissolver should not be an issue during these dissolving operations. Corrosion is minimized when dissolving at 55-65 degree C for one to three hours at a maximum uncomplexed free fluoride concentration of 0.07 molar and by dissolving at 75-85 degree C at a one to one aluminum to fluoride mole ratio for another

  7. Reverse spontaneous laser line sweeping in ytterbium fiber laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Petr; Peterka, Pavel; Honzátko, Pavel; Kubeček, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2017), č. článku 035102. ISSN 1612-2011 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-13306S Institutional support: RVO:67985882 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser line sweeping * ytterbium * fiber lasers Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers; BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics); Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.537, year: 2016

  8. Vertical-horizontal wells for depletion and sweep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraikhi, A. J.; Pham, T. R.; Liu, J. S.; Khatib, M. R.; Muhaish, A. S. [Saudi Aramco (Saudi Arabia)

    1998-12-31

    A well completion scheme currently in use in a thick, large, elongated carbonate anticline Middle-East oil reservoir is described. This method of well completion calls for a combination of an open hole horizontal section penetrating the top 10 feet of the reservoir and a cased or undisturbed vertical segment through the thick formation. The horizontal section is used for producing and the vertical segment is used for monitoring purposes. Field experience and supported reservoir simulation exercises have shown that the horizontal application is superior to conventional vertical completion both from the economic and from the sweep point of view. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  9. Environmental assessment of Swedish agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, Rebecka; Finnveden, Goeran; Wadeskog, Anders

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an environmental assessment of Swedish agriculture, including upstream and downstream effects. The analysis is based on environmentally extended input-output analysis, but it is also supplemented with data from other sources. The analysis shows that direct effects by the Swedish agriculture are the most important, while indirect effects from other sources including mobile and impacts abroad are also considerable. The most important impacts from Swedish agriculture according to the analysis are eutrophication, global warming and resource use. The agricultural sector produces a large share of the Swedish emissions causing both global warming and eutrophication. In addition, current agricultural practice causes problems with loss of biodiversity. The most important actors in the sector are agriculture itself, but also all actors using fossil fuels: primarily the transport sector and the energy sector. In addition, consumers are important since they can influence the composition of agricultural production. The analysis shows the importance of including upstream and downstream effects when analysing the environmental impacts from a sector. (author)

  10. Sulfur problems in Swedish agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, O

    1959-01-01

    The present paper deals with some aspects of the sulfur situation in Swedish agriculture with special emphasis on the importance of and relationships among various sources of sulfur supply. An inventory of the sulfur content of Swedish soils and hay crops includes 649 soil samples and a corresponding number of hay samples from 59 locations. In a special investigation the samples were found to be representative of normal Swedish farm land. It is concluded that the amount of sulfur compounds in the air is the primary factor which determines the amount of sulfur added to the soil from the atmosphere. Compared with values obtained in other countries, the amount of sulfur added by the precipitation in Sweden is very low. The distribution in air and precipitation of sulfur from an industrial source was studied in a special investigation. An initial reason for the present study was the damage to vegetation caused by smoke from an industrial source. It was concluded that the average conditions in the vicinity of the industrial source with respect to smoke constituents in the air and precipitation were unfavorable only to the plants directly within a very narrow region. Relationships among the sulfur contents of air, of precipitation, of soils and of plants have been subject to special investigations. In the final general discussion and conclusions it is pointed out that the results from these investigations indicate evident differences in the sulfur status of Swedish soils. The present trend toward the use of more highly concentrated fertilizers poor in sulfur may be expected to cause a considerable change in the sulfur situation in Swedish agriculture. 167 references, 40 figures, 44 tables.

  11. Abundance and distribution of fatty acids within the walls of an active deep-sea sulfide chimney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiwei; Zhou, Huaiyang; Peng, Xiaotong; Fu, Meiyan; Chen, Zhiqiang; Yao, Huiqiang

    2011-04-01

    Abundance and distribution of total fatty acids (TFAs) were examined along the physicochemical gradient within an active hydrothermal chimney collected from the Main Endeavour segment of Juan de Fuca Ridge. Approximately 27 fatty acids are identified with a chain-length ranging from C12 to C22. From the exterior to the interior of the chimney walls, the total concentrations of TFAs (∑ TFAs) show a trend of evident decrease. The observed compositions of TFAs are rich in bacterial biomarkers especially monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and minor branched and cyclopropyl FAs. On the basis of the species-specific FAs and bacterial 16SrRNA gene analysis (Li et al., unpublished data), sulfur-based metabolism appears to be the essential metabolic process in the chimney. Furthermore, the sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) are identified as a basic component of microbial communities at the exterior of the hydrothermal chimney, and its proportion shows an inward decrease while the sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) have an inverse distribution.

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of a low-temperature waste heat recovery system based on the concept of solar chimney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kai; Wang, Jiangfeng; Dai, Yiping; Liu, Yuqi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A low grade waste heat recovery system based on the concept of solar chimney is proposed. • The effects of three key factors on the system performance are examined. • Thermodynamics analysis is to find a better way to utilize low grade heat source efficiently. - Abstract: The utilization of low-temperature waste heat draws more and more attention due to serious energy crisis nowadays. This paper proposes a low-temperature waste heat recovery system based on the concept of solar chimney. In the system, low-temperature waste heat is used to heat air to produce an air updraft in the chimney tower. The air updraft propels a turbine fixed at the base of the chimney tower to convert waste heat into electricity. The mathematical model of the system is established based on first law and second law of thermodynamics. Hot water is selected as the representative of low-temperature waste heat sources for researching. The heat source temperature, ambient air temperature and area of heat transfer are examined to evaluate their effects on the system performance such as velocity of updraft, mass flow rate of air, power output, conversion efficiency, and exergy efficiency. The velocity of air demonstrates a better stability than the mass flow rate of air and the pressure difference when temperature of heat source, ambient air temperature or area of heat transfer changes

  13. Comparison of the Energy Conversion Efficiency of a Solar Chimney and a Solar PV-Powered Fan for Ventilation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomír Klimeš

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A study into the performance of a solar chimney and a solar photovoltaic (PV-powered fan for ventilation applications was carried out using numerical simulations. The performance of the solar chimney was compared with that of a direct current (DC fan powered by a solar PV panel. The comparison was carried out using the same area of the irradiated surface—the area of the solar absorber plate in the case of the solar chimney and the area of the solar panel in the case of the photovoltaic-powered fan. The two studied cases were compared under various solar radiation intensities of incident solar radiation. The results indicate that the PV-powered fans significantly outperform solar chimneys in terms of converting solar energy into the kinetic energy of air motion. Moreover, ventilation with PV-powered fans offers more flexibility in the arrangement of the ventilation system and also better control of the air flow rates in the case of battery storage.

  14. Experience of the remote dismantling of the Windscale advanced gas-cooled reactor and Windscale pile chimneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives brief descriptions of some of the remote dismantling work and equipment used on two large decommissioning projects: the BNFL Windscale Pile Chimneys Project (remote handling machine, waste packaging machine, remotely controlled excavator, remotely controlled demolition machine) and the AEA Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor Project (remote dismantling machine, operational waste, bulk removal techniques, semi-remote cutting operations)

  15. Using exhaled carbon monoxide and carboxyhemoglobin to evaluate the effectiveness of a chimney stove model in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Adam R; Fitzgerald, Christopher; Dorner, Stephen C; Aguilar-Villalobos, Manuel; Rathbun, Stephen L; Adetona, Olorunfemi; Naeher, Luke P

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of biological indicators of physiological change may be useful in evaluating the effectiveness of stove models, which are intended to reduce indoor smoke exposure and potential health effects. We examined changes in exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), percentage carboxy-hemoglobin, and total hemoglobin in response to the installation of a chimney stove model by the Juntos National Program in Huayatan, Peru in 2008. Biomarkers were measured in a convenience sample comprising 35 women who met requirements for participation, and were measured before and three weeks after installation of a chimney stove. The relationships between exposure to indoor smoke and biomarker measurements were also analyzed using simple linear regression models. Exhaled CO reduced from 6.71 ppm (95% CI 5.84-7.71) to 3.14 ppm (95% CI 2.77-3.66) three weeks after stove installation (P < 0.001) while % COHb reduced from 1.76% (95% CI 1.62-1.91) to 1.18% (95% CI 1.12-1.25; P < 0.001). Changes in exhaled CO and % COHb from pre- to post-chimney stove installation were not correlated with corresponding changes in exposure to CO and PM2.5 even though the exposures also reduced after stove installation. Exhaled CO and % COHb both showed improvement with reduction in concentration after the installation of the chimney cook stoves, indicating a positive physiological response subsequent to the intervention.

  16. Thermal Safety of the Current Buses in the Chimney of the D0 Solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    The thermal and electrical behaviour of the current buses in the chimney of the D0 solenoid during upset conditions is modeled to guide the selection of trip levels for magnet protection circuits which discharge the magnet if abnormal conditions are detected. The current buses in the chimney are designed to operate safely without likelihood of loss of superconductivity as long as normal cooling conditions are maintained. Helium liquid level probes, helium flow instrumentation, and thermometry all are provided to certify that proper cooling conditions exist in the subcooler and chimney at all times. Rising temperatures in any portion of the system, excessive voltage drops on the vapor cooled leads, or decreasing liquid level in the subcooler or flow rate in the system, will each cause the fast discharge system to be triggered. Postulated failures of the helium flow system, somehow undetected by any and all of the aforementioned instrumentation, can in principal eventually lead to loss of superconductivity in the buses. Quenching in one bus will rapidly lead to quenching in the other. Potential taps on the buses and magnet coil halves connected to voltage-detection bridges external to the system provide at least dually redundant signals which will unambiguously trigger the magnet rapid discharge system. The conservative design of the bus system ensures that it will not be damaged during such incidents, however improbable they may be. The transition leads in the subcooler are equally conservatively designed, and would not be damaged if they were operated in a fully non-superconducting state for several minutes. The loss of liquid helium in the sub cooler required to cause this condition would imply that helium flow from the magnet had stopped, which in turn would imply that flow to the magnet had also stopped. The lack of flow into the sub cooler would result in insufficient flow to the vapor cooled leads. Any or all of these conditions would be detected, as would

  17. A new economic feasibility approach for solar chimney power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoye, Chiemeka Onyeka; Solyalı, Oğuz; Taylan, Onur

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-stage economic feasibility approach is proposed for the SCPP design. • The optimal size of the SCPP is determined by solving a nonlinear optimization model. • Energy demand and stochasticity of solar radiation and temperature are considered. • The proposed approach is evaluated on locations in Nigeria. • The proposed approach is an effective decision-making tool for the SCPP design. - Abstract: Solar chimney power plants have been accepted as one of the promising technologies for solar energy utilization. The objective of this study is to propose an effective approach to simultaneously determine the optimal dimensions of the solar chimney power plant and the economic feasibility of the proposed plant. For this purpose, a two-stage economic feasibility approach is proposed based on a new nonlinear programming model. In the first stage, the proposed optimization model which determines the optimal plant dimensions that not only minimize the discounted total cost of the system, but also satisfy the energy demand within a specified reliability taking into account the stochasticity of solar radiation and ambient temperature is solved using a commercial optimization solver that guarantees finding the global optimum. In the second stage, the net present value of building the plant is computed by deducting the discounted total cost found in the first stage from the present value of revenues obtained due to selling the electricity generated by the plant. The proposed approach is novel because it determines the optimal dimensions of the plant together with its economic feasibility by taking into account the energy demand and uncertainty in solar radiation and ambient temperature. The proposed approach is applied on a study in Potiskum, Nigeria, which reveals that building a plant with a collector diameter of 1128 m and chimney height of 715 m to Potiskum would be profitable for investors at an annual rate of return of 3% and would provide

  18. Simulation and theory of spontaneous TAE frequency sweeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ge; Berk, H.L.

    2012-01-01

    A simulation model, based on the linear tip model of Rosenbluth, Berk and Van Dam (RBV), is developed to study frequency sweeping of toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAEs). The time response of the background wave in the RBV model is given by a Volterra integral equation. This model captures the properties of TAE waves both in the gap and in the continuum. The simulation shows that phase space structures form spontaneously at frequencies close to the linearly predicted frequency, due to resonant particle–wave interactions and background dissipation. The frequency sweeping signals are found to chirp towards the upper and lower continua. However, the chirping signals penetrate only the lower continuum, whereupon the frequency chirps and mode amplitude increases in synchronism to produce an explosive solution. An adiabatic theory describing the evolution of a chirping signal is developed which replicates the chirping dynamics of the simulation in the lower continuum. This theory predicts that a decaying chirping signal will terminate at the upper continuum though in the numerical simulation the hole disintegrates before the upper continuum is reached. (paper)

  19. Simulation and theory of spontaneous TAE frequency sweeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ge; Berk, H. L.

    2012-09-01

    A simulation model, based on the linear tip model of Rosenbluth, Berk and Van Dam (RBV), is developed to study frequency sweeping of toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAEs). The time response of the background wave in the RBV model is given by a Volterra integral equation. This model captures the properties of TAE waves both in the gap and in the continuum. The simulation shows that phase space structures form spontaneously at frequencies close to the linearly predicted frequency, due to resonant particle-wave interactions and background dissipation. The frequency sweeping signals are found to chirp towards the upper and lower continua. However, the chirping signals penetrate only the lower continuum, whereupon the frequency chirps and mode amplitude increases in synchronism to produce an explosive solution. An adiabatic theory describing the evolution of a chirping signal is developed which replicates the chirping dynamics of the simulation in the lower continuum. This theory predicts that a decaying chirping signal will terminate at the upper continuum though in the numerical simulation the hole disintegrates before the upper continuum is reached.

  20. Spall behaviors of high purity copper under sweeping detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang, E-mail: yangyanggroup@163.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); National Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metals Material Science and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zhi-qiang, Peng; Xing-zhi, Chen [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metals Material Science and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zhao-liang, Guo; Tie-gang, Tang; Hai-bo, Hu [Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Qing-ming, Zhang [National Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-01-10

    Suites of sweeping detonation experiments were conducted to assess the spall behavior of high purity copper samples with different heat treatment histories. Incipient spall samples were obtained at different sweeping detonation condition. Metallographic and Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) analyses were performed on the soft-recovered samples. The effects of grain boundaries, grain size, crystal orientation and loading direction on the spall behaviors were discussed. Spall plane branching was found in the main spall plane of the damage samples. For similar microstructure, the area of voids increase with the increase of shock stress, and the coalescence of voids also become more obvious. Results from EBSD analysis show that the grain sizes were decreased and the grains were elongated along the direction of the plate width. Triple junctions composed of two or more general high angle boundaries are the preferred locations for intergranular damage. Voids prefer to nucleate in the grain boundaries composed of grain with high Taylor Factor (TF) than other grains. The damage areas in the grains with high TF are more severe. Boundaries close to perpendicular to the loading direction are more susceptible to void nucleation than the boundaries close to parallel to the loading direction, but the difference of voids nucleated in these two boundaries is less significant than the results obtained by plate impact experiment. It would be caused by the obliquity between the shock loading direction and the plate normal.

  1. Early- and Mid-term Results of the Chimney Technique in the Repair of Aortic Arch Pathologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Junjie; Jiao, Yuanyong, E-mail: wishlucky@163.com, E-mail: johemail@163.com; Zhang, Xiwei; Jiang, Jun; Yang, Hongyu; Ma, Hao [First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of General Surgery (China)

    2016-11-15

    PurposeTo examine the safety, feasibility, and mid-term efficacy of the chimney technique for aortic arch pathologies.MethodsFrom February 2011 to December 2014, a total of 35 patients (30 men; mean age 54.3 ± 14.1 years) with aortic arch pathologies underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair combined with chimney stents. The indication was a proximal landing zone <1.5 cm. Follow-up was performed at 3, 6, and 12 months and then yearly thereafter.ResultsA total of 36 chimney stents were deployed (innominate artery, n = 1; left common carotid artery, n = 9; right subclavian artery, n = 1; left subclavian artery, n = 25). The technical success rate was 94.3 % (33/35). Immediate type Ia endoleaks (ELIa) were observed in two patients (8.6 %, 2/35). Twenty-five patients were successfully followed-up for a median period of 29.3 months (range, 6–48 months). One patient died due to aortic dissection aneurysm rupture at 36 months (mortality rate of 4 %, 1/25). Three late ELIa were observed and no reinterventions were performed. The overall incidence of ELIa was 20 % (5/25). During follow-up, the patency rate for chimney stents was 92 % (23/25).ConclusionOur limited experience demonstrates that the chimney technique is a viable and relatively safe treatment for patients with challenging thoracic aortic pathologies at least in the mid-term follow-up period.

  2. Early- and Mid-term Results of the Chimney Technique in the Repair of Aortic Arch Pathologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Junjie; Jiao, Yuanyong; Zhang, Xiwei; Jiang, Jun; Yang, Hongyu; Ma, Hao

    2016-01-01

    PurposeTo examine the safety, feasibility, and mid-term efficacy of the chimney technique for aortic arch pathologies.MethodsFrom February 2011 to December 2014, a total of 35 patients (30 men; mean age 54.3 ± 14.1 years) with aortic arch pathologies underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair combined with chimney stents. The indication was a proximal landing zone <1.5 cm. Follow-up was performed at 3, 6, and 12 months and then yearly thereafter.ResultsA total of 36 chimney stents were deployed (innominate artery, n = 1; left common carotid artery, n = 9; right subclavian artery, n = 1; left subclavian artery, n = 25). The technical success rate was 94.3 % (33/35). Immediate type Ia endoleaks (ELIa) were observed in two patients (8.6 %, 2/35). Twenty-five patients were successfully followed-up for a median period of 29.3 months (range, 6–48 months). One patient died due to aortic dissection aneurysm rupture at 36 months (mortality rate of 4 %, 1/25). Three late ELIa were observed and no reinterventions were performed. The overall incidence of ELIa was 20 % (5/25). During follow-up, the patency rate for chimney stents was 92 % (23/25).ConclusionOur limited experience demonstrates that the chimney technique is a viable and relatively safe treatment for patients with challenging thoracic aortic pathologies at least in the mid-term follow-up period.

  3. Prototype implementation and experimental analysis of water heating using recovered waste heat of chimneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Khaled

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses a waste heat recovery system (WHRS applied to chimneys for heating water in residential buildings. A prototype illustrating the suggested system is implemented and tested. Different waste heat scenarios by varying the quantity of burned firewood (heat input are experimented. The temperature at different parts of the WHRS and the gas flow rates of the exhaust pipes are measured. Measurements showed that the temperature of 95 L tank of water can be increased by 68 °C within one hour. Obtained results show that the convection and radiation exchanges at the bottom surface of the tank have a considerable impact on the total heat transfer rate of the water (as high as 70%.

  4. A First Approach to Natural Thermoventilation of Residential Buildings through Ventilation Chimneys Supplied by Solar Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Salata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of natural ventilation is a good solution to improve buildings from an energetic point of view and to fulfill the requirements demanded by the thermohygrometric comfort and the air quality in enclosed spaces. Some past researches demonstrated how some devices, useful to this purpose, follow the principles of solar chimneys and are able to move air masses while exploiting the Archimedes thrust. The natural ventilation must be supplied by a flow moving upward, generated by a heat source performing at temperatures slightly higher than the one present in the environment. To have a minimum energetic effect, the heat can be extracted from solar ponds; solar ponds are able to collect and store solar energy in the geographical regions characterized by sufficient values of solar radiation. Thus it is possible, in summer, to provoke a nocturnal natural ventilation useful for the air change in indoor spaces (in those climatic areas where, during the night, there is a temperature gradient.

  5. Innovative chimney-graft technique for endovascular repair of a pararenal abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiñanes, Edgar Luis; Hernandez-Vila, Eduardo A; Krajcer, Zvonimir

    2015-02-01

    After abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, progressive degeneration of the aneurysm can be challenging to treat. Multiple comorbidities and previous operations place such patients at high risk for repeat surgery. Endovascular repair is a possible alternative; however, challenging anatomy can push the limits of available technology. We describe the case of a 71-year-old man who presented with a 5.3-cm pararenal aneurysm 4 years after undergoing open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. To avoid reoperation, we excluded the aneurysm by endovascular means, using visceral-artery stenting, a chimney-graft technique. Low-profile balloons on a monorail system enabled the rapid exchange of coronary wires via a buddy-wire technique. This novel approach facilitated stenting and simultaneous angioplasty of multiple visceral vessels and the abdominal aorta.

  6. Antecedent and progress of the project on the treatment of chimney gases with electrons in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina V, G.

    1991-10-01

    After the realization of the chimney gases treatment seminar with electrons, organized jointly among the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in August of 1990 and following one of the received recommendations, it was elaborated an economic technical feasibility study of this process in Mexico, using technical data of a thermoelectric power station of Federal Commission of Electricity, where is being consumed fuel oil. This study is good to know some technical parameters of a plant of this process, proposed to settle in Mexico, so as some economic estimates of installation and operation costs of this plant; also, it is traced about the construction of a demonstration plant of the process, with capacity of 20,000 m 3 N/h, using the same data of the thermoelectric power station considered previously, as the first step in the scaling of this process toward industrial level. (Author)

  7. Merging and elevation of ventilation chimneys as method to reduce odour nuisance from pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Bjarne Schmidt

    they can use standard curves that gives the required distance to neighbours calculated at standardized preconditions. If the thresholds are not met, the farmer can include environmental technologies mentioned on a special list maintained by the environmental authorities. Currently biological air cleaners...... are the sole technology mentioned on the list that significantly can reduces the odour emission and the consequent required distance to the neighbours. An alternative to the relative expensive biological air cleaners is to release the air at a larger height which increases the dilution of odour before...... of this work is to enlighten the potential of merging and elevation of ventilation chimneys in order to reduce odour concentration around large pig production facilities. The analyses are based on an assumed facility with an installed ventilation capacity of 720000 m3 h -1, which, in the reference case...

  8. A Novel Chimney Approach for Management of Horseshoe Kidney During EVAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sharma

    Full Text Available Introduction: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs with coexisting horseshoe kidney (HSK can be difficult to repair, with variable blood supply from the aorta and iliac/mesenteric vessels. Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR has become a popular, less invasive approach to aneurysm care, and a chimney approach to EVAR (ChEVAR has expanded its use to more complex anatomy. It is mandatory to maintain adequate perfusion to the HSK and visceral branches as part of the treatment of an AAA. Report: A 61-year-old male with an HSK was incidentally found to have an infrarenal AAA that measured 6 cm on a non-contrast computed tomography (CT scan performed originally for a urologic complaint. A diagnostic angiogram was performed to define arterial anatomy and he was found to have a large inferior mesenteric artery (IMA arising 1 cm above the level of the aneurysm. ChEVAR was performed to preserve the IMA and flow to the HSK with a completion angiogram revealing patent renal arteries, IMA, and no evidence of an endoleak. Follow-up CT imaging demonstrated a Type II endoleak that resolved upon partial nephrectomy for a right-sided transitional cell carcinoma with resection of the arterial blood supply feeding the Type II endoleak. Discussion: IMA preservation via ChEVAR is technically feasible and was crucial to preserve blood supply via the IMA to the HSK. Partial nephrectomy treated the transitional cell carcinoma and resolved the Type II endoleak requiring no additional endovascular intervention. A unique treatment course demonstrated the benefits of less invasive interventions when repairing AAA with an HSK. Keywords: EVAR, Abdominal aortic aneurysm, Inferior mesenteric artery, Snorkel, Chimney, Endoleak

  9. Adiabatic sweep pulses for earth's field NMR with a surface coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradi, Mark S.; Altobelli, Stephen A.; Sowko, Nicholas J.; Conradi, Susan H.; Fukushima, Eiichi

    2018-03-01

    Adiabatic NMR sweep pulses are described for inversion and excitation in very low magnetic fields B0 and with broad distribution of excitation field amplitude B1. Two aspects distinguish the low field case: (1) when B1 is comparable to or greater than B0, the rotating field approximation fails and (2) inversion sweeps cannot extend to values well below the Larmor frequency because they would approach or pass through zero frequency. Three approaches to inversion are described. The first is a conventional tangent frequency sweep down to the Larmor frequency, a 180° phase shift, and a sweep back up to the starting frequency. The other two are combined frequency and amplitude sweeps covering a narrower frequency range; one is a symmetric sweep from above to below the Larmor frequency and the other uses a smooth decrease of B1 immediately before and after the 180° phase shift. These two AM/FM sweeps show excellent inversion efficiencies over a wide range of B1, a factor of 30 or more. We also demonstrate an excitation sweep that works well in the presence of the same wide range of B1. We show that the primary effect of the counter-rotating field (i.e., at low B0) is that the magnetization suffers large, periodic deviations from where it would be at large B0. Thus, successful sweep pulses must avoid any sharp features in the amplitude, phase, or frequency.

  10. Swedish mines. Underground exploitation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paucard, A.

    1960-01-01

    Between 1949 and 1957, 10 engineers of the Mining research and exploitation department of the CEA visited 17 Swedish mines during 5 field trips. This paper presents a compilation of the information gathered during these field trips concerning the different underground mining techniques used in Swedish iron mines: mining with backfilling (Central Sweden and Boliden mines); mining without backfilling (mines of the polar circle area). The following techniques are described successively: pillar drawing and backfilled slices (Ammeberg, Falun, Garpenberg, Boliden group), sub-level pillar drawing (Grangesberg, Bloettberget, Haeksberg), empty room and sub-level pillar drawing (Bodas, Haksberg, Stripa, Bastkarn), storage chamber pillar drawing (Bodas, Haeksberg, Bastkarn), and pillar drawing by block caving (ldkerberget). Reprint of a paper published in Revue de l'Industrie Minerale, vol. 41, no. 12, 1959 [fr

  11. Present-Day Influence of English on Swedish as Found in Swedish Job Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Ben E.

    1990-01-01

    A brief analysis of job advertisements in Swedish newspapers notes the increasing trend toward the use of English rather than Swedish words for certain terms, attributing such use to the wish to show an international labor perspective. (five references) (CB)

  12. The Swedish satellite project Viking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultqvist, B.

    1990-01-01

    The Swedish satellite project Viking is described and related to earlier missions. Some new operational characteristics are discussed, including the real-time data analysis campaigns that were an important part of the project. Some areas of important scientific impact of the project are also described. Viking was specially designed and equipped for investigation of plasma physical acceleration and other processes in the transition region between hot and cold plasma on auroral latitude magnetic field lines

  13. Swedish minister rebuilds scientists' trust

    CERN Multimedia

    Sylwan, P

    1999-01-01

    Thomas Ostros, Sweden's new science minister is aiming to improve links with the science community, severely strained during the tenure of Carl Tham. Significantly, he confirmed that he will not be making any further changes to the managment of the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research. He also announced a 5 per cent increase in government funding for science which will be used to strengthen basic research and education (1 page).

  14. Innovation Management in Swedish Municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Wihlman, Thomas; Hoppe, Magnus; Wihlman, Ulla; Sandmark, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Research on public sector innovation is still limited, and increased knowledge of innovation processes is needed. This article is a based on a study of the implementation of innovation policies in Swedish municipalities, and gives a first-hand, empirical view of some of the complexities of innovation in the public sector. The study took place in four municipalities in central Sweden. The municipalities varied in size and organisational forms. Interviews and policy documents were used for data...

  15. Swedish earthquakes and acceleration probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slunga, R.

    1979-03-01

    A method to assign probabilities to ground accelerations for Swedish sites is described. As hardly any nearfield instrumental data is available we are left with the problem of interpreting macroseismic data in terms of acceleration. By theoretical wave propagation computations the relation between seismic strength of the earthquake, focal depth, distance and ground accelerations are calculated. We found that most Swedish earthquake of the area, the 1904 earthquake 100 km south of Oslo, is an exception and probably had a focal depth exceeding 25 km. For the nuclear power plant sites an annual probability of 10 -5 has been proposed as interesting. This probability gives ground accelerations in the range 5-20 % for the sites. This acceleration is for a free bedrock site. For consistency all acceleration results in this study are given for bedrock sites. When applicating our model to the 1904 earthquake and assuming the focal zone to be in the lower crust we get the epicentral acceleration of this earthquake to be 5-15 % g. The results above are based on an analyses of macrosismic data as relevant instrumental data is lacking. However, the macroseismic acceleration model deduced in this study gives epicentral ground acceleration of small Swedish earthquakes in agreement with existent distant instrumental data. (author)

  16. Energy efficiency in Swedish industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shanshan; Lundgren, Tommy; Zhou, Wenchao

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses energy efficiency in Swedish industry. Using unique firm-level panel data covering the years 2001–2008, the efficiency estimates are obtained for firms in 14 industrial sectors by using data envelopment analysis (DEA). The analysis accounts for multi-output technologies where undesirable outputs are produced alongside with the desirable output. The results show that there was potential to improve energy efficiency in all the sectors and relatively large energy inefficiencies existed in small energy-use industries in the sample period. Also, we assess how the EU ETS, the carbon dioxide (CO_2) tax and the energy tax affect energy efficiency by conducting a second-stage regression analysis. To obtain consistent estimates for the regression model, we apply a modified, input-oriented version of the double bootstrap procedure of Simar and Wilson (2007). The results of the regression analysis reveal that the EU ETS and the CO_2 tax did not have significant influences on energy efficiency in the sample period. However, the energy tax had a positive relation with the energy efficiency. - Highlights: • We use DEA to estimate firm-level energy efficiency in Swedish industry. • We examine impacts of climate and energy policies on energy efficiency. • The analyzed policies are Swedish carbon and energy taxes and the EU ETS. • Carbon tax and EU ETS did not have significant influences on energy efficiency. • The energy tax had a positive relation with energy efficiency.

  17. New Swedish environmental and sustainable education research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Öhman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of Education & Democracy presents examples froma new generation of Swedish research on environmental and sustainability education and thereby complement the picture of the current Swedish environmental and sustainability education research outlined in the recent Danish-Swedish special issue of Environmental EducationResearch (Vol 16, No 1 and the anthology Democracy and Values inEducation for Sustainable Development – Contributions from Swedish Research (Öhman 2008. All the contributors to this issue are associatedwith the Graduate School in Education and Sustainable Development (GRESD, either as PhD students or as supervisors.

  18. Endovascular Aneurysm Repair Using a Reverse Chimney Technique in a Patient With Marfan Syndrome and Contained Ruptured Chronic Type B Dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketelsen, Dominik; Kalender, Guenay; Heuschmid, Martin; Syha, Roland; Mangold, Stefanie; Claussen, Claus D.; Brechtel, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    We report endovascular thoracic and abdominal aneurysm repair (EVAR) with reverse chimney technique in a patient with contained ruptured type B dissection. EVAR seems feasible as a bailout option in Marfan patients with acute life-threatening disease.

  19. Mitigation of divertor heat loads by strike point sweeping in high power JET discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silburn, S. A.; Matthews, G. F.; Challis, C. D.; Frigione, D.; Graves, J. P.; Mantsinen, M. J.; Belonohy, E.; Hobirk, J.; Iglesias, D.; Keeling, D. L.; King, D.; Kirov, K.; Lennholm, M.; Lomas, P. J.; Moradi, S.; Sips, A. C. C.; Tsalas, M.; Contributors, JET

    2017-12-01

    Deliberate periodic movement (sweeping) of the high heat flux divertor strike lines in tokamak plasmas can be used to manage the heat fluxes experienced by exhaust handling plasma facing components, by spreading the heat loads over a larger surface area. Sweeping has recently been adopted as a routine part of the main high performance plasma configurations used on JET, and has enabled pulses with 30 MW plasma heating power and 10 MW radiation to run for 5 s without overheating the divertor tiles. We present analysis of the effectiveness of sweeping for divertor temperature control on JET, using infrared camera data and comparison with a simple 2D heat diffusion model. Around 50% reduction in tile temperature rise is obtained with 5.4 cm sweeping compared to the un-swept case, and the temperature reduction is found to scale slower than linearly with sweeping amplitude in both experiments and modelling. Compatibility of sweeping with high fusion performance is demonstrated, and effects of sweeping on the edge-localised mode behaviour of the plasma are reported and discussed. The prospects of using sweeping in future JET experiments with up to 40 MW heating power are investigated using a model validated against existing experimental data.

  20. Mitigation of divertor heat loads by strike point sweeping in high power JET discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silburn, S A; Matthews, G F; Challis, C D; Belonohy, E; Iglesias, D; Keeling, D L; King, D; Kirov, K; Lomas, P J; Frigione, D; Graves, J P; Mantsinen, M J; Hobirk, J; Lennholm, M; Moradi, S; Sips, A C C; Tsalas, M

    2017-01-01

    Deliberate periodic movement (sweeping) of the high heat flux divertor strike lines in tokamak plasmas can be used to manage the heat fluxes experienced by exhaust handling plasma facing components, by spreading the heat loads over a larger surface area. Sweeping has recently been adopted as a routine part of the main high performance plasma configurations used on JET, and has enabled pulses with 30 MW plasma heating power and 10 MW radiation to run for 5 s without overheating the divertor tiles. We present analysis of the effectiveness of sweeping for divertor temperature control on JET, using infrared camera data and comparison with a simple 2D heat diffusion model. Around 50% reduction in tile temperature rise is obtained with 5.4 cm sweeping compared to the un-swept case, and the temperature reduction is found to scale slower than linearly with sweeping amplitude in both experiments and modelling. Compatibility of sweeping with high fusion performance is demonstrated, and effects of sweeping on the edge-localised mode behaviour of the plasma are reported and discussed. The prospects of using sweeping in future JET experiments with up to 40 MW heating power are investigated using a model validated against existing experimental data. (paper)

  1. Simulation of Sweep-Jet Flow Control, Single Jet and Full Vertical Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Robert E.; Stremel, Paul M.; Garcia, Joseph A.; Heineck, James T.; Kushner, Laura K.; Storms, Bruce L.

    2016-01-01

    This work is a simulation technology demonstrator, of sweep jet flow control used to suppress boundary layer separation and increase the maximum achievable load coefficients. A sweep jet is a discrete Coanda jet that oscillates in the plane parallel to an aerodynamic surface. It injects mass and momentum in the approximate streamwise direction. It also generates turbulent eddies at the oscillation frequency, which are typically large relative to the scales of boundary layer turbulence, and which augment mixing across the boundary layer to attack flow separation. Simulations of a fluidic oscillator, the sweep jet emerging from a nozzle downstream of the oscillator, and an array of sweep jets which suppresses boundary layer separation are performed. Simulation results are compared to data from a dedicated validation experiment of a single oscillator and its sweep jet, and from a wind tunnel test of a full-scale Boeing 757 vertical tail augmented with an array of sweep jets. A critical step in the work is the development of realistic time-dependent sweep jet inflow boundary conditions, derived from the results of the single-oscillator simulations, which create the sweep jets in the full-tail simulations. Simulations were performed using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver Overow, with high-order spatial discretization and a range of turbulence modeling. Good results were obtained for all flows simulated, when suitable turbulence modeling was used.

  2. Second order evolution inclusions governed by sweeping process in Banach spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Ibrahim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we prove two existence theorems concerning the existence of solutions for second order evolution inclusions governed by sweeping process with closed convex sets depending on time and state in Banach spaces. This work extends some recent existence theorems cncerning sweeping process from Hilbert spaces to Banach spaces.

  3. Use of Suture-Mediated Closure Device in Percutaneous Direct Carotid Puncture During Chimney-Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Gabriel; Quek, Lawrence Hwee Han; Tan, Glenn Leong Wei; Pua, Uei

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundInsertion of a carotid chimney graft during thoracic endovascular aortic repair (Ch-TEVAR) is a recognized technique to extend the proximal landing zone into the aortic arch in the treatment of thoracic aortic disease. Conventional technique requires surgical exposure of the carotid artery for insertion of the carotid chimney graft.MethodologyWe describe our experience in the use of a suture-mediated closure device in percutaneous Ch-TEVAR in four patients.ResultsSuccessful hemostasis was achieved in all four patients. No complications related to the carotid puncture were recorded.ConclusionWe conclude that using suture-mediated closure device for carotid closure appears feasible and deserves further studies as a potential alternative to conventional surgical approach.

  4. Use of Suture-Mediated Closure Device in Percutaneous Direct Carotid Puncture During Chimney-Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Gabriel, E-mail: dr.changabriel@gmail.com; Quek, Lawrence Hwee Han, E-mail: lawrence-quek@ttsh.com.sg [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore); Tan, Glenn Leong Wei, E-mail: glenn-tan@ttsh.com.sg [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of General Surgery (Singapore); Pua, Uei, E-mail: druei@yahoo.com [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore)

    2016-07-15

    BackgroundInsertion of a carotid chimney graft during thoracic endovascular aortic repair (Ch-TEVAR) is a recognized technique to extend the proximal landing zone into the aortic arch in the treatment of thoracic aortic disease. Conventional technique requires surgical exposure of the carotid artery for insertion of the carotid chimney graft.MethodologyWe describe our experience in the use of a suture-mediated closure device in percutaneous Ch-TEVAR in four patients.ResultsSuccessful hemostasis was achieved in all four patients. No complications related to the carotid puncture were recorded.ConclusionWe conclude that using suture-mediated closure device for carotid closure appears feasible and deserves further studies as a potential alternative to conventional surgical approach.

  5. A current systematic evaluation and meta-analysis of chimney graft technology in aortic arch diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Wael; Mylonas, Spyridon; Majd, Payman; Brunkwall, Jan Sigge

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a review of the literature on the use of chimney graft (CG) technique in treating arterial diseases of the aortic arch and to extrapolate conclusions by summarizing the reported outcomes in a meta-analysis. An extensive electronic search was made using PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Direct Databases, and the Cochrane Library. Included in this meta-analysis were all papers published up to February 2016 on endovascular chimney technique in the arch vessels with or without adjunct extra-anatomic debranching, in any language, providing data about at least one of the essential outcomes: early and late type I endoleak, 30-day mortality rate, development of perioperative stroke, patency, and retrograde aortic dissection. Of the 478 reports yielded by the electronic search, a total of 11 publications (on 373 patients and 387 CGs) fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in this study. The overall estimated proportion of technical success was 91.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 87.4%-94.0%). Of the 373 patients, 26 (7%) experienced a type Ia endoleak in the perioperative period. The overall estimated proportion of early type Ia endoleak was 9.4% (95% CI, 6.5%-13.4%). Among the 10 studies that provided data, a retrograde type A dissection was observed in 2 of 351 patients, resulting in an overall estimated proportion of 1.8% (95% CI, 0.8%-4.0%). The pooled 30-day mortality rate was 7.9% (95% CI, 4.6%-13.2%). The pooled estimation for reintervention was 10.6% (95% CI, 5%-21%); for major stroke, 2.6% (95% CI, 1.3%-5.0%); for early patency, 97.9% (95% CI, 95.8%-99%); and for late patency, 92.9% (95% CI, 87.3%-96%). Treatment of aortic diseases involving the aortic arch poses a great challenge. The CG technique has been applied as an alternative treatment option. This meta-analysis shows that endovascular repair of aortic arch disease using a CG technique in the aortic arch vessels is technically feasible and effective but not without

  6. Analysis of Massively Parallel Discrete-Ordinates Transport Sweep Algorithms with Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, T.S.; Falgout, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    We present theoretical scaling models for a variety of discrete-ordinates sweep algorithms. In these models, we pay particular attention to the way each algorithm handles collisions. A collision is defined as a processor having multiple angles with ready to be swept during one stage of the sweep. The models also take into account how subdomains are assigned to processors and how angles are grouped during the sweep. We describe a data driven algorithm that resolves collisions efficiently during the sweep as well as other algorithms that have been designed to avoid collisions completely. Our models are validated using the ARGES and AMTRAN transport codes. We then use the models to study and predict scaling trends in all of the sweep algorithms

  7. Dioxin emissions from coal combustion in domestic stove: Formation in the chimney and coal chlorine content influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradiz Bostjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion experiments conducted in domestic stove burning hard coal demonstrated a predominant influence of the coal chlorine content on the PCDD/F emissions, together with a pronounced effect of the flue gas temperature. PCDD/F concentrations of over 100 ng TEQ/m3, three orders of magnitude higher than in a modern waste incinerator, were measured in the flue gases of a domestic stove when combusting high chlorine coal (0.31 %. The PCDD/F concentrations in the flue gases dropped below 0,5 ng TEQ/m3, when low chlorine coal (0.07 % was used. When low chlorine coal was impregnated with NaCl to obtain 0.38 % chlorine content, the emission of the PCDD/Fs increased by two orders of magnitude. Pronounced nonlinearity of the PCDD/F concentrations related to chlorine content in the coal was observed. The combustion of the high chlorine coal yielded PCDD/F concentrations in flue gases one order of magnitude lower in a fan cooled chimney when compared to an insulated one, thus indicating formation in the chimney. The influence of flue gas temperature on the PCDD/F emissions was less pronounced when burning low chlorine coal. The predominant pathway of the PCDD/F emissions is via flue gases, 99 % of the TEQ in the case of the high chlorine coal for insulated chimney.

  8. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  9. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  10. The Swedish sounding rocket programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, R.

    1980-01-01

    Within the Swedish Sounding Rocket Program the scientific groups perform experimental studies of magnetospheric and ionospheric physics, upper atmosphere physics, astrophysics, and material sciences in zero g. New projects are planned for studies of auroral electrodynamics using high altitude rockets, investigations of noctilucent clouds, and active release experiments. These will require increased technical capabilities with respect to payload design, rocket performance and ground support as compared with the current program. Coordination with EISCAT and the planned Viking satellite is essential for the future projects. (Auth.)

  11. Endoparasites in some Swedish Amphibians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1988-01-01

    A study was made of the endoparasites in specimens of Rana arvalis and R. temporaria collected on two occasions from a locality of southern Sweden. Some frogs were investigated directly after capture while other frogs were kept hibernating and the composition of the parasites as well...... as the behaviour of the parasites were studied after the termination of hibernation. Twelve species of parasites were found. Six of them, Polystoma integerrimum, Pleurogenes claviger (Trematoda), Rhabdias bufonis, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, Cosmocerca ornata and Oxysomatium brevicauda- tum (Nematoda), have...... not previously been reported from Sweden. The late Prof. O. Nybelin's unpublished records of parasites found in Swedish amphibians are also given....

  12. Swedish Opinion on Nuclear Power 1986 - 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Soeren

    2012-11-01

    This report contains the Swedish opinion on Nuclear Power and European Attitudes on Nuclear Power. It also includes European Attitudes Towards the Future of Three Energy Sources; Nuclear Energy, Wind Power and Solar Power - with a focus on the Swedish opinion. Results from measurements done by the SOM Inst. are presented.

  13. Is spoken Danish less intelligible than Swedish?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooskens, Charlotte; van Heuven, Vincent J.; van Bezooijen, Renee; Pacilly, Jos J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The most straightforward way to explain why Danes understand spoken Swedish relatively better than Swedes understand spoken Danish would be that spoken Danish is intrinsically a more difficult language to understand than spoken Swedish. We discuss circumstantial evidence suggesting that Danish is

  14. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  15. Cracked reinforced concrete walls of chimneys, silos and cooling towers as result of using formworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj Marek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There are presented in this paper some problems connected with reinforced concrete shell objects operation in the aggressive environment and built in method of formworks. Reinforced concrete chimneys, cooling towers, silos and other shells were built for decades. Durability of cracked shells are one of the most important parameters during process of designing, construction and exploitation of shells. Some reasons of appearance of horizontal and vertical cracks as temperature, pressure of stored material, live loads e.g. dynamic character of wind, moisture, influence of construction joints, thermal insulation, chemistry active environmental etc. reduce the carrying capacity of the walls. Formworks, as is occurred recently, are the reason for technological joints with leaking connection, imperfections of flexible formworks slabs and as result can initiate cracks. Cracked surface of this constructions causes decreasing capacity and lower the state of reliability. Horizontal, vertical cracks can caused corrosion of concrete and steel bars, decreasing stiffness of contraction, increasing of deflection and carbonation of concrete cover. Local and global imperfactions of concrete shells are increasing according to greater number of cracks...

  16. Real chimney technique for total debranching of supra-aortic trunks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masaaki; Kagaya, Hideo; Kubo, Yoji; Banno, Hiroshi; Ohkubo, Nobukazu

    2015-02-01

    Side-clamping of the ascending aorta is an indispensable technique for proximal anastomosis in total debranching of supra-aortic trunks and in endovascular aneurysm repair for arch aneurysm. However, this procedure may lead to the dislodging of multiple plaques and to clamp injury of the ascending aorta. We developed a clampless technique to achieve proximal anastomosis between the ascending aorta and an artificial graft used for total debranching of supra-aortic trunks. We applied this method in six patients with arch aneurysm and a plaque-rich ascending aorta and were able to achieve total debranching of the supra-aortic trunks in all of the patients without side-clamping the ascending aorta and no procedurally related complications. This clampless anastomosis technique ("real chimney technique") in the ascending aorta is a valuable option for total debranching of supra-aortic trunks in the hybrid repair of arch aneurysms. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental investigation into heating and airflow in trombe walls and solar chimneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, A.; Burek, S.

    2006-01-01

    Trombe Walls and solar chimneys are examples of passive solar air heating systems. However, the airflow and thermal efficiency characteristics of this type of system are not well understood, and partly for this reason, they are not commonly utilised. This paper reports on an experimental investigation into buoyancy-driven convection in a test rig designed to simulate the operation of a passive solar collector. The test rig comprised a vertical open-ended channel, approximately 1a square, heated from one side. The channel depth could be varied from 20mm to 110mm, and heating inputs varied from 200W to 1000W. Temperatures and airflow rates were measured and recorded, to characterise both steady-state and transient performance. The principal findings are: 1. Time constants (for heating)ranged typically between 30 and 70 minutes. 2. Flow regimes were mainly laminar (Reynolds number varing from ∼500 to ∼4000, depending on heat input and channel depth. 3. The thermal efficiency (as a solar collector and the heat transfer coefficient were functions of heat input, and were not depended on the channel depth. 4. The mass flow rate through the channel increased bath as the heat input increased and as the channel depth increased. The paper presents these findings and discusses their implications in more detail.(Author)

  18. Enhancement of the conductivity detection signal in capillary electrophoresis systems using neutral cyclodextrins as sweeping agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boublík, Milan; Riesová, Martina; Dubský, Pavel; Gaš, Bohuslav

    2018-06-01

    Conductivity detection is a universal detection technique often encountered in electrophoretic separation systems, especially in modern chip-electrophoresis based devices. On the other hand, it is sparsely combined with another contemporary trend of enhancing limits of detection by means of various preconcentration strategies. This can be attributed to the fact that a preconcentration experimental setup usually brings about disturbances in a conductivity baseline. Sweeping with a neutral sweeping agent seems a good candidate for overcoming this problem. A neutral sweeping agent does not hinder the conductivity detection while a charged analyte may preconcentrate on its boundary due to a decrease in its effective mobility. This study investigates such sweeping systems theoretically, by means of computer simulations, and experimentally. A formula is provided for the reliable estimation of the preconcentration factor. Additionally, it is demonstrated that the conductivity signal can significantly benefit from slowing down the analyte and thus the overall signal enhancement can easily overweight amplification caused solely by the sweeping process. The overall enhancement factor can be deduced a priori from the linearized theory of electrophoresis implemented in the PeakMaster freeware. Sweeping by neutral cyclodextrin is demonstrated on an amplification of a conductivity signal of flurbiprofen in a real drug sample. Finally, a possible formation of unexpected system peaks in systems with a neutral sweeping agent is revealed by the computer simulation and confirmed experimentally. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Load consequences when sweeping blades - A case study of a 5 MW pitch controlled wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verelst, D.R.S.; Larsen, Torben J.

    2010-08-15

    The generic 5 MW NREL wind turbine model is used in Risoe's aeroelastic simulator HAWC2 to investigate 120 different swept blade configurations (forward and backward sweep). Sensitivity for 2 different controllers is considered as well. Backward sweep results in a pitch to feather torsional moment of the blade, effectively reducing blade twist angles under increased loading. This behaviour results in decreased flap-wise fatigue and extreme loads, an increase for edge-wise fatigue loading and status quo or slight decrease in extreme loads (depending on the controller). Tower base and shaft-end bending moments are reduced as well. Forward sweep leads to an increase in angle of attack under loading. For a pitch controlled turbine this leads to an increase in fatigue and extreme loading in all cases. A controller inflicted instability is present for the more extreme forward swept cases. Due to the shape of considered sweep curves, an inherent and significant increase in torsional blade root bending moment is noted. A boomerang shaped sweep curve is proposed to counteract this problematic increased loading. Controller sensitivity shows that adding sweep affects some loadings differently. Power output is reduced for backward sweep since the blade twist is optimized as a rigid structure, ignoring the torsional deformations which for a swept blade can be significant. (author)

  20. Enhancing the mathematical properties of new haplotype homozygosity statistics for the detection of selective sweeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garud, Nandita R; Rosenberg, Noah A

    2015-06-01

    Soft selective sweeps represent an important form of adaptation in which multiple haplotypes bearing adaptive alleles rise to high frequency. Most statistical methods for detecting selective sweeps from genetic polymorphism data, however, have focused on identifying hard selective sweeps in which a favored allele appears on a single haplotypic background; these methods might be underpowered to detect soft sweeps. Among exceptions is the set of haplotype homozygosity statistics introduced for the detection of soft sweeps by Garud et al. (2015). These statistics, examining frequencies of multiple haplotypes in relation to each other, include H12, a statistic designed to identify both hard and soft selective sweeps, and H2/H1, a statistic that conditional on high H12 values seeks to distinguish between hard and soft sweeps. A challenge in the use of H2/H1 is that its range depends on the associated value of H12, so that equal H2/H1 values might provide different levels of support for a soft sweep model at different values of H12. Here, we enhance the H12 and H2/H1 haplotype homozygosity statistics for selective sweep detection by deriving the upper bound on H2/H1 as a function of H12, thereby generating a statistic that normalizes H2/H1 to lie between 0 and 1. Through a reanalysis of resequencing data from inbred lines of Drosophila, we show that the enhanced statistic both strengthens interpretations obtained with the unnormalized statistic and leads to empirical insights that are less readily apparent without the normalization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Measurements of the eigenfunction of reversed shear Alfvén eigenmodes that sweep downward in frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Austin, M. E.; Spong, D. A.; Tobias, B. J.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Reversed shear Alfvén eigenmodes (RSAEs) usually sweep upward in frequency when the minimum value of the safety factor q min decreases in time. On rare occasions, RSAEs sweep downward prior to the upward sweep. Electron cyclotron emission measurements show that the radial eigenfunction during the downsweeping phase is similar to the eigenfunction of normal, upsweeping RSAEs

  2. Autonomous Planning and Replanning for Mine-Sweeping Unmanned Underwater Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Daniel M.

    2010-01-01

    This software generates high-quality plans for carrying out mine-sweeping activities under resource constraints. The autonomous planning and replanning system for unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) takes as input a set of prioritized mine-sweep regions, and a specification of available UUV resources including available battery energy, data storage, and time available for accomplishing the mission. Mine-sweep areas vary in location, size of area to be swept, and importance of the region. The planner also works with a model of the UUV, as well as a model of the power consumption of the vehicle when idle and when moving.

  3. Fast grid layout algorithm for biological networks with sweep calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Kaname; Nagasaki, Masao; Miyano, Satoru

    2008-06-15

    Properly drawn biological networks are of great help in the comprehension of their characteristics. The quality of the layouts for retrieved biological networks is critical for pathway databases. However, since it is unrealistic to manually draw biological networks for every retrieval, automatic drawing algorithms are essential. Grid layout algorithms handle various biological properties such as aligning vertices having the same attributes and complicated positional constraints according to their subcellular localizations; thus, they succeed in providing biologically comprehensible layouts. However, existing grid layout algorithms are not suitable for real-time drawing, which is one of requisites for applications to pathway databases, due to their high-computational cost. In addition, they do not consider edge directions and their resulting layouts lack traceability for biochemical reactions and gene regulations, which are the most important features in biological networks. We devise a new calculation method termed sweep calculation and reduce the time complexity of the current grid layout algorithms through its encoding and decoding processes. We conduct practical experiments by using 95 pathway models of various sizes from TRANSPATH and show that our new grid layout algorithm is much faster than existing grid layout algorithms. For the cost function, we introduce a new component that penalizes undesirable edge directions to avoid the lack of traceability in pathways due to the differences in direction between in-edges and out-edges of each vertex. Java implementations of our layout algorithms are available in Cell Illustrator. masao@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  4. Mechanistic Understanding of Microbial Plugging for Improved Sweep Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Bryant; Larry Britton

    2008-09-30

    Microbial plugging has been proposed as an effective low cost method of permeability reduction. Yet there is a dearth of information on the fundamental processes of microbial growth in porous media, and there are no suitable data to model the process of microbial plugging as it relates to sweep efficiency. To optimize the field implementation, better mechanistic and volumetric understanding of biofilm growth within a porous medium is needed. In particular, the engineering design hinges upon a quantitative relationship between amount of nutrient consumption, amount of growth, and degree of permeability reduction. In this project experiments were conducted to obtain new data to elucidate this relationship. Experiments in heterogeneous (layered) beadpacks showed that microbes could grow preferentially in the high permeability layer. Ultimately this caused flow to be equally divided between high and low permeability layers, precisely the behavior needed for MEOR. Remarkably, classical models of microbial nutrient uptake in batch experiments do not explain the nutrient consumption by the same microbes in flow experiments. We propose a simple extension of classical kinetics to account for the self-limiting consumption of nutrient observed in our experiments, and we outline a modeling approach based on architecture and behavior of biofilms. Such a model would account for the changing trend of nutrient consumption by bacteria with the increasing biomass and the onset of biofilm formation. However no existing model can explain the microbial preference for growth in high permeability regions, nor is there any obvious extension of the model for this observation. An attractive conjecture is that quorum sensing is involved in the heterogeneous bead packs.

  5. NGC 3312: A victim of ram pressure sweeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcmahon, P.M.; Richter, O.G.; Vangorkom, J.H.; Ferguson, H.C.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers are undertaking a volume limited survey of the Hydra I cluster in neutral hydrogen using the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Large Array (VLA). The main purpose is to study the effects of a dense environment on the gaseous component of the galaxies. Observational evidence has been accumulating recently that ram pressure sweeping does occur in the centers of clusters, but it is possible that tidal interactions play a role as well. Results of high resolution HI imaging of NGC 3312, the large peculiar spiral near the cluster center are presented. Hydra I (= A1060) is the nearest rich cluster beyond Virgo and, as such, presents a unique opportunity to do a complete survey of a cluster. It is similar to the Virgo cluster in many of its general physical characteristics, such as size, x ray luminosity, velocity dispersion, and galaxy content (high spiral fraction). However, Hydra I appears to be more regular and relaxed. This is evident in the x ray distribution in its central region, which is radially symmetric and centered on the dominant galaxy, NGC 3311, a cD-like elliptical. The observed x ray luminosity implies a central gas density of 4.5 x 10 to the 3rd power cm(-3). Gallagher (1978) argued from optical images of NGC 3312 that this galaxy might be an ideal candidate to directly study effects of the ram pressure process; it might currently be undergoing stripping of its interstellar medium. The researchers' data are consistent with this suggestion, but other origins of the peculiar appearance cannot yet be ruled out

  6. Application of Solar Chimney Concept to Solve Potential Safety Issues of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khasawneh, Khalid; PARK, Youn Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In this paper two main events and their causes have been investigated and a potential alternative supporting system will be provided. The first event to be addressed is the Station Blackout (SBO) caused by the inherent unreliability of the Emergency Diesel Generators (EDGs) and Alternative AC (AAC) power sources. Different parameters affect The EDG unreliability; for instance, mechanical, operational, maintenance and surveillance. Those parameters will be analyzed and linked to plant safety and Core Damage Frequency (CDF). Also the AACs, the SBO diesel generators, will be studied and their operational requirements similarity with the EDGs will be discussed. The second event to be addressed is the Loss of Ultimate Heat Sink (LUHS) caused by the degradation of heat exchange effectiveness, that is, the poor heat transfer to the Ultimate Heat Sink (UHS). Different causes to such case were observed; intake lines blockages due to ice and foreign biological matters formation and oil spill near the heat sink causing the oil leakage to the heat exchangers tubes. The later cause, oil spill, has been given a special attention here due its potential effects for different nuclear power plants (NPPs) around the world; for example, Finland and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). For the Finnish case, the Finnish nuclear regulator (STUK) took already countermeasures for such scenario by introducing alternative heat sink, cooling towers, for the primary used heat sink, sea water, for one of its nuclear power plants. The abundance of the solar irradiation in the UAE region provides a perfect condition for the implementation of solar power applications. Utilizing this unique characteristic of that region may provide promising alternative and diverse options for solving potential safety related issues of their NPPs. The Solar Chimney Power Plant (SCPP) could be employed to serve as a supporting system to provide emergency power, in the case of SBO, and emergency cooling, in the case of

  7. Application of Solar Chimney Concept to Solve Potential Safety Issues of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasawneh, Khalid; PARK, Youn Won

    2014-01-01

    In this paper two main events and their causes have been investigated and a potential alternative supporting system will be provided. The first event to be addressed is the Station Blackout (SBO) caused by the inherent unreliability of the Emergency Diesel Generators (EDGs) and Alternative AC (AAC) power sources. Different parameters affect The EDG unreliability; for instance, mechanical, operational, maintenance and surveillance. Those parameters will be analyzed and linked to plant safety and Core Damage Frequency (CDF). Also the AACs, the SBO diesel generators, will be studied and their operational requirements similarity with the EDGs will be discussed. The second event to be addressed is the Loss of Ultimate Heat Sink (LUHS) caused by the degradation of heat exchange effectiveness, that is, the poor heat transfer to the Ultimate Heat Sink (UHS). Different causes to such case were observed; intake lines blockages due to ice and foreign biological matters formation and oil spill near the heat sink causing the oil leakage to the heat exchangers tubes. The later cause, oil spill, has been given a special attention here due its potential effects for different nuclear power plants (NPPs) around the world; for example, Finland and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). For the Finnish case, the Finnish nuclear regulator (STUK) took already countermeasures for such scenario by introducing alternative heat sink, cooling towers, for the primary used heat sink, sea water, for one of its nuclear power plants. The abundance of the solar irradiation in the UAE region provides a perfect condition for the implementation of solar power applications. Utilizing this unique characteristic of that region may provide promising alternative and diverse options for solving potential safety related issues of their NPPs. The Solar Chimney Power Plant (SCPP) could be employed to serve as a supporting system to provide emergency power, in the case of SBO, and emergency cooling, in the case of

  8. Gender Integration and the Swedish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Daniel Marcus Sunil

    This paper discusses different gender aspects of the Swedish Armed Forces with specific references to sexual harassment and prostitution. By using the concept of Hegemonic Masculinity, sexual harassment of the women in the Swedish Armed Forces is explained in terms of a need of the men within...... the organisation to reinforce the notion of women as inferior and subordinate to men, whereby the external hegemony is believed to be restored. Likewise, male Swedish peacekeepers’ demand for prostitution during international peacekeeping missions is explained in terms of a need to confirm manhood and as homo...

  9. Geochemical models of metasomatism in ultramafic systems: Serpentinization, rodingitization, and sea floor carbonate chimney precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palandri, J.L.; Reed, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    In a series of water-rock reaction simulations, we assess the processes of serpentinization of harzburgite and related calcium metasomatism resulting in rodingite-type alteration, and seafloor carbonate chimney precipitation. At temperatures from 25 to 300??C (P = 10 to 100 bar), using either fresh water or seawater, serpentinization simulations produce an assemblage commonly observed in natural systems, dominated by serpentine, magnetite, and brucite. The reacted waters in the simulations show similar trends in composition with decreasing water-rock ratios, becoming hyper-alkaline and strongly reducing, with increased dissolved calcium. At 25??C and w/r less than ???32, conditions are sufficiently reducing to yield H2 gas, nickel-iron alloy and native copper. Hyperalkalinity results from OH- production by olivine and pyroxene dissolution in the absence of counterbalancing OH- consumption by alteration mineral precipitation except at very high pH; at moderate pH there are no stable calcium minerals and only a small amount of chlorite forms, limited by aluminum, thus allowing Mg2+ and Ca2+ to accumulate in the aqueous phase in exchange for H+. The reducing conditions result from oxidation of ferrous iron in olivine and pyroxene to ferric iron in magnetite. Trace metals are computed to be nearly insoluble below 300??C, except for mercury, for which high pH stabilizes aqueous and gaseous Hg??. In serpentinization by seawater at 300??C, Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt may approach ore-forming concentrations in sulfide complexes. Simulated mixing of the fluid derived from serpentinization with cold seawater produces a mineral assemblage dominated by calcite, similar to recently discovered submarine, ultramafic rock-hosted, carbonate mineral deposits precipitating at hydrothermal vents. Simulated reaction of gabbroic or basaltic rocks with the hyperalkaline calcium- and aluminum-rich fluid produced during serpentinization at 300??C yields rodingite-type mineral assemblages, including

  10. A cost-benefit analysis of power generation from commercial reinforced concrete solar chimney power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Weibing; Wei, Ping; Zhou, Xinping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop an economic model different from related models. • We evaluate the initial investment cost of a plant built in northwest China. • We analyze the cost and benefit of a plant built in northwest China. • By the sensitivity analysis, we examine the sensitivity of TNPV to many parameters. - Abstract: This paper develops a model different from existing models to analyze the cost and benefit of a reinforced concrete solar chimney power plant (RCSCPP) built in northwest China. Based on the model and some assumptions for values of parameters, this work calculates total net present value (TNPV) and the minimum electricity price in each phase by dividing the whole service period into four phases. The results show that the minimum electricity price in the first phase is higher than the current market price of electricity, but the minimum prices in the other phases are far less than the current market price. The analysis indicates that huge advantages of the RCSCPP over coal-fired power plants can be embodied in phases 2–4. In addition, the sensitivity analysis performed in this paper discovers TNPV is very sensitive to changes in the solar electricity price and inflation rate, but responds only slightly to changes in carbon credits price, income tax rate and interest rate of loans. Our analysis predicts that RCSCPPs have very good application prospect. To encourage the development of RCSCPPs, the government should provide subsidy by setting higher electricity price in the first phase, then lower electricity price in the other phases

  11. The Swedish wood fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, Bengt

    1999-01-01

    In Sweden, wood fuels are traditionally used in the Swedish forest products industry and for heating of single-family houses. More recently they are also become established as an energy source for district heating and electricity production. Energy policy, especially the energy taxation system, has favoured wood fuels and other biofuels, mainly for environmental reasons. There is now an established commercial market for wood fuels in the district heating sector, which amounts to 45 PJ and is growing 20 per cent annually. Price levels have been stable in current prices for a decade, mainly because of good access to wood fuels. Price levels are dominated by production costs on a market that is largely governed by the buyer. It is expected that the use of wood fuels will increased in Sweden in the future, which will push a further development of this section on the market and bring about technological changes in the area. (Author)

  12. Calling computers names in Swedish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Johan

    2017-01-01

    I very much enjoyed reading Jim Fleming’s article on Carl-Gustaf Rossby and the seminal contributions Rossby made to meteorology. Furthermore, the otherwise excellent article has two errors. Something must have gotten lost in translation to cause Fleming to claim that “Rossby pursued numerical weather prediction in Sweden in an era in which there was no Swedish word for digital computer.” With applied mathematician Germund Dahlquist, Rossby developed a weather model for the Binär Elektronisk Sekvens Kalkylator (BESK; Binary Electronic Sequence Calculator). Designed and built in Sweden, BESK was the world’s fastest computer when it became operational in 1953. From September 1954, BESK weather simulations enabled routine 24-hour national forecasts.

  13. Studies in Swedish Energy Opinion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Soeren; Hedberg, Per

    2012-07-01

    the 1970s, energy production was politicized big time in the industrialized world. The birth of the environmental movement, the oil crises in 1973 - 74 and the beginning conflict surrounding civilian nuclear power, put energy issues center stage on the political agenda. Energy policies - especially related to the development of nuclear power - came to dominate election campaigns, like in Sweden in 1976 or be the subject of referendums, like in Austria in 1978 or in Sweden in 1980. Critical voices toward the peaceful use of nuclear power - having started in America before being exported to Europe - gained real strength and public support all over the Western world by the nuclear accident at the Three Mile Island plant in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania in 1979. The energy genie was out of the bottle and out to stay. Fueled by the nuclear meltdowns in Chernobyl in 1986 and in Fukushima in 2011 and supplemented by conflicts over how to reduce the use of oil and coal, how to sensibly exploit the waste gas reserves, and how to develop renewable energy sources based on sun, wind and waves – have made all kinds of energy issues the focal point of political contentions ever since the early 1970s. In Sweden, as in many other countries, energy policies - often with nuclear power in the center - have been one of the most fought-over policy areas during the last thirty-forty years. And the contentious character of energy policies is not limited to the elite level of politics - to politicians, to media pundits or to lobbyists. It is also manifest among ordinary citizens. Energy issues - nuclear power and wind power in particular - are highly polarizing among voters as well. Given this historic background, starting in the 1970s, it was rather natural that energy questions - featuring most prominently questions related to nuclear power - would be important parts of the voter surveys performed by the Swedish National Elections Studies (SNES) at the Univ. of Gothenburg. The first book

  14. Biomass and Swedish energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Bengt

    2001-01-01

    The use of biomass in Sweden has increased by 44% between 1990 and 1999. In 1999 it was 85 TWh, equivalent to 14% of the total Swedish energy supply. The existence of large forest industry and district heating systems has been an essential condition for this expansion. The tax reform in 1991 seems, however, to have been the most important factor responsible for the rapid bioenergy expansion. Through this reform, the taxation of fossil fuels in district heating systems increased by approximately 30-160%, depending on fuel, whereas bioenergy remained untaxed. Industry is exempted from the energy tax and pays reduced carbon tax. No tax is levied on fossil fuels used for electricity production. Investment grants have existed for biomass-based electricity production but these grants have not been large enough to make biomass-based electricity production economically competitive in a period of falling electricity prices. Despite this, the biomass-based electricity production has increased slightly between 1990 and 1999. A new taxation system aiming at a removal of the tax difference between the industry, district heating and electricity sectors has recently been analysed by the Swedish government. One risk with such a system is that it reduces the competitiveness for biomass in district heating systems as it seems unlikely that the taxes on fossil fuels in the industry and electricity sectors will increase to a level much higher than in other countries. A new system, based on green certificates, for supporting electricity from renewable energy sources has also been proposed by the government.

  15. Laminar/transition sweeping flow-mixing model for wire-wrapped LMFBR assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, K.F.; Rohsenow, W.M.; Todreas, N.E.

    1980-07-01

    Recent interest in analyzing the thermal hydraulic characteristics of LMFBR assemblies operating in the mixed convection regime motivates the extension of the aforementioned turbulent sweeping flow model to low Reynolds number flows. The accuracy to which knowledge of the mixing parameters is required has not been well determined, due to the increased influence of conduction and buoyancy effects with respect to energy transport at low Reynolds numbers. This study represents a best estimate attempt to correlate the existing low Reynolds number sweeping flow data. The laminar/transition model which is presented is expected to be useful in anayzing mixed convection conditions. However, the justification for making additional improvemements is contingent upon two factors. First, the ability of the proposed laminar/transition model to predict additional low Reynolds number sweeping flow data for other geometries needs to be investigated. Secondly, the sensitivity of temperature predictions to uncertainties in the values of the sweeping flow parameters should be quantified

  16. Outline of Swedish activities on LWR fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grounes, M [Studsvik Nuclear, Nykoeping (Sweden); Roennberg, G [OKG AB (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    The presentation outlines the Swedish activities on LWR fuel and considers the following issues: electricity production; performance of operating nuclear power plants; nuclear fuel cycle and waste management; research and development in nuclear field. 4 refs, 4 tabs.

  17. Evaluation of two sweeping methods for estimating the number of immature Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae in large containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Regina Dibo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Here, we evaluated sweeping methods used to estimate the number of immature Aedes aegypti in large containers. Methods III/IV instars and pupae at a 9:1 ratio were placed in three types of containers with, each one with three different water levels. Two sweeping methods were tested: water-surface sweeping and five-sweep netting. The data were analyzed using linear regression. Results The five-sweep netting technique was more suitable for drums and water-tanks, while the water-surface sweeping method provided the best results for swimming pools. Conclusions Both sweeping methods are useful tools in epidemiological surveillance programs for the control of Aedes aegypti.

  18. A new method for calculating volumetric sweeps efficiency using streamline simulation concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidrobo, E A

    2000-01-01

    One of the purposes of reservoir engineering is to quantify the volumetric sweep efficiency for optimizing reservoir management decisions. The estimation of this parameter has always been a difficult task. Until now, sweep efficiency correlations and calculations have been limited to mostly homogeneous 2-D cases. Calculating volumetric sweep efficiency in a 3-D heterogeneous reservoir becomes difficult due to inherent complexity of multiple layers and arbitrary well configurations. In this paper, a new method for computing volumetric sweep efficiency for any arbitrary heterogeneity and well configuration is presented. The proposed method is based on Datta-Gupta and King's formulation of streamline time-of-flight (1995). Given the fact that the time-of-flight reflects the fluid front propagation at various times, then the connectivity in the time-of-flight represents a direct measure of the volumetric sweep efficiency. The proposed approach has been applied to synthetic as well as field examples. Synthetic examples are used to validate the volumetric sweep efficiency calculations using the streamline time-of-flight connectivity criterion by comparison with analytic solutions and published correlations. The field example, which illustrates the feasibility of the approach for large-scale field applications, is from the north Robertson unit, a low permeability carbonate reservoir in west Texas

  19. A Sweeping Jet Application on a High Reynolds Number Semispan Supercritical Wing Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gregory S.; Milholen, William E., II; Chan, David T.; Melton, Latunia; Goodliff, Scott L.; Cagle, C. Mark

    2017-01-01

    The FAST-MAC circulation control model was modified to test an array of unsteady sweeping-jet actuators at realistic flight Reynolds numbers in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. Two types of sweeping jet actuators were fabricated using rapid prototype techniques, and directed over a 15% chord simple-hinged flap. The model was configured for low-speed high-lift testing with flap deflections of 30 deg and 60 deg, and a transonic cruise configuration having a 0 deg flap deflection. For the 30 deg flap high-lift configuration, the sweeping jets achieved comparable lift performance in the separation control regime, while reducing the mass flow by 54% as compared to steady blowing. The sweeping jets however were not effective for the 60 deg flap. For the transonic cruise configuration, the sweeping jets reduced the drag by 3.3% at an off-design condition. The drag reduction for the design lift coefficient for the sweeping jets offer is only half the drag reduction shown for the steady blowing case (6.5%), but accomplished this with a 74% reduction in mass flow.

  20. Using Computational Fluid Dynamics and Experiments to Design Sweeping Jets for High Reynolds Number Cruise Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gregory S.; Milholen, William E., II; Fell, Jared S.; Webb, Sandy R.; Cagle, C. Mark

    2016-01-01

    The application of a sweeping jet actuator to a circulation control system was initiated by a risk reduction series of experiments to optimize the authority of a single sweeping jet actuator. The sweeping jet design was integrated into the existing Fundamental Aerodynamic Subsonic Transonic- Modular Active Control (FAST-MAC) model by replacing the steady blowing system with an array of thirty-nine sweeping jet cartridges. A constant slot height to wing chord ratio was similar to the steady blowing configuration resulting in each actuator having a unique in size for the sweeping jet configuration. While this paper will describe the scaling and optimization of the actuators for future high Reynolds number applications, the major focus of this effort was to target the transonic flight regime by increasing the amplitude authority of the actuator. This was accomplished by modifying the diffuser of the sweeping jet actuator, and this paper highlights twelve different diffuser designs. The experimental portion of this work was completed in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility.

  1. Big problems for Swedish nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmstroem, Anton; Runesson, Linda

    2006-01-01

    A report of the problems for Swedish nuclear industry the summer of 2006. A detailed description of the 25th of July incident at Forsmark 1 is provided. The incident was classified as level two on the INIS scale. The other Swedish nuclear plants were subject to security evaluations in the aftermath, and at Forsmark 2 similar weaknesses were found in the security system (ml)

  2. Swedish High-End Apparel Online

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Christoffer; Grabe, Thomas; Thomander, Karolina

    2010-01-01

    The study aims to through a qualitative case study describe how six Swedish high-end apparel companies attributed as part of “the Swedish fashion wonder” with online distribution have been affected by six chosen factors. The six factors presented are extracted from previous studies and consist of customer relationships, intermediary relationships, pricing, costs and revenue, competitors and impact on the brand. The results show that customer relationships is an important factor that most comp...

  3. Factors for successful improvement of Swedish healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    The Swedish OCM, developed by an Integrative Group Process, was found to be a valid model able to distinguish successful from unsuccessful organizations in terms of improvement. A majority of healthcare organizations applied the Internal Collaborative strategy which lacks the patient centered task alignment characterizing those organizations predicted to be successful by their relatively superior Swedish OCM score. Managers tend to overestimate the prospects of organizationa...

  4. Endovascular Treatment of a Symptomatic Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysm by Chimney and Periscope Techniques for Total Visceral and Renal Artery Revascularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cariati, Maurizio, E-mail: cariati.maurizio@sancarlo.mi.it [San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Sciences (Italy); Mingazzini, Pietro; Dallatana, Raffaello [San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (Italy); Rossi, Umberto G. [San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Sciences (Italy); Settembrini, Alberto [San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Università degli Studi di Milano (Italy); Santuari, Davide [San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (Italy)

    2013-05-02

    Conventional endovascular therapy of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm with involving visceral and renal arteries is limited by the absence of a landing zone for the aortic endograft. Solutions have been proposed to overcome the problem of no landing zone; however, most of them are not feasible in urgent and high-risk patients. We describe a case that was successfully treated by total endovascular technique with a two-by-two chimney-and-periscope approach in a patient with acute symptomatic type IV thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm with supra-anastomotic aneurysm formation involving the renal and visceral arteries and a pseduaneurismatic sac localized in the left ileopsoas muscle.

  5. Influence of Anatomic Angulations in Chimney and Fenestrated Endovascular Aneurysm Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caradu, Caroline; Bérard, Xavier; Midy, Dominique; Ducasse, Eric

    2017-08-01

    The lack of widespread availability of Fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (F-EVAR) encouraged alternative strategies. Hence, Chimney graft (CG)-EVAR spread when costs, manufacturing delays, or anatomy preclude F-EVAR. Our objective is to evaluate CG- and F-EVAR outcomes depending on the angulation of target renal arteries and hostility of iliac accesses in order to determine the potential impact of a choice made between both techniques on the basis of preoperative anatomic criteria. Consecutive patients treated by CG-EVAR or F-EVAR, from January 2010 to January 2015, were considered for inclusion. Anatomic parameters were defined by preoperative computed tomography angiography. A subgroup analysis was performed depending on renal arteries' angulation (cut-off: -30°) and iliac arteries' hostility (cut-off: diameter renal artery was shorter in the CG group (11.7 ± 6.2 mm vs. 14.1 ± 5.9 mm, P = 0.06). Longitudinal angulation of the right renal artery was not statistically different between both groups, while the left renal artery presented with a significantly more downward angulation in the CG group (-32.0 ± 15.3 vs. -19.0 ± 19.6, P = 0.003). There were significantly more grade 3 iliac tortuosity indexes for CG-EVAR (P = 0.03) with significantly smaller external iliac diameters (7.8 ± 1.7 vs. 8.8 ± 1.6 mm, P = 0.0009). There was 1 renal artery early occlusion in the renal artery angulation and diameter, iliac artery hostility, and aortic neck length among other parameters may help the surgeon make a decision toward the endovascular strategy that seems best suited for each specific patient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Positional Arrangements of Waste Exhaust Gas Ducts of C-Type Balanced Chimney Heating Devices on Building Façades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan AVLAR

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey today, with the increase in availability of natural gas,detached heating devices are being preferred over existingheating devices. Due to the lack of chimneys in existing buildingsin Turkey or the presence of chimneys that fail to conformto standards, the use of C-type balanced chimney devices has increased.C-type balanced chimney devices take the combustionair directly from the outside by a specific air duct as detachedheating equipment, with enclosed combustion chambers anda specific waste gas exhaust duct, and they are ventilated independentlyof the field of equipment. Because of their essentiality,the use of a chimney is not required in these devices;the waste gas is exhausted through walls, windows, doors, orbalconies. The natural gas is a clean fossil fuel that requires nostorage in buildings and is easy to use. However, water vapor,carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides are produced by the combustionof natural gas. It is widely known that high concentrationsof these products can have some adverse effects onhumans such as dizziness, headaches and nausea. As a result,the waste products could recoil through wall openings on thefaçade to create unhealthy indoor environments that could bedangerous to human health. Therefore, the importance of standardsand regulations about the positional arrangements of thewaste gas exhaust ducts of C-type balanced chimney devices onbuilding façades is increasing. In this research, we analyze thestudies of the Institution of Turkish Standards, Chamber of MechanicalEngineers, gas distribution companies, municipalitiesand authorized firms and compare the criteria to determine thenecessary application method. According to our comparison ofthe references accessed, the criteria are not uniform.

  7. Design and optimization of a bend-and-sweep compliant mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tummala, Y; Frecker, M I; Wissa, A A; Hubbard Jr, J E

    2013-01-01

    A novel contact aided compliant mechanism called bend-and-sweep compliant mechanism is presented in this paper. This mechanism has nonlinear stiffness properties in two orthogonal directions. An angled compliant joint (ACJ) is the fundamental element of this mechanism. Geometric parameters of ACJs determine the stiffness of the compliant mechanism. This paper presents the design and optimization of bend-and-sweep compliant mechanism. A multi-objective optimization problem was formulated for design optimization of the bend-and-sweep compliant mechanism. The objectives of the optimization problem were to maximize or minimize the bending and sweep displacements, depending on the situation, while minimizing the von Mises stress and mass of each mechanism. This optimization problem was solved using NSGA-II (a genetic algorithm). The results of this optimization for a single ACJ during upstroke and downstroke are presented in this paper. Results of two different loading conditions used during optimization of a single ACJ for upstroke are presented. Finally, optimization results comparing the performance of compliant mechanisms with one and two ACJs are also presented. It can be inferred from these results that the number of ACJs and the design of each ACJ determines the stiffness of the bend-and-sweep compliant mechanism. These mechanisms can be used in various applications. The goal of this research is to improve the performance of ornithopters by passively morphing their wings. In order to achieve a bio-inspired wing gait called continuous vortex gait, the wings of the ornithopter need to bend, and sweep simultaneously. This can be achieved by inserting the bend-and-sweep compliant mechanism into the leading edge wing spar of the ornithopters. (paper)

  8. NOFI oil Vee-Sweep and extension boom test at OHMSETT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitting, K.R.; Vicedomine, J.

    1993-01-01

    The NOFI Vee-Sweep is an inflatable oil collection boom held in a V configuration by cross netting attached to the skirt of the boom. The NOFI 600S is an inflatable oil boom used to divert oil into the Vee-Sweep. The lower section of the 600S skirt consists of a feather net and a ballast chain. The booms are designed for open-ocean skimming where a skimmer is placed in the Vee-Sweep apex to remove the collected oil. During testing, the booms were preloaded with oil and towed in the OHMSETT tank at various speeds and wave conditions. Each boom was tested for its first and gross (continuous) oil loss speeds. The Vee-Sweep was also evaluated for wave performance, oil thickness vs tow speed, oil loss rate, and critical tow speed. Finally, a DESMI-250 oil skimmer was placed in the Vee-Sweep apex and oil loss tests were run while the skimmer was operating. During the critical tow speed testing, failures occurred due to apex submergence at ca 3.5 knots in calm water and short-crested waves, and 2.4 knots in harbor chop. The oil loss tests showed that the Vee-Sweep retains oil at speeds significantly higher than conventional booms. First oil loss speeds ranged from 1.3 knots in calm water to 1.0 knot in regular waves. The Vee-Sweep's high buoyancy/weight ratio gave it good wave performance in all conditions tested. The 600S oil loss speeds were higher than those of most conventional booms, and performance was better when the feather net was attached. 1 ref., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Study of the chimney produced by an underground nuclear explosion; Etude de la cheminee creee par une explosion nucleaire souterraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derlich, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    Underground nuclear explosions lead to the formation of a cavity which is roughly of spherical shape. The roof of this cavity is unstable and collapses in most cases, leading to the formation of a chimney. The height and the diameter depend on the energy of the charge and on the nature of the surroundings. The chronology of the various stages can be determined by seismic observations. The interior of the chimney is filled, either partially or completely, with rubble earth. This phenomenon is of great importance as far as the use of nuclear explosions for industrial applications is concerned. (author) [French] Les explosions nucleaires souterraines creent une cavite de forme grossierement spherique. La voute de cette cavite est instable et s'effondre dans la plupart des cas, donnant lieu a la formation d'une cheminee. La hauteur et le diametre sont fonction de l'energie du tir et de la nature du milieu. La chronologie des evenements peut etre determinee par des observations seismiques. L'interieur des cheminees est occupe, en partie ou en totalite, par des eboulis. Ce phenomene presente un grand interet pour l'utilisation des explosions nucleaires a des fins industrielles. (auteur)

  10. Estimating Swedish biomass energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, J.; Lundqvist, U.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass is suggested to supply an increasing amount of energy in Sweden. There have been several studies estimating the potential supply of biomass energy, including that of the Swedish Energy Commission in 1995. The Energy Commission based its estimates of biomass supply on five other analyses which presented a wide variation in estimated future supply, in large part due to differing assumptions regarding important factors. In this paper, these studies are assessed, and the estimated potential biomass energy supplies are discusses regarding prices, technical progress and energy policy. The supply of logging residues depends on the demand for wood products and is limited by ecological, technological, and economic restrictions. The supply of stemwood from early thinning for energy and of straw from cereal and oil seed production is mainly dependent upon economic considerations. One major factor for the supply of willow and reed canary grass is the size of arable land projected to be not needed for food and fodder production. Future supply of biomass energy depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities. Biomass energy has to compete with other energy sources as well as with alternative uses of biomass such as forest products and food production. Technical progress may decrease the costs of biomass energy and thus increase the competitiveness. Economic instruments, including carbon taxes and subsidies, and allocation of research and development resources, are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of biomass energy

  11. Polar orientation of renal grafts within the proximal seal zone affects risk of early type IA endoleaks after chimney endovascular aneurysm repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kenneth; Ullery, Brant W; Itoga, Nathan; Lee, Jason T

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the polar orientation of renal chimney grafts within the proximal seal zone and to determine whether graft orientation is associated with early type IA endoleak or renal graft compression after chimney endovascular aneurysm repair (ch-EVAR). Patients who underwent ch-EVAR with at least one renal chimney graft from 2009 to 2015 were included in this analysis. Centerline three-dimensional reconstructions were used to analyze postoperative computed tomography scans. The 12-o'clock polar position was set at the takeoff of the superior mesenteric artery. Relative polar positions of chimney grafts were recorded at the level of the renal artery ostium, at the mid-seal zone, and at the proximal edge of the graft fabric. Early type IA endoleaks were defined as evidence of a perigraft flow channel within the proximal seal zone. There were 62 consecutive patients who underwent ch-EVAR (35 double renal, 27 single renal) for juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms with a mean follow-up of 31.2 months; 18 (29%) early type IA "gutter" endoleaks were identified. During follow-up, the majority of these (n = 13; 72%) resolved without intervention, whereas two patients required reintervention (3.3%). Estimated renal graft patency was 88.9% at 60 months. Left renal chimney grafts were most commonly at the 3-o'clock position (51.1%) at the ostium, traversing posteriorly to the 5- to 7-o'clock positions (55.5%) at the fabric edge. Right renal chimney grafts started most commonly at the 9-o'clock position (n = 17; 33.3%) and tended to traverse both anteriorly (11 to 1 o'clock; 39.2%) and posteriorly (5 to 7 o'clock; 29.4%) at the fabric edge. In the polar plane, the majority of renal chimney grafts (n = 83; 85.6%) traversed 90 degrees were independently associated with early type IA endoleaks (odds ratio, 11.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-64.8) even after controlling for other device and anatomic variables. Polar orientation of the chimney

  12. Maximum power point tracking for PV systems under partial shading conditions using current sweeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.M.; Chan, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel approach for tracking the maximum power point of photovoltaic systems. • Able to handle both the uniform insolation and partial shading conditions. • Maximum power point tracking based on current sweeping. - Abstract: Partial shading on photovoltaic (PV) arrays causes multiple peaks on the output power–voltage characteristic curve and local searching technique such as perturb and observe (P&O) method could easily fail in searching for the global maximum. Moreover, existing global searching techniques are still not very satisfactory in terms of speed and implementation complexity. In this paper, a fast global maximum power point (MPPT) tracking method which is using current sweeping for photovoltaic arrays under partial shading conditions is proposed. Unlike conventional approach, the proposed method is current based rather than voltage based. The initial maximum power point will be derived based on a current sweeping test and the maximum power point can be enhanced by a finer local search. The speed of the global search is mainly governed by the apparent time constant of the PV array and the generation of a fast current sweeping test. The fast current sweeping test can easily be realized by a DC/DC boost converter with a very fast current control loop. Experimental results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed global searching scheme

  13. Selective sweeps of mitochondrial DNA can drive the evolution of uniparental inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Joshua R; Beekman, Madeleine

    2017-08-01

    Although the uniparental (or maternal) inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is widespread, the reasons for its evolution remain unclear. Two main hypotheses have been proposed: selection against individuals containing different mtDNAs (heteroplasmy) and selection against "selfish" mtDNA mutations. Recently, uniparental inheritance was shown to promote adaptive evolution in mtDNA, potentially providing a third hypothesis for its evolution. Here, we explore this hypothesis theoretically and ask if the accumulation of beneficial mutations provides a sufficient fitness advantage for uniparental inheritance to invade a population in which mtDNA is inherited biparentally. In a deterministic model, uniparental inheritance increases in frequency but cannot replace biparental inheritance if only a single beneficial mtDNA mutation sweeps through the population. When we allow successive selective sweeps of mtDNA, however, uniparental inheritance can replace biparental inheritance. Using a stochastic model, we show that a combination of selection and drift facilitates the fixation of uniparental inheritance (compared to a neutral trait) when there is only a single selective mtDNA sweep. When we consider multiple mtDNA sweeps in a stochastic model, uniparental inheritance becomes even more likely to replace biparental inheritance. Our findings thus suggest that selective sweeps of beneficial mtDNA haplotypes can drive the evolution of uniparental inheritance. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Investigation of the Hydrodynamics of Sweep Blade in Hi-Speed Axial Fuel Pump Impeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Tao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel pump is a crucial component in aircraft engine ignition system. For the hi-speed axial fuel pumps, rotating stall triggers vortex and affects the operation stability and security. Sweep blade is widely used to solve the stability problems in aerodynamics field. Investigation on the hydrodynamics was conducted in this study. Based on the typical straight blade pump, positive and negative sweep blade pumps were modeled. With the large eddy simulation method, CFD simulations were conducted to calculate and analyze the flow characteristics in the pump models. To verify the simulation, experiments were also launched on the hydraulic test rig. Results show that the vortex occurs at the suction surface of blade and gathers near the blade tip region. Positive sweep blade is effective to reduce the hydraulic losses by driving the stalled fluid into the mid-part of blade. By applying the positive sweep blade on the axial fuel pump, the instability operating region will be diminished. Adopting sweep blade provides an effective means for stability and security of axial fuel pumps.

  15. Soft Sweeps Are the Dominant Mode of Adaptation in the Human Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrider, Daniel R; Kern, Andrew D

    2017-08-01

    The degree to which adaptation in recent human evolution shapes genetic variation remains controversial. This is in part due to the limited evidence in humans for classic "hard selective sweeps", wherein a novel beneficial mutation rapidly sweeps through a population to fixation. However, positive selection may often proceed via "soft sweeps" acting on mutations already present within a population. Here, we examine recent positive selection across six human populations using a powerful machine learning approach that is sensitive to both hard and soft sweeps. We found evidence that soft sweeps are widespread and account for the vast majority of recent human adaptation. Surprisingly, our results also suggest that linked positive selection affects patterns of variation across much of the genome, and may increase the frequencies of deleterious mutations. Our results also reveal insights into the role of sexual selection, cancer risk, and central nervous system development in recent human evolution. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  16. Safety Assessment - Swedish Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, B. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    After the reactor accident at Three Mile Island, the Swedish nuclear power plants were equipped with filtered venting of the containment. Several types of accidents can be identified where the filtered venting has no effect on the radioactive release. The probability for such accidents is hopefully very small. It is not possible however to estimate the probability accurately. Experiences gained in the last years, which have been documented in official reports from the Nuclear Power Inspectorate indicate that the probability for core melt accidents in Swedish reactors can be significantly larger than estimated earlier. A probability up to one in a thousand operating years can not be excluded. There are so far no indications that aging of the plants has contributed to an increased accident risk. Maintaining the safety level with aging nuclear power plants can however be expected to be increasingly difficult. It is concluded that the 12 Swedish plants remain a major threat for severe radioactive pollution of the Swedish environment despite measures taken since 1980 to improve their safety. Closing of the nuclear power plants is the only possibility to eliminate this threat. It is recommended that until this is done, quantitative safety goals, same for all Swedish plants, shall be defined and strictly enforced. It is also recommended that utilities distributing misleading information about nuclear power risks shall have their operating license withdrawn. 37 refs.

  17. Safety Assessment - Swedish Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellstroem, B.

    1996-01-01

    After the reactor accident at Three Mile Island, the Swedish nuclear power plants were equipped with filtered venting of the containment. Several types of accidents can be identified where the filtered venting has no effect on the radioactive release. The probability for such accidents is hopefully very small. It is not possible however to estimate the probability accurately. Experiences gained in the last years, which have been documented in official reports from the Nuclear Power Inspectorate indicate that the probability for core melt accidents in Swedish reactors can be significantly larger than estimated earlier. A probability up to one in a thousand operating years can not be excluded. There are so far no indications that aging of the plants has contributed to an increased accident risk. Maintaining the safety level with aging nuclear power plants can however be expected to be increasingly difficult. It is concluded that the 12 Swedish plants remain a major threat for severe radioactive pollution of the Swedish environment despite measures taken since 1980 to improve their safety. Closing of the nuclear power plants is the only possibility to eliminate this threat. It is recommended that until this is done, quantitative safety goals, same for all Swedish plants, shall be defined and strictly enforced. It is also recommended that utilities distributing misleading information about nuclear power risks shall have their operating license withdrawn. 37 refs

  18. EFFECT OF SWEEP ANGLE ON THE VORTICAL FLOW OVER DELTA WINGS AT AN ANGLE OF ATTACK OF 10°

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAMES BRETT

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available CFD simulations have been used to analyse the vortical flows over sharp edged delta wings with differing sweep angles under subsonic conditions at an angle of attack of 10°. RANS simulations were validated against experimental data for a 65° sweep wing, with a flat cross-section, and the steadiness of the flow field was assessed by comparing the results against unsteady URANS and DES simulations. To assess the effect of sweep angle on the flow field, a range of sweep angles from 65° to 43° were simulated. For moderate sweep wings the primary vortex was observed to detach from the leading edge, undergoing vortex breakdown, and a weaker, replacement, "shadow" vortex was formed. The shadow vortex was observed for sweep angles of 50° and less, and resulted in reduced lift production near the wing tips loss of the stronger primary vortex.

  19. HUBBLE CLICKS IMAGES OF IO SWEEPING ACROSS JUPITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    While hunting for volcanic plumes on Io, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captured these images of the volatile moon sweeping across the giant face of Jupiter. Only a few weeks before these dramatic images were taken, the orbiting telescope snapped a portrait of one of Io's volcanoes spewing sulfur dioxide 'snow.' These stunning images of the planetary duo are being released to commemorate the ninth anniversary of the Hubble telescope's launch on April 24, 1990. All of these images were taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The three overlapping snapshots show in crisp detail Io passing above Jupiter's turbulent clouds. The close-up picture of Io (bottom right) reveal a 120-mile-high (200-kilometer) plume of sulfur dioxide 'snow' emanating from Pillan, one of the moon's active volcanoes. 'Other observations have inferred sulfur dioxide 'snow' in Io's plumes, but this image offers direct observational evidence for sulfur dioxide 'snow' in an Io plume,' explains John R. Spencer of Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Ariz. A Trip Around Jupiter The three snapshots of the volcanic moon rounding Jupiter were taken over a 1.8-hour time span. Io is roughly the size of Earth's moon but 2,000 times farther away. In two of the images, Io appears to be skimming Jupiter's cloud tops, but it's actually 310,000 miles (500,000 kilometers) away. Io zips around Jupiter in 1.8 days, whereas the moon circles Earth every 28 days. The conspicuous black spot on Jupiter is Io's shadow and is about the size of the moon itself (2,262 miles or 3,640 kilometers across). This shadow sails across the face of Jupiter at 38,000 mph (17 kilometers per second). The smallest details visible on Io and Jupiter measure 93 miles (150 kilometers) across, or about the size of Connecticut. These images were further sharpened through image reconstruction techniques. The view is so crisp that one would have to stand on Io to see this much detail on Jupiter with the naked eye. The bright patches on Io

  20. Ka-Band Digital Beamforming and SweepSAR Demonstration for Ice and Solid Earth Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowy, Gregory; Ghaemi, Hirad; Heavy, Brandon; Perkovic, Dragana; Quddus, Momin; Zawadzki, Mark; Moller, Delwyn

    2010-01-01

    GLISTIN is an instrument concept for a single-pass interferometric SAR operating at 35.6 GHz. To achieve large swath widths using practical levels of transmitter power, a digitally-beamformed planar waveguide array is used. This paper describes results from a ground-based demonstration of a 16-receiver prototype. Furthermore, SweepSAR is emerging as promising technique for achieving very wide swaths for surface change detection. NASA and DLR are studying this approach for the DESDynI and Tandem-L missions. SweepSAR employs a reflector with a digitally-beamformed array feed. We will describe development of an airborne demonstration of SweepSAR using the GLISTIN receiver array and a reflector.

  1. Sweep excitation with order tracking: A new tactic for beam crack analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dongdong; Wang, KeSheng; Zhang, Mian; Zuo, Ming J.

    2018-04-01

    Crack detection in beams and beam-like structures is an important issue in industry and has attracted numerous investigations. A local crack leads to global system dynamics changes and produce non-linear vibration responses. Many researchers have studied these non-linearities for beam crack diagnosis. However, most reported methods are based on impact excitation and constant frequency excitation. Few studies have focused on crack detection through external sweep excitation which unleashes abundant dynamic characteristics of the system. Together with a signal resampling technique inspired by Computed Order Tracking, this paper utilize vibration responses under sweep excitations to diagnose crack status of beams. A data driven method for crack depth evaluation is proposed and window based harmonics extracting approaches are studied. The effectiveness of sweep excitation and the proposed method is experimentally validated.

  2. Hybrid massively parallel fast sweeping method for static Hamilton–Jacobi equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detrixhe, Miles, E-mail: mdetrixhe@engineering.ucsb.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering (United States); University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, 93106 (United States); Gibou, Frédéric, E-mail: fgibou@engineering.ucsb.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering (United States); University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, 93106 (United States); Department of Computer Science (United States); Department of Mathematics (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The fast sweeping method is a popular algorithm for solving a variety of static Hamilton–Jacobi equations. Fast sweeping algorithms for parallel computing have been developed, but are severely limited. In this work, we present a multilevel, hybrid parallel algorithm that combines the desirable traits of two distinct parallel methods. The fine and coarse grained components of the algorithm take advantage of heterogeneous computer architecture common in high performance computing facilities. We present the algorithm and demonstrate its effectiveness on a set of example problems including optimal control, dynamic games, and seismic wave propagation. We give results for convergence, parallel scaling, and show state-of-the-art speedup values for the fast sweeping method.

  3. On detecting incomplete soft or hard selective sweeps using haplotype structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrer-Admetlla, Anna; Liang, Mason; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand

    2014-01-01

    We present a new haplotype-based statistic (nSL) for detecting both soft and hard sweeps in population genomic data from a single population. We compare our new method with classic single-population haplotype and site frequency spectrum (SFS)-based methods and show that it is more robust, particu......We present a new haplotype-based statistic (nSL) for detecting both soft and hard sweeps in population genomic data from a single population. We compare our new method with classic single-population haplotype and site frequency spectrum (SFS)-based methods and show that it is more robust......, particularly to recombination rate variation. However, all statistics show some sensitivity to the assumptions of the demographic model. Additionally, we show that nSL has at least as much power as other methods under a number of different selection scenarios, most notably in the cases of sweeps from standing...

  4. Sweeping total reflection X-ray fluorescence optimisation to monitor the metallic contamination into IC manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borde, Yannick; Danel, Adrien; Roche, Agnes; Veillerot, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Among the methods available on the market today to control as metallic contamination in integrated circuit manufacturing, Sweeping Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence mode appears a very good method, providing fast and entire wafer mapping. With the goal of a pertinent use of Sweeping Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence in advanced Integrated Circuit manufacturing this work discusses how acceptable levels of contamination specified by the production (low levels to be detected) can be taken into account. The relation between measurement results (surface coverage, throughput, low limit of detection, limit of quantification, quantification of localized contamination) and Sweeping Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence parameters (number of measurement points and integration time per point) is presented in details. In particular, a model is proposed to explain the mismatch between actual surface contamination in a localized spot on wafer and Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence reading. Both calibration and geometric issues have been taken into account

  5. Hybrid massively parallel fast sweeping method for static Hamilton–Jacobi equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detrixhe, Miles; Gibou, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    The fast sweeping method is a popular algorithm for solving a variety of static Hamilton–Jacobi equations. Fast sweeping algorithms for parallel computing have been developed, but are severely limited. In this work, we present a multilevel, hybrid parallel algorithm that combines the desirable traits of two distinct parallel methods. The fine and coarse grained components of the algorithm take advantage of heterogeneous computer architecture common in high performance computing facilities. We present the algorithm and demonstrate its effectiveness on a set of example problems including optimal control, dynamic games, and seismic wave propagation. We give results for convergence, parallel scaling, and show state-of-the-art speedup values for the fast sweeping method.

  6. Michelson mode selector for spectral range stabilization in a self-sweeping fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, A Yu; Vladimirskaya, A D; Lobach, I A; Kablukov, S I

    2018-04-01

    We report on spectral range stabilization in a self-sweeping laser by adding a narrowband fiber Bragg grating (FBG) to the output mirror in the Michelson configuration. The effects of FBG reflectivity and optical path difference in the Michelson interferometer on the laser spectral dynamics are investigated. Optimization of the interferometer allows us to demonstrate broadband (over 16 nm) self-sweeping operation and reduction of the start and stop wavelength fluctuations by two orders and one order of magnitude (∼100 and 15 times) for start and stop bounds, respectively (down to several picometers). The proposed approaches significantly improve quality of the spectral dynamics and facilitate application of the self-sweeping lasers.

  7. Redistributive effects of Swedish health care finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdtham, U G; Sundberg, G

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the redistributive effects of the Swedish health care financing system in 1980 and 1990 for four different financial sources: county council taxes, payroll taxes, direct payments and state grants. The redistributive effects are decomposed into vertical, horizontal and 'reranking' segments for each of the four financial sources. The data used are based on probability samples of the Swedish population, from the Level of Living Survey (LNU) from 1981 and 1991. The paper concludes that the Swedish health care financing system is weakly progressive, although direct payments are regressive. There is some horizontal inequity and 'reranking', which mainly comes from the county council taxes, since those tax rates vary for each county council. The implication is that, to some extent, people with equal incomes are treated unequally.

  8. Microtexture and distribution of minerals in hydrothermal Barite-Silica chimney from the Franklin seamount, SW Pacific: Constraints on mode of formation.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ray, D.; Kota, D.; Das, P.; SuryaPrakash, L.; Khedekar, V.D.; Paropkari, A.L.; Mudholkar, A.V.

    restricted fluid-seawater mixing, which causes relatively high-temperature formation of the intermediate layers. Whereas the innermost layer bordering the chimney orifice is characterized by more silica and a higher Sr-to-Ba ratio (SrO/BaO = 0.023), could...

  9. Mineralogy and Geochemistry from Trollveggen Vent Field Chimneys and Metalliferous Sediments (Mohns Ridge, West Jan Mayen Fracture Zone at 71°N)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, S.; Cruz, I.; Fonseca, R.; Barriga, F. J.; Pedersen, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Jan Mayen vent fields were discovered in the Mohns Ridge during an expedition with the Norwegian research vessel "G.O. Sars" in July 2005. They comprise two main active areas: (1) Soria Moria and (2) Gallionella Garden & Trollveggen. The Trollveggen vent field is located at depths of 700-750 m. Venting takes place mainly through white smoker chimneys with fluid temperatures reaching up to 260-270°C. Here we present mineralogical and geochemical data from vent chimneys and metalliferous sediments collected at the Trollveggen vent field with an ROV. Cross-sections of chimneys present evident mineralogical zonation, showing acicular barite crystals in the outer parts and sulfide enrichments in the interior (Sph + Cpy +/- Py - Po). Sediments are mainly formed by vent fragments but also by minerals precipitated by diffuse fluid circulation, showing a mineral assemblage similar to that of chimneys. Microprobe analyses were obtained both in sulfates and sulphides revealing a particular sphalerite composition, characterized by low Fe (< 2%) and high total trace metal contents (up to 4%, including Cu, Ag and Au). Geochemical profiles of gravity cores collected in the area surrounding Jan Mayen were also performed in order to investigate the presence of additional hydrothermal activity in the area. Total geochemical analyses showed a slight enrichment in trace metals, such as Cu, Zn and Fe, with exception of one core that reached 85 ppm for Cu, 150 ppm for Zn and 20% for Fe. The metal enrichment in this core suggests hydrothermal activity in the neighboring area.

  10. Retrograde Ascending Dissection After Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair Combined With the Chimney Technique and Successful Open Repair Using the Frozen Elephant Trunk Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Koji; Tokui, Toshiya; Nakamura, Bun; Inoue, Ryosai; Inagaki, Masahiro; Maze, Yasumi; Kato, Noriyuki

    2018-01-01

    The chimney technique can be combined with thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) to both obtain an appropriate landing zone and maintain blood flow of the arch vessels. However, surgical repair becomes more complicated if retrograde type A aortic dissection occurs after TEVAR with the chimney technique. We herein report a case involving a 73-year-old woman who developed a retrograde ascending dissection 3 months after TEVAR for acute type B aortic dissection. To ensure an adequate proximal sealing distance, the proximal edge of the stent graft was located at the zone 2 level and an additional bare stent was placed at the left subclavian artery (the chimney technique) at the time of TEVAR. Enhanced computed tomography revealed an aortic dissection involving the ascending aorta and aortic arch. Surgical aortic repair using the frozen elephant trunk technique was urgently performed. The patient survived without stroke, paraplegia, renal failure, or other major complications. Retrograde ascending dissection can occur after TEVAR combined with the chimney technique. The frozen elephant trunk technique is useful for surgical repair in such complicated cases.

  11. Solar chimney for the natural ventilation of buildings: simulation and mediation; Chimenea solar para la ventilacion natural de edificios: simulacion y mediacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanceta, D.; Llorente, J.

    2008-07-01

    In this article, the first part of a research project about the modelling of a solar chimney is presented. In this first part, the average ventilation flows measured in an experimental installation have been compared to the results obtained by CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations. In order to do so, a solar chimney with a cross-section of 0.78 m x 0.156 m, height 3,6 m, has been constructed. The chimney consists of a glass surface oriented towards the south. The internal (absorber) surface is made of a copper plate, which has been painted black in order to increase the solar absorption. The chimney is connected to a room measuring 5 m x 2.5 m x 2.5 m, from where it extracts air. The comparison of the results obtained by measurements with those obtained by CFD simulations show that computational tools are accurate enough to predict the behaviour of natural buoyancy in this kind of installations. (Author)

  12. Application of the WEPS and SWEEP models to non-agricultural disturbed lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tatarko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wind erosion not only affects agricultural productivity but also soil, air, and water quality. Dust and specifically particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM-10 has adverse effects on respiratory health and also reduces visibility along roadways, resulting in auto accidents. The Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS was developed by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service to simulate wind erosion and provide for conservation planning on cultivated agricultural lands. A companion product, known as the Single-Event Wind Erosion Evaluation Program (SWEEP, has also been developed which consists of the stand-alone WEPS erosion submodel combined with a graphical interface to simulate soil loss from single (i.e., daily wind storm events. In addition to agricultural lands, wind driven dust emissions also occur from other anthropogenic sources such as construction sites, mined and reclaimed areas, landfills, and other disturbed lands. Although developed for agricultural fields, WEPS and SWEEP are useful tools for simulating erosion by wind for non-agricultural lands where typical agricultural practices are not employed. On disturbed lands, WEPS can be applied for simulating long-term (i.e., multi-year erosion control strategies. SWEEP on the other hand was developed specifically for disturbed lands and can simulate potential soil loss for site- and date-specific planned surface conditions and control practices. This paper presents novel applications of WEPS and SWEEP for developing erosion control strategies on non-agricultural disturbed lands. Erosion control planning with WEPS and SWEEP using water and other dust suppressants, wind barriers, straw mulch, re-vegetation, and other management practices is demonstrated herein through the use of comparative simulation scenarios. The scenarios confirm the efficacy of the WEPS and SWEEP models as valuable tools for supporting the design of erosion control plans for disturbed lands that are not only cost-effective but

  13. Exact solutions for oscillatory shear sweep behaviors of complex fluids from the Oldroyd 8-constant framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengow, Chaimongkol; Giacomin, A. Jeffrey

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we provide a new exact framework for analyzing the most commonly measured behaviors in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow (LAOS), a popular flow for studying the nonlinear physics of complex fluids. Specifically, the strain rate sweep (also called the strain sweep) is used routinely to identify the onset of nonlinearity. By the strain rate sweep, we mean a sequence of LAOS experiments conducted at the same frequency, performed one after another, with increasing shear rate amplitude. In this paper, we give exact expressions for the nonlinear complex viscosity and the corresponding nonlinear complex normal stress coefficients, for the Oldroyd 8-constant framework for oscillatory shear sweeps. We choose the Oldroyd 8-constant framework for its rich diversity of popular special cases (we list 18 of these). We evaluate the Fourier integrals of our previous exact solution to get exact expressions for the real and imaginary parts of the complex viscosity, and for the complex normal stress coefficients, as functions of both test frequency and shear rate amplitude. We explore the role of infinite shear rate viscosity on strain rate sweep responses for the special case of the corotational Jeffreys fluid. We find that raising η∞ raises the real part of the complex viscosity and lowers the imaginary. In our worked examples, we thus first use the corotational Jeffreys fluid, and then, for greater accuracy, we use the Johnson-Segalman fluid, to describe the strain rate sweep response of molten atactic polystyrene. For our comparisons with data, we use the Spriggs relations to generalize the Oldroyd 8-constant framework to multimode. Our generalization yields unequivocally, a longest fluid relaxation time, used to assign Weissenberg and Deborah numbers to each oscillatory shear flow experiment. We then locate each experiment in the Pipkin space.

  14. R2d2 Drives Selfish Sweeps in the House Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didion, John P; Morgan, Andrew P; Yadgary, Liran; Bell, Timothy A; McMullan, Rachel C; Ortiz de Solorzano, Lydia; Britton-Davidian, Janice; Bult, Carol J; Campbell, Karl J; Castiglia, Riccardo; Ching, Yung-Hao; Chunco, Amanda J; Crowley, James J; Chesler, Elissa J; Förster, Daniel W; French, John E; Gabriel, Sofia I; Gatti, Daniel M; Garland, Theodore; Giagia-Athanasopoulou, Eva B; Giménez, Mabel D; Grize, Sofia A; Gündüz, İslam; Holmes, Andrew; Hauffe, Heidi C; Herman, Jeremy S; Holt, James M; Hua, Kunjie; Jolley, Wesley J; Lindholm, Anna K; López-Fuster, María J; Mitsainas, George; da Luz Mathias, Maria; McMillan, Leonard; Ramalhinho, Maria da Graça Morgado; Rehermann, Barbara; Rosshart, Stephan P; Searle, Jeremy B; Shiao, Meng-Shin; Solano, Emanuela; Svenson, Karen L; Thomas-Laemont, Patricia; Threadgill, David W; Ventura, Jacint; Weinstock, George M; Pomp, Daniel; Churchill, Gary A; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    A selective sweep is the result of strong positive selection driving newly occurring or standing genetic variants to fixation, and can dramatically alter the pattern and distribution of allelic diversity in a population. Population-level sequencing data have enabled discoveries of selective sweeps associated with genes involved in recent adaptations in many species. In contrast, much debate but little evidence addresses whether "selfish" genes are capable of fixation-thereby leaving signatures identical to classical selective sweeps-despite being neutral or deleterious to organismal fitness. We previously described R2d2, a large copy-number variant that causes nonrandom segregation of mouse Chromosome 2 in females due to meiotic drive. Here we show population-genetic data consistent with a selfish sweep driven by alleles of R2d2 with high copy number (R2d2(HC)) in natural populations. We replicate this finding in multiple closed breeding populations from six outbred backgrounds segregating for R2d2 alleles. We find that R2d2(HC) rapidly increases in frequency, and in most cases becomes fixed in significantly fewer generations than can be explained by genetic drift. R2d2(HC) is also associated with significantly reduced litter sizes in heterozygous mothers, making it a true selfish allele. Our data provide direct evidence of populations actively undergoing selfish sweeps, and demonstrate that meiotic drive can rapidly alter the genomic landscape in favor of mutations with neutral or even negative effects on overall Darwinian fitness. Further study will reveal the incidence of selfish sweeps, and will elucidate the relative contributions of selfish genes, adaptation and genetic drift to evolution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  15. Reduction of non-point source contaminants associated with road-deposited sediments by sweeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Gun; Kang, Hee-Man; Ko, Seok-Oh

    2017-09-19

    Road-deposited sediments (RDS) on an expressway, residual RDS collected after sweeping, and RDS removed by means of sweeping were analyzed to evaluate the degree to which sweeping removed various non-point source contaminants. The total RDS load was 393.1 ± 80.3 kg/km and the RDS, residual RDS, and swept RDS were all highly polluted with organics, nutrients, and metals. Among the metals studied, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Ca, and Fe were significantly enriched, and most of the contaminants were associated with particles within the size range from 63 μm to 2 mm. Sweeping reduced RDS and its associated contaminants by 33.3-49.1% on average. We also measured the biological oxygen demand (BOD) of RDS in the present work, representing to our knowledge the first time that this has been done; we found that RDS contains a significant amount of biodegradable organics and that the reduction of BOD by sweeping was higher than that of other contaminants. Significant correlations were found between the contaminants measured, indicating that the organics and the metals originated from both exhaust and non-exhaust particles. Meanwhile, the concentrations of Cu and Ni were higher in 63 μm-2 mm particles than in smaller particles, suggesting that some metals in RDS likely exist intrinsically in particles, rather than only as adsorbates on particle surfaces. Overall, the results in this study showed that sweeping to collect RDS can be a good alternative for reduction of contaminants in runoff.

  16. Application of the WEPS and SWEEP models to non-agricultural disturbed lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarko, J; van Donk, S J; Ascough, J C; Walker, D G

    2016-12-01

    Wind erosion not only affects agricultural productivity but also soil, air, and water quality. Dust and specifically particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM-10) has adverse effects on respiratory health and also reduces visibility along roadways, resulting in auto accidents. The Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) was developed by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service to simulate wind erosion and provide for conservation planning on cultivated agricultural lands. A companion product, known as the Single-Event Wind Erosion Evaluation Program (SWEEP), has also been developed which consists of the stand-alone WEPS erosion submodel combined with a graphical interface to simulate soil loss from single (i.e., daily) wind storm events. In addition to agricultural lands, wind driven dust emissions also occur from other anthropogenic sources such as construction sites, mined and reclaimed areas, landfills, and other disturbed lands. Although developed for agricultural fields, WEPS and SWEEP are useful tools for simulating erosion by wind for non-agricultural lands where typical agricultural practices are not employed. On disturbed lands, WEPS can be applied for simulating long-term (i.e., multi-year) erosion control strategies. SWEEP on the other hand was developed specifically for disturbed lands and can simulate potential soil loss for site- and date-specific planned surface conditions and control practices. This paper presents novel applications of WEPS and SWEEP for developing erosion control strategies on non-agricultural disturbed lands. Erosion control planning with WEPS and SWEEP using water and other dust suppressants, wind barriers, straw mulch, re-vegetation, and other management practices is demonstrated herein through the use of comparative simulation scenarios. The scenarios confirm the efficacy of the WEPS and SWEEP models as valuable tools for supporting the design of erosion control plans for disturbed lands that are not only cost-effective but also incorporate

  17. Tensions in Stakeholder Relations for a Swedish Football Club

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghagen, Sven

    2018-01-01

    Swedish football is an industry not yet being as commercial as the big leagues and is regulated in terms of ownership of clubs. This implies a need for management of stakeholder relations for a Swedish football club. This paper identifies important stakeholders in Swedish football and discusses...

  18. Risk management in Swedish hedge funds

    OpenAIRE

    Fri, Samuel; Nilsson, Joakim

    2011-01-01

    Background: Risk management has always been a complex topic, especially when it comes to hedge funds. Since hedge funds are able to utilize many kinds of financial instruments it is difficult to find a risk management strategy that goes well with them. Not much research regarding the Swedish hedge fund industry and its risk management has been done; hence we find it an interesting topic to focus this thesis on. Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to increase the knowledge of how Swedish he...

  19. Patient exposures in Swedish diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.; Blomgren, P.-G.; Bergman, K.; Aaberg, L.

    1977-05-01

    Doses to about 1000 Swedish patients in 13 hospitals and several photofluorographic and dental installations were measured. The measurements comprised radiation quality, exposure-area product and doses to a few parts of the body where dosimeters could be placed. Calculations yielded energy imparted as well as doses to the thyroid, mammae, lungs, bone marrow, ovaries and testes. The possibility of reducing patientdoses is discussed. The radiation risk to the Swedish population isestimated,based on mean annual collective dose per individual for different body organs.(K.K.)

  20. A convergence analysis for a sweeping preconditioner for block tridiagonal systems of linear equations

    KAUST Repository

    Bagci, Hakan

    2014-11-11

    We study sweeping preconditioners for symmetric and positive definite block tridiagonal systems of linear equations. The algorithm provides an approximate inverse that can be used directly or in a preconditioned iterative scheme. These algorithms are based on replacing the Schur complements appearing in a block Gaussian elimination direct solve by hierarchical matrix approximations with reduced off-diagonal ranks. This involves developing low rank hierarchical approximations to inverses. We first provide a convergence analysis for the algorithm for reduced rank hierarchical inverse approximation. These results are then used to prove convergence and preconditioning estimates for the resulting sweeping preconditioner.

  1. Scaling of the susceptibility vs. magnetic-field sweep rate in Fe8 molecular magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordi, M.; Hernandez-Mínguez, A.; Hernandez, J. M.; Tejada, J.; Stroobants, S.; Vanacken, J.; Moshchalkov, V. V.

    2004-12-01

    The dependence of the magnetization reversal on the sweep rate of the applied magnetic field has been studied for single crystals of Fe8 magnetic molecules. Our experiments have been conducted at temperatures below 1 K and sweep rates of the magnetic field between 103 T/s to 104 T/s. The systematic shift of the values of the magnetic field at which the magnetization reversal occurs, indicates that this reversal process is not governed by the Landau-Zener transition model. Our data can be explained in terms of the superradiance emission model proposed by Chudnovsky and Garanin (Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002) 157201).

  2. A discrete element model for soil-sweep interaction in three different soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Y; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Nyord, Tavs

    2013-01-01

    . To serve the model development, the sweep was tested in three different soils (coarse sand, loamy sand, and sandy loam). In the tests, soil cutting forces (draught and vertical forces) and soil disturbance characteristics (soil cross-section disturbance and surface deformation) resulting from the sweep...... were measured. The measured draught and vertical forces were used in calibrations of the most sensitive model parameter, particle stiffness. The calibrated particle stiffness was 0.75 × 103 N m−1 for the coarse sand, 2.75 × 103 N m−1 for the loamy sand, and 6 × 103 N m−1 for the sandy loam...

  3. A convergence analysis for a sweeping preconditioner for block tridiagonal systems of linear equations

    KAUST Repository

    Bagci, Hakan; Pasciak, Joseph E.; Sirenko, Kostyantyn

    2014-01-01

    We study sweeping preconditioners for symmetric and positive definite block tridiagonal systems of linear equations. The algorithm provides an approximate inverse that can be used directly or in a preconditioned iterative scheme. These algorithms are based on replacing the Schur complements appearing in a block Gaussian elimination direct solve by hierarchical matrix approximations with reduced off-diagonal ranks. This involves developing low rank hierarchical approximations to inverses. We first provide a convergence analysis for the algorithm for reduced rank hierarchical inverse approximation. These results are then used to prove convergence and preconditioning estimates for the resulting sweeping preconditioner.

  4. Fast sweeping methods for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws at steady state II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engquist, Björn; Froese, Brittany D.; Tsai, Yen-Hsi Richard

    2015-04-01

    The idea of using fast sweeping methods for solving stationary systems of conservation laws has previously been proposed for efficiently computing solutions with sharp shocks. We further develop these methods to allow for a more challenging class of problems including problems with sonic points, shocks originating in the interior of the domain, rarefaction waves, and two-dimensional systems. We show that fast sweeping methods can produce higher-order accuracy. Computational results validate the claims of accuracy, sharp shock curves, and optimal computational efficiency.

  5. Microbial Diversity of Carbonate Chimneys at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field: Implications for Life-Sustaining Systems in Peridotite Seafloor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrenk, M. O.; Cimino, P.; Kelley, D. S.; Baross, J. A.

    2002-12-01

    The Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF) is a novel peridotite-hosted vent environment discovered in Dec. 2000 at 30 N near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. This field contains multiple large (up to 60 m), carbonate chimneys venting high pH (9-10), moderate temperature (45-75 C) fluids. The LCHF is unusual in that it is located on 1.5 my-old oceanic crust, 15 km from the nearest spreading axis. Hydrothermal flow in this system is believed to be driven by exothermic serpentinization reactions involving iron-bearing minerals in the underlying seafloor. The conditions created by such reactions, which include significant quantities of dissolved methane and hydrogen, create habitats for microbial communities specifically adapted to this unusual vent environment. Ultramafic, reducing hydrothermal environments like the LCHF may be analogous to geologic settings present on the early Earth, which have been suggested to be important for the emergence of life. Additionally, the existence of hydrothermal environments far away from an active spreading center expands the range of potential life-supporting environments elsewhere in the solar system. To study the abundance and diversity of microbial communities inhabiting the environments that characterize the LCHF, carbonate chimney samples were analyzed by microscopic and molecular methods. Cell densities of between 105 and 107 cells/g were observed within various samples collected from the chimneys. Interestingly, 4-11% of the microbial population in direct contact with vent fluids fluoresced with Flavin-420, a key coenzyme involved in methanogenesis. Enrichment culturing from chimney material under aerobic and anaerobic conditions yielded microorganisms in the thermophilic and mesophilic temperature regimes in media designed for methanogenesis, methane-oxidation, and heterotrophy. PCR analysis of chimney material indicated the presence of both Archaea and Eubacteria in the carbonate samples. SSU rDNA clone libraries constructed from the

  6. The potential of Swedish furniture companies in Vietnam : How Vietnamese consumers perceive the product values of Swedish furniture

    OpenAIRE

    Dinh, Thi Phuong Lan; Karlsson, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Swedish furniture companies have been quite successful in many parts of the world recently, with IKEA being a famous example of that. Meanwhile, Vietnam has one of the fastest-growing economies in South East Asia. However, there has not been any Swedish furniture company established on the Vietnamese market so far. Therefore, it would be useful to see if the Vietnamese furniture consumers would appreciate Swedish furniture, in order to analyze whether Swedish furniture companies...

  7. The Swedish Blood Pass project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, B; Ekblom, B; Ekblom, E; Berglund, L; Kallner, A; Reinebo, P; Lindeberg, S

    2007-06-01

    Manipulation of the blood's oxygen carrying capacity (CaO(2)) through reinfusion of red blood cells, injections of recombinant erythropoietin or by other means results in an increased maximal oxygen uptake and concomitantly enhanced endurance performance. Therefore, there is a need to establish a system--"A Blood Pass"--through which such illegal and unethical methods can be detected. Venous blood samples were taken under standardized conditions from 47 male and female Swedish national and international elite endurance athletes four times during the athletic year of the individual sport (beginning and end of the preparation period and at the beginning and during peak performance in the competition period). In these samples, different hematological values were determined. ON(hes) and OFF(hre) values were calculated according to the formula of Gore et al. A questionnaire regarding training at altitude, alcohol use and other important factors for hematological status was answered by the athletes. There were some individual variations comparing hematological values obtained at different times of the athletic year or at the same time in the athletic year but in different years. However, the median values of all individual hematological, ON(hes) and OFF(hre), values taken at the beginning and the end of the preparation or at the beginning and the end of the competition period, respectively, as well as median values for the preparation and competition periods in the respective sport, were all within the 95% confidence limit (CI) of each comparison. It must be mentioned that there was no gender difference in this respect. This study shows that even if there are some individual variations in different hematological values between different sampling times in the athletic year, median values of important hematological factors are stable over time. It must be emphasized that for each blood sample, the 95% CI in each athlete will be increasingly narrower. The conclusion is that

  8. Radiotracers in Swedish Steel Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, I.; Erwall, L. G. [Isotope Techniques Laboratory, Stockholm (Sweden); Nyquist, O. [Surahammars Bruks AB, Surahammar (Sweden)

    1967-06-15

    Recent tracer investigations in Swedish steel plants have mainly dealt with problems concerning uon-metallic inclusions, slag weight determination and - labelling of special steel qualities for identification. Suspected inclusion sources, such as furnace slag, ladle-bottom mortar and some brick materials as stopper, nozzle.and channel bricks have been labelled radioactively in different ways. The labelling technique has been studied for the different systems and a new method was developed for brick materials. This includes vacuum impregnation with an aqueous solution of the inactive tracer, reheating to 1300 Degree-Sign C and neutron-irradiation in a reactor. A sufficiently homogeneous labelling of the material was obtained in this way. The tracer used was terbium, which was added as the nitrate and then decomposed to oxide during the heating process. The oxide is strongly bound to the ceramic material. The number of radioactive inclusions was determined by.autoradiography, and related to the total number pf inclusions, obtained by visual slag-counting, to give the percentage of inclusions originating from the labelled object. Some investigations have been made using simultaneous labelling of two or more sources. It seems to be difficult, however, to measure separately more than two tracers: one short-lived (e.g. 140La) and one long-lived (e.g. {sup 160}Tb). The slag weight determinations were made using the isotope dilution technique with {sup 131}Ba and {sup 140}La as tracers. A difference in slag weight is sometimes obtained. An attempt is made to explain these deviations. The material transport through a blast furnace has been followed by using a piece of graphite, labelled with {sup 140}La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and measuring the radiation intensity outside the furnace walls and in the tuyere. Studies have been made to determine suitable radiotracers for labelling of steel for subsequent identification. Up to three different isotopes can be used simultaneously

  9. Chimney-Graft as a Bail-Out Procedure for Endovascular Treatment of an Inflammatory Juxtarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Fratesi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory and juxtarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (j-iAAA represents a technical challenge for open repair (OR due to the peculiar anatomy, extensive perianeurysmal fibrosis, and dense adhesion to the surrounding tissues. A 68-year-old man with an 11 cm asymptomatic j-iAAA was successfully treated with elective EVAR and chimney-graft (ch-EVAR without postprocedural complications. Target vessel patency and normal renal function are present at 24-month follow-up. The treatment of j-iAAA can be technically challenging. ch-EVAR is a feasible and safe bail-out method for elective j-iAAA with challenging anatomy.

  10. The Guaymas Basin hiking guide to hydrothermal mounds, chimneys and microbial mats: complex seafloor expressions of subsurface hydrothermal circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eTeske

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal mats, mounds and chimneys of the southern Guaymas Basin are the surface expression of complex subsurface hydrothermal circulation patterns. In this overview we document the most frequently visited features of this hydrothermal area with photographs, temperature measurements, and selected geochemical data; many of these distinct habitats await characterization of their microbial communities and activities. Microprofiler deployments on microbial mats and hydrothermal sediments show their steep geochemical and thermal gradients at millimeter-scale vertical resolution. Mapping these hydrothermal features and sampling locations within the southern Guaymas Basin suggest linkages to underlying shallow sills and heatflow gradients. Recognizing the inherent spatial limitations of much current Guaymas Basin sampling calls for a wider survey of the entire spreading region.

  11. Threshold received sound pressure levels of single 1-2 kHz and 6-7 kHz up-sweeps and down-sweeps causing startle responses in a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Steen, N.; Gransier, R.; Wensveen, P.J.; Jong, C.A.F. de

    2012-01-01

    Mid-frequency and low-frequency sonar systems produce frequency-modulated sweeps which may affect harbor porpoises. To study the effect of sweeps on behavioral responses (specifically startle responses, which we define as sudden changes in swimming speed and/or direction), a harbor porpoise in a

  12. Training Entrepreneurship at Universities: A Swedish Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klofsten, Magnus

    2000-01-01

    The Entrepreneurship and New Business Development Program trains Swedish individuals in the startup of technology- or knowledge-based enterprises. Built on the characteristics of entrepreneurial behavior, the program features a holistic outlook, a network of established entrepreneurs, mentoring, a mix of theory and practice, and focus on the…

  13. Are Boys Discriminated in Swedish High Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnerich, Bjorn Tyrefors; Hoglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading. We rigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind and non-blind grading. The non-blind test score is…

  14. Market reforms in Swedish health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the main characteristics of reforms in the Swedish health services, as exemplified by the "Stockholm Model" introduced in 1992 in Stockholm county. The author discusses the motives behind these reforms, the already-evident increases in costs that are occurring, and the effect...

  15. Strontium 90 in Swedish dairy milk 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillberg-Wickman, M.; Oestergren, I.

    1980-01-01

    The contamination of strontium-90 in Swedish milk during 1978 is practically the same as in 1977. The country-wide mean ratio of strontium-90 to calcium in milk is 0.12 Bq 90 Sr(gCa) -1 , based on monthly determinations of samples obtained from 8 dairy plants situated throughout the country. (author)

  16. Measuring Syntactic Complexity in Spontaneous Spoken Swedish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Mikael; Frid, Johan; Horne, Merle

    2007-01-01

    Hesitation disfluencies after phonetically prominent stranded function words are thought to reflect the cognitive coding of complex structures. Speech fragments following the Swedish function word "att" "that" were analyzed syntactically, and divided into two groups: one with "att" in disfluent contexts, and the other with "att" in fluent…

  17. Mathematics and Didactic Contract in Swedish Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacour, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study and analyse how a teacher implements an outdoor realistic problem situation for children aged 4-5 in a Swedish preschool. By an "outdoor realistic problem situation", I mean a situation initiated by a teacher in which children come into contact with mathematical concepts and in which the outside…

  18. Leisure, Government and Governance: A Swedish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    The leisure sector has witnessed a tremendous expansion since 1960. The purpose of this article is to analyse the decisions and goals of Swedish government policy during the period 1962 to 2005. The empirical analysis covers government Propositions and governmental investigations. The fields covered are sports, culture, exercise, tourism and…

  19. SWEDISH CRIME FICTION AS SOCIALLY INVOLVED LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Samsel-Chojnacka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Swedish crime novel has been transforming for many years to become more socially involved. The ambition of many writers is not only to entertain the readers but also to participating in the social debate, criticizing the political and economical system, focusing on important issues such as violence against women, exploitation of working class by the privileged ruling class, the problems of a modern family and the situation of immigrants. Since the moment when in the mid 60’s two journalists Maj Sjöwall and Per Wahlöö decided to use popular literature to spread social matters many other Swedish writers have decided to follow their way. Some of them are journalists – like Liza Marklund, Börge Hellström and Anders Roslund or Stieg Larsson. Their novels as well as the ones written by Henning Mannkel on Kurt Wallander have become crucial evidence of changes of Swedish society in the past twenty years. Modern Swedish crime fiction illustrates the population in the model fashion that is the reason why it can become one of the interests of the sociology of literature.

  20. Performance of the SWEEP model affected by estimates of threshold friction velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) is a process-based model and needs to be verified under a broad range of climatic, soil, and management conditions. Occasional failure of the WEPS erosion submodel (Single-event Wind Erosion Evaluation Program or SWEEP) to simulate erosion in the Columbia Pl...

  1. Comparison of measured and simulated friction velocity and threshold friction velocity using SWEEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) was developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service as a tool to predict wind erosion and assess the influence of control practices on windblown soil loss. Occasional failure of the WEPS erosion submodel (SWEEP) to simulate erosion in the Columbia Platea...

  2. Effect of blade sweep on inlet flow in axial compressor cascades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents comparative numerical studies to investigate the effects of blade sweep on inlet flow in axial compressor cascades. A series of swept and straight cascades was modeled in order to obtain a general understanding of the inlet flow field that is induced by sweep. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD package was used to simulate the cascades and obtain the required three-dimensional (3D flow parameters. A circumferentially averaged method was introduced which provided the circumferential fluctuation (CF terms in the momentum equation. A program for data reduction was conducted to obtain a circumferentially averaged flow field. The influences of the inlet flow fields of the cascades were studied and spanwise distributions of each term in the momentum equation were analyzed. The results indicate that blade sweep does affect inlet radial equilibrium. The characteristic of radial fluid transfer is changed and thus influencing the axial velocity distributions. The inlet flow field varies mainly due to the combined effect of the radial pressure gradient and the CF component. The axial velocity varies consistently with the incidence variation induced by the sweep, as observed in the previous literature. In addition, factors that might influence the radial equilibrium such as blade camber angles, solidity and the effect of the distance from the leading edge are also taken into consideration and comparatively analyzed.

  3. Lock-free parallel and concurrent garbage collection by mark&sweep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Groote, J. F.; Hesselink, W. H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a lock-free algorithm for mark&sweep garbage collection (GC) in a realistic model using synchronization primitives load-linked/store-conditional (LL/SC) or compare-and-swap (CAS) offered by machine arch i lectures. The algorithm is concurrent in the sense that garbage collection

  4. Use of exhaust gas as sweep flow to enhance air separation membrane performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutart, Charles H.; Choi, Cathy Y.

    2003-01-01

    An intake air separation system for an internal combustion engine is provided with purge gas or sweep flow on the permeate side of separation membranes in the air separation device. Exhaust gas from the engine is used as a purge gas flow, to increase oxygen flux in the separation device without increasing the nitrogen flux.

  5. Phylogeography of Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera) indicates a mitochondrial-Wolbachia sweep in North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raychoudhury, R.; Grillenberger, B. K.; Gadau, J.; Bijlsma, R.; van de Zande, L.; Werren, J. H.; Beukeboom, L. W.

    Here we report evidence of a mitochondrial-Wolbachia sweep in North American populations of the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis, a cosmopolitan species and emerging model organism for evolutionary and genetic studies. Analysis of the genetic variation of 89 N. vitripennis specimens from Europe

  6. Oxide vapor distribution from a high-frequency sweep e-beam system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, R.; Tassano, P. L.; Tsujimoto, N.

    1995-03-01

    Oxide vapor distributions have been determined as a function of operating parameters of a high frequency sweep e-beam source combined with a programmable sweep controller. We will show which parameters are significant, the parameters that yield the broadest oxide deposition distribution, and the procedure used to arrive at these conclusions. A design-of-experimental strategy was used with five operating parameters: evaporation rate, sweep speed, sweep pattern (pre-programmed), phase speed (azimuthal rotation of the pattern), profile (dwell time as a function of radial position). A design was chosen that would show which of the parameters and parameter pairs have a statistically significant effect on the vapor distribution. Witness flats were placed symmetrically across a 25 inches diameter platen. The stationary platen was centered 24 inches above the e-gun crucible. An oxide material was evaporated under 27 different conditions. Thickness measurements were made with a stylus profilometer. The information will enable users of the high frequency e-gun systems to optimally locate the source in a vacuum system and understand which parameters have a major effect on the vapor distribution.

  7. S/HIC: Robust Identification of Soft and Hard Sweeps Using Machine Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Schrider

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Detecting the targets of adaptive natural selection from whole genome sequencing data is a central problem for population genetics. However, to date most methods have shown sub-optimal performance under realistic demographic scenarios. Moreover, over the past decade there has been a renewed interest in determining the importance of selection from standing variation in adaptation of natural populations, yet very few methods for inferring this model of adaptation at the genome scale have been introduced. Here we introduce a new method, S/HIC, which uses supervised machine learning to precisely infer the location of both hard and soft selective sweeps. We show that S/HIC has unrivaled accuracy for detecting sweeps under demographic histories that are relevant to human populations, and distinguishing sweeps from linked as well as neutrally evolving regions. Moreover, we show that S/HIC is uniquely robust among its competitors to model misspecification. Thus, even if the true demographic model of a population differs catastrophically from that specified by the user, S/HIC still retains impressive discriminatory power. Finally, we apply S/HIC to the case of resequencing data from human chromosome 18 in a European population sample, and demonstrate that we can reliably recover selective sweeps that have been identified earlier using less specific and sensitive methods.

  8. Wingbeat frequency-sweep and visual stimuli for trapping male Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combinations of female wingbeat acoustic cues and visual cues were evaluated to determine their potential for use in male Aedes aegypti (L.) traps in peridomestic environments. A modified Centers for Disease control (CDC) light trap using a 350-500 Hz frequency-sweep broadcast from a speaker as an a...

  9. Numerical simulation of incidence and sweep effects on delta wing vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekaterinaris, J. A.; Schiff, Lewis B.

    1994-01-01

    The structure of the vortical flowfield over delta wings at high angles of attack was investigated. Three-dimensional Navier-Stokes numerical simulations were carried out to predict the complex leeward-side flowfield characteristics, including leading-edge separation, secondary separation, and vortex breakdown. Flows over a 75- and a 63-deg sweep delta wing with sharp leading edges were investigated and compared with available experimental data. The effect of variation of circumferential grid resolution grid resolution in the vicinity of the wing leading edge on the accuracy of the solutions was addressed. Furthermore, the effect of turbulence modeling on the solutions was investigated. The effects of variation of angle of attack on the computed vortical flow structure for the 75-deg sweep delta wing were examined. At moderate angles of attack no vortex breakdown was observed. When a critical angle of attack was reached, bubble-type vortex breakdown was found. With further increase in angle of attack, a change from bubble-type breakdown to spiral-type vortex breakdown was predicted by the numerical solution. The effects of variation of sweep angle and freestream Mach number were addressed with the solutions on a 63-deg sweep delta wing.

  10. Acetate and phosphate anion adsorption linear sweep voltammograms simulated using density functional theory

    KAUST Repository

    Savizi, Iman Shahidi Pour; Janik, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    ) electrode potential. Four models of the electrode potential are used including a simple vacuum slab model, an applied electric field model with and without the inclusion of a solvating water bi-layer, and the double reference model. The linear sweep

  11. Variation sweep rate cyclic voltammetry on the capacitance electrode activated carbon/PVDF with polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmawati, L.; Setyarsih, W.; Nurjannah, T.

    2018-03-01

    Sweep rate of the process voltammetry cyclic characterization is very influential towards the electrode capacitance value, especially on activated carbon electrodes/PVDF. A simple method of this research by use a mixing for electrode activated carbon/10 wt. % PVDF and the separator is made of a polymer electrolyte (PVA/H3PO4) by a sol gel method. The prototype supercapacitor is made in the form of a sandwich with a separator placed between two electrodes. Electrodes and separators are arranged in layers at a pressure of 1500 psi, then heated at 50°C for 10 minutes. Next done cyclic voltammetry in a potential range of -1 V to 1 V with a sweep rate of 5 mV/s, 10 mV/s, 20 mV/s, 25 mV/s and 50 mV/s. This results of curves voltammogram is reversible, the most wide curve on the sweep rate of 5 mV/s and most narrow curve on a sweep rate of 50 mV/s. Supercapacitor capacitance values obtained by 86 F/g, 43 F/g, 21 F/g, 16 F/g, and 8 F/g.

  12. Effect of elasticity during viscoelastic polymer flooding : a possible mechanism of increasing the sweep efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbissinova, T.S.; Trivedi, J.J.; Kuru, E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2010-12-15

    This paper discussed a laboratory experiment undertaken to study how the elasticity of polymer-based fluids affects microscopic sweep efficiency, which has implications for enhanced oil recovery processes. In a series of experiments, polymer solutions with the same shear viscosity but notably different elastic characteristics were injected through a mineral-oil-saturated sandpack. The experiments involved a special core holder that was designed to simulate radial flow. The solution was injected via a perforated injection line located in the centre of the cell, and fluids were produced by way of 2 production lines located at the periphery. The shear rate used in the experiments was within the range of field applications. Using polymer solutions with similar shear viscosity behaviour and different elasticity allowed the effect of elasticity on sweep efficiency to be singled out. It was concluded that adjusting the molecular weight distribution of the solution at a constant shear viscosity and polymer concentration could improve the sweep efficiency of a polymeric fluid. The higher-elasticity polymer solution had a higher resistance to flow through porous media, resulting in better sweep efficiency and lower residual oil saturation. The objective of the study was to isolate elasticity from the other parameters that affect displacement efficiency to show the individual effect of elasticity on oil recovery. 20 refs., 5 tabs., 14 figs.

  13. ASU nitrogen sweep gas in hydrogen separation membrane for production of HRSG duct burner fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuccio, Gregory J.; Raybold, Troy M.; Jamal, Agil; Drnevich, Raymond Francis

    2013-04-02

    The present invention relates to the use of low pressure N2 from an air separation unit (ASU) for use as a sweep gas in a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) to increase syngas H2 recovery and make a near-atmospheric pressure (less than or equal to about 25 psia) fuel for supplemental firing in the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) duct burner.

  14. On the effects of nonlinearities in room impulse response measurements with exponential sweeps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciric, Dejan; Markovic, Milos; Mijic, Miomir

    2013-01-01

    In room impulse response measurements, there are some common disturbances that affect the measured results. These disturbances include nonlinearity, noise and time variance. In this paper, the effects of nonlinearities in the measurements with exponential sweep-sine signals are analyzed from diff...

  15. Processing Relative Clause Extractions in Swedish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon Tutunjian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Relative clauses are considered strong islands for extraction across languages. Swedish comprises a well-known exception, allegedly allowing extraction from relative clauses (RCE, raising the possibility that island constraints may be subject to “deep variation” between languages. One alternative is that such exceptions are only illusory and represent “surface variation” attributable to independently motivated syntactic properties. Yet, to date, no surface account has proven tenable for Swedish RCEs. The present study uses eyetracking while reading to test whether the apparent acceptability of Swedish RCEs has any processing correlates at the point of filler integration compared to uncontroversial strong island violations. Experiment 1 tests RCE against licit that-clause extraction (TCE, illicit extraction from a non-restrictive relative clause (NRCE, and an intransitive control. For this, RCE was found to pattern similarly to TCE at the point of integration in early measures, but between TCE and NRCE in total durations. Experiment 2 uses RCE and extraction from a subject NP island (SRCE to test the hypothesis that only non-islands will show effects of implausible filler-verb dependencies. RCE showed sensitivity to the plausibility manipulation across measures at the first potential point of filler integration, whereas such effects were limited to late measures for SRCE. In addition, structural facilitation was seen across measures for RCE relative to SRCE. We propose that our results are compatible with RCEs being licit weak island extractions in Swedish, and that the overall picture speaks in favor of a surface rather than a deep variation approach to the lack of island effects in Swedish RCEs.

  16. Prevalence of footrot in Swedish slaughter lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyman Ann-Kristin J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Footrot is a world-wide contagious disease in sheep and goats. It is an infection of the epidermis of the interdigital skin, and the germinal layers of the horn tissue of the feet. The first case of footrot in Swedish sheep was diagnosed in 2004. Due to difficulties in distinguishing benign footrot from early cases of virulent footrot and because there is no possibility for virulence testing of strains of Dichelobacter nodosus in Sweden, the diagnosis is based of the presence or absence of clinical signs of footrot in sheep flocks. Ever since the first diagnosed case the Swedish Animal Health Service has worked intensively to stop the spread of infection and control the disease at flock level. However, to continue this work effectively it is important to have knowledge about the distribution of the disease both nationally and regionally. Therefore, the aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of footrot in Swedish lambs at abattoirs and to assess the geographical distribution of the disease. Methods A prevalence study on footrot in Swedish lambs was performed by visual examination of 2000 feet from 500 lambs submitted from six slaughter houses. Each foot was scored according to a 0 to 5 scoring system, where feet with score ≥2 were defined as having footrot. Moreover, samples from feet with footrot were examined for Dichelobacter nodosus by culture and PCR. Results The prevalence of footrot at the individual sheep level was 5.8%, and Dichelobacter nodosus was found by culture and PCR in 83% and 97% of the samples from feet with footrot, respectively. Some minor differences in geographical distribution of footrot were found in this study. Conclusions In a national context, the findings indicate that footrot is fairly common in Swedish slaughter lambs, and should be regarded seriously.

  17. Wind turbine rotor blade with in-plane sweep and devices using the same, and methods for making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Kyle Kristopher

    2014-06-24

    A wind turbine includes a rotor having a hub and at least one blade having a torsionally rigid root, an inboard section, and an outboard section. The inboard section has a forward sweep relative to an elastic axis of the blade and the outboard section has an aft sweep.

  18. Toward Cooling Uniformity: Investigation of Spiral, Sweeping Holes, and Unconventional Cooling Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Vikram; Thurman, Douglas R.; Poinsatte, Philip E.; Ameri, Ali A.; Culley, Dennis E.

    2018-01-01

    Surface infrared thermography, hotwire anemometry, and thermocouple surveys were performed on two new film cooling hole geometries: spiral/rifled holes and fluidic sweeping holes. Ways to quantify the efficacy of novel cooling holes that are asymmetric, not uniformly spaced or that show variation from hole to hole are presented. The spiral holes attempt to induce large-scale vorticity to the film cooling jet as it exits the hole to prevent the formation of the kidney shaped vortices commonly associated with film cooling jets. The fluidic sweeping hole uses a passive in-hole geometry to induce jet sweeping at frequencies that scale with blowing ratios. The spiral hole performance is compared to that of round holes with and without compound angles. The fluidic hole is of the diffusion class of holes and is therefore compared to a 777 hole and square holes. A patent-pending spiral hole design showed the highest potential of the nondiffusion type hole configurations. Velocity contours and flow temperature were acquired at discreet cross-sections of the downstream flow field. The passive fluidic sweeping hole shows the most uniform cooling distribution but suffers from low span-averaged effectiveness levels due to enhanced mixing. The data was taken at a Reynolds number of 11,000 based on hole diameter and freestream velocity. Infrared thermography was taken for blowing ratios of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 at a density ratio of 1.05. The flow inside the fluidic sweeping hole was studied using 3D unsteady RANS. A section on ideas for future work is included that addresses issues of quantifying cooling uniformity and provides some ideas for changing the way we think about cooling such as changing the direction of cooling or coupling acoustic devices to cooling holes to regulate frequency.

  19. Composition of hydrothermal fluids and mineralogy of associated chimney material on the East Scotia Ridge back-arc spreading centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Rachael H.; Green, Darryl R. H.; Stock, Michael J.; Alker, Belinda J.; Banerjee, Neil R.; Cole, Catherine; German, Christopher R.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Powell, Alexandra M.; Connelly, Douglas P.

    2014-08-01

    The East Scotia Ridge is an active back-arc spreading centre located to the west of the South Sandwich island arc in the Southern Ocean. Initial exploration of the ridge by deep-tow surveys provided the first evidence for hydrothermal activity in a back-arc setting outside of the western Pacific, and we returned in 2010 with a remotely operated vehicle to precisely locate and sample hydrothermal sites along ridge segments E2 and E9. Here we report the chemical and isotopic composition of high- and low-temperature vent fluids, and the mineralogy of associated high-temperature chimney material, for two sites at E2 (Dog’s Head and Sepia), and four sites at E9 (Black & White, Ivory Tower, Pagoda and Launch Pad). The chemistry of the fluids is highly variable between the ridge segments. Fluid temperatures were ∼350 °C at all vent sites except Black & White, which was significantly hotter (383 °C). End-member chloride concentrations in E2 fluids (532-536 mM) were close to background seawater (540 mM), whereas Cl in E9 fluids was much lower (98-220 mM) indicating that these fluids are affected by phase separation. Concentrations of the alkali elements (Na, Li, K and Cs) and the alkaline earth elements (Ca, Sr and Ba) co-vary with Cl, due to charge balance constraints. Similarly, concentrations of Mn and Zn are highest in the high Cl fluids but, by contrast, Fe/Cl ratios are higher in E9 fluids (3.8-8.1 × 10-3) than they are in E2 fluids (1.5-2.4 × 10-3) and fluids with lowest Cl have highest Cu. Although both ridge segments are magmatically inflated, there is no compelling evidence for input of magmatic gases to the vent fluids. Fluid δD values range from 0.2‰ to 1.5‰, pH values (3.02-3.42) are not especially low, and F concentrations (34.6-54.4 μM) are lower than bottom seawater (62.8 μM). The uppermost sections of conjugate chimney material from E2, and from Ivory Tower and Pagoda at E9, typically exhibit inner zones of massive chalcopyrite enclosed

  20. Ethnic Swedish parents' experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence in Swedish paediatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavallali, Azar G; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Jirwe, Maria

    2014-06-01

    Sweden has a population of a little more than 9.4 million. The rapid growth of immigration in Sweden has resulted in an increased number of minority ethnic patients and minority ethnic nurses in the Swedish healthcare system. This also applies to paediatric care. The purpose of this study was to explore how parents with ethnic Swedish backgrounds experience minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence and the care the nurses provide in a Swedish paediatric care context. This exploratory qualitative study is of 14 parents with an ethnic Swedish background whose child was in a ward at a children's hospital in Stockholm County Council. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews to identify parents' perceptions and experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence. The interviews were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The analyses of the interviews led to four main categories: influence of nurses' ethnicity; significance of cross-cultural communication; cross-cultural skills; and the importance of nursing education. Nurses' ethnicity did not have much impact on parents' satisfaction with their child's care. The parents attached importance to nurses' language skills and to their adaptation and awareness of Swedish culture. They also attached weight to nurses' professional knowledge and personal attributes. The role of nursing education to increase nurses' cultural awareness was highlighted too. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  1. S- and Sr-isotopic compositions in barite-silica chimney from the Franklin Seamount, Woodlark Basin, Papua New Guinea: constraints on genesis and temporal variability of hydrothermal fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Durbar; Banerjee, Ranadip; Balakrishnan, S.; Paropkari, Anil L.; Mukhopadhyay, Subir

    2017-07-01

    Isotopic ratios of strontium and sulfur in six layers across a horizontal section of a hydrothermal barite-silica chimney from Franklin Seamount of western Woodlark Basin have been investigated. Sr-isotopic ratios in barite samples (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70478-0.70493) are less radiogenic than seawater (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70917) indicating that substantial leaching of sub-seafloor magma was involved in the genesis of hydrothermal fluid. The SO2 of magma likely contributed a considerable amount of lighter S-isotope in fluid and responsible for the formation of barite, which is isotopically lighter (δ34S = 19.4-20.5 ‰) than modern seawater (δ34S 21 ‰). The systematic changes in isotopic compositions across the chimney wall suggest temporal changes in the mode of mineral formation during the growth of the chimney. Enrichment of heavy S- and Sr-isotopes (δ34S = 20.58 ‰; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.70493) in the outermost periphery of the chimney indicates that, at the initial stage of chimney development, there was a significant contribution of seawater sulfate during barite mineralization. Thereafter, thickening of chimney wall occurred due to precipitation of fluid carrying more magmatic components relative to seawater. This led to a gradual enrichment of lighter isotopes (δ34S = 20.42-19.48 ‰; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.70491-0.704787) toward the inner portion of the chimney wall. In contrast, the innermost layer surrounding the fluid conduit is characterized by heavier and more radiogenic isotopes (δ34S = 20.3 ‰; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7049). This suggests there was increasing influence of percolating seawater on the mineral paragenesis at the waning phase of the chimney development.

  2. Swedish nuclear dilemma: Energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordhaus, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    One of the things that makes life both very frustrating and also very interesting is that accomplishing one objective frequently means backpedaling on another. Since economics is the study of tradeoffs, this means that there is generally plenty for economists to do. William Nordhaus is one of the best economists anywhere, and he has written a wonderful book about the tradeoffs faced by one country--Sweden--if and as it acts on a decision its citizens made in 1980 to phase out the use of nuclear power there. The author adds that this decision has been reaffirmed by the Swedish Parliament on several occasions since the 1980 referendum, though with some elusive qualifications. What will be both the environmental and also the economic implications of a Swedish phaseout of the use of nuclear power to generate electricity there. These are the two issues Nordhaus addresses in this book

  3. Environmental monitoring around the Swedish Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondesson, A.; Luening, M.; Wallberg, L.; Wijk, H.

    1999-01-01

    The environmental monitoring programme for the nuclear facilities has shown that the radioactive discharges increase the concentrations of some radionuclides in the local marine environment around the Swedish nuclear facilities. Samples from the terrestrial environment rarely show increased radionuclide concentrations. From a radiological point of view the most important nuclide in the environmental samples usually is CS-137. However, the largest part of the present concentrations of Cs-137 in the Swedish environment originate from the Chernobyl accident. The concentrations of radionuclides that can be found in biota around the nuclear facilities are much lower than the concentration levels that are known to give acute damage to organisms. The total radiation doses from the discharges of radionuclides are small. (au)

  4. Numerical analysis of the actual airflow in a solar chimney; Analise numerica do escoamento real de ar em uma chamine solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Andre G.; Cortez, Marcio F.B.; Valle, Ramon M.; Brasil, Cristiana S. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: ferreira@demec.ufmg.br; fonteboa@demec.ufmg.br; ramon@demec.ufmg.br; tite@demec.ufmg.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a numerical analysis of the turbulent natural convection of the airflow in a solar chimney, under actual solar radiation conditions. The solar chimneys are devices that consist of a transparent radial cover and of a tubular tower positioned in its center. The ground absorbs part of the incident solar radiation on the cover, heating the air in the greenhouse and inducing an upward airflow on the tower. It was developed a model that allows the evaluation of the ground temperature as a function of an energetic balance involving the incident solar radiation. The flow is described by the conservation laws for mass, momentum and thermal energy and the transport equations for the turbulence model (k and e ). A computational code using the Finite Volume Method in Generalized Coordinates was developed to solve these equations. Outlet dimensionless parameters are presented as functions of the radiation time and conditions, besides the unsteady behavior of the ground surface temperature. (author)

  5. Growth of gas hydrate mounds and gas chimneys of the eastern margin of Japan Sea as revealed by MBES, SSS and SBP of AUV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, R.; Satoh, M.; Hiromatsu, M.; Tomaru, H.; Machiyama, H.

    2010-12-01

    A series of PC, ROV and SCS surveys to study the origin and evolution of gas hydrate systems along the eastern margin of Japan Sea have identified a number of shallow GH accumulations on the mounds, 300m to 500m in diameter and 30m to 40m high, on the Umitaka spur and Joetsu knoll in Joetsu basin with the WD of 880m to 1200m (Matsumoto et al., 2005; 2009). All of the hydrate mounds develop on gas chimneys as recognized by seismic profiles, and some are associated with gigantic methane plumes, 600m to 700m high. Multi Beam Echo Sounder (MBES), Side Scan Sonar (SSS) and Sub-Bottom Profiler (SBP) of AUV Urashima have revealed ultra-high resolution topographic features and subsurface structures of the mounds and adjacent areas during the JAMSTEC YK10-08 cruise, July 2010. AUV Urashima ran over the spur and knoll at 50m to 80m above seafloor at a cruising speed of 2.4 knots. MBES and SSS mosaics demonstrate two types of mounds. One is a low swell with smooth surface and weak reflectance, while the other is characterized by rough and uneven topographic features with strong SSS images due to incrustation by methane-induced carbonate concretions and gas hydrates. SBP provides clear stratigraphic and structural relations down to 50mbsf to 80mbsf and recognizes three stratigraphic units as I: upper massive unit (5-10m thick), II: middle evenly bedded unit (15-25m thick) and III: lower slightly bedded unit (> 15-25m thick). Gas chimneys grow up toward the seafloor through Units III, II, and I. When the ceiling of gas chimney stays within Unit III or II, the mound above the chimney is either low swell or nearly flat, while the swell grows up higher when the ceiling reaches to Unit I or the seafloor. Eventually, the ceiling breaks through the seafloor and protrudes to form GH mound up to 40m to 50m high, and then start to decay probably due to mechanical collapse and chemical dissolution of gas hydrates. The ceiling of gas chimneys is often represented by high amplitude, uneven

  6. The solar chimney. Power from solar radiation on an industrial scale; Das Aufwindkraftwerk. Strom aus der Sonne im grosstechnischen Massstab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaich, J. [Schlaich und Partner, Beratende Ingenieure im Bauwesen, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-04-01

    The author looks at the relationships between population growth, standard of living, gross social product and energy. Development needs energy. Energy consumption grows in proportion to gross social product or prosperity, while population growth goes down exponentially. If distribution-related armed conflicts and fundamentalism are to be avoided, developing countries must be provided with energy enabling their peoples to live in dignity. Even though the required amount of energy is much smaller than the energy demand of industrialized countries, it means that world energy consumption will soar to several times what it is now. Where should this energy come from without causing the environment to collapse (because developing countries lack funds for environmental protection) and without threats to safety from nuclear power stations (because of inadequate knowledge of safety standards)? Poor countries have abundant solar radiation and large desert areas; so it is obvious to use technologically mature, large solar power plants, especially solar chimneys. They are described by means of some detailed drawings and graphs. A solar chimney corresponds in principle to a hydro-electric power station but uses hot air instead of water. Heat stored during the daytime is released during the nighttime to a 200 MW vertical-axis turbine, permitting non-stop 24-hour operation. (AKV) [Deutsch] Im Beitrag beleuchtet der Verfasser die Zusammenhaenge zwischen Bevoelkerungszuwachs, Lebensstandard, Bruttosozialprodukt und Energie. Entwicklung braucht Energie. Proportional zum Bruttosozialprodukt oder Wohlstand waechst der Energieverbrauch, waehrend der Bevoelkerungszuwachs exponentiell sinkt. Um Verteilungskriege und Fundamentalismus zu verhindern, muss den Entwicklungslaendern Energie bereitgestellt werden, so dass ein menschenwuerdiges Leben ermoeglicht wird. Obwohl diese Menge wesentlich niedriger als die den Industrielaendern bereitgestellte Energie anzusetzen ist, wuerde damit der

  7. Swedish Taxation Since 1862: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Henrekson, Magnus; Stenkula, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the development of taxation in Sweden from 1862 to 2013. The examination covers six key aspects of the Swedish tax system: the taxation of labor income, capital income, consumption, inheritance and gift, wealth and real estate. The importance of these taxes varied greatly over time and Sweden increasingly relied on broad-based taxes (such as income taxes and general consumption taxes) and taxes that were less visible to the public (such as payroll taxes and social security...

  8. Processing Relative Clause Extractions in Swedish

    OpenAIRE

    Tutunjian, Damon; Heinat, Fredrik; Klingvall, Eva; Wiklund, Anna-Lena

    2017-01-01

    Relative clauses are considered strong islands for extraction across languages. Swedish comprises a well-known exception, allegedly allowing extraction from relative clauses (RCE), raising the possibility that island constraints may be subject to “deep variation” between languages. One alternative is that such exceptions are only illusory and represent “surface variation” attributable to independently motivated syntactic properties. Yet, to date, no surface account has proven tenable for Swed...

  9. The swedish challenge; Le pari Suedois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tregouet, R

    2006-07-01

    Sweden decided to be the first country without petroleum for 2020. The author presents the major energy policy axis implemented by the swedish government to delete the part of the produced energy by the petroleum: development of the renewable energies, research programs of the transportation sector concerning the alternative fuels for the motors, energy efficiency and development of the biomass to replace the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  10. Swedish subseabed store - phase 1 nears completion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daglish, James

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the storage of radioactive waste in the subseabed in Sweden. The wastes are low- and intermediate-level reactor wastes arising from the Swedish nuclear power programme. The repository is a cavern which has been excavated under the seabed in the Baltic Sea, about a kilometre out from shore. The specifications of the repository are given, along with the volume of the radioactive wastes to be stored in it. (UK)

  11. Swedish Listed Family Firms and Entrepreneurial Spirit

    OpenAIRE

    Bjuggren, Per-Olof; Palmberg, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the entrepreneurial spirit in Swedish listed family firms. We associate family firms with entrepreneurship in the sense that there is an identifiable person that takes the uninsurable risk in the sense of Knight. This paper analysis two questions: Do entrepreneurial family firms have a higher rate of growth and do they invest in a more profit maximizing fashion than other listed firms? The analysis shows that entrepreneurial family firms in general are smaller in terms...

  12. Swedish-Estonian energy forest research cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, J.; Kirt, E.; Koppel, A.; Kull, K.; Noormets, A.; Roostalu, H.; Ross, V.; Ross, M.

    1996-01-01

    The Organization of Estonian energetic economy is aimed at cutting the usage of oil, gas and coal and increasing the local resources firewood, oil-shale and peat for fuel. The resources of low-valued firewood-brushwood, fallen deadwood etc. are available during the following 10-15 years, but in the future the cultivation of energy forest (willow) plantations will be actual. During the last 20 years the Swedish scientists have been extensively studying the willow forest selection, cultivation and use in energetics and waste water purification systems. A Swedish-Estonian energy forest research project was started in 1993 between the Swedish Agricultural University on one hand and Toravere Observatory, Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonian Academy of Sciences and Estonian Potato Processing Association on the other hand. In spring 5 willow plantations were established with the help of Swedish colleagues and obtained from Sweden 36000 willow cuttings. The aim of the project: a) To study experimentally and by means of mathematical modelling the biogeophysical aspects of growth and productivity of willow plantations in Sweden and Estonian climatological conditions. b) To study the possibility of using the willow plantations in waste waters purification. c) To study the economical efficiency of energy forest as an energy resource under the economic and environmental conditions of Estonia. d) To study the economic efficiency of willow plantations as a raw material for the basket industry in Estonia. e) To select the most productive and least vulnerable willow clones for practical application in energy plantations. During 1993 in all five plantations detailed analysis of soil properties has been carried out. In the plantation at Toravere Observatory phytometrical measurements were carried out - the growth of plant biomass leaf and stem area, vertical distribution of dry matter content, biomass and phyto area separately for leaves and stems has been performed. Some

  13. Predictors of smoking among Swedish adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Joffer, Junia; Burell, Gunilla; Bergström, Erik; Stenlund, Hans; Sjörs, Linda; Jerdén, Lars

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking most often starts in adolescence, implying that understanding of predicting factors for smoking initiation during this time period is essential for successful smoking prevention. The aim of this study was to examine predicting factors in early adolescence for smoking in late adolescence. METHODS: Longitudinal cohort study, involving 649 Swedish adolescents from lower secondary school (12-13 years old) to upper secondary school (17-18 years old). Tobacco habits, behavioural...

  14. Mineralogical zonation and radiochronological relations in a large sulfide chimney from the East Pacific Rise at 18 degrees 25 minutes S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchig, V.; Rosch, H.; Lalou, C.; Brichet, E.

    1988-01-01

    The top metre of a large inactive sulfide chimney from a hydrothermal field in the central Graben of the East Pacific Rise has been investigated using mineralogical, geochemical and 210 Pb/Pb dating methods. Four main mineralization stages have been identified. From age determinations, as well as chemical and mineralogical studies, it is concluded that the hydrothermal activity is either a continuous process with cyclical maxima of activity, or a discontinuous process. (43 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.)

  15. Theoretical study on air flow in a solar chimney with real insulation conditions; Estudo teorico do escoamento de ar em uma chamine solar com condicoes reais de insolacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Andre Guimaraes; Cortez, Marcio Fonte-Boa; Molina Valle, Ramon; Brasil, Cristiana Santiago [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG, (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: ferreira@demec.ufmg.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the turbulent air flow with real conditions of insulation inside a solar chimney. The flow is described by the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations, besides the transport equations of the quantities in the turbulence model (k and epsilon). Dimensionless parameters are presented at way out the device, as function of time and the insulation conditions, represented by the soil and the roof heating.

  16. Global health education in Swedish medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, S; Agardh, A; Holmer, H; Krantz, G; Hagander, L

    2015-11-01

    Global health education is increasingly acknowledged as an opportunity for medical schools to prepare future practitioners for the broad health challenges of our time. The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of global health education in Swedish medical schools and to assess students' perceived needs for such education. Data on global health education were collected from all medical faculties in Sweden for the years 2000-2013. In addition, 76% (439/577) of all Swedish medical students in their final semester answered a structured questionnaire. Global health education is offered at four of Sweden's seven medical schools, and most medical students have had no global health education. Medical students in their final semester consider themselves to lack knowledge and skills in areas such as the global burden of disease (51%), social determinants of health (52%), culture and health (60%), climate and health (62%), health promotion and disease prevention (66%), strategies for equal access to health care (69%) and global health care systems (72%). A significant association was found between self-assessed competence and the amount of global health education received (pcurriculum. Most Swedish medical students have had no global health education as part of their medical school curriculum. Expanded education in global health is sought after by medical students and could strengthen the professional development of future medical doctors in a wide range of topics important for practitioners in the global world of the twenty-first century. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  17. Beam pinging, sweeping, shaking, and electron/ion collecting, at the Proton Storage Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardek, T.W.; Macek, R.J.; Plum, M.A.; Wang, T.S.F.

    1993-01-01

    We have built, installed and tested a pinger for use as a general diagnostic at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR). Two 4-m-long parallel-plate electrodes with a plate spacing of 10.2 cm provide kicks of up to 1.1 mrad. A pair of solid-state pulsers may be operated in a single-pulse mode for beam pinging (tune measurements) or in a burst mode at up to 700 kHz pulse rates for beam sweeping. During our 1992 operating period we used the pinger for beam sweeping, for beam shaking, for measuring the tune shift, and we have used it as an ion chamber. Using the pinger as an ion chamber during production conditions has yielded some surprising results

  18. Sweeping-window arc therapy: an implementation of rotational IMRT with automatic beam-weight calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, C

    2005-01-01

    Sweeping-window arc therapy (SWAT) is a variation of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with direct aperture optimization (DAO) that is initialized with a leaf sequence of sweeping windows that move back and forth periodically across the target as the gantry rotates. This initial sequence induces modulation in the dose and is assumed to be near enough to a minimum to allow successful optimization, done with simulated annealing, without requiring excessive leaf speeds. Optimal beam weights are calculated analytically, with easy extension to allow for variable beam weights. In this paper SWAT is tested on a phantom model and clinical prostate case. For the phantom, constant and variable beam weights are used. Although further work (in particular, improving the dose model) is required, the results show SWAT to be a feasible approach to generating deliverable dynamic arc treatments that are optimized

  19. Sweeping Jet Actuators - A New Design Tool for High Lift Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Emilio; Seele, Roman; Lin, John C.; Wygnanski, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Active Flow Control (AFC) experiments performed at the Caltech Lucas Wind Tunnel on a generic airplane vertical tail model proved the effectiveness of sweeping jets in improving the control authority of a rudder. The results indicated that a momentum coefficient (C(sub u)) of approximately 2% increased the side force in excess of 50% at the maximum conventional rudder deflection angle in the absence of yaw. However, sparsely distributed actuators providing a collective C(sub u) approx. = 0.1% were able to increase the side force in excess of 20%. This result is achieved by reducing the spanwise flow along the swept back rudder and its success is attributed to the large sweep back angle of the vertical tail. This current effort was sponsored by the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project.

  20. A second order discontinuous Galerkin fast sweeping method for Eikonal equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengyan; Shu, Chi-Wang; Zhang, Yong-Tao; Zhao, Hongkai

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, we construct a second order fast sweeping method with a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) local solver for computing viscosity solutions of a class of static Hamilton-Jacobi equations, namely the Eikonal equations. Our piecewise linear DG local solver is built on a DG method developed recently [Y. Cheng, C.-W. Shu, A discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for directly solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equations, Journal of Computational Physics 223 (2007) 398-415] for the time-dependent Hamilton-Jacobi equations. The causality property of Eikonal equations is incorporated into the design of this solver. The resulting local nonlinear system in the Gauss-Seidel iterations is a simple quadratic system and can be solved explicitly. The compactness of the DG method and the fast sweeping strategy lead to fast convergence of the new scheme for Eikonal equations. Extensive numerical examples verify efficiency, convergence and second order accuracy of the proposed method.

  1. Sweeping-window arc therapy: an implementation of rotational IMRT with automatic beam-weight calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, C [Division of Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Center, 875 Blake Wilbur Drive, Rm G-233, Stanford, CA 94305-5847 (United States)

    2005-09-21

    Sweeping-window arc therapy (SWAT) is a variation of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with direct aperture optimization (DAO) that is initialized with a leaf sequence of sweeping windows that move back and forth periodically across the target as the gantry rotates. This initial sequence induces modulation in the dose and is assumed to be near enough to a minimum to allow successful optimization, done with simulated annealing, without requiring excessive leaf speeds. Optimal beam weights are calculated analytically, with easy extension to allow for variable beam weights. In this paper SWAT is tested on a phantom model and clinical prostate case. For the phantom, constant and variable beam weights are used. Although further work (in particular, improving the dose model) is required, the results show SWAT to be a feasible approach to generating deliverable dynamic arc treatments that are optimized.

  2. 1 μs broadband frequency sweeping reflectometry for plasma density and fluctuation profile measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clairet, F.; Bottereau, C.; Medvedeva, A.; Molina, D.; Conway, G. D.; Silva, A.; Stroth, U.; ASDEX Upgrade Team; Tore Supra Team; Eurofusion Mst1 Team

    2017-11-01

    Frequency swept reflectometry has reached the symbolic value of 1 μs sweeping time; this performance has been made possible, thanks to an improved control of the ramp voltage driving the frequency source. In parallel, the memory depth of the acquisition system has been upgraded and can provide up to 200 000 signals during a plasma discharge. Additional improvements regarding the trigger delay determination of the acquisition and the voltage ramp linearity required by this ultra-fast technique have been set. While this diagnostic is traditionally dedicated to the plasma electron density profile measurement, such a fast sweeping rate can provide the study of fast plasma events and turbulence with unprecedented time and radial resolution from the edge to the core. Experimental results obtained on ASDEX Upgrade plasmas are presented to demonstrate the performances of the diagnostic.

  3. Flow field characteristics of impinging sweeping jets: TR-PIV measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xin; Peng, Di; Liu, Yingzheng; Tang, Hui

    2017-11-01

    Influence of Reynolds number of sweeping jets on its impinging flow fields was extensively investigated in a water tank. Toward this end, a fluidic oscillator was specially designed to produce spatially sweeping jets which imping on a flat plate. Six Reynolds numbers were tested by controlling the supply flow rate of the fluidic oscillator. Impinging flow fields were captured by time-resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (TR-PIV) measurement. Reference signals were extracted from the flow fields for phase reconstruction. The oscillating flow fields with super-harmonic frequency at different regions were discussed in term of the phase-averaged velocity, vorticity and turbulent velocity. Dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) was used to capture the most-energetic flow patterns with distinct frequencies. By projecting the phase-averaged flow fields onto a reduced basis of DMD modes, the phase correlation between the distinct flow patterns were analyzed under different Reynolds numbers.

  4. Barriers to Business Model Innovation in Swedish Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Sivertsson, Olof; Tell, Joakim

    2015-01-01

    Swedish agricultural companies, especially small farms, are struggling to be profitable in difficult economic times. It is a challenge for Swedish farmers to compete with imported products on prices. The agricultural industry, however, supports the view that through business model innovation, farms can increase their competitive advantage. This paper identifies and describes some of the barriers Swedish small farms encounter when they consider business model innovation. A qualitative approach...

  5. The Transformation of Swedish Shipping, 1970-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Sjögren, Hans; Taro Lennerfors, Thomas; Taudal Poulsen, Rene

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, as shipping has undergone a period of structural change, Swedish shipping has rapidly declined from a position of global importance. The Swedish-controlled fleet has dwindled, and the structure of the industry itself has changed. This article explores the influence of shipping markets, shipping regulations, company strategies, maritime know-how, and financial resources on the development of Swedish shipping from 1970 to 2010. A comparison is made between, on the one han...

  6. Grain boundary sweeping and dissolution effects on fission product behaviour under severe fuel damage accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rest, J.

    1986-01-01

    The theoretical FASTGRASS-VFP model has been used in the interpretation of fission gas, iodine, tellurium, and cesium release from severe-fuel-damage (SFD) tests performed in the PBF reactor in Idaho. A theory of grain boundary sweeping of gas bubbles, gas bubble behavior during fuel liquefaction (destruction of grain boundaries due to formation of a U-rich melt phase), and during U-Zr eutectic melting has been included within the FASTGRASS-VFP formalism. The grain-boundary-sweeping theory considers the interaction between the moving grain boundary and two distinct size classes of bubbles, those on grain faces and on grain edges. The theory of the effects of fuel liquefaction and U-Zr eutectic melting on fission product behaviour considers the migration and coalescence of fission gas bubbles in either molten uranium, or a Zircaloy-Uranium eutectic melt. Results of the analyses demonstrate that intragranular fission product behavior during the tests can be interpreted in terms of a grain-growth/grain-boundary-sweeping mechanism that enhances the flow of fission products from within the grains to the grain boundaries. Whereas fuel liquefaction leads to an enhanced release of fission products in trace-irradiated fuel, the occurrence of fuel liquefaction in normally-irradiated fuel can degrade fission product release. This phenomenon is due in part to reduced gas-bubble mobilities in a viscous medium as compared to vapor transport, and in part to a degradation of grain growth rates and the subsequent decrease in grain-boundary sweeping of intragranular fission products into the liquified lamina. The analysis shows that total UO 2 dissolution due to eutectic melting leads to increased release for both trace-irradiated and normally-irradiated fuel. The FASTGRASS-VFP predictions, measured release rates from the above tests, and previously published release rates are compared and differences between fission product behavior in trace-irradiated and in normally

  7. Field Experience with Sweep Frequency Response Analysis for Power Transformer Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ambuj Kumar; Sunil Kumar Singh; Shrikant Singh

    2015-01-01

    Sweep frequency response analysis has been turning out a powerful tool for investigation of mechanical as well as electrical integration of transformers. In this paper various aspect of practical application of SFRA has been studied. Open circuit and short circuit measurement were done on different phases of high voltage and low voltage winding. A case study was presented for the transformer of rating 31.5 MVA for various frequency ranges. A clear picture was presented fo...

  8. Study of Near-Stall Flow Behavior in a Modern Transonic Fan with Composite Sweep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hah, Chunill; Shin, Hyoun-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Detailed flow behavior in a modern transonic fan with a composite sweep is investigated in this paper. Both unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methods are applied to investigate the flow field over a wide operating range. The calculated flow fields are compared with the data from an array of high-frequency response pressure transducers embedded in the fan casing. The current study shows that a relatively fine computational grid is required to resolve the flow field adequately and to calculate the pressure rise across the fan correctly. The calculated flow field shows detailed flow structure near the fan rotor tip region. Due to the introduction of composite sweep toward the rotor tip, the flow structure at the rotor tip is much more stable compared to that of the conventional blade design. The passage shock stays very close to the leading edge at the rotor tip even at the throttle limit. On the other hand, the passage shock becomes stronger and detaches earlier from the blade passage at the radius where the blade sweep is in the opposite direction. The interaction between the tip clearance vortex and the passage shock becomes intense as the fan operates toward the stall limit, and tip clearance vortex breakdown occurs at near-stall operation. URANS calculates the time-averaged flow field fairly well. Details of measured RMS static pressure are not calculated with sufficient accuracy with URANS. On the other hand, LES calculates details of the measured unsteady flow features in the current transonic fan with composite sweep fairly well and reveals the flow mechanism behind the measured unsteady flow field.

  9. Outcome of Membrane Sweeping in Reducing Induction Rates in Post-Date Pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, U.; Mustafa, N.; Akhtar, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of membrane sweeping in reducing need for induction of labour in post-date pregnancies and to enlist types and frequencies of complications experienced with membrane sweeping. Study Design: Randomized Control trial. Setting and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Combined Military Hospital, Lahore from February 2007 to April 2008. Patients and Methods: One hundred primi or second gravidas with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies having cephalic presentation at 40+1-5 weeks of gestation were enrolled after informed consent, and divided randomly into two groups of fifty each. Biophysical profile of 8/8 for each case was ensured. Group A underwent membrane sweeping while group B did not. All patients not having spontaneous labour were induced at 40+5 weeks. Data regarding number of patients having spontaneous labour or induction of labour was recorded. Mode of delivery either vaginal or cesarean birth was also recorded. In group A occurence of complications i.e vaginal bleeding or leaking, discomfort, irregular pains, fever and neonatal sepsis was recorded. Results: The difference in rate of spontaneous labor, induction rate and mode of delivery was insignificant between both the groups (p>0.05). In group A, 44% felt discomfort, 4% had bleeding per vaginum, 2% had leaking per vaginum and 28% had more than one complication. There were no cases of maternal or neonatal sepsis. Twenty percent did not have any side effects. Conclusion: Sweeping of membranes is not effective in reducing induction rates in post dates pregnancies. It does not improve the spontaneous labour rate and there is no effect on the mode of delivery. Therefore, any potential benefits of this intervention must be balanced against risk of maternal discomfort and other adverse effects. (author)

  10. The Effects of Sweeping Jet Actuator Parameters on Flow Separation Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koklu, Mehti

    2015-01-01

    A parametric experimental study was performed with sweeping jet actuators (fluidic oscillators) to determine their effectiveness in controlling flow separation on an adverse pressure gradient ramp. Actuator parameters that were investigated include blowing coefficients, operation mode, pitch and spreading angles, streamwise location, aspect ratio, and scale. Surface pressure measurements and surface oil flow visualization were used to characterize the effects of these parameters on the actuator performance. 2D Particle Image Velocimetry measurements of the flow field over the ramp and hot-wire measurements of the actuator's jet flow were also obtained for selective cases. In addition, the sweeping jet actuators were compared to other well-known flow control techniques such as micro-vortex generators, steady blowing, and steady vortex-generating jets. The results confirm that the sweeping jet actuators are more effective than steady blowing and steady vortex-generating jets. The results also suggest that an actuator with a larger spreading angle placed closer to the location where the flow separates provides better performance. For the cases tested, an actuator with an aspect ratio, which is the width/depth of the actuator throat, of 2 was found to be optimal. For a fixed momentum coefficient, decreasing the aspect ratio to 1 produced weaker vortices while increasing the aspect ratio to 4 reduced coverage area. Although scaling down the actuator (based on the throat dimensions) from 0.25 inch x 0.125 inch to 0.15 inch x 0.075 inch resulted in similar flow control performance, scaling down the actuator further to 0.075 inch x 0.0375 inch reduced the actuator efficiency by reducing the coverage area and the amount of mixing in the near-wall region. The results of this study provide insight that can be used to design and select the optimal sweeping jet actuator configuration for flow control applications.

  11. On gas sweeping from central regions of galaxies with active nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silich, S.A.; Fomin, P.I.

    1980-01-01

    A mechanism of gas sweeping by shock waves from central regions of plane galaxies with active nuclei which is connected with the angular moment transfer from a stellar-cloud component to a gas one is considered. It is shown that shock waves are capable to form the observable density profile with the maximum at a distance of some kpc from galaxy centre for the time of the order of 10 9 years

  12. Residual sweeping errors in turbulent particle pair diffusion in a Lagrangian diffusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Nadeem A

    2017-01-01

    Thomson, D. J. & Devenish, B. J. [J. Fluid Mech. 526, 277 (2005)] and others have suggested that sweeping effects make Lagrangian properties in Kinematic Simulations (KS), Fung et al [Fung J. C. H., Hunt J. C. R., Malik N. A. & Perkins R. J. J. Fluid Mech. 236, 281 (1992)], unreliable. However, such a conclusion can only be drawn under the assumption of locality. The major aim here is to quantify the sweeping errors in KS without assuming locality. Through a novel analysis based upon analysing pairs of particle trajectories in a frame of reference moving with the large energy containing scales of motion it is shown that the normalized integrated error [Formula: see text] in the turbulent pair diffusivity (K) due to the sweeping effect decreases with increasing pair separation (σl), such that [Formula: see text] as σl/η → ∞; and [Formula: see text] as σl/η → 0. η is the Kolmogorov turbulence microscale. There is an intermediate range of separations 1 < σl/η < ∞ in which the error [Formula: see text] remains negligible. Simulations using KS shows that in the swept frame of reference, this intermediate range is large covering almost the entire inertial subrange simulated, 1 < σl/η < 105, implying that the deviation from locality observed in KS cannot be atributed to sweeping errors. This is important for pair diffusion theory and modeling. PACS numbers: 47.27.E?, 47.27.Gs, 47.27.jv, 47.27.Ak, 47.27.tb, 47.27.eb, 47.11.-j.

  13. Effect of Sweep on Cavity Flow Fields at Subsonic and Transonic Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Maureen B.; Plentovich, Elizabeth B.; Hemsch, Michael J.; Wilcox, Floyd J.

    2012-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in the NASA Langley 7 x 10-Foot High Speed Tunnel (HST) to study the effect of leading- and trailing-edge sweep on cavity flow fields for a range of cavity length-to-height (l/h) ratios. The free-stream Mach number was varied from 0.2 to 0.8. The cavity had a depth of 0.5 inches, a width of 2.5 inches, and a maximum length of 12.0 inches. The leading- and trailing-edge sweep was adjusted using block inserts to achieve leading edge sweep angles of 65 deg, 55 deg, 45 deg, 35 deg, and 0 deg. The fore and aft cavity walls were always parallel. The aft wall of the cavity was remotely positioned to achieve a range of length-to-depth ratios. Fluctuating- and static-pressure data were obtained on the floor of the cavity. The fluctuating pressure data were used to determine whether or not resonance occurred in the cavity rather than to provide a characterization of the fluctuating pressure field. Qualitative surface flow visualization was obtained using a technique in which colored water was introduced into the model through static-pressure orifices. A complete tabulation of the mean static-pressure data for the swept leading edge cavities is included.

  14. Parallel Sn Sweeps on Unstructured Grids: Algorithms for Prioritization, Grid Partitioning, and Cycle Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plimpton, Steven J.; Hendrickson, Bruce; Burns, Shawn P.; McLendon, William III; Rauchwerger, Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    The method of discrete ordinates is commonly used to solve the Boltzmann transport equation. The solution in each ordinate direction is most efficiently computed by sweeping the radiation flux across the computational grid. For unstructured grids this poses many challenges, particularly when implemented on distributed-memory parallel machines where the grid geometry is spread across processors. We present several algorithms relevant to this approach: (a) an asynchronous message-passing algorithm that performs sweeps simultaneously in multiple ordinate directions, (b) a simple geometric heuristic to prioritize the computational tasks that a processor works on, (c) a partitioning algorithm that creates columnar-style decompositions for unstructured grids, and (d) an algorithm for detecting and eliminating cycles that sometimes exist in unstructured grids and can prevent sweeps from successfully completing. Algorithms (a) and (d) are fully parallel; algorithms (b) and (c) can be used in conjunction with (a) to achieve higher parallel efficiencies. We describe our message-passing implementations of these algorithms within a radiation transport package. Performance and scalability results are given for unstructured grids with up to 3 million elements (500 million unknowns) running on thousands of processors of Sandia National Laboratories' Intel Tflops machine and DEC-Alpha CPlant cluster

  15. SWEEP, a computer program for the analysis of CDA energetics in liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, Soo Dong; Lee, Yong Bum; Hahn, Do Hee

    2003-12-01

    The SWEEP computer code was developed in this study to evaluate the work energy arising from two-phase expansion of fuel or sodium during core disruptive accidents in KALIMER. In the SWEEP program, scoping calculations with a modified Bethe-Tait method is first carried out using SCHAMBETA module to provide the initial thermodynamic conditions for the subsequent analyses to estimate the mechanical work energy generated in the reactor system. To estimate the work energy due to fuel-vapor expansion, a bounding approach is adopted to calculate the work potential assuming isentropic expansion to atmospheric pressure during super-prompt critical power excursions. Work potentials are also calculated in the SWEEP code for sodium expansion using the simple thermodynamic models including the infinite heat transfer model during expansion(Hicks and Menzies method) or more realistic zero heat transfer model for a typical initial condition of core disruptive accident. Core disruptive accidents have been investigated at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) as part of the work to demonstrate the inherent and ultimate safety of conceptual design of the Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor(KALIMER), a 150 MWe pool-type sodium cooled prototype fast reactor that uses U-TRU-Zr metallic fuel

  16. Analysing Infinite-State Systems by Combining Equivalence Reduction and the Sweep-Line Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    The sweep-line method is a state space exploration method for on-the-fly verification aimed at systems exhibiting progress. Presence of progress in the system makes it possible to delete certain states during state space generation, which reduces the memory used for storing the states. Unfortunat......The sweep-line method is a state space exploration method for on-the-fly verification aimed at systems exhibiting progress. Presence of progress in the system makes it possible to delete certain states during state space generation, which reduces the memory used for storing the states....... Unfortunately, the same progress that is used to improve memory performance in state space exploration often leads to an infinite state space: The progress in the system is carried over to the states resulting in infinitely many states only distinguished through the progress. A finite state space can...... property essential for the sweep-line method. We evaluate the new method on two case studies, showing significant improvements in performance, and we briefly discuss the new method in the context of Timed Coloured Petri Nets, where the “increasing global time” semantics can be exploited for more efficient...

  17. Education for the nuclear power industry: Swedish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.

    2005-01-01

    In the Swedish nuclear power industry staff, very few newly employed have a deep education in reactor technology. To remedy this, a joint education company, Nuclear Training and Safety Center (KSU), has been formed. To ensure that nuclear competence will be available also in a long-term perspective, the Swedish nuclear power industry and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) have formed a joint center for support of universities, the Swedish Nuclear Technology Center (SKC). The activities of these organisations, their links to universities, and their impact on the competence development for the nuclear power industry will be outlined. (author)

  18. Multidimensional analysis of developing two-phase flows in an ESBWR chimney with and without riser channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakawa, H.; Antal, S.P.; Lahey, R T.

    2008-01-01

    The object of this work was to simulate developing multidimensional velocity and void fraction distributions in bubbly and churn turbulent two-phase flows. An advanced Computational Multiphase Fluid Dynamics (CMFD) code, NPHASE, was used to perform three-dimensional, multi-field simulations of the developing phasic velocity and phase distributions in vertical adiabatic conduits. The NPHASE code employed a multi-field two-fluid model, in which, for churn turbulent flow, the vapor phase was divided into small and large, cap bubble fields. In addition, state-of-the-art interfacial area density and field-to-field mass transfer models were used for both the small and large, cap bubbles. In particular, the bubble breakup and coalescence processes were quantified using a two-group interfacial area density transport equation. This allowed the CMFD simulation of developing churn turbulent flows in an ESBWR with and without vertical riser channels in the chimney region above the core. Based on these simulations it was concluded that riser channels have little adverse effect on the induced natural circulation flow through the core and the stability characteristics of an ESBWR. (authors)

  19. Assessment of levelized cost of electricity for a 10-MW solar chimney power plant in Yinchuan China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Penghua; Zhai, Yaxin; Xu, Xinhai; Li, Jingyin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An unsteady model is proposed for annual power generation prediction of SCPPs. • LCOE of a 10-MW SCPP in China is estimated through a cost benefit analysis. • Cost advantage and concessional loan under conditions in China are considered. • SCPP is proven to be economically feasible under favorable conditions in China. - Abstract: Solar chimney power plant (SCPP) is a promising renewable energy technology that needs policy support and market cultivation at the early stage of its development. An accurate prediction of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) can be used as basis for crafting effective support policies. This study presents an unsteady theoretical model that considers hourly meteorological data and soil heat storage in estimating the annual power generation of an SCPP. A cost benefit model is adopted to calculate the LCOE of a 10-MW SCPP in Yinchuan, a representative geographical location in the Northwestern region of China. By considering the cost advantage of China, the concessional loan, as well as the low operation and maintenance cost, the LCOE of the SCPP is estimated to be 0.4178 Yuan/kWh, which can compete with those of wind power and solar PV in China. This work lays a good foundation for the accurate prediction of power generation and provides a reference for the Chinese government in crafting effective support policies for SCPPs.

  20. The Impact of the Rock Mass Deformation on Geometric Changes of a Historical Chimney in the Salt Mine of Bochnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafarczyk, Anna; Gawałkiewicz, Rafał

    2018-03-01

    There are many ways of the geometry measurement of slim objects, with the application of geodetic and photogrammetric methods. A modern solution in the diagnostics of slim objects is the application of laser scanning, with the use of a scanner of a scanning total station. The point cloud, obtained from the surface of the scanned object gives the possibility of generating not only information on structural surface deformations, but also facilitates obtaining the data on the geometry of the axis of the building, as a basic indicator of the characteristics of its deformation. The cause of the change in the geometry of slim objects is the impact of many external and internal factors. These objects are located in the areas of working or closed underground mines. They can be impacted by the ground and they can face the results of the convergence of cavities. A specific structure of the salt rock mass causes subsequent convergence of the post-exploitation cavities, which has the influence on the behaviour of the terrain surface and the related objects. The authors analysed the impact of the changes in the rock mass and the surface on the changes of the industrial chimney in the Bochnia Salt Mine.

  1. Endovascular Repair of Acute Symptomatic Pararenal Aortic Aneurysm With Three Chimney and One Periscope Graft for Complete Visceral Artery Revascularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechtel, Klaus; Ketelsen, Dominik; Endisch, Andrea; Heller, Stephan; Heuschmid, Martin; Stock, Ulrich A.; Kalender, Guenay

    2012-01-01

    PurposeTo describe a modified endovascular technique for complete revascularization of visceral and renal arteries in symptomatic pararenal aortic aneurysm (PRAA).TechniqueArterial access was surgically established in both common femoral arteries (CFAs) and the left subclavian artery (LSA). Revascularization of the left renal artery, the celiac trunk, and the superior mesenteric artery was performed through one single sheath via the LSA. Suitable covered stents were put in the aortic branches but not deployed. The right renal artery was accessed over the left CFA. Due to the longitudinal extension of the presented aneurysm two stent-grafts were introduced via the right CFA. After deploying the aortic stent-grafts, all covered stents in the side branches were deployed consecutively with a minimum overlap of 5 mm over the cranial and caudal stent-graft edges. Simultaneous ballooning was performed to fully expand all stent-grafts and warranty patency. Conclusion: This is the first report in the literature of chimney grafting in PRAA for complete revascularization of visceral and renal branches by using more than two covered stents introduced from one side through one single sheath. However this technique is modified, it should be used only in bailout situations when branched stent-grafts are not available and/or surgery is not suitable.

  2. Chimney Technique in Supra-Aortic Branch Reconstruction in China: A Systematic and Critical Review of Chinese Published Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Shi, Yawei; Wang, Mian; Cui, Jin; Chen, Yitian; Zheng, Liang; Yin, Henghui; Chang, Guangqi

    2017-08-01

    The chimney graft (CG) technique has been proposed as a complete endovascular supra-aortic branch reconstruction for aortic pathologies. Due to the rapid growth of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in China, we aimed to investigate the current data of the CG technique in this most populous country. Studies of supra-aortic branch reconstruction using the CG technique from Chinese centers were collected and analyzed. A total of 294 patients from Chinese centers who underwent TEVAR with CGs were included. There were 301 CGs performed, with a technical successful rate of 97.7%. The rate of early type I endoleaks was 7.1%, and the patency rate of the CGs was desirable. Balloon-expandable bare CGs were significantly associated with good early outcomes and a low rate of endoleaks. Current data from China revealed positive outcomes using CGs for supra-aortic branch reconstruction. Balloon-expandable bare CGs may be the first choice according to the data available but should be considered with caution.

  3. Numerical simulation of an innovated building cooling system with combination of solar chimney and water spraying system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabani, Ramin; Faghih, Ahmadreza K.; Rabani, Mehrdad; Rabani, Mehran

    2014-05-01

    In this study, passive cooling of a room using a solar chimney and water spraying system in the room inlet vents is simulated numerically in Yazd, Iran (a hot and arid city with very high solar radiation). The performance of this system has been investigated for the warmest day of the year (5 August) which depends on the variation of some parameters such as water flow rate, solar heat flux, and inlet air temperature. In order to get the best performance of the system for maximum air change and also absorb the highest solar heat flux by the absorber in the warmest time of the day, different directions (West, East, North and South) have been studied and the West direction has been selected as the best direction. The minimum amount of water used in spraying system to set the inside air averaged relative humidity <65 % is obtained using trial and error method. The simulation results show that this proposed system decreases the averaged air temperature in the middle of the room by 9-14 °C and increases the room relative humidity about 28-45 %.

  4. Thoracic aortic stent-graft placement combined with left subclavian artery 'chimney operation': therapeutic analysis of 15 cases with insufficient proximal anchor area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiayi; Huang Lianjun; Fan Zhanming; Zhang Zhaoqi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the strategies for the management of insufficient proximal anchoring area during the performance of transluminal stent-graft placement (TSGP), and to evaluate the feasibility of intentional coverage of the left subclavian artery (LSA) together with left subclavian artery stent-graft placement by using 'chimney operation' technique. Methods: A total of 15 patients with thoracic aortic diseases complicated by insufficient proximal anchoring area, who were encountered in authors' hospital during the period from Dec. 2009 to April 2011, were enrolled in this study. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. The thoracic aortic diseases included aortic dissection (n=6), aortic pseudoaneurysm (n=1), aortic aneurysm (n=4) and penetrating ulcer (n=4). Of the 15 patients, the distance between the lesion and LSA anchoring site 15 mm in 2. TSGP was carried out. The ostium of LSA was intentionally and completely covered by thoracic aortic stent-graft and left subclavian artery stent-graft placement was subsequently performed. The patients were kept under observation for symptoms of cerebral and upper limb ischemia. The postoperative complications such as endoleak and the patency of LSA were assessed with angiography. Results: Thoracic aortic stent-graft placement was successfully carried out in all 15 patients. In addition, one 'chimney' stent was properly implanted in LSA in each patient. After the procedure, no complications of nervous system or severe ischemia of upper extremity occurred. Follow-up examinations performed between 5 days to 3 months after the treatment revealed that the aortic stent-graft remained in stable condition and no type Ⅰ endoleak occurred, meanwhile the blood flow in 'chimney' stent was unobstructed. Conclusion: Intentional LSA coverage with 'chimney operation' can expand the applicability of TSGP with high tolerability. It is especially useful for patients with left vertebral artery blood supply dominance or with

  5. Sweeping Gas Membrane Desalination Using Commercial Hydrophobic Hollow Fiber Membranes; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EVANS, LINDSEY; MILLER, JAMES E.

    2002-01-01

    Water shortages affect 88 developing countries that are home to half of the world's population. In these places, 80-90% of all diseases and 30% of all deaths result from poor water quality. Furthermore, over the next 25 years, the number of people affected by severe water shortages is expected to increase fourfold. Low cost methods of purifying freshwater, and desalting seawater are required to contend with this destabilizing trend. Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for separations that are traditionally accomplished via conventional distillation or reverse osmosis. As applied to desalination, MD involves the transport of water vapor from a saline solution through the pores of a hydrophobic membrane. In sweeping gas MD, a flowing gas stream is used to flush the water vapor from the permeate side of the membrane, thereby maintaining the vapor pressure gradient necessary for mass transfer. Since liquid does not penetrate the hydrophobic membrane, dissolved ions are completely rejected by the membrane. MD has a number of potential advantages over conventional desalination including low temperature and pressure operation, reduced membrane strength requirements, compact size, and 100% rejection of non-volatiles. The present work evaluated the suitability of commercially available technology for sweeping gas membrane desalination. Evaluations were conducted with Celgard Liqui-Cel(reg s ign) Extra-Flow 2.5X8 membrane contactors with X-30 and X-40 hydrophobic hollow fiber membranes. Our results show that sweeping gas membrane desalination systems are capable of producing low total dissolved solids (TDS) water, typically 10 ppm or less, from seawater, using low grade heat. However, there are several barriers that currently prevent sweeping gas MD from being a viable desalination technology. The primary problem is that large air flows are required to achieve significant water yields, and the costs associated with transporting this air are prohibitive. To

  6. Influence of additives and impurities in sweep gas and solid tritium release behaviour from lithium ceramics (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Satoru

    1991-01-01

    Tritium release from solid breeding material is affected by small amounts of additives or impurities in the sweep gas or solid itself. Addition of hydrogen or water vapor to the sweep gas is reported to enhance the surface reaction of tritium release. Doping to solid breeder with elements of different valence from lithium has a possibility to improve tritium diffusion in the solid. Surface reaction and migration behavior in bulk are believed to be also affected by impurities in the sweep gas and in the solid. In order to model tritium release behavior in the blanket of fusion reactor, the mechanism of interaction with these additives or impurities must be quantitatively formulated. However, the mechanism of these remains to be elucidated. In this paper effects of these additives and impurities on tritium migration are reviewed. The mechanism of surface reaction for He+H 2 sweep gas is also discussed. (orig.)

  7. Microbial and Mineral Descriptions of the Interior Habitable Zones of Active Hydrothermal Chimneys from the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, J. F.; Lin, T.; Ver Eecke, H. C.; Breves, E.; Dyar, M. D.; Jamieson, J. W.; Hannington, M. D.; Butterfield, D. A.; Bishop, J. L.; Lane, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    Actively venting hydrothermal chimneys and their associated hydrothermal fluids were collected from the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge to determine the mineralogy, chemistry and microbial community composition of their interiors. To characterize the mineralogy, Mössbauer, FTIR, VNIR and thermal emission spectroscopies were used for the first time on this type of sample in addition to thin-section petrography, x-ray diffraction and elemental analyses. A chimney from the Bastille edifice was Fe-sulfide rich and composed primarily of chalcopyrite, marcasite-sphalerite, and pyrrhotite while chimneys from the Dante and Hot Harold edifices were Fe-sulfide poor and composed primarily of anhydrite. The bulk emissivity and reflectance spectroscopies corroborated well with the petrography and XRD analyses. The microbial community in the interior of Bastille was most closely related to mesophilic-to-thermophilic anaerobes of the deltaproteobacteria and hyperthermophilic archaea while those in the interiors of Dante and Hot Harold were most closely related to mesophilic-to-thermophilic aerobes of the beta-, gamma- and epsilonproteobacteria. The fluid temperatures (282-321°C) and chemistries of the three chimneys were very similar suggesting that differences in mineralogy and microbial community compositions were more dependent on fluid flow characteristics and paragenesis within the chimney. Thin-section petrography of the interior of another hydrothermal chimney collected from the Dante edifice (emitting 336°C fluid) shows a thin coat of Fe3+ oxide associated with amorphous silica on the exposed outer surfaces of pyrrhotite, sphalerite and chalcopyrite in pore spaces, along with anhydrite precipitation in the pores that is indicative of seawater ingress. The Fe-sulfide minerals were likely oxidized to ferrihydrite with increasing pH and Eh due to cooling and seawater exposure, providing reactants for bioreduction. Culture-based most-probable-number estimates of

  8. Gas separation process using membranes with permeate sweep to remove CO.sub.2 from gaseous fuel combustion exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijmans, Johannes G [Menlo Park, CA; Merkel, Timothy C [Menlo Park, CA; Baker, Richard W [Palo Alto, CA

    2012-05-15

    A gas separation process for treating exhaust gases from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and gaseous fuel combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the exhaust stream to a carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the exhaust gas stream across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas back to the combustor.

  9. Insurance cost of Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaellstrand, Aasa.

    1992-01-01

    What happens if a reactor accident occurs? Can victims of a nuclear accident be compensated for losses? The rights of a victim of a nuclear accident to be compensated for losses are governed by international conventions. These conventions make the licensee of a nuclear plant strictly liable. However, the maximum amount of compensation is limited. In Sweden the total liability of the plant-owner is maximized to 1.2 million Swedish Crowns, that is 0.02 oere/kWh. After the accidents of Harrisburg (1979) and Chernobyl (1986), it has become clear that the amounts of the various conventions are not at all sufficient to cover the damages caused by such an accident. In spite of these facts, there are a large number of reliable sources, who think that the insurance costs are negligible in the cost of production. A cost-benefit analysis based on a study performed by Ottinger et al. in 'Environmental costs of electricity' is therefore adopted to derive the costs of the external effects of nuclear plant operation and from releases to the environment during operation. The environmental externality costs of Swedish nuclear power plant operations are in this report estimated to 18.3 oere/kWh. This figure can be compared to the insurance cost, which for the present is 0.02 oere/kWh. The 'real' insurance cost including the external effects is calculated to approximately 1.12 billion Swedish Crowns] That is 900 times larger than the insurance premium, which the licensee of a nuclear plant faces] (au)

  10. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The total production of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 70.5 TWh during 1998, which is the second highest yearly production ever. Production losses due to low demand totaled 5.1 TWh combined for all twelve units and production losses due to coastdown operation totaled an additional 0.5 TWh. The reason for this low power demand was a very good supply of water to the hydropower system. Hydroelectric power production was 73.6 TWh, an increase by roughly 5 TWh since 1997. Hence, the hydroelectric power production substantially exceeded the 64 TWh expected during a normal year, i.e. a year with average rainfall. Remaining production sources, mainly fossil fuel electricity production combined with district heating, contributed with 10 TWh. The total electricity production was 154.2 TWh, the highest yearly production ever. The total electricity consumption including transmission losses was 143.5 TWh. This is also the highest consumption ever and an increase by one percent compared to 1997. The preliminary net result of the electric power trade shows a net export by 10.7 TWh. The figures above are calculated from the preliminary production results. A comprehensive report on electric power supply and consumption in Sweden is given in the 1998 Annual Report from the Swedish Power Association. Besides Oskarshamn 1, all plants have periodically been operated in load-following mode, mostly because of the abundant supply of hydropower. The energy availability for the three boiling water reactors at Forsmark averaged 93.3 % and for the three pressure water reactors at Ringhals 91.0 %, both figures are the highest ever noted. In the section `Special Reports` three events of importance to safety that occurred during 1998 are reported. The events were all rated as level 1 according to the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) Figs, tabs.; Also available in Swedish

  11. Movements and instability in the Swedish bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moerner, N.A.

    1977-01-01

    The report gives a geological evaluation of the Swedish bedrock and its movements during the last 20,000 years, which may serve as a base for further evaluations of the possibilities of storing nuclear waste in the bedrock. The Swedish bedrock is by no means stable. Like all other bedrocks it is unstable. The Swedish bedrock has an old and rich tectono-geodynamic inheritance. Irregularities in the uplift in the form of shoreline bends and isobase irregularities have been established with ancient shorelines and geodetic data. They are in general all related to major faultlines and bedrock seams. Bouldery end moraines and bouldery ground in general register paleopseismic activity -(these areas must hence be excluded as alternatives for storage of nuclear waste in the bedrock). The next ice age, is either on its way or it will, under the most favorable circumstances, have begun 20,000years from now (AP). At the next ice age, all the seismic and neotectonic effects from the deglaciation period will be repeated. During an ice age. Nuclear waste cannot bestored in the bedrock. If one succed in finding a Precambrain bedrock unit within an area of smooth uplift, absence of recent earthquakes, the bedrock surface of which shows few fractures and no faultlines, and where the surroundings exhibit normal moraine features and normal till composition, this area must still be evaluated with respect to that which will happen and may happen in connection with the next ice age and in connection with the cyclic gravitational changes in the present linear uplift. (author)

  12. Geomicrobiological exploration and characterization of novel deep-sea hydrothermal activities accompanying with extremely acidic white smokers and elemental sulfur chimneys at the TOTO caldera in the Mariana Volcanic Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Hirayama, H.; Kosaka, A.; Tsunogai, U.; Gamo, T.; Nealson, K. H.; Horikoshi, K.

    2004-12-01

    Novel hydrothermal activities accompanying effluent white smokers and elemental sulfur chimney structures at the northeast lava dome of the TOTO caldera depression in the Mariana Volcanic Arc were explored by the manned submersible Shinkai 6500 and characterized by geochemical and microbiological surveys. The white smoker hydrothermal fluids were observed in the potential hydrothermal activity center of the field and represented a maximal temperature of 172 degree C and a lowest pH of 1.59, that was the lowest pH of the hydrothermal fluid ever recorded. The chimney structures consisting all of elemental sulfur (sulfur chimney) were also peculiar to the TOTO caldera hydrothermal field in the world. The geochemical characterization strongly suggested that the TOTO caldera hydrothermal field was a novel system driven by subseafloor mixing between the oxygenated seawater and the superheated volcanic gasses. Microbial community structures in a sulfur chimney structure and its formation hydrothermal fluid with a high concentration of hydrogen sulfide (15 mM) were investigated by culture-dependent and _|independent analyses. Ribosomal rRNA gene clone analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that epsilon-Proteobacteria, specifically classified into Group G and Group B, dominated the microbial communities in the sulfur chimney structure and formed a dense microbial mat covering the sulfur chimney surface. Archaeal phylotypes were consistently minor components in the communities and related to the genera Thermococcus, Pyrodictium, Aeropyrum, and the uncultivated archaeal group of Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vent Euryarchaeotal Group. Cultivation analysis suggested that the microbial components inhabiting in the sulfur chimney structure might be entrained by hydrothermal fluids from the potential subsurface habitats

  13. Controversial Swedish science minister loses seat in reshuffle

    CERN Multimedia

    Sylawan, P

    1998-01-01

    Carl Tham, who introduced sweeping changes to higher education and research, has lost his seat in a cabinet reshuffle. As science minister for 4 years he redirected funding to applied science and established new regional universities (1 page).

  14. GENIUS & the Swedish Fast Reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallenius, Janne

    2012-01-01

    Concluding remarks: Sweden’s growing fast reactor programme focuses on LFR technology, but we also participate in ASTRID. • An innovative facility for UN fabrication, an LBE thermal hydraulics loop and a lead corrosion facility are operational. • A plutonium fuel fabrication lab is is under installation (this week!) • The government is assessing the construction of ELECTRA-FCC, a centre for Gen IV-system R&D, at a tentative cost of ~ 140±20 M€. • Location: Oskarshamn (adjacent to intermediate repository) • Date of criticality: 2023 (best case) • Swedish participation in IAEA TWG-FR should intensify

  15. Alpine ski sport injuries in Swedish Lapland

    OpenAIRE

    Made, Curt

    2009-01-01

    Downhill skiing is associated with recreation, youth, speed, aerials and crowded courses which carry increased risk of injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate downhill sport injuries in a Swedish ski resort. Material and methodsIn a case-control study ongoing 1989/90–2006/07, 3,696 injured skiers were registered. After informed consent the injured were assessed by a physician and asked to answer a questionnaire concerning skier, skiing and injury. ResultsAfter three years 481 injured ...

  16. Teachers' Pedagogical Mathematical Awareness in Swedish Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Camilla; Barendregt, Wolmet

    2016-01-01

    Revised guidelines for Swedish early childhood education that emphasize mathematics content and competencies in more detail than before raise the question of the status of pedagogical mathematical awareness among Swedish early childhood teachers. The purpose of this study is to give an overview of teachers' current pedagogical mathematical…

  17. Irradiated fuel storage and transport: A Swedish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennerdahl, D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives the views of the author and may not correspond to the views of the Swedish industry or the licensing authority. The views are based on experience from consultation to the Swedish licensing authority and from participation in international cooperation, in particular in the OECD/NEA NSC Working Group on Burnup Credit. (author)

  18. Imperatives for "Right" Educational Choices in Swedish Educational Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puaca, Goran

    2014-01-01

    The present article is based on a critical semiotic investigation of the Swedish Long-Term Survey on economic development. It aims to examine how recent Swedish policy trends bring specific economic, political and social processes together to form a system of meaning for both motivation and regulation over individuals' educational choices. What is…

  19. The nuclear waste issue in Swedish mass media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedberg, P.

    1991-04-01

    This is an investigation of the representation given in the Swedish mass media of questions concerning the nuclear waste. The investigation covers the period from 1979 to 1989 of 8 newspapers of different political colours and the Swedish radio and television. (KAE)

  20. Parental Expectations of the Swedish Municipal School of Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilliedahl, Jonathan; Georgii-Hemming, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This article draws on a study designed to analyse parental expectations of the Swedish municipal school of arts (hereafter MSA) (in Swedish: kommunal musik- och kulturskola). The study is based on in-depth interviews conducted and informed by grounded theory. Although parental expectations are scarcely uniform, the study reveals a hope that the…

  1. First observations of tritium in ground water outside chimneys of underground nuclear explosions, Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, N.B.

    1976-01-01

    Abnormal levels of radionuclides had not been detected in ground water at the Nevada Test Site beyond the immediate vicinity of underground nuclear explosions until April 1974, when above-background tritium activity levels were detected in ground-water inflow from the tuff beneath Yucca Flat to an emplacement chamber being mined in hole U2aw in the east-central part of Area 2. No other radionuclides were detected in a sample of water from the chamber. In comparison with the amount of tritium estimated to be present in the ground water in nearby nuclear chimneys, the activity level at U2aw is very low. To put the tritium activity levels at U2aw into proper perspective, the maximum tritium activity level observed was significantly less than the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) for a restricted area, though from mid-April 1974 until the emplacement chamber was expended in September 1974, the tritium activity exceeded the MPC for the general public. Above-background tritium activity was also detected in ground water from the adjacent exploratory hole, Ue2aw. The nearest underground nuclear explosion detonated beneath the water table, believed to be the source of the tritium observed, is Commodore (U2am), located 465 m southeast of the emplacement chamber in U2aw. Commodore was detonated in May 1967. In May 1975, tritium activity May significantly higher than regional background. was detected in ground water from hole Ue2ar, 980 m south of the emplacement chamber in U2aw and 361 m from a second underground nuclear explosion, Agile (U2v), also detonated below the water table, in February 1967. This paper describes these occurrences of tritium in the ground water. A mechanism to account for the movement of tritium is postulated

  2. Thermal transients due to sweeping of the separatrix on the monoblock divertor concept for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renda, V.; Papa, L.; Soria, A.

    1991-01-01

    The ITER divertor plate considered in the present study is the monoblock design option, consisting of an armour of CFC-SEP-Carb graphite tiles, crossed by the tubes of the water cooling system made in Mo-Re alloy. Preliminary steady-state calculations for a peak flux of 15 MW/m 2 showed that the allowable thickness to limit the maximum temperature to 1273 K (1000degC) is about 5 mm. This small value reduces the lifetime of the plate, due to the expected erosion rate, to an unacceptable value from the engineering standpoint. A sweeping of the separatrix has been proposed to reduce the erosion of the protective armour and to lessen the thermomechanical effects of the localized peak surface heat flux. A rotation of the null points of the separatrix of 30 mm radius with a frequency of 0.3 Hz for a surface heat flux of 15 MW/m 2 was assumed as nominal working condition. Several scenarios were considered as off-normal conditions: the loss of sweeping accident, the change in frequency from 0.3 to 0.1 Hz and the change of the peak of the surface heat flux from 15 to 30 MW/m 2 . The results related to the nominal condition show that a 16 mm thick armour could be allowed; this value should ensure an acceptable lifetime for the divertor plate. The loss of sweeping accident leads the surface temperature to reach about 2273 K in few seconds; the change in frequency raises the maximum temperature of 423 K, but its range doubles; the change in peak flux leads to a maximum temperature of about 2373 K. (author)

  3. Sweep visually evoked potentials and visual findings in children with West syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Dotto, Patrícia; Cavascan, Nívea Nunes; Berezovsky, Adriana; Sacai, Paula Yuri; Rocha, Daniel Martins; Pereira, Josenilson Martins; Salomão, Solange Rios

    2014-03-01

    West syndrome (WS) is a type of early childhood epilepsy characterized by progressive neurological development deterioration that includes vision. To demonstrate the clinical importance of grating visual acuity thresholds (GVA) measurement by sweep visually evoked potentials technique (sweep-VEP) as a reliable tool for evaluation of the visual cortex status in WS children. This is a retrospective study of the best-corrected binocular GVA and ophthalmological features of WS children referred for the Laboratory of Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision of UNIFESP from 1998 to 2012 (Committee on Ethics in Research of UNIFESP n° 0349/08). The GVA deficit was calculated by subtracting binocular GVA score (logMAR units) of each patient from the median values of age norms from our own lab and classified as mild (0.1-0.39 logMAR), moderate (0.40-0.80 logMAR) or severe (>0.81 logMAR). Associated ophthalmological features were also described. Data from 30 WS children (age from 6 to 108 months, median = 14.5 months, mean ± SD = 22.0 ± 22.1 months; 19 male) were analyzed. The majority presented severe GVA deficit (0.15-1.44 logMAR; mean ± SD = 0.82 ± 0.32 logMAR; median = 0.82 logMAR), poor visual behavior, high prevalence of strabismus and great variability in ocular positioning. The GVA deficit did not vary according to gender (P = .8022), WS type (P = .908), birth age (P = .2881), perinatal oxygenation (P = .7692), visual behavior (P = .8789), ocular motility (P = .1821), nystagmus (P = .2868), risk of drug-induced retinopathy (P = .4632) and participation in early visual stimulation therapy (P = .9010). The sweep-VEP technique is a reliable tool to classify visual system impairment in WS children, in agreement with the poor visual behavior exhibited by them. Copyright © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Swedish programme for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjurstroem, S.; Forsstroem, H.

    1986-10-01

    The following systems and facilities are currently in operation and under implementation: a sea transportation system for all kinds of nuclear waste, a central facility for interim storage of spent fuel (CLAB) and a central underground repository for final disposal of low and medium level reactor waste (SFR). For the remaining steps - final disposal of highly active and longlived radioactive residues - a concept, based on encapsulation of the fuel elements in copper canisters and final storage of the canisters in a repository situated 500 m down in crystalline rock (KBS-3), has been developed and approved by the government in accordance with the Swedish nuclear legislation. Although a feasible method for final disposal of the highly active residues has been shown, the Swedish legislation requires that research be carried out to reach the best possible base for the final decision around the year 2000. In parallel with this a geological investigation programme is carried out to find a suitable site for a final repository. The final site selection is foreseen at the end of the 1990's. All costs for the management of radioactive waste from the nuclear power plants are carried by a fee determined annually. The fee is 0.019 SEK/kWh for 1986

  5. A Swedish perspective on research ethics review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Thulesius, M.D., G.P., Ph.D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available I have participated in writing ethical approval applications for research projects in Sweden a dozen times. I am also since some years a member of the local ethics advisory board in a mostly rural area serving 180.000 people. From that position I advise on what types of local project applications will have to be sent further to the regional ethics committee, REPN in Sweden. With that background I will try to give a brief Swedish perspective on research ethics reviews in general and regarding CGT (classic grounded theory studies using qualitative data in particular.The most famous Swedish example of unethical research is the 1947-1951 Vipeholm sugar trial (Krasse, 2001. Several hundred intellectually and mentally challenged persons at the Vipeholm institution were for years given an excess amount of sugar, mostly in the shape of candy. This resulted in caries that totally ruined the teeth of 50 persons. Of course participants did not give informed consent. Yet, at the time the research was not considered unethical. At least there was no debate about it.

  6. Recent Swedish experiences in 222Rn control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.; Maekitalo, A.

    1990-01-01

    Swedish local authorities are responsible for decreasing 222 Rn progeny concentrations in homes in their municipalities. To obtain an overall view of their experiences, concerned national authorities sent a questionnaire in 1986 to local authorities. The results were intended to form one basis for decisions by the government regarding revised statements on financial contributions, limits, etc. The results were also intended to be of use to national authorities in determining limits and recommendations and to local authorities in their field work. One result of the survey was an enhanced interest in the Rn problem among Swedish politicians and the mass media. This increased attention resulted in new plans for continued work to decrease Rn levels indoors during 1987-1989, on both a national and a local level. The experiences of the local authorities show that Rn progeny concentrations decreased to below the design level in 95% of newly built houses investigated. It was also found that Rn progeny concentrations were below the limit for reconstruction in 53% of existing homes that previously had levels exceeding the limit

  7. Women's existential experiences within Swedish abortion care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålhandske, Maria L; Ekstrand, Maria; Tydén, Tanja

    2011-03-01

    To explore Swedish women's experiences of clinical abortion care in relation to their need for existential support. Individual in-depth interviews with 24 women with previous experience of unwanted pregnancy and abortion. Participants were recruited between 2006 and 2009. Interviews were analysed by latent content analysis. Although the women had similar experiences of the abortion care offered, the needs they expressed differed. Swedish abortion care was described as rational and neutral, with physical issues dominating over existential ones. For some women, the medical procedures triggered existential experiences of life, meaning, and morality. While some women abstained from any form of existential support, others expressed a need to reflect upon the existential aspects and/or to reconcile their decision emotionally. As women's needs for existential support in relation to abortion vary, women can be disappointed with the personnel's ability to respond to their thoughts and feelings related to the abortion. To ensure abortion care personnel meet the physical, psychological and existential needs of each patient, better resources and new lines of education are needed to ensure abortion personnel are equipped to deal with the existential aspects of abortion care.

  8. The Grid[Way] Job Template Manager, a tool for parameter sweeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorca, Alejandro; Huedo, Eduardo; Llorente, Ignacio M.

    2011-04-01

    Parameter sweeping is a widely used algorithmic technique in computational science. It is specially suited for high-throughput computing since the jobs evaluating the parameter space are loosely coupled or independent. A tool that integrates the modeling of a parameter study with the control of jobs in a distributed architecture is presented. The main task is to facilitate the creation and deletion of job templates, which are the elements describing the jobs to be run. Extra functionality relies upon the GridWay Metascheduler, acting as the middleware layer for job submission and control. It supports interesting features like multi-dimensional sweeping space, wildcarding of parameters, functional evaluation of ranges, value-skipping and job template automatic indexation. The use of this tool increases the reliability of the parameter sweep study thanks to the systematic bookkeeping of job templates and respective job statuses. Furthermore, it simplifies the porting of the target application to the grid reducing the required amount of time and effort. Program summaryProgram title: Grid[Way] Job Template Manager (version 1.0) Catalogue identifier: AEIE_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEIE_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Apache license 2.0 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3545 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 126 879 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Perl 5.8.5 and above Computer: Any (tested on PC x86 and x86_64) Operating system: Unix, GNU/Linux (tested on Ubuntu 9.04, Scientific Linux 4.7, centOS 5.4), Mac OS X (tested on Snow Leopard 10.6) RAM: 10 MB Classification: 6.5 External routines: The GridWay Metascheduler [1]. Nature of problem: To parameterize and manage an application running on a grid or cluster. Solution method: Generation of job templates as a cross product of

  9. Experimental transonic flutter characteristics of two 72 deg-sweep delta-wing models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, Robert V., Jr.; Soistmann, David L.; Spain, Charles V.; Parker, Ellen C.; Silva, Walter A.

    1989-01-01

    Transonic flutter boundaries are presented for two simple, 72 deg. sweep, low-aspect-ratio wing models. One model was an aspect-ratio 0.65 delta wing; the other model was an aspect-ratio 0.54 clipped-delta wing. Flutter boundaries for the delta wing are presented for the Mach number range of 0.56 to 1.22. Flutter boundaries for the clipped-delta wing are presented for the Mach number range of 0.72 to 0.95. Selected vibration characteristics of the models are also presented.

  10. Ion source plasma parameters measurement based on Langmuir probe with commercial frequency sweep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Y.H.; Hu, C.D.; Liu, S.; Shong, S.H.; Jiang, C.C.; Liu, Z.M.

    2010-01-01

    Langmuir probe is one of the main diagnostic tools to measure the plasma parameters in the ion source. In this article, the commercial frequency power, which is sine wave of 50 Hz, was supplied on the Langmuir probe to measure the plasma parameters. The best feature of this probe sweep voltage is that it does not need extra design. The probe I-V characteristic curve can be got in less than 5 ms and the plasma parameters, the electron temperature and the electron density, varying with the time can be got in one plasma discharge of 400 ms.

  11. Additional income with open chimneys and stove. Nostalgia, romanticism and thermal comfort; Zusatzgeschaeft mit Oefen und Kaminen. Nostalgisch-romantische Gefuehle und behagliche Waerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, G. [Buderus Heiztechnik GmbH, Wetzlar (Germany)

    2004-01-01

    Stoves and open fireplaces are coming into fashion again with the trend towards nostalgia and design awareness. Further, wood-fuelled chimneys and stoves are viewed as romantic, and they also provide high thermal comfort. Heating systems experts can get additional income from this trend. (orig.) [German] Kamine und Oefen sind bei vielen Hausbesitzern und Bauherrn wieder in Mode. Dieser Trend ist zum einen Teil eines gestiegenen Nostalgie- und Designbewusstseins. Zum anderen gelten vor allem holzbefeuerte Kamine und Oefen als romantisch und ihre Waerme aufgrund des hohen Strahlungsanteils als behaglich. Fuer den aktiven Heizungsfachhandwerker laesst sich aus dieser Modestroemung ein lukratives Zusatzgeschaeft ableiten. (orig.)

  12. Novel barite chimneys at the Loki´s Castle Vent Field shed light on key factors shaping microbial communities and functions in hydrothermal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Helene eSteen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to fully understand the cycling of elements in hydrothermal systems it is critical to understand intra-field variations in geochemical and microbiological processes in both focused, high-temperature and diffuse, low-temperature areas. To reveal important causes and effects of this variation, we performed an extensive chemical and microbiological characterization of a low-temperature venting area in the Loki’s Castle Vent Field (LCVF. This area, located at the flank of the large sulfide mound, is characterized by numerous chimney-like barite (BaSO4 structures (≤ 1m high covered with white cotton-like microbial mats. Results from geochemical analyses, microscopy (FISH, SEM, 16S rRNA gene amplicon-sequencing and metatranscriptomics were compared to results from previous analyses of biofilms growing on black smoker chimneys at LCVF. Based on our results, we constructed a conceptual model involving the geochemistry and microbiology in the LCVF. The model suggests that CH4 and H2S are important electron donors for microorganisms in both high-temperature and low-temperature areas, whereas the utilization of H2 seems restricted to high-temperature areas. This further implies that sub-seafloor processes can affect energy-landscapes, elemental cycling, and the metabolic activity of primary producers on the seafloor. In the cotton-like microbial mats on top of the active barite chimneys, a unique network of single cells of Epsilonproteobacteria interconnected by threads of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS was seen, differing significantly from the long filamentous Sulfurovum filaments observed in biofilms on the black smokers. This network also induced nucleation of barite crystals and is suggested to play an essential role in the formation of the microbial mats and the chimneys. Furthermore, it illustrates variations in how different genera of Epsilonproteobacteria colonize and position cells in different vent fluid mixing zones within

  13. Single-center mid-term experience with chimney-graft technique for the preservation of flow to the supra-aortic branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahverdyan, Robert; Mylonas, Spyridon; Gawenda, Michael; Brunkwall, Jan

    2018-04-01

    Objectives To investigate the feasibility and the mid-term outcomes of the chimney-graft technique for the revascularization of supra-aortic branches in patients with thoracic aortic pathologies involving the aortic arch. Methods A retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database between January 2010 and July 2016 was performed. Primary endpoints were 30-day and overall mortality. Secondary endpoints were technical success, target vessel patency, stroke/transitory ischemic attack and type I/III endoleak rate. Results A total of 30 patients (80% male, median age 70.0 years) were treated using the chimney-graft technique for the supra-aortic branches. The indication was a degenerative aneurysm in nine patients (32%) and a type B Stanford aortic dissection and a penetrating aortic ulcer in the descending aorta in seven patients (23%), respectively. In six patients (20.0%), the indication was an type Ia endoleak after previous endovascular thoracic repair, whereas a pseudoaneurysm after previous open repair of the descending aorta was the indication in one patient (3%). Twenty-three patients (77%) were treated electively, five (17%) emergently and two (7%) urgently because of free rupture. Technical success was achieved in 90% of patients. The 30-day/in-hospital mortality was 17% (5/30). A retrograde dissection was presented in five patients. Four patients experienced a cerebrovascular event. Eight patients had type Ia endoleak and 10 had type II. During the median follow-up of 16 months (range: 0-56), four further patients died: one in respiratory insufficiency, one due to a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, one in meningitis and the last one for unknown reason. The chimney-graft patency was 100%. According to the Kaplan-Meier curve, the estimated survival at one year was 66 ± 9%. Conclusions The chimney-graft technique, despite a technically demanding strategy, is a useful tool as bailout procedure in our armamentarium for high-risk patients

  14. Linear sweep polarographic determination of nucleic acids using acridine orange as a bioprobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI SUN

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of acridine orange (AO with double-stranded (ds DNA in aqueous solution was investigated by linear sweep polarography (LSP on a dropping mercury working electrode (DME. In pH 2.5 Britton–Robinson (B–R buffer solution, AO had a sensitive linear sweep polarographic reductive peak at –0.89 V (vs. SCE, which could be greatly inhibited by the addition of dsDNA, with a positive shift of the peak potential. Based on the decrease of the reductive peak current, a new quantitative electrochemical determination method for dsDNA was developed with a linear range of 2.0−20.0 mg l-1 and the linear regression equation: ΔIp” (nA = 111.90 C (mg l-1+125.32 (n = 9, γ = 0.997. The influences of commonly co-existing substances, such as metal ions, amino acid, etc., on the determination were also investigated. The method is sensitive, rapid and simple with good selectivity. The new proposed method was further applied to the detection of RNA and three synthetic samples containing dsDNA with satisfactory results. The binding number and the equilibrium constant between dsDNA and AO were calculated by an electrochemical method.

  15. A selective sweep on a deleterious mutation in CPT1A in Arctic populations

    KAUST Repository

    Clemente, Florian J.

    2014-11-01

    Arctic populations live in an environment characterized by extreme cold and the absence of plant foods for much of the year and are likely to have undergone genetic adaptations to these environmental conditions in the time they have been living there. Genome-wide selection scans based on genotype data from native Siberians have previously highlighted a 3 Mb chromosome 11 region containing 79 protein-coding genes as the strongest candidates for positive selection in Northeast Siberians. However, it was not possible to determine which of the genes might be driving the selection signal. Here, using whole-genome high-coverage sequence data, we identified the most likely causative variant as a nonsynonymous G>A transition (rs80356779; c.1436C>T [p.Pro479Leu] on the reverse strand) in CPT1A, a key regulator of mitochondrial long-chain fatty-acid oxidation. Remarkably, the derived allele is associated with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and high infant mortality yet occurs at high frequency in Canadian and Greenland Inuits and was also found at 68% frequency in our Northeast Siberian sample. We provide evidence of one of the strongest selective sweeps reported in humans; this sweep has driven this variant to high frequency in circum-Arctic populations within the last 6-23 ka despite associated deleterious consequences, possibly as a result of the selective advantage it originally provided to either a high-fat diet or a cold environment.

  16. Ultrasonic flow-through filtration of microparticles in a microfluidic channel using frequency sweep technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Dae Cheol; Ahn, Bong Young; Cho, Seung Hyun; Siddique, A. K. M. Ariful Haque; Kim, Cheol Gi

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted on the filtration of microparticles using the acoustic radiation force of ultrasonic standing wave. The present work concerns a flow-through particle filtration method by utilizing frequency varying ultrasound. The periodical frequency sweep of the ultrasonic standing wave translocates particles across a microchannel, where particles in fluid flow are filtrated without barriers. The present filtration technique in a microfluidic channel was proposed conceptually in the 1990s. However, its experimental realization on actual particles in a microfluidic channel has not been carried out in a notable way. Several sizes of polystyrene microspheres (10 µm to 90 µm) and silicon carbide (SiC) particles (37 µm) suspended in water were applied as a test sample. For filtration of those particles, a Y-branched microfluidic channel with one inlet and two outlets was made out of steel and acrylic as a form of modulized device. Ultrasound of a few MHz in band frequency (1.75 MHz to 3.05 MHz) was transmitted into one side of the channel wall to generate a standing wave field in fluid flow. The periodical frequency sweep operation showed successful filtration performance, whereby particles in water flowed into one outlet and purified water flowed into the other outlet of the Y branch of the channel.

  17. Solving the Capacitive Effect in the High-Frequency sweep for Langmuir Probe in SYMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramila; Patel, J J; Rajpal, R; Hansalia, C J; Anitha, V P; Sathyanarayana, K

    2017-01-01

    Langmuir Probe based measurements need to be routinely carried out to measure various plasma parameters such as the electron density (n e ), the electron temperature (T e ), the floating potential (V f ), and the plasma potential (V p ). For this, the diagnostic electronics along with the biasing power supplies is installed in standard industrial racks with a 2KV isolation transformer. The Signal Conditioning Electronics (SCE) system is populated inside the 4U-chassis based system with the front-end electronics, designed using high common mode differential amplifiers which can measure small differential signal in presence of high common mode dc- bias or ac ramp voltage used for biasing the probes. DC-biasing of the probe is most common method for getting its I-V characteristic but method of biasing the probe with a sweep at high frequency encounters the problem of corruption of signal due to capacitive effect specially when the sweep period and the discharge time is very fast and die down in the order of μs or lesser. This paper presents and summarises the method of removing such effects encountered while measuring the probe current. (paper)

  18. Lax-Friedrichs sweeping scheme for static Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, C.Y.; Osher, Stanley; Qian Jianliang

    2004-01-01

    We propose a simple, fast sweeping method based on the Lax-Friedrichs monotone numerical Hamiltonian to approximate viscosity solutions of arbitrary static Hamilton-Jacobi equations in any number of spatial dimensions. By using the Lax-Friedrichs numerical Hamiltonian, we can easily obtain the solution at a specific grid point in terms of its neighbors, so that a Gauss-Seidel type nonlinear iterative method can be utilized. Furthermore, by incorporating a group-wise causality principle into the Gauss-Seidel iteration by following a finite group of characteristics, we have an easy-to-implement, sweeping-type, and fast convergent numerical method. However, unlike other methods based on the Godunov numerical Hamiltonian, some computational boundary conditions are needed in the implementation. We give a simple recipe which enforces a version of discrete min-max principle. Some convergence analysis is done for the one-dimensional eikonal equation. Extensive 2-D and 3-D numerical examples illustrate the efficiency and accuracy of the new approach. To our knowledge, this is the first fast numerical method based on discretizing the Hamilton-Jacobi equation directly without assuming convexity and/or homogeneity of the Hamiltonian

  19. Lax-Friedrichs sweeping scheme for static Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chiu Yen; Osher, Stanley; Qian, Jianliang

    2004-05-01

    We propose a simple, fast sweeping method based on the Lax-Friedrichs monotone numerical Hamiltonian to approximate viscosity solutions of arbitrary static Hamilton-Jacobi equations in any number of spatial dimensions. By using the Lax-Friedrichs numerical Hamiltonian, we can easily obtain the solution at a specific grid point in terms of its neighbors, so that a Gauss-Seidel type nonlinear iterative method can be utilized. Furthermore, by incorporating a group-wise causality principle into the Gauss-Seidel iteration by following a finite group of characteristics, we have an easy-to-implement, sweeping-type, and fast convergent numerical method. However, unlike other methods based on the Godunov numerical Hamiltonian, some computational boundary conditions are needed in the implementation. We give a simple recipe which enforces a version of discrete min-max principle. Some convergence analysis is done for the one-dimensional eikonal equation. Extensive 2-D and 3-D numerical examples illustrate the efficiency and accuracy of the new approach. To our knowledge, this is the first fast numerical method based on discretizing the Hamilton-Jacobi equation directly without assuming convexity and/or homogeneity of the Hamiltonian.

  20. Cross-polarization phenomena in the NMR of fast spinning solids subject to adiabatic sweeps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wi, Sungsool, E-mail: sungsool@magnet.fsu.edu, E-mail: lucio.frydman@weizmann.ac.il; Gan, Zhehong [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, Florida 32304 (United States); Schurko, Robert [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor N9B 3P4, Ontario (Canada); Frydman, Lucio, E-mail: sungsool@magnet.fsu.edu, E-mail: lucio.frydman@weizmann.ac.il [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, Florida 32304 (United States); Department of Chemical Physics, Weizmann Institute of Sciences, 76100 Rehovot (Israel)

    2015-02-14

    Cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (CPMAS) experiments employing frequency-swept pulses are explored within the context of obtaining broadband signal enhancements for rare spin S = 1/2 nuclei at very high magnetic fields. These experiments employ adiabatic inversion pulses on the S-channel ({sup 13}C) to cover a wide frequency offset range, while simultaneously applying conventional spin-locking pulse on the I-channel ({sup 1}H). Conditions are explored where the adiabatic frequency sweep width, Δν, is changed from selectively irradiating a single magic-angle-spinning (MAS) spinning centerband or sideband, to sweeping over multiple sidebands. A number of new physical features emerge upon assessing the swept-CP method under these conditions, including multiple zero- and double-quantum CP transfers happening in unison with MAS-driven rotary resonance phenomena. These were examined using an average Hamiltonian theory specifically designed to tackle these experiments, with extensive numerical simulations, and with experiments on model compounds. Ultrawide CP profiles spanning frequency ranges of nearly 6⋅γB{sub 1}{sup s} were predicted and observed utilizing this new approach. Potential extensions and applications of this extremely broadband transfer conditions are briefly discussed.

  1. Study of plasma turbulence by ultrafast sweeping reflectometry on the Tore Supra Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornung, Gregoire

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a fusion reactor is closely related to the turbulence present in the plasma. The latter is responsible for anomalous transport of heat and particles that degrades the confinement. The measure and characterization of turbulence in tokamak plasma is therefore essential to the understanding and control of this phenomenon. Among the available diagnostics, the sweeping reflectometer installed on Tore Supra allows to access the plasma density fluctuations from the edge to the centre of the plasma discharge with a fine spatial (mm) and temporal resolution (μs), that is of the order of the characteristic turbulence scales.This thesis consisted in the characterization of plasma turbulence in Tore Supra by ultrafast sweeping reflectometry measurements. Correlation analyses are used to quantify the spatial and temporal scales of turbulence as well as their radial velocity. In the first part, the characterization of turbulence properties from the reconstructed plasma density profiles is discussed, in particular through a comparative study with Langmuir probe data. Then, a parametric study is presented, highlighting the effect of collisionality on turbulence, an interpretation of which is proposed in terms of the stabilization of trapped electron turbulence in the confined plasma. Finally, it is shown how additional heating at ion cyclotron frequency produces a significant though local modification of the turbulence in the plasma near the walls, resulting in a strong increase of the structure velocity and a decrease of the correlation time. The supposed effect of rectified potentials generated by the antenna is investigated via numerical simulations. (author) [fr

  2. Genome-wide Selective Sweeps in Natural Bacterial Populations Revealed by Time-series Metagenomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Leong-Keat; Bendall, Matthew L.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Schwientek, Patrick; Tremblay, Julien; Schackwitz, Wendy; Martin, Joel; Pati, Amrita; Bushnell, Brian; Foster, Brian; Kang, Dongwan; Tringe, Susannah G.; Bertilsson, Stefan; Moran, Mary Ann; Shade, Ashley; Newton, Ryan J.; Stevens, Sarah; McMcahon, Katherine D.; Mamlstrom, Rex R.

    2014-05-12

    Multiple evolutionary models have been proposed to explain the formation of genetically and ecologically distinct bacterial groups. Time-series metagenomics enables direct observation of evolutionary processes in natural populations, and if applied over a sufficiently long time frame, this approach could capture events such as gene-specific or genome-wide selective sweeps. Direct observations of either process could help resolve how distinct groups form in natural microbial assemblages. Here, from a three-year metagenomic study of a freshwater lake, we explore changes in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies and patterns of gene gain and loss in populations of Chlorobiaceae and Methylophilaceae. SNP analyses revealed substantial genetic heterogeneity within these populations, although the degree of heterogeneity varied considerably among closely related, co-occurring Methylophilaceae populations. SNP allele frequencies, as well as the relative abundance of certain genes, changed dramatically over time in each population. Interestingly, SNP diversity was purged at nearly every genome position in one of the Chlorobiaceae populations over the course of three years, while at the same time multiple genes either swept through or were swept from this population. These patterns were consistent with a genome-wide selective sweep, a process predicted by the ecotype model? of diversification, but not previously observed in natural populations.

  3. Genome-wide Selective Sweeps in Natural Bacterial Populations Revealed by Time-series Metagenomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Leong-Keat; Bendall, Matthew L.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Schwientek, Patrick; Tremblay, Julien; Schackwitz, Wendy; Martin, Joel; Pati, Amrita; Bushnell, Brian; Foster, Brian; Kang, Dongwan; Tringe, Susannah G.; Bertilsson, Stefan; Moran, Mary Ann; Shade, Ashley; Newton, Ryan J.; Stevens, Sarah; McMahon, Katherine D.; Malmstrom, Rex R.

    2014-06-18

    Multiple evolutionary models have been proposed to explain the formation of genetically and ecologically distinct bacterial groups. Time-series metagenomics enables direct observation of evolutionary processes in natural populations, and if applied over a sufficiently long time frame, this approach could capture events such as gene-specific or genome-wide selective sweeps. Direct observations of either process could help resolve how distinct groups form in natural microbial assemblages. Here, from a three-year metagenomic study of a freshwater lake, we explore changes in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies and patterns of gene gain and loss in populations of Chlorobiaceae and Methylophilaceae. SNP analyses revealed substantial genetic heterogeneity within these populations, although the degree of heterogeneity varied considerably among closely related, co-occurring Methylophilaceae populations. SNP allele frequencies, as well as the relative abundance of certain genes, changed dramatically over time in each population. Interestingly, SNP diversity was purged at nearly every genome position in one of the Chlorobiaceae populations over the course of three years, while at the same time multiple genes either swept through or were swept from this population. These patterns were consistent with a genome-wide selective sweep, a process predicted by the ‘ecotype model’ of diversification, but not previously observed in natural populations.

  4. Soft sweeps III: the signature of positive selection from recurrent mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleuni S Pennings

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphism data can be used to identify loci at which a beneficial allele has recently gone to fixation, given that an accurate description of the signature of selection is available. In the classical model that is used, a favored allele derives from a single mutational origin. This ignores the fact that beneficial alleles can enter a population recurrently by mutation during the selective phase. In this study, we present a combination of analytical and simulation results to demonstrate the effect of adaptation from recurrent mutation on summary statistics for polymorphism data from a linked neutral locus. We also analyze the power of standard neutrality tests based on the frequency spectrum or on linkage disequilibrium (LD under this scenario. For recurrent beneficial mutation at biologically realistic rates, we find substantial deviations from the classical pattern of a selective sweep from a single new mutation. Deviations from neutrality in the level of polymorphism and in the frequency spectrum are much less pronounced than in the classical sweep pattern. In contrast, for levels of LD, the signature is even stronger if recurrent beneficial mutation plays a role. We suggest a variant of existing LD tests that increases their power to detect this signature.

  5. Distinguishing between Selective Sweeps from Standing Variation and from a De Novo Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Benjamin M.; Huerta-Sanchez, Emilia; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    An outstanding question in human genetics has been the degree to which adaptation occurs from standing genetic variation or from de novo mutations. Here, we combine several common statistics used to detect selection in an Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) framework, with the goal of discriminating between models of selection and providing estimates of the age of selected alleles and the selection coefficients acting on them. We use simulations to assess the power and accuracy of our method and apply it to seven of the strongest sweeps currently known in humans. We identify two genes, ASPM and PSCA, that are most likely affected by selection on standing variation; and we find three genes, ADH1B, LCT, and EDAR, in which the adaptive alleles seem to have swept from a new mutation. We also confirm evidence of selection for one further gene, TRPV6. In one gene, G6PD, neither neutral models nor models of selective sweeps fit the data, presumably because this locus has been subject to balancing selection. PMID:23071458

  6. Distinguishing between selective sweeps from standing variation and from a de novo mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Peter

    Full Text Available An outstanding question in human genetics has been the degree to which adaptation occurs from standing genetic variation or from de novo mutations. Here, we combine several common statistics used to detect selection in an Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC framework, with the goal of discriminating between models of selection and providing estimates of the age of selected alleles and the selection coefficients acting on them. We use simulations to assess the power and accuracy of our method and apply it to seven of the strongest sweeps currently known in humans. We identify two genes, ASPM and PSCA, that are most likely affected by selection on standing variation; and we find three genes, ADH1B, LCT, and EDAR, in which the adaptive alleles seem to have swept from a new mutation. We also confirm evidence of selection for one further gene, TRPV6. In one gene, G6PD, neither neutral models nor models of selective sweeps fit the data, presumably because this locus has been subject to balancing selection.

  7. Solving the Capacitive Effect in the High-Frequency sweep for Langmuir Probe in SYMPLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramila; Patel, J. J.; Rajpal, R.; Hansalia, C. J.; Anitha, V. P.; Sathyanarayana, K.

    2017-04-01

    Langmuir Probe based measurements need to be routinely carried out to measure various plasma parameters such as the electron density (ne), the electron temperature (Te), the floating potential (Vf), and the plasma potential (Vp). For this, the diagnostic electronics along with the biasing power supplies is installed in standard industrial racks with a 2KV isolation transformer. The Signal Conditioning Electronics (SCE) system is populated inside the 4U-chassis based system with the front-end electronics, designed using high common mode differential amplifiers which can measure small differential signal in presence of high common mode dc- bias or ac ramp voltage used for biasing the probes. DC-biasing of the probe is most common method for getting its I-V characteristic but method of biasing the probe with a sweep at high frequency encounters the problem of corruption of signal due to capacitive effect specially when the sweep period and the discharge time is very fast and die down in the order of μs or lesser. This paper presents and summarises the method of removing such effects encountered while measuring the probe current.

  8. The characteristics of void distribution in spalled high purity copper cylinder under sweeping detonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Jiang, Zhi; Chen, Jixinog; Guo, Zhaoliang; Tang, Tiegang; Hu, Haibo

    2018-03-01

    The effects of different peak compression stresses (2-5 GPa) on the spallation behaviour of high purity copper cylinder during sweeping detonation were examined by Electron Backscatter Diffraction Microscopy, Doppler Pins System and Optical Microscopy techniques. The velocity history of inner surface and the characteristics of void distributions in spalled copper cylinder were investigated. The results indicated that the spall strength of copper in these experiments was less than that revealed in previous reports concerning plate impact loading. The geometry of cylindrical copper and the obliquity of incident shock during sweeping detonation may be the main reasons. Different loading stresses seemed to be responsible for the characteristics of the resultant damage fields, and the maximum damage degree increased with increasing shock stress. Spall planes in different cross-sections of sample loaded with the same shock stress of 3.29 GPa were found, and the distance from the initiation end has little effect on the maximum damage degree (the maximum damage range from 12 to 14%), which means that the spallation behaviour was stable along the direction parallel to the detonation propagation direction under the same shock stress.

  9. Grain boundary sweeping and dissolution effects on fission product behavior under severe fuel damage accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rest, J.

    1985-10-01

    The theoretical FASTGRASS-VFP model has been used in the interpretation of fission gas, iodine, tellurium, and cesium release from severe-fuel-damage (SFD) tests performed in the PBF reactor in Idaho. A theory of grain boundary sweeping of gas bubbles, gas bubble behavior during fuel liquefaction (destruction of grain boundaries due to formation of a U-rich melt phase), and during U-Zr eutectic melting has been included within the FASTGRASS-VFP formalism. The grain-boundary-sweeping theory considers the interaction between the moving grain boundary and two distinct size classes of bubbles, those on grain faces and on grain edges. The theory of the effects of fuel liquefaction and U-Zr eutectic melting on fission product behavior considers the migration and coalescence of fission gas bubbles in either molten uranium, or a zircaloy-uranium eutectic melt. The FASTGRASS-VFP predictions, measured release rates from the above tests, and previously published release rates are compared and differences between fission product behavior in trace-irradiated and in normally irradiated fuel are highlighted

  10. Objective quantification of the tinnitus decompensation by synchronization measures of auditory evoked single sweeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Daniel J; Delb, Wolfgang; D'Amelio, Roberto; Low, Yin Fen; Falkai, Peter

    2008-02-01

    Large-scale neural correlates of the tinnitus decompensation might be used for an objective evaluation of therapies and neurofeedback based therapeutic approaches. In this study, we try to identify large-scale neural correlates of the tinnitus decompensation using wavelet phase stability criteria of single sweep sequences of late auditory evoked potentials as synchronization stability measure. The extracted measure provided an objective quantification of the tinnitus decompensation and allowed for a reliable discrimination between a group of compensated and decompensated tinnitus patients. We provide an interpretation for our results by a neural model of top-down projections based on the Jastreboff tinnitus model combined with the adaptive resonance theory which has not been applied to model tinnitus so far. Using this model, our stability measure of evoked potentials can be linked to the focus of attention on the tinnitus signal. It is concluded that the wavelet phase stability of late auditory evoked potential single sweeps might be used as objective tinnitus decompensation measure and can be interpreted in the framework of the Jastreboff tinnitus model and adaptive resonance theory.

  11. Femtosecond Laser Tagging Characterization of a Sweeping Jet Actuator Operating in the Compressible Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Christopher J.; Miles, Richard B.; Burns, Ross A.; Bathel, Brett F.; Jones, Gregory S.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    A sweeping jet (SWJ) actuator operating over a range of nozzle pressure ratios (NPRs) was characterized with femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging (FLEET), single hot-wire anemometry (HWA) and high-speed/phase-averaged schlieren. FLEET velocimetry was successfully demonstrated in a highly unsteady, oscillatory flow containing subsonic through supersonic velocities. Qualitative comparisons between FLEET and HWA (which measured mass flux since the flow was compressible) showed relatively good agreement in the external flow profiles. The spreading rate was found to vary from 0.5 to 1.2 depending on the pressure ratio. The precision of FLEET velocity measurements in the external flow field was poorer (is approximately equal to 25 m/s) than reported in a previous study due to the use of relatively low laser fluences, impacting the velocity fluctuation measurements. FLEET enabled velocity measurements inside the device and showed that choking likely occurred for NPR = 2.0, and no internal shockwaves were present. Qualitative oxygen concentration measurements using FLEET were explored in an effort to gauge the jet's mixing with the ambient. The jet was shown to mix well within roughly four throat diameters and mix fully within roughly eight throat diameters. Schlieren provided visualization of the internal and external flow fields and showed that the qualitative structure of the internal flow does not vary with pressure ratio and the sweeping mechanism observed for incompressible NPRs also probably holds for compressible NPRs.

  12. A selective sweep on a deleterious mutation in CPT1A in Arctic populations

    KAUST Repository

    Clemente, Florian J.; Cardona, Alexia; Inchley, Charlotte E.; Peter, Benjamin M.; Jacobs, Guy; Pagani, Luca; Lawson, Daniel John; Antã o, Tiago; Vicente, Má rio; Mitt, Mario; Degiorgio, Michael; Faltyskova, Zuzana; Xue, Yali; Ayub, Qasim; Szpak, Michal; Mä gi, Reedik; Eriksson, Anders; Manica, Andrea; Raghavan, Maanasa; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt Rendt; Rasmussen, Simon B.; Willerslev, Eske; Vidal-Puig, Antonio J.; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Villems, Richard; Nielsen, Rasmus Wedel; Metspalu, Mait; Malyarchuk, Boris A.; Derenko, Miroslava V.; Kivisild, Toomas

    2014-01-01

    Arctic populations live in an environment characterized by extreme cold and the absence of plant foods for much of the year and are likely to have undergone genetic adaptations to these environmental conditions in the time they have been living there. Genome-wide selection scans based on genotype data from native Siberians have previously highlighted a 3 Mb chromosome 11 region containing 79 protein-coding genes as the strongest candidates for positive selection in Northeast Siberians. However, it was not possible to determine which of the genes might be driving the selection signal. Here, using whole-genome high-coverage sequence data, we identified the most likely causative variant as a nonsynonymous G>A transition (rs80356779; c.1436C>T [p.Pro479Leu] on the reverse strand) in CPT1A, a key regulator of mitochondrial long-chain fatty-acid oxidation. Remarkably, the derived allele is associated with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and high infant mortality yet occurs at high frequency in Canadian and Greenland Inuits and was also found at 68% frequency in our Northeast Siberian sample. We provide evidence of one of the strongest selective sweeps reported in humans; this sweep has driven this variant to high frequency in circum-Arctic populations within the last 6-23 ka despite associated deleterious consequences, possibly as a result of the selective advantage it originally provided to either a high-fat diet or a cold environment.

  13. The Swedish National Defence Research Establishment and the plans for Swedish nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonter, Thomas

    2001-03-01

    This study analyses the Swedish nuclear weapons research since 1945 carried out by the Swedish National Defence Research Establishment (FOA). The most important aspect of this research was dealing with protection in broad terms against nuclear weapons attacks. However, another aspect was also important from early on - to conduct research aiming at a possible production of nuclear weapons. FOA performed an extended research up to 1968, when the Swedish Government signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which meant the end of these production plans. Up to this date, five main investigations about the technical conditions were made, 1948, 1953, 1955, 1957 and 1965, which all together expanded the Swedish know-how to produce a bomb. The Swedish plans to procure nuclear weapons were not an issue in the debate until the mid 50's. The reason for this was simple, prior to 1954 the plans were secretly held within a small group of involved politicians, military and researchers. The change of this procedure did take place when the Swedish Supreme Commander in a public defence report in 1954 favoured a Swedish Nuclear weapons option. In 1958 FOA had reached a technical level that allowed the Parliament to make a decision. Two programs were proposed - the L-programme (the Loading Programme), to be used if the parliament would say yes to a production of nuclear weapons, and the S-programme (the Protection Programme), if the Parliament would say no. The debate on the issue had now created problems for the Social Democratic Government. The Prime Minister, Tage Erlander, who had earlier defended a procurement of nuclear weapons, was now forced to reach a compromise. The compromise was presented to the parliament in a creative manner that meant that only the S-programme would be allowed. The Government argued that the technical level did allow a 'freedom of action' up to at least the beginning of the 60's when Sweden was mature to make a decision on the issue. During this period

  14. Effects of Sweep Angle on the Boundary-Layer Stability Characteristics of an Untapered Wing at Low Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, Frederick W.; Kenyon, George C.; Allen, Clyde Q.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Ames 12-Foot Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel to determine the effects of sweep on the boundary-layer stability characteristics of an untapered variable-sweep wing having an NACA 64(2)A015 section normal to the leading edge. Pressure distribution and transition were measured on the wing at low speeds at sweep angles of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 deg. and at angles of attack from -3 to 3 deg. The investigation also included flow-visualization studies on the surface at sweep angles from 0 to 50 deg. and total pressure surveys in the boundary layer at a sweep angle of 30 deg. for angles of attack from -12 to 0 deg. It was found that sweep caused premature transition on the wing under certain conditions. This effect resulted from the formation of vortices in the boundary layer when a critical combination of sweep angle, pressure gradient, and stream Reynolds number was attained. A useful parameter in indicating the combined effect of these flow variables on vortex formation and on beginning transition is the crossflow Reynolds number. The critical values of crossflow Reynolds number for vortex formation found in this investigation range from about 135 to 190 and are in good agreement with those reported in previous investigations. The values of crossflow Reynolds number for beginning transitions were found to be between 190 and 260. For each condition (i.e., development of vortices and initiation of transition at a given location) the lower values in the specified ranges were obtained with a light coating of flow-visualization material on the surface. A method is presented for the rapid computation of crossflow Reynolds number on any swept surface for which the pressure distribution is known. From calculations based on this method, it was found that the maximum values of crossflow Reynolds number are attained under conditions of a strong pressure gradient and at a sweep angle of about 50 deg. Due to the primary dependence on pressure

  15. Stakeholder involvement in Swedish nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran

    2006-09-01

    This report concerning Swedish nuclear waste management has been produced as part of a cross national research project: CARL - A Social Science Research Project into the Effects of Stakeholder involvement on Decision-Making in Radioactive Waste Management. Besides Sweden, the participating countries are Belgium, Canada, Finland, Slovenia and United Kingdom. A social science research team, working for three years, is in the first phase conducting research in their own countries in order to produce 6 country reports. During the next years the focus will shift to comparisons of stakeholder involvement practices in the participating countries. The report addresses current practices of Swedish nuclear waste management and their historical development. The main focus is on past, current and emerging patterns of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a deep repository for the final disposal of Sweden's spent nuclear fuel. The general questions attended to in the report are: Who are the main stakeholders, and how have they emerged and gained recognition as such? What are the issues currently subject to stakeholder involvement and how have these been decided upon? How is stakeholder involvement organized locally and nationally and how has this changed over time? How has stakeholder involvement gained acceptance as an activity of value in the siting of major waste facilities? The report have attempted to show the development of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a final repository for Sweden's spent nuclear fuel as resembling something other than a straightforward linear process of improvement and refinement. Stakeholder involvement has developed, over the past 15 years or so, into something more like a patchwork of different shapes and forms. Some of the forces that may well contribute to the further elaboration of the patchwork of stakeholder involvement have been pointed out, contingently modifying once more its overall colour and orientation. Questions have been

  16. Stakeholder involvement in Swedish nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Section for Science and Technology Studies

    2006-09-15

    This report concerning Swedish nuclear waste management has been produced as part of a cross national research project: CARL - A Social Science Research Project into the Effects of Stakeholder involvement on Decision-Making in Radioactive Waste Management. Besides Sweden, the participating countries are Belgium, Canada, Finland, Slovenia and United Kingdom. A social science research team, working for three years, is in the first phase conducting research in their own countries in order to produce 6 country reports. During the next years the focus will shift to comparisons of stakeholder involvement practices in the participating countries. The report addresses current practices of Swedish nuclear waste management and their historical development. The main focus is on past, current and emerging patterns of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a deep repository for the final disposal of Sweden's spent nuclear fuel. The general questions attended to in the report are: Who are the main stakeholders, and how have they emerged and gained recognition as such? What are the issues currently subject to stakeholder involvement and how have these been decided upon? How is stakeholder involvement organized locally and nationally and how has this changed over time? How has stakeholder involvement gained acceptance as an activity of value in the siting of major waste facilities? The report have attempted to show the development of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a final repository for Sweden's spent nuclear fuel as resembling something other than a straightforward linear process of improvement and refinement. Stakeholder involvement has developed, over the past 15 years or so, into something more like a patchwork of different shapes and forms. Some of the forces that may well contribute to the further elaboration of the patchwork of stakeholder involvement have been pointed out, contingently modifying once more its overall colour and orientation. Questions

  17. Suppression of nonlinear frequency-sweeping of resonant interchange modes in a magnetic dipole with applied radio frequency fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslovsky, D.; Levitt, B.; Mauel, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    Interchange instabilities excited by energetic electrons trapped by a magnetic dipole nonlinearly saturate and exhibit complex, coherent spectral characteristics and frequency sweeping [H. P. Warren and M. E. Mauel, Phys. Plasmas 2, 4185 (1995)]. When monochromatic radio frequency (rf) fields are applied in the range of 100-1000 MHz, the saturation behavior of the interchange instability changes dramatically. For applied fields of sufficient intensity and pulse-length, coherent interchange fluctuations are suppressed and frequency sweeping is eliminated. When rf fields are switched off, coherent frequency sweeping reappears. Since low frequency interchange instabilities preserve the electron's first and second adiabatic invariants, these observations can be interpreted as resulting from nonlinear resonant wave-particle interactions described within a particle phase-space, (ψ,φ), comprised of the third adiabatic invariant and the azimuthal angle. Self-consistent numerical simulation is used to study (1) the nonlinear development of the instability, (2) the radial mode structure of the interchange instability, and (3) the suppression of frequency sweeping. When the applied rf heating is modeled as an 'rf collisionality', the simulation reproduces frequency sweeping suppression and suggests an explanation for the observations that is consistent with Berk and co-workers [H. L. Berk et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 3102 (1999)

  18. Psychosocial working conditions and depressive symptoms among Swedish employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Theorell, Töres; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    Survey 2003. Work demands, decision authority, support and conflicts at work were measured in 2003. Depressive symptoms were recorded in 2006 by a short version of the depression subscale of the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90). Linear regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: After adjusting......PURPOSE: To investigate prospective associations between working conditions and depressive symptoms in Swedish men and women. METHODS: The study was based on SLOSH (N = 5,985), a follow-up of a representative sample of gainfully employed Swedes 16-64 years of age from the Swedish Work Environment...... authority, support and conflicts at work are predictive of depressive symptoms in the general Swedish working population....

  19. Swedish Taxation in a 150-year Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenkula Mikael

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the development of taxation in Sweden from 1862 to 2010. The examination includes six key aspects of the Swedish tax system, namely the taxation of labor income, capital income, wealth, inheritances and gifts, consumption and real estate. The importance of these taxes varied greatly over time and Sweden increasingly relied on broad-based taxes (such as income taxes and general consumption taxes and taxes that were less visible to the public (such as payroll taxes and social security contributions. The tax-to-GDP ratio was initially low and relatively stable, but from the 1930s, the ratio increased sharply for nearly 50 years. Towards the end of the period, the tax-to-GDP ratio declined significantly.

  20. Genetic anticipation in Swedish Lynch syndrome families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Salomé, Jenny; Boonstra, Philip S; Karimi, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    Among hereditary colorectal cancer predisposing syndromes, Lynch syndrome (LS) caused by mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 is the most common. Patients with LS have an increased risk of early onset colon and endometrial cancer, but also other tumors that generally have......-2013. We analyzed a homogenous group of mutation carriers, utilizing information from both affected and non-affected family members. In total, 239 families with a mismatch repair gene mutation (96 MLH1 families, 90 MSH2 families including one family with an EPCAM-MSH2 deletion, 39 MSH6 families, 12 PMS2...... families, and 2 MLH1+PMS2 families) comprising 1028 at-risk carriers were identified among the Swedish LS families, of which 1003 mutation carriers had available follow-up information and could be included in the study. Using a normal random effects model (NREM) we estimate a 2.1 year decrease in age...

  1. Wood flow problems in the Swedish forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Dick [Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Roennqvist, M. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematics

    1998-12-31

    In this paper we give an overview of the wood-flow in Sweden including a description of organization and planning. Based on that, we will describe a number of applications or problem areas in the wood-flow chain that are currently considered by the Swedish forest companies to be important and potential in order to improve overall operations. We have focused on applications which are short term planning or operative planning. We do not give any final results as much of the development is currently ongoing or is still in a planning phase. Instead we describe what kind of models and decision support systems that could be applied in order to improve co-operation within and integration of the wood-flow chain 13 refs, 20 figs, 1 tab

  2. Are boys discriminated in Swedish high schools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinnerich, Bjørn Tyrefors; Höglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading.Werigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind...... and non-blind grading. The non-blind test score is on average 15% lower for boys than for girls. Blind grading lowers the average grades with 13%, indicating that personal ties and/or grade inflation are important in non-blind grading. But we find no evidence of discrimination against boys in grading....... The point estimate of the discrimination effect is close to zero with a 95% confidence interval of±4.5% of the average non-blind grade....

  3. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    During 1997 the PWRs in Ringhals performed extremely well (capability factors 85-90%), the unit Ringhals 2 reached the best capability factor since commercial operation started in 1976. The BWRs made an average 76% capability, which is somewhat less than in 1996. The slightly reduced capability derives from ongoing modernization projects at several units. At the youngest plants, Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3, capability and utilization were very high. Events and data for 1997 are given for each reactor, together with operational statistics for the years 1990-1997. A number of safety-related events are reported, which occurred st the Swedish plants during 1997. These events are classified as level 1 or higher on the international nuclear event scale (INES).

  4. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    During 1997 the PWRs in Ringhals performed extremely well (capability factors 85-90%), the unit Ringhals 2 reached the best capability factor since commercial operation started in 1976. The BWRs made an average 76% capability, which is somewhat less than in 1996. The slightly reduced capability derives from ongoing modernization projects at several units. At the youngest plants, Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3, capability and utilization were very high. Events and data for 1997 are given for each reactor, together with operational statistics for the years 1990-1997. A number of safety-related events are reported, which occurred st the Swedish plants during 1997. These events are classified as level 1 or higher on the international nuclear event scale (INES)

  5. Gendered portraits of depression in Swedish newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengs, Carita; Johansson, Eva; Danielsson, Ulla; Lehti, Arja; Hammarström, Anne

    2008-07-01

    Mass media are influential mediators of information, knowledge, and narratives of health and illness. In this article, we report on an examination of personal accounts of illness as presented in three Swedish newspapers, focusing on the gendered representation of laypersons' experiences of depression. A database search identified all articles mentioning depression during the year 2002. Twenty six articles focusing on personal experiences of depression were then subjected to a qualitative content analysis. We identified four themes: displaying a successful facade, experiencing a cracking facade, losing and regaining control, and explaining the illness. We found both similarities and differences with regard to gendered experiences. The mediated accounts of depression both upheld and challenged traditional gender stereotypes. The women's stories were more detailed, relational, emotionally oriented, and embodied. The portrayal of men was less emotional and expressive, and described a more dramatic onset of depression, reflecting hegemonic patterns of masculinity.

  6. Decommissioning planning of Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedin, Gunnar; Bergh, Niklas [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraes (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    The technologies required for the decommissioning work are for the most part readily proven. Taken into account that there will be many more years before the studied reactor units will undergo decommissioning, the techniques could even be called conventional at that time. This will help bring the decommissioning projects to a successful closure. A national waste fund is already established in Sweden to finance amongst others all dismantling and decommissioning work. This will assure that funding for the decommissioning projects is at hand when needed. All necessary plant data are readily available and this will, combined with a reliable management system, expedite the decommissioning projects considerably. Final repositories for both long- and short-lived LILW respectively is planned and will be constructed and dimensioned to receive the decommissioning waste from the Swedish NPP:s. Since the strategy is set and well thought-through, this will help facilitate a smooth disposal of the radioactive decommissioning waste. (orig.)

  7. Fostering Perspectives on Swedish and Indian Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harveen Kaur

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection of cultural differences recorded by the author during her research visit to Sweden in the year 2017 (February-March month. The objectives of the research visit included understanding official dialects of both countries, existing education system and work environments, variant food habits, family structure and associations, available transport systems, sustainable living options and cultural exchange within India and Sweden. The information was first collected through existing literature and was supported by information collected through observation method, informal discussions and interactions with the Swedish people. It can be concluded that both countries are culturally very different and different parts of each country further exhibit alteration in cultural practices, languages and food preferences. Some variations are also due to population size in both countries. For instance, transportation is very well developed in developed countries due to the availability of advanced technology and less population.

  8. Offshoring practices of Danish and Swedish SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Johansen, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how small and medium enterprises (SMEs) configure their operations on the global scale and how this affects their home bases in terms of operations requirements and priorities. In order to relate SMEs’ offshoring initiatives with their operations configuration attributes, we...... draw on the operations networks literature and survey responses from 675 Danish and 410 Swedish companies. On the basis of the survey results, we find that although the SMEs are less experienced and less advanced in their offshoring ventures than large companies, they are building dispersed operations...... networks. Although still in their infancy, these networks are, as expected, creating new demands for their home bases in terms of demands for formalisation of work processes, systems development and managerial capability related to orchestrating operations across national borders, but more fundamentally...

  9. Swedish district heating - owners, prices and profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sofie; Werner, S.

    2001-01-01

    Owners, prices and profitability are examined in this report for 152 Swedish district heating companies during 1999. Only public information available has been used: Prices from a national annual consumer study, energy supplied, lengths of district heating pipes installed, and average prices for energy supplied. These companies are responsible for 96 % of all district heat supplied in Sweden. District heating systems owned by municipalities were responsible for 65 % of all district heat supply, while the share of power companies was 34 %. Other private owners accounted for 1 %. Only 12 % of the board members are women and more than 40 % of the companies have no woman in the board. The prices gathered by the annual consumer study are good estimates of the price level of district heating in Sweden. The average revenues are only 4,1 % lower than the effective average of prices gathered. Price of district heating decrease with size and market share. Use of combined heat and power plants decrease prices slightly. Lower prices with size can mainly be explained by lower energy supply costs. Calculated rates of return in relation to calculated replacement values increase slightly by size and are almost independent of age and market share. The purport of these conclusions is that the district heating companies share the cost reduction from size with their customers, while the whole benefit from high market shares is repaid to the customers. Calculated rates of return vary among the owner groups examined. Lower rates are accepted by municipalities, while power companies have higher rates at the average costs used. Total replacement costs for the 152 companies has been estimated to 89 billion Swedish crowns or 10 billion Euro. Only correlation analyses using one dimension have been used in this study. A higher degree of quality can be obtained by using multi-dimensional analyses

  10. Digital Components in Swedish NPP Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Mattias; Eriksson, Tage

    2015-01-01

    Swedish nuclear power plants have over the last 20 years of operation modernised or exchanged several systems and components of the electrical power system. Within these works, new components based on digital technology have been employed in order to realize functionality that was previously achieved by using electro-mechanical or analogue technology. Components and systems such as relay protection, rectifiers, inverters, variable speed drives and diesel-generator sets are today equipped with digital components. Several of the systems and components fulfil functions with a safety-role in the NPP. Recently, however, a number of incidents have occurred which highlight deficiencies in the design or HMI of the equipment, which warrants questions whether there are generic problems with some applications of digital components that needs to be addressed. The use of digital components has presented cost effective solutions, or even the only available solution on the market enabling a modernisation. The vast majority of systems using digital components have been operating without problems and often contribute to improved safety but the challenge of non-detectable, or non-identifiable, failure modes remain. In this paper, the extent to which digital components are used in Swedish NPP power systems will be presented including a description of typical applications. Based on data from maintenance records and fault reports, as well as interviews with designers and maintenance personnel, the main areas where problems have been encountered and where possible risks have been identified will be described. The paper intends to investigate any 'tell-tales' that could give signals of unwanted behaviour. Furthermore, particular benefits experienced by using digital components will be highlighted. The paper will also discuss the safety relevance of these findings and suggest measures to improve safety in the application of digital components in power systems. (authors)

  11. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The total production of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 70.5 TWh during 1998, which is the second highest yearly production ever. Production losses due to low demand totaled 5.1 TWh combined for all twelve units and production losses due to coastdown operation totaled an additional 0.5 TWh. The reason for this low power demand was a very good supply of water to the hydropower system. Hydroelectric power production was 73.6 TWh, an increase by roughly 5 TWh since 1997. Hence, the hydroelectric power production substantially exceeded the 64 TWh expected during a normal year, i.e. a year with average rainfall. Remaining production sources, mainly fossil fuel electricity production combined with district heating, contributed with 10 TWh. The total electricity production was 154.2 TWh, the highest yearly production ever. The total electricity consumption including transmission losses was 143.5 TWh. This is also the highest consumption ever and an increase by one percent compared to 1997. The preliminary net result of the electric power trade shows a net export by 10.7 TWh. The figures above are calculated from the preliminary production results. A comprehensive report on electric power supply and consumption in Sweden is given in the 1998 Annual Report from the Swedish Power Association. Besides Oskarshamn 1, all plants have periodically been operated in load-following mode, mostly because of the abundant supply of hydropower. The energy availability for the three boiling water reactors at Forsmark averaged 93.3 % and for the three pressure water reactors at Ringhals 91.0 %, both figures are the highest ever noted. In the section 'Special Reports' three events of importance to safety that occurred during 1998 are reported. The events were all rated as level 1 according to the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES)

  12. A field-sweep/field-lock system for superconducting magnets--Application to high-field EPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Thorsten; Bryant, Jeff; Ruben, David; Griffin, Robert G

    2006-12-01

    We describe a field-lock/field-sweep system for the use in superconducting magnets. The system is based on a commercially available field mapping unit and a custom designed broad-band 1H NMR probe. The NMR signal of a small water sample is used in a feedback loop to set and control the magnetic field to high accuracy. The current instrumental configuration allows field sweeps of +/-0.4 T and a resolution of up to 10(-5) T (0.1 G) and the performance of the system is demonstrated in a high-field electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) application. The system should also be of utility in other experiments requiring precise and reproducible sweeps of the magnetic field such as DNP, ENDOR or PELDOR.

  13. A Field-Sweep/Field-Lock System for Superconducting Magnets-Application to High-Field EPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Thorsten; Bryant, Jeff; Ruben, David; Griffin, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a field-lock/field-sweep system for the use in superconducting magnets. The system is based on a commercially available field mapping unit and a custom designed broad-band 1H-NMR probe. The NMR signal of a small water sample is used in a feedback loop to set and control the magnetic field to high accuracy. The current instrumental configuration allows field sweeps of ± 0.4 T and a resolution of up to 10-5 T (0.1 G) and the performance of the system is demonstrated in a high-field electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) application. The system should also be of utility in other experiments requiring precise and reproducible sweeps of the magnetic field such as DNP, ENDOR or PELDOR. PMID:17027306

  14. Modelling for near-surface interaction of lithium ceramics and sweep-gas by use of cellular automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimura, K.; Terai, T.; Yamawaki, M.; Yamaguchi, K.

    2003-01-01

    Tritium release from the lithium ceramics as a fusion reactor breeder material is strongly affected by the composition of the sweep-gas as result of its influences with the material's surface. The typical surface processes which play important roles are adsorption, desorption and interaction between vacancy site and the constituents of the sweep-gas. Among a large number of studies and models, yet it seems to be difficult to model the overall behaviour of those processes due to its complex time-transient nature. In the present work the coarse grained atomic simulation based on the Cellular Automaton (CA) is used to model the dynamics of near-surface interaction between Li 2 O surface and sweep-gas that is consisting of a noble gas, hydrogen gas and water vapour. (author)

  15. An Equivalent Beam Model for the Dynamic Analysis to a Feeding Crane of a Tall Chimney. Application in a Coal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel-Mihai Nani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a dynamic analysis for a special crane, which serves a coal power plant. The steel cables for the lifting mechanisms of crane are long and flexible. For this reason, when is feeding the tall chimney, its can appear dangerous dynamic effects due to the suspended load. This load can perform oscillations or vibration movements. As a result, the suspended load position is sometimes difficult to control. Through experimental researches, using a special fitting with strain gauges and accelerometers assembled along the crane’s arm as a beam, we have obtained relevant information. Using the initial design data, we were able to develop an optimal nonlinear dynamic model. This one was the experimental support for other simulations in extremely dangerous situations, like: the accidental fall of the suspended load from the crane hook or a mechanical strong shock due to the collision between the suspended load and the tall chimney wall or the power plant wall, under the strong wind conditions, for example.

  16. Numerical analysis of the turbulent natural convection in a solar chimney; Analise numerica da conveccao natural turbulenta em uma chamine solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasil, Cristiana S.; Valle, Ramon M.; Cortez, Marcio F.B.; Ferreira, Andre G. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: tite@demec.ufmg.br; ramon@demec.ufmg.br; fonteboa@demec.ufmg.br; ferreira@demec.ufmg.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the turbulent natural convection in a solar chimney operating in steady flow, with prescribed conditions of temperature in the ground. The solar radiation heats the air under the cover, which flows to the tower without artificial pumping. The hot air produced may be used to dry several agricultural products. The numerical analysis of the natural convection in this kind of dryer has fundamental importance on the design and building of this device. The mathematical model includes the conservation laws for mass, momentum and thermal energy and the transport equations for the turbulence model variables (k and e ). The k- e model of turbulence with wall functions was used. A computational code using the Finite Volume Method in Generalized Coordinates was developed to solve the system of equations that describes thermal and hydro dynamically the flow. The velocity and temperature fields are shown to the flow in the solar chimney. With geometrical alterations on the device, one can obtain a detailed description of the flow, which allow the guideline for a suitable configuration to build an experimental prototype. (author)

  17. Enhanced bilateral somatostatin receptor expression in mediastinal lymph nodes (''chimney sign'') in occult metastatic medullary thyroid cancer: a typical site of tumour manifestation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behr, T.M.; Gratz, S.; Markus, P.M.; Dunn, R.M.; Huefner, M.; Becker, H.; Becker, W.

    1997-01-01

    In medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), post-surgically elevated plasma calcitonin and/or carcinoembryonic antigen levels frequently indicate persisting metastatic disease, although conventional diagnostic procedures fail to localize the responsible lesions (occult disease). Somatostatin analogues have been used successfully in disease localization, but recently concerns have been raised that increased thoracic uptake of indium-111 pentetreotide in patients with previous external beam irradiation may represent a false-positive finding, caused by post-irradiation pulmonary fibrosis. We recently examined seven patients with metastatic MTC by somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (six with occult and one with established disease). In four patients, all of whom had stable or slowly rising tumour marker levels over several years, a chimney-like bilateral mediastinal uptake of indium-111 pentetreotide was found. In two patients with persisting hypercalcitonaemia immediately after primary surgery, supraclavicular lymph node metastases were identified as the responsible lesions. None of these seven patients had prior external beam radiation therapy. In two cases, histological confirmation was obtained. In one patient, disease progression could be shown during follow-up. These data suggest that bilateral mediastinal lymph node involvement is a typical site of disease in slowly progressing occult metastatic MTC; the ''chimney sign'' may represent a typical finding with somatostatin analogues in such cases. Therefore, we believe that even in the case of prior external beam irradiation, mediastinal uptake of octreotide might represent metastatic MTC rather than radiation fibrosis. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab

  18. Signatures of soft sweeps across the Dt1 locus underlying determinate growth habit in soya bean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Limei; Yang, Qiaomei; Yan, Xin; Yu, Chao; Su, Liu; Zhang, Xifeng; Zhu, Youlin

    2017-09-01

    Determinate growth habit is an agronomically important trait associated with domestication in soya bean. Previous studies have demonstrated that the emergence of determinacy is correlated with artificial selection on four nonsynonymous mutations in the Dt1 gene. To better understand the signatures of the soft sweeps across the Dt1 locus and track the origins of the determinate alleles, we examined patterns of nucleotide variation in Dt1 and the surrounding genomic region of approximately 800 kb. Four local, asymmetrical hard sweeps on four determinate alleles, sized approximately 660, 120, 220 and 150 kb, were identified, which constitute the soft sweeps for the adaptation. These variable-sized sweeps substantially reflected the strength and timing of selection and indicated that the selection on the alleles had been completed rapidly within half a century. Statistics of EHH, iHS, H12 and H2/H1 based on haplotype data had the power to detect the soft sweeps, revealing distinct signatures of extensive long-range LD and haplotype homozygosity, and multiple frequent adaptive haplotypes. A haplotype network constructed for Dt1 and a phylogenetic tree based on its extended haplotype block implied independent sources of the adaptive alleles through de novo mutations or rare standing variation in quick succession during the selective phase, strongly supporting multiple origins of the determinacy. We propose that the adaptation of soya bean determinacy is guided by a model of soft sweeps and that this model might be indispensable during crop domestication or evolution. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Politics, pleasure, violence: Swedish defence propaganda in social media

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Ferrada Stoehrel

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the Swedish Armed Forces have produced and distributed highly edited video clips on YouTube that show moving images of military activity. Alongside this development, mobile phone apps have emerged as an important channel through which the user can experience and take an interactive part in the staging of contemporary armed conflict. This article examines the way in which the aesthetic and affective experience of Swedish defence and security policy is socially and (media-)cult...

  20. Work environment and health among Swedish livestock workers

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstrup, Christina

    2008-01-01

    During the last decades, Swedish livestock farming has undergone considerable structural changes and technical development, which have influenced the work environment and health of the workers in several ways. The general aim of the studies was to investigate the work environment and health among Swedish livestock workers on large modern dairy and pig farms. The studies were mainly based on questionnaires. The results showed that the livestock workers reported high frequencies of musculoskele...

  1. Doing gender (in) equality in Swedish family farming

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Economic and social conditions on Swedish farms have altered in recent decades, restructuring the sector, but the family farm is still the primary production unit. Sweden is often described as a role model in gender equality, but a gender-unequal situation in farming has been identified, posing a political challenge. This thesis critically assessed how gender inequalities are reproduced within Swedish family farming by analysing how the 'doing' of family farming, in terms of labour and ma...

  2. Analysis of Swedish consumers’ attitude to Chinese food

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research is to find out what’s attitude Swedish consumers have to Chinese food. The questionnaires based on the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) are handed out to 100 Swedish respondents in order to investigate their motivation on Chinese food choice. 78 questionnaires which were filled completely were selected for this study. Eleven factors involved in the questionnaire are labeled health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, price, weight control, familiarity, ...

  3. Surfaces Relief Profilometry of Solid Objects by Sweeping of a Laser Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Peimbert, Didia P.; Trujillo-Schiaffino, Gerardo; Mendoza-Villegas, Paloma G.; Ojeda-González, Daniel; Almazán-Cuellar, Saúl; Corral-Martínez, Luis F.

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes the development of a laser system for the digitalization and three-dimensional reconstruction of solid objects. The first step consists of applying on the object a linear sweeping of a thin laser line using a laser diode with 635 nm and 5 mW, a motorized stage for linear displacement of 138 mm, and a controller with RS232 interface. The next step consists of capturing and transmitting the image of the deformed line on the object to a computer. For this step was used a monochrome camera CCD, and an image acquisition board. The last step consists of the three-dimensional reconstruction of the solid object. All the corresponding algorithms were implemented using the programming language LabVIEW.

  4. A parallel sweeping preconditioner for frequency-domain seismic wave propagation

    KAUST Repository

    Poulson, Jack

    2012-09-01

    We present a parallel implementation of Engquist and Ying\\'s sweeping preconditioner, which exploits radiation boundary conditions in order to form an approximate block LDLT factorization of the Helmholtz operator with only O(N4/3) work and an application (and memory) cost of only O(N logN). The approximate factorization is then used as a preconditioner for GMRES, and we show that essentially O(1) iterations are required for convergence, even for the full SEG/EAGE over-thrust model at 30 Hz. In particular, we demonstrate the solution of said problem in a mere 15 minutes on 8192 cores of TACC\\'s Lonestar, which may be the largest-scale 3D heterogeneous Helmholtz calculation to date. Generalizations of our parallel strategy are also briefly discussed for time-harmonic linear elasticity and Maxwell\\'s equations.

  5. Production of artificial ionospheric layers by frequency sweeping near the 2nd gyroharmonic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pedersen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial ionospheric plasmas descending from the background F-region have been observed on multiple occasions at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP facility since it reached full 3.6 MW power. Proximity of the transmitter frequency to the 2nd harmonic of the electron gyrofrequency (2fce has been noted as a requirement for their occurrence, and their disappearance after only a few minutes has been attributed to the increasing frequency mismatch at lower altitudes. We report new experiments employing frequency sweeps to match 2fce in the artificial plasmas as they descend. In addition to revealing the dependence on the 2fce resonance, this technique reliably produces descending plasmas in multiple transmitter beam positions and appears to increase their stability and lifetime. High-speed ionosonde measurements are used to monitor the altitude and density of the artificial plasmas during both the formation and decay stages.

  6. Unsteady Flow Simulation of a Sweeping Jet Actuator Using a Lattice-Boltzmann Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, B.; Wessels, M.; Fares, E.; Vatsa, V.

    2016-01-01

    Active flow control technology is increasingly used in aerospace applications to control flow separation and to improve aerodynamic performance. In this paper, PowerFLOW is used to simulate the flow through a sweeping jet actuator at two different pressure ratios. The lower pressure ratio leads to a high subsonic flow, whereas the high pressure ratio produces a choked flow condition. Comparison of numerical results with experimental data is shown, which includes qualitatively good agreement of pressure histories and spectra. PIV measurements are also available but the simulation overestimates mean and fluctuation quantities outside the actuator. If supply pressure is matched at one point inside the mixing chamber a good qualitative agreement is achieved at all other monitor points.

  7. Reducing Side-Sweep Accidents with Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamini Bulumulle

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Side-sweep accidents are one of the major causes of loss of life and property damage on highways. This type of accident is caused by a driver initiating a lane change while another vehicle is blocking the road in the target lane. In this article, we are trying to quantify the degree to which different implementations of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V communication could reduce the occurrence of such accidents. We present the design of a simulator that takes into account common sources of lack of driver awareness such as blind-spots and lack of attention. Then, we study the impact of both traditional, non-technological communication means such as turning signals as well as unidirectional and bidirectional V2V communications.

  8. Life assessment of PVD based hard coatings by linear sweep voltammetry for high performance industrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.; Alam, S.; Irfan, M.; Hassan, Z.

    2006-01-01

    PVD based hard coatings have remarkable achievements in order to improve Tribological and surface properties of coating tools and dies. As PVD based hard coatings have a wide range of industrial applications especially in aerospace and automobile parts where they met different chemical attacks and in order to improve industrial performance these coatings must provide an excellent resistance against corrosion, high temperature oxidation and chemical reaction. This paper focuses on study of behaviour of PVD based hard coatings under different corrosive environments like as H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, HCl, NaCl, KCl, NaOH etc. Corrosion rate was calculate under linear sweep voltammetry method where the Tafel extrapolation curves used for continuously monitoring the corrosion rate. The results show that these coatings have an excellent resistance against chemical attack. (author)

  9. Selective sweep on human amylase genes postdates the split with Neanderthals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchley, Charlotte E.; Larbey, Cynthia D. A.; Shwan, Nzar A. A.; Pagani, Luca; Saag, Lauri; Antão, Tiago; Jacobs, Guy; Hudjashov, Georgi; Metspalu, Ene; Mitt, Mario; Eichstaedt, Christina A.; Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Wee, Joseph; Abdullah, Syafiq; Ricaut, François-Xavier; Mormina, Maru; Mägi, Reedik; Villems, Richard; Metspalu, Mait; Jones, Martin K.; Armour, John A. L.; Kivisild, Toomas

    2016-01-01

    Humans have more copies of amylase genes than other primates. It is still poorly understood, however, when the copy number expansion occurred and whether its spread was enhanced by selection. Here we assess amylase copy numbers in a global sample of 480 high coverage genomes and find that regions flanking the amylase locus show notable depression of genetic diversity both in African and non-African populations. Analysis of genetic variation in these regions supports the model of an early selective sweep in the human lineage after the split of humans from Neanderthals which led to the fixation of multiple copies of AMY1 in place of a single copy. We find evidence of multiple secondary losses of copy number with the highest frequency (52%) of a deletion of AMY2A and associated low copy number of AMY1 in Northeast Siberian populations whose diet has been low in starch content. PMID:27853181

  10. An Adaptive Sweep-Circle Spatial Clustering Algorithm Based on Gestalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingming Zhan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive spatial clustering (ASC algorithm is proposed in this present study, which employs sweep-circle techniques and a dynamic threshold setting based on the Gestalt theory to detect spatial clusters. The proposed algorithm can automatically discover clusters in one pass, rather than through the modification of the initial model (for example, a minimal spanning tree, Delaunay triangulation, or Voronoi diagram. It can quickly identify arbitrarily-shaped clusters while adapting efficiently to non-homogeneous density characteristics of spatial data, without the need for prior knowledge or parameters. The proposed algorithm is also ideal for use in data streaming technology with dynamic characteristics flowing in the form of spatial clustering in large data sets.

  11. Thermo-mechanical design of a CW sweep plate emittance scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathke, J.; Peacock, M.; Sredniawski, J.

    1996-01-01

    A sweep plate emittance scanner for use with high power, continuous wave (CW) beams has been designed, fabricated and commissioned at Northrop Grumman. The design is capable of scanning beams of up to 20 kW beam power with a spot diameter as small as 2 cm. The scanner pod is mounted on a ball screw driven linear bearing table that is driven through the beam by a stepper motor at velocities up to 30 cm/sec. This paper presents the thermo-mechanical analysis of the pod moving through a gaussian beam and the details of the mechanical design of the pod and motion system. Analyses to determine scanner cooling schemes and structural materials are presented. (author)

  12. Subcontractors and Component Suppliers in the Swedish Wind Power Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Linn

    2003-05-01

    This paper studies the Swedish component suppliers in the wind power industry. This group has not received much attention so far, and today very little is known. This study addresses the fact that the Swedish component suppliers have not been able to penetrate the wind power market despite the Swedish industry's strength in mechanical and electrical engineering. The aims of this paper were to gather information regarding the existing production and to identify factors that affect the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. To date, although Sweden has spent considerable amounts of money on projects involving wind turbines, there is no series production of large wind turbines in Sweden. The historical development of the wind turbine industry suggests this alone would have inhibited the development of component production in Sweden. Yet, the country's proximity and good access to large wind turbine producing countries should be an advantage. Various factors and issues are identified and discussed in this paper that are relevant for the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. These include market and product development, buyer-supplier relationships, export and sourcing behaviors, and time of market entry. This is a first step towards increasing the knowledge of Swedish component production and it is recognized that more studies are required. Various areas where relevant knowledge is largely missing or scarce are identified and discussed as well, and should serve as relevant starting points for continued research

  13. External review and validation of the Swedish national inpatient register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jeong-Lim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Swedish National Inpatient Register (IPR, also called the Hospital Discharge Register, is a principal source of data for numerous research projects. The IPR is part of the National Patient Register. The Swedish IPR was launched in 1964 (psychiatric diagnoses from 1973 but complete coverage did not begin until 1987. Currently, more than 99% of all somatic (including surgery and psychiatric hospital discharges are registered in the IPR. A previous validation of the IPR by the National Board of Health and Welfare showed that 85-95% of all diagnoses in the IPR are valid. The current paper describes the history, structure, coverage and quality of the Swedish IPR. Methods and results In January 2010, we searched the medical databases, Medline and HighWire, using the search algorithm "validat* (inpatient or hospital discharge Sweden". We also contacted 218 members of the Swedish Society of Epidemiology and an additional 201 medical researchers to identify papers that had validated the IPR. In total, 132 papers were reviewed. The positive predictive value (PPV was found to differ between diagnoses in the IPR, but is generally 85-95%. Conclusions In conclusion, the validity of the Swedish IPR is high for many but not all diagnoses. The long follow-up makes the register particularly suitable for large-scale population-based research, but for certain research areas the use of other health registers, such as the Swedish Cancer Register, may be more suitable.

  14. Subcontractors and Component Suppliers in the Swedish Wind Power Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Linn

    2003-05-01

    This paper studies the Swedish component suppliers in the wind power industry. This group has not received much attention so far, and today very little is known. This study addresses the fact that the Swedish component suppliers have not been able to penetrate the wind power market despite the Swedish industry's strength in mechanical and electrical engineering. The aims of this paper were to gather information regarding the existing production and to identify factors that affect the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. To date, although Sweden has spent considerable amounts of money on projects involving wind turbines, there is no series production of large wind turbines in Sweden. The historical development of the wind turbine industry suggests this alone would have inhibited the development of component production in Sweden. Yet, the country's proximity and good access to large wind turbine producing countries should be an advantage. Various factors and issues are identified and discussed in this paper that are relevant for the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. These include market and product development, buyer-supplier relationships, export and sourcing behaviors, and time of market entry. This is a first step towards increasing the knowledge of Swedish component production and it is recognized that more studies are required. Various areas where relevant knowledge is largely missing or scarce are identified and discussed as well, and should serve as relevant starting points for continued research.

  15. An angularly refineable phase space finite element method with approximate sweeping procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kophazi, J.; Lathouwers, D.

    2013-01-01

    An angularly refineable phase space finite element method is proposed to solve the neutron transport equation. The method combines the advantages of two recently published schemes. The angular domain is discretized into small patches and patch-wise discontinuous angular basis functions are restricted to these patches, i.e. there is no overlap between basis functions corresponding to different patches. This approach yields block diagonal Jacobians with small block size and retains the possibility for S n -like approximate sweeping of the spatially discontinuous elements in order to provide efficient preconditioners for the solution procedure. On the other hand, the preservation of the full FEM framework (as opposed to collocation into a high-order S n scheme) retains the possibility of the Galerkin interpolated connection between phase space elements at arbitrary levels of discretization. Since the basis vectors are not orthonormal, a generalization of the Riemann procedure is introduced to separate the incoming and outgoing contributions in case of unstructured meshes. However, due to the properties of the angular discretization, the Riemann procedure can be avoided at a large fraction of the faces and this fraction rapidly increases as the level of refinement increases, contributing to the computational efficiency. In this paper the properties of the discretization scheme are studied with uniform refinement using an iterative solver based on the S 2 sweep order of the spatial elements. The fourth order convergence of the scalar flux is shown as anticipated from earlier schemes and the rapidly decreasing fraction of required Riemann faces is illustrated. (authors)

  16. Genetic anticipation in Swedish Lynch syndrome families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny von Salomé

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Among hereditary colorectal cancer predisposing syndromes, Lynch syndrome (LS caused by mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 is the most common. Patients with LS have an increased risk of early onset colon and endometrial cancer, but also other tumors that generally have an earlier onset compared to the general population. However, age at first primary cancer varies within families and genetic anticipation, i.e. decreasing age at onset in successive generations, has been suggested in LS. Anticipation is a well-known phenomenon in e.g neurodegenerative diseases and several reports have studied anticipation in heritable cancer. The purpose of this study is to determine whether anticipation can be shown in a nationwide cohort of Swedish LS families referred to the regional departments of clinical genetics in Lund, Stockholm, Linköping, Uppsala and Umeå between the years 1990-2013. We analyzed a homogenous group of mutation carriers, utilizing information from both affected and non-affected family members. In total, 239 families with a mismatch repair gene mutation (96 MLH1 families, 90 MSH2 families including one family with an EPCAM-MSH2 deletion, 39 MSH6 families, 12 PMS2 families, and 2 MLH1+PMS2 families comprising 1028 at-risk carriers were identified among the Swedish LS families, of which 1003 mutation carriers had available follow-up information and could be included in the study. Using a normal random effects model (NREM we estimate a 2.1 year decrease in age of diagnosis per generation. An alternative analysis using a mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards model (COX-R estimates a hazard ratio of exp(0.171, or about 1.19, for age of diagnosis between consecutive generations. LS-associated gene-specific anticipation effects are evident for MSH2 (2.6 years/generation for NREM and hazard ratio of 1.33 for COX-R and PMS2 (7.3 years/generation and hazard ratio of 1.86. The estimated anticipation effects for MLH1

  17. Genetic anticipation in Swedish Lynch syndrome families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Salomé, Jenny; Boonstra, Philip S; Karimi, Masoud; Silander, Gustav; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Gebre-Medhin, Samuel; Aravidis, Christos; Nilbert, Mef; Lindblom, Annika; Lagerstedt-Robinson, Kristina

    2017-10-01

    Among hereditary colorectal cancer predisposing syndromes, Lynch syndrome (LS) caused by mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 is the most common. Patients with LS have an increased risk of early onset colon and endometrial cancer, but also other tumors that generally have an earlier onset compared to the general population. However, age at first primary cancer varies within families and genetic anticipation, i.e. decreasing age at onset in successive generations, has been suggested in LS. Anticipation is a well-known phenomenon in e.g neurodegenerative diseases and several reports have studied anticipation in heritable cancer. The purpose of this study is to determine whether anticipation can be shown in a nationwide cohort of Swedish LS families referred to the regional departments of clinical genetics in Lund, Stockholm, Linköping, Uppsala and Umeå between the years 1990-2013. We analyzed a homogenous group of mutation carriers, utilizing information from both affected and non-affected family members. In total, 239 families with a mismatch repair gene mutation (96 MLH1 families, 90 MSH2 families including one family with an EPCAM-MSH2 deletion, 39 MSH6 families, 12 PMS2 families, and 2 MLH1+PMS2 families) comprising 1028 at-risk carriers were identified among the Swedish LS families, of which 1003 mutation carriers had available follow-up information and could be included in the study. Using a normal random effects model (NREM) we estimate a 2.1 year decrease in age of diagnosis per generation. An alternative analysis using a mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards model (COX-R) estimates a hazard ratio of exp(0.171), or about 1.19, for age of diagnosis between consecutive generations. LS-associated gene-specific anticipation effects are evident for MSH2 (2.6 years/generation for NREM and hazard ratio of 1.33 for COX-R) and PMS2 (7.3 years/generation and hazard ratio of 1.86). The estimated anticipation effects for MLH1 and MSH6 are

  18. From sweeping to the caress: similarities and discrepancies between human and non-human primates' pleasant touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Clara Grandi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Affective touch plays a key role in affiliative behavior, offering a mechanism for the formation and maintenance of social bonds among conspecifics, both in humans and non-human primates. Furthermore, it has been speculated that the CT fiber system is a specific coding channel for affiliative touch that occurs during skin-to-skin interactions with conspecifics. In humans, this touch is commonly referred to as the caress, and its correlation with the CT fiber system has been widely demonstrated. It has been hypothesized that the sweeping touch that occurs during grooming in non-human primates may modulate the CT fibers, with recent preliminary studies on rhesus monkeys supporting this hypothesis. The present mini-review proposes a comparison between the pleasant touch, caress and sweeping of humans and non-human primates, respectively. The currently available data was therefore reviewed regarding i the correlation between pleasant touch and CT fibers both in humans and non-human primates, ii the autonomic effects, iii the encoding at the central nervous system, iv the development from early life to adulthood, and v the potential applications of pleasant touch in the daily lives of both humans and non-human primates. Moreover, by considering both the similarities and discrepancies between the human caress and non-human primate sweeping, a possible evolutionary mechanism can be proposed that has developed from sweeping as a utilitarian action with affiliative meaning among monkeys, to the caress as a purely affective gesture associated with humans.

  19. A TV camera system for digitizing single shot oscillograms at sweep rate of 0.1 ns/cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienlen, M.; Knispel, G.; Miehe, J.A.; Sipp, B.

    1976-01-01

    A TV camera digitizing system associated with a 5 GHz photocell-oscilloscope apparatus allows the digitizing of single shot oscillograms; with an oscilloscope sweep rate of 0.1 ns/cm an accuracy on time measurements of 4 ps is obtained [fr

  20. Acidic sweep gas with carbonic anhydrase coated hollow fiber membranes synergistically accelerates CO2 removal from blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazawa, D T; Kimmel, J D; Finn, M C; Federspiel, W J

    2015-10-01

    The use of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) is well established as a therapy for patients suffering from acute respiratory failure. Development of next generation low blood flow (carbonic anhydrase (CA) immobilized bioactive hollow fiber membrane (HFM) which significantly accelerates CO2 removal from blood in model gas exchange devices by converting bicarbonate to CO2 directly at the HFM surface. This present study tested the hypothesis that dilute sulfur dioxide (SO2) in oxygen sweep gas could further increase CO2 removal by creating an acidic microenvironment within the diffusional boundary layer adjacent to the HFM surface, facilitating dehydration of bicarbonate to CO2. CA was covalently immobilized onto poly (methyl pentene) (PMP) HFMs through glutaraldehyde activated chitosan spacers, potted in model gas exchange devices (0.0151 m(2)) and tested for CO2 removal rate with oxygen (O2) sweep gas and a 2.2% SO2 in oxygen sweep gas mixture. Using pure O2 sweep gas, CA-PMP increased CO2 removal by 31% (258 mL/min/m(2)) compared to PMP (197 mL/min/m(2)) (Premoval by 17% (230 mL/min/m(2)) compared to pure oxygen sweep gas control (Premoval increased by 109% (411 mL/min/m(2)) (Premoval, and when used in combination with bioactive CA-HFMs has a synergistic effect to more than double CO2 removal while maintaining physiologic pH. Through these technologies the next generation of intravascular and paracorporeal respiratory assist devices can remove more CO2 with smaller blood contacting surface areas. A clinical need exists for more efficient respiratory assist devices which utilize low blood flow rates (removal efficiency by shifting equilibrium from bicarbonate to gaseous CO2, through either a bioactive carbonic anhydrase enzyme coating or bulk blood acidification with lactic acid. In this study we demonstrate a novel approach to local blood acidification using an acidified sweep gas in combination with a bioactive coating to more than double CO2 removal

  1. Swedish Radiation Protection Institute: information activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Lars

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of SSI's Information and PR Service is to broaden public awareness of radiation and radiation risks as well as to fulfill other performance goals. SSI achieves this through its advisory, educational and informative activities. SSI publishes two external magazines, Stralskyddsnytt and SSI News. Stralskyddsnytt - which is available in Swedish only - has a circulation of 2,000 and is published four times a year. SSI News - which is in English - is published twice a year and has a circulation of about 1,800. Another important channel of communication is the web site (www.ssi.se). Taking advantage of PUSH technology, SSI also distributes, by e-mail, press releases and other important information on radiation to radiation protection professionals in Sweden. SSI continuously monitors news by subscribing to a press clipping service. SSI Training is a commercial unit within the Information and PR Service. A policy for mass media contacts exists as well as a policy for internal communication. SSI has a graphic profile. SSI has a specialized research library. (author)

  2. Swedish radiation protection institute. Information activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Lars

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of SSI's information and PR Service is to broaden public awareness of radiation and radiation risks as well as to fulfil other performance goals. SSI achieves this through its advisory, educational and informative activities. SSI publishes two external magazines, Straalskyddsnytt and SSI News. Straalskyddsnytt - which is available in Swedish only - has a circulation of 2,400 and is published four times a year. SSI News - which is in English - is published twice a year and has a circulation of about 1,500. Another important channel of communication is the web site (www.ssi.se). Taking advantage of PUSH technology, SSi also distributes, by e-mail, press releases and other important information of radiation to radiation protection professionals in Sweden. SSI continuously monitors news by subscribing to a press clipping service. SSI Training is a commercial unit within the Information and PR Service. A policy for mass media contacts exists as well as a policy for internal communication. SSI has a graphic profile. SSI has a specialised research library. (au)

  3. Choice and privatisation in Swedish primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anell, Anders

    2011-10-01

    In 2007, a new wave of local reforms involving choice for the population and privatisation of providers was initiated in Swedish primary care. Important objectives behind reforms were to strengthen the role of primary care and to improve performance in terms of access and responsiveness. The purpose of this article was to compare the characteristics of the new models and to discuss changes in financial incentives for providers and challenges regarding governance from the part of county councils. A majority of the models being introduced across the 21 county councils can best be described as innovative combinations between a comprehensive responsibility for providers and significant degrees of freedom regarding choice for the population. Key financial characteristics of fixed payment and comprehensive financial responsibility for providers may create financial incentives to under-provide care. Informed choices by the population, in combination with reasonably low barriers for providers to enter the primary care market, should theoretically counterbalance such incentives. To facilitate such competition is indeed a challenge, not only because of difficulties in implementing informed choices but also because the new models favour large and/or horizontally integrated providers. To prevent monopolistic behaviour, county councils may have to accept more competition as well as more governance over clinical practice than initially intended.

  4. Workplace Incivility in a Swedish Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Torkelson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated workplace incivility in a Swedish context. The first aim was to assess how common the phenomenon is and the second was to study which groups (gender, age, ethnicity, and power position are most targeted by workplace incivility and are more prone to act in an uncivil way. Additionally, the relationships between experienced and witnessed incivility and wellbeing as well as instigated incivility were investigated. An online survey was administered by SIFO (the national public opinion poll agency. The collected data consist of a stratified sample whose composition is identical to the working population in Sweden (N = 3001. The results show that almost three quarters of the respondents had been the target of coworker incivility and 52% of supervisor incivility at least one to two times in the past year. Of the respondents, 75% had witnessed coworkers and 58% witnessed a supervisor treating others in an uncivil way. Furthermore, 66% had instigated uncivil acts toward others. The results also show that female and younger employees are slightly more targeted by incivility from coworkers and younger employees and supervisors are slightly more prone to instigate incivility. Moreover, it was found that that experienced incivility was the strongest predictor of low well-being and that witnessed incivility was the strongest predictor of instigated incivility.

  5. Price formation on the Swedish woodfuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.

    1999-01-01

    The Swedish woodfuel market has grown rapidly in the past ten years. Government policy has strongly supported this development and environmental taxes on fossil fuels have been introduced. This has favoured untaxed biofuels, i.e. woodfuels, in the district heating sector where the market has grown very rapidly. This study on price formation is based on the earlier knowledge of the market and shows that the woodfuel market has seen a dramatic increase combined with falling prices. Unrefined wood fuels demonstrate an annual volume increase of 13% while real prices have fallen at an annual rate of 5% during the first half of the 1990s. Total taxes paid by the district heating sector have increased during the period studied and of which taxes for fossil fuels have increased dramatically during the past ten years. However, tax as a share of the total fuelmix supplying the district heating sector has been stabilised over time. The primary reason for this development is the replacement of the highly taxed fossil fuels in the supplied fuels with untaxed biofuels. Companies have reacted very quickly and rationally from an economic point of view to the rising costs of fossil fuels, substituting an increasing share with biofuels. For the future, many utilities have the capacity to adapt to new changes in costs resulting from either changes in fuel prices, changes in fuel taxes or changes in prices on heating or electricity markets. (author)

  6. Uranium production from low grade Swedish shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, O.

    1977-01-01

    In view of the present nuclear programmes a steep increase in uranium demand is foreseen which will pose serious problems for the uranium industry. The annual additions to uranium ore reserves must almost triple within the next 15 years in order to support the required production rates. Although there are good prospects for the discovery of further conventional deposits of uranium there is a growing interest in low grade uranium deposits. Large quantities of uranium exist in black shales, phosphates, granites, sea water and other unconventional sources. There are however factors which limit the utilization of these low grade materials. These factors include the extraction costs, the environmental constrains on mining and milling of huge amounts of ore, the development of technologies for the beneficiation of uranium and, in the case of very low grade materials, the energy balance. The availability of by-product uranium is limited by the production rate of the main product. The limitations differ very much according to types of ores, mining and milling methods and the surroundings. As an illustration a description is given of the Swedish Ranstad uranium shale project, its potential, constraints and technical solutions

  7. Phasing out nuclear power, the swedish experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredriksson, Y.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents the chronological steps in the phasing-out of nuclear energy in Sweden. In 1980 a consultative referendum was held and it was decided that: i) no further expansion of nuclear capacity beyond the 12 reactors in operation or already under construction, ii) all nuclear power plants should be decommissioned by the year 2010. In 1988, as a consequence of the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the Swedish parliament decided that one reactor should be closed down in 1995 and a second in 1996. In 1991 the parliament proposed a new energy program for a 5 year period. The main measure was a huge financial support for increasing energy efficiency and for developing environmental sound technologies. At the same time the parliament repealed the 1991 decision of closing 1 reactor in 1995 and made the phase-out process dependent on the results of the new energy policy. In 1994 a parliamentary Commission was appointed to estimate the results of 1991 energy policy. The results were meager and disappointing so the Commission considered that a number of objectives (the climate issue, employment, welfare and competitiveness) remained unresolved if all nuclear power generation should be phased out by 2010. However, the Commission also considered it important to start the phasing-out process at an early stage and stated that one reactor could be closed down without noticeably affecting the power balance. The Barsebaeck reactor is to be closed before the end of november 1999. (A.C.)

  8. The in vitro toxicology of Swedish snus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, Christopher R. E.; Ballantyne, Mark; Curvall, Margareta; Rutqvist, Lars-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Three commercial brands of Swedish snus (SWS), an experimental SWS, and the 2S3 reference moist snuff were each tested in four in vitro toxicology assays. These assays were: Salmonella reverse mutation, mouse lymphoma, in vitro micronucleus, and cytotoxicity. Water extractions of each of the 5 products were tested using several different concentrations; the experimental SWS was also extracted using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Extraction procedures were verified by nicotine determinations. Results for SWS in the mutagenicity assays were broadly negative: there were occasional positive responses, but these were effectively at the highest concentration only (concentrations well above those suggested by regulatory guidelines), and were often associated with cytotoxicity. The 2S3 reference was unequivocally positive in one of the three conditions of the micronucleus assay (MNA), at the highest concentration only. Positive controls produced the expected responses in each assay. The SWS data are contrasted with data reported for combusted tobacco in the form of cigarettes, where strongly positive responses have been routinely reported for mutagenicity and cytotoxicity. These negative findings in a laboratory setting concur with the large amount of epidemiological data from Sweden, data showing that SWS are associated with considerably lower carcinogenic potential when compared with cigarettes. PMID:22400986

  9. Lyssavirus-reactive antibodies in Swedish bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lena Hammarin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To study the presence of European bat lyssavirus (EBLV infections in bat reservoirs in Sweden, active surveillance was performed during the summers from 2008 to 2013. Material and methods: Bat specimens were collected at >20 bat colonies in the central, southeastern, and southern parts of Sweden. In total, blood and saliva of 452 bats were examined by a virus neutralization test and by reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs. Results and discussion: EBLV neutralizing antibodies were detected in 14 Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii, all trapped in Skåne or Småland (south and southeast of Sweden. The result was not unexpected since EBLV has been shown to be present in many neighboring countries, for example, Denmark, Finland, Germany, and Norway. However, Sweden has been regarded free of rabies in terrestrial mammals since 1896. Although very rare, spillover of EBLV into other animals and humans have occurred, and the risk of EBLV infection to other species including humans should not be ignored. This is the first report of lyssavirus infection in Swedish bats.

  10. The use of plutonium in Swedish reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsstroem, H.

    1982-09-01

    The report deals with the utilization of plutonium in Swedish nuclear power plants. The plutonium content of the mixed oxide fuel will normally be 3-7 per cent. The processing of spent nuclear fuel will produce about 6 ton plutonium. The use of mixed oxide fuel in Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3 is discussed. The fuel cycle will start with the manufacturing of the fuel elements abroad and proceeds with transport and utilization, storing of spent fuel about 40 years in Sweden followed by direct disposal. The manufacture and use of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is based on well-known techniques. Approximately 20 000 MOX fuel rods have been irradiated and the fuel is essentially equivalent to uranium oxide fuel. 30-50 per cent of the core may be composed of MOX-fuel without any effect on the operation and safety of the reactor which has been originally designed for uranium fuel. The evaluation of international fuel cycle (INFCE) states that the proliferation risks are very small. The recycling of plutonium will reduce demand for enriched uranium and the calculations show that 6.3 ton plutonium will replace the enrichment of 600 ton natural uranium. (G.B.)

  11. Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Johanna; Holmqvist Gattario, Kristina; Frisén, Ann

    2017-06-01

    The relatively high gender equality in the Swedish society is likely to exert an influence on gender role construction. Hence, the present research aimed to investigate Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms. A mixed methods approach with two studies was used. In Study 1, young Swedish women's gender role conformity, as measured by the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory 45 (CFNI-45), was compared to the results from previously published studies in Canada, the United States, and Slovakia. Overall, Swedish women displayed less conformity than their foreign counterparts, with the largest difference on the subscale Sexual fidelity. In Study 2, focus group interviews with young Swedish women added a more complex picture of feminine norms in the Swedish society. For instance the results indicated that Swedish women, while living in a society with a strong gender equality discourse, are torn between the perceived need to invest in their appearances and the risk of being viewed as non-equal when doing so. In sum, despite the fact that traditional gender roles are less pronounced in Sweden, gender role conformity is still a pressing issue. Since attending to the potential roles of feminine norms in women's lives previously has been proposed to be useful in counseling and therapeutic work, the present research also offers valuable information for both researchers and practitioners. [Correction added on 5 May 2017, after first online publication in April 2017: An incorrect Abstract was inadvertently captured in the published article and has been corrected in this current version.]. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Numerical investigation of collector cooling for a 1 MW ITER gyrotron operated with vertical sweeping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoldi, Laura; Bertani, Cristina [Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Cau, Francesca; Cismondi, Fabio [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Gantenbein, Gerd; Illy, Stefan [KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Monni, Grazia [Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Zanino, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.zanino@polito.it [Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    The present gyrotron designs for EC plasma heating in nuclear fusion reactors require the safe exhaust of a power comparable to that injected into the plasma, in order to keep the maximum temperature below the acceptable value of 300 °C. In this paper, the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software STAR-CCM+{sup ®} is used to analyze the thermal performance of the annular copper collector of a 1 MW ITER gyrotron, equipped with a hypervapotron structure made of annular fins with rectangular cavities of aspect ratio (depth/width) = 3, cooled by highly subcooled (90–100 °C) pressurized water flowing at ∼4 m/s. It is assumed that the simple vertical sweeping strategy is used to reduce the very high peak heat flux on the collector (up to 30 MW/m{sup 2} transient, 5 MW/m{sup 2} time average), due to the spent electron beam. The 2D steady-state conjugate heat transfer problem is solved assuming azimuthal symmetry and accounting for 2-phase flow. The single-cavity flow and heat transfer problem is considered first, to optimize the mesh and the selection of the turbulence model. For the operating conditions considered in this paper, the full collector (100+ cavities) solution shows that boiling occurs only in a limited number of cavities close to the peaks of the heat flux, with the vapor remaining trapped in the bottom of the cavities, i.e. no full hypervapotron regime should be achieved in these operating conditions. The steady-state analysis allows the numerical evaluation of the heat transfer coefficients between Cu and water; these are then used as input for the simplified, purely thermal (solid only) analysis of the actual transient problem for the full collector. The results of the simplified model, which allows a huge reduction of the computational effort, are successfully benchmarked against those of a comprehensive thermal–hydraulic simulation. The computed peak Cu temperature is below the acceptable limit under the steady-state (time averaged

  13. Deregulation and internationalisation - impact on the Swedish nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haukeland, Sverre R.

    2010-01-01

    The deregulation of the Swedish electricity market in 1996 was well known in advance, and the nuclear power plants in Sweden, as well as their main suppliers, made early preparations for a this new situation. In a study - performed by the author at Malardalen University in Sweden - it is concluded that the electricity industry, including the nuclear power plants, was fundamentally transformed in conjunction with market liberalisation. Two large foreign companies, E-on and Fortum, entered the Swedish market and became part-owners of the nuclear plants. After deregulation, the electricity market in Sweden is dominated by these two companies and the large national company Vattenfall. Similarly, Vattenfall has recently grown into an international energy company, acquiring generation capacity in Northern Europe outside of Sweden, including nuclear power plants in Germany. Restructuring of the nuclear industry on the supplier side started in the 1980's, when the Swedish company ASEA and BBC of Switzerland merged to become ABB. Several years later the Swedish nuclear plant supplier ABB-Atom became part of Westinghouse Electric Company, today owned by Toshiba. The Swedish experience thus confirms an international trend of mergers and consolidation in the nuclear industry. (authors)

  14. Demonstration and Dialogue: Mediation in Swedish Nuclear Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, Mark; Lidberg, Maria; Soneryd, Linda; Sundqvist, Goeran

    2009-01-01

    This report analyses mediation and mediators in Swedish nuclear waste management. Mediation is about establishing agreement and building common knowledge. It is argued that demonstrations and dialogue are the two prominent approaches to mediation in Swedish nuclear waste management. Mediation through demonstration is about showing, displaying, and pointing out a path to safe disposal for inspection. It implies a strict division between demonstrator and audience. Mediation through dialogue on the other hand, is about collective acknowledgements of uncertainty and suspensions of judgement creating room for broader discussion. In Sweden, it is the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) that is tasked with finding a method and a site for the final disposal of the nation's nuclear waste. Two different legislative frameworks cover this process. In accordance with the Act on Nuclear Activities, SKB is required to demonstrate the safety of its planned nuclear waste management system to the government, while in respect of the Swedish Environmental Code, they are obliged to organize consultations with the public. How SKB combines these requirements is the main question under investigation in this report in relation to materials deriving from three empirical settings: 1) SKB's safety analyses, 2) SKB's public consultation activities and 3) the 'dialogue projects', initiated by other actors than SKB broadening the public arena for discussion. In conclusion, an attempt is made to characterise the long- term interplay of demonstration and dialogue in Swedish nuclear waste management

  15. Quantitative estimation of massive gas hydrate in gas chimney structures, the eastern margin of Japan Sea, from the physical property anomalies obtained by LWD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, M.; Morita, S.; Matsumoto, R.

    2017-12-01

    Two dedicated LWD (Logging While Drilling) cruises, GR14 and HR15, were conducted in summers of 2014 and 2015, respectively, by Meiji University and Geological Survey of Japan, AIST to explore the gas chimney structures, which are characterized by the columnar acoustic blanking below the topographic mound and/or pockmarks in eastern margin of Japan Sea. Shallow (33 to 172m-bsf, average 136m-bsf) 33 LWD drillings were carried out generally in and around gas chimney structures which are in Oki Trough, Off-Joetsu, and Mogami Trough areas, eastern margin of Japan Sea, during two cruises. Schlumberger LWD tools, GeoVISION (resistivity), TeleScope, ProVISION (NMR) and SonicVISION (sonic) were applied during GR14. NeoScope (neutron) was added and SonicScope was replaced for SonicVISION during HR15. The presence of thick highly-anomalous intervals within the LWD data at site J24L suggests the development of massive gas hydrate within Off-Joetsu, by very high resistivity ( 10,000 Ωm), high Vp ( 3,700 m/s) and Vs (370-1,839 m/s), high neutron porosity ( 1.2), low natural gamma ray intensity ( 0 API), low neutron gamma density ( 0.8 g/cm3), low NMR porosity ( 0.0), low permeability (10-2-10-4 mD), low formation neutron sigma (26-28). The extreme physical properties intervals suggest the development of the almost pure hydrate. Because of the clear contrast between pure hydrate and seawater saturated fine sediments, the hydrate amount can be estimated quantitatively based on the assumptions as the two component system of pure hydrate and the monotonous seawater saturated fine sediments. This study was conducted as a part of the methane hydrate research project funded by METI (the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Japan).

  16. Personal child and mother carbon monoxide exposures and kitchen levels: methods and results from a randomized trial of woodfired chimney cookstoves in Guatemala (RESPIRE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk R; McCracken, John P; Thompson, Lisa; Edwards, Rufus; Shields, Kyra N; Canuz, Eduardo; Bruce, Nigel

    2010-07-01

    During the first randomized intervention trial (RESPIRE: Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects) in air pollution epidemiology, we pioneered application of passive carbon monoxide (CO) diffusion tubes to measure long-term personal exposures to woodsmoke. Here we report on the protocols and validations of the method, trends in personal exposure for mothers and their young children, and the efficacy of the introduced improved chimney stove in reducing personal exposures and kitchen concentrations. Passive diffusion tubes originally developed for industrial hygiene applications were deployed on a quarterly basis to measure 48-hour integrated personal carbon monoxide exposures among 515 children 0-18 months of age and 532 mothers aged 15-55 years and area samples in a subsample of 77 kitchens, in households randomized into control and intervention groups. Instrument comparisons among types of passive diffusion tubes and against a continuous electrochemical CO monitor indicated that tubes responded nonlinearly to CO, and regression calibration was used to reduce this bias. Before stove introduction, the baseline arithmetic (geometric) mean 48-h child (n=270), mother (n=529) and kitchen (n=65) levels were, respectively, 3.4 (2.8), 3.4 (2.8) and 10.2 (8.4) p.p.m. The between-group analysis of the 3355 post-baseline measurements found CO levels to be significantly lower among the intervention group during the trial period: kitchen levels: -90%; mothers: -61%; and children: -52% in geometric means. No significant deterioration in stove effect was observed over the 18 months of surveillance. The reliability of these findings is strengthened by the large sample size made feasible by these unobtrusive and inexpensive tubes, measurement error reduction through instrument calibration, and a randomized, longitudinal study design. These results from the first randomized trial of improved household energy technology in a developing country and

  17. Broadband W-band Rapid Frequency Sweep Considerations for Fourier Transform EPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangeway, Robert A; Hyde, James S; Camenisch, Theodore G; Sidabras, Jason W; Mett, Richard R; Anderson, James R; Ratke, Joseph J; Subczynski, Witold K

    2017-12-01

    A multi-arm W-band (94 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer that incorporates a loop-gap resonator with high bandwidth is described. A goal of the instrumental development is detection of free induction decay following rapid sweep of the microwave frequency across the spectrum of a nitroxide radical at physiological temperature, which is expected to lead to a capability for Fourier transform electron paramagnetic resonance. Progress toward this goal is a theme of the paper. Because of the low Q-value of the loop-gap resonator, it was found necessary to develop a new type of automatic frequency control, which is described in an appendix. Path-length equalization, which is accomplished at the intermediate frequency of 59 GHz, is analyzed. A directional coupler is favored for separation of incident and reflected power between the bridge and the loop-gap resonator. Microwave leakage of this coupler is analyzed. An oversize waveguide with hyperbolic-cosine tapers couples the bridge to the loop-gap resonator, which results in reduced microwave power and signal loss. Benchmark sensitivity data are provided. The most extensive application of the instrument to date has been the measurement of T 1 values using pulse saturation recovery. An overview of that work is provided.

  18. Moving Difference (MDIFF) Non-adiabatic rapid sweep (NARS) EPR of copper(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, James S.; Bennett, Brian; Kittell, Aaron W.; Kowalski, Jason M.; Sidabras, Jason W.

    2014-01-01

    Non Adiabatic Rapid Sweep (NARS) EPR spectroscopy has been introduced for application to nitroxide-labeled biological samples (AW Kittell et al, (2011)). Displays are pure absorption, and are built up by acquiring data in spectral segments that are concatenated. In this paper we extend the method to frozen solutions of copper-imidazole, a square planar copper complex with four in-plane nitrogen ligands. Pure absorption spectra are created from concatenation of 170 5-gauss segments spanning 850 G at 1.9 GHz. These spectra, however, are not directly useful since nitrogen superhyperfine couplings are barely visible. Application of the moving difference (MDIFF) algorithm to the digitized NARS pure absorption spectrum is used to produce spectra that are analogous to the first harmonic EPR. The signal intensity is about 4 times higher than when using conventional 100 kHz field modulation, depending on line shape. MDIFF not only filters the spectrum, but also the noise, resulting in further improvement of the SNR for the same signal acquisition time. The MDIFF amplitude can be optimized retrospectively, different spectral regions can be examined at different amplitudes, and an amplitude can be used that is substantially greater than the upper limit of the field modulation amplitude of a conventional EPR spectrometer, which improves the signal-to-noise ratio of broad lines. PMID:24036469

  19. The yule approximation for the site frequency spectrum after a selective sweep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Bossert

    Full Text Available In the area of evolutionary theory, a key question is which portions of the genome of a species are targets of natural selection. Genetic hitchhiking is a theoretical concept that has helped to identify various such targets in natural populations. In the presence of recombination, a severe reduction in sequence diversity is expected around a strongly beneficial allele. The site frequency spectrum is an important tool in genome scans for selection and is composed of the numbers S(1,...,S(n-1, where S(k is the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs present in k from n individuals. Previous work has shown that both the number of low- and high-frequency variants are elevated relative to neutral evolution when a strongly beneficial allele fixes. Here, we follow a recent investigation of genetic hitchhiking using a marked Yule process to obtain an analytical prediction of the site frequency spectrum in a panmictic population at the time of fixation of a highly beneficial mutation. We combine standard results from the neutral case with the effects of a selective sweep. As simulations show, the resulting formula produces predictions that are more accurate than previous approaches for the whole frequency spectrum. In particular, the formula correctly predicts the elevation of low- and high-frequency variants and is significantly more accurate than previously derived formulas for intermediate frequency variants.

  20. A Support Vector Machine Approach for Truncated Fingerprint Image Detection from Sweeping Fingerprint Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Jim; Pai, Tun-Wen; Cheng, Mox

    2015-01-01

    A sweeping fingerprint sensor converts fingerprints on a row by row basis through image reconstruction techniques. However, a built fingerprint image might appear to be truncated and distorted when the finger was swept across a fingerprint sensor at a non-linear speed. If the truncated fingerprint images were enrolled as reference targets and collected by any automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS), successful prediction rates for fingerprint matching applications would be decreased significantly. In this paper, a novel and effective methodology with low time computational complexity was developed for detecting truncated fingerprints in a real time manner. Several filtering rules were implemented to validate existences of truncated fingerprints. In addition, a machine learning method of supported vector machine (SVM), based on the principle of structural risk minimization, was applied to reject pseudo truncated fingerprints containing similar characteristics of truncated ones. The experimental result has shown that an accuracy rate of 90.7% was achieved by successfully identifying truncated fingerprint images from testing images before AFIS enrollment procedures. The proposed effective and efficient methodology can be extensively applied to all existing fingerprint matching systems as a preliminary quality control prior to construction of fingerprint templates. PMID:25835186

  1. Acetate and phosphate anion adsorption linear sweep voltammograms simulated using density functional theory

    KAUST Repository

    Savizi, Iman Shahidi Pour

    2011-04-01

    Specific adsorption of anions to electrode surfaces may alter the rates of electrocatalytic reactions. Density functional theory (DFT) methods are used to predict the adsorption free energy of acetate and phosphate anions as a function of Pt(1 1 1) electrode potential. Four models of the electrode potential are used including a simple vacuum slab model, an applied electric field model with and without the inclusion of a solvating water bi-layer, and the double reference model. The linear sweep voltammogram (LSV) due to anion adsorption is simulated using the DFT results. The inclusion of solvation at the electrochemical interface is necessary for accurately predicting the adsorption peak position. The Langmuir model is sufficient for predicting the adsorption peak shape, indicating coverage effects are minor in altering the LSV for acetate and phosphate adsorption. Anion adsorption peak positions are determined for solution phase anion concentrations present in microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells and discussion is provided as to the impact of anion adsorption on oxygen reduction and hydrogen evolution reaction rates in these devices. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Support Vector Machine Approach for Truncated Fingerprint Image Detection from Sweeping Fingerprint Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Jim Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A sweeping fingerprint sensor converts fingerprints on a row by row basis through image reconstruction techniques. However, a built fingerprint image might appear to be truncated and distorted when the finger was swept across a fingerprint sensor at a non-linear speed. If the truncated fingerprint images were enrolled as reference targets and collected by any automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS, successful prediction rates for fingerprint matching applications would be decreased significantly. In this paper, a novel and effective methodology with low time computational complexity was developed for detecting truncated fingerprints in a real time manner. Several filtering rules were implemented to validate existences of truncated fingerprints. In addition, a machine learning method of supported vector machine (SVM, based on the principle of structural risk minimization, was applied to reject pseudo truncated fingerprints containing similar characteristics of truncated ones. The experimental result has shown that an accuracy rate of 90.7% was achieved by successfully identifying truncated fingerprint images from testing images before AFIS enrollment procedures. The proposed effective and efficient methodology can be extensively applied to all existing fingerprint matching systems as a preliminary quality control prior to construction of fingerprint templates.

  3. A sweep plate emittance scanner for high-power CW ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debiak, T.W.; Ng, Y.; Sredniawski, J.; Stasi, W.

    1996-01-01

    Sweep plate scanners are preferred for emittance measurement due to their versatility, simplicity, and precision. At the Advanced Technology and Development Center of Northrop Grumman, we have routinely used these devices for characterization of injector beams with less than 20 W/cm 2 average power density. To characterize higher power beams, like those required for production of tritium or for radioactive waste transmutation, the scanner pod and data collection algorithm must be redesigned due to the possibility of melting the scanner's protective front face or distorting the precision entrance knife edges. Among the methods we have used to mitigate these effects, one consists of drastically reducing the amount of time required for data collection. In this method, the emittance scanner pod traverses the beam in two passes, each requiring less than 0.5 second. In the first pass, the phase space limits of the beam are determined. In the second pass, data is collected primarily within the phase space region limits determined in the first pass. In this way, enough points are collected to assure that the precision of the measurement is high, even though the data collection time for each scan is less than 0.5 second. This paper will describe the layout of the scanner components, the data collection electronics and algorithm, and the data analysis. (author)

  4. Field-amplified sample stacking-sweeping of vitamins B determination in capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziomba, Szymon; Kowalski, Piotr; Bączek, Tomasz

    2012-12-07

    A capillary electrophoretic method for determination of five water soluble vitamins B along with baclofen as an internal standard has been developed and assessed in context of precision, accuracy, sensitivity, freedom from interference, linearity, detection and quantification limits. On-line preconcentration technique, namely field-amplified sample stacking (FASS)-sweeping, has been employed in respect to obtain more sensitive analysis. Separation conditions received after optimization procedure were as following background electrolyte (BGE), 10 mM NaH(2)PO(4), 80 mM SDS, (pH 7.25); sample matrix (SM), 10 mM NaH(2)PO(4) (pH 4.60); uncoated fused silica capillary (50 μm i.d. × 67 cm length); UV spectrophotometric detection at 200 nm; injection times: 10s and 30s at 3.45 kPa; applied voltage 22 kV; temperature 22°C. Validation parameters, namely precision, accuracy and linearity, were considered as satisfactory. Under the optimized conditions, it has been also successfully applied for vitamins B determination in bacterial growth medium and commercially available Ilex paraguariensis leaves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Frequency comb calibrated frequency-sweeping interferometry for absolute group refractive index measurement of air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijun; Wu, Xuejian; Wei, Haoyun; Li, Yan

    2017-04-10

    The absolute group refractive index of air at 194061.02 GHz is measured in real time using frequency-sweeping interferometry calibrated by an optical frequency comb. The group refractive index of air is calculated from the calibration peaks of the laser frequency variation and the interference signal of the two beams passing through the inner and outer regions of a vacuum cell when the frequency of a tunable external cavity diode laser is scanned. We continuously measure the refractive index of air for 2 h, which shows that the difference between measured results and Ciddor's equation is less than 9.6×10-8, and the standard deviation of that difference is 5.9×10-8. The relative uncertainty of the measured refractive index of air is estimated to be 8.6×10-8. The data update rate is 0.2 Hz, making it applicable under conditions in which air refractive index fluctuates fast.

  6. Singlet Oxygen Production by Illuminated Road Dust and Winter Street Sweepings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S.; Gan, L.; Gao, S.; Hoy, K. S.; Kwasny, J. R.; Styler, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    Road dust is an important urban source of primary particulate matter, especially in cities where sand and other traction materials are applied to roadways in winter. Although the composition and detrimental health effects of road dust are reasonably well characterized, little is currently known regarding its chemical behaviour. Motivated by our previous work, in which we showed that road dust is a photochemical source of singlet oxygen (1O2), we investigated 1O2 production by bulk winter street sweepings and by road dust collected in a variety of urban, industrial, and suburban locations in both autumn and spring. In all cases, the production of 1O2 by road dust was greater than that by Arizona test dust and desert-sourced dust, which highlights the unique photochemical environment afforded by this substrate. Mechanistically, we observed correlations between 1O2 production and the UV absorbance properties of dust extracts, which suggests the involvement of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the observed photochemistry. Taken together, this work provides evidence that road dust-mediated photochemistry may influence the environmental lifetime of pollutants that react via 1O2-mediated pathways, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  7. Determination of strobilurin fungicide residues in fruits and vegetables by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with sweeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Chen, Guan-hua; Wu, Xian; Shi, Jie; Guo, Dong-shan

    2014-02-01

    A new assay of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with sweeping was developed to determine azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and pyraclostrobin in fruits and vegetables. The key factors affecting resolution and peak height were studied and the optimum conditions were obtained for separation and enrichment. The running buffer consisted of 40 mM borate, 25 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate and 15% acetonitrile, and its pH was adjusted to 8.4. The sample was injected for 677 nL and the separation voltage was 25 kV. Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factors of azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and pyraclostrobin were 861, 550 and 403; the linear dynamic ranges were all 0.01-5.0 mg/L; the limits of detection were 0.002, 0.001 and 0.002 mg/kg; the recoveries of spiked samples were 85.1-98.5%, 87.5-97.0% and 89.1-99.1%, respectively. The assay can meet the requirement of maximum residue limits for these three strobilurin fungicides, and has been applied for determining their residues in fruits and vegetables.

  8. Acoustic emission in a superconductor (Nb-Ti) during magnetic field and current sweep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Harehiko

    1980-01-01

    Though superconducting magnets are indispensable in the fields of nuclear fusion, MHD power generation, high energy technology, and the trains using magnetic levitation, the safety of the magnets used for those fields is required to be fully investigated because their accumulating energy reaches up to several GJ. For this purpose, the improvement of monitoring techniques is extremely important to grasp exactly the magnetization of such large energy magnets. Although the detection of the terminal voltage of the magnets has been mainly used so far, the purpose has not yet been fulfilled because various phenomena appear in the form of noises in the terminal voltage. The authors have found the monitoring method using acoustic emission in a system completely independent from voltage observation. From this viewpoint, the experiments have been performed aiming at the generation of acoustic emission in conjunction with magnetization out of the fine structure of super-conductors, taking notice of the emitted sound frequency ranging over several hundred kHz. The results and investigation revealed that the superconductor itself emitted ultrasonic sound. It was found that the observation of this acoustic power intensity was able to monitor not only the magnetization of superconductors but also its current sweep. Since the motion of the magnetic flux is converted into the signal of acoustic field, this measuring method is less affected by noise disturbance from electromagnetic systems, and is expected to be useful for the researches on analyzing superconductor characteristics. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  9. Comparison of U.S. and Swedish calculation economic transition points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, P.S.; Parker, M.B.; Omberg, R.P.

    1979-03-01

    This paper was prepared in response to the view of the Swedish delegation that the U.S. calculation of the economic transitions was in error. The report analyzed the principle differences between the U.S. approach and Swedish approach and concluded that the Swedish results can be reproduced using the U.S. method and Swedish data. Conversely, the U.S. results should be reproducible by Sweden

  10. A Dip into the World of Particles for Swedish Teachers

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    For three full days, forty-one Swedish secondary school physics teachers were introduced to the rudiments of the particle physics. This series of courses is celebrating its tenth anniversary. The Swedish teachers followed lectures, visited CERN experiments... ... and analysed the latest DELPHI data. 'I am sure that, as in previous years, many of these teachers will return to CERN with their students. It is an excellent way of encouraging young people to orient themselves towards physics.' Staffan Hörnberg, Vice President of the International Centre for Education and Development, is enthusiastic about the repercussions of the teaching programme for Swedish teachers that he organises with CERN physicist, Richard Jacobsson. For the tenth consecutive year, this series of introductory courses to particle physics was a success. Forty-one teachers came from schools all over Sweden to take part in lectures and visits on the theme of particle physics, its methods of investigation, and its applications. San...

  11. Comparing Danish and Swedish versions of PISA scientific literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serder, Malmø University, Margareta; Sørensen, Helene

    This paper presents a comparison between the Swedish, Danish, English, and French versions of three scientific literacy test-units from the released PISA items 2006. More specifically it compares how different words and concepts have been translated in the Swedish and Danish tests, compared...... to the English and French original versions. Differences that occur as a result of the translation process concerning words’ meaning are demonstrated. The possible consequences of such differences are exemplified by an excerpt from a situation in which Swedish 15-year-old students collaboratively worked...... with these three PISA units. In the paper we claim that in spite of detailed and strongly controlled methods for achieving translations of high standard used by the PISA, important and perhaps even decisive, differences between the four versions exist....

  12. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The total production of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 65.6 TWh during 2002, which is a decrease compared to 2001. The energy capability factor for the 11 Swedish reactors averaged 80.8%. The PWRs at Ringhals averaged 87.6%, while the BWRs, not counting Oskarshamn 1, reached 89.2%. No events, which in accordance to conventions should be reported to IAEA, have occurred during 2002. Operational statistics are presented for each Swedish reactor. The hydroelectric power was 66 TWh, 16% lower than 2000. Wind power contributed 0.5 TWh, and remaining production sources, mainly from solid fuel plants combined with district heating, contributed 10.9 TWh. The electricity generation totalled 143 TWh, considerably less than the record high 2001 figure of 158.7 TWh. The preliminary figures for export were 14.8 TWh and and for import 20.1 TWh.

  13. Swedish Art Song: A Singer's Handbook to Diction and Repertoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, Anna Christine

    2012-01-01

    This essay is a guide to Swedish lyric diction for American singers. An overview of the linguistic traits and basic grammar of the Swedish language prepares the reader for a detailed description of Swedish phonemes and their occurrence in the language. Differences in pronunciation conventions as they pertain to classical singing, particularly the…

  14. Pengaruh Swedish Massage Therapy terhadap Tingkat Kualitas Hidup Penderita Leukemia Usia Sekolah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Umu Kulsum

    2017-08-01

    Hasil penelitian menggambarkan terdapat perbedaan kualitas hidup pada kelompok intervensi sebelum dan sesudah dilakukan swedish massage therapy (p = 0,000 pada α = 5. Hasil penelitian merekomendasikan bahwa swedish massage therapy bisa dipakai sebagai metode alternatif dalam meningkatkan kualitas hidup penderita leukemia usia sekolah. Kata kunci: Kualitas hidup, leukemia, swedish massage therapy.

  15. Radiocaesium in Swedish reindeer after the Chernobyl accident. Progress report to the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aahman, B.

    1997-09-01

    The level of 137 CS in freely grazing reindeer, and thus in reindeer pasture, continue to decrease, with an average T ef at 3.9 years from 1986/87 (the first year after the Chernobyl fallout) to 1996/97. The decline was more rapid during the first five years after the fallout than during the following five years. This, together with a tendency to a relatively slow decline in areas with mainly old fallout (from the nuclear weapon tests) indicate that radiocesium become more fixed in reindeer pasture with time. As a combined effect of the general decline and of different countermeasures, the transfer of radiocaesium via reindeer meat and the corresponding radiation dose to humans has been reduced with time. By different countermeasures, the total collective dose to the Swedish population, over a 10-year period following the Chernobyl accident, has been reduced with 676 manSv at a cost of 489 million SEK

  16. AN OVERVIEW OF SWEDISH RESEARCH ON IMPACT ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    CHARLOTTA FAITH-ELL

    2015-01-01

    This statement aims at giving an overview of the research on impact assessment in Sweden. It takes a point of departure at the introduction of impact assessment in 1991 describing the Swedish research until today. Since the introduction of EIA in the Swedish legislation in the 1990s, a large number of PhD dissertations have been dealing with various aspects of impact assessment. An estimation based on the literature search is that about 20 PhD theses, in which the core of the research is rela...

  17. The Medieval Swedish Horror Ballad in the Romantic Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhr, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    In the late 18th century the Horror Ballad became popular in Sweden. The rediscovery of medieval tales and ballads inspired the Romantic authors. Clas Livijn uses the medieval folksong of "Hafsfrun" in his dramatic play of the same title (1806). In Livijn’s own library we also find many......” by Baggesen, in turn based on German and English sources. Anna Maria Lenngren followed with several ballads, often based on Danish sources. One more purely Swedish medieval ballad is “Varulven”. From 1810 unto 1971 thirteen versions of this Swedish ballad was discovered and printed. I place the focus...

  18. Acid-base status and changes in Swedish forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karltun, Erik; Stendahl, Johan; Lundin, Lars

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we use data from the Swedish National Survey of Forest Soils and Vegetation (NSFSV) to evaluate the present acid-base status of forest soils to try to answer the following questions. Which role do anthropogenic and biological acidification play for the present acid-base status of the soil profile? What is the present acid-base status of Swedish forest soils and how large areas may be considered as severely acidified? Do the current tendencies in soil acid-base status correspond with the positive development in surface waters?

  19. Initial tests of the dual-sweep streak camera system planned for APS particle-beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A.; Yang, B.; Gai, W.; Cieslik, W.

    1995-01-01

    Initial tests of a dual-sweep streak system planned for use on the Advanced Photon Source (APS) have been performed using assets of the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) facility. The short light pulses from the photoelectric injector drive laser in both the visible (λ=496 nm, Δt∼1.5 ps (FWHM)), and the ultraviolet (λ=248 nm, Δt∼5 ps (FWHM)) were used. Both a UV-visible S20 photocathode streak tube and a UV-to-x-ray Au photocathode streak tube were tested. Calibration data with an etalon were also obtained. A sample of dual-sweep streak data using optical synchrotron radiation on the APS injector synchrotron is also presented

  20. Cross-calibrating Spatial Positions of Light-viewing Diagnostics using Plasma Edge Sweeps in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, W.M.; Burrell, K.H.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.; Kaplan, D.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental technique is presented that permits diagnostics viewing light from the plasma edge to be spatially calibrated relative to one another. By sweeping the plasma edge, each chord of each diagnostic sweeps out a portion of the light emission profile. A nonlinear least-squares fit to such data provides superior cross-calibration of diagnostics located at different toroidal locations compared with simple surveying. Another advantage of the technique is that it can be used to monitor the position of viewing chords during an experimental campaign to ensure that alignment does not change over time. Moreover, should such a change occur, the data can still be cross-calibrated and its usefulness retained