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Sample records for swedish broiler production

  1. Feasibility Analyses of Integrated Broiler Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Komalasari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The major obstacles in the development of broiler raising is the expensive price of feed and the fluctuative price of DOCs. The cheap price of imported leg quarters reduces the competitiveness of the local broilers. Therefore, an effort to increase production efficiency is needed through integration between broiler raising and corn farmers and feed producers (integrated farming. The purpose of this study is to analyze the feasibility of integrating broiler raising with corn cultivation and feed production. Besides that, a simulation was conducted to analyze the effects of DOC price changes, broiler price and production capacity. The analyses showed that integrated farming and a mere combination between broiler raising and feed factory of a 10,000 bird capacity is not financially feasible. Increasing the production to 25,000 broiler chickens will make the integrated farming financially feasible. Unintegrated broiler raising is relatively sensitive to broiler price decreases and DOC price increases compared to integrated farming.

  2. Economic issues of broiler production length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szőllősi László

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The length of broiler production cycle is also an important factor when profitability is measured. This paper is to determine the effects of different market ages and down-time period, overall broiler production cycle length on performance and economic parameters based on Hungarian production and financial circumstances. A deterministic model was constructed to manage the function-like correlations of age-related daily weight gain, daily feed intake and daily mortality data. The results show that broiler production cycle length has a significant effect on production and economic performance. Cycle length is determined by the length of down-time and grow-out periods. If down-time period is reduced by one day, an average net income of EUR 0.55 per m2 is realizable. However, the production period is not directly proportional either with emerging costs or obtainable revenues. Profit maximization is attainable if the production period is 41-42 days.

  3. Scoring biosecurity in European conventional broiler production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Limbergen, T; Dewulf, J; Klinkenberg, M; Ducatelle, R; Gelaude, P; Méndez, J; Heinola, K; Papasolomontos, S; Szeleszczuk, P; Maes, D

    2018-01-01

    Good biosecurity procedures are crucial for healthy animal production. The aim of this study was to quantify the level of biosecurity on conventional broiler farms in Europe, following a standardized procedure, thereby trying to identify factors that are amenable to improvement. The current study used a risk-based weighted scoring system (biocheck.ugent ®) to assess the level of biosecurity on 399 conventional broiler farms in 5 EU member states. The scoring system consisted of 2 main categories, namely external and internal biosecurity, which had 8 and 3 subcategories, respectively. Biosecurity was quantified by converting the answers to 97 questions into a score from 0 to 100. The minimum score, "0," represents total absence of any biosecurity measure on the broiler farm, whereas the maximum score, "100," means full application of all investigated biosecurity measures. A possible correlation between biosecurity and farm characteristics was investigated by multivariate linear regression analysis. The participating broiler farms scored better for internal biosecurity (mean score of 76.6) than for external biosecurity (mean 68.4). There was variation between the mean biosecurity scores for the different member states, ranging from 59.8 to 78.0 for external biosecurity and from 63.0 to 85.6 for internal biosecurity. Within the category of external biosecurity, the subcategory related to "infrastructure and vectors" had the highest mean score (82.4), while the subcategory with the lowest score related to biosecurity procedures for "visitors and staff" (mean 51.5). Within the category of internal biosecurity, the subcategory "disease management" had the highest mean score (65.8). In the multivariate regression model a significant negative correlation was found between internal biosecurity and the number of employees and farm size. These findings indicate that there is a lot of variation for external and internal biosecurity on the participating broiler farms

  4. Spread of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli ST117 O78:H4 in Nordic broiler production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Troels; Stegger, Marc; Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Sekse, Camilla; Nordstoga, Anne Bang; Pohjanvirta, Tarja; Lilje, Berit; Lyhs, Ulrike; Andersen, Paal Skytt; Pedersen, Karl

    2017-01-03

    Escherichia coli infections known as colibacillosis constitute a considerable challenge to poultry farmers worldwide, in terms of decreased animal welfare and production economy. Colibacillosis is caused by avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC). APEC strains are extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli and have in general been characterized as being a genetically diverse population. In the Nordic countries, poultry farmers depend on import of Swedish broiler breeders which are part of a breeding pyramid. During 2014 to 2016, an increased occurrence of colibacillosis on Nordic broiler chicken farms was reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity among E. coli isolates collected on poultry farms with colibacillosis issues, using whole genome sequencing. Hundred and fourteen bacterial isolates from both broilers and broiler breeders were whole genome sequenced. The majority of isolates were collected from poultry with colibacillosis on Nordic farms. Subsequently, comparative genomic analyses were carried out. This included in silico typing (sero- and multi-locus sequence typing), identification of virulence and resistance genes and phylogenetic analyses based on single nucleotide polymorphisms. In general, the characterized poultry isolates constituted a genetically diverse population. However, the phylogenetic analyses revealed a major clade of 47 closely related ST117 O78:H4 isolates. The isolates in this clade were collected from broiler chickens and breeders with colibacillosis in multiple Nordic countries. They clustered together with a human ST117 isolate and all carried virulence genes that previously have been associated with human uropathogenic E. coli. The investigation revealed a lineage of ST117 O78:H4 isolates collected in different Nordic countries from diseased broilers and breeders. The data indicate that the closely related ST117 O78:H4 strains have been transferred vertically through the broiler breeding pyramid into distantly

  5. Comparing the profitability of organic and conventional broiler production

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    F Cobanoglu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, organic broiler chicken production has received more attention worldwide. This study has carried out an economic analysis to compare the profitability of organic versus conventional growing systems per unit of broiler meat production. To achieve this goal, 400 slow-growing broiler chickens (Hubbard Red-JA were reared in an organic production system, and the same number of fast-growing birds (Ross-308 in a conventional system. The profitability was deduced with an economic analysis that compared total costs and net income. Results showed that organic broiler meat can cost from 70% to 86% more with respect to variable and fixed costs when compared with conventional production. The main reasons for the higher cost of organic broiler meat were feed, labor, certification, and outdoor area maintenance. The proportion of fixed costs in total costs was 1.54% in the conventional system and 7.48% in the organic system. The net income per kg of chicken meat in the organic system was € 0.75, which is 180% higher than chicken meat grown in a conventional system (€ 0.27; however, the price of organic broiler meat sold in the present study was twice as high as that obtained for conventional broilers. In conclusion, organic broiler meat production was more profitable than conventional rearing.

  6. Identification of critical points of thermal environment in broiler production

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    AG Menezes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an exploratory study carried out to determine critical control points and possible risks in hatcheries and broiler farms. The study was based in the identification of the potential hazards existing in broiler production, from the hatchery to the broiler farm, identifying critical control points and defining critical limits. The following rooms were analyzed in the hatchery: egg cold storage, pre-heating, incubator, and hatcher rooms. Two broiler houses were studied in two different farms. The following data were collected in the hatchery and broiler houses: temperature (ºC and relative humidity (%, air velocity (m s-1, ammonia levels, and light intensity (lx. In the broiler house study, a questionnaire using information of the Broiler Production Good Practices (BPGP manual was applied, and workers were interviewed. Risk analysis matrices were build to determine Critical Control Points (CCP. After data collection, Statistical Process Control (SPC was applied through the analysis of the Process Capacity Index, using the software program Minitab15®. Environmental temperature and relative humidity were the critical points identified in the hatchery and in both farms. The classes determined as critical control points in the broiler houses were poultry litter, feeding, drinking water, workers' hygiene and health, management and biosecurity, norms and legislation, facilities, and activity planning. It was concluded that CCP analysis, associated with SPC control tools and guidelines of good production practices, may contribute to improve quality control in poultry production.

  7. A Comparative Analysis of Profitability of Broiler Production Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the cost implications of raising broilers under the battery cage and deep litter system of poultry production. The data used in the study were obtained from a cross-sectional survey of broiler farmers in Edo State from October– December, 2013. A multi-stage sampling process was used to select the 211 ...

  8. Economic, ecological, and social performance of conventional and organic broiler production in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokkers, E.A.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    . In this study, we compared a conventional broiler production system keeping fast growing broilers with an organic broiler production system keeping slow growing broilers in the Netherlands, both managed by one person working a full time year (Full Time Equivalent, FTE). This comparison was based

  9. Uranium production from low grade Swedish shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, O.

    1977-01-01

    In view of the present nuclear programmes a steep increase in uranium demand is foreseen which will pose serious problems for the uranium industry. The annual additions to uranium ore reserves must almost triple within the next 15 years in order to support the required production rates. Although there are good prospects for the discovery of further conventional deposits of uranium there is a growing interest in low grade uranium deposits. Large quantities of uranium exist in black shales, phosphates, granites, sea water and other unconventional sources. There are however factors which limit the utilization of these low grade materials. These factors include the extraction costs, the environmental constrains on mining and milling of huge amounts of ore, the development of technologies for the beneficiation of uranium and, in the case of very low grade materials, the energy balance. The availability of by-product uranium is limited by the production rate of the main product. The limitations differ very much according to types of ores, mining and milling methods and the surroundings. As an illustration a description is given of the Swedish Ranstad uranium shale project, its potential, constraints and technical solutions

  10. Significance of chick quality score in broiler production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van de L.J.F.; Wagenberg, van A.V.; Uitdehaag, K.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2012-01-01

    The quality of day old chicks is crucial for profitable broiler production, but a difficult trait to define. In research, both qualitative and quantitative measures are used with variable predictive value for subsequent performance. In hatchery practice, chick quality is judged on a binomial scale,

  11. The influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage on broiler production, nutrient digestibility and meat quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Karlsson, Anders H.; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Two experiments were carried out in parallel with male Ross 308 broilers over 37 d. An experiment with a total of 736 broilers was performed to study the effect of dietary inclusion of crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on broiler production and meat quality. Another study with 32 broil...... on broiler growth and positively influenced bird welfare in terms of mortality and foot pad health. Therefore, the addition of 15% CKMS to maize-based diets is considered an advantageous feeding strategy in broiler production....

  12. Economics of production of broiler chickens fed maggot meal as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The economics of production of broiler chickens considered for 0-35 days, 35-56 days, and 0-56 days was compared for fishmeal (FM) and maggot meal (MM) diets. The maggot meal diet had a replacement of the fish meal at 75%> on protein basis. Replacing FM at 75% with MM resulted in reduced cost of feed as well as ...

  13. Consumer-driven profit maximization in broiler production and processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecio de Farias Costa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased emphasis on consumer markets in broiler profit-maximizing modeling generates results that differ from those by traditional profit-maximization models. This approach reveals that the adoption of step pricing and consideration of marketing options (examples of responsiveness to consumers affect the optimal feed formulation levels and types of broiler production to generate maximum profitability. The adoption of step pricing attests that higher profits can be obtained for targeted weights only if premium prices for broiler products are contracted.Um aumento na ênfase dada ao mercado de consumidores de carne de frango e modelos de maximização de lucros na produção de frangos de corte geram resultados que diferem daqueles obtidos em modelos tradicionais de maximização de lucros. Esta metodologia revela que a adoção de step-pricing e considerando opções de mercado (exemplos de resposta às preferências de consumidores afetam os níveis ótimos de formulação de rações e os tipos de produção de frangos de corte que geram uma lucratividade máxima. A adoção de step-pricing atesta que maiores lucros podem ser obtidos para pesos-alvo somente se preços-prêmio para produtos processados de carne de frango forem contratados.

  14. Inventory Data on Commercial Broiler Chicken Production System using Life Cycle Assessment Approach: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffian, S. A.; Sidek, A. A.; Yusof, H. M.; Al-Hazza, M. H. F.

    2018-01-01

    An inventory analysis of the life cycle of broiler chicken production from cradle-to-gate perspective was carried out with the aim to identify possible input and output parameters involved in the system. To do so, broiler chicken production in Myra Chicken Farm and Services was investigated in detail. Result shows the inventory data on feed consumption, transportation, physical performance parameter and other utilities that affect the product which is broilers. Broilers production in fact shows escalation year by year because of high demand from consumer. A cradle-to-gate assessment was conducted based on ISO 14040/14044 guidelines. Inventory data was gathered from farmers and available literature. Improving all the input and output system will increase the level of productivity and the cost of the production. Thus, at the end of the research, it will able to make industry player to understand and take into consideration the solutions in order to promote a green broiler chicken production.

  15. Sensory profiles of breast meat from broilers reared in an organic niche production system and conventional standard broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsted, Klaus; Allesen-Holm, Bodil Helene; Hermansen, John E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast meat from broilers produced in very different production systems may vary considerable in sensory profile, which may affect consumer interests. In this study the aim was to evaluate differences in the sensory profiles of breast meat from five broiler products: two conventional...... standard products (A and B) and three organic niche genotypes (I657, L40 and K8) reared in an apple orchard. RESULTS: Thirteen out of 22 sensory attributes differed significantly between the products. The aroma attributes `chicken', `bouillon' and `fat' scored highest and the `iron/liver' aroma lowest...... of `sweet/maize' than the standard products. The `overall liking' score was significantly higher for the `K 8' product than for the `Standard A' and `L 40' products. The `overall liking' score was significantly correlated with the scores for aroma and taste of `chicken', `umami/bouillon', `iron...

  16. Protein efficiency in intensive dairy production: a Swedish example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swensson, Christian; Lindmark-Månsson, Helena; Smedman, Annika; Henriksson, Maria; Modin Edman, Anna-Karin

    2017-11-01

    Animal agriculture has been criticised in terms of its sustainability from several perspectives. Ruminants such as dairy cows can transform inedible, low-quality protein in roughage and by-products from the food industry into the high-quality protein found in milk and meat. Evaluation of the protein conversion efficiency of dairy production from a sustainability and resource perspective must be based on the proportion of the animal feed edible to humans. A relevant metric is thus edible feed protein conversion ratio (eFPCR), i.e. human-edible protein output in cow's milk per unit human-edible protein input in feed. In this study, eFPCR was calculated for five regionally adapted and realistic feed rations fed to Swedish dairy cows producing different annual milk yields typical for high-yielding, intensive dairy production. All scenarios except one showed a protein efficiency ratio of >1 for human-edible protein. Thus, depending on the composition of their diet, most Swedish dairy cows can convert human-inedible protein into edible, high-value protein. However, higher milk yield led to a decrease in eFPCR, regardless of diet. Dairy cows in high-yielding, intensive production systems such as those used in Sweden have the capacity to convert low-value inedible protein into high-value edible protein. However, a minor part of the dairy cow diet is edible for humans and this fraction must be minimised to justify dairy production. These results are in line with previous findings on protein conversion efficiency and add scientific input to the debate on sustainable food systems and sustainable diets. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Dietary protease can alleviate negative effects of a coccidiosis infection on production performance in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peek, H.W.; Klis, van der J.D.; Vermeulen, B.; Landman, W.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of dietary protease on coccidiosis infection, production performance, the intestinal mucus layer thickness, and brush border enzyme activity using broilers challenged with Eimeria spp. laboratory isolates (Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima and E.

  18. PROFITABILITY AND EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF SMALLHOLDER BROILER PRODUCTION IN MOPANI DISTRICT OF LIMPOPO PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Busayo Oluwatayo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in the Mopani District of Limpopo province to determine the factors aff ecting productivity of broiler production in the area. Data were collected from 86 sampled smallholder broiler farmers in three municipalities in Mopani District namely; Greater Tzaneen municipality, Greater Letaba municipality and Maruleng municipality using a well-structured questionnaire. The results of the study indicated that feed is signifi cant at 10% level having a positive relationship with the broiler output. However, stock size and vaccines are signifi cant at 1% level, also with a positive relationship with broiler output. The study recommended that government should fi nd ways of linking the smallholder farmers in the study area with other stakeholders, governmental and private, to allow smallholder farmers have the opportunities to network and get to know how the commercial successful farms operate and see where they can improve on their production systems and marketing of products.

  19. Characterization of broiler poultry production system in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuza, Francis; Manishimwe, Rosine; Mahoro, Janvier; Simbankabo, Thomas; Nishimwe, Kizito

    2017-01-01

    A study was conducted on 37 randomly selected broiler poultry farmers in Rwanda to characterize the production system using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires. The data were processed in SPSS and presented as means, percentages and ranges in tables and text. All respondents kept Cobb breed and young stock was mainly (73 %) imported from abroad. The majority of respondents were males (68 %) and most farmers had attended only primary level of education (40.5 %). Most of the farms were in the peri-urban (48.6 %) and urban (37.8 %) areas and hired male youth (62.2 %) mainly aged 19-35 years. The majority of respondents (68 %) kept less than 500 birds per batch. Recordkeeping was well practiced (91.9 %) and (62.6 %) had permanent poultry houses and all farmers used deep litter system. Purchased feedstuffs were reportedly (92 %) mixed at farm level as the main feed resource. Maize bran was reported (97.06 %) the main, basal feedstuff. The mortality rates of chick and growers were 12.3 and 9.4 %, respectively. The slaughter age was reportedly 60 days with an average dressing percentage of 75.67 %. The main challenges reported were scarcity and unaffordability of quality feeds (59.5 %), lack of market access (45 %) and lack of credit (21 %). The farmers had various views on improving broiler production in Rwanda ranging from establishing feed processing industries 62.2 %, improving marketing facilities 35.1 %, increasing availability of day-old chick and access credit 27 %, to intensification of farmer training 16.2 %.

  20. Distribution and Genetic Profiles of Campylobacter in Commercial Broiler Production from Breeder to Slaughter in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachantasena, Sakaoporn; Charununtakorn, Petcharatt; Muangnoicharoen, Suthida; Hankla, Luck; Techawal, Natthaporn; Chaveerach, Prapansak; Tuitemwong, Pravate; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa; Williams, Nicola; Humphrey, Tom; Luangtongkum, Taradon

    2016-01-01

    Poultry and poultry products are commonly considered as the major vehicle of Campylobacter infection in humans worldwide. To reduce the number of human cases, the epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry must be better understood. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the distribution and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter in the Thai chicken production industry. During June to October 2012, entire broiler production processes (i.e., breeder flock, hatchery, broiler farm and slaughterhouse) of five broiler production chains were investigated chronologically. Representative isolates of C. jejuni from each production stage were characterized by flaA SVR sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Amongst 311 selected isolates, 29 flaA SVR alleles and 17 sequence types (STs) were identified. The common clonal complexes (CCs) found in this study were CC-45, CC-353, CC-354 and CC-574. C. jejuni isolated from breeders were distantly related to those isolated from broilers and chicken carcasses, while C. jejuni isolates from the slaughterhouse environment and meat products were similar to those isolated from broiler flocks. Genotypic identification of C. jejuni in slaughterhouses indicated that broilers were the main source of Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat during processing. To effectively reduce Campylobacter in poultry meat products, control and prevention strategies should be aimed at both farm and slaughterhouse levels. PMID:26886590

  1. Distribution and Genetic Profiles of Campylobacter in Commercial Broiler Production from Breeder to Slaughter in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachantasena, Sakaoporn; Charununtakorn, Petcharatt; Muangnoicharoen, Suthida; Hankla, Luck; Techawal, Natthaporn; Chaveerach, Prapansak; Tuitemwong, Pravate; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa; Williams, Nicola; Humphrey, Tom; Luangtongkum, Taradon

    2016-01-01

    Poultry and poultry products are commonly considered as the major vehicle of Campylobacter infection in humans worldwide. To reduce the number of human cases, the epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry must be better understood. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the distribution and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter in the Thai chicken production industry. During June to October 2012, entire broiler production processes (i.e., breeder flock, hatchery, broiler farm and slaughterhouse) of five broiler production chains were investigated chronologically. Representative isolates of C. jejuni from each production stage were characterized by flaA SVR sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Amongst 311 selected isolates, 29 flaA SVR alleles and 17 sequence types (STs) were identified. The common clonal complexes (CCs) found in this study were CC-45, CC-353, CC-354 and CC-574. C. jejuni isolated from breeders were distantly related to those isolated from broilers and chicken carcasses, while C. jejuni isolates from the slaughterhouse environment and meat products were similar to those isolated from broiler flocks. Genotypic identification of C. jejuni in slaughterhouses indicated that broilers were the main source of Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat during processing. To effectively reduce Campylobacter in poultry meat products, control and prevention strategies should be aimed at both farm and slaughterhouse levels.

  2. Distribution and Genetic Profiles of Campylobacter in Commercial Broiler Production from Breeder to Slaughter in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaoporn Prachantasena

    Full Text Available Poultry and poultry products are commonly considered as the major vehicle of Campylobacter infection in humans worldwide. To reduce the number of human cases, the epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry must be better understood. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the distribution and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter in the Thai chicken production industry. During June to October 2012, entire broiler production processes (i.e., breeder flock, hatchery, broiler farm and slaughterhouse of five broiler production chains were investigated chronologically. Representative isolates of C. jejuni from each production stage were characterized by flaA SVR sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. Amongst 311 selected isolates, 29 flaA SVR alleles and 17 sequence types (STs were identified. The common clonal complexes (CCs found in this study were CC-45, CC-353, CC-354 and CC-574. C. jejuni isolated from breeders were distantly related to those isolated from broilers and chicken carcasses, while C. jejuni isolates from the slaughterhouse environment and meat products were similar to those isolated from broiler flocks. Genotypic identification of C. jejuni in slaughterhouses indicated that broilers were the main source of Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat during processing. To effectively reduce Campylobacter in poultry meat products, control and prevention strategies should be aimed at both farm and slaughterhouse levels.

  3. Use of natural zeolite-supplemented litter increased broiler production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the influence of natural zeolite, consisting mainly of clinoptilolite and mordenite, as a component of the litter material in broiler houses on the performance of the broilers and on some litter characteristics. Live weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, viability and leg and body ...

  4. Use of natural zeolite-supplemented litter increased broiler production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    smyo

    Abstract. The aim of this study was to ascertain the influence of natural zeolite, consisting mainly of clinoptilolite and mordenite, as a component of the litter material in broiler houses on the performance of the broilers and on some litter characteristics. Live weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, viability and leg and ...

  5. Factors driving and restraining adoption of Automation technologies in Swedish wood product industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Mapulanga, Mwanza; Saladi, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Swedish wood product industry contributes significantly to the economy of the country. This industry adds more value to the sawn timber produced in order to manufacture different wooden products. Companies in Swedish wood product industry are presently seen as underdeveloped in terms of investments and developments in automation technologies. Automation technologies are seen by companies as a solution for improving productivity, product quality, manufacturing cost reduction and ultimately imp...

  6. Spread of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli ST117 O78:H4 in Nordic broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronco, Troels; Stegger, Marc; Olsen, Rikke Heidemann

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli infections known as colibacillosis constitute a considerable challenge to poultry farmers worldwide, in terms of decreased animal welfare and production economy. Colibacillosis is caused by avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC). APEC strains are extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli...... diseased broilers and breeders. The data indicate that the closely related ST117 O78:H4 strains have been transferred vertically through the broiler breeding pyramid into distantly located farms across the Nordic countries....

  7. Associations among gait score, production data, abattoir registrations, and postmortem tibia measurements in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelsen, K E; David, B; Moe, R O; Poulsen, H D; Young, J F; Granquist, E G

    2017-05-01

    Lameness and impaired walking ability in rapidly growing meat-type broiler chickens are major welfare issues that cause economic losses. This study analyzed the prevalence of impaired walking and its associations with production data, abattoir registrations, and postmortem tibia measurements in Norwegian broiler chickens. Gait score (GS) was used to assess walking ability in 59 different commercial broiler flocks (Ross 308) close to the slaughter d, 5,900 broilers in total, in 3 different geographical regions. In each flock, 100 arbitrary broilers were gait scored and 10 random broilers were culled to harvest tibias. Abattoir registrations on flock level were collected after slaughter. A total of 24.6% of the broilers had moderate to severe gait impairment. The broilers were sampled in 2 stages, first slaughterhouse/region, and then owner/flock. The final models showed that impaired gait is associated with first-week mortality (P < 0.05), region (P < 0.001), height of tibias mid-shaft (P < 0.05), and calcium content in the tibia ash (P < 0.05), and negatively associated with DOA (P < 0.05). The prevalence of impaired gait indicates that this is a common problem in the broiler industry in Norway, although the mean slaughter age is only 31 d and the maximum allowed animal density is relatively low. Impaired walking ability could not be predicted by the welfare indicators footpad lesion score, total on-farm mortality, and decreasing DOA prevalence. Further studies are needed to explore the relationship between first-week mortality and gait score. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Contribution of feeds from range in organic broiler production

    OpenAIRE

    Steenfeldt, S.; Horsted, K.; Sørensen, P.

    2014-01-01

    A study with organic broilers with access to a large range area with herbs was performed and the effect of three broiler genotype (JA757, T851, SU51) with different growth rates and different feeding strategies (HP vs LP) on the animals' feed intake, growth and welfare was investigated. The results so far indicate that feed intake from range and animal welfare is dependent on type of allocated feed and growth rate of the broiler genotype. Thus, gait scores and foot and plumage condition showe...

  9. Presence of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in the broiler production pyramid: a descriptive study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy M Dierikx

    Full Text Available Broilers and broiler meat products are highly contaminated with extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL or plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli and are considered to be a source for human infections. Both horizontal and vertical transmission might play a role in the presence of these strains in broilers. As not much is known about the presence of these strains in the whole production pyramid, the epidemiology of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in the Dutch broiler production pyramid was examined. Cloacal swabs of Grandparent stock (GPS birds (one-/two-days (breed A and B, 18 and 31 weeks old (breed A, one-day old Parent stock birds (breed A and B and broiler chickens of increasing age (breed A were selectively cultured to detect ESBL/AmpC-producing isolates. ESBL/AmpC-producing isolates were found at all levels in the broiler production pyramid in both broiler breeds examined. Prevalence was already relatively high at the top of the broiler production pyramid. At broiler farms ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli were still present in the environment of the poultry house after cleaning and disinfection. Feed samples taken in the poultry house also became contaminated with ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli after one or more production weeks. The prevalence of ESBL/AmpC-positive birds at broiler farms increased within the first week from 0-24% to 96-100% independent of the use of antibiotics and stayed 100% until slaughter. In GPS breed A, prevalence at 2 days, 18 weeks and 31 weeks stayed below 50% except when beta-lactam antibiotics were administered. In that case prevalence increased to 100%. Interventions minimizing ESBL/AmpC contamination in broilers should focus on preventing horizontal and vertical spread, especially in relation to broiler production farms.

  10. Energy use pattern and optimization of energy required for broiler production using data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sama Amid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A literature review shows that energy consumption in agricultural production in Iran is not efficient and a high degree of inefficiency in broiler production exists in Iran. Energy consumption of broiler production in Ardabil province of Iran was studied and the non-parametric method of data envelopment analysis (DEA was used to analyze energy efficiency, separate efficient from inefficient broiler producers, and calculate wasteful use of energy to optimize energy. Data was collected using face-to-face questionnaires from 70 broiler farmers in the study area. Constant returns to scale (CCR and variable returns to scale (BCC models of DEA were applied to assess the technical efficiency of broiler production. The results indicated that total energy use was 154,283 MJ (1000 bird−1 and the share of fuel at 61.4% was the highest of all inputs. The indices of energy efficiency, energy productivity, specific energy, and net energy were found to be 0.18, 0.02 kg MJ−1, 59.56 MJ kg−1, and −126,836 MJ (1000 bird−1, respectively. The DEA results revealed that 40% and 22.86% of total units were efficient based on the CCR and BCC models, respectively. The average technical, pure technical, and scale efficiency of broiler farmers was 0.88, 0.93, and 0.95, respectively. The results showed that 14.53% of total energy use could be saved by converting the present units to optimal conditions. The contribution of fuel input to total energy savings was 72% and was the largest share, followed by feed and electricity energy inputs. The results of this study indicate that there is good potential for increasing energy efficiency of broiler production in Iran by following the recommendations for efficient energy use.

  11. The influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage on broiler production, nutrient digestibility and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjitkar, S; Karlsson, A H; Petersen, M A; Bredie, W L P; Petersen, J S; Engberg, R M

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out in parallel with male Ross 308 broilers over 37 d. An experiment with a total of 736 broilers was performed to study the effect of dietary inclusion of crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on broiler production and meat quality. Another study with 32 broilers was carried out from 21 to 25 d to investigate the inclusion of CKMS on nutrient digestibility. In both trials, 4 dietary treatments were used: wheat-based feed (WBF), maize-based feed (MBF), maize-based feed supplemented with 15% CKMS (CKMS-15) and maize-based feed supplemented with 30% CKMS (CKMS-30). Compared with MBF, the dry matter (DM) intakes of broilers receiving CKMS-15 and CKMS-30, respectively, were numerically 7.5 and 6.2% higher and feed conversion ratio 6 and 12% poorer (significant for 30% CKMS), although there were no significant differences in AME content between the three diets. At 37 d, the body weight of birds receiving 15% CKMS was similar to birds fed with MBF. However, the inclusion of 30% CKMS decreased broiler growth. Dietary supplementation with CKMS significantly reduced the apparent digestibility of phosphorus. The fat digestibility was significantly lower for CKMS-30 than for the other three diets. Broiler mortality decreased significantly when CKMS was added to the diet. The consumption of drinking water was significantly lower in all maize-based diets as compared to WBF and was lowest in broilers fed with CKMS-30. An improved litter quality in terms of DM content and a lower frequency of foot pad lesions was observed with broilers supplemented with both dietary levels of CKMS. The addition of CKMS to maize-based diets increased juiciness, tenderness and crumbliness of the meat. In conclusion, the dietary supplementation of 15% CKMS had no negative effect on broiler growth and positively influenced bird welfare in terms of mortality and foot pad health. Therefore, the addition of 15% CKMS to maize-based diets is considered an advantageous feeding

  12. Profitability analysis of broiler production in rawalpindi district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsin, A.Q.; Riaz, M.; Mushtaq, A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted in Rawalpindi District to evaluate the profitability of different Broiler farm sizes. Poultry farms were categorized into large, medium and small farms, Different efficiency measure such as net present worth, whole farm budget, marginal rate of return were applied. It was found that cost of production was high in small farm category. Small farmer buy feeds on credit basis and therefore, lose 8 percent concession on cash payment. The cost of medium farmer was lower as compared to small farmer. Benefit cost ratio of medium and large farmer was greater then one which indicate that they were earning profit on their investment. More economic incentive was found in increasing the farm size from small to medium as compared to medium to large as marginal rate of return were greater in former case. Efficient extension services were lacking in the study area. Extension activities can play a vital role in improving the poultry farming practices particularly for small farmers. (author)

  13. Marketing of Nicotine Replacement Therapy Products in a Deregulated Swedish Pharmacy Market

    OpenAIRE

    Tozlikian, Shant; Falk, Erik

    2009-01-01

                    The thesis will provide a description of the previous Swedish NRT marketing mix, a description of the present plans of Swedish NRT marketers for the marketing mix of their products, and the present marketing mix of the previously deregulated pharmacy markets in Finland and Norway. The purpose is to develop conclusions on how marketers of NRT products could change their marketing mix in response to the deregulation of the Swedish pharmacy market.    This thesis relies on a des...

  14. Best broiler husbandry system and perceived importance of production aspects by Dutch citizens, poultry farmers and veterinarians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, van M.; Ekkel, E.D.; Kemp, B.; Stassen, E.N.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the views of Dutch citizens, poultry farmers and poultry veterinarians regarding: (1) best broiler husbandry systems; (2) the importance of production aspects of broiler production and (3) the relation between best husbandry system and the importance of

  15. Feeding broiler breeders to improve their welfare whilst maintaining productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    In the present experiment different types of fibre sources were used in high fibre diets to increase feeding quantity whilst limiting the growth of broiler breeders to industry recommended levels. Using scatter feeding, three diets (CON, commercial control diet; INF, high insoluble fibre content......; and SOF, high soluble fibre content) were each fed to 10 groups of 12 broiler breeder chickens (age: 2 to 15 weeks). Similar growth rates were obtained on different quantities of food (e.g. food allocation in week 14: approx. 80, 100, and 130 g/d for CON, INF, and SOF, respectively) with all birds...... of their litter may have affected their thermoregulation. This experiment indicates that high fibre diets can alleviate the feeling of hunger currently experienced by broiler breeders, and a high ratio of insoluble fibre can reduce stereotypies and may improve the well-being of the birds....

  16. Economic, ecological, and social performance of conventional and organic broiler production in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokkers, E A M; de Boer, I J M

    2009-09-01

    1. In this study, we compared a conventional broiler production system keeping fast growing broilers with an organic broiler production system keeping slow growing broilers in the Netherlands, both managed by one person working a full time year (Full Time Equivalent, FTE). This comparison was based on a quantification of economic, ecological and social indicators. Indicators were quantified using scientific literature and national data sets. 2. The organic system performed better for the economic indicator net farm income per FTE than the conventional system. 3. Regarding ecological indicators, calculations showed a higher on-farm emission of ammonia per kg live weight for the organic system. Moreover, an organic system includes a higher risk for eutrophication per ha due to outdoor access. Emission of green house gasses, use of fossil fuels and use of land required for the production of one kg of live weight is higher for an organic than for a conventional system. This is mainly due to a lower feed conversion in organic production and use of organic feed. 4. The organic system performed better than the conventional system for the social indicators related to animal welfare time spent on walking, footpad lesions, mortality, and sound legs. Regarding the social indicator food safety was found that meat from an organic system contained less antibiotic residues and Salmonella contaminations but more Campylobacter contaminations than meat from a conventional system. 5. Changing from a conventional to an organic broiler production system, therefore, not only affects animal welfare, but also affects economic, ecological and other social issues. In this study, we ran into the situation that some information needed was lacking in literature and quantifications had to be based upon several sources. Therefore, an integrated on-farm assessment is needed, which can be used to develop a broiler production system that is economically profitable, ecologically sound, and

  17. Effects of different broiler production systems on health care costs in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gocsik, E.; Kortes, H.E.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Saatkamp, H.W.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the effects of different broiler production systems on health care costs in the Netherlands. In addition to the conventional production system, the analysis also included 5 alternative animal welfare systems representative of the Netherlands. The study was limited to the most

  18. Presence of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in the broiler production pyramid: a descriptive study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierikx, C.M.; Goot, van der J.A.; Smith, H.E.; Kant, A.; Mevius, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Broilers and broiler meat products are highly contaminated with extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) or plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli and are considered to be a source for human infections. Both horizontal and vertical transmission might play a role in the

  19. Mass Balance Applied to Brazilian Conventional Broiler Houses during One Production Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Migliavacca

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazil plays an important role in global poultry production as it is the world's largest chicken exporter and the third largest broiler producer. Despite the development achieved by the Brazilian broiler industry as a result of the integrated production system, many obstacles still need to be overcome, in particular, housing environment. In this regard, detailed knowledge of the inputs, outputs, and primary waste generated by broiler production cycles is essential to establish a baseline for energy balance research studies and to develop environmental solutions. This article proposes a mass balance of conventional broiler houses of southern Brazil sheds in order to predict their outputs, but that may also be applicable to other regions with similar climate. Control volumes considered the heating, cooling, and rearing processes. All generated products and wastes were estimated considering litter production and the total production per cycle. Despite the variety of the microclimates, the results were very close to those reported in experiments, indicating that this model is adequate for this kind of estimation.

  20. Effects of two different broiler flooring systems on production performances, welfare, and environment under commercial production conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Wen, X; Alphin, R; Zhu, Z; Zhou, Z

    2017-05-01

    Research comparing conventional litter and alternative perforated flooring (netting) systems is relatively limited under commercial production conditions. A comprehensive comparison of broiler production performances, welfare quality, and housing environment of two broiler houses with conventional litter and new perforated plastic floors was conducted over four flocks for eight months in eastern China. The two broiler houses each had 31,700 broilers per flock on average and were ventilated using a negative-pressure system. Prior to the onset of the monitoring, litter/manure in all houses was removed. The environmental conditions, gaseous concentrations, and ventilation rate were recorded continuously. Production performance and welfare quality data were collected weekly. Results showed that indoor temperature and relative humidity were not affected by the different floors when the two houses had the same ventilation configuration and management. The average ammonia concentration was lower at 10.44 ppm in the litter house compared to 15.02 ppm in the netting flooring house due to the manure accumulation under the floor. Broiler production performance including live weight, feed conversion, and mortality, was not affected by the netting floor compared to the litter system. In addition, the results suggested that birds raised in the netting floor house may increase breast blister incidence. In this study, the welfare quality parameters including hock and foot pad lesions, lameness, and fearfulness levels were similar in both for both flooring systems. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND EFFECTS THE DIETARY CORN BY-PRODUCTS ON BROILER PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGETA CIURESCU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study conducted in INCDBNA –BALOTESTI on 840 Ross- 308 broilers from hatching to 42 days. The broilers were assigned to 3 groups (control – C, and two experimental – GLU and GERM, with 280 broilers per group (3 groups ´ 2 replicates ´ 140 broilers. Three compound feeds formulations were used, one control and two experimental. The control diet was based on corn, soybean meal, full fat soy and fish meal; in the experimental groups the fish meal was replaced by corn gluten (GLU; in the other experimental group the full fat soy was replaced by corn germs (GERM. All compound feeds formulations were isoprotein, isocaloric and contained equal levels of total and digestible sulphur amino acids, lysine, calcium and available phosphorus, in agreement with the feeding requirements recommended for the intensive rearing of these performing hybrids. The broilers were phased feed with diets according to their age: start (0 – 14 days, growerdeveloper (15 – 28 days and finisher (29 – 42 days. The monitored productive parameters were: average daily feed intake (g; body weight evolution by growth stage (g; feed conversion ratio (g feed/g gain; stock liveability (%; slaughtering yield and proportion of carcass parts (%, economic efficiency (%.

  2. Prebiotic and antimicrobials on performance, carcass characteristics, and antibody production in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Fomentini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of supplementation with mannan oligosaccharides, avilamycin and halquinol, alone or in combination, on the performance, carcass characteristics and antibody production in broilers (1-49 days old, male broiler chicks (n=1440; Cobb 500; one day old were housed and distributed into a completely randomized design into six treatments (eight replicates; 30 animals per pen. To produce the experimental diets, three types of performance enhancer additives were used. Halquinol (HAL, avilamycin (AVI and mannan oligosaccharides (MOS were included (alone or in combination in the basal diet (instead of corn starch. Effects of diet were observed on results of animal performance in the period 1-21 and 1-42 days old. Broilers fed with a diet without growth promoter showed lower weight gain in relation to those fed with diets with antimicrobials, MOS or a combination of them. In the period 1-49 days old, feed conversion increased in broilers fed with rations without promoter. At the end of the experimental period no influence of diets was observed on the carcass yield and cuts, and titles of specific antibodies to avian infectious bronchitis. The use of MOS and/or antimicrobials (AVI or HAL, alone or in combination, improves feed conversion of broilers reared until 49 days of age.

  3. Associations among gait score, production data, abattoir registrations, and postmortem tibia measurements in broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kittelsen, K.E.; David, B.; Moe, R.O.

    2017-01-01

    Lameness and impaired walking ability in rapidly growing meat-type broiler chickens are major welfare issues that cause economic losses. This study analyzed the prevalence of impaired walking and its associations with production data, abattoir registrations, and postmortem tibia measurements...... is associated with first-week mortality (P industry in Norway...

  4. Assessment of digestibility improving enzymes potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Anja Marie; Dalgaard, Randi; Thrane, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    was documented through a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) by applying a consequential approach including indirect land use changes (ILUC). The findings showed that Axtra XAP could reduce GHG emissions from broiler production by 5%. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the robustness of the results...

  5. Effects of dietary protease on nitrogen emissions from broiler production: a holistic comparison using Life Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Ilkka; Williams, Adrian G

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify the effects of the use of a protease Ronozyme® ProAct in broiler feed on the environmental impacts of broiler and broiler feed production chains. This was done by using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) modelling approach with data from trials using both standard soya-based broiler diets and reduced-protein diets with added protease. The results for the feed production chain showed that there was a reduction in all environmental impact categories when protease was used in the diets. The biggest reduction occurred in the category of Global Warming Potential, mainly as a result of decreased carbon dioxide emissions from land use changes related to soya production. In the results for the broiler production chain, there were relatively bigger reductions in Eutrophication Potential and especially in Acidification Potential, mainly as a result of reduced feed protein content and subsequent nitrogen emissions from housing and manure management. The use of protease in the broiler diets reduced the environmental impacts of both feed production and broiler production. The latter is mainly through reduced ammonia emissions, which has substantial benefit per se in the poultry industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Color stability and lipid oxidation of broiler breast meat from animals raised on organic versus non-organic production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, F M; Canto, A C V C S; Costa-Lima, B R C; Salim, A P A A; Conte-Junior, C A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present research was to evaluate the influence of organic and non-organic production systems on color stability and lipid oxidation of broiler meat Pectoralis major (PM) stored under refrigeration (4°C) for 9 days. PM samples from organic (ORG) and non-organic (NORG) production systems were compared based on physicochemical analyses (instrumental color, myoglobin concentration, metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA), pH, and lipid oxidation) performed in 4 different trials (n = 4). In general, NORG broilers demonstrated higher (P production system can affect color and lipid stability of broiler breast meat during storage. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Spread of extended spectrum cephalosporinase-producing Escherichia coli clones and plasmids from parent animals to broilers and to broiler meat in a production without use of cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Jensen, Jacob Dyring; Hasman, Henrik; Pedersen, Karl

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of extended spectrum cephalosporinase (ESC)-producing Escherichia coli in a broiler production with no cephalosporin use and a low use of antimicrobials in general. Furthermore, it investigated whether the current consumption of aminopenicillins selects for ESC-producing E. coli and whether certain clones or plasmids spread from imported parent flocks to the meat. ESC-producing E. coli was isolated using MacConkey broth with 1 mg/L of ceftriaxone. ESC genes were identified using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Isolates with blaCMY-2 were subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), phylotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Selected isolates were used as donors in filter-mating experiments, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and plasmid replicons were typed. Aminopenicillin use at the farm (not flock) level was obtained from VetStat, a database for mandatory registration of veterinary prescriptions in Denmark. ESC-producing E. coli occurred in 93% (27/29) of broiler parent farms in 2011, 27% (53/197) of broiler flocks in 2010, and 3.3% (4/121) of Danish retail broiler meat in 2009 and 8.6% (16/187) in 2010. The ESC producing E. coli contained blaCMY-2, blaSHV-2 or blaCTX-M-1. Isolates with blaCMY-2 represented 35 PFGE groups. One group dominated (39 isolates) and included isolates with indistinguishable PFGE patterns from parents, broilers, and meat. Most blaCMY-2 isolates were susceptible to non-β-lactams, and blaCMY-2 was mostly present on horizontally transferable incI1 or incK plasmids. Phylogroup D was most common and E. coli MLST types previously found in humans were observed. Broiler farms with registered aminopenicillin use had significantly higher occurrence of ESC E. coli. ESC-producing E. coli from flocks of imported broiler parents spread clonally and horizontally to broiler meat (including potentially human pathogenic types) even in a country with no cephalosporin use. Use of

  8. Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in Danish broiler production: a cross-sectional survey and a retrospective analysis of risk factors for occurrence in broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Wedderkopp, A.; Madsen, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    In order to elucidate the rate of thermophilic Campylobacter spp, carriage in Danish broiler production and to identify risk factors for occurrence of campylobacter in broiler flocks, a total of 88 randomly selected broiler flocks were tested for campylobacter infection, and a subsequent study...... of risk factors based on a questionnaire was conducted, The sample material comprised cloacal swabs from live birds before slaughter, and neck skin samples from carcasses at the end of the processing line. A total of 52% of the flocks were found Campylobacter spp.-positive before slaughter. At the end...... of processing, 24% of the flocks were positive. The species distribution was 87% Campylobacter jejuni, 8% Campylobacter coli and 5% Campylobacter lari, The following parameters were identified as significant risk factors: lack of a hygiene barrier (odds ratio (OR) = 3.1, 1.1

  9. Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kirubakaran

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L., garlic (Allium sativum, and black pepper (Piper nigrum powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatment groups receiving feed supplemented with different combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder. The individual broilers’ body weight and feed consumption were recorded and calculate the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR. Results: Broiler’s weight gain and FCR were significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01. Cumulative feed consumption was significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01. Conclusion: The combination of garlic and black pepper powder supplemented broiler feed fed groups showed higher production performance. The 5 g/kg garlic powder+1 g/kg black pepper powder and 10 g/kg garlic powder+2 g/kg black pepper powder significantly improved the weight gain and FCR.

  10. Role of Broiler Carcasses and Processing Plant Air in Contamination of Modified-Atmosphere-Packaged Broiler Products with Psychrotrophic Lactic Acid Bacteria▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihavainen, Elina; Lundström, Hanna-Saara; Susiluoto, Tuija; Koort, Joanna; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri; Björkroth, K. Johanna

    2007-01-01

    Some psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are specific meat spoilage organisms in modified-atmosphere-packaged (MAP), cold-stored meat products. To determine if incoming broilers or the production plant environment is a source of spoilage LAB, a total of 86, 122, and 447 LAB isolates from broiler carcasses, production plant air, and MAP broiler products, respectively, were characterized using a library of HindIII restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns of the 16 and 23S rRNA genes as operational taxonomic units in numerical analyses. Six hundred thirteen LAB isolates from the total of 655 clustered in 29 groups considered to be species specific. Sixty-four percent of product isolates clustered either with Carnobacterium divergens or with Carnobacterium maltaromaticum type strains. The third major product-associated cluster (17% of isolates) was formed by unknown LAB. Representative strains from these three clusters were analyzed for the phylogeny of their 16S rRNA genes. This analysis verified that the two largest RFLP clusters consisted of carnobacteria and showed that the unknown LAB group consisted of Lactococcus spp. No product-associated LAB were detected in broiler carcasses sampled at the beginning of slaughter, whereas carnobacteria and lactococci, along with some other specific meat spoilage LAB, were recovered from processing plant air at many sites. This study reveals that incoming broiler chickens are not major sources of psychrotrophic spoilage LAB, whereas the detection of these organisms from the air of the processing environment highlights the role of processing facilities as sources of LAB contamination. PMID:17142357

  11. The effect of different selenium levels on production performance and biochemical parameters of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoshun Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential trace element for animal and human. Supplementation of Se usually in livestock diet has been proved as effective element. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of adding different levels of selenium yeast on growth performance, slaughter performance, immune trait, oxidation resistance, meat quality and selenium content in tissue of broilers to comprehensively evaluate the effect of selenium. A total of 540 day-old Arbor Acres (AA broilers were selected and feeded with the diets of treatments supplemented with 0.0, 0.3, 0.5, l.0 and 2.0 mg/kg organic selenium respectively. The trial period was 42 days and divided into two periods. Our results showed that effect of different levels of selenium on growth performance, slaughter performance, the immune status, drip loss and flesh had not significant difference (P>0.05. The activities of serum glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, total superoxide dismutase (TSOD, the abilities to inhibit hydroxyl radical (OH•, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC and the content of GSH were significantly increased along with selenium level (P<0.05, whereas the content of malondialdehyde (MDA was significantly decreased with organic selenium level (P<0.05. Our results demonstrated that organic selenium had no obvious effect on production performance of broilers, but significantly influenced the broiler oxidation resistance.

  12. Evaluation of pilot-scale microencapsulation of probiotics and product effect on broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Li, J; Yun, T T; Li, A K; Qi, W T; Liang, X X; Wang, Y W; Liu, S

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the pilot-scale production of microencapsulated in a 500-L fermenter using emulsion and gelation and to assess the effect of the products on the growth performance, antioxidant activity, immune function, and cecal microbiota in Arbor Acres broilers. A total of seven hundred 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 7 dietary treatments with 5 replicate pens per treatment and 20 broilers per pen. The dietary treatments were as follows: 1) basal diet (CON), 2) basal diet containing 0.1% Aureomycin (ANT), 3) basal diet containing unencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (P1), 4) basal diet containing unencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (P2), 5) basal diet containing 0.01% empty microcapsules (CAP), 6) basal diet containing microencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (CAPP1), and 7) basal diet containing microencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (CAPP2). The feeding experiment included 2 phases: the starter phase from d 1 to 21 and the grower phase from d 22 to 42. The results showed that a 500-L fermenter could produce 20.73 ± 4.05 kg of microcapsules with an approximate diameter of 549 μm. The feeding experiment showed that ADG of broilers in CAPP1 was significantly ( microencapsulation of microbial cells can be achieved using emulsion and initial gelation and that the dietary administration of microencapsulated can significantly enhance the growth performance, immune function, cecum microbial community, and overall health of broilers.

  13. Attitude of broiler breeders toward the production of antibiotics-free chickens (case study: Tehran province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Behrouzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research aimed to investigate the attitude of broiler breeders toward the production of antibiotics-free chickens in Tehran province. The statistical population in this study included all broiler breeders (N=450 in Tehran province. Using stratified-random-sampling method 136 breeders were selected. The main tool for data gathering was a questionnaire contained 44 questions and items. Results showed that 52.9% of the respondents had “positive” or “relatively positive” viewpoints about the production of antibiotic-free chicken. The results also indicated that there were a significant (p < 0.05 positive relationship between the attitude of  production of antibiotic-free chicken with the education level, job satisfaction, second job as well as having technical supervisor. Moreover, a significant (p < 0.01 positive relationship was observed between the participation in training courses related to the production of antibiotic-free chicken and the viewpoint of studied broiler producers. On the other hand, no significant correlation was observed between the “viewpoint of chicken producers” and the variables such as: “age”, “job background”, “frequency of progeny”, “production/non-production of antibiotic-free chicken”, “consumption/non-consumption of antibiotic-free chicken” and “knowledge on breeding the antibiotic-free chicken”.

  14. Effect of climatic variables on production and reproduction traits of colored broiler breeder poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, G D; Behura, N C; Sardar, K K; Mishra, P K

    2015-04-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the important climatic variables affecting production and reproduction in a broiler breeder flock. The experiment was conducted for a period of 1 year on colored synthetic female line male and female poultry birds. 630 female progeny and 194 male progenies from 69 sires and 552 dams produced in four consecutive hatches at an interval of 10 days were used for the present study. Each of the seven, body weight and reproduction traits were regressed with nine environmental variables. Initially, the data were subjected to hatch effect and sire effect corrections through best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE) method and, then, multiple linear regressions of environmental variables on each trait were applied. The overall regression was significant (pvariables except maximum temperature and minimum temperature were significant (pvariables play a significant role in production and reproduction of breeder broiler poultry. Controlling these variables in adverse weathers may increase production.

  15. Factors that impact the financial performance of broiler production in southern states of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AS Mendes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying the factors that affect the financial performance of broiler chicken production in Southwest of Paraná state in Brazil, as well as to study the relationship of these factors with the social-economic situation of poultry farmers. Data were obtained from a questionnaire applied to broiler chicken farmers between February and March, 2011. The questionnaire included 39 questions relative to farmer's age, family size, land possession, capital invested in broiler farming, gross income per flock, training and broiler farming experience, production size, credit needs, technical service, labor, production problems, and bird weight at slaughter. Data were submitted to descriptive statistical analysis. The relationship between production data and financial performance was determined using Pearson correlation coefficient, at 95% confidence level. Approximately 64.84% of the interviewed broiler farmers in Paraná state presented medium to low financial performance. Factors such as education level, facility size, labor, gross income per flock, and average bird weight at slaughter had a positive impact on financial performance. The production problems that most affected the broiler production were environmental challenges, poor feed conversion, as well as management problems and low-quality chicks.

  16. Light emitting diode (LED) use in artificial lighting for broiler chicken production

    OpenAIRE

    Santana,Mayara R. de; Garcia,Rodrigo G.; Naas,Irenilza de A.; Paz,Ibiara C. de L. A.; Caldara,Fabiana R.; Barreto,Bruna

    2014-01-01

    Light emitting diode (LED) has been used in commercial poultry industry by presenting superior energy savings and providing feasibility on production process. The objective of this research was to evaluate performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens exposed to different LED colors compared with fluorescent lamps. For that, two experiments (E1 and E2) were performed and 2,646 Cobb® chickens were used. In experiment E1, male birds were exposed to 20 lux artificial lighting with red, yello...

  17. By-product utilisation within the Jamaica Broilers Group and factors determining secondary processing options implemented

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, V. [Jamaica Broilers Group (Jamaica)

    1996-10-01

    Waste disposal within the agro-industrial sector of Jamaica was discussed. Seven options for utilisation of processing by-products within the Jamaica Broilers Group, which is involved in the production and processing of poultry, beef and fish, were presented. These were: rendering, composting, biofermentation, dry extrusion lagoons, biodigesters, solar drying, engineered marshes, and dumping. The criteria to be considered for an option to be effective were: location, type of by-product produced, and re-use potential of the end product. 4 figs.

  18. Effect of Lighting Programs on Performance, Carcass and Production Costs of Arian Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rahmani

    2012-02-01

    Light is an environmental factor, which has profound influences on broilers performance and frequently overlooked management practices. This study was conducted to compare the effects of different lighting programs on growth, carcass parts and economical performance using 320 one day–old broilers (Arian 386 in completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 8 replicates per each treatments (10 birds for each replicate. The four lighting schedules under study were: 1- continuous lighting (control, 2- decreasing-sudden increasing lighting, 3- decreasing-gradual increasing lighting and 4- intermittent lighting (1 light: 3 dark. Feed intake, body weight, feed conversion ratio, mortality and production index of birds raising under different lighting schedules were compared during six weeks of experimental carrier. Final body weight and total feed consumption were the same for all birds regardless of lighting schedules applied (P>0.05. Intermittent lighting significantly improved feed conversion ratio and decreased mortality rate compared to other lighting schedules (P

  19. INTERACTIVE EFFECT OF CAGE DENSITY AND DIETARY BLACK CUMIN LEVEL ON PRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY IN BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Mahfudz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research was aimed to evaluate an interactive effect of cage density and level ofdietary black cumin (BC on productive efficiency of broiler chickens. A total of 270 broiler chickens(initial body weight of 163.12 ± 8.10g were allocated into a completely randomized design with a 3 x 3factorial pattern. The first factor was the cage density (bird/m2 namely, D1 = 8; D2 = 10, and D3 = 12.The second factor was BC level (%, namely, B1 = 1; B2 = 2, and B3 = 3. Feed consumption, bodyweight gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein digestibility, and income over feed cost(IOFC were the parameters measured. Data were subjected to ANOVA and continued to Duncan test.No interaction between cage density and black cumin on all parameters was observed. Feedconsumption and FCR were increased, but BWG was lowered significantly (P<0.05 due to the cagedensities of 10 and 12 birds/m2 on weeks 2 and 3. Protein digestibility was significantly increased byfeeding 2 and 3% BC. IOFC decreased significantly (P<0.05 when cage densities were 10 and 12birds/m2. In conclusion, the improvement of productive efficiency of broiler chicken reared at the cagedensity of 12 birds /m2 can be sufficiently achieved by feeding 1% black cumin.

  20. Relationship of runs of homozygosity with adaptive and production traits in a paternal broiler line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesi, J A P; Buzanskas, M E; Cantão, M E; Ibelli, A M G; Peixoto, J O; Joaquim, L B; Moreira, G C M; Godoy, T F; Sbardella, A P; Figueiredo, E A P; Coutinho, L L; Munari, D P; Ledur, M C

    2017-10-25

    Genomic regions under high selective pressure present specific runs of homozygosity (ROH), which provide valuable information on the genetic mechanisms underlying the adaptation to environment imposed challenges. In broiler chickens, the adaptation to conventional production systems in tropical environments lead the animals with favorable genotypes to be naturally selected, increasing the frequency of these alleles in the next generations. In this study, ~1400 chickens from a paternal broiler line were genotyped with the 600 K Affymetrix® Axiom® high-density (HD) genotyping array for estimation of linkage disequilibrium (LD), effective population size (N e ), inbreeding and ROH. The average LD between adjacent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in all autosomes was 0.37, and the LD decay was higher in microchromosomes followed by intermediate and macrochromosomes. The N e of the ancestral population was high and declined over time maintaining a sufficient number of animals to keep the inbreeding coefficient of this population at low levels. The ROH analysis revealed genomic regions that harbor genes associated with homeostasis maintenance and immune system mechanisms, which may have been selected in response to heat stress. Our results give a comprehensive insight into the relationship between shared ROH regions and putative regions related to survival and production traits in a paternal broiler line selected for over 20 years. These findings contribute to the understanding of the effects of environmental and artificial selection in shaping the distribution of functional variants in the chicken genome.

  1. Effects of Rhodiola on production, health and gut development of broilers reared at high altitude in Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Wang, Honghui; Zhao, Xin

    2014-11-24

    Rhodiola has long been used as a traditional medicine to increase resistance to physical stress in humans in Tibet. The current study was designed to investigate whether Rhodiola crenulata (R. crenulata) could alleviate the negative effects of hypoxia on broiler chickens reared in Tibet Plateau. The effect of supplementing crushed roots of R. crenulata on production performance, health and intestinal morphology in commercial male broilers was investigated. Dietary treatments included CTL (basal diet), Low-R (basal diet + 0.5% R. crenulata) and High-R (basal diet + 1.5% R. crenulata). In comparison with broilers fed the control diet, Low-R had no effect on production performance while High-R significantly decreased average daily feed intake at d 14, 28 and 42, body weight at d 28 and 42 and gut development. Ascites induced mortality did not differ among treatments. Nevertheless Low-R significantly reduced non-ascites induced mortality and total mortality compared with broilers fed CTL and High-R diets. Broilers fed the High-R diet had significantly increased blood red blood cell counts and hemoglobin levels at 28 d compared with other treatments. Our results suggest that supplementation with Rhodiola might reduce the effects of hypoxia on broilers and consequently decrease mortality rate.

  2. Impact of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on growth performance, oxidative stability and quality of broiler meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Haider, Muhammad Faizan; Khan, Muhammad Issa; Sohaib, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad Sajid

    2013-02-08

    This study was intended to explore the effect of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on broiler growth performance, oxidative stability and organoleptic characteristics of broiler meat and meat products. 120 (day old) broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 12 experimental groups and fed on diets containing extruded flaxseed meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The supplementation of extruded flaxseed in the diet decreases the body weight gain, feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) values of broilers. The antioxidant enzymes were strongly influenced by different levels of extruded flaxseed supplementation among treatments. The TBARS assay revealed that maximum malondialdehyde were produced in T3 containing highest extruded flaxseed level (15%) and minimum malondialdehyde were produced in T0 treatment having no extruded flaxseed. The TBARS values ranged from 0.850-2.106 and 0.460-1.052 in leg and breast met respectively. The Free radical scavenging activity varied significantly and DPPH values of breast meat ranged from 20.70% to 39.09% and in leg meat 23.53% to 43.09% respectively. The sensory acceptability of broiler meat nuggets was decreased with the increase in the level of flaxseeds due to the lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which generated off flavors and bad odors. Feeding extruded flaxseed to chicken through feed strongly inflated the quality and functional properties, fatty acid contents and reduced the oxidative stability of broiler meat and meat products. The present study concludes that up to 10% of flaxseed meal may be used in broiler diet to enhance the omega 3 fatty acids content in the broiler meat.

  3. Impact of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on growth performance, oxidative stability and quality of broiler meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjum Faqir Muhammad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was intended to explore the effect of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on broiler growth performance, oxidative stability and organoleptic characteristics of broiler meat and meat products. 120 (day old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 12 experimental groups and fed on diets containing extruded flaxseed meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The supplementation of extruded flaxseed in the diet decreases the body weight gain, feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR values of broilers. The antioxidant enzymes were strongly influenced by different levels of extruded flaxseed supplementation among treatments. The TBARS assay revealed that maximum malondialdehyde were produced in T3 containing highest extruded flaxseed level (15% and minimum malondialdehyde were produced in T0 treatment having no extruded flaxseed. The TBARS values ranged from 0.850-2.106 and 0.460-1.052 in leg and breast met respectively. The Free radical scavenging activity varied significantly and DPPH values of breast meat ranged from 20.70% to 39.09% and in leg meat 23.53% to 43.09% respectively. The sensory acceptability of broiler meat nuggets was decreased with the increase in the level of flaxseeds due to the lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA which generated off flavors and bad odors. Feeding extruded flaxseed to chicken through feed strongly inflated the quality and functional properties, fatty acid contents and reduced the oxidative stability of broiler meat and meat products. The present study concludes that up to 10% of flaxseed meal may be used in broiler diet to enhance the omega 3 fatty acids content in the broiler meat.

  4. The good work--a Swedish trade union vision in the shadow of lean production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Jan; Abrahamsson, Lena

    2009-07-01

    "The Good Work" (Det goda arbetet) was established as a highly praised and established concept in the Swedish working life debate in the middle of the 1980s. In this paper, we are going to discuss the concept in relation to the massive introduction of lean production in Swedish industry. The aim of this paper is to restore the theory of the good work into the industrial society of today. We will search for a model for 'good work' in balance between the demands from production and good conditions for a learning environment. The theoretical base for this paper will be found in both organisational research and research on production technology systems. We identify three strong trends in Swedish industrial companies giving both pitfalls and possibilities for the good work; the learning focus as a way to increase productivity and improve working conditions; Lean Production in most cases imply narrow short-cyclic work tasks; and the global market that reduces national discretion. As a result, we formulate a new set of criteria for "the good work".

  5. Determining system boundaries on commercial broiler chicken production system using ISO 14040/14044 guideline: A case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidek, ‘A. A.; Suffian, S. A.; Al-Hazza, M. H. F.; Yusof, H. M.

    2018-01-01

    The demand of poultry product in Malaysia market shows an escalation throughout the year and expected to increase in the future. The expansion of poultry production has led to environmental concern in relation to their operational impact to environmentAt present, assessment of waste management of poultry production in Malaysia is lacking. A case study research was conducted in a commercial broiler farm to identify and assess the system boundaries in the lifecycle supply chain of broiler chicken production using ISO 14040/44 guidelines. ISO 14040/44 standard includes Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) framework guidelines to evaluate environmental influence associated with a product/process throughout its life span. All attributes associated with broiler operation is defined and the system boundaries is determined to identify possible inputs and outputs in the case study. This paper discuss the initial stage in the LCA process, which set the context of the research and prepare for the stage of Life Cycle Inventory.

  6. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF SOME FODDER ADDITIVES ON THE PRODUCTION PERFORMANCES OF BROILER TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SARA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The researches have been made on a number of 150 broiler turkey juveniles, the Euro FB hybrid, assigned in 3 batches of 50 juveniles/batch for a period of 42 days (the growth stage. In the feed of batch 2 (E was added organic Selenium (Sel-Plex 0.03% and in the feed of batch 3 (E was added the prebiotic Bio-Mos 0.1%. The turkey broilers of the three experimental batches were weighted at the beginning (at the age of one day and each week following: the evolution of body mass, the daily average body gain, the daily average consumption and the specific consumption.The use of Sel-Plex in the feed of batch 2 (E and the use of Bio-Mos in the feed of batch 3 determined the growth of the body weight at delivery date (at the age of 42 days with 31.45 % at batch L2 (E and 16.44 % at batch L3 (E, the increase of daily average body gain with 32.35% respective 16.93% and the allowance of the specific consumption with 27.96% at batch L2 (E and 12.91 % at batch L3 (E comparative with batch L1 (M.The results obtained confirm the positive influence of Sel-Plex and Bio-Mos on the main production and consumption parameters of broiler turkey juveniles.

  7. TDS Broiler

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ahmed Sayed

    2016-11-21

    Nov 21, 2016 ... Saudi Arabia, 2Permanent address: Animal production department, College of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt .... The analysis included previously published mtDNA sequence data for Red Jungle Fowl, Chinese local chickens, commercial broilers, commercial white egg layers, Indian local chickens, ...

  8. Mid-term financial impact of animal welfare improvements in Dutch broiler production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocsik, E; Lansink, A G J M Oude; Saatkamp, H W

    2013-12-01

    This study used a stochastic bioeconomic simulation model to simulate the business and financial risk of different broiler production systems over a 5-yr period. Simulation analysis was conducted using the @Risk add-in in MS Excel. To compare the impact of different production systems on economic feasibility, 2 cases were considered. The first case focused on the economic feasibility of a completely new system, whereas the second examined economic feasibilities when a farm switches from a conventional to an animal welfare-improving production system. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the key drivers of economic feasibility and to reveal systematic differences across production systems. The study shows that economic feasibility of systems with improved animal welfare predominantly depends on the price that farmers receive. Moreover, the study demonstrates the importance of the level and variation of the price premium for improved welfare, particularly in the first 5 yr after conversion. The economic feasibility of the production system increases with the level of welfare improvements for a sufficiently high price level for broiler meat and low volatility in producer prices. If this is not the case, however, risk attitudes of farmers become important as well as the use of potential risk management instruments.

  9. Forecasting Production Losses at a Swedish Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Production loss due to icing has been identified as a problem both when siting turbines in cold climates, and when making forecasts of energy production for wind park management and energy markets. The Makkonen icing model (Makkonen, 2000), driven by output from the WRF mesoscale model, has been...... shown to predict periods of icing at a wind farm in northern Sweden (Davis et al, 2012) with improved skill compared to persistence and threshold models. Based on these results, we have developed a statistical model to estimate the loss of production at the wind park due to these icing periods. We...... compared this statistical model with a simpler method that does not rely on a physical icing model. In that method meteorological icing is identified as periods when WRF forecasts clouds and the temperature is below freezing. During these periods it is assumed that there is no production from the turbines...

  10. Swedish Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borgvall, Jonathan; Lif, Patrik

    2005-01-01

    .... The military research work presented here includes the three military administrations, FOI -- Swedish Defence Research Agency, FMV -- Swedish Defence Materiel Administration, and SNDC -- Swedish...

  11. Effects of high fibre diets on gut fill, behaviour and productivity in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2011-01-01

    diets compared to feed A was detectable in the intestinal contents, with high fibre feed staying longer in the digestive system. Birds fed fibre diets displayed more dustbathing and less stereotypic behaviour. Egg production did not differ between the diet treatments. The onset of lay was delayed......, but the hens reached maximum lay sooner than industry guidelines indicates. The results show that high fibre diets prolong the passage of feed and reduce stereotypic behaviour, indicating an improvement in the well-being of the birds, who may experience less hunger than commercially fed broiler breeders. Key...

  12. The effect of the humic acid and herbal additive supplement on production parameters of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Pistová

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of humic acids and dietary herbal additive (clove (Syzygium aromaticum, lavender (Lavendula angustifolia and black pepper (Piper nigrum L. on production parameters of broiler chicken were studied.  A total of 60 Ross 308 broiler chicken were divided into 3 treatments (n=20. The control group of chickens was fed with complete feed mixtures without any additives. Chicken in treatment T1 were fed a diet containing 1% of humic acid and drank a water containing 150 mg/l of herbal additive. Chicken in treatment T2 were fed with complete feed mixture without any additives and drank a water containing 150 mg/l of herbal additive. The body weight, feed intake and feed conversion were evaluated. The results shout that the body weight was significantly higher (P≤0.05 in treatments groups compared to the control group (the order of the groups: 1796.4±188.1; 2052.9±197.9 and 2140.4±300.4 g±SD. The feed intake was in the control group 3.11 kg, in the treatment T1 3.00 kg and in the treatment T2 3.12 kg. Feed conversion for the entire fattening period was in control group 2.19 kg/kg complete feed mixture, in the treatment T1 1.83 kg/kg complete feed mixture and in the treatment T2 1.84 kg/kg complete feed mixture with no significant different (P≥0.05 compared to control group. In conclusion, supplement by humic acid and herbal additive can improve production parameters of broiler chicken.

  13. Performance and economy of production of broilers fed Siam weed (Chromolaena odorata) leaf meal (SWLM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwuba, P C; Ogbuewu, I P; Nwachukwuguru, K

    2018-03-06

    A 49-day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of Siam weed leaf meal (SWLM)-based diets on growth, organ, and carcass weight characteristics and economics of production of broilers. Proximate biochemical composition of SWLM and the appropriate inclusion level of SWLM for optimum productivity were also determined. Ninety-six-day-old Chi broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups of 24 birds, and each group replicated three times. Each group was assigned to one experimental diet in a completely randomized design marked T1 (0%), T2 (4%), T3 (8%), and T4 (12%). Proximate biochemical results revealed that SWLM is rich in protein (20.52%) and minerals (9.29%). Birds on diets T1 and T2 had similar (p > 0.05) final live weights (FLW), which were higher (p  0.05) differences in the dressing percentage, but there were significant differences in the carcass weight between birds on diet T4 and the other three diets. Similarly, pancreas and spleen had similar (p > 0.05) weights across the treatments. There was significant difference (p < 0.05) between birds on diets T1 and T4 in gizzard weight. Cost-benefit ratio was influenced (p < 0.05) with T4 birds having better income of US$1 per US$10.18 invested. It is concluded that SWLM is rich in essential nutrients and therefore suitable for inclusion in broiler diets at level not beyond 2% for best final live weight, daily weight gain, and thigh weight.

  14. Effects of starter diet supplementation with arginine on broiler production performance and on small intestine morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice E. Murakami

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of starter diet (days 1 to 21 supplemented with arginine (Arg on the production performance and duodenum and jejunum mucosa morphometry of broilers were studied. Male Cobb broiler chickens (990 were randomly assigned to one of five treatments in a complete random design. Measurements of 33 chicks per treatment were made in six repetitions. The treatments consisted of a basal diet with 1.390% digestible Arg (no supplementation and four dietary levels (1.490%, 1.590%, 1.690%, and 1.790%, providing a relationship with lysine of 1.103; 1.183; 1.262; 1.341 and 1.421%, respectively. From the age of 22 days on, all birds received conventional grower diet. The data were submitted to regression analysis by polynomial decomposition of the degrees of freedom in relation to the levels of Arg. The Arg supplementation increased (P0.05 in the growth phase (days 22 to 42 in the absence of the Arg supplementation. The supplementation of Arg over of NRC recommendation during the starter phase may be necessary for the expression of the maximal weight gain potential in birds. No effect (P<0.05 of Arg dietary supplementation was observed either on small intestine weight and length at any age. However, the duodenum villus:crypt ratio increased and the crypt depth decreased in the first week in response to increasing dietary Arg. It is concluded that broiler Arg dietary supplementation in the starter diet improved production performance and small intestine morphometry, especially in the first week.

  15. MODELLING CONSUMERS' DEMAND FOR ORGANIC FOOD PRODUCTS: THE SWEDISH EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuchehr Irandoust

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to examine a few factors characterizing consumer preferences and behavior towards organic food products in the south of Sweden using a proportional odds model which captures the natural ordering of dependent variables and any inherent nonlinearities. The findings show that consumer's choice for organic food depends on perceived benefits of organic food (environment, health, and quality and consumer's perception and attitudes towards labelling system, message framing, and local origin. In addition, high willingness to pay and income level will increase the probability to buy organic food, while the cultural differences and socio-demographic characteristics have no effect on consumer behaviour and attitudes towards organic food products. Policy implications are offered.

  16. Antimicrobial use in Chinese swine and broiler poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnasamy, Vikram; Otte, Joachim; Silbergeld, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial use for growth promotion in food animal production is now widespread. A major concern is the rise of antimicrobial resistance and the subsequent impact on human health. The antimicrobials of concern are used in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) which are responsible for almost all meat production including swine and poultry in the US. With global meat consumption rising, the CAFO model has been adopted elsewhere to meet this demand. One such country where this has occurred is China, and evidence suggests 70% of poultry production now occurs outside of traditional small farms. Moreover, China is now the largest aggregate consumer of meat products in the world. With this rapid rise in consumption, the Chinese production model has changed along with the use of antimicrobials in feeds. However, the specific antibiotic use in the Chinese food animal production sector is unclear. Additionally, we are aware of high quantities of antimicrobial use because of reports of high concentrations of antimicrobials in animal waste and surface waters surrounding animal feeding operations. In this report, we estimate the volume of antibiotics used for swine and poultry production as these are the two meat sources with the highest levels of production and consumption in China. We adopt a model developed by Mellon et al. in the US for estimating drug use in feed for poultry and swine production to estimate overall antimicrobial use as well as antimicrobial use by class. We calculate that 38.5 million kg [84.9 million lbs] were used in 2012 in China's production of swine and poultry. By antibiotic class, the highest weights are tetracyclines in swine and coccidiostats in poultry. The volume of antimicrobial use is alarming. Although there are limitations to these data, we hope our report will stimulate further analysis and a sense of urgency in assessing the consequences of such high levels of utilization in terms of antibiotic resistance in the food supply

  17. The impact of broiler production system practices on consumer perceptions of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Janneke; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2013-12-01

    This research explores the extent to which different farm management practices influence the perceived animal friendliness of broiler production systems, and how this differs between individuals. Using a conjoint design with paired comparisons, respondents evaluated broiler production systems that were described on the basis of 7 animal welfare-related practices. It was found that practices in the area of outdoor access, stocking density, and day-night rhythm were overall perceived to have a larger impact on perceptions of animal friendliness than other practices, such as transport duration or the type of breed used. However, individuals differed regarding the extent to which they believed the different farm management practices influenced the animal friendliness of the production system. Differences between individuals regarding their knowledge about and familiarity with livestock farming, degree of anthropomorphism, and their moral beliefs regarding animal welfare partly explained the relative importance individuals attached to farm management practices. The obtained insight into which welfare-related farm management practices, in consumers' minds, most strongly contribute to animal welfare, and the existence of differences between consumers, can be helpful in the development of animal welfare-based certification schemes that are appealing to consumers, as well as the positioning of welfare concepts in the market.

  18. The effect of discontinuing the use of antimicrobial growth promoters on the productivity in the Danish broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Ersboll, A. K.; Heuer, Ole Eske

    2001-01-01

    by the Danish Poultry Council were analysed. The three flock parameters were: kilogram broilers produced per square meter (per rotation), feed-conversion ratio (total kilogram feed used per rotation/total kilogram live weight per rotation) and total percent dead broilers ((number of dead broilers during...... the rotation/number of broilers put in the house per rotation) x 100). Data were analysed using a mixed model, allowing the correlation structures in the data to be taken into account. The analyses showed that kilogram broilers produced per square meter and percent dead broilers in total were not affected...

  19. Effects of alternative promoters of growth on the performance and cost of production of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Tomazini Medeiros

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics and prebiotics were compared to antimicrobials as alternative growth promoters in male broilers grown from 1 to 42 days of age. Eight treatments were evaluated: a control feed without antimicrobials or alternative growth promoters, a control feed with antimicrobials, a control feed with the antimicrobials colistine and avilamicine, three rations with probiotic Bacillus subtilis in different concentrations and/or under recommended usage, one ration with probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae in addition to a mixture of probiotic Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae, and one ration with mananoligossacarids (MOS plus betaglutanes. Antimicrobials and alternative growth promoters were added to an initial feed and to a growth feed common to all birds. Thirteen to 17 replicates of 50 birds of a Cobb line were utilized per treatment in a completely randomized design. Feed consumption, feed conversion and production costs did not significantly differ among treatments. The weights of 42-day-old birds fed on Bacillus subtilis (1,6 x 109CFU/g or the mixture of probiotics were higher or similar to the weights of birds fed on ration with antimicrobials. It was concluded that probiotics can replace antimicrobials as growth promoters for broilers up to 42 days of age without negative effects on growth performance and production cost.

  20. Effect of ph and temperature on the activity of phytase products used in broiler nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L de P Naves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The activity of three commercial microbial phytase (Aspergillus oryzae, A. niger, and Saccharomyces cerevisae products used in broiler nutrition was determined at different pH (2.0 to 9.0 and temperature (20 to 90°C values. Enzymatic activity was determined according to the reaction of the phytase with its substrate (sodium phytate, in four replicates, and was expressed in units of phytase activity (FTU. A. oryzae phytase exhibited optimal activity at pH 4.0 and 40°C, but its absolute activity was the lowest of the three phytases evaluated. A. niger phytase exhibited maximal activity close to pH 5.0 and 45ºC, whereas S. cerevisae phytase presented its highest activity at pH close to 4.5 and temperatures ranging between 50 and 60°C. It was concluded that A. niger and S. cerevisae phytase products exhibited the highest absolute activities in vitro at pH and temperature values (pH lower than 5.0 and 41ºC corresponding to the ideal physiological conditions of broilers, which would theoretically allow high hydrolysis rate of the phytate contained in the feed.

  1. Biogas production: litter from broilers receiving direct-fed microbials and an enzyme blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Ferreira Menegucci Praes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effect of additives used in the feed of broilers on anaerobic bio-digestion of poultry litter was evaluated. Four diets were used: NC: negative control; DFM: NC + 500 ppm direct-fed microbials (DFM containing Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis; ENZ: diet formulated with an enzyme blend (20 ppm phytase, 200 ppm protease and 200 ppm xylanase; DFM+E: ENZ + DFM. Substrates for the anaerobic bio-digestion were prepared with litter from each treatment, containing 4 % total solids (TS. These were used in 16 continuous bio-digesters with a 2 kg d−1 load, to determine the production and potential biogas production and composition during an 85-day period. Influent and effluent samples were collected for the amounts of TS and volatile solids (VS, fiber fraction (neutral detergent fiber [NDF], acid detergent fiber [ADF] and lignin, nutrients (N, P and K, and total and thermotolerant coliforms to be determined. For all treatments a reduction in the following effluents was observed as follows: TS (49, 48, 48 and 50 % VS (70, 54, 55 and 62 % NDF (91, 90, 95 and 96 % ADF (89, 88, 93 and 94 % and lignin (80, 76, 89 and 88 %. The efficiency of the treatment for coliforms in bio-digesters was higher than 90 % in the 85-day period in all treatment groups. There was a reduction in biogas and methane production when DFM (5500 and 4000 mL and DFM + E (5800 and 4100 mL were used, compared to treatments NC (6300 mL and 4400 and ENZ (6400 and 4500 mL. The potential production of reduced TS and VS was higher in ENZ (1:00 and 1.74 106 mL kg−1 when compared to NC (0.88 and 1:02 106 mL kg−1, DFM (0.80 and 1:40 106 mL kg−1 and DFM + E (0.88 1:25 and 106 mL kg−1. The additives did not affect the percentage of methane production, and all treatments showed values higher than 70 %. Adding enzymes to the diet of broilers influences the litter characteristics and, as a consequence, increases biogas production. The addition of DFM and DFM + E to

  2. Production conditions of bioenergy in Swedish agriculture; Produktionsfoerutsaettningar foer biobraenslen inom svenskt jordbruk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    2007-05-15

    The overall aim of this report is to analyse and describe the production conditions of bioenergy in Swedish agriculture and how these conditions can vary due to different factors. The conclusion is that the potential for producing bioenergy in Swedish agriculture will vary significantly depending on which energy crops are cultivated, which type of agricultural land is utilised and the geographical location of the production. Furthermore, different crop residues and other by-products from agriculture, utilised for energy purposes, will affect the bioenergy potential. To which extent this physical/biological potential will be utilised in the future depends mainly on economic conditions and financial considerations. These aspects are not included in this study. The report starts with a description of current crop production in Sweden, expressed in energy terms, the energy needed for this production and the regional variation in crop yields. The local variations in cultivation conditions are also analysed, as well as variations over the area of a single farm. Another aspect discussed is the production conditions of energy crops on previous farm land not currently utilised. The report includes an analysis of the potential supply of crop residues and other by-products for energy purposes, such as straw, tops and leaves of sugar beets, manure etc, as well as the regional variation of these residues and by-products. A similar analysis is made of the regional production conditions and potential biomass yields of traditional crops and new energy crops. These analyses also include energy balance calculations showing the energy input needed for different production systems in relation to the harvested biomass yield, and the potential for increased biomass yields in the future. Based on the findings of these various analyses, calculations are made showing some examples of how much bioenergy Swedish agriculture can deliver, depending on how much agricultural land is utilised for

  3. Genetically modified products from feed in livers of broilers

    OpenAIRE

    BUCKOVÁ, Pavlína

    2008-01-01

    Aim of this thesis is to manage detection of genetically modified products (GMP) from feed in liver of chicken, which diet contained GMP feed. Two GMO crops were used for feed, insect-resistant Bt-maize and herbicide - tolerant Roundup Ready soybean . Both crops are important components of chicken feed. The detection will be practise by molecular biological methods. The possible dangers for consument should by evaluated in conclusion.

  4. Determination of pre-cecal phosphorus digestibility of inorganic phosphates and bone meal products in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Harn, J; Spek, J W; van Vuure, C A; van Krimpen, M M

    2017-05-01

    A broiler study was performed to determine the pre-cecal phosphorus (P) digestibility of 5 P sources, 3 from animal (Delfos, Calfos, and porcine bone meal) and 2 of inorganic (monocalcium phosphate [MCP] and dicalcium phosphate [DCP]) origin. Delfos is processed from bones resulting in a dicalcium phosphate product, and Calfos is processed from bones in which part of the gelatin is removed but in which the hydroxy-apatite matrix is preserved. During the first 14 d, birds were housed in floor pens bedded with wood shavings and received a commercial starter diet. At d 14, broilers were randomly assigned to pens (0.9 m2, 10 birds/pen) with a slatted floor. From d 14 onwards, one of the 6 experimental diets (a basal diet, and 5 diets containing the P sources) was provided. Test diets were replicated 6 times, and the basal diet 8 times. Electron microscopy images of test products were made in order to verify whether the spatial structure of the test products could be related to the pre-cecal P digestibility of the same products. Diets met or exceeded CVB (2011) requirements for all nutrients except for P and were formulated to contain a calcium to total P ratio of between 1.4 and 1.6 and a minimal amount of phytate P. Diets contained 5 g/kg titanium oxide as a marker to determine digestibility of P. At d 24 all birds were euthanized, after which the content of the terminal part of the ileum was sampled. The P digestibility was calculated by linear regression according to World's Poultry Science Association (WPSA) protocol for determination of pre-cecal P digestibility. Pre-cecal P digestibility of MCP, DCP, Delfos, Calfos, and porcine bone meal was 88.5, 82.4, 94.5, 86.9, and 78.2%, respectively. Based on visual inspection of electron microscopy images of test products, the spatial structure of the test products might be related to P digestibility. It is concluded that processing of bone meal increases the pre-cecal P digestibility in broilers. © The Author 2017

  5. Energy utilization and heat production of embryos from eggs originating from young and old broiler breeder flocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangsuay, A.; Meijerhof, R.; Ruangpanit, Y.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the interaction between breeder age and egg size on the energy utilization (experiment 1) and heat production (experiment 2) of broiler embryos. In experiment 1, a total of 4,800 Ross-308 hatching eggs from 2 breeder ages (29 and 53 wk of age, or young and

  6. MLST genotypes of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler products, dairy cattle and human campylobacteriosis cases in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramonaite, Sigita; Tamuleviciene, Egle; Alter, Thomas; Kasnauskyte, Neringa; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2017-06-15

    Campylobacter (C.) jejuni is the leading cause of human campylobacteriosis worldwide. We performed a molecular epidemiological study to investigate the genetic relationship among C. jejuni strains isolated from human diarrhoeal patients, broiler products and dairy cattle in Lithuania. The C. jejuni isolates from human clinical cases, dairy cattle and broiler products were genotyped using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Allele numbers for each housekeeping gene, sequence type (ST), and clonal complex (CC) were assigned by submitting the DNA sequences to the C. jejuni MLST database ( http://pubmlst.org/campylobacter ). Based on the obtained sequence data of the housekeeping genes a phylogenetic analysis of the strains was performed and a minimum spanning tree (MST) was calculated. Among the 262 C. jejuni strains (consisting of 43 strains isolated from dairy cattle, 102 strains isolated from broiler products and 117 clinical human C. jejuni strains), 82 different MLST sequence types and 22 clonal complexes were identified. Clonal complexes CC21 and CC353 predominated among the C. jejuni strains. On ST-level, five sequence types (ST-5, ST-21, ST-50, ST-464 and ST-6410) were dominating and these five STs accounted for 35.9% (n = 94) of our isolates. In addition, 51 (19.5%) C. jejuni strains representing 27 (32.9%) STs were reported for the first time in the PubMLST database ( http://pubmlst.org/campylobacter ). The highest Czekanowski index or proportional similarity index (PSI) was calculated for C. jejuni strains isolated from human campylobacteriosis cases and broiler products (PSI = 0.32) suggesting a strong link between broiler strains and human cases. The PSI of dairy cattle and human samples was lower (PSI = 0.11), suggesting a weaker link between bovine strains and human cases. The calculated Simpson's index of all C. jejuni isolates showed a high genetic diversity (D = 0.96). Our results suggest that broiler products are the most important source of

  7. Beneficial microbial signals from alternative feed ingredients: a way to improve sustainability of broiler production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Immerseel, Filip; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Moore, Robert J; Choct, Mingan; Ducatelle, Richard

    2017-09-01

    More sustainable broiler meat production can be facilitated by the increased use of cheap by-products and local crops as feed ingredients, while not affecting animal performance and intestinal health, or even improving intestinal health, so that antibiotic usage is further reduced. To achieve this, knowledge of the relationship between the taxonomic and functional microbiota composition and intestinal health is required. In addition, the relationship between the novel feed sources, the substrates present in these feed sources, and the breakdown by enzymes and microbial networks can be crucial, because this can form the basis for development of tailored feed-type specific solutions for optimal digestion and animal performance. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Mycofix ameliorative effect on Newcastle disease antibody production in broiler chickens during aflatoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Gargees

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted to elucidate the alleviation effects of Mycofix plus 3.0 on Newcastle antibody formation during aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens. Three levels of Mycofix (0.05%, 0.15%, and 0.25% and aflatoxin (2.5ppm, 3.5ppm, and 5ppm were used. Chickens were vaccinated at 8 and 18 days of age. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Haemagglutination inhibition tests were employed for determination Newcastle antibody titers at 28 days. The results showed that, Mycofix , and only at its high level of addition (0.25% was effective in ameliorating the negative effect of aflatoxin at the rates 2.5ppm and 3.5 ppm levels of inclusion on antibody production but not at the high level of 5ppm on antibody production, comparing with titers in control groups.

  9. Effects of Lipotropic Products on Productive Performance, Liver Lipid and Enzymes Activity in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosravinia H

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a 42-d experiment, 576 one-day-old Vencobb 308 broiler chicks were used to investigate the effects of lecithin extract (0.5 g/kg, choline chloride 60% (1 g/kg and Bio choline (1 g/kg in diets of moderate and high energy in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement on performance and certain physiological traits in broiler chickens. The inclusion of Bio choline and lecithin extract in the diet significantly increased average daily gain and improved feed conversion ratio  in overall (1 to 42 d period (P < 0.05. Performance efficiency index was improved in the birds fed with Bio choline compared to those fed control diet. Broilers fed diets containing Bio choline and lecithin extract had less abdominal fat percentage than those fed choline chloride or control diet. Regardless of dietary energy level, supplementation of diet with Bio choline, choline chloride and lecithin extract significantly decreased liver lipid concentration (P < 0.05. Aspartate aminotransferase activity increased in the serum of broilers fed high energy diets while it was decreased in the birds received diets containing choline chloride. Lipotropic compounds decreased serum aspartate aminotransferase activity in the birds fed on high energy diets. The addition of Bio choline and lecithin extract to diet significantly decreased serum γ–glutamyltransferase activity (P < 0.05. Results of the present study revealed that dietary supplementation of commercial lipotropic compounds could remove potential detrimental effects from high energy diets through reducing liver fat and maintaining liver health.

  10. Tracking Campylobacter contamination along a broiler chicken production chain from the farm level to retail in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Licai; Wang, Yang; Shen, Jianzhong; Zhang, Qijing; Wu, Congming

    2014-07-02

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of Campylobacter species along a broiler production chain from farm to retail, and to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance profile of Campylobacter isolates. A total of 259 Campylobacter isolates (C. jejuni n=106, C. coli n=153) were isolated from broiler ceca samples (72.5%, 103/142), broiler carcasses (34.1%, 46/135), and retail broiler meat (31.3%, 40/128) samples collected in Shanghai, China. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of six antimicrobials were determined using the agar dilution method. High prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin (C. jejuni: 99.1%;C. coli: 100%) and tetracycline (C. jejuni: 100%;C. coli: 98.7%) was detected among the C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. The vast majority of C. coli were resistant to clindamycin (92.2%), gentamicin (95.4%), and erythromycin (94.1%), but only 25.5%, 53.8%, and 16.0% of C. jejuni exhibited resistance to these three antimicrobials, respectively. In contrast, the prevalence of florfenicol resistance in C. jejuni (37.7%) was significantly higher than that in C. coli (7.8%) (PCampylobacter isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, and 71.7% of C. jejuni and 98.0% of C. coli isolates exhibited multi-drug resistance (resistant to three or more antimicrobials). Fifty-five C. jejuni and sixty C. coli isolates, selected from different production stages, species, and antimicrobial resistance patterns, were analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), among which 15 unique PFGE patterns (PFGE patterns represented by a single strain) and 31 clusters (PFGE patterns represented by multiple strains) were detected. Furthermore, nearly all of the PFGE patterns of the Campylobacter strains isolated from retail broiler meats overlapped with those of the strains from ceca and slaughterhouse carcasses. Together, these findings revealed the high prevalence of Campylobacter species in a broiler chicken production chain, and the concerning

  11. Effects of the Chernobyl accident on animal husbandry and production, from a Swedish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.E.

    1989-01-01

    About 20% of the Swedish land area was considerably contaminated by radionuclides released by the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, Ukraine, in April 1986. However, less than 10% of the arable land was contaminated. The heavy contamination was closely correlated with the amount of rain received during the first days of May 1986. Immediate restrictions on grazing limited the early uptake of contaminants in animal products. Changes in management of animals, especially sheep, goats, and reindeer in the contaminated areas have effectively reduced the transfer of radionuclides to human beings. One important factor was the possibility of obtaining uncontaminated feeds from unaffected parts of the country. The direct costs during the first 2 years after the accident were approximately +10 million for analyses and +90 million for compensation to farmers for condemned products (milk, mutton, and reindeer meat) and reimbursement for purchase of uncontaminated feeds from other parts of the country

  12. Measuring the costs of biosecurity on poultry farms: a case study in broiler production in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siekkinen, Kirsi-Maarit; Heikkilä, Jaakko; Tammiranta, Niina; Rosengren, Heidi

    2012-02-28

    Farm-level biosecurity provides the foundation for biosecurity along the entire production chain. Many risk management practices are constantly in place, regardless of whether there is a disease outbreak or not. Nonetheless, the farm-level costs of preventive biosecurity have rarely been assessed. We examined the costs incurred by preventive biosecurity for Finnish poultry farms. We used a semi-structured phone interview and obtained results from 17 broiler producers and from 5 hatching egg producers, corresponding to about 10% of all producers in Finland. Our results indicate that the average cost of biosecurity is some 3.55 eurocent per bird for broiler producers (0.10 eurocent per bird per rearing day) and 75.7 eurocent per bird for hatching egg producers (0.27 eurocent per bird per rearing day). For a batch of 75,000 broilers, the total cost would be €2,700. The total costs per bird are dependent on the annual number of birds: the higher the number of birds, the lower the cost per bird. This impact is primarily due to decreasing labour costs rather than direct monetary costs. Larger farms seem to utilise less labour per bird for biosecurity actions. There are also differences relating to the processor with which the producer is associated, as well as to the gender of the producer, with female producers investing more in biosecurity. Bird density was found to be positively related to the labour costs of biosecurity. This suggests that when the bird density is higher, greater labour resources need to be invested in their health and welfare and hence disease prevention. The use of coccidiostats as a preventive measure to control coccidiosis was found to have the largest cost variance between the producers, contributing to the direct costs. The redesign of cost-sharing in animal diseases is currently ongoing in the European Union. Before we can assert how the risk should be shared or resort to the 'polluter pays' principle, we need to understand how the costs are

  13. Production traits of broiler chicken strains fed Ad Libitum and raised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of commercial broiler chickens reared on full-feeding, and under the same housing, feeding regime, agro-climatic zone and management practices. A total number of 150 broiler dayold chicks, that, is 50 chicks each of Arbor Acres (strain A), Hubbard (strain B) and Marshall (strain C) were purchased from local hatcheries, ...

  14. Analysis of different inputs share and determination of energy Indices in broilers production in Mashhad city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Sadrnia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The high energy consumption is one of the serious problems in poultry industry. The poultry industry consume about five percent of total energy sources in different countries, with consideration of losses, it increases up to 16-20%. In the year 2003 also, the Iranian chicken meat consumption per capita was 13.3 kg, while in the year 2013 it increased to 25.9 kg (FAO, 2014. It shows that in the diet of Iranian people, the chicken meat has become a strategic food. Poultry industry is one of the biggest and most developed industries in Iran. In the past two decays, mainly due to population growth and increase demand of white meats, it is necessary to change and improve energy efficiency in this industry. Technical efficiency of broiler farms in the central region of Saudi Arabia was analyzed through stochastic frontier approach (Alrwis and Francis, 2003. They reported that many farms under study work lower than their total capacity. In the research, the output was chicken meat weight in the term of the kilogram per one period and the inputs were the number of chicks, feed, the total of all variable expenses and fixed input except chicks and feed and the total cost of fixed inputs including building, equipment and machinery used for the broiler houses. They found that the small and large size broiler farms in the Central Region of Saudi Arabia were produced chicken with mean technical efficiency 83 and 88%, respectively (Alrwis and Francis, 2003. Efficiency measurement of broiler production units in Hamadan province was investigated by Fotros and Solgi (2003. They reported that the minimum, maximum and mean technical efficiency under variable return to scale were 12.7, 100 and 64.4%, respectively. Their results showed that technical efficiency at 16.5 (14 units and 42.35% (24 units of farms were more than 90 and 70%, respectively (Fotros and Salgi, 2003. Khorasan Razavi province after Esfahan and Mazandaran provinces is the third

  15. The effect of iodine in production of broiler chickens and selected quality indicators of breast muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta Semivanová

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the different effects on the human health it is necessary to avoid excessive or insufficient consumption of iodine. Iodine deficiency weakens the synthesis of the thyroid hormones, causes hypothyroidism and can lead to various developmental and functional disturbances known as the disorders from iodine deficiency. The latest literary knowledge about the use of iodine in the broiler chickens identifies the concentration of iodine 5 mg per kg feed as safe for a given group of the animals. Working Group on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed of  Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed notes that the maximum authorized limit of iodine in the feed of the broiler chickens 10 mg per kg does not represent a health risk. The aim of our research was an observation and assessment of the effect of feed mixtures with iodized oil on production quality of the line hybrid chickens Cobb 500 and selected indicators of breast muscle. For comparison, a control group consists of the chickens, which were fed the feed mixtures without iodized oil. Dietary iodine in the form of potassium iodide was applied to sunflower oil. The mixture was heated at 70 °C with continuous stirring until dissolution of potassium iodide. The content of iodine in iodine suplement was 0.04  mg per g per 1 kg of feed mixture of starter, growth and the finisher was used 5 g of iodine supplement. The oil mixture was mixed into kibbled grain of corn and carefully homogenized with other components of  the feed mixtures. To meet the aim of research, we realized an experiment, where body weight of the chickens was observed at the end of the experiment, the breast muscle weight and chemical analysis was made from selected indicators of breast muscle. A body weight of broiler chickens at the beginning and the end of the experiment and a breast muscle weight were observed by weighing on the Kern ECB 20K20 type scale with an accuracy of d = 0

  16. Plasmid and Host Strain Characteristics of Escherichia coli Resistant to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins in the Norwegian Broiler Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Solveig Sølverød; Slettemeås, Jannice Schau; Berg, Einar Sverre; Norström, Madelaine; Sunde, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins have been detected in the Norwegian broiler production, despite the fact that antimicrobial agents are rarely used. The genetic mechanism responsible for cephalosporin resistance is mainly attributed to the presence of the blaCMY-2 gene encoding a plasmid-mediated AmpC-beta-lactamase (pAmpC). The aim of this study was to characterize and compare blaCMY-2 containing Escherichia coli isolated from the intestinal flora of broilers and retail chicken meat (fillets) to identify possible successful clones and/or resistance plasmids widespread in the Norwegian broiler production. Methods used included PCR based phylotyping, conjugation experiments, plasmid replicon typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multiple locus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis and whole genome sequencing. The nucleotide sequence of an IncK plasmid carrying blaCMY-2 was determined. Intestinal isolates displayed a higher degree of genetic diversity than meat isolates. A cluster of genetically related isolates belonging to ST38, phylogroup D, carrying blaCMY-2 containing IncK plasmids was identified. Furthermore, genes encoding plasmid stability systems (relBE/stbDE and pndAC) were identified on the IncK plasmid. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of a subset of isolates confirmed a close genetic relationship within the two most prevalent STs. The IncK plasmids within these two STs also shared a high degree of similarity. Cephalosporin-resistant E. coli with the same genetic characteristics have been identified in the broiler production in other European countries, and the IncK plasmid characterized in this study showed close homology to a plasmid isolated from retail chicken meat in the Netherlands. The results indicate that both clonal expansion and horizontal transfer of blaCMY-2 containing plasmids contribute to dissemination of cephalosporin resistant E. coli in the broiler production. The presence of plasmid

  17. Evaluation of a Probiotic and a Competitive Exclusion Product Inoculated In Ovo on Broiler Chickens Challenged with Salmonella Heidelberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGO Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study evaluated a probiotic and a competitive exclusion product injected in ovo on day 18 of incubation together with Marek's disease vaccine in eggs of 56-week-old broiler breeders. Three experiments were carried out. The first trial evaluated the effect of treatments on hatchability, cecal colonization of Salmonella Heidelberg (SH, and intestinal mucosa immunity (immunoglobulin A levels in the intestinal fluid. The second trial evaluated the viability of the microorganisms in the products inoculated in a solution containing diluent and Marek's disease vaccine. The third trial evaluated the colonization of the cecal microbiota in non-challenged chickens during first four days of life by culturing cecal samples under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Hatchability was not affected by the treatments. SH cecal counts were reduced in three-day-old broilers inoculated in ovo with the competitive exclusion product. Liver and spleen pool SH counts were not different among treatments. Broilers inoculated in ovo presented higher intestinal IgA titers 24 hours after SH challenge compared with the controls. When birds were not challenged, lower cecal microbial counts in aerobic culture were determined in the control group than in the probiotic group on day 3, and in the competitive exclusion group on day 2 when cultured in anaerobiosis. The products inoculated and diluted in the vaccine solution were viable at all analyzed periods when cultured in anaerobiosis. The results of this study suggest in-ovo inoculation is an effective route for the administration of the evaluated products, which effectively enhanced the broilers' immune response to a SH challenge, as shown by the increase in IgA titers, and the reduction in cecal Salmonella Heidelberg colonization with the in-ovo inoculation with the competitive exclusion product.

  18. Effect of different levels of green tea (Camellia sinensis on productive performance, carcass characteristics and organs of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Hrnčár

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we aimed to determine the effect of different levels of green tea in powder form to feed on productive performance, carcass parameters and organs in broiler chickens. Totally 240 day-old broiler chickens Ross 308 were divided to four dietary groups (n = 60 namely control and three experimental groups with supplementation of green tea to feed mixture in levels 0.5%, 1% and 1.5%. Broiler chickens were feeding with commercial feed mixtures and feed and drinking water were provided ad libittum. The feeding period lasted 42 days. Individual body weight of broiler chickens was determined at 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 day, feed sonsumption and mortality per group were determined at 42 day of fattening period. Carcass quality and organs weight of broiler chickens were determined at the end of the experiment. The results indicated that supplementation of different levels of green tea statistically significant decreased body weight gain and we recorded lower body weight in 21 days of age compared with control group. However, in second period of fattening, broiler chickens in experimental groups growing faster and in 42 days of age we found statistically no significantly differences among control and experimental groups. Feed consumption did not differ among the dietary groups at 42 days of fattening. Mortality no affected by supplementation of green tea to broiler chickens diets in comparison with control group. From the carcass parameters addition of green tea significantly decreased percentage of abdominal fat between control and 1.5% green tea level, in other parameters (percentage of breast, percentage of drumstick, carcass yield were different among control and experimental groups not statistically significant. The caecum and small intestine weights was significantly (p ≤0.05 decreased in chickens fed diets containing 0.5% green tea supplement compared to 1% and 1.5%. For neck, crop, heart, liver, proventriculus, gizzard, pancreas

  19. Estimating Net Primary Production of Swedish Forest Landscapes by Combining Mechanistic Modeling and Remote Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagesson, Håkan Torbern; Smith, Benjamin; Løfgren, Anders

    2009-01-01

    and the Beer-Lambert law. LAI estimates were compared with satellite-extrapolated field estimates of LAI, and the results were generally acceptable. NPP estimates directly from the dynamic vegetation model and estimates obtained by combining the model estimates with remote sensing information were, on average......The aim of this study was to investigate a combination of satellite images of leaf area index (LAI) with processbased vegetation modeling for the accurate assessment of the carbon balances of Swedish forest ecosystems at the scale of a landscape. Monthly climatologic data were used as inputs...... in a dynamic vegetation model, the Lund Potsdam Jena-General Ecosystem Simulator. Model estimates of net primary production (NPP) and the fraction of absorbed photosynthetic active radiation were constrained by combining them with satellite-based LAI images using a general light use efficiency (LUE) model...

  20. Effect of climatic variables on production and reproduction traits of colored broiler breeder poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Nayak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to investigate the important climatic variables affecting production and reproduction in a broiler breeder flock. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted for a period of 1 year on colored synthetic female line male and female poultry birds. 630 female progeny and 194 male progenies from 69 sires and 552 dams produced in four consecutive hatches at an interval of 10 days were used for the present study. Each of the seven, body weight and reproduction traits were regressed with nine environmental variables. Initially, the data were subjected to hatch effect and sire effect corrections through best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE method and, then, multiple linear regressions of environmental variables on each trait were applied. Result: The overall regression was significant (p<0.01 in all traits except 20 week age body weight of females. The R2 value ranged from 0.12 to 0.90 for the traits. Regression coefficient values (b values for maximum temperature and minimum temperature were significant (p<0.05 on 5th week age body weight of males. Similarly, evaporation and morning relative humidity (RH was significant (p<0.05 for 5th week age body weight of females. Almost all b values were significant (p<0.05 for egg production up to 40 week age. The b values representing rainfall, morning RH, afternoon RH, sunshine hours, and rainy days were significant (p<0.05 on bodyweight at 20 week age. All environmental variables except maximum temperature and minimum temperature were significant (p<0.05 on body weight of females at 20 weeks of age. Age at sexual maturity was regressed significantly (p<0.05 with evaporation, afternoon RH whereas, egg shape index was regressed significantly (p<0.05 with a maximum temperature, evaporation and afternoon RH. Conclusion: The result indicated that various environmental variables play a significant role in production and reproduction of breeder broiler poultry. Controlling

  1. Effect of Feed Additives on Productivity and Campylobacter spp. Loads in Broilers Reared under Free Range Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Guyard-Nicodème

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The poultry reservoir, especially broiler meat, is generally recognized as one of the most-important sources for human Campylobacteriosis. The measures to control Campylobacter targeted essentially the primary production level. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatments against natural Campylobacter colonization in a French experimental farm of free-range broilers during the whole rearing period. Five commercial products and a combination of two of them were tested and all the products were added to feed or to water at the dose recommended by the suppliers. Campylobacter loads in caeca and on carcasses of broilers at the slaughter were determined by culture methods. Natural contamination of the flock occurred at the end of the indoor rearing period between day 35 and day 42. At day 42, the multispecies probiotic added to the feed reduced the contamination of 0.55 log10 CFU/g (p = 0.02 but was not significant (p > 0.05 at the end of rearing at day 78. However, another treatment, a combination of a cation exchange clay-based product in feed and an organic acid mixture (formic acid, sodium formate, lactic acid, propionic acid in water, led to a slight but significant reduction of 0.82 ± 0.25 log10 CFU/g (p = 0.02 compared to the control group at day 78. Testing this combination in field conditions in several flocks is needed to determine if it is biologically relevant and if it could be a valuable measure to reduce Campylobacter in broiler flocks.

  2. Major welfare issues in broiler breeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Guemene, D.

    2011-01-01

    Under current practices, broiler parent stock (broiler breeders) encounter several welfare problems, such as feed restriction and injury during mating. Intensive selection for production traits, especially growth rate, is associated with increased nutritious requirement and thus feed consumption,

  3. A Study of Contract Broiler Production in Lombok, NTB: An Opportunity of Introducing Syariah Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Indarsih

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the implementation of integrated poultry production through contract farming system in Lombok, NTB was carried out from June to November 2009. The descriptive methods were used whilst the data was collected using survey methods. Fifty contract farmers were selected to measure the business performance with references on management, performance production index, FCR, and percentage of mortality. The results of this study indicated that the contract broiler production was chosen due to: (1 risk sharing (27.6%, financial credits (25.8%, and the guarantee of marketing (23.3 %. Dissatisfaction particularly in aspects of incentive determination, the quota, and margins. The margin ratios between farmers and integrators, 30%: 70%; 40%: 60% or 50%: 50% with no clear reasons. Performance parameter was as an expectation, suggesting feed quality and management aspects were well implemented. In respect to Syariah bank, its outstanding was well understood but it have not been attractive to the contract farmers. The capital is not the main reason to work with the integrators. The government involvement was needed to encourage poultry industry growth and looking for the new potential region and legislation on maintaining environment. New investors should be encouraged to overcome instability price.

  4. Meat Quality Attributes of broilers supplemented with Herbal Toxin binder Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V S Waskar

    Full Text Available Raw and cooked meat quality is of immense consideration to consumers in present scenario. A study was conducted in 50 unsexed day old broiler chicks with an aim to assess effect of herbal toxin binder product on meat quality attributes. Chicks were randomly divided into two groups. Group I was untreated control (G1, while G2 was given treatment with herbal toxin binder (Toxiroak @1.5 Kg / tonne of feed (supplied by Ayurvet Ltd. Baddi, India. Carcass quality traits, raw and cooked meat quality attributes, organoleptic characteristics of cooked meat and proximate analysis of raw and cooked meat were studies at the end of 6 week experimental trial by slaughtering the birds of both the groups. Supplementation of herbal toxin binder product in basal diet is efficacious in improving overall meat quality attributes such as carcass yield, dressing %, giblet yield, fillet and tender yield, sensory raw meat characteristics, organoleptic cooked meat parameters, overall palatability and acceptability of meat. The product doesn’t have any residual or adverse effect on raw, eating and cooking quality of meat & hence is safe for usage. [Vet World 2009; 2(7.000: 274-277

  5. Investigation of drug products received for analysis in the Swedish STRIDA project on new psychoactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckberg, Matilda; Jönsson, Karl-Henrik; Beck, Olof; Helander, Anders

    2018-02-01

    The web-based open sale of unregulated new psychoactive substances (NPS) has shown a steady increase in recent years. Analysis of drug products sold as NPS is useful to confirm the true chemical contents, for comparison with the substances detected in corresponding body fluids, but also to study drug trends. This work describes the examination of 251 drug products that were randomly submitted for analysis in 173 cases of suspected NPS-related intoxications in the Swedish STRIDA project in 2010-2015. Of the products, 39% were powders/crystals, 32% tablets/capsules, 16% herbal materials, 8% liquids, 1% blotters, and 4% others. The analysis involved tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In 88 products (35%), classic psychoactive substances, prescription pharmaceuticals, dietary supplements, or doping agents were found; however, in none of these cases had an NPS-related intoxication been indicated from product markings or patient self-reports. Another 12 products tested negative for psychoactive substances. The remaining 151 products contained 86 different NPS (30% contained ≥2 substances). In 104 drug products, a specific NPS ingredient was indicated based on labelling (69%) or patient self-report; in 92 cases this was also analytically confirmed to be correct. Overall, the NPS products submitted for analysis in the STRIDA project showed a high degree of consistency between suspected and actual content (88%). The results of related urine and/or blood analysis further demonstrated that the patients commonly (89%) tested positive for the indicated NPS, but also revealed that polysubstance intoxication was common (83%), indicating use of additional drug products. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Prevalence and sources of Campylobacter spp. contamination in free-range broiler production in the southern part of Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandeplas, S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A one year epidemiological study was carried out between February 2005 and February 2006 in the southern part of Belgium to assess the Campylobacter prevalence in free-range broiler production. Three successive broiler flocks from six Belgian farms were investigated for the presence of Campylobacter spp. during the rearing period. Each flock was visited four times, before and after the outdoor rearing period. During each visit, samples were taken in the broiler house (litter, cecal droppings, water-lines, feed, anteroom as well as from the outer rearing environment (open-air range. The Campylobacter detection in all samples was carried out according to the ISO 10272 standard. Identification was based on colonial morphology, microscopic examination, and biochemical tests. PCR multiplex was used for genetic confirmation. Campylobacter jejuni was the main species isolated from all contaminated samples. Overall, mixed infections C. jejuni / Campylobacter coli represented 40.6%, while C. jejuni and C. coli represented 46.9% and 12.5% of chicken samples respectively. A 100% flock contamination was observed in the 6 farms during the summer-autumn period, whereas only 66.7% and 33.3% of the flocks became Campylobacter-positive in spring and winter respectively, at the end of the rearing period. Half of contaminated flocks were infected before chickens have access to the open-air range. Environmental samples, especially the open-air range soil, were found to be Campylobacter-positive before flock infection. The other potential sources of contamination were delivery tray, anteroom floor and water-lines. Other animal productions like cattle on the farm, no applied rodent control, no cleaning and disinfection of water-lines between flocks, no detergent used for cleaning and thinning were recorded as risk factors. In conclusion, the contact with the environment, particularly the access to an open-air range, appeared to be the major way of Campylobacter

  7. Fatty acid composition of Swedish bakery products, with emphasis on trans-fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattner, Sofia; Becker, Wulf; Wretling, Sören; Öhrvik, Veronica; Mattisson, Irene

    2015-05-15

    Trans-fatty acids (TFA) have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, by affecting blood lipids and inflammation factors. Current nutrition recommendations emphasise a limitation of dietary TFA intake. The aim of this study was to investigate fatty acid composition in sweet bakery products, with emphasis on TFA, on the Swedish market and compare fatty acid composition over time. Products were sampled in 2001, 2006 and 2007 and analysed for fatty acid composition by using GC. Mean TFA levels were 0.7% in 2007 and 5.9% in 2001 of total fatty acids. In 1995-97, mean TFA level was 14.3%. In 2007, 3 of 41 products had TFA levels above 2% of total fatty acids. TFA content had decreased in this product category, while the proportion of saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids had increased, mostly through increased levels of 16:0 and 18:2 n-6, respectively. The total fat content remained largely unchanged. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Very high expander processing of maize on animal performance, digestibility and product quality of finishing pigs and broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puntigam, R; Schedle, K; Schwarz, C; Wanzenböck, E; Eipper, J; Lechner, E-M; Yin, L; Gierus, M

    2017-11-06

    The present study investigated the effect of hydrothermic maize processing and supplementation of amino acids (AA) in two experiments. In total, 60 barrows and 384 broilers were fed four diets including either unprocessed (T1), or hydrothermically processed maize, that is short- (T2), or long-term conditioned (LC) (T3), and subsequently expanded maize of the same batch. Assuming a higher metabolizable energy (ME) content after processing, the fourth diet (T4) contains maize processed as treatment T3, but AA were supplemented to maintain the ideal protein value. Performance, digestibility and product quality in both species were assessed. Results show that in pigs receiving T4 the average daily feed intake was lower compared with the other treatments, whereas no difference was observed in broilers. The T3 improved the feed conversion rate compared with T1 (Pproduct quality. Supplementation of AA in T4 enhanced the loin depth in pigs as well as the amount of breast meat in broilers. Further effects of processing maize on meat quality were the reduced yellowness and antioxidative capacity (Pproduct quality differed. The negative effects on product quality could be partly compensated with the AA supplementation, whereas a change in meat colour and reduced antioxidative capacity was observed in all groups fed hydrothermic maize processing.

  9. Studies of activation products in the terrestrial environment of three swedish nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingemansson, T.; Erlandsson, B.; Mattsson, S.

    1982-01-01

    Samples of sewage sludge, lichen (Cladonia alpestris), soil and ground level air have been analysed for activation products released to the atmosphere from the three Swedish nuclear power stations at Simpevarp near Oskarshamn, Ringhals and Barsebaeck. The activity concentration of the activation products in the sludge can be arranged in the following sequence: 60 Co > 65 Zn > 58 Co 54 Mn. There is agreement between the time variation of the activity concentration in the sludge and the reported releases to the air from the power stations. The measured activity ratio 58 Co/ 60 Co in sludge does not significantly differ from that reported in the releases to the air. The activity concentration in sludge sedimented from incoming waste water has been used to get better time resolution than using only digested sludge from the final step of the plant. These studies have shown that the activity concentration of 60 Co increases substantially with the first rain run-off that reaches the sewage plant and then falls off rapidly. Measurements on samples of lichen and underlying soil show that the radioactive cobalt isotopes ( 58 Co and 60 Co) have a short mean residence time in the lichen carpet compared to most fission products present in global fall-out. (author)

  10. The broiler meat system in Nairobi, Kenya: Using a value chain framework to understand animal and product flows, governance and sanitary risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carron, Maud; Alarcon, Pablo; Karani, Maurice; Muinde, Patrick; Akoko, James; Onono, Joshua; Fèvre, Eric M; Häsler, Barbara; Rushton, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Livestock food systems play key subsistence and income generation roles in low to middle income countries and are important networks for zoonotic disease transmission. The aim of this study was to use a value chain framework to characterize the broiler chicken meat system of Nairobi, its governance and sanitary risks. A total of 4 focus groups and 8 key informant interviews were used to collect cross-sectional data from: small-scale broiler farmers in selected Nairobi peri-urban and informal settlement areas; medium to large integrated broiler production companies; traders and meat inspectors in live chicken and chicken meat markets in Nairobi. Qualitative data were collected on types of people operating in the system, their interactions, sanitary measures in place, sourcing and selling of broiler chickens and products. Framework analysis was used to identify governance themes and risky sanitary practices present in the system. One large company was identified to supply 60% of Nairobi's day-old chicks to farmers, mainly through agrovet shops. Broiler meat products from integrated companies were sold in high-end retailers whereas their low value products were channelled through independent traders to consumers in informal settlements. Peri-urban small-scale farmers reported to slaughter the broilers on the farm and to sell carcasses to retailers (hotels and butcheries mainly) through brokers (80%), while farmers in the informal settlement reported to sell their broilers live to retailers (butcheries, hotels and hawkers mainly) directly. Broiler heads and legs were sold in informal settlements via roadside vendors. Sanitary risks identified were related to lack of biosecurity, cold chain and access to water, poor hygiene practices, lack of inspection at farm slaughter and limited health inspection in markets.
 Large companies dominated the governance of the broiler system through the control of day-old chick production. Overall government control was described as

  11. Sustainable production of broiler chicken and laying hen: bibliographical review and proposal of a model for small producers

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    Diana Milena Soler F.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The peasant production of broiler chicken and laying hens in the world is wide, being the developing countries which most productions of this type arise. 'ese backyard holdings play an important role as they ensure the consumption of protein products and a subsistence economy to poor families. Due to the low number of technical and scientific studies on these extensive systems in the department of Boyacá, this work aimed to establish by general literature review the world, national and regional state of the art in the production of broiler chicken and alternatively laying hen, and as specific objectives, to produce an analysis of the diferent managements and plans and propose a production model that suits the needs of small producers. the results of the world’s state of the art showed that all countries have a variety of peasant farms, but there is a clear path to commercialization of these poultry farming products, renowned for their safety and quality of nutrients. In some municipalities in Boyacá, these farmers have favorable production systems and yields earnings due to the reduced production costs by the introduction of crop products and recyclable materials, and also have no significant environmental impacts, however, health management is poor and animal feeding starts to rely on concentrated foods.

  12. Cleaning and disinfection programs against Campylobacter jejuni for broiler chickens: productive performance, microbiological assessment and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Burbarelli, Maria Fernanda de; do Valle Polycarpo, Gustavo; Deliberali Lelis, Karoline; Granghelli, Carlos Alexandre; Carão de Pinho, Agatha Cristina; Ribeiro Almeida Queiroz, Sabrina; Fernandes, Andrezza Maria; Moro de Souza, Ricardo Luiz; Gaglianone Moro, Maria Estela; de Andrade Bordin, Roberto; de Albuquerque, Ricardo

    2017-09-01

    Detailed cleaning and disinfection programs aims to reduce infection pressure from microorganisms from one flock to the next. However, studies evaluating the benefits to poultry performance, the sanitary status of the facilities, and the sanitary quality of the meat are rarely found. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate 2 cleaning and disinfecting programs regarding their influence on productive performance, elimination of Campylobacter, and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni strains when applied to broiler chickens' facilities. Two subsequent flocks with 960 birds each were distributed into 32 pens containing 30 birds each. In the first, the whole flock was inoculated with a known strain of Campylobacter jejuni in order to contaminate the environment. In the second flock, performance and microbiological evaluations were done, characterizing an observational study between 2 cleaning and disinfection programs, regular and proposed. The regular program consisted of sweeping facilities, washing equipment and environment with water and neutral detergent. The proposed cleaning program consisted of dry and wet cleaning, application of 2 detergents (one acid and one basic) and 2 disinfectants (250 g/L glutaraldehyde and 185 g/L formaldehyde at 0.5% and 210 g/L para-chloro-meta-cresol at 4%). Total microorganism count in the environment and Campylobacter spp. identification were done for the microbiological assessment of the environment and carcasses. The positive samples were submitted to molecular identification of Campylobacter spp. and posterior genetic sequencing of the species identified as Campylobacter jejuni. The birds housed in the facilities and submitted to the proposed treatment had better performance when compared to the ones in the regular treatment, most likely because there was a smaller total microorganism count on the floor, walls, feeders and drinkers. The proposed program also resulted in a reduction of Campylobacter spp. on floors

  13. Effectiveness of Temulawak (Curcuma xanthoriza and Kunyit (Curcumae domestica Extracts to Enhance Productivity and as Immunostimulator of Avian Influenza in Broiler

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    Sufiriyanto

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to investigate the effectiveness of treating broiler with temulawak (Curcuma xanthoriza and kunyit (Curcumae domestica extracts to enhance productivity and as imunostimulator of avian influenza. Broilers were given either temulawak, kunyit or temulawak+kunyit extracts. The treatments, including a control, were arranged in a factorial design. Variables measured were production index and immune titter with haemaglutination inhibition (HI test at 35 days of age. Results showed that control, temulawak-, kunyit- and temulawak+kunyit-treated chicken have production indexes of 302.80, 382.30, 327.71, and 358.30, respectively. HI test results were all negative. It can be concluded that neither temulawak, kunyit nor temulawak+kunyit extracts is effective imunostimulator of avian influenza in broiler. Nevertheless, temulawak-treated chicken showed highest production index. (Animal Production 9(2: 178-183 (2007 Key Words: Avian influenza, haemaglutination inhibition, temulawak, kunyit

  14. Sex effect on productive parameters, carcass and body fat composition of two commercial broilers lines

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    S Rondelli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate sex effect on behavior of two commercial broilers lines. Productive parameters, carcass composition and yield, amount and quality of fat deposited in the meat and skin and total body fat were studied. A completely randomized design with four treatments (MR-Male Ross, HR-Female Ross, MAF-Male Avian Farm and HAF-Female Avian Farm and eight repetitions of 40 chickens was used. Animals received water and food ad libitum. After 50 days, two birds (a male and a female per repetition were chosen at random and slaughtered for carcass evaluation. Samples of breast, leg, skin and abdominal fats were analyzed to determine the percentage of intramuscular fat, total cholesterol and fatty acid composition. The Ross line showed higher final weight and weight gain, better intake and feed conversion rate. Also, it was observed that females of both lines had similar results in relation to these parameters. Better yield of breast with bone was found in Ross males and females. In relation to legs and thigh, Ross males showed better results and no differences were observed among females of both lines. Males deposited less fat than females. Finally, differences in percentage of intramuscular fat, content of cholesterol in breast with skin, leg with skin and skin, percentage of saturated, mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed between sex and lines.

  15. Effect of dietary antioxidant supplementation on reproductive characteristics of male broiler breeders during the post-peak production phase

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    Gustavo Eugênio Triques

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of their membrane constitution, sperm cells of male broiler breeders are prone to lipid peroxidation, which affects their fertilizing capacity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of antioxidant diet supplementation on the reproductive characteristics of 12 male broiler breeders (Cobb older than 50 weeks. The roosters were randomly distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with two treatments (treatment 1: commercial feed; treatment 2: commercial feed supplemented with canthaxanthin, lycopene, and vitamin C and 6 replicates. Semen samples were collected by abdominal massage, and then underwent evaluation of semen volume, sperm concentration, motility, vigor, and morphology. Morphometric analyses of testes, combs, and dewlaps were performed at 68 weeks. Testes samples were collected for morphometric analysis of seminiferous tubules and analysis of cellular proliferation in the germinal epithelium by using immunohistochemical staining with anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (anti-PCNA antibodies. Statistical data analysis was performed using the SAS software (SAS, 2002. No significant effects of antioxidant supplementation were observed on semen characteristics (p > 0.05. A significant positive effect of the antioxidant blend was observed on the percentage of normal sperm, dewlap weight and width, and testes weight and length (p < 0.05. PCNA-positive cell counts and morphometry of the seminiferous tubules were not affected by the treatment. Dietary antioxidant supplementation may represent a nutritional tool to increase fertility in male broiler breeder flocks during the post-peak production phase.

  16. Using management information in broiler supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yassin, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch broiler supply chain involves several interdependent firms such as breeding and feed companies, rearing farms, breeder farms, broiler hatcheries and broiler farms. To stay competitive and sustain continuity, evaluation of production at each level of the chain is crucial. Good quality

  17. UTILISING Zn AND Cu PRODUCT IN THE CORN MEAL SUBSTRATE AT Saccharomyces cerevisiae BIOPROCESS AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION ON INTERNAL QUALITY OF BROILER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Widjastuti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to find out the effect and optimal percentage of adding Zn and Cuproteinat supplement product of fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the ration on internalquality of the broiler. The experiment used 125 broiler day old chicken with a Completely RandomizedDesign. The ration treatments were R0 (control, R1 (99% R0 + 1% supplement Zn and Cu proteinat, R2(98% R0 + 2% supplement Zn and Cu proteinat, R3 (97% R0 + 3% supplement Zn and Cu proteinat andR4 (96% R0 + 4% supplement Zn and Cu proteinat where each treatment was repeated five times andeach replication consisted of five broiler chicks. Variable analysis were body cut weight, carcasspercentage, liver relative weight, and the content of cholesterol broiler meat. Conclusion of the researchshowed that by using 3% of Zn and Cu proteinat supplement substrat in the ration gave the best internalquality of broiler, increased body cut weight, carcass percentage, otherwise liver relative weight and thecontent of cholesterol broiler meat were normal.

  18. Improving the nutritional quality and shelf life of broiler meat by feeding diets supplemented with fermented pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S T; Ko, S-Y; Yang, C-J

    2017-12-01

    1. Four experimental diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% fermented pomegranate by-products (FPB) were supplied to 320d-old broilers to evaluate the effects of FPB on growth performance, nutritional composition, fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of meat. 2. Dietary supplementation of FPB linearly increased the weight gain and feed intake of broilers with linear reduction in feed conversion ratio. 3. The crude protein, iron, magnesium, and sodium content were linearly higher, whereas cholesterol was linearly lower in the breast meat of FPB-supplemented broilers. In thigh meat, linearly lower ether extract and cholesterol with higher moisture was noted in response to increasing levels of FPB. 4. The proportion of saturated fatty acids was both linearly and quadratically lower in breast and thigh meat, whereas those of monounsaturated fatty acids of breast (linear and quadratic) and n-3 fatty acids of breast and thigh (linear) meat was higher in the FPB-supplemented broilers. The n-6/n-3 ratio of breast meat was linearly lower in response to FPB supplementation. The hypocholesterolaemic to hypercholesterolaemic ratio of thigh meat was higher in the FPB-supplemented groups. 5. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and pH value were lower in the breast and thigh meat of FPB-supplemented broilers. 6. Thus, additive supplementation of the diet with up to 2% FPB improved the nutritional quality, fatty acid profile and shelf life of broiler meat.

  19. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Corn, Corn Distillers' Dried Grains with Solubles, Wheat Middlings, and Bakery By-Products in Broilers and Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, S A; Jaynes, P; Payne, R L; Applegate, T J

    2015-10-01

    Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 5 samples of corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS), 5 samples of bakery by-products (BBP), 3 samples of corn, and 1 sample of wheat middlings (WM) were evaluated in broilers and laying hens. Diets containing each of the 14 feed ingredients were evaluated in 21 day-old broiler chickens. The DDGS and BBP containing diets were fed to 30-week-old laying hens, while corn and wheat middling were evaluated in 50-week-old laying hens. All the diets were semi-purified with each feed ingredient being the only source of amino acid (AA). To obtain SIAAD values, apparent ileal AA digestibility was corrected for basal ileal endogenous AA losses using values generated from broilers and laying hens fed a nitrogen-free diet. Ileal crude protein digestibility for the 5 DDGS samples was higher (P hens. Broilers had higher SIAAD for DDGS 2, 3, 4, and 5 while there was no difference for DDGS 1 except for 4 AA where broilers had higher (P hens, and SIAAD values for the 16 AA (9 indispensable and 7 dispensable) evaluated in this study were higher (P hens was observed for WM. Results from this study confirm that high variability in digestibility exists between different samples of DDGS. Differences in SIAAD between broilers and laying hens were observed in some samples of DDGS and BBP. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. INCLUSION OF ANNATTO SEED BY-PRODUCT IN DIETS CONTAINING SORGHUM FOR SLOW-GROWTH BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davyd Herik Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum is used as a source of energy alternative to corn, however, its low pigments content are considered hindrance to the use of this feedstuff for poultry. The inclusion of annatto seed by-product (ASB may solve this problem. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ASB inclusion in diets containing sorghum as the main source of energy on performance, carcass traits, meat color, and economic viability in the production of slow-growth broilers. A total of 420 sexed chicks of the Carijó Pesadão line were distributed in a completely randomized design according to a 2 × 7 factorial arrangement, with three replicates of 10 birds per treatment. Studied factors were two sexes (males and females and seven diets, wherein one had corn as source of energy and the others contained sorghum plus inclusion of 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15% of ASB. Irrespective of the sex, diets did not affect feed intake (g/bird, feed conversion (g/g, yields (% of carcass, breast and drumstick+thigh, percentage of abdominal fat, or relative weight of the liver. However, the inclusion of ASB influenced the color parameters of the meat making it more pigmented and improved the economic viability parameters. In diets for slow-growth birds containing sorghum as the main source of energy, ASB can be included up to 15%, and meat pigmentation problems can be reduced with total substitution of corn by sorghum with inclusion of ASB from 3%.

  1. Incorporation of tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Leaf Powder in diet of broilers for quality meat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Lanjewar

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary supplementation of tulsi (Ocimum sanctum leaf powder on meat cholesterol and serum lipid profile of broiler from day old to 42nd day of age. One hundred fifty day old chicks were distributed into three experimental groups of 50 birds which were further divided into five replicates of 10 birds each. The control (T1  group was fed with standard broiler diet and T2 and T3 were fed standard broiler diet plus tulsi leaf powder at the rate of 0.5% and 1% respectively. All the birds were reared under standard managemental conditions. The observations were recorded for cholesterol content of meat and serum lipid profile of broilers. Supplementation of tulsi leaf powder at the rate of 1% for 42 days showed the significant decrease (P<0.01 in breast muscle and thigh muscle cholesterol. Group T2 showed the significant reduction in thigh muscle cholesterol but not in breast muscle cholesterol. The average serum total cholesterol was reduced significantly (P<0.01 in T3 group but not in T2. The average serum HDL cholesterol was increased significantly (P<0.01 in T2 and T3. The average serum triglycerides were significantly reduced in T2 and T3. But higher reduction obtained in birds fed with 1% tulsi leaf powder in diet. The average serum LDL cholesterol was significantly reduced (P<0.01 in T3 followed by T2   group. The study concluded that supplementation of tulsi leaf powder at the rate of 1% in broiler diet for 42 days reduced meat and blood cholesterol levels of broiler. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 340-342

  2. Bone mineral density of tibae and femura of broiler breeders: growth, development and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ICL Almeida Paz

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to follow-up the physiological variations in the development of the bone tissue, associating them with the egg production curve. This study was carried out in the facilities of the Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia of the UNESP, Botucatu, Brazil. Twenty-three families of Ross broiler breeders were used, each family consisting of 13 females and 1 male, distributed in 23 pens of 5.0m² each. The management was that recommended by the genetic company manual (Agroceres Ross, 2003, with daily feeding until 6th week of age; and birds were fed according to a 5:2 schedule (5 days fed, 2 days of fasting between 7 and 17 weeks of age, returning to daily feeding starting at 18 weeks of age. Birds did not receive afternoon calcium supplementation. On the fourth week of rearing, 84 females were removed for bone analyses of the right tibia and femur, using optical densitometry in radiographic images technique. These analyses were sequentially carried out in 4, 8, 12, 15, 20, 24, 30, 35, 42, 47, and 52 week-old birds. The egg production curve of the birds was followed-up and associated to bone mineral density results. For bone mineral density evaluation (BMD birds were divided by weight categories as light, intermediate, or heavy within each data age. BMD values of the tibias were not influenced by weight range, but by the age at collection. On the other hand, interactions were found among femur BMD values and weight and age categories. There was no correlation between eggshell quality and femur BMD. A negative correlation (-0.15 was observed between tibia BMD and eggshell percentage. It was possible to conclude that the egg production has little influence on bone mineral density of the birds probably because there was no need of bone mineral mobilization during the production period, since the observed egg production was below that observed under commercial conditions.

  3. Evaluation of the technical and economic impacts of high-density broiler production in an integrated system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS Schmidt

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study included 35 farmers contracted by a broiler integrator company. Each farmer owned an average of seven poultry houses, housing six flocks per year per farmer, summing up 4.0 million broilers housed. Live performance was evaluated in flocks housed in three densities (D114 birds/m2, and included the following parameters: market age (MA, average flock weight (AFW, average daily gain (DWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR, livability (LB, production efficiency index (PEI and carcass yield/m2 (CY. Production costs and gross margin were calculated with birds housed at two densities (11.5broilers housed. The average densities obtained for D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5 were 11.80, 13.15, 15.00, 12.02, and 14.98 birds/m2, respectively. Density effect was significant on most parameters, with D1 producing the best results in AFW, DWG, FCR, LB, and PEI, whereas D2 and D3 produced different results only in FCR. Despite the reduction in animal performance, carcass yield/m2 linearly increased with density. The economic analyses showed higher production costs, despite the higher margin for D5. The greatest impact was the reduction in farmer's compensation (19.68% per bird housed. From the farmer's perspective, the 5% increase in compensation should be enough to cover the investment required to supply the requirements of higher densities.

  4. Functional properties of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative broiler meat in the production of mortadella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiana Kissel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out in order to evaluate whether the functional properties of broiler meat are affected by the factors that lead to PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative. PSE meat was characterized by pH and L* values, and mortadella formulations consisted of isolated soy protein, sodium tripolyphosphate, and cassava starch in addition to PSE and normal meats. The functionality of the meat was evaluated by examining the water holding capacity (WHC, texture profile, emulsion stability (ES and color of the final products. The results show that in mortadella prepared with PSE meat, the protein denaturation affected the ES. Additives are necessary to enhance the functional properties of PSE meat.Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar o efeito dos fatores que conduzem à formação das carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative sobre as propriedades funcionais da carne de frango. Carnes PSE foram caracterizadas pelos valores de pH e L* e as formulações da mortadela consistiram de proteina isolada de soja, trifosfato de sódio, amido de mandioca e a adição das carnes normal e PSE. A funcionalidade da carne foi avaliada medindo a capacidade de retenção de água (CRA, perfil de textura, estabilidade de emulsão (EE, e cor dos produtos finais. Os resultados mostraram que na mortadela preparada com carnes PSE, as proteinas desnaturadas afetaram a EE. Aditivos são necessários para potencializar as propriedades funcionais da carne PSE.

  5. Effect of selection for productive traits in broiler maternal lines on embryo development

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    Schmidt GS

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used 300 females and 30 males with 36 weeks of age from the selected PP and control PPc maternal broiler lines. PP has been selected for heavy body weight (PC and high egg production for eight generations. Fertile eggs were collected and weighed individually for 4 periods of 5 consecutive days at two-week intervals. In each period, a total of 960 eggs/line were identified and separated in groups of 240 eggs, and stored for later incubation. Embryo weight (PE was evaluated at 9 (P9, 11 (P11, 13 (P13, 15 (P15, 17 (P17 and 21 (P21 days of incubation. The objective was to estimate the effect of selection on embryo development. Egg weight (PO was similar between the two lines. The differences in PE were significant from P15 on, resulting in 1.9g of difference in the chick weight, indicating correlated genetic changes in the embryo development, which can be credited to the selection for PC. Changes in PE while PO was kept unaltered modified the correlations between these two traits. Differences were significant from P13 on and estimated correlations for P21 were 0.72 and 0.70 for PP and PPc, respectively. Chick weight corresponded to 70.91% (PP and 68.48% (PPc of egg weight. The estimated increase in P21 that resulted from the increase of 1.0g in PO was 0.71 in PP and 0.68g in PPc.

  6. Determination of pre-cecal phosphorus digestibility of inorganic phosphates and bone meal products in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harn, van J.; Spek, J.W.; Vuure, van C.A.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2017-01-01

    A broiler study was performed to determine the pre-cecal phosphorus (P) digestibility of 5 P sources, 3 from animal (Delfos, Calfos, and porcine bone meal) and 2 of inorganic (monocalcium phosphate [MCP] and dicalcium phosphate [DCP]) origin. Delfos is processed from bones resulting in a

  7. Effect of industrial product IMBO® on immunosuppressed broilers vaccinated with Newcastle disease vaccine

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    O. G. Mohammadamin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of IMBO was investigated on humoral immune response to Newcastle disease vaccines in broiler chickens. Haemagglutination inhibition test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to assess the immune response. Results showed that although IMBO significantly enhanced humoral immune response to live Newcastle disease vaccine, it did not decrease post virulent NDV challenge mortality.

  8. Monitoring Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in traditional free-range 'Label Rouge' broiler production: a 23-year survey programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvat, G; Guyot, M; Protino, J

    2017-01-01

    'Label Rouge' broiler free-range carcasses have been monitored since 1991, and broiler flocks since 2010, for contamination by the main foodborne zoonotic bacteria. Initially, the monitoring plan mainly focused on the surveillance of Salmonella, and on indicators of the overall microbiological quality of free-range broiler carcasses such as Staphylococcus aureus and coliforms, but was extended in 2007 to include Campylobacter enumeration on carcasses and in 2010, to Salmonella in the environment of live birds. Salmonella contamination of free-range broiler carcasses rose to a peak of 16% in 1994 but less than 1% of carcasses are now regularly found to be positive. Indicators of the overall microbiological quality of carcasses are also improving. These results correlate with the low prevalence of Salmonella in free-range broiler breeding and production flocks, and with the continuous improvement of hazard analysis and critical control points in slaughterhouses, the implementation of a good manufacturing practice guide since 1997 and the application of EU regulations on Salmonella since 1998 in France. Regarding Campylobacter counts on carcasses, the situation has been improving continuously over the last few years, even if 2·5% of the carcasses are still contaminated by more than 1000 Campylobacter per g of skin. Although the current control system focusing on Salmonella is based on firm epidemiologic data and offers effective means of control (e.g. slaughtering of positive breeder flocks), existing information on Campylobacter makes it more difficult to formulate an effective control plan for free-range broilers, due to their particular exposure to environmental contamination. This long-term surveillance programme provided an extended view of the evolution of the contamination of free-range broilers and a direct measurement of the impact of mandatory and profession-driven interventions on the microbiological quality of carcasses. © 2016 The Society for Applied

  9. Curtain color and lighting program in broiler production: I - general performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Nascimento Abreu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate mortality and performance, darkling beetle population (Alphitobius diaperinus, light intensity, electrical energy consumption and economic efficiency of broilers reared under two lighting programs (nearly continuous or intermittent and two curtain colors (yellow or blue. The experiment was conducted between June, 2004 and May, 2005. Six flocks were sequentially housed in four 12 × 10 m broiler houses divided into 4 pens with 200 birds each. Litter was reused six times or until flock 6. Body weight and feed conversion were determined on days 21, 35, and 42 of each flock. Mortality was recorded daily. Electrical energy consumption was recorded at the end of the grow-out of each flock (every 42 days. A completely randomized design in a 6 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (flocks, lighting programs, curtains with four replicates per treatment was applied. Broilers reared in houses with yellow curtains and under nearly continuous lighting programs presented the best feed conversion ratio and the highest body weight. Nearly continuous lighting programs resulted in 1.48 times more sudden deaths and 1.34 times higher general mortality when compared with intermittent lighting programs. Electrical energy consumption was 2.12 times higher in nearly continuous lighting programs in relation to intermittent lighting programs. The presence of darkling beetles was higher in broiler houses with blue curtains and intermittent lighting program. The economic analysis showed the feasibility of using a mixed system, with intermittent light program in winter and spring and nearly continuous lighting program in the summer and autumn, both in broiler houses with yellow curtains.

  10. Belgian citizens' and broiler producers' perceptions of broiler chicken welfare in Belgium versus Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhonacker, F; Tuyttens, F A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-07-01

    New EU regulations require more stringent country-of-origin labeling, while imports of broiler meat from non-EU countries are increasing. In light of these trends, we have studied citizens' and producers' perceptions of broiler meat originating from Belgium versus Brazil and their perception of broiler production in Belgium versus Brazil. A particular focus was the association between country of origin and perceived level of animal welfare. We also investigated the perception of scaling-up and outdoor access in terms of perceived level of animal welfare. Cross-sectional survey data was collected among Flemish citizens (n = 541) and broiler producers (n = 114). In accordance with literature on general farm animal welfare, both stakeholder types claimed to allocate great importance to broiler welfare and generally agreed with the Welfare Quality model of broiler welfare. Citizens disagreed with the producers that 1) consumers are not willing to pay more for higher welfare products, 2) that broilers suffer little, 3) that broiler welfare in current Belgian production units is generally non-problematic, 4) that scaling-up production units would not have a positive impact on profitability nor a profoundly negative impact on broiler welfare, and 5) that the impact of providing broilers with outdoor access is negative for consumers, farmers, and broilers. Country of origin had a strong influence on the perception of both broiler production and broiler meat. Belgian citizens, and producers (much more than citizens) considered nearly all aspects related to broiler production and broiler meat to be significantly superior for chicken produced in Belgium compared to Brazil. Further research should focus on how these perceptions influence purchase intentions and production decisions. Future avenues for research are to quantify market opportunities for country-of-origin labeling and to investigate to which extent stakeholders' perceptions correspond with reality. © 2016 Poultry

  11. The significance of nitrous oxide emission due to cropping of grain for biofuel production: a Swedish perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Å. Kasimir Klemedtsson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current regulations governing production of biofuels in the European Union require that they have to mitigate climate change, by producing >35% less greenhouse gases (GHG than fossil fuels. There is a risk that this may not be achievable, since land use for crop production inevitably emits the potent GHG nitrous oxide (N2O, due to nitrogen fertilisation and cycling in the environment. We analyse first-generation biofuel production on agricultural land and conclude that efficient agricultural crop production resulting in a good harvest and low N2O emission can fulfil the EU standard, and is possible under certain conditions for the Swedish agricultural and bioethanol production systems. However, in years having low crop yields, and where cropping is on organic soils, total GHG emissions per unit of fuel produced can be even higher than those released by burning of fossil fuels. In general, the N2O emission size in Sweden and elsewhere in northern Europe is such that there is a >50% chance that the 35% saving requirement will not be met. Thus ecosystem N2O emissions have to be convincingly assessed. Here we compare Swedish emission data with values estimated by means of statistical models and by a global, top-down, approach; the measurements and the predictions often show higher values that would fail to meet the EU standard and thus prevent biofuel production development.

  12. The effect of dietary alterations during rearing on growth, productivity, and behavior in broiler breeder females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, K L H; Widowski, T; Leeson, S; Sandilands, V; Arnone, A; Torrey, S

    2014-02-01

    Parent stocks of meat birds are severely feed restricted to avoid obesity-related health and fertility problems. This restriction often leads to chronic hunger, accompanied by stereotypic behavior. Research based in the United Kingdom has shown that using diets containing fiber and appetite suppressants may relieve some of the symptoms of hunger. However, few data are available regarding North American-sourced ingredients or nondaily feeding regimens. This study investigated the effects of 2 alternative diets, in combination with 2 feeding frequencies on growth, productivity, and behavior in broiler breeders. Six dietary treatments were tested, each with 5 replicate pens of 12 or 13 birds. Control diets consisted of a commercial crumble, fed on a daily or skip-a-day (SAD) basis. Alternative diets included soybean hulls as a fiber source, and calcium propionate as an appetite suppressant of either a feed-grade or purified quality, fed on either a daily or SAD basis. Birds were weighed weekly and egg production was recorded daily. Video cameras were used to record behavior during and following the morning feeding bout every 2 wk from 11 to 28 wk. Data were analyzed with a mixed model ANOVA, with repeated measures. Diet, feeding frequency, time, or an interaction of the 3 had significant effects on all observed behavior during rearing. These differences appeared to diminish during lay, with most stereotypic behavior no longer present. Very little object pecking and aggression was observed during and immediately following feeding bouts; however, daily-fed control birds still displayed this behavior more often, especially during rearing (P = 0.015). During feeding bouts, SAD birds feather pecked (P = 0.003) and rested more (P = 0.0002) than daily-fed birds. Control birds feather pecked most often (P = 0.033) after feeding bouts. Overall, the feed-grade diet appeared most effective at reducing hunger-related behavior, and the control diet appeared the least effective

  13. Knowledge and attitudes toward food safety and use of good production practices among Canadian broiler chicken producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian; Rajić, Andrijana; Letellier, Ann; Cox, Bill; Leslie, Mira; Sanei, Babak; McEwen, Scott A

    2010-07-01

    Provincial broiler-chicken marketing boards in Canada have recently implemented an on-farm food safety program called Safe, Safer, Safest. The purpose of this study was to measure broiler chicken producers' attitudes toward the program and food safety topics and use of highly recommended good production practices (GPP). Mailed and Web-based questionnaires were administered to all producers registered in British Columbia, Ontario, and Quebec in 2008. The response percentage was 33.2% (642 of 1,932). Nearly 70% of respondents rated the program as effective in producing safe chicken, and 49.1% rated the program requirements as easy to implement. Most respondents (92.9%) reported that they do not raise other poultry or keep birds as pets, and 79.8% reported that they clean and disinfect their barns between each flock cycle. Less than 50% of respondents reported that visitors wash their hands or change their clothes before entering barns, 38.4% reported that catching crews wear clean clothes and boots, and 35.8% reported that a crew other than from the hatchery places chicks. Respondents who rated the program requirements as effective or easy to implement were more likely to report the use of five of six highly recommended GPP. Only 21.1% of respondents indicated that Campylobacter can be transmitted from contaminated chicken meat to humans, and 26.6% believed that antimicrobial use in their industry is linked to antimicrobial resistance in humans. Continuing education of producers should focus on improving their awareness of these issues, while mandatory GPP should include those that are known to be effective in controlling Campylobacter and Salmonella in broiler chicken flocks.

  14. Trends and Possible Future Developments in Global Forest-Product Markets—Implications for the Swedish Forest Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnar Jonsson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes trends and possible future developments in global wood-product markets and discusses implications for the Swedish forest sector. Four possible futures, or scenarios, are considered, based on qualitative scenario analysis. The scenarios are distinguished principally by divergent futures with respect to two highly influential factors driving change in global wood-product markets, whose future development is unpredictable. These so-called critical uncertainties were found to be degrees to which: (i current patterns of globalization will continue, or be replaced by regionalism, and (ii concern about the environment, particularly climate change, related policy initiatives and customer preferences, will materialize. The overall future of the Swedish solid wood-product industry looks bright, irrespective of which of the four possible futures occurs, provided it accommodates the expected growth in demand for factory-made, energy-efficient construction components. The prospects for the pulp and paper industry in Sweden appear more ambiguous. Globalization is increasingly shifting production and consumption to the Southern hemisphere, adversely affecting employment and forest owners in Sweden. Further, technical progress in information and communication technology (ICT is expected to lead to drastic reductions in demand for newsprint and printing paper. Chemical pulp producers may profit from a growing bio-energy industry, since they could manufacture new, high-value products in integrated bio-refineries. Mechanical pulp producers cannot do this, however, and might suffer from higher prices for raw materials and electricity.

  15. Use of geostatistics on broiler production for evaluation of different minimum ventilation systems during brooding phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayla Morandi Ridolfi de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate different minimum ventilation systems, in relation to air quality and thermal comfort using geostatistics in brooding phase. The minimum ventilation systems were: Blue House I: exhaust fans + curtain management (end of the building; Blue House II: exhaust fans + side curtain management; and Dark House: exhaust fans + flag. The climate variables evaluated were: dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, carbon dioxide and ammonia concentration, during winter time, at 9 a.m., in 80 equidistant points in brooding area. Data were evaluated by geostatistic technique. The results indicate that Wider broiler houses (above 15.0 m width present the greatest ammonia and humidity concentration. Blue House II present the best results in relation to air quality. However, none of the studied broiler houses present an ideal thermal comfort.

  16. Importance of the producer on retail broiler meat product contamination with Campylobacter spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudirkiene, Egle; Buneviciene, Jurgita; Serniene, Loreta

    2013-01-01

    Background Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, with poultry meat being considered the most important source of the infection. To obtain data on broiler meat contamination with Campylobacter spp. in Lithuania, the occurrence, counts and genotypes of......-dependent, so this should be kept in mind when risk-based control measures at national level are applied. (c) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry...

  17. Effects of free-range access on production parameters and meat quality, composition and taste in slow-growing broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadig, Lisanne M.; Rodenburg, Bas; Reubens, Bert; Aerts, Johan; Duquenne, Barbara; Tuyttens, Frank A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Demand for meat from free-range broiler chickens is increasing in several countries. Consumers are motivated by better animal welfare and other product attributes such as quality and taste. However, scientific literature is not unanimous about whether free-range access influences quality,

  18. Mass media’s production of destination images: Majorca’s image in three Swedish newspapers, 1950-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Kristina N.

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with mass media’s role as producers of images of tourist destinations, and the extent to which mass media can be viewed as external actors in connection to the tourism industry. The aim is to describe and analyse the media images applied to one tourist destination in a selection of Swedish newspapers during the period 1950-2000, in terms of amount of space, media content and evolution over time. In spite of the fact that the production of media images has an impact on geogr...

  19. Identification of a new reovirus causing substantial losses in broiler production in France, despite routine vaccination of breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxler, S; Rigomier, P; Bilic, I; Liebhart, D; Prokofieva, I; Robineau, B; Hess, M

    2013-05-25

    Numerous cases of tenosynovitis appeared in France causing high morbidity in free-range and standard broilers. The main clinical findings were lameness, stunting and non-uniform bodyweights. Although the natural mortality was low, the economic losses due to birds that had to be removed from the flock prematurely, downgrading of carcases and lower average weights at slaughter were substantial. Postmortem examinations, bacteriological, virological and serological examination confirmed the aetiology of avian orthoreovirus (ARV)-induced tenosynovitis. The isolated ARVs were analysed serologically and genetically. Sequencing of σC RT-PCR products and phylogenetic analysis revealed a new type of ARV. The virus was not neutralised in serum neutralisation test using monovalent sera from vaccinated chickens. Together with the flock data, epidemiology of these recent reovirus outbreaks in France was reconstructed. It is concluded that these reovirus isolates differ serologically and genetically from the well described reovirus isolates used in commercial vaccines which were not capable of preventing the disease. The outbreaks resulted in substantial losses in broilers from vaccinated breeders.

  20. Organic Acid Salt from Complete Feed Silage Corn Based by Product as an Alternative to Substitute Antibiotic Function as a Growth Promotor for Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Negara

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of organic acid salt Zn from complete feed silage based on corn by product as an alternative to subtitute antibiotic function as a growth promotor for broiler. Ninety day old commercial Cobb broiler chickens were randomly distributed into six groups having three replicates of five birds in each group. Negative control (R0 birds were offered standard basal diet and no challenged, positive control (R1 birds were offered standard basal diet and challenged with 107 Salmonella typhimurium. Treatment R2, R3, R4 and R5 were challenged by 107 CFU of Salmonella typhimurium which added in feed with 0.1% flouroquinolone, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3% of organic acid salts. The result showed that dietary of organic acid salts affect consumption, weight gain, and final body weight (P<0.05. Meanwhile, feed conversion (FCR was not affected by antibiotics nor organic acids. Our conclusion, Dietary organic acid salt from complete feed silage corn based by product until dose 0.2% can improve the performance of broiler chickens infected Salmonella typhimurium. (Animal Production 11(3: 170-175 (2009 Key Words: broiler, organic acid, Salmonella typhimurium

  1. Precision livestock tools to improve products and processes in broiler production: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MN Mollo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth and production process development require technological support. Technology changes production functions, enabling a higher number of goods to be produced using the same amount of input. In this review, we discuss research and development in information technology that has led to innovative actions, with the new generation of tools, known as precision agriculture tools, that can be applied in Brazilian poultry production. In this context, research and development have focused on producing technological innovations based on increasingly specialized tools that go beyond human mind power, and are related to the acquisition, access, and processing of a huge number of data. The technology generated to date has assimilated the knowledge of experts, transferring it to the computing environment, providing steady, consistent, inexpensive, and fast tools to support decision-making in corporate farms. This will produce more precise and documented decisions, based on accessible and reproducible knowledge. There would be no direct interference of the global market, bringing benefits to producers, consumers, and also ensuring the welfare of birds. This review also highlights the interest of researcher in developing intelligent applications to support best practices, methods, and processes in order to monitor the production chain. It also shows that a few changes may affect the process as a whole, enabling fast decision-making, and promoting a preventative and less aggressive management of birds.

  2. Production performance of finisher broiler fed with cocoyam-corm meal as partial energy replacement for maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Paul P. de la Cruz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Gabing San Fernando (Xanthosoma spp. corms as partial carbohydrate replacement for maize in finisher broiler production. Materials and Methods: The completely randomized design was utilized to investigate the effects of three finisher poultry diets prepared in varying amounts of cocoyam-corm meal set at 0% (control, 25%, and 50% (experimental replacement levels. Results: There were no significant differences (p≥0.05 as to mortality and body weight measurements between control and experimental groups. Similarly, the mean weights of selected internal organs and condemnable carcasses among treatment groups did not show any significant differences (p≥0.05. In terms of the average feed intakes, birds from 50%-cocoyam group had the highest mean value and were found to be statistically different (p≥0.01 from both control and 25%-cocoyam groups. However, feed conversion ratio did not significantly differ (p≥0.05 among three groups. Higher feed costs were associated with the 50%-cocoyam treatment diet, which was only consistent with higher feed inputs. Thus, the group fed with 50%-cocoyam meal had significantly higher total mean production costs (p<0.005 per bird, when other expenses were taken into account. The production costs for the group given 25%-cocoyam meal did not significantly differ (p≥0.05 from the control group. Conclusion: Partial replacement of maize with cocoyam-corm meal at 25% level was acceptable since inclusion at this level did not adversely affect the production performance of finisher broilers in terms of growth rate, mortality rate, and feeding efficiency. The use of cocoyam meal as nonconventional and alternative carbohydrate source in poultry diet presents positive economic implications, especially to smallhold farmers from the developing countries, like the Philippines.

  3. Improving Nutrition Utilization and Meat Quality of Broiler Chickens Through Solid-State Fermentation of Agricultural By-Products by Aureobasidium Pullulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MT Lee

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A 35 d trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of co-fermented agricultural by-products, soybean hulls and Pleurotus eryngii stalk residue (PESR, with Aureobasidium pullulans on nutrients digestibility and meat quality in broilers fed on conventional corn-soybean meal basal diet. A total of 400 1-d-old Ross broilers were allotted to 4 dietary treatments with 4 replicate pens (25 birds per pen. Birds were fed the corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with 0% (CON, 0.5% fermented soybean hulls (0.5% FSBH, 0.5% fermented soybean hulls partially replaced with PESR (0.5% FSHP and 1.0% FSHP. The broilers fed on the diet that contained fermented products had higher total tract apparent digestibility for hemicellulose than those on CON (p<0.05. Meanwhile, the birds fed on 0.5% FSHP also showed the lightest duodenum and jejunum weight among all groups. Compared with the CON, the inclusion of 1.0% FSHP in the diet significantly decreased ammonia N concentration in cecum followed by 0.5% FSHP and subsequent 0.5% FSBH group. Dietary supplementation of fermented products significantly improved WHC and increased protein content in meat as compared with the CON. Moreover, the fat content in meat decreased in the broilers that received 0.5% FSBH and 1.0% FSHP. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of co-fermented agricultural by-products, PESR and soybean meal, could improve the digestibility of hemicellulose and decrease the cecal ammonia N concentration; moreover, the increased WHC and protein level as well as decreased fat content in meat suggested the promising utilization of these low-cost materials as broiler feed additives.

  4. Effect of zeolite (clinoptilolite as feed additive in Tunisian broilers on the total flora, meat texture and the production of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallek Zouhir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing consumer demand for healthier food products has led to the development of governmental policies regarding health claims in many developed countries. In this context, contamination of poultry by food-borne pathogens is considered one of the major problems facing the progress of the poultry industry in Tunisia. Result Zeolite (Clinoptilolites was added to chicken feed at concentrations 0,5% or 1% and was evaluated for its effectiveness to reduce total flora in chickens and its effects on performance of the production. The broilers were given free and continuous access to a nutritionally non-limiting diet (in meal formthat was either a basal diet or a' zeolite diet' (the basal diet supplemented with clinoptilolite at a level of 0,5% or 1%. It was found that adding zeolite in the broiler diet significantly (p Conclusion This study showed the significance of using zeolite, as a feed additive for broilers, as part of a comprehensive program to control total flora at the broiler farm and to increase level of Omega 3 fatty acid on the chicken body.

  5. Production performance of finisher broiler fed with cocoyam-corm meal as partial energy replacement for maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Christian Paul P

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Gabing San Fernando ( Xanthosoma spp.) corms as partial carbohydrate replacement for maize in finisher broiler production. The completely randomized design was utilized to investigate the effects of three finisher poultry diets prepared in varying amounts of cocoyam-corm meal set at 0% (control), 25%, and 50% (experimental) replacement levels. There were no significant differences (p≥0.05) as to mortality and body weight measurements between control and experimental groups. Similarly, the mean weights of selected internal organs and condemnable carcasses among treatment groups did not show any significant differences (p≥0.05). In terms of the average feed intakes, birds from 50%-cocoyam group had the highest mean value and were found to be statistically different (p≥0.01) from both control and 25%-cocoyam groups. However, feed conversion ratio did not significantly differ (p≥0.05) among three groups. Higher feed costs were associated with the 50%-cocoyam treatment diet, which was only consistent with higher feed inputs. Thus, the group fed with 50%-cocoyam meal had significantly higher total mean production costs (pmeal did not significantly differ (p≥0.05) from the control group. Partial replacement of maize with cocoyam-corm meal at 25% level was acceptable since inclusion at this level did not adversely affect the production performance of finisher broilers in terms of growth rate, mortality rate, and feeding efficiency. The use of cocoyam meal as nonconventional and alternative carbohydrate source in poultry diet presents positive economic implications, especially to smallhold farmers from the developing countries, like the Philippines.

  6. INFLUENCE OF STOCKING DENSITY AS A FACTOR OF PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY ON THE BODY CONFORMATION OF BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almira Softić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to examine the influence of stocking density on the conformation in live broilers of Cobb provenance. A total of 120 chickens of Cobb 500 provenance are divided into three groups with 40 animals each (two experimental and one control group. At the end of the first week of feeding, 20 chickens were sampled and marked by random sampling. Chickens from the first experimental group (P1 represented the group with lower population of stocking density (12 chicks/m2, chickens from the second experimental group (P2 represented the group of chickens with a higher population of stocking density (18 chicks/m2, while the stocking density of the control group (K chickens was in line with technological recommendations (15 chicks /m2. During the experiment, marked chickens were monitored and measured for the chest circumference, drumstick circumference, length of keel (Crista sterni, breast depth and breast angle on a weekly basis. Measures conformations were taken in live chickens in hanging position with the use of appropriate instruments: millimeter measuring tape, caliper and protractor ZP-3. The results were statistically analyzed, statistically significant differences were noted, and correlation coefficient was determined. The longest circumference and depth of chest, drumstick circumference, and keel length were observed in the control group of chickens by the end of the experiment. The differences in comparison with the experimental groups were not statistically significant. The results indicate that compliance with the production technology can result in better production indicators and other factors including the success of intensive poultry production.Key words: stocking density, conformation, live broiler, Cobb provenance

  7. Determination of the equation parameters of carbon flow curves and estimated carbon flow and CO2 emissions from broiler production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, J D; Bockor, L; Borille, R; Coldebella, A; Ribeiro, A M L; Kessler, A M

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the equation parameters of carbon (i.e., C) flow curves and to estimate C flow and carbon dioxide (i.e., CO2) emissions from the production of 1- to 49-day-old broilers from different genetic strains. In total, 384 1-day-old chicks were used, distributed into 4 groups: high-performance males (Cobb-M) and females (Cobb-F), and intermediate-performance males (C44-M) and females (C44-F), with 6 replicates/treatment according to a completely randomized study design. Carbon intake and retention were calculated based on diet and body C composition, and expired C was stoichiometrically estimated as digestible C intake-C retention-C in the urine. Litter C emission was estimated as initial litter C+C in the excreta-final litter C. Carbon flow curves were determined fitting data by nonlinear regression using the Gompertz function. Expired CO2 was calculated based on expired C. The applied nonlinear model presented goodness-of-fit for all responses (R2>0.99). Carbon dioxide production was highly correlated with growth rate. At 42 d age, CO2 expiration (g/bird) was 3,384.4 for Cobb-M, 2,947.9 for Cobb-F, 2,512.5 for C44-M, and 2185.1 for C44-F. Age also significantly affected CO2 production: to achieve 2.0 kg BW, CO2 expiration (g/bird) was 1,794.3 for Cobb-M, 2,016.5 for Cobb-F, 2617.7 for C44-M, and 3,092.3 for C44-F. The obtained equations present high predictability to estimate individual CO2 emissions in strains of Cobb and C44 broilers of any weight, or age, reared between 1 and 49 d age. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Solid state fermentation of broiler litter for production of biocontrol agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, T T; Eiteman, M A; Hanel, B M

    2002-03-01

    Several varieties of heat-sterilized broiler litter with 60% (wet basis, wb) moisture content were substrate in solid-state fermentations to produce biocontrol agents. Litter varieties included litter produced by one flock of broilers from medicated and non-medicated controlled rations, and litter produced by two flocks and four flocks on a single application of bedding material from medicated commercial sources. Litter preparations were inoculated with monocultures of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar japonensis strain Buibui, a pathogen of Japanese beetle larvae (Popillia japonica), or Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79. B. thuringiensis did not grow in unextracted 1-flock litter nor in water extracted litter, but grew in methanol extracted litter to 5 x 10(10) cell forming units (CFU)/g litter (dry weight, dw) and a spore count of 1 x 10(10) CFU/g litter (dw). B. thuringiensis also grew in unprocessed 2-flock and 4-flock litter, achieving cell counts of 3 x 10(9) and 1 x 10(9) CFU/g litter (dw), respectively, and spore counts of 1 x 10(9) CFU/g litter (dw). P. fluorescens grew in medicated 1-flock litter with no extraction to a cell density greater than 4 x 10(11) CFU/g litter (dw). Bioassays in soil containing over 0.5% (db) litter fermented with B. thuringiensis resulted in over 90% mortality in 21 days for first instars of Japanese beetle when compared to a control treatment using compost without fermented litter. The investigations demonstrate that bacterial biocontrol agents produced via solid substrate fermentations using broiler poultry litter have potential in biocontrol applications in the soil environment.

  9. Development of a PCR assay suitable for Campylobacter spp. mass screening programs in broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Dang Duong; Pedersen, Karl; Madsen, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    culture techniques since 1998. However, using conventional culture methods is time consuming and laborious, and therefore a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Campylobacter detection assay suitable for mass screening of cloacal swab samples from broilers was developed. By comparing the PCR detection...... with conventional culture methods, significantly more samples were found positive for Campylobacter with the PCR method. The PCR method is rapid, sensitive and suitable for mass screening for Campylobacter in poultry. Using this PCR method Campylobacter can be detected within 15 h. Notably, the method can...... be applied to detect Campylobacter directly from chicken feces at the species level....

  10. Biofuel and other biomass based products from contaminated sites - Potentials and barriers from Swedish perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Enell, Anja; Rihm, Thomas; Haglund, Kristina; Wik, Ola (Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Blom, Sonja; Angelbratt, Alexandra (FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bardos, Paul (r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom)); Track, Thomas (DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)); Keuning, Sytze (Bioclear b.v., Groningen (Netherlands))

    2009-07-01

    In this report, results are presented based on interviews and literature surveys on the triggers and stoppers for non food crop on contaminated land in Sweden. The report also includes a first estimate of potential marginal land for biofuel production in Sweden. The report is a first step to explore the feasibility of a range of possible approaches to combine risk based land management (RBLM) with non-food crop land-uses and organic matter re-use as appropriate in a Swedish context. The focus of the report is on the treatment of contaminated land by phyto-remediation and on biofuel cultivation. In Sweden, like all other countries in Europe, areas of land have been degraded by past use. Such previously developed land includes areas affected by mining, fallout from industrial processes such as smelting, areas elevated with contaminated dredged sediments, former landfill sites and many other areas where the decline of industrial activity has left a legacy of degraded land and communities. The extent of contamination may not be sufficient to trigger remediation under current regulatory conditions, and there may be little economic incentive to regenerate the affected areas. An ideal solution would be a land management approach that is able to pay for itself. Biomass from coppice or other plantations has long been seen as a possible means of achieving this goal. Phyto remediation offers a low cost method for remediation of areas that are not candidates for conventional regeneration. The optimal conditions for phyto remediation are large land areas of low or mediate contamination. Phyto remediation is also suitable to prevent spreading of contaminants, for example in green areas such as in cities, as waste water buffer and small size remediation areas with diffuse spreading. Phyto remediation implies that plants, fungi or algae are used to remediate, control or increase the natural attenuation of contaminants. Depending on the contaminating species and the site conditions

  11. Effects of high fibre diets on gut fill, behaviour and productivity in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2011-01-01

    , but the hens reached maximum lay sooner than industry guidelines indicates. The results show that high fibre diets prolong the passage of feed and reduce stereotypic behaviour, indicating an improvement in the well-being of the birds, who may experience less hunger than commercially fed broiler breeders. Key......Diets based on different fibre sources were given to broiler breeders from day 12 to 19 weeks of age to increase feed quantity. Diet A (commercial control diet: 21% dietary fibre (DF); 10.7MJ/kg), B (42% DF; 7.25MJ/kg), C (38% DF; 7.25MJ/kg) and D (30% DF; 8.00MJ/kg) were fed each to 8 groups of 28...... chickens. The food allowance was adjusted twice weekly to obtain commercial growth curves. Weights of intestinal segments and their contents were measured seven times during 24 hours at 4, 9 and 14 weeks. Behavioural observations were carried out at 18 weeks. Group size was reduced to 10 hens per group...

  12. Effects of high fibre diets on gut fill, behaviour and productivity in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    Different types of fibre sources were used in high fibre diets to increase feeding quantity and measure the effect on different parameters in two experiments. In exp. I, three diets (A, commercial control diet; B, high insoluble fibre content; and C, high soluble fibre content) were fed to 10...... groups of 12 broiler breeder chickens (age: 2 to 15 weeks). Similar growth rates were obtained on different quantities of food (e.g. food allocation in week 14: approx. 80, 100, and 130 g/d for A, B, and C, respectively) with all birds reaching commercial target weight at 15 weeks of age. Birds fed A ate......, and the higher water content of their litter may have affected their thermoregulation. In exp. II, four diets based on different fibre sources were given to broiler breeders from day 12 to 19 weeks of age to increase feed quantity. Diet A (commercial control diet: 10.7MJ/kg), B (42% dietary fibre (DF); 7.25MJ...

  13. Fat deposition in a broiler sire strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, F.R.

    1987-01-01

    The development in poultry meat production and consumption causes changes in the type of broiler demanded. At the onset of specialized broiler production, most improvements were made by intensive selection for weight gain, whereas little attention was given to carcass composition or

  14. A systematic review-meta-analysis and meta-regression on the effect of selected competitive exclusion products on Salmonella spp. prevalence and concentration in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Ashley K; Farrar, Ashley M; Waddell, Lisa A; Wilkins, Wendy; Wilhelm, Barbara J; Bucher, Oliver; Wills, Robert W; Bailey, R Hart; Varga, Csaba; McEwen, Scott A; Rajić, Andrijana

    2013-08-01

    The effectiveness of various competitive exclusion (CE) products for reducing Salmonella colonization in broiler chickens was evaluated using systematic review-meta-analysis-meta-regression (SR-MA-MR). Relevance screening identified 201 relevant studies that were subjected to methodological assessment. Of these studies, 159 were suitable for data extraction, 66 were presented in a number of MAs and 130 were examined in a meta-regression (MR). Fourteen different CE products were identified, 9 of them commercial products, and the most common route of administration was oral gavage (63.7% of trials). Meta-analyses indicated that a number of CE products reduce Salmonella colonization in broilers, the most effective one being Preempt™ which was formerly known as CF-3. Five study characteristics (publication year, CE type, CE route, sample origin, and Salmonella serovar administered/recovered) and three methodological soundness characteristics (treatment assignment, intervention and laboratory methods description) were retained as statistically significant (pchicken source CE culture products in effectiveness. The administration of CE through spraying the chicks at the hatchery was determined to be just as effective as the oral gavage treatment, and more practical for farmers to administer. The results of this study could be useful in decision-making concerning the on-farm use of CE products in broiler chickens, and as inputs for risk assessments as the industry pushes for more antibiotic-free alternatives. Out of the various interventions to reduce Salmonella colonization in broilers on-farm, CE was the most studied; its inability to be licenced in certain countries and proof of consistent efficacy remains a barrier. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Protease Addition and Replacement of Soybean Meal by Corn Gluten Meal on the Growth of Broilers and on the Environmental Performances of a Broiler Production System in Greece.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Giannenas

    significant differences (P>0.05 were observed in the quality of the breast and thigh meat and in the feed cost per kg body weight gain for the total duration of the growth period between the Control and Gluten-Prot broiler groups. The LCA suggested that the ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions due to litter handling constitute the farm level hot-spots for the Acidification and Eutrophication Potentials of the Control and Soy-Prot systems and the Global Warming Potential of the Gluten-Prot system, respectively. The Latin American soybean production and domestic corn production and lignite mining are important off-farm polluting processes for the studied life cycles. The Soy-Prot and Gluten-Prot systems both performed better than the Control system in nine of Environmental Impact Category Indicators assessed, with the respective differences being generally larger for the Gluten-Prot system. The environmental impact estimates are regarded as initial, indicative figures due to their inherent uncertainty. Overall, the results could be considered as positive indications in the effort to sustainably replace the conventional, soybean-dependent control diet in the specific broiler production system.

  16. Effects of Protease Addition and Replacement of Soybean Meal by Corn Gluten Meal on the Growth of Broilers and on the Environmental Performances of a Broiler Production System in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannenas, Ilias; Bonos, Eleftherios; Anestis, Vasileios; Filioussis, Georgios; Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K; Bartzanas, Thomas; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    significant differences (P>0.05) were observed in the quality of the breast and thigh meat and in the feed cost per kg body weight gain for the total duration of the growth period between the Control and Gluten-Prot broiler groups. The LCA suggested that the ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions due to litter handling constitute the farm level hot-spots for the Acidification and Eutrophication Potentials of the Control and Soy-Prot systems and the Global Warming Potential of the Gluten-Prot system, respectively. The Latin American soybean production and domestic corn production and lignite mining are important off-farm polluting processes for the studied life cycles. The Soy-Prot and Gluten-Prot systems both performed better than the Control system in nine of Environmental Impact Category Indicators assessed, with the respective differences being generally larger for the Gluten-Prot system. The environmental impact estimates are regarded as initial, indicative figures due to their inherent uncertainty. Overall, the results could be considered as positive indications in the effort to sustainably replace the conventional, soybean-dependent control diet in the specific broiler production system.

  17. Performance Of Growing Pigs And Finisher Broilers Housed Together

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance and cost of feeding young growing pigs and finisher broilers under integrated broiler/pig production system were investigated. Four young growing pigs (the control) were housed in pen A and fed 4% of their body weight as commercial growers feed. Another 4 were housed in pen B with broilers in ...

  18. Life cycle energy use, costs, and greenhouse gas emission of broiler farms in different production systems in Iran-a case study of Alborz province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishgar-Komleh, Seyyed Hassan; Akram, Asadollah; Keyhani, Alireza; van Zelm, Rosalie

    2017-07-01

    In order to achieve sustainable development in agriculture, it is necessary to quantify and compare the energy, economic, and environmental aspects of products. This paper studied the energy, economic, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission patterns in broiler chicken farms in the Alborz province of Iran. We studied the effect of the broiler farm size as different production systems on the energy, economic, and environmental indices. Energy use efficiency (EUE) and benefit-cost ratio (BCR) were 0.16 and 1.11, respectively. Diesel fuel and feed contributed the most in total energy inputs, while feed and chicks were the most important inputs in economic analysis. GHG emission calculations showed that production of 1000 birds produces 19.13 t CO 2-eq and feed had the highest share in total GHG emission. Total GHG emissions based on different functional units were 8.5 t CO 2-eq per t of carcass and 6.83 kg CO 2-eq per kg live weight. Results of farm size effect on EUE revealed that large farms had better energy management. For BCR, there was no significant difference between farms. Lower total GHG emissions were reported for large farms, caused by better management of inputs and fewer bird losses. Large farms with more investment had more efficient equipment, resulting in a decrease of the input consumption. In view of our study, it is recommended to support the small-scale broiler industry by providing subsidies to promote the use of high-efficiency equipment. To decrease the amount of energy usage and GHG emissions, replacing heaters (which use diesel fuel) with natural gas heaters can be considered. In addition to the above recommendations, the use of energy saving light bulbs may reduce broiler farm electricity consumption.

  19. Behavioural motivations and abilities in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Broilers are chickens kept commercially under intensive husbandry conditions for poultry meat production. They grow to a slaughterweight of approximately 2.2 kg in 6 weeks. Broilers show a pronounced decrease in behavioural activity during their short life. The aim of this thesis was to gain more

  20. Pododermatitis in Danish broiler farms 2002 - 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian; Jensen, Henrik Bang; Ambrosen, Thorkil

           Hyperkeratosis and ulcers on foot-pads is a major welfare problem in broiler production. The problem is associated with ammonia irritation due to poor and wet litter quality. Since 2002 Danish producers have been subject to the Act on Welfare in Broilers and Parent Stock. After slaughter...

  1. Effects of environmental temperature and dietary manganese on egg production performance, egg quality, and some plasma biochemical traits of broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y W; Xie, J J; Li, W X; Lu, L; Zhang, L Y; Ji, C; Lin, X; Liu, H C; Odle, J; Luo, X G

    2015-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of environmental temperature and dietary Mn on egg production performance, egg quality, and some plasma biochemical traits of broiler breeders. A completely randomized factorial design involved 2 environmental temperatures (a normal temperature, 21 ± 1°C, and a high temperature, 32 ± 1°C) × 3 dietary Mn treatments (a Mn-unsupplemented corn–soybean meal basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 120 mg of Mn/kg of diet as either MnSO4·H2O or manganese proteinate). There were 6 treatments with 6 replicates (4 birds per replicate). High temperature decreased egg weight (P alkaline phosphatase activity (P dietary Mn in laying rate, egg yield, feed intake, and egg:feed ratio. Under normal temperature, dietary Mn did not affect the above 4 parameters; however, under high temperature, broiler breeders fed the diet supplemented with the organic Mn showed greater (P dietary supplementation of either organic or inorganic Mn improved eggshell strength and thermotolerance and reduced protein oxidation and that the organic Mn could alleviate the negative effect of high temperature on egg production performance of broiler breeders at the period of 32 to 45 wk of age.

  2. Effect of the litter material on drinking water quality in broiler production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RG Garcia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of drinking water and its effect on broiler performance, drinking water quality was studied using six different litter materials. The presence of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli was investigated. The following litter materials were used in the trial: wood shavings, rice husks, chopped Napier grass (Pennisetum pupureum, 50% sugarcane bagasse (Saccharum L. + 50% wood shavings, 50% sugarcane bagasse (Saccharum L. + 50% rice husks, and plain sugarcane bagasse (Saccharum L.. A number of 1620 Ross® one-day-old chicks were reared in 54 pens measuring 4.5 m² each, equipped with a bell drinker and a tube feeder. Water samples were collected in sterile tubes on days 28 and 42 of the rearing period, and submitted to the laboratory for analyses. Microbiological data were organized by classes expressed in a logarithm scale, where the lowest contamination corresponds to class 1 and the highest contamination to class 4. Results showed that total coliform contamination was higher on day 28 than in the end of the rearing period, and that E. coli presence was detected during both analyzed periods. The litter materials that presented lower degree of water contamination, predominantly class 1, were sugarcane bagasse and 50% of sugarcane bagasse and 50% of rice husks.

  3. Hematological Parameters in Broilers Reared in a Closed Production Farm in the Low Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Lucía Avilez Colón

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hematology and blood chemistry are useful tools to establish a definitive diagnosis, to guide and explore the nature of pathophysiological situations that affect birds. Several diseases of poultry can change blood parameters, which are little studied in Colombia. This study aims to determine degrees of blood hematological parameters in broilers (1-42 days old reared under experimental conditions. Blood samples were taken during the second, fourth and sixth weeks of age. Average results were: hematocrit (PCV %: 27.53; hemoglobin (Hb g/dL: 9.20; mean corpuscular volume (MCV fl: 43.10; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC g/dL: 33.17; erythrocytes (Eri 106 μl: 6.98; leukocytes (Leu 103μL: 19.69; absolute relative values for lymphocyte (Lin %: 72.58; heterophile (Het %: 35; monocytes (Mon %: 9.8; eosinophils (Eos %: 17.8, and basophils (Bas %: 1.08. These results are within normal ranges, and present small variations attributable to environmental conditions and to those of confinement. Therefore, further studies are needed on this topic in the region.

  4. Work activities and workers' health in broiler production: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M do CB de Alencar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of health related symptoms and to analyze the work activities of workers in contracted non-mechanized broiler farms in two regions of the state of Paraná in order to determine possible factors associated to those symptoms. The methods consisted in selecting the houses and the workers, and to apply a questionnaire that included demographic data, questions related to work, the Nordic Questionnaire for Musculoskeletal Symptoms, other symptoms (runny nose, skin itching, throat and eye irritation. In addition, workers were asked if they enjoyed their job, if the supervisor motivated them to work, and if they were afraid to lose their job. Activities were submitted to systematic observations, adapted from Ergonomics, and the loads carried were analyzed and some instruments weighted. The study included 80 workers of both genders between 16 and 59 years, being 40 from each region. There were evidences of low back pain risk in the activities of filling drinkers and washing bell drinkers, with a higher prevalence in region A, where automated systems were less frequently used. The study suggests that mechanized filling of feeders, and the use of nipple drinkers may prevent health problems. It was also found that psychosocial aspects were associated to musculoskeletal symptoms. Promoting better working conditions is essential, as these aspects can affect human behavior at work.

  5. Productive performance of broiler chicks fed rations containing irradiated meat-bone meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. R.

    2001-12-01

    The changes in the feed efficiency (FE) (feed intake/body weight gain), energy efficiency (EE) (metabolizable energy intake/body weight gain), total protein efficiency (TPE) (body weight gain/protein intake), metabolized energy (ME) and body weight gain and in the biological aspects of the digestive organs by broiler chicks during different periods of age (14-21 days: 3 weeks, 21-28 days: 4 weeks, 28-35 days: 5 weeks, 35-42 days: 6 weeks) were evaluated in 5 groups fed on experimental diets containing irradiated meat (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 kGy). the results showed that no significant (p 0.05) with age (comparing ages 5 and 6 weeks with 3 and 4 weeks) No significant (p<0.05) differences were noticed in FE, EE and TPE between the ages 3 and 4 weeks. There was a significant increase (p.0.05) in ME values for the age 6 weeks compared to 3, 4 and 5 weeks. No significant differences were observed in the ME values between the ages 4 and 5 weeks. (author)

  6. Lean production and work-related musculoskeletal disorders: overviews of international and Swedish studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännmark, Mikael; Håkansson, Malin

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed at summarizing the knowledge of the relationship between Lean and work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD), and WMSD risk factors, in manufacturing companies. Literature search processes identified 23 publications studying this, in scientific journals. Eight included measurements of WMSD; three were mostly negative, two showed mixed results, one showed no results and two were mostly positive. Eighteen publications included measurements of WMSD risk factors; seven showed mostly negative results, eight showed mixed results, two showed mostly positive results and one was inconclusive. Three literature reviews were identified, which studied this question; two were mostly negative, while the third was inconclusive. Also, 12 publications of grey literature studying Lean and WMSD risk factors in Swedish organizations were identified; nine showed mixed results, two showed mostly positive results and one showed mostly negative results. Due to the varying quality and study design of the publications, together with the few identified studies, it is difficult to compare them. The context and the implementation also likely affect the results. The general conclusion was that a Lean implementation may increase the risk of WMSD and risk factors for WMSD, if it is not accompanied with an ergonomic intervention.

  7. Strategic analysis of Swedish agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Fogelfors, Håkan; Wivstad, Maria; Eckersten, Henrik; Holstein, Fredrik; Johansson, Susanne; Verwijst, Theo

    2009-01-01

    This strategic analysis of Swedish agriculture – production systems and agricultural landscapes in a time of change – focuses on climate change, future availability of natural resources and economic regulation in a global food market. The background to the project was that the Faculty of Natural Resources and Agriculture of the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences identified an urgent need to explore the implications and opportunities of coming changes for agricultural production syste...

  8. Review of environmental enrichment for broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Van de Weerd, H.A.; de Jong, I.C.

    2018-01-01

    Welfare problems are commonly found in both conventional and organic production of broiler chickens. In order to reduce the extent of welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating, enriched environments. The aim of the present paper is to provide a review of the effect on behavior...... and welfare of the different kinds of environmental enrichments in the production of broilers that have been described in the scientific literature. Environmental enrichment is defined as an improvement of the environment of captive animals, which increases the behavioral opportunities of the animal and leads...... benefit animals. Environmental enrichment for broilers often has the purpose of satisfying behavioral needs and/or stimulating the broilers to an increased level of activity, which among others will reduce the occurrence of leg problems. Potentially successful environmental enrichments for broiler...

  9. Production and use of regional climate model projections - A Swedish perspective on building climate services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellström, Erik; Bärring, Lars; Nikulin, Grigory; Nilsson, Carin; Persson, Gunn; Strandberg, Gustav

    2016-09-01

    We describe the process of building a climate service centred on regional climate model results from the Rossby Centre regional climate model RCA4. The climate service has as its central facility a web service provided by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute where users can get an idea of various aspects of climate change from a suite of maps, diagrams, explaining texts and user guides. Here we present the contents of the web service and how this has been designed and developed in collaboration with users of the service in a dialogue reaching over more than a decade. We also present the ensemble of climate projections with RCA4 that provides the fundamental climate information presented at the web service. In this context, RCA4 has been used to downscale nine different coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) from the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) to 0.44° (c. 50 km) horizontal resolution over Europe. Further, we investigate how this ensemble relates to the CMIP5 ensemble. We find that the iterative approach involving the users of the climate service has been successful as the service is widely used and is an important source of information for work on climate adaptation in Sweden. The RCA4 ensemble samples a large degree of the spread in the CMIP5 ensemble implying that it can be used to illustrate uncertainties and robustness in future climate change in Sweden. The results also show that RCA4 changes results compared to the underlying AOGCMs, sometimes in a systematic way.

  10. Optimization of phase feeding of starter, grower, and finisher diets for male broilers by mixture experimental design: forty-eight-day production period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, W B; Boykin, D; Branton, S L

    2004-08-01

    A mixture experiment, a variant of response surface methodology, was designed to determine the proportion of time to feed broiler starter (23% protein), grower (20% protein), and finisher (18% protein) diets to optimize production and processing variables based on a total production time of 48 d. Mixture designs are useful for proportion problems where the components of the experiment (i.e., length of time the diets were fed) add up to a unity (48 d). The experiment was conducted with day-old male Ross x Ross broiler chicks. The birds were placed 50 birds per pen in each of 60 pens. The experimental design was a 10-point augmented simplex-centroid (ASC) design with 6 replicates of each point. Each design point represented the portion(s) of the 48 d that each of the diets was fed. Formulation of the diets was based on NRC standards. At 49 d, each pen of birds was evaluated for production data including BW, feed conversion, and cost of feed consumed. Then, 6 birds were randomly selected from each pen for processing data. Processing variables included live weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, fat pad percentage, and breast yield (pectoralis major and pectoralis minor weights). Production and processing data were fit to simplex regression models. Model terms determined not to be significant (P > 0.05) were removed. The models were found to be statistically adequate for analysis of the response surfaces. A compromise solution was calculated based on optimal constraints designated for the production and processing data. The results indicated that broilers fed a starter and finisher diet for 30 and 18 d, respectively, would meet the production and processing constraints. Trace plots showed that the production and processing variables were not very sensitive to the grower diet.

  11. Canonical discrimination of the effect of a new broiler production facility on soil chemical profiles as related to current management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Cynthia L; Crippen, Tawni L; Byrd, J Allen; Beier, Ross C; Yeater, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    The effect dirt-floored broiler houses have on the underlying native soil, and the potential for contamination of the ground water by leaching under the foundation, is an understudied area. This study examines alterations in fifteen quantitative soil parameters (Ca, Cu, electrical conductivity, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, NO3, organic matter, P, pH, S, soil moisture and Zn) in the underlayment of a newly constructed dirt-floored broiler house over the first two years of production (Native through Flock 11). The experiment was conducted near NW Robertson County, Texas, where the native soil is a fine, smectitic thermic Udertic Paleustalfs and the slopes range from zero to three percent. Multiple samples were collected from under each of three water and three feed lines the length of the house, in a longitudinal study during February 2008 through August 2010. To better define the relationship between the soil parameters and sampling times, a canonical discriminant analysis approach was used. The soil profiles assembled into five distinctive clusters corresponding to time and management practices. Results of this work revealed that the majority of parameters increased over time. The management practices of partial and total house clean-outs markedly altered soil profiles the house underlayment, thus reducing the risk of infiltration into the ground water near the farm. This is important as most broiler farms consist of several houses within a small area, so the cumulative ecological impact could be substantial if not properly managed.

  12. Production parameters, carcass development and blood parameters of the broiler chick fed diets which include rapeseed, flax, grape and buckthorn meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Alexandru Vlaicu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was performed on 75, day-old ROSS 308 chicks assigned to 3 groups (C, E1 and E2 to test new feeding solutions for broilers using oil industry by-products. In the starter phase (0-10 days, all chicks received a conventional compound feed. In the other two stages (growing, finishing, compared to the conventional diet given to the C group, the diet formulations of the experimental groups included different proportions, depending on the phase of development, rapeseeds meal and grape pomace (E1 and flaxseeds meal and buckthorn meal (E2. The compound feed for group E2 had significantly (P≤0.05 higher ω-3 PUFA concentrations than groups C and E1. Six blood samples/group were collected in the end of the feeding trial, used for biochemical and haematological determinations. Six chicks/group were slaughtered on day 42, to measure carcass and internal organs development. The feed intake and gains were monitored throughout the experimental period (10-42 days. At 42 days, E2 broiler chicks had significantly (P≤0.05 lower body weight than C broiler chicks. Serum glycaemia, cholesterol and trygliceride concentrations were significantly (P≤0.05 lower in E2 chicks than in C chicks, by 17.94 %, 25.70 % and 42.05%, respectively.

  13. Canonical discrimination of the effect of a new broiler production facility on soil chemical profiles as related to current management practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia L Sheffield

    Full Text Available The effect dirt-floored broiler houses have on the underlying native soil, and the potential for contamination of the ground water by leaching under the foundation, is an understudied area. This study examines alterations in fifteen quantitative soil parameters (Ca, Cu, electrical conductivity, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, NO3, organic matter, P, pH, S, soil moisture and Zn in the underlayment of a newly constructed dirt-floored broiler house over the first two years of production (Native through Flock 11. The experiment was conducted near NW Robertson County, Texas, where the native soil is a fine, smectitic thermic Udertic Paleustalfs and the slopes range from zero to three percent. Multiple samples were collected from under each of three water and three feed lines the length of the house, in a longitudinal study during February 2008 through August 2010. To better define the relationship between the soil parameters and sampling times, a canonical discriminant analysis approach was used. The soil profiles assembled into five distinctive clusters corresponding to time and management practices. Results of this work revealed that the majority of parameters increased over time. The management practices of partial and total house clean-outs markedly altered soil profiles the house underlayment, thus reducing the risk of infiltration into the ground water near the farm. This is important as most broiler farms consist of several houses within a small area, so the cumulative ecological impact could be substantial if not properly managed.

  14. Ayam Pedaging Jantan yang Dipelihara di Dataran Tinggi Sulawesi Selatan Produktivitasnya Lebih Tinggi (HIGHER PRODUCTIVITY PERFORMANCE OF MALE BROILERS REARED IN THE HIGHLANDOF SOUTH SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahri Syamsuryadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Study to determine the correlation between husbandry environment and sex to the performance, hematological characteristics, and meat quality of broilers have been conducted. Two hundred and eighty eight female and male Cobb broilers, were kept in cage where eight broilers with the same sex in each pen. A completely randomized experimental design with a 3x2 factorial arrangement (three different altitudes x two sexes with three replicates was applied. The three different altitudes included 50 m, 300 m, and 500 m above sea level, respectively. The results showed that differences in maintenance altitude and sex significantly influenced (P0.01 the animal srectal temperature, feed conversion, and meat chemical and organoleptic. It is concluded that better productivity can be achieved when male broilers are reared in a high altitude environment. ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji hubungan lingkungan pemeliharaan dan jenis kelamin ayam pedaging terhadap performans, karakteristik hematologi, dan kualitas daging. Sebanyak 288 ekor ayam pedaging strain Cobb, berjenis kelamin jantan dan betina, dipelihara dalam petak kandang dan tiap petak diisi delapan ekor ayam dengan jenis kelamin yang sama. Penelitian disusun berdasarkan Randangan Acak Lengkap (RAL pola faktorial (3x2 dengan tiga ulangan. Faktor pertama ialah ketinggian tempat pemeliharaan dengan tiga kategori yaitu: ketinggian (50 mdpl, ketinggian (300 mdpl, dan ketinggian (500 mdpl sedangkan faktor kedua ialah jenis kelamin jantan dan betina. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perbedaan ketinggian tempat pemeliharaan dan jenis kelamin nyata memengaruhi (P0.01 suhu rektal, konversi pakan, kimia daging dan organoleptik. Hasil penelitian ini menyimpulkan performans yang lebih baik dapat dicapai apabila ayam pedaging dipelihara pada dataran tinggi dengan jenis kelamin jantan.

  15. By-product of Tropical Vermicelli Waste as a Novel Alternative Feedstuff in Broiler Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rungcharoen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to determine physical and chemical properties of vermicelli waste (VW and effect of VW inclusion levels on growth performance of broilers. In experiment 1, VW samples were randomly collected from vermicelli industry in Thailand to analyze nutritional composition. Vermicelli waste contained 9.96% moisture, 12.06% CP, 32.30% crude fiber (CF, and 0.57% ether extract (EE, as DM basis. The ratio of insoluble:soluble non-starch polysaccharide (NSP was 43.4:8.9. A total of 120 chicks (6 pens per treatment and 10 chicks per pen were fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet or 20% VW substituted diet to determine the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen retention (AMEn of VW. The AMEn of VW was 1,844.7±130.71 kcal/kg. In experiment 2, a total of 1,200 chicks were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments for 42-d growth assay. There were 300 chicks with 6 pens per treatment and 50 chicks per pen. The dietary treatments contained 0%, 5%, 10%, or 15% VW, respectively. All diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. From 0 to 18 d of age chicks fed VW diets had higher (p<0.001 feed conversion ratio (FCR compared with those fed the control diet. No difference was observed during grower and finisher phase (19 to 42 d. Chicks fed VW diets had lower relative weight of abdominal fat (p<0.001 but higher relative weight of gizzard (p<0.05 than those of chicks fed the control diet. Increasing VW inclusion levels increased ileal digesta viscosity (p<0.05 and intestinal villus height of chicks (p< 0.001. For apparent total tract digestibility assay, there were 4 metabolic cages of 6 chicks that were fed experimental treatment diets (the same as in the growth assay in a 10-d total excreta collection. Increasing VW inclusion levels linearly decreased (p<0.05 apparent total tract digestibility of DM and CF.

  16. The Effect of Used Form and Level Green Cincau Leaves (Cycleabarbata L. Miers as Feed Additive on Broiler Performance Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Halim Natsir

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aimed research was to examine the effect of used form and level green cincau leaves (Cycleabarbata L. Miers as feed additive on broiler performance (feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and income over feed cost. The materials used were 192 Day Old Chicks (DOC of Lohman MB Platinum with average initial body weight of 37.4±2.87 g, encapsulated or non encapsulated green cincau leaves (Cycleabarbata L. Miers and encapsulants. Encapsulants that used was the mixture of gum arab-whey (4:1 wich was added BHT 0.06%. Encapsulants that used was 25% of green cincau leaves (Cycleabarbata L. Miers. The method in this experiment was in vivo experiment with Nested Completely Randomized Design with 2 form of green cincau leaves (Cycleabarbata L. Miers (non encapsulated and encapsulated and 4 levels of inclusions 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%, if there were significant effect it would be future tested with Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The result showed that green cincau leaves (Cycleabarbata L. Miers in either encapsulated and non encapsulated form didn’t significantly effect (P>0.05 on consumption, feed conversion ratio and IOFC, but it significantly affected (P<0.05 body weight gain and they tended to increase (P<0.01 production index. Increasing levels of green cincau leaves (Cycleabarbata L. Miers form 0 to 1.5% in encapsulated and non encapsulated form didn’t significantly improve feed conversion ratio, IOFC and production index, thought they tended to increase (P<0.05 feed consumption and they tended to increase (P<0.01 body weight gain. The conclusion of this research was encapsulated better than non encapsulated green cincau leaves (Cycleabarbata L. Miers. The optimal level of feed additive in encapsulated green cincau leaves (Cycleabarbata L. Miers was 1.0%.

  17. Energy utilization of by-products from the soybean oil industry by broiler chickens: acidulated soapstock, lecithin, glycerol and their mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEM Peña

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acidulated soy soapstock (ASS and lecithin (LEC are by-products from processing soy oil (SO for human consumption, whereas glycerol (GLY can be obtained through the transesterification of vegetable oils during the production of biodiesel. These are valuable by-products for poultry feeds that have been underutilized in many parts of the world. One study was conducted to estimate the AMEn of ASS, LEC, GLY as well as of their mixture (MIX: 85% ASS, 5% LEC and 10% GLY. Two hundred and sixty Cobb 500 female broilers of 20 days of age were housed in steel wire battery cages in a controlled temperature room for broilers. A completely randomized (energy sources x fat inclusion level factorial design was applied, with 4 replicates of three birds per treatment. Birds were fed a corn-soybean meal control diet without supplemental fat or with the addition of 2, 4, or 6 % of the four energy sources. Total excreta collection was performed from 26 to 28 days. The AMEn values of by-products were calculated using regression analysis as well as by the difference method. The average AMEn values calculated by regression analysis were: 9,232, 7,502, 5,447 and 8,404, whereas results with the difference method were: 7,951, 6,579, 3,979 and 8,101 kcal/kg for, in both cases for ASS, LEC, GLY and MIX, respectively. It is concluded that these energy sources can be for broilers and that there are significant differences between the methods used to estimate AMEn of fats.

  18. Data Driven Broiler Weight Forecasting using Dynamic Neural Network Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Simon Vestergaard; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Riisgaard-Jensen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the dynamic influence of environmental broiler house conditions and broiler growth is investigated. Dynamic neural network forecasting models have been trained on farm-scale broiler batch production data from 12 batches from the same house. The model forecasts future broiler weight...... and uses environmental conditions such as heating, ventilation, and temperature along with broiler behavior such as feed and water consumption. Training data and forecasting data is analyzed to explain when the model might fail at generalizing. We present ensemble broiler weight forecasts to day 7, 14, 21......, 28 and 34 from all preceding days and provide our interpretation of the results. Results indicate that the dynamic interconnection between environmental conditions and broiler growth can be captured by the model. Furthermore, we found that a comparable forecast can be obtained by using input data...

  19. Experiences from Implementation of Lean Production: Standardization versus Self-management: A Swedish Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Oudhuis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss important aspects of the perceived problematic relationship between self-management and standardization. The article presents data from three case studies conducted within manufacturing companies in Sweden, where the popularity of lean production has led to a renaissance for short-cycle and standardized assembly work in settings that traditionally have made use of sociotechnical production design. The data suggest that the implementation has not contributed to an increased commitment, smooth operations, and capacity for change and innovation. Despite these not so positive results, it is argued that it is possible to combine self-management principles with lean production and standardization if 1 the implementation of lean is done with a contextual sensitivity, 2 a balance is reached between the use of standards on the one hand and work enrichment on the other, and 3 a feeling of ownership as regards both implementation and production process is upheld among the product on personnel.

  20. A 5-year study of the incidence and economic impact of variant infectious bursal disease viruses on broiler production in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachar, Tara; Popowich, Shelly; Goodhope, Bob; Knezacek, Tennille; Ojkic, Davor; Willson, Philip; Ahmed, Khawaja Ashfaque; Gomis, Susantha

    2016-10-01

    While the prevalence of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) on chicken farms in some provinces of Canada has been documented, the economic impact of variant IBDV infection on the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan has not. The objectives of this study were to identify the variant strains of IBDV circulating on Saskatchewan chicken farms and evaluate their economic impact on broiler production. Infection due to IBDV was detected in 43% of Saskatchewan chicken farms, with variant strains detected in infected birds closely related predominantly to NC171, 586, and Delaware-E. Infected flocks showed an IBDV antibody titer of 4236 geometric mean (GM), whereas an antibody titer of 157 GM was measured in uninfected flocks. Infected flocks had very low (0.06) bursa-to-body-weight (BBW) ratio (an indicator of immunity) compared to high BBW ratio (0.17) in uninfected flocks, which suggests a significant immunosuppression in the former. Flocks positive for IBDV had mean mortality of 8.6% and mean condemnation of 1.5%. In contrast, mean mortality in uninfected flocks was 6.1% and mean condemnation was 1.1%. The live market weight per grow area at 37 d of age was 29.3 kg/m 2 in infected flocks and 34.0 kg/m 2 in flocks without IBDV infection. Flock mortality and condemnation rate were positively correlated with IBDV infection, whereas low BBW ratio was inversely correlated, as expected. Overall, IBDV-infected flocks had higher mortality, bursal atrophy, poorer feed conversion ratio (FCR), and decreased meat production. Our data suggest that the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan loses 3.9 million kilograms of meat production per year due to variant IBDV strains.

  1. Relations between the occurrence of resistance to antimicrobial growth promoters among Enterococcus faecium isolated from broilers and broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Andersen, J. S.; Seyfarth, Anne Mette

    2003-01-01

    and streptogramin. By February 1998, all antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) were withdrawn from the Danish broiler production. The present study investigates, by logistic regression analyses, the (1) changes in the occurrence of AGP resistance among E. faecium from broilers and broiler meat from the fourth...... quarter of 1995 to the fourth quarter of 2001 and (2) relations between the occurrence of AGP resistance among E. faecium isolates from Danish broilers and AGP resistance among E. faecium isolates from the broiler meat of Danish and unknown origin collected in the same quarter within the year....... In the present study, we showed that after the AGP withdrawal, a significant decline in resistance to avilamycin, erythromycin, vancomycin and virginiamycin was observed among E. faecium from broilers and broiler meat. In addition, a decline in the occurrence of AGP resistance among E. faecium from Danish...

  2. Swedish Consumers’ Perception of Food Quality and Sustainability in Relation to Organic Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Techane Bosona

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumers’ demand for locally produced and organic foods has increased in Sweden. This paper presents the results obtained from the analysis of data acquired from 100 consumers in Sweden who participated in an online survey during March to June 2016. The objective was to identify consumers’ demand in relation to organic food and sustainable food production, and to understand how the consumers evaluate food quality and make buying decisions. Qualitative descriptions, descriptive statistics and Pearson’s Chi-square test (with alpha value of p < 0.05 as level of significance, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used for analysis. About 72% of participants have the perception that organic food production method is more sustainable than conventional methods. Female consumers have more positive attitudes than men towards organic food. However, age difference, household size and income level do not significantly influence the consumers’ perception of sustainable food production concepts. Regionality, sustainable methods of production and organic production are the most important parameters to characterize the food as high quality and make buying decisions. On the other hand, product uniformity, appearance, and price were found to be relatively less important parameters. Food buying decisions and food quality were found to be highly related with Pearson’s correlation coefficient of r = 0.99.

  3. Swedish Consumers’ Perception of Food Quality and Sustainability in Relation to Organic Food Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebresenbet, Girma

    2018-01-01

    Consumers’ demand for locally produced and organic foods has increased in Sweden. This paper presents the results obtained from the analysis of data acquired from 100 consumers in Sweden who participated in an online survey during March to June 2016. The objective was to identify consumers’ demand in relation to organic food and sustainable food production, and to understand how the consumers evaluate food quality and make buying decisions. Qualitative descriptions, descriptive statistics and Pearson’s Chi-square test (with alpha value of p production method is more sustainable than conventional methods. Female consumers have more positive attitudes than men towards organic food. However, age difference, household size and income level do not significantly influence the consumers’ perception of sustainable food production concepts. Regionality, sustainable methods of production and organic production are the most important parameters to characterize the food as high quality and make buying decisions. On the other hand, product uniformity, appearance, and price were found to be relatively less important parameters. Food buying decisions and food quality were found to be highly related with Pearson’s correlation coefficient of r = 0.99. PMID:29614785

  4. Swedish Consumers' Perception of Food Quality and Sustainability in Relation to Organic Food Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosona, Techane; Gebresenbet, Girma

    2018-04-01

    Consumers' demand for locally produced and organic foods has increased in Sweden. This paper presents the results obtained from the analysis of data acquired from 100 consumers in Sweden who participated in an online survey during March to June 2016. The objective was to identify consumers' demand in relation to organic food and sustainable food production, and to understand how the consumers evaluate food quality and make buying decisions. Qualitative descriptions, descriptive statistics and Pearson's Chi-square test (with alpha value of p organic food production method is more sustainable than conventional methods. Female consumers have more positive attitudes than men towards organic food. However, age difference, household size and income level do not significantly influence the consumers' perception of sustainable food production concepts. Regionality, sustainable methods of production and organic production are the most important parameters to characterize the food as high quality and make buying decisions. On the other hand, product uniformity, appearance, and price were found to be relatively less important parameters. Food buying decisions and food quality were found to be highly related with Pearson's correlation coefficient of r = 0.99.

  5. In vitro effects of inulin and soya bean oligosaccharide on skatole production and the intestinal microbiota in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H Y; Hou, R; Yang, G Q; Zhao, F; Dong, W G

    2017-11-03

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the in vitro effects of inulin and soya bean oligosaccharide (SBO) on the metabolism of L-tryptophan (L-try) to skatole production, and the intestinal microbiota in broilers. Treatments were as follows: caecal microbiota control (Cc), Cc + inulin, Cc + SBO, rectal microbiota control (Rc), Rc + inulin and Rc + SBO. Microbial suspensions were anaerobically incubated at 38°C for 24 hr. The results showed that concentrations of skatole and acetic acid were significantly lower in caecal microbiota fermentation broth (MFB) than those in rectal MFB (p inulin or SBO significantly decreased the concentrations of indole and skatole and rate of L-try degradation (p Inulin groups had lower indole than SBO groups (p inulin or SBO decreased the microbiota richness (p  .05). Four distinct bands were detected in inulin and SBO groups, which were related to two of Bacteroides, one of Firmicutes and Bifidobacteria. Six bands were detected only in control groups, which represented uncultured Rikenellaceae, Roseburia, Escherichia/Shigella dysenteriae, Bacteroides uniformis (T), Parabacteroides distasonis and Enterobacter aerogenes. Populations of Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria and total bacteria in inulin groups were higher than those in control groups (p  .05). These results suggest that reduced concentrations of skatole and indole in the presence of inulin and SBO may be caused by decrease in L-try degradation rate, which were caused by change in microbial ecosystem and pH value. Uncultured B. uniformis (T) and E. aerogenes may be responsible for degradation of L-try to skatole. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. The Effects of Some Fodder Additives on the Product Performances and Meat Quality of Broiler Turkey Juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Benţea

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The researches has been carried out on a number of 250 broiler turkey juveniles, the Big 6 hybrid, distributed in 5 groups of 50 juveniles/group over a period of 56 days. After 56 days, the experiment was carried out on 3 groups over a period of 84 days, recording the production indices; at the end of the experimental period (at the age of 140 days meat quality and chemical composition were determined. In the first 2 stages, the fodders were supplemented with Allzyme SSF complex 0.02%, Bio-Mos 0.1%, organic Selenium 0.03% and Bio-Mos 0.1% and Allzyme SSF 0.02%. The turkeys were weighted at the beginning of the experimental period (at the age of one day and then weekly, recording the evolution of body mass, the daily average weight gain, the daily average consumption and the feed conversion ratio (FCR. The use of Sel-Plex, Bio-Mos + Allzyme SSF, Allzyme SSF and Bio-Mos for 56 days, determined the increase of the body weight, the increase of daily average weight gain, and a decrease FCR value. In the 3rd, 4th and 5th stage, the best results regarding growth and consumption indices were recorded also in experimental groups. At the end of the trial, meat quality and chemical composition of meat were determined. The administration of the Allzyme SSF enzyme complex and the organic mineral Sel-plex led to the improvement of the meat quality due to an increase in meat protein content and a reduction of meat fat content.

  7. Effect of post-hatch transportation duration and parental age on broiler chicken quality, welfare, and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Leonie; Delezie, Evelyne; Duchateau, Luc; Goethals, Klara; Ampe, Bart; Lambrecht, Evelien; Gellynck, Xavier; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2016-09-01

    Broiler chicks are transported to production sites within one to 2 d post-hatch. Possible effects of this transportation are poorly understood and could vary among chicks from breeder flocks of different ages. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of transportation duration and parental flock age on chick welfare, productivity, and quality. After hatch in a commercial hatchery, 1,620 mixed-sex chicks from 29-wk old (young) and 1,620 chicks from 60-wk old (old) breeders were subjected to transportation of 1.5 h or 11 h duration. After transportation, 2,800 chicks were divided among 100 pens, with each pen containing 28 chicks from one transportation crate (2 or 3 pens per crate). From the remaining chicks, on average 6 chicks (min 4, max 8) per crate (n = 228) were randomly selected and assessed for chick quality, weighed, and culled for yolk sac weighing (one d). Chicks that had not been assigned to pens or were not used for post-transportation measurements, were removed from the experiment (n = 212). Mortality, ADG, BW, and feed conversion ( FC: ) of the experimental chicks were recorded until 41 d. Meat quality was measured for breast fillets (n = 47). No interaction effect of parental age and transportation duration was found for any variables. BW and yolk sac weight at one d were lower for chicks transported 11 h than 1.5 h and for chicks from young versus old breeders. The effect of parental flock age on BW persisted until slaughter. Additionally, parental age positively affected ADG until slaughter. Chick quality was lower in chicks from old versus young breeders. Chick quality and productivity were not affected by transportation duration. Mortality and meat quality were not affected by either parental age or transportation duration. To conclude, no long-term detrimental effects were found from long post-hatch transportation in chicks from young or old parent flocks. Based on these results, we suggest that 11 h post

  8. Danish strategies to control Campylobacter in broilers and broiler meat: facts and effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Boysen, Louise; Galliano, C.

    2009-01-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. have been the most common bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal disease in Denmark since 1999. In 2003, the Danish voluntary strategy to control Campylobacter was intensified. The focus was on biosecurity, allocation of meat from Campylobacter-negative broilers...... to the production of chilled products, and consumer information campaigns. From 2002 to 2007, the percentage of Campylobacter-positive broiler flocks at slaughter decreased from 43% to 27%. After processing, Campylobacter-positive samples of chilled broiler meat fell from 18% in 2004 to 8% in 2007. Furthermore......, the number of registered human Campylobacter cases decreased by 12%; from 4379 cases in 2002 to 3865 cases in 2007. We believe that the observed decrease in the occurrence of Campylobacter in broilers and broiler meat and the coincidental fall in the number of registered human cases is, in part, a result...

  9. Broiler litter x industrial by-products reduce nutrients and microbial losses in surface runoff when applied to forages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainfall simulations were used to determine the effect of broiler litter (BL) treated with N and P immobilizing agents on nutrient losses from a bermudagrass (Cynodon doctylon) hayfield on Marietta silt loam (Fine-loamy, siliceous, active, thermic Fluvaquentic Eutrudepts). The experimental design w...

  10. How Small Businesses Market Their Products during the Different Phases of the Product Life Cycle: The Case of Swedish Ice Cream Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Hallberg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish ice cream market of today is dominated by a few major market leaders, which makes it a challenge for small firms to make themselves visible and survive on a long-term basis. The aim of this article is to investigate and understand how small firms in the ice cream business market their products, based on the marketing mix and the portfolio matrix, during the different phases of the product life cycle. The combination of the two models for strategic planning enables the marketing manager to conduct a more complete analysis of existing products and their place on the market and in the product life cycle. Eight CEOs of small-scale ice cream companies were interviewed. This study found that the marketing activities and strategies of large companies cannot be transferred to and implemented in small-scale businesses. Different marketing theories are developed for big businesses that have many employees and expert knowledge, which small companies do not possess. They also have less resources and knowledge to invest in expensive marketing activities in the marketing mix, and therefore the marketing mix models need to incorporate more of inexpensive marketing.

  11. Swedish Consumers’ Perception of Food Quality and Sustainability in Relation to Organic Food Production

    OpenAIRE

    Techane Bosona; Girma Gebresenbet

    2018-01-01

    Consumers’ demand for locally produced and organic foods has increased in Sweden. This paper presents the results obtained from the analysis of data acquired from 100 consumers in Sweden who participated in an online survey during March to June 2016. The objective was to identify consumers’ demand in relation to organic food and sustainable food production, and to understand how the consumers evaluate food quality and make buying decisions. Qualitative descriptions, descriptive statistics and...

  12. A Study on Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli through Commercial Broiler Production Chains in Thailand: Antimicrobial Resistance, the Characterization of DNA Gyrase Subunit A Mutation, and Genetic Diversity by Flagellin A Gene Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomrongsuwannakij, Thotsapol; Blackall, Patrick J; Chansiripornchai, Niwat

    2017-06-01

    Contaminated poultry meat is regarded as the main source of human campylobacteriosis. During September 2014 and February 2015, breeder flocks, hatcheries, and broiler farms from two chicken production chains were investigated chronologically. Five commercial breeder flocks (Breeder Flocks 1-5), two hatcheries (Hatcheries A and B), and five broiler flocks (Broiler Flocks 1-5) were sampled in this study. Campylobacter colonization of both breeder and broiler flocks was determined from cloacal swabs and environmental samples (pan feeders, footwear, darkling beetles, flies, feed, and water). The eggs from the breeder flocks were followed to hatcheries. At the hatcheries, early embryonic deaths, egg trays, eggshells, hatchers, and water were investigated. Cloacal swabs were taken from broilers at Days 1, 14, and 28 (all broiler flocks), and either 35 (Broiler Flocks 1 and 2) or 43 (Broiler Flocks 3-5). Thirty-six Campylobacter jejuni and 94 Campylobacter coli isolates collected through two broiler production chains were tested by twofold agar dilution for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Most Campylobacter isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), defined as being resistant to three or more antimicrobial classes ( C. jejuni : 100%; C. coli : 98.9%), and exhibited high resistance to enrofloxacin ( C. jejuni : 100%; C. coli : 98.9%). The vast majority of C. coli were resistant to tetracycline (97.9%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (81.9%), and doxycycline (79.8%), but only 55.6%, 36.1%, and 50% of C. jejuni isolates revealed resistance to these antimicrobial agents, respectively. A selected subset of 24 C. jejuni and 24 C. coli were characterized for their mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region of the DNA gyrase subunit A gene by nucleotide sequence analysis. The Thr-86-Ile substitution (ACA-ATA in C. jejuni or ACT-ATT in C. coli ) was found in all isolates. Moreover, a total of 130 Campylobacter isolates were typed with the use of polymerase

  13. Artistic and Engineering Design of Platform-Based Production Systems: A Study of Swedish Architectural Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Jansson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on platform-based production systems for house-building has focused on production and manufacturing issues. The aim of this research is to explore how the architectural design process contributes to the industrialised house-building industry from the perspective of creative design work. It also aims to describe how constraints affect architectural design work in the engineer-to-order context, when using platform-based production systems. Architects with experience in using platform-based building systems with different degrees of constraints were interviewed regarding creative aspects of the design work. The interviews, together with documents relating to platform constraints, were then analysed from the perspective of artistic and engineering design theories. The results show the benefits and issues of using platform constraints, both with prefabrication of volumetric modules, as well as prefabricated slab and wall elements. The study highlights a major research gap by describing how architectural work, from both the creative artistic and engineering design perspectives, is affected by constraints in the building platform: (1 the architectural design work goes through a series of divergent and convergent processes where the divergent processes are explorative and the convergent processes are solution-oriented; and (2, there is a trade-off between creativity and efficiency in the design work. Open parameters for layout design are key to architectural creativity, while predefinition supports efficiency. The results also provide an understanding of the potential for creativity in artistic and engineering work tasks through different phases in design, and how they are related to constraints in the platform. The main limitation of the research is the number of interviewed architects who had different background experiences of working with different types of platform constraints. More studies are needed to confirm the observations and to

  14. Enhancing production of high-quality seed in Swedish conifer breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Urban [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics

    1996-12-31

    The main objective of this work was to develop and evaluate methods for increasing genetic control in the production of improved material in field-grown seed orchards. Supplemental mass pollination (SMP) and flower induction (stem injection of gibberellin A{sub 4/7}) were studied in two Pinus sylvestris L. orchards, while flower induction (stem injection and root pruning) were studied in three orchards of Picea abies (L.) Karst. SMP success rates, studied by means of allozyme markers, varied between 66% and 84% in a methods study in which pollen was applied close to each single strobilus. A single pollination of a strobilus at peak receptivity was sufficient to obtain high success rates. Root pruning significantly increased female flowering in two of the P. abies orchards, while stem injections of the gibbrellin induced a significant increase in one of these orchards. In two orchards the increase in number of cones was approximately threefold. Neither treatment had a significant effect on male flowering, and no interactions were found between treatments in the P. abies orchards. Stem injection on P. sylvestris grafts significantly increased seed and pollen production in one experiment each. Seed weight was significantly reduced by the stem injections in both P. sylvestris orchards. Significant clonal differences were found for all tested variables. No damage on the grafts was found that could be attributed to the gibberellin treatments. The results indicate that SMP and flower promotion methods can have practical value in seed orchard management. However, a full exploitation of the potential genetic gain from the improvement of the breeding populations will require the development of seed production concepts more advanced than those upon which current orchards are based. 163 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  15. Environmental impact assessment of biofuel production on contaminated land - Swedish case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Suer, Pascal (Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Blom, Sonja (FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bardos, Paul (r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom)); Track, Thomas; Polland, Marcel (DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany))

    2009-07-01

    This report studies the (possible) cultivation of short rotation wood (Salix Vinimalis) on two contaminated sites from an environmental perspective, through a life cycle analysis (LCA) and carbon footprint, with an outlook towards an overarching method for a qualitative or semi-quantitative analysis based on a life cycle framework. Two areas were selected as case studies: a small site where short rotation crop (Salix Vinimalis) cultivation is in progress and a large site where biofuel production is hypothetical. For the selection of suitable sites, the following aspects were considered: Site location and size, so that biofuel cultivation might be economically viable without a remediation bonus, Topography and soil conditions, so that machinery could be used for cultivation, Time, so that the site was not in urgent need of remediation due to environmental or human health risks, or acute exploitation requirements, Contamination degree, which should not be plant-toxic, Contamination depth, Assessment of optimum crop and its use. For doubtful areas, it is especially important to analyse what the most viable option for the contaminated site is, and what bio-product could be used. For a more comprehensive analysis, which also incorporates local economic and social aspects, the decision support matrix, inter alia, described in the main report of the project Rejuvenate, is recommended. The calculation of emissions for the LCA and the carbon footprint used a German software tool for LCA of soil remediation. The software includes equipment emission data published in 1995. The module 'landfarming' has been used in this study to calculate emissions from herbicide application, fertilisation, ploughing and deep-ploughing, Salix harvest, harrowing etc. Since production of herbicide and Salix Vinimalis shoots were not included in the software, they were not included in the study. The conclusions for the two sites were very similar, in spite of the large differences

  16. Energy utilization and heat production of embryos from eggs originating from young and old broiler breeder flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangsuay, A; Meijerhof, R; Ruangpanit, Y; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2013-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the interaction between breeder age and egg size on the energy utilization (experiment 1) and heat production (experiment 2) of broiler embryos. In experiment 1, a total of 4,800 Ross-308 hatching eggs from 2 breeder ages (29 and 53 wk of age, or young and old) and, within each age, 2 egg sizes (57 to 61 g and 66 to 70 g, or small and large) were used. In experiment 2, a total of 240 Ross-308 hatching eggs from 2 breeder flocks at 29 (young) and 53 (old) wk of age, and which were selected from the same egg weight range (58 to 61 g), were tested in 2 replicate chambers. In experiment 1, it was shown that the amount of yolk relative to albumen was higher in the old flock eggs, and this effect was more pronounced in the large eggs. The old flock eggs, especially the larger egg size, contained more energy as a result of a greater yolk size. Energy utilization of the embryos was positively related to yolk size and the amount of energy transferred to yolk-free body (YFB) was largely determined by the available egg energy. The efficiency of converting egg energy into chick body energy (E(YFB)) was equal for both egg sizes and both breeder age groups. Chick YFB weight of young and old flock eggs was equal. However, dry YFB weight of chicks from old flock eggs was higher than in chicks from young flock eggs, which was associated with more protein and fat content and thus more energy accumulated into YFB. As a consequence, embryos derived from old flock eggs produced more heat from d 16 of incubation onward than those of the young flock eggs. In conclusion, the higher energy deposition into chick YFB of old flock eggs, leading to higher embryonic heat production, is the result of a higher amount of available energy in the egg and is not due to changes in E(YFB).

  17. Meat composition, fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of meat from broilers supplemented with pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sonia Tabasum; Islam, Md Manirul; Bostami, A B M Rubayet; Mun, Hong-Seok; Kim, Ye-Jin; Yang, Chul-Ju

    2015-12-01

    The effects of diets supplemented with four levels (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%) of pomegranate by-product (PB) on meat composition, fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of broiler meat were evaluated. The crude protein and moisture contents increased, whereas ether extract in breast and thigh meat and cholesterol in breast meat decreased in response to dietary PB supplementation (p<0.05). In breast and thigh meat, the sum of saturated fatty acids was lower, while the sum of mono-unsaturated and n-3 fatty acids were higher, alongside lower n-6/n-3 ratio in the 1.0% and 2.0% PB supplemented group (p<0.05). The TBARS values and pH of breast and thigh meat were reduced in the PB supplemented groups (p<0.05). Overall, the results presented herein indicate that supplementation of diets with up to 2% pomegranate by-products improved the meat composition, fatty acid profile and reduced lipid oxidation of broiler meat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimating sensitivity and specificity of a PCR for boot socks to detect Campylobacter in broiler primary production using Bayesian latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Monika; Nordentoft, Steen; Kopacka, Ian; Pölzler, Thomas; Lassnig, Heimo; Jelovcan, Sandra; Stüger, Hans Peter

    2016-06-01

    .85-0.98]). In our study, PCR detection on boot sock samples is more sensitive than conventional culture. In view of the advantage of rapid results before slaughter and low costs for sampling, especially in combination with existing Salmonella surveillance systems (just another pair of boot socks needed), this method-matrix combination could be a valuable surveillance tool in the broiler primary production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. COMPARISON BETWEEN BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM MANURE OF LAYING HENERS AND BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Kukić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Biogas plants that process raw materials from agriculture, such as poultry manure, are one of the most significant applications of anaerobic fermentation. In Asian countries, particularly in China, India, Nepal and Vietnam, there are several million very simple, small biogas plants that produce gas for household cooking and lighting. In Europe and North America a number of agricultural biogas plants now, are increasing daily, a few thousand biogas plants exist, most of which use modern technologies, anaerobic fermentation. The aim of this paper is to determine the possibility of biogas production from poultry manure with 10% of total solids and through the segments of the quality and quantity, determine the content of total solids (DM, volatile solids (OM, and the amount and composition of biogas. The aim was also to justify the use of poultry manure in biogas production and its application for specific purposes Laboratory research showed that 1 kg of poultry 10% of poultry manure produced 47.01 l of biogas during the 40 days of anaerobic fermentation under mezofilic conditions. Production of biogas has a good potential for development in Croatia, especially in the continental part. Usages of this technology are multiple because of the fact that the Republic of Croatia imports most of the energy. Usage of biogas would reduce the import of certain energy and thus reduce energy dependence; it would increase the number of employers and ease the obligation of Croatia toward EU in replacing some fossil fuels with renewable ones.

  20. Swedish electricity market 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The organization of the Swedish electricity market has been in a state of continual change since the electricity market reform was started in the early 1990s. The conditions for the development of the electricity market have changed since the new Electricity Act came into force on 1 January 1996. The purpose of the reform is to introduce greater competition on the electricity market and provide the consumers with greater freedom of choice and, by open trade in electricity, to create the conditions for more efficient pricing. Being the central energy authority, the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development, NUTEK, was entrusted by the Government with the task of following developments on the Swedish electricity market. The Network Authority, which has the supervisory function for the new electricity market, were entrusted by the Government with the task of following developments on the Swedish electricity market and regularly compiling and reporting current market information. The new electricity market has now been operative for ten months. The Network Authority has submitted to the Government a detailed report entitled `Developments on the electricity market`, dealing with the experience gained from the electricity market reform. The purpose of the publication is to provide the players on the electricity market - the decision makers, the media and the general public - with comprehensive and easily accessible information on the market conditions. The publication includes summaries of information on electricity production and use in recent years, the structure of the electricity market from the perspective of a player, electricity trade in Sweden and in northern Europe, electricity prices in Sweden and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment

  1. Curtain color and lighting program in broiler production: II. carcass and parts yield and abdominal fat deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Nascimento Abreu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate carcass and parts' yield, abdominal fat deposition and breast and foot pad blisters of broilers reared under two lighting programs (nearly continuous or intermittent in broilers houses with yellow and blue curtains. The experiment was conducted between June, 2004 and May, 2005. Six flocks were sequentially housed in four 12 × 10 m broiler houses divided into 4 pens with 200 birds each. The litter was reused six times or until flock 6. A completely randomized design in a 6 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (flocks, lighting programs, curtains with four replicates per treatment was applied. A total of 288 birds were evaluated for carcass yield. Curtain color did not affect carcass or parts' yield. The effect of lighting program and curtain color on carcass yield may depend on other factors related to flock. Intermittent lighting program promoted the highest drumstick and thigh yields. Lighting programs and curtain colors did not affect abdominal fat deposition or the presence of breast and foot pad blisters.

  2. Physiological evaluation of broiler finishers fed fermented bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiological evaluation of broiler finishers fed fermented bovine blood and rumen digesta meal. ... Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... This study suggested that FBBRD meal when properly processed and at 10 % dietary level of inclusion, can be used in broiler finisher production without adverse effects on the ...

  3. A by-product of swine slaughtering as a protein source in broiler diets: effects on performance, composition of excreta, litter quality and on foot pad health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölln, M; Loi-Brügger, A; Kamphues, J

    2017-06-01

    Foot pad dermatitis (FPD) is of great concern in poultry industry, and dietary strategies are needed to improve foot pad health because of animal welfare and economic reasons. As the main factor for the development of FPD is the DM content of litter (consisting mainly of excreta; Kamphues et al., 2011), there are different dietary approaches to influence this disease pattern. In two consecutive trials, a total of 200 broilers were kept from day 7 until the 35th day of life. They were divided into four groups at each trial and fed with one of four experimental diets, based on wheat and corn mainly, but differing in the protein source: Group 1 was fed a diet with soya bean meal (SBM) as the main protein source, whereas Group 2, Group 3 and Group 4 were assigned to diets with 4, 8 and 12% of a protein-rich (66.7% CP in DM) by-product of swine slaughtering [Swine Protein Meal (SPM); in exchange for SBM]. The inclusion of 12% SPM resulted in a decreased dietary potassium content of about 3 g/kg diet (Group 1 vs. 4). Increasing dietary levels of the by-product (8 and 12%) led to lowered feed intake (Group 1 vs. 4: ~10%) and weight gain (Group 1 vs. Group 4: ~8.5%). Although highest DM contents of excreta and litter were determined in Group 4, foot pad health was not influenced positively as hypothesized. Remarkable was the observed 'stickiness' of excreta when the by-product was included in the diet at increasing levels, presumably due to the high proportion of bones in the by-product. In conclusion, substituting SBM by 4% of the by-product of swine slaughtering in broiler diets did not impair performance parameters, but led to the most favourable foot pad scores in this study. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Operational Readiness Verification, Phase 2: A Field Study at a Swedish NPP during a Productive-Outage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollnagel, Erik; Gauthereau, Vincent

    2002-11-01

    This report describes the results from Phase II of a study on Operational Readiness Verification (ORV), and was carried out from October 2001 to September 2002. The work comprised a field study of ORV activities at a Swedish NPP during a planned productive outage, which allowed empirical work to be conducted in an appropriate environment with good accessibility to technical staff. One conclusion from Phase I of this project was the need to look more closely at the differences between three levels or types of tests that occur in ORV: object (component) test, system level test and (safety) function test, and to analyse the different steps of testing in order to understand the nontrivial relations between tests and safety. A second conclusion was the need to take a closer look at the organisation's ability to improvise in the sense of adjusting pre-defined plans to the actual conditions under which they are to be carried out. One outcome of Phase II is that there is no clear distinction between the three types of tests in the way they are carried out, and that they are used according to need rather than according to an internal logic or structure. In order better to understand the complexity of ORV, it was found useful to introduce concepts such as: (1) Community of Practice, defined as a small groups of people who through extensive communication developed a common sense of purpose, work-related knowledge and experience; (2) embedding, which means that all tasks and activities take place in an environment or context that may be physical, social, or historical (cultural); and (3) the Efficiency-Thoroughness Trade-Off (ETTO) principle, which characterises how people try to adjust what they do to the local conditions of work (temporal, physical and organisational). By using these terms to understand the practice of ORV, it becomes easier to understand how actions at times can be carried out in such a manner that the outcomes differ significantly from what was desired. It

  5. A comparison of risk assessments on Campylobacter in broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten; Hill, Andy; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    In recent years. several quantitative risk assessments for Campylobacter in broiler meat have been developed to support risk managers in controlling this pathogen. The models encompass some or all of the consecutive stages in the broiler meat production chain: primary production, industrial...... to contaminated broiler meat, but more importantly for analyses of the effects of control measures at different stages in the broiler meat production chain. This review paper provides a comparative overview of models developed in the United Kingdom, Denmark, the Netherlands and Germany, and aims to identify...... the variability in Campylobacter concentrations between meat products and meals determine the risks, not the mean values of those distributions. Although a unified model for risk assessment of Campylobacter in the broiler meat production would be desirable in order to promote a European harmonized approach...

  6. Upgrading the nutritive value of full-fat soyabeans meal for broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted using Anak Red broiler chicks to evaluate the effect of grading the nutritive value of full fat soyabean meal diet based with either fishmeal or Blaick soldier fly larvae meal for broiler production. The average live weight gains of broilers fed an all vegetable protein, fishmeal and larvae meal diets ...

  7. Model-predicted ammonia emission from two broiler houses with different rearing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lima,Nilsa Duarte Silva; Garcia,Rodrigo Garófallo; Nääs,Irenilza Alencar; Caldara,Fabiana Ribeiro; Ponso,Roselaine

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from broiler production can affect human and animal health and may cause acidification and eutrophication of the surrounding environment. This study aimed to estimate ammonia emissions from broiler litter in two systems of forced ventilation, the tunnel ventilation (TV) and the dark house (DH). The experiment was carried out on eight commercial broiler houses, and the age of the birds (day, d), pH and litter temperature were recorded. Broilers were reared on built-up w...

  8. Investigating potential roles of extruded flaxseed and α-tocopherol acetate supplementation for production of healthier broiler meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, R; Khan, M I; Anjum, F M; Sheikh, M A

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the role of extruded flaxseed (EFS) and α-tocopherol acetate (ATA) for the enhancement of polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio (PUFA) over saturated fatty acids (SFA) in broiler meat as a source of healthier meat. A total of 96 one-d-old Cobb 550 broilers were randomly divided into 8 treatments with three replicates having 4 birds in each. EFS (extruded at 155°C) at 100, 150 and 200 g/kg alone and in combination with ATA at 200 mg/kg were supplemented through normal feed from the third week onward. During the 6-week growth period, body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and mortality were recorded. At slaughter, weight of liver, heart and kidney and fat content in breast and leg meat were measured. Fatty acid profiles in breast and leg meat were developed to estimate the PUFA to SFA ratio. The results revealed that FI and FCR changed significantly in all groups and BWG increased in all the supplemented groups. The weight of liver, kidney and heart increased more in the supplemented group containing the maximum level of EFS with ATA compared with single supplementation of EFS. The fat content in breast and leg meat decreased as the inclusion level of EFS increased. The level was low in leg meat compared with breast meat. Mortality decreased in all supplemented groups. The PUFA to SFA ratio was significantly higher in leg meat (3.23) compared with breast meat (1.81) and the study therefore indicates that ATA and EFS supplementation could be used to improve the PUFA to SFA ratio in broiler meat.

  9. Persistence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in broiler houses after the avoparcin ban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Pedersen, Karl; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2002-01-01

    The glycopeptide growth promoter avoparcin was banned from animal production in the EU in 1997 due to concern for the spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) from food animals to humans. In recent Norwegian and Danish studies, extensive occurrence of VRE on broiler farms and in broiler...... flocks after the avoparcin ban has been reported. The present study was undertaken to investigate the epidemiology of VRE on broiler farms in the absence of the selective pressure exerted by avoparcin. Environmental samples were obtained from five broiler houses after depopulation, cleaning......, and disinfection of the houses between rotations, and two consecutive broiler flocks from each house were sampled by taking cloacal swabs from the broilers at the time of slaughter. A total of 69 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates obtained from broiler flocks and broiler houses were subjected...

  10. The efficacy of a commercial competitive exclusion product on Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneitz, C; Hakkinen, M

    2016-05-01

    The efficacy of the commercial competitive exclusion product Broilact against Campylobacter jejuni was evaluated in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study. Newly-hatched broiler chicks were brought from a commercial hatchery. After arrival 50 seeder chicks were challenged orally with approximately 10(3) cfu of C. jejuni, wing marked, and placed back in a delivery box and moved to a separate room. The rest of the chicks (contact chicks) were placed in floor pens, 100 chicks per pen. Birds in two pens were treated orally on the day of hatch with the commercial competitive exclusion (CE) product Broilact, and three pens were left untreated. The following day 10 seeder chicks were introduced into the Broilact treated and untreated control pens. One pen was left both untreated and unchallenged (0-control). Each week the ceca of 10 contact chicks and one seeder chick were examined quantitatively for Campylobacter The treatment prevented or significantly reduced the colonization of the challenge organism in the ceca during the two first weeks; the percentage of colonized birds being 0% after the first week and 30% after the second week in the Broilact treated groups but was 100% in the control groups the entire 5-week rearing period. During the third rearing week the proportion of Campylobacter positive birds started to increase in the treated pens, being 80% after the third week and 95 and 90% after the fourth and fifth rearing weeks, respectively. Similarly the average count of Campylobacter in the cecal contents of the Broilact treated chicks started to increase, the difference between the treated and control chicks being 1.4 logs at the end of the rearing period. Although the protective effect was temporary and occurred only during the first two weeks of the rearing period, the results of this study support the earlier observations that CE flora designed to protect chicks from Salmonella may also reduce Campylobacter colonization of broiler chickens. © The

  11. Response of broilers to improved and local fishmeal | Ademola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence, the regulatory institutions such Nigeria Institute of Animal Science need to regulate the quality of the feeding ingredients being sold in the markets because of its economic and health related effect on the consumers of broiler products. Keywords: Broiler, body weight, kidney, alkaline phosphatase, African butter ...

  12. Technical Efficiency of Enugu Urban Broiler Farmers in Enugu State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study measured the level of technical efficiency and among determinants in broiler farmers in Enugu urban of Enugu State, Nigeria using stochastic frontier production function. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 120 broiler farmers from which data were collected using well-structured questionnaire and ...

  13. Broiler farm size in relation tot sustainability aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.; Leenstra, F.R.

    2010-01-01

    In the Netherlands the number of broiler farms has been reduced by 50%, while farm size doubled between 1990 and 2008. A debate on the positive and negative aspects of large farms emerge. Many entrepreneurs in the broiler sector use increase in scale as strategy to reduce production cost. However, a

  14. Effect of effective microorganisms on broiler chicken performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted between January and March 2001 to assess the effects of Effective Microorganisms (EM) as feed additive in broiler chicken production on growth performance. The experiment involved 210 day-old broiler chicks which were randomly allocated to 14 pens of 15 birds each. There were seven ...

  15. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica isolated from broiler chickens, pigs and meat products in Thailand-Cambodia border provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trongjit, Suthathip; Angkititrakul, Sunpetch; Tuttle, R Emerson; Poungseree, Jiratchaya; Padungtod, Pawin; Chuanchuen, Rungtip

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Salmonella isolates from broiler chickens, pigs and their associated meat products in the Thailand-Cambodia border provinces. A total of 941 samples were collected from pigs and broiler chickens at slaughter houses and from carcasses at local fresh markets in Sa Kaeo, Thailand (n = 554) and Banteay Meanchey, Cambodia (n = 387) in 2014 and 2015. From these samples, 345 Salmonella isolates were collected from Sa Keao (n = 145; 23%) and Banteay Meanchey (n = 200; 47%) and assayed for antimicrobial susceptibility, class 1 integrons and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes. Serovars Typhimurium (29%) and Rissen (29%) were the most common serotypes found in Thai and Cambodian isolates, respectively. Multidrug resistance was detected in 34% and 52% of isolates from Sa Keao and Banteay Meanchey, respectively. The majority of the Thai isolates were resistant to ampicillin (72.4%), whereas most Cambodian isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole (71%). Eleven isolates from Sa Keao and 44 from Banteay Meanchey carried class 1 integrons comprising resistance gene cassettes. The most common gene cassette array was dfrA12-aadA2 (61.1%). Six isolates were ESBL producers. The β-lactamase genes found included bla TEM-1 , bla CTX-M-55 and bla CMY-2 . Some of these class 1 integrons and ESBL genes were located on conjugative plasmid. In conclusion, multidrug-resistant Salmonella are common in pigs, chickens and their products in the Thailand-Cambodia border provinces. Our findings indicate that class 1 integrons play a role in spread of AMR in the strains in this study. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Analysis of two technological systems for broiler chickens production with emphasis in a rational use of electric energy and animal productivity; Analise de dois sistemas tecnologicos de producao de frango de corte com enfase no uso racional de energia eletrica e produtividade animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Leda Gobbo de Freitas; Rossi, Luiz Antonio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Construcoes Rurais e Ambiencia], e-mail: leda.bueno@agr.unicamp.br, e-mail: rossi@agr.unicamp.br

    2004-07-01

    The creation of broiler intensely depends on electric energy for maintenance of the thermal comfort, automation, and optimize the production and animal productivity. The goal of this research was to quantify and to characterize the electric energy have been used in two commercial sheds of broiler. It was examined the variable concerned to the electric energy (energy efficiency, consumption, demand and factor of power) and the main variable related to the animal productivity (gain of weight, alimentary conversion and mortality). It was analyzed the use of electric energy to keep both the ideal thermal comfort and to observe the broiler productivity performance. The period of the experiment was two years and was considered five lots of creation in different seasons of the year. (author)

  17. Longitudinal study of transmission of Escherichia coli from broiler breeders to broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Louise Ladefoged; Thoefner, Ida; Bisgaard, Magne

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli is of major importance in industrial broiler production as the main cause of salpingitis and peritonitis in broiler breeders. Furthermore E. coli is the most common cause of first week mortality in broiler chickens. The aim of the present study was to investigate the transmission...... of E. coli, isolated from broiler breeders with salpingitis, to the progeny and the possibility of subsequent first week mortality. Four parent flocks were followed during the whole production period (20-60 weeks) by post mortem and bacteriological examination of randomly selected dead birds. Newly...... hatched chickens from each flock were swabbed in the cloaca on four occasions (parent age 30, 40, 50, 60 weeks) and E. coli was isolated. Causes of first week mortality were determined pathologically and bacteriologically. E. coli isolates from parents, newly hatched chickens and first week mortality were...

  18. Operational Readiness Verification, Phase 3. A Field Study at a Swedish NPP during a Productive Outage (Safety-train Outage)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollnagel, Erik [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Computer and Information Science; Gauthereau, Vincent; Persson, Bodil [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Industrial Engineering

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the results from Phase III of a study on Operational Readiness Verification (ORV) that was carried out from December 2002 to November 2003. The work comprised a field study of ORV activities at a Swedish NPP during a planned productive outage, which allowed empirical work to be conducted in an appropriate environment with good accessibility to technical staff. One conclusion from Phase I of this project was the need to look more closely at the differences between three levels or types of tests that occur in ORV: object (component) test, system level test and (safety) function test, and to analyse the different steps of testing in order to understand the nontrivial relations between tests and safety. A second conclusion was the need to take a closer look at the organisation's ability to improvise in the sense of adjusting pre-defined plans to the actual conditions under which they are to be carried out. Phase II of the project found that although all three types of test occurred, they were rather used according to need rather than to a predefined arrangement or procedure. The complexity of ORV could be understood and described by using the concepts of Community of Practice, embedding, and Efficiency-Thoroughness Trade-Off. In addition, organisation and the different communities of practice improvise by adjusting pre-defined plans or work orders to the existing conditions. Such improvisations take place both on the levels of individual actions, on the level of communities of practice, and on the organisational level. The ability to improvise is practically a necessity for work to be carried out, but is also a potential risk. Phase III of the project studied how tasks are adapted relative to the different types of embedding and the degree of correspondence between nominal and actual ORV. It also looked further at the different Communities of Practice that are part of maintenance and ORV, focusing on the coordination and communication between

  19. Operational Readiness Verification, Phase 3. A Field Study at a Swedish NPP during a Productive Outage (Safety-train Outage)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollnagel, Erik; Gauthereau, Vincent; Persson, Bodil

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the results from Phase III of a study on Operational Readiness Verification (ORV) that was carried out from December 2002 to November 2003. The work comprised a field study of ORV activities at a Swedish NPP during a planned productive outage [subavstaellning], which allowed empirical work to be conducted in an appropriate environment with good accessibility to technical staff. One conclusion from Phase I of this project was the need to look more closely at the differences between three levels or types of tests that occur in ORV: object (component) test, system level test and (safety) function test, and to analyse the different steps of testing in order to understand the nontrivial relations between tests and safety. A second conclusion was the need to take a closer look at the organisation's ability to improvise in the sense of adjusting pre-defined plans to the actual conditions under which they are to be carried out. Phase II of the project found that although all three types of test occurred, they were rather used according to need rather than to a predefined arrangement or procedure. The complexity of ORV could be understood and described by using the concepts of Community of Practice, embedding, and Efficiency-Thoroughness Trade-Off. In addition, organisation and the different communities of practice improvise by adjusting pre-defined plans or work orders to the existing conditions. Such improvisations take place both on the levels of individual actions, on the level of communities of practice, and on the organisational level. The ability to improvise is practically a necessity for work to be carried out, but is also a potential risk. Phase III of the project studied how tasks are adapted relative to the different types of embedding and the degree of correspondence between nominal and actual ORV. It also looked further at the different Communities of Practice that are part of maintenance and ORV, focusing on the coordination and

  20. Feeding broilers with dry whey powder and whey protein concentrate affected productive performance, ileal digestibility of nutrients and cecal microbiota community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Quiroga, C; Camarinha-Silva, A; Borda-Molina, D; Atxaerandio, R; Ruiz, R; García-Rodríguez, A

    2018-04-01

    Dietary interventions are a common practice in the poultry industry to promote optimal performance and health of animals. Here, we aim at assessing the influence of supplementing broiler diets with dry whey powder (DWP) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) on nutrient coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID) and productive performance. Cecal microbiota composition was also determined using Illumina amplicon sequencing. Dietary treatments were control diet (no supplementation of DWP or WPC), 60-DWP (60 g/kg of DWP), and 80-WPC (80 g/kg of WPC). One-day-old male broilers were randomly assigned to one of three treatments, and housed in floor pens. In Trial 1, 90 1-day-old chicks were allocated to three pens/treatment, with 10 birds/pen, during 21 days for CAID evaluation. Diet 60-DWP increased Ca CAID (P=0.041), while diet 80-WPC improved Ca and P CAID (PWPC increased their BW, average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake (FI) during the starter (PWPC reduced the feed conversion ratio of chickens during the starter period (PWPC differed from those fed with control diet (R=0.776, P=0.008; and R=0.740, P=0.008, respectively). The abundance of Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides spp., Escherichia coli/Shigella flexneri and Megamonas furniformis increased when 60-DWP and 80-WPC diets were offered, while the presence of Helicobacter pullorum decreased. Lactobacillus salivarius consistently increased in chickens with better feed conversion ratio, which were those fed with 60-DWP. The results obtained in the present study indicate that growth of chickens is improved by DWP and WPC supplementation because of a higher mineral digestibility, increased feed intake and modulation of cecal microbiota communities.

  1. Produksi dan Pemasaran Komoditas Broiler di Jawa Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptana Saptana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of broiler industry can be a basis for the economic growth and employment opportunities. There are three broiler breeding patterns i.e. independent breeders, internal-business partnerships, and external-business partnerships. This research aims to analyze broiler production and marketing in West Java Province. The research objectives are: (1 to analyze the performance of each broiler breeding farm; (2 to analyze the market structure of broilers; (3 to evaluate the marketing margin of broilers; and (4 to study market integration of broilers. The method used in this study was a survey method using structured questionnaires. The primary and secondary data used in this study were analyzed using the broiler breeding feasibility analysis, R/C ratio, marketing margin, and market integration analysis. The results showed that: (1 broiler breeding business in various patterns remains profitable and has an effective return to capital in moderate level, (2 both independent and plasma broiler breeders face an oligopolistic market structure, and the brokers also confronts oligopolistic market structure in dealing with the core enterprise through specific prices, and (3 retailers receive the biggest profit margin per unit of output, while the inter-regional wholesalers receive the largest total margin due to its large sales turnover, and (4 broiler markets are not integrated. In summary it can be concluded that broiler farming in various business patterns is profitable; however, and the marketing system is inefficient.Keywords: R/C ratio, market structure, marketing margins, market integration, broilerABSTRAKPengembangan komoditas broiler dapat menjadi basis pertumbuhan ekonomi dan pemerataan kesempatan kerja jika dikelola dengan baik. Paling tidak terdapat tiga pola usaha ternak broiler yakni usaha ternak mandiri, kemitraan usaha internal dan kemitraan usaha eksternal. Tujuan penelitian adalah (1 mmenganalisis kinerja usaha ternak broiler; (2

  2. Date stones in broiler's feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualtieri, M.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate date stones as dietary component for broilers, two trials were carried out. In the first trial, Tunisian Deglet date stones were used and in the second one, stones were the waste product of an Italian distillery. One-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were cage reared and fed for 6 weeks on 4 experimental diets, which were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric and differed in cereal component (maize or low tannin sorghum and in inclusion level (0 or 10 % of ground date stones. Birds ' performances were slightly different in the two trials, but overall results indicate that date stones are suitable for use in broiler's feeding under such conditions.

  3. Risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Danish broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, S; Sandberg, M; Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Data from the Quality Assurance System in Danish Broiler Production (KIK system) were analyzed to identify within farm biosecurity- and management-related risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Danish broiler flocks. In the study, data from 2,835 flocks originating from 187 farms in the time...... period of December 2009 to November 2010 were included. The PCR test results of fecal samples collected on socks revealed that 14% of the Danish broiler flocks were positive to Campylobacter during the study period. Of the positive flocks, 55% were positive during summer time and the positive flocks...... during summer time were related to areas where clustering of infected farms was identified in previous conducted studies. The median number of people working in or entering broiler houses was 2 (from 1 to 7). The median slaughter age of Danish broiler flocks was 35 d (from 31–61 d). A multivariable...

  4. Staphylococcus agnetis, a potential pathogen in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Louise Ladefoged; Thøfner, Ida; Bisgaard, Magne

    2017-01-01

    In this study, four broiler parent flocks have been followed from the onset of the production period (week 20) until slaughter (week 60). Every week, approximately ten dead broiler breeders, randomly selected among birds dead on their own, were collected and subjected to a full post mortem analysis...... including bacteriological examination. In total 997 breeders were investigated and for the first time Staphylococcus agnetis was isolated in pure culture from cases of endocarditis and septicemia from 16 broiler breeders. In addition, the cloacal flora from newly hatched chickens originating from the same...... from both broiler breeders and broilers. Three isolates were whole genome sequenced to obtain knowledge on virulence genes. The isolates harbored a number of genes encoding different fibrinogen binding proteins and toxins which might be important for virulence. The present findings demonstrate that S...

  5. Effects of dry whey powder and calcium butyrate supplementation of corn/soybean-based diets on productive performance, duodenal histological integrity, and Campylobacter colonization in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocejo, Medelin; Oporto, Beatriz; Juste, Ramón A; Hurtado, Ana

    2017-06-26

    Campylobacter is the main cause of gastroenteritis in humans in industrialized countries, and poultry is its principal reservoir and source of human infections. Dietary supplementation of broiler feed with additives could improve productive performance and elicit health benefits that might reduce Campylobacter contamination during primary production. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with whey (a prebiotic) and calcium butyrate (a salt of a short-chain fatty acid) on productive traits, duodenal histological integrity, and Campylobacter colonization and dissemination in broiler chickens during the 42-day rearing period. Six hundred one-day-old Ross-308 chickens were placed into 20 ground pens and assigned to one of 4 corn/soybean-based dietary treatments (5 replicates of 30 chicks per treatment) following a randomized complete block design: 1) basal diet with no supplementation as the control, 2) diet supplemented with 6% dry whey powder, 3) diet containing 0.1% coated calcium butyrate, and 4) diet containing 6% whey and 0.1% calcium butyrate. At age 15 days, 6 chickens per pen were experimentally inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni. The results showed that supplementation of the corn/soybean-based diet with 6% whey alone or, preferably, in combination with 0.1% coated calcium butyrate improved growth and feed efficiency, had a beneficial effect on duodenal villus integrity, and decreased mortality. These favourable effects were particularly significant during the starter period. Six days after oral challenge, Campylobacter was widespread in the flock, and the birds remained positive until the end of the rearing period. Although Campylobacter was not isolated from environmental samples, it was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in dust, air filters, and drinkers while birds shed culturable C. jejuni cells. No differences (p > 0.050) in colonization or shedding levels that could be attributed to the diet

  6. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in broiler flocks 5 years after the avoparcin ban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Pedersen, Karl; Andersen, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    The glycopeptide growth promoter avoparcin was banned from animal production in Denmark in 1995. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in broiler flocks in the absence of the selective pressure exerted by the use of avoparcin. One hundred sixty......-two broiler flocks from rearing systems with different histories of avoparcin exposure were investigated for the presence of VRE. Using a direct selective plating procedure, VRE were isolated from 104 of 140 (74.3%) broiler flocks reared in broiler houses previously exposed to avoparcin on conventional...... and extensive indoor broiler farms. In contrast, only 2 of 22 (9.1%) organic broiler flocks reared on free-range farms with no history of previous exposure to avoparcin were VRE-positive. Furthermore, the occurrence of VRE over time in flocks reared in broiler houses previously exposed to avoparcin...

  7. Swedish vineyards: a utopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mårtensson A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Anna Mårtensson,1 Thord Karlsson,2 Jan-Gunnar Gustafsson31Department of Soil and Environment, 2Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden; 3Bio Evaluation AB, Uppsala, SwedenAbstract: As there is an increasing interest for setting up vineyards and wineries in Sweden, a cost analysis is becoming necessary. In this study, we assessed the potential for wine production in Sweden. The estimated annual costs varied from €15.1/per L for production of 1800 L wine per ha to €41.9 for 525 L per ha. For an annual production of 1800 L per ha potentially achieved in an established vineyard, the capital requirement is €730,000. It would take 6 years for the investment to be paid off if the wine was sold for €37.5 per L. The high production costs mean that the only viable option for success is to orientate production towards the exclusive upper segment.Keywords: cold climate conditions, wine production costs, wine quality

  8. Effects of free-range access on production parameters and meat quality, composition and taste in slow-growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadig, Lisanne M; Rodenburg, T Bas; Reubens, Bert; Aerts, Johan; Duquenne, Barbara; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2016-12-01

    Demand for meat from free-range broiler chickens is increasing in several countries. Consumers are motivated by better animal welfare and other product attributes such as quality and taste. However, scientific literature is not unanimous about whether free-range access influences quality, composition, and taste of the meat. Because chickens normally do not use free-range areas optimally, it is possible that provision of more suitable shelter will lead to more pronounced differences between chickens raised indoors and outdoors. In this study, an experiment with 2 production rounds of 600 slow-growing broilers each was performed. In each round, 200 chickens were raised indoors (IN), 200 had free-range access to grassland with artificial shelter (AS), and 200 had free-range access to short-rotation coppice with willow (SRC). Free-range use, feed intake, and growth were monitored, and after slaughter (d72) meat quality, composition, and taste were assessed. Free-range use was higher in SRC than in AS chickens (42.8 vs. 35.1%, P meat of chickens with free-range access was darker (P = 0.021) and yellower (P = 0.001) than that of IN chickens. Ultimate pH was lower (5.73 vs. 5.79; P = 0.006) and drip loss higher (1.29 vs. 1.09%; P = 0.05) in IN versus AS chickens. The percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids was higher in AS than in IN meat (35.84 vs. 34.59%; P = 0.021). The taste panel judged breast meat of SRC chickens to be more tender (P = 0.003) and less fibrous (P = 0.013) compared to that of AS and IN chickens, and juicier compared to the IN chickens (P = 0.017). Overall, free-range access negatively affected slaughter weight, but positively affected meat quality, taste, and composition. Only a few differences between AS and SRC were found, possibly due to limited differences in free-range use. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Effects of Wine by-Products on Growth Performance, Complete Blood Count and Total Antioxidant Status in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Pascariu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate the effect of whole grape pomace (GP, grape seed (GS and grape pomace polyphenolic extract (GPEP on growth performance, total antioxidant status (TAS and complete blood count (CBC of 40-day-old chicks (hybrid Cobb 500. A total of 432 unsexed one-day-old chicks were divided into six groups: control (CON and five experimental groups, 10 g/kg GP, 20 g/kg GP, 5 g/kg GS, 10 g/kg GS and 15 mL/L GPEP. The results showed a higher increase in growing rate in 5 g/kg GS group, from the first week of the chicks’ life throughout their growth, the average body weight of the chicks being significantly higher (p0.05 at 40 days of age. As a conclusion, the amount of 5 g/kg seeds, 10 g/kg and 20 g/kg pomace, can be added to the diet of the broilers, the dose of 5 g/kg seeds in the diet offering advantages in growing rate and feed valorization in weight gain.

  10. Molecular mechanisms of quinolone, macrolide, and tetracycline resistance among Campylobacter isolates from initial stages of broiler production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Boto, D; Herrera-León, S; García-Peña, F J; Abad-Moreno, J C; Echeita, M A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the resistance mechanisms of quinolones, macrolides and tetracycline in campylobacter isolates from grandparent and parent broiler breeders in Spain. Twenty-six isolates were investigated for quinolone resistance, three isolates for macrolide resistance and 39 for tetracycline resistance. All of the quinolone-resistant isolates possessed the mutation Thr86Ile in the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA and one isolate possessed the mutation Pro104Ser. Only one Campylobacter coli population (defined by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction of flaA and pulsed field gel electrophoresis) was resistant to erythromycin, and the mutation A2075G (23S rDNA) was responsible for macrolide resistance. The tetO gene was found in all of the tetracycline-resistant isolates. Twenty-two out of the 39 isolates investigated by Southern blot possessed chromosomic location of tetO and 17 were located on plasmids. Most of the plasmids with tetO were of around 60 kb and conjugation was demonstrated in a selection of them. In conclusion, we showed that Thr86Ile is highly prevalent in quinolone-resistant isolates as well as mutation A2075G in macrolide-resistant isolates of poultry origin. More variability was found for tetO. The possibility of horizontal transmission of tetO among campylobacter isolates is also an issue of concern in public health.

  11. Broiler Litter × Industrial By-Products Reduce Nutrients and Microbial Losses in Surface Runoff When Applied to Forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeli, Ardeshir; Read, John J; Brooks, John P; Miles, Dana; Feng, Gary; Jenkins, Johnie N

    2017-03-01

    The inability to incorporate broiler litter (BL) into permanent hayfields and pastures leads to nutrient accumulation near the soil surface and increases the potential transport of nutrients in runoff. This study was conducted on Marietta silt loam soil to determine the effect of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum and lignite on P, N, C, and microbial concentrations in runoff. Treatments were (i) control (unfertilized) and (ii) BL at 13.4 Mg ha alone or (iii) treated with either FGD gypsum or lignite applied at 20% (w/w) (2.68 Mg ha). Rainfall simulators were used to produce a 5.6 cm h storm event sufficient in duration to cause 15 min of continuous runoff. Repeated rains were applied at 3-d intervals to determine how long FGD gypsum and lignite are effective in reducing loss of litter-derived N, P, and C from soil. Application of BL increased N, P, and C concentrations in runoff as compared to the control. Addition of FGD gypsum reduced ( 20%. Thus, BL treated with FGD and lignite can be considered as cost-effective management practices in the mitigation of P, N, and C and possibly microbial concentration in runoff. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN BROILERS FATTENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. SABAU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze economic efficiency in broilers fattening . In this purpose , the study was carried out at Breading Prod Commercial Company, Giarmata, Timis County . The economic and financial results of two series of broilers fattening have been comparatively analyzed based on the following specific indicators variable costs ( one day chicken supply , medicines, disinfectants , veterinary services , straw bed, feeding, fuels, electricity , watering , labor force , fixed costs ( rent, interest, fixed assets depreciation , communication and other taxes , total production costs , cost per marketed broiler, cost per square meter , cost per kg live weight , gross margin , incomes ( incomes coming from marketed broilers and subsidies , profit, profit rate , profit per marketed broiler, profit per square meter, profit per kg live weight , costs to 1,000 incomes and incomes to 1,000 costs. This comparison proved that the higher the chickens series size , the higher costs and incomes . The both fatenning series have profitable but the series S2 registered lower financial performances .

  13. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  14. Quantifying transmission of Campylobacter spp. among broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerwe, van T.J.; Bouma, A.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Broek, van den E.W.F.; Klinkenberg, D.; Stegeman, J.A.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2005-01-01

    Campylobacter species are frequently identified as a cause of human gastroenteritis, often from eating or mishandling contaminated poultry products. Quantitative knowledge of transmission of Campylobacter in broiler flocks is necessary, as this may help to determine the moment of introduction of

  15. PERAN PEMERINTAH DAERAH DALAM PENYULUHAN PEMELIHARAAN AYAM BROILER DI DESA TANRARA KECAMATAN BONTONOMPO SELATAN KABUPATEN GOWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Pebrianti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain a picture of how the role of the local government in the counseling of medical care of broiler chickens in the village of Tanrara, South Bontonompo District, Regency of Gowa and analysis counseling medical care of broiler chicken farms. Type of research used is descriptive qualitative , Data is collected using a technical field research, library research and data searches on line. The data were then analyzed qualitatively to explain or describe the data examined of the field, both primary data obtained from interviews, as well as from secondary data. The results of this study indicate that the Agency's role in the maintenance of broiler chickens counseling is to provide education to farmers (educational roles, provide assistance to farmers, as a facilitator for the farmers, as well as help increase the productivity of resources and ranchers. Counseling of medical care of broiler chickens may improve outcomes farm broiler chickens caused by could encourage increased production and productivity of poultry broiler, encourage availability  broiler chickens is always stable on the market, local goverment encourage increased incomes and welfare of broiler breeders as well as help the marketing of chicken broiler widespread.     Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh gambaran tentang bagaimana peran Dinas Perikanan, Kelautan, dan Peternakan dalam penyuluhan pemeliharaan ayam broiler di Desa Tanrara Kecamatan Bontonompo Selatan Kabupaten Gowa serta ananlisis mengenai penyuluhan pemeliharaan ayam broiler. Tipe penelitian yang dipergunakan adalah diskriptif kualitatif. Pengumpulan data dilakukan menggunakan teknis field research library research dan penelusuran data on line. Data yang diperoleh selanjutnya dianalisis secara kualitatif dengan menjelaskan atau menggambarkan data yang diteliti dari lapangan, baik data primer yang diperoleh dari hasil wawancara, maupun dari data sekunder. Hasil penelitian ini

  16. Stochastic modelling of optimum initial body weight, daily weight gain and effect of genetic changes in ovulation rate and age at sexual maturity on total egg production of broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, R; Hocking, P M

    2009-01-01

    1. A model that simulates the total production of eggs (TEP) in broiler breeders was used to predict the optimum initial (20 week) body weight (IBWexp), daily weight gains from 20 to 30 (DWGexp(20-30)) and 31 to 62 weeks of age (DWGexp(31-62)), age at photostimulation (affecting age at first egg, AFEexp), coefficients of variation of initial body weight (CV-IBWexp) and age at first egg (CV-AFEexp), and the effect of genetically increasing the numbers of yellow follicles at the onset of lay. 2. The results suggest that TEP in broiler breeders is very sensitive to changes in body weight gain during the first 10 weeks of the production period and body weight at the start of egg production, whereas changes in body weight gain after peak rate of lay showed only minor effects on TEP. Increasing CV-IBWexp was associated with a linear decrease in the mean and increased variability of TEP. 3. Decreasing AFEexp was negatively associated with TEP, whereas higher CV-AFEexp increased variability of TEP and had a trivial affect on the mean. 4. Results of the simulation suggested that reducing ovarian yellow follicle numbers by means of genetic selection could reduce the degree of feed restriction currently used in broiler breeder commercial stocks while maintaining total egg production. Higher numbers of yellow follicles associated with selection for higher growth rate would not result in lower egg production if the body weight target was maintained at the currently recommended commercial level and the effect on TEP of increasing the target in proportion to potential body weight may be relatively small.

  17. Effect of Production Phase on Growth, Enzyme Activities and Feed Selection of Broilers Raised on Vegetable Protein Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Hossain

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study consisted of two experiments, conducted to assess the impact of phase at which vegetable protein (VP diets are introduced to broiler chicks, and preference of birds for diets based on soybean or canola meal (CM. Two hundred and ten day-old Cobb 500 chicks were randomly distributed into five dietary groups in the main experiment. One group was fed on animal protein (AP diet all through to 21 days of age; two other groups were started on AP diet for 7 days and then switched to diets containing soybean meal (AP-SBM or AP-CM, while two other diets (SBM-AP and CM-AP were started on one of the VP diets for 7 days and then switched to AP diet. A sub-experiment on thirty birds raised on a commercial diet to 7 days was used in a feed selection test to quantify the preference of birds for the diets containing mainly CM or SBM. Chicks were reared under similar care and management conditions and the diets were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. Results of the main experiment showed that chicks on CM-AP diet ate more (p<0.05 than those on the other diets up to day 7. Body weight gain was highest (p<0.001 on the AP-SBM diet while birds on the CM-AP diet weighed the least at 7 d. Feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, mortality, bone growth, visceral organ development, and activities of digestive enzymes were similar between the groups from hatch to 21 days of age. Results of the second sub-experiment showed that chicks preferred the CM-based diets to the SBM-based diets at 8 to 14 d (p<0.001 and 15 to 21 d (p<0.01 when given a choice. Overall, the birds were not affected by the nature of the starter diet although they tended to prefer the canola to soybean diets.

  18. Silicon in broiler drinking water promotes bone development in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgavioli, S; de Faria Domingues, C H; Castiblanco, D M C; Praes, M F F M; Andrade-Garcia, Giuliana M; Santos, E T; Baraldi-Artoni, S M; Garcia, R G; Junqueira, O M

    2016-10-01

    Skeletal abnormalities, bone deformities and fractures cause significant losses in broiler production during both rearing and processing. Silicon is an essential mineral for bone and connective tissue synthesis and for calcium absorption during the early stages of bone formation. Performance was not affected by the addition of silicon. However, broilers receiving silicon showed a significant increase of phosphorus, zinc, copper, manganese and ash in the tibia. In conclusion, broiler performance was not impaired by adding the tested silicon product to the drinking water. In addition, bone development improved, as demonstrated by higher mineral and ash content. Further studies are required to determine the optimal concentration of silicon, including heat stress simulations, to better understand the effects of silicon on bone development.

  19. Swedish Government Minister at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research recently visited CERN. The Swedish Minister was greeted by Swedish scientists working at CERN. Signing of the Swedish Computing Memorandum of Understanding. Pär Omling, Director-General of the Swedish Research Council (left), and Jos Engelen, CERN’s Chief Scientific Officer. Lars Leijonborg, the Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research, was welcomed to CERN by Director-General Robert Aymar on 10 March. After an introduction to the Laboratory’s activities, the Minister was given guided tours of the control room, the ATLAS surface hall and experiment cavern and the adjoining LHC tunnel. Mr Leijonborg was then greeted by Swedish scientists and given an overview of the Swedish research programme at CERN. Five Swedish university groups are taking part in LHC research. Swedish universities are notably involved in the manufacture of parts for the sub-detectors of AT...

  20. Productive performance of broiler chickens fed tomato waste Desempenho produtivo de frangos de corte alimentados com resíduo do tomate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cavalcante Lira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to evaluate the effect of tomato waste inclusion on productive performance and characteristics of carcass and main broiler chicken cuts, an experiment was carried out using 300 male Cobb chicks, distributed in a complete randomized design, with five rations and five replicates. Diets consisted of control ration based on corn and soybean meal and four rations with 5, 10, 15 and 20% of tomato waste. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion and, at the end of experiment, slaughter weight, gutted carcass without feet and head, breast, drumstick, thigh, wing, back, edible guts and belly fat were evaluated every week, as well as it was the yield. Tomato waste increased feed intake in the periods from 1 to 7, 8 to 14 and 29 to 36 days of age and worsened gain weight and feed conversion of broiler chickens up to 29 days of age. Regarding carcass weight (g and weight of the noble parts, breast, drumstick and thighs decreased linearly in function of the use of tomato waste in poultry on pre- initial and initial phase, that is, up to 28 days old, but yield (% was not affected except for yield of heart and liver. Use of tomato waste in ration of broiler chickens during the period from 1 to 28 days may decrease weight gain and worsen food conversion. Tomato waste may be used as ration ingredient in ration of broiler chicken in the breeding period from 29 to 42 days of age up to the level of 20% without harming weight gain and feed conversion of poultry.Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da inclusão do resíduo do tomate sobre o desempenho produtivo e as características da carcaça e dos principais cortes de frangos de corte, foi realizado um experimento com 300 pintos machos Cobb, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco rações e cinco repetições. As dietas consistiram de uma ração-referência à base de milho e farelo de soja e quatro rações com 5, 10, 15 e 20% de resíduo do tomate. Foram avaliados

  1. Swedish Fashion 1930–1960 : Rethinking the Swedish Textile and Clothing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kyaga, Ulrika

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the development of Swedish fashion between 1930 and 1960 by examining the textile and clothing industry from the wider perspective of fashion production. It was during this period that Sweden was transformed into a leading industrial nation, which laid the foundation for increased prosperity in the post-war period. This historical and empirical study is predominantly based on systematic analysis of Swedish official statistics and close reading of the fashi...

  2. ASPEK LINGKUNGAN DAN PRODUKTIVITAS AYAM BROILER PADA SISTEM TRANSPORTASI TERTUTUP DAN KONVENSIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiswanto S. Heri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Population of broiler chicken increase continuously every year. This situation indicated broiler farm in Indonesia has been transformed as a poultry industry. Broiler farm concentrated in one place far from human to anticipate the potency of air pollution. Transportations are used to mobilize broiler from farm to slaughter house or market. The transportation should consider the condition of broiler and environment to minimize the air pollution and negative effect in broiler performance. This research was aimed to evaluate effect of covered and conventional transportation system on environmental aspect and broiler performance. Sixty broilers was used in this research and divided into two treatments. Data was analyzed by t-Test with α 0.05. The result indicated that covered system better to reduce the potency of ammonia pollution than conventional system. Weight loss of broiler transported with covered system significantly lower (P<0.05 than conventional system. There were no mortality both in conventional and covered system. Distribution of temperature in covered system was significantly lower (P<0.05 than conventional system. Covered system, poultry transportation system based on animal welfare aspect showed lower in vocalization than conventional system.Keywords: broiler, ammonia, environment, productivity

  3. A survey of commercially available broilers marketed as organic, free-range, and conventional broilers for cooked meat yields, meat composition, and relative value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husak, R L; Sebranek, J G; Bregendahl, K

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this survey was to investigate qualitative and quantitative properties of meat from organic, free-range, and conventional broilers as currently provided to consumers. Fifteen broilers from 4 suppliers of each type were evaluated for raw meat yield, cooked meat yield, proximate composition, pH, color, lipid oxidation, fatty acid composition, and sensory attributes. Organic broilers yielded more dark (thigh) meat (P meat basis, but conventional and free-range broilers yielded more (P meat than organic. Protein content of organic breast and thigh meat was greater (P meat comparisons. The pH of breast meat from organic broilers was higher (P meat was less yellow (P meat from conventional broilers relative to free-range and organic broilers. Sensory panel results indicated that thighs from conventional broilers were more tender (P prices for US broilers were USD 3.19, USD 2.78, and USD 1.29 per pound (USD 7.03, USD 6.13, and USD 2.84/kg) for organic, free-range, and conventional, respectively. Whereas a difference in the fatty acid composition was the largest difference observed between retail broilers in this survey, it is important to note that diets and production environments within the study were not controlled. It is apparent that the market prices for broilers at the time of this study are not fully reflected in the quantitative and qualitative measurements included in this study. It appears that consumers may be placing significant value on more intangible attributes associated with broilers marketed as organic and free-range chicken than on those attributes measured in this study.

  4. Environmental Enrichment for Broiler Breeders: An Undeveloped Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja B. Riber

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Welfare problems, such as hunger, frustration, aggression, and abnormal sexual behavior, are commonly found in broiler breeder production. To prevent or reduce these welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating enriched environments. We review the effect of the different types of environmental enrichment for broiler breeders, which have been described in the scientific literature, on behavior and welfare. Environmental enrichment is defined as an improvement of the environment of captive animals, which increases the behavioral opportunities of the animal and leads to improvements in biological function. This definition has been broadened to include practical and economic aspects as any enrichment strategy that adversely affects the health of animals (e.g., environmental hygiene, or that has too many economic or practical constraints will never be implemented on commercial farms and thus never benefit animals. Environmental enrichment for broiler breeders often has the purpose of satisfying the behavioral motivations for feeding and foraging, resting, and/or encouraging normal sexual behavior. Potentially successful enrichments for broiler breeders are elevated resting places, cover panels, and substrate (for broiler breeders housed in cage systems. However, most of the ideas for environmental enrichment for broiler breeders need to be further developed and studied with respect to the use, the effect on behavior and welfare, and the interaction with genotype and production system. In addition, information on practical use and the economics of the production system is often lacking although it is important for application in practice.

  5. Canonical discrimination of the effect of a new broiler production facility on soil chemical profiles as related to current management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect dirt-floored broiler houses have on the underlying native soil and the potential for contamination of the ground water by leaching under the foundation of these houses is an understudied area. No research could be found in the literature which followed alterations in soil parameters from...

  6. Influence of a yeast fermented product on the serum levels of the mannan-binding lectin and the antibodies against the Newcastle disease virus in Ross broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortés-Coronado, R F; Gómez-Rosales, S; de L Angeles, M

    2017-01-01

    of MBL were observed, which exhibited different patterns on the Ab titers against NDV in respect to the increasing levels of dietary YFP. This was also observed when the gender effect was introduced in the analysis of data. The results suggest that in Ross broilers raised in commercial conditions...

  7. Environmental Enrichment for Broiler Breeders: An Undeveloped Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Jong, Ingrid de; van de Werd, Heleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Welfare problems, such as hunger, frustration, aggression, and abnormal sexual behavior, are commonly found in broiler breeder production. To prevent or reduce these welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating enriched environments. We review the effect of the different types...... of environmental enrichment for broiler breeders, which have been described in the scientific literature, on behavior and welfare. Environmental enrichment is defined as an improvement of the environment of captive animals, which increases the behavioral opportunities of the animal and leads to improvements...... and thus never benefit animals. Environmental enrichment for broiler breeders often has the purpose of satisfying the behavioral motivations for feeding and foraging, resting, and/or encouraging normal sexual behavior. Potentially successful enrichments for broiler breeders are elevated resting places...

  8. The effects of pullet body weight, dietary nonpyhtate phosphorus intake, and breeder feeding regimen on production performance, chick quality, and bone remodeling in broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmay, R D; Salas, C; England, J; Cerrate, S; Coon, C N

    2012-04-01

    A 3 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment, consisting of 52 hens per treatment, was conducted to determine the effects of pullet BW, dietary nonphytate phosphorus (NPP), and feeding regimen on performance, progeny quality, and bone remodeling. Cobb 500 broiler breeder pullets were reared to 3 different growth curves: 20% under, Cobb standard, and 20% over. Body weights were recorded weekly and feed adjustments made accordingly. At 21 wk, 624 hens were fed one of 2 breeder diets differing only in the amount of dietary NPP: 0.15 or 0.40%. A normal feeding regimen was appropriate for the particular growth curve; an alternative regimen considered the 3 growth curves together as a flock. At 24, 26, and 29 wk, blood was collected from 5 hens per treatment every 4 h over a 24-h period. Plasma samples were analyzed for total alkaline phosphatase, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, parathyroid hormone-related peptide, Ca, and inorganic P. Eggs per hen housed were diminished in hens fed the low dietary NPP and by low pullet target weight. Hens fed low dietary NPP also had lower egg weights but better eggshell quality. Mortality was significantly higher in hens fed low dietary NPP. Breeder tibia relative strength and ash were also significantly lower in hens fed low dietary NPP, regardless of the quantitative amount. Progeny tibia ash was not affected by any treatment. Total alkaline phosphatase responded to pullet BW, however by wk 29, total alkaline phosphatase also became sensitive to dietary NPP. The NPP by pullet BW interaction for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase levels became significant by 29 wk, and pullet BW was significant at wk 24. The NPP by pullet growth curve interaction was also critical for plasma inorganic P levels throughout the sampling period. In summary, both 0.15% dietary NPP and reared pullets 20% under standard BW negatively affect egg production but do not impair progeny productivity. Body composition appears to be a main contributor in bone remodeling

  9. Ecosystem CO2 production during winter in a Swedish subarctic region: the relative importance of climate and vegetation type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grogan, Paul; Jonasson, Sven Evert

    2006-01-01

    in these predictions, we know relatively little about the plot and landscape-level controls on tundra biogeochemical cycling in wintertime as compared to summertime. We investigated the relative influence of vegetation type and climate on CO2 production rates and total wintertime CO2 release in the Scandinavian...... in northern Sweden. Both climate and vegetation type were strong interactive controls on ecosystem CO2 production rates during winter. Of all variables tested, soil temperature explained by far the largest amount of variation in respiration rates (41-75%). Our results indicate that vegetation type only...... respiration, suggesting that spatial variations in maximum snowdepth may be a primary determinant of regional patterns of wintertime CO2 release. Together, our results have important implications for predictions of how the distribution of tundra vegetation types and the carbon balances of arctic ecosystems...

  10. Life-cycle inventory study of biogas production for vehicles in Trollhattan, a medium-sized Swedish town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksson, C; Bohlin, S. [Univ. of Trollhattan/Uddevalla (Sweden). Dept. of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science

    2004-07-01

    The incentive for using anaerobic digestion technology in Sweden was initially to reduce sewage sludge, but since the 1980s the resulting biogas has also been increasingly used, mainly for heating purposes. In addition, about a dozen locations currently produce biogas that is upgraded for use as a vehicle fuel. In the city of Trollhattan, biogas from the local plant is used to power most of the city's buses and about 100 other vehicles. A life cycle inventory of the Trollhattan system was performed in order to study the environmental performance of the locally produced and upgraded biogas. The compressed biogas used for vehicles is 97 per cent methane. Approximately 45 per cent of evolved gas was upgraded for vehicle use, 22 per cent for heating the plant, and the rest was flared. The authors find that the widespread use of biogas has a large potential to reduce emissions. They find that the life cycle inventory is a useful tool, especially in assessing the production of harmful products such as oxides of nitrogen which are not necessarily low in this type of system. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  11. A simple approach to recycle broiler litter as animal feed | Makinde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Broiler litter (BL) is a major waste from poultry production that constitutes serious disposal and environmental pollution problems globally despite its potential as animal feed. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a simple procedure for converting broiler litter into animal feed using wheat offal (WO) and cattle ...

  12. The pecking, resting and feeding behaviour of four broiler strains in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pecking, resting and feeding behaviour of four broiler strains in a humid tropical environment. ... Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... An experiment to determine the pecking, resting and feeding behaviour of four strains of broilers (Anak, Hubbard, Lohman, and Hybro) was conducted with 120 day old chicks.

  13. Differences in egg nutrient availability, development, and nutrient metabolism of broiler and layer embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangsuay, A.; Molenaar, R.; Meijerhof, R.; Anker, van den I.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2015-01-01

    Selection for production traits of broilers and layers leads to physiological differences, which may already be present during incubation. This study aimed to investigate the influence of strain (broiler vs layer) on egg nutrient availability, embryonic development and nutrient metabolism. A total

  14. Effects of varying feeding times on fertility and hatchability of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of feeding times on total egg production, fertility and hatchability of broiler chicken breeders in a tropical environment. The experiment was conducted using 240 Marshal Broiler breeder flocks for eight weeks between 40 to 48 weeks of age. The birds were randomly assigned to 3 treatment ...

  15. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) forage production, tissue and soil nutrient concentration under three N based broiler litter regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is considered as most important forage legume grown in Kentucky. Alfalfa supports many livestock production systems including the beef, dairy, and horse industries in Kentucky. Being a legume, alfalfa typically meets its N requirement through symbiotic N2 fixation, but h...

  16. Biomass, productivity and relative rate of photosynthesis of sphagnum at different water levels on a South Swedish peat bog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallen, B.; Falkengren-Grerup, U.; Malmer, N.

    1988-01-01

    The distribution pattern of Spaghnum species on bogs follows a hummock-hollow gradient. S. Sect. Acutifolia (that is in this study S. Fuscum and S. rubellum combined) dominates hummock tops, ca 20 cm above the maximum water level with a green biomass of 50 g m --2 , S. magellanicum dominates at a lower level, about 5 cm above the water level with a green biomass of 75 g m -2 and S. cuspidatum dominates in the wettest hollows with a green biomass of about 50 g m -2 . In situ measurements of length growth of S. Sect. Acutifolia and S. magelanicum using a 14 CO 2 -labelling technique during three consecutive years, revealed an unexpectedly high between-year variation in length growth of 7-23 mm yr -1 , and 16-22 mm yr -1 , respectively. Consequently the dominating producer in the transition between hummock and hollow changes from year to year, probably depending on climatic conditions. In vitro experiments on the effects of different water levels of 2, 5, 10 and 20 cm below the moss surface, on photosynthetic activity of S. Sect. Acutifolia and S. magellanicum, measured by a second 14 CO 2 -technique, indicate optimal conditions for S. magellanicum at 10 cm above water level, and for S. Sect, Acutofolia at 20 cm above water level. Differences in capillary water transport capability between the species are more important than the sensitivity of photosynthesis to water stress in explaining field patterns of productivity and distribution

  17. Comparison of sample types and analytical methods for the detection of highly campylobacter-colonized broiler flocks at different stages in the poultry meat production chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Duarte, Alexandra; Baré, Julie; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Dierick, Katelijne; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2015-05-01

    Exclusion of broiler batches, highly colonized with Campylobacter (>7.5 log10 colony-forming units/g), from the fresh poultry meat market might decrease the risk of human campylobacteriosis. The objective of this study was to compare different sample types (both at the farm and the slaughterhouse) and methods (direct culture, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction [qPCR], propidium monoazide [PMA]-qPCR) applied for the quantification of the Campylobacter colonization level. In addition, the applicability of the lateral flow-based immunoassay, Singlepath(®) Direct Campy Poultry test (Singlepath(®) test), was evaluated as a rapid method for the qualitative detection of Campylobacter in highly colonized broiler batches. Campylobacter counts differed significantly between sample types collected at farm level (cecal droppings, feces, boot swabs) and at slaughterhouse level (cecal content, fecal material from crates). Furthermore, comparison of Campylobacter counts obtained by different methods (direct culture, qPCR, PMA-qPCR) in cecal droppings revealed significant differences, although this was not observed for cecal-content samples. Evaluation of the Singlepath(®) test on cecal droppings and cecal-content samples revealed an acceptable level of sensitivity and specificity. In conclusion, cecal droppings and cecal content are proposed as the most representative sample types for quantification of Campylobacter colonization level of broilers at farm and slaughterhouse, respectively. Direct culture and qPCR are equally sensitive for quantification of Campylobacter in fresh cecal-content samples. PMA treatment before qPCR inhibits the signal from dead Campylobacter cells. Consequently, when samples are extensively stored and/or transported, qPCR is preferred to direct culture and PMA-qPCR. Furthermore, the Singlepath(®) test offers a convenient alternative method for rapid detection of Campylobacter in highly colonized broiler batches.

  18. The Swedish Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    2012-01-01

    The main characteristics of ‘the Swedish model’ are arguably related to the country's knowledge-intensive industry and its advanced welfare state. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the historical development of these two features of the Swedish economy. The first part looks at industrial...... development, highlighting both the reasons for the rapid industrialization in the late 19th century and the subsequent shift from raw materials to human capital and knowledge as the main competitive advantages. The second part turns to the development of welfare state, stressing the gradual increase...

  19. The Swedish financial system

    OpenAIRE

    Stenfors, Alexis; Clark, Eric; Farahani, Ilia; Hansen, Anders Lund; Passarella, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the evolution of the Swedish financial system since the 1980s. The concept of financialisation, with its different elements and perspectives, is used as a lens through which the key historical developments are analysed. The aim of the study is two-fold. First, by highlighting some unique country-specific features, it addresses the profound changes that have taken place in the Swedish financial system during the last decades in relation to the ‘rise and fall’ of the so-...

  20. Small intestinal histology, production parameters, and meat quality as influenced by dietary supplementation of garlic (Allium sativum in broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Y. Abdullah

    Full Text Available Four hundred day-old male hatchling chicks were obtained from the female line of Lohmman grandparent stock farms and fed rations supplemented with different levels (0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 1.0% of dried garlic powder. Each treatment consists of 5 pens. Feed and water were provided as ad libitum throughout the experimental period. Production parameters measured were body weight, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio. Final body weight and feed conversion ratio were not affected (P>0.05 by garlic supplementation. However, feed consumption was the lowest (P0.05 by garlic supplementation. All meat quality parameters measured were not affected (P>0.05 by garlic powder supplementation (cooking loss percentage, shear force, lightness, redness and yellowness, except for juiciness percentage and pH, which were the lowest (P<0.05 at 1.0% and 0.25%, respectively. As a conclusion, this study shows that garlic at a 0.5% level might be of beneficial effect on intestinal morphymetry parameters, as well as on production parameters.

  1. Escherichia coli in broiler chickens with airsacculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro S. Machado

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Machado L.S., do Nascimento E.R., Pereira V.L.A., Abreu D.L.C., Gouvea R. & Santos L.M.M. 2014. [Escherichia coli in broiler chickens with airsacculitis.] Escherichia coli em frangos de corte com aerossaculite. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(3:261-265, 2014. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva e Saúde Pública, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Dr. Vital Brazil Filho 64, Vital Brazil, Niterói, RJ 24230-340, Brazil. E-mail: leandromachadovet@yahoo.com.br The Brazilian poultry industry grows each year and becomes increasingly representative in the production and export of products. The health care with poultry have accompanied and favored this evolution, however, respiratory agents that affect the weight and carcass quality, continue to cause great damage to the poultry industry. Airsacculitis is considered the main cause of total and partial condemnation of carcasses of broilers, and has been attributed to Mycoplasmosis mostly caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS and Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to relate the positivity of MG / MS and E. coli detected by PCR as a risk factor for airsacculitis in condemnation of broilers in Health Inspection Service. We studied 30 broiler poultry slaughtered in a slaughterhouse under Federal Sanitary Inspection, located in the State of Rio de Janeiro. 30 chickens were randomly collected from different lots and tracheas obtained in each PCR. DNA was extracted by phenol-chloroform method and amplified using pairs of “primer”specific for MG, MS and E. coli. Of the 30 chickens analyzed by PCR, 30% (9/30 had lesions in air sacs. None of the birds showed infection with MG and/or MS PCR, however 33.3% (3/9 birds were positive for airsacculitis iss gene from E.coli. E.coli found in broiler chickens that were negative for mycoplasma airsacculitis, implying the presence of such bacteria may be sufficient

  2. CARNOSINE CONTENT AND MUSCLE OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF MALE AND FEMALE BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Carnosine is a dipeptide with antioxidative effects in broiler muscles. Its anti-ageing effect has also been determined recently, which is especially important for human health and vitality preservation. The research investigated concentration of carnosine in breast and thigh muscles of Cobb 500 broilers. It was carried out on 20 male and female broilers that were conventionally fattened for 42 days. Carnosine concentrations and TBARS values were measured on fresh breast and thigh muscles with respect to broiler sex. Content of carnosine was slightly higher in female broiler breast muscles than in male’s (1079.85 : 1012.66 μg/g tissue; P>0.05. Female broiler thigh muscle tissue also contained higher carnosine values than male’s (464.69 : 404.97 μg/g tissue; P>0.05. The research proved that carnosine was more deposited in breast muscle tissue than in thigh muscle tissue, regardless of broiler sex. Lipid peroxidation products measured as TBARS values (mg MDA/kg tissue did not statistically differ according to broiler sex or muscle type (P>0.05. Further research needs to be directed towards control of peroxidation products during meat storage.

  3. Pemberian Teh Kombucha Pada Air Minum Terhadap Nilai Ldl Kolesterol Dan Hdl Kolesterol Darah Ayam Broiler (Gallus SP)

    OpenAIRE

    Djaelani, Muhammad Anwar; Tana, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    The risk of consuming large quantities of food containing cholesterol has been widely known. By knowing the cholesterol content of food products, people could restrict their consumption of high cholesterol food. This study was to knew LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol of blood broiler chickens after treated with kombucha tea. This research used the CP 707 broiler strains chickens aged 1 week, treated with kombucha tea that has been fermented for 12 days at a temperature of 25oC. 20 broiler ...

  4. Design of Stocking Density of Broilers for Closed House in Wet Tropical Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to: 1 design the stocking density of broiler reared at a closed house system in wet tropical climates based on the heat released by broiler, 2 design broiler harvesting system based on the housing heat load, and 3 design required housing area based on the broiler age. The housing design used to determine the broiler stocking density was based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD with Solid Works Flow Simulation software. The method had good validation shown by small number of average percentage of deviation (6.07%. Simulation was carried out by changing the number of broilers i.e. 16, 18, 20, 21 and 22 birds/m2. According to the CFD simulation result, total heat load inside the house was 233.33 kW at 21 birds/m2 at weight 1.65 kg/bird. At that stocking density the housing can be occupied by 27,224 birds until 22 days of age. The highest total weight was produced by daily harvesting started from 22 to 32 d. It can be concluded that the stocking density of closed house for broiler is 34.65 kg/m2, total production is 45,717 kg per period and the required area for 27,224 broilers is 248.63 m2 (1 to 7 days of age broiler, 562.52 m2 (8 to 14 days of age broiler and 1,000 m2 (15 to 22 days of age broiler.

  5. A comparison of post-mortem findings in broilers dead-on-farm and broilers dead-on-arrival at the abattoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelsen, K E; Granquist, E G; Kolbjørnsen, Ø; Nafstad, O; Moe, R O

    2015-11-01

    Broiler mortality during transport to abattoirs (dead-on-arrival/DOA) evokes concern due to compromised animal welfare and associated economic losses. The general aim of this study was to characterize pathological lesions associated with mortality in broilers close to slaughter. The specific aim was to investigate whether disease at the end of the growth period may be a predisposing factor for DOA by describing and comparing the pathological findings in broilers dead-on-farm (DOF) in the final days of the production cycle and in broilers DOA from the same flocks. Gross post-mortem examinations were performed on 607 broilers from 32 flocks, either DOF (371) or DOA (236). In DOF broilers, the most common pathological lesions were lung congestion (37.7%), endocarditis (29.4%), and ascites (24.0%), whereas the most common findings in broilers DOA were lung congestion (57.2%) and trauma (24.6%). Lung congestion was more prevalent among DOA broilers compared to DOF broilers (P-value of > 0.001). A possible cause behind the pathological finding lung congestion is sudden death syndrome (SDS). The study indicates that steps in the transportation process per se cause the majority of pathological lesions such as lung congestion and trauma that may have led to the mortalities registered. Pre-existing diseases such as ascites and osteomyelitis may also predispose for DOA. Thus, factors relating to on-farm health, catching, and transportation are all areas of future investigation in order to reduce transport mortalities and to enhance welfare in broilers. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Subcontractors and Component Suppliers in the Swedish Wind Power Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Linn

    2003-05-01

    This paper studies the Swedish component suppliers in the wind power industry. This group has not received much attention so far, and today very little is known. This study addresses the fact that the Swedish component suppliers have not been able to penetrate the wind power market despite the Swedish industry's strength in mechanical and electrical engineering. The aims of this paper were to gather information regarding the existing production and to identify factors that affect the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. To date, although Sweden has spent considerable amounts of money on projects involving wind turbines, there is no series production of large wind turbines in Sweden. The historical development of the wind turbine industry suggests this alone would have inhibited the development of component production in Sweden. Yet, the country's proximity and good access to large wind turbine producing countries should be an advantage. Various factors and issues are identified and discussed in this paper that are relevant for the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. These include market and product development, buyer-supplier relationships, export and sourcing behaviors, and time of market entry. This is a first step towards increasing the knowledge of Swedish component production and it is recognized that more studies are required. Various areas where relevant knowledge is largely missing or scarce are identified and discussed as well, and should serve as relevant starting points for continued research.

  7. Subcontractors and Component Suppliers in the Swedish Wind Power Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Linn

    2003-05-01

    This paper studies the Swedish component suppliers in the wind power industry. This group has not received much attention so far, and today very little is known. This study addresses the fact that the Swedish component suppliers have not been able to penetrate the wind power market despite the Swedish industry's strength in mechanical and electrical engineering. The aims of this paper were to gather information regarding the existing production and to identify factors that affect the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. To date, although Sweden has spent considerable amounts of money on projects involving wind turbines, there is no series production of large wind turbines in Sweden. The historical development of the wind turbine industry suggests this alone would have inhibited the development of component production in Sweden. Yet, the country's proximity and good access to large wind turbine producing countries should be an advantage. Various factors and issues are identified and discussed in this paper that are relevant for the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. These include market and product development, buyer-supplier relationships, export and sourcing behaviors, and time of market entry. This is a first step towards increasing the knowledge of Swedish component production and it is recognized that more studies are required. Various areas where relevant knowledge is largely missing or scarce are identified and discussed as well, and should serve as relevant starting points for continued research

  8. Biomass and Swedish energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Bengt

    2001-01-01

    The use of biomass in Sweden has increased by 44% between 1990 and 1999. In 1999 it was 85 TWh, equivalent to 14% of the total Swedish energy supply. The existence of large forest industry and district heating systems has been an essential condition for this expansion. The tax reform in 1991 seems, however, to have been the most important factor responsible for the rapid bioenergy expansion. Through this reform, the taxation of fossil fuels in district heating systems increased by approximately 30-160%, depending on fuel, whereas bioenergy remained untaxed. Industry is exempted from the energy tax and pays reduced carbon tax. No tax is levied on fossil fuels used for electricity production. Investment grants have existed for biomass-based electricity production but these grants have not been large enough to make biomass-based electricity production economically competitive in a period of falling electricity prices. Despite this, the biomass-based electricity production has increased slightly between 1990 and 1999. A new taxation system aiming at a removal of the tax difference between the industry, district heating and electricity sectors has recently been analysed by the Swedish government. One risk with such a system is that it reduces the competitiveness for biomass in district heating systems as it seems unlikely that the taxes on fossil fuels in the industry and electricity sectors will increase to a level much higher than in other countries. A new system, based on green certificates, for supporting electricity from renewable energy sources has also been proposed by the government.

  9. Performance and carcass yield of sexed broiler chickens reared on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In spite of availability of specially formulated feeds and other aids to intensive poultry production, the provision of appropriate housing remains the most basic requirement for successful poultry production. This study thereby determined the performance, carcass yield and meat composition of 300 sexed Arbor Acre broiler ...

  10. Performance and Carcass Yield of Sexed Broiler Chickens Reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In spite of availability of specially formulated feeds and other aids to intensive poultry production, the provision of appropriate housing remains the most basic requirement for successful poultry production. This study thereby determined the performance, carcass yield and meat composition of 300 sexed Arbor Acre broiler ...

  11. Abrupt or gradual increases in photoperiod for broiler breeders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dunni

    age at sexual maturity, total egg production, egg mass output, mean egg weight to or body weight at 60 weeks. However, the birds given a single abrupt increment had a higher peak rate of lay whilst those given a gradual increase in daylength had better egg production at the end of the laying cycle. Broiler breeders.

  12. Dilution and separation of solids and liquids of broiler litter for supply of digester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aires, Airon Magno; Lucas Junior, Jorge de; Xavier, Cristiane de Almeida Neves; Miranda, Adelia Pereira; Fukayama, Ellen Hatsumi [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias

    2008-07-01

    The solid separation techniques indicate that it can promote a support in anaerobic biological process. This trial was realized in FCAV-UNESP, Jaboticabal, Brazil, in Rural Engineering Department. For this trial two tests were developed, using broiler litter water diluted and separated in a 3mm mesh screen: the treatments consisted in (1kg) broiler litter diluted in (2kg) of water, (1kg) broiler litter and (4kg) water, (1kg) broiler litter diluted in (6kg) of water, (1kg) broiler litter and (8kg) of water, (1kg) broiler litter diluted in (10kg) of water, (1kg) broiler litter and (12kg) water and (1kg) broiler litter diluted in (14kg) of water. Total solids (TS), solid and liquid fraction and biogas production were estimated. There were no significant differences related to solid fraction retained in screen. As the broiler litter became more diluted, a raise in the liquid fractions quantities was observed, ranging from 20.9 to 89.4% of the total diluted waste. Biogas production potentials ranged from 0.2364 to 0.4666 m{sup 3} of biogas by 100kg of liquid fraction. Organic carbon numbers ranged from 0.21 to 0.47kg by 100kg of liquid fraction and 5.36 to 6.18kg by 100kg of solid fraction. The highest values obtained for this element in liquid fractions dilutions were 2:1 and 6:1 with 0.46 and 0.47kg by 100kg respectively. The separation of liquid and solid fraction of broiler litter was viable in the smaller dilutions, because those guarantee a reduction in the anaerobic digester implementation costs and dilution water economy. Solid fraction has potential for composting, mainly in a great scale production. (author)

  13. Analysis of farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonization of broilers in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Borck Høg, Birgitte; Larsen, Lars Stehr

    2016-01-01

    This study presents on-farm risk factors for the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter based on comparable data from six European countries: Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, and the UK. The study includes explanatory variables from a large questionnaire concerning...... explored by applying different strategies for categorizing explanatory variables and for selecting and eliminating variables in the model. Despite national differences in broiler production, common risk factors for Campylobacter colonization of broiler flocks were identified across all six countries....... These were generally related to inadequate biosecurity. Identified risk factors were: broiler houses older than 15 years, absence of anterooms and barriers in each house, shared tools between houses, long downtime, and drinker systems with bells or cups. Also, the risk of broiler flocks becoming colonized...

  14. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter in organic and conventional broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Pedersen, Karl; Andersen, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Aims: To determine the flock prevalence and to estimate the within flock prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks from different rearing systems, and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter isolates to selected antimicrobial substances. Methods and Results: One hundred...... and sixty broiler flocks originating from organic, conventional and extensive indoor production farms were investigated for the presence of Campylobacter at the time of slaughter. Campylobacter isolates from a subsample of positive flocks were subjected to susceptibility testing. Campylobacter spp. were...... isolated from 100% of organic broiler flocks, from 36.7% of conventional broiler flocks and from 49.2% of extensive indoor broiler flocks. Six of 62 Campylobacter isolates were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobials tested. Conclusions: These results indicate that the special characteristics...

  15. Feeding of Dehulled-micronized Faba Bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as Substitute for Soybean Meal in Guinea Fowl Broilers: Effect on Productive Performance and Meat Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Laudadio, Vito

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with dehulled-micronized faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor) in guinea fowl broilers on their growth traits, carcass quality, and meat fatty acids composition. In this trial, 120 day-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to two treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 weeks of age. Birds were fed two wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (78.3 g/kg) and...

  16. Reductive Effect of Fly Screens on the Campylobacter Prevalence of Broiler Flocks in Summer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle M.; Skovgård, Henrik

    Flies act as vectors in the introduction of Campylobacter from the environment to broiler flocks. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the effect of fly screens on the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks. Cases were 52 broiler flocks reared in 20 houses on 11 farms between June...... and November 2006, where houses were equipped with fly screens made of glass fibre mesh. The controls consisted of 70 broiler flocks reared in 25 matched houses on 13 farms without screens. Other bio-security and management routines were strictly as before the study. All broiler houses were ventilated through...... production to be 11% at day 35 in houses with fly screens and 42% in houses without screens. We conclude that implementation of fly screens in broiler houses is likely to enhance food safety and reduce the risk of food-borne campylobacteriosis. The significant role of flies as vectors for Campylobacter...

  17. The role of litter beetles as potential reservoir for Salmonella enterica and thermophilic Campylobacter spp. between broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M.N.; Spencer, A.G.; Hald, Birthe

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the role of beetles infesting broiler chicken rearing facilities as potential reservoirs for Salmonella enterica infections between successive broiler flocks. In addition, their role as potential reservoirs for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. was also investigated. Fourteen broiler...... houses located at 11 different farms were included in the study. The houses were nonrandomly selected on the basis of their salmonella status; nine were persistently contaminated with salmonella whereas five were salmonella negative. For each broiler house, two consecutive broiler flocks (i.e., 28...... broiler flocks in all) as well as beetles collected during both rotations of production and in the empty period (after cleaning and disinfection) between these flocks were monitored for the presence of salmonella. Examinations for the presence of campylobacter in the same sample materials were also...

  18. WELFARE OF BROILERS INGESTING A PRE-SLAUGHTER HYDRIC DIET OF LEMON GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFB Royer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe pre-slaughter period is considered critical in broiler production. Several factors contribute to increase the birds' stress, such as handling, harvesting, and transportation, negatively affecting their welfare. This study aimed at evaluating the addition of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratusStapf to the drinking water of broilers during the pre-slaughter period on their behavior, blood cortisol, and surface temperature. The study was carried out at the experimental farm of the Federal University of Grande Dourados (UFGD, Dourados, MS, Brazil. In total, 2594 broilers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design, in a 3x2x2 factorial arrangement, with four replicates per treatment. Treatments consisted of three different lemon grass levels (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf used in the form of an infusion (0, 0.1, and 5 g per L of water, sex (male or female, and genetic strain (Ross(r 308 or Cobb(r 500. The infusion was offered when birds were 42 days old. On that day, blood was collected for blood cortisol level determination, broiler surface temperature was recorded, and an ethogram was applied to register broiler behavior. Blood cortisol level and broiler surface temperature were not affected by treatments (p>0.05. The behavior of beak opening was different between the genetic strains (p<0.05, being more frequent in Ross(r 308 broilers. Lemon grass water content did not affect broilers' surface temperature when consumed during the pre-slaughter period.

  19. Índice térmico ambiental de produtividade para frangos de corte Environmental thermal index of productivity for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Medeiros

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de desenvolver um índice térmico ambiental de produtividade para frangos de corte - IAPfc, que reúna, em um único valor, os efeitos da temperatura, umidade e velocidade do ar, conduziu-se um experimento com frangos Avian Farm, machos, criados de 1 a 21 dias de idade, em galpões convencionais com condições climáticas naturais e dos 22 aos 42 dias (abate em câmaras climáticas. Os tratamentos compreenderam combinações de 16, 20, 26, 32 e 36 ºC de temperatura (t, com 20, 34, 55, 76 e 90% de umidade relativa (u e 0; 0,6; 1,5; 2,4 e 3,0 m s-1 de velocidade do ar (v, sendo estas combinações feitas com base no delineamento composto central rotacional da metodologia de superfície de resposta. As dietas experimentais atenderam às exigências nutricionais, de acordo com cada fase de criação, e para todos os tratamentos. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: ganho de peso, consumo de ração diário, temperatura retal e freqüência respiratória, obtendo-se o modelo estatístico IAPfc = 45,6026 - 2,31072 t - 0,368331 u + 9,70922 v + 0,0549243 t² + 0,0012183 u² + 0,66329 v² + 0,0128968 tu - 0,300928 tv - 0,0595245 uv, baseado no desempenho animal e em parâmetros fisiológicos.In this study, the influence of temperature, relative humidity and air velocity in the development process of Avian Farm male chickens was analyzed in order to develop an environmental thermal index for productivity of broiler chickens - IAPfc. The chickens were first raised from 1 to 21 days of age in a conventional poultry-shed under natural conditions. Between 22nd and 42nd day (slaughter the chickens were kept in climatic chambers. The treatments consisted of combination of levels of variables: temperature (t 16, 20, 26, 32 and 36 ºC; relative humidity (u 20, 34, 55, 76 and 90%, and air velocity (v 0; 0.6; 1.5; 2.4 and 3.0 m s-1, according to the central rotatable composite design of the response surface methodology. The experimental diets attained

  20. Evaluation of a commercially available organic acid product on body weight loss, carcass yield, and meat quality during preslaughter feed withdrawal in broiler chickens: a poultry welfare and economic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menconi, A; Kuttappan, V A; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Urbano, T; Matté, F; Layton, S; Kallapura, G; Latorre, J; Morales, B E; Prado, O; Vicente, J L; Barton, J; Andreatti Filho, R L; Lovato, M; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G

    2014-02-01

    The effect of a commercial organic acid (OA) product on BW loss (BWL) during feed withdrawal and transportation, carcass yield, and meat quality was evaluated in broiler chickens. Two experiments were conducted in Brazil. Commercial houses were paired as control groups receiving regular water and treated groups receiving OA in the water. Treated birds had a reduction in BWL of 37 g in experiment 1 and 32.2 g in experiment 2. In experiment 2, no differences were observed in carcass yield between groups. Estimation of the cost benefit suggested a 1:16 ratio by using the OA. In experiment 3, conducted in Mexico, significant differences on water consumption, BWL, and meat quality characteristics were observed in chickens that were treated with the OA (P poultry industry by reducing BWL and improving meat quality attributes.

  1. Evaluation of a commercially available organic acid product on body weight loss, carcass yield, and meat quality during preslaughter feed withdrawal in broiler chickens: A poultry welfare and economic perspective1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menconi, A.; Kuttappan, V. A.; Hernandez-Velasco, X.; Urbano, T.; Matté, F.; Layton, S.; Kallapura, G.; Latorre, J.; Morales, B. E.; Prado, O.; Vicente, J. L.; Barton, J.; Filho, R. L. Andreatti; Lovato, M.; Hargis, B. M.; Tellez, G.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of a commercial organic acid (OA) product on BW loss (BWL) during feed withdrawal and transportation, carcass yield, and meat quality was evaluated in broiler chickens. Two experiments were conducted in Brazil. Commercial houses were paired as control groups receiving regular water and treated groups receiving OA in the water. Treated birds had a reduction in BWL of 37 g in experiment 1 and 32.2 g in experiment 2. In experiment 2, no differences were observed in carcass yield between groups. Estimation of the cost benefit suggested a 1:16 ratio by using the OA. In experiment 3, conducted in Mexico, significant differences on water consumption, BWL, and meat quality characteristics were observed in chickens that were treated with the OA (P poultry industry by reducing BWL and improving meat quality attributes. PMID:24570468

  2. Avian Metapneumovirus circulation in Italian broiler farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucciarone, Claudia Maria; Franzo, Giovanni; Lupini, Caterina; Alejo, Carolina Torres; Listorti, Valeria; Mescolini, Giulia; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo; Martini, Marco; Catelli, Elena; Cecchinato, Mattia

    2018-02-01

    With increasing frequency, avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV) is reported to induce respiratory signs in chickens. An adequate knowledge of current aMPV prevalence among Italian broilers is lacking, with little information available on its economical and health impact on the poultry industry. In order to collect preliminary data on the epidemiological context of aMPV in broiler flocks, a survey was performed in areas of Northern Italy with high poultry density from 2014 to 2016. Upper respiratory tract swabs were collected and processed by A and B subtype-specific multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Samples were also screened for infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) by generic RT-PCR and sequencing. Productive data and respiratory signs were detailed where possible. The high prevalence of aMPV was confirmed in broilers older than 26 d and also attested in IBV-negative farms. All aMPV detections belonged to subtype B. Italian strain genetic variability was evaluated by the partial attachment (G) gene sequencing of selected strains and compared with contemporary turkey strains and previously published aMPV references, revealing no host specificity and the progressive evolution of this virus in Italy. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Relationship between tissue retention efficiency and production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growing broiler population. ... An experiment was conducted using 96 individually caged male broilers between 49 and 77 d of age. One objective was to establish phenotypic relationships between some production traits [feed conversion ratio ...

  4. The swedish challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tregouet, R.

    2006-01-01

    Sweden decided to be the first country without petroleum for 2020. The author presents the major energy policy axis implemented by the swedish government to delete the part of the produced energy by the petroleum: development of the renewable energies, research programs of the transportation sector concerning the alternative fuels for the motors, energy efficiency and development of the biomass to replace the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  5. Influence of a probiotic on broiler performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Cardoso Bitterncourt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of a probiotic product (composition: Lactobacillus acidophillus (3.5 × 10(11 CFU, Streptcoccus faecium (3.5 × 10(11 CFU and Bifidobacterium bifidum (3.5 × 10(11 CFU on broiler performance. A total of 1200 one-day-old broilers were reared until 42 days of age, and distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 3 treatments (antibiotic, probiotic and control with 10 replicates of 40 birds each. Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and mortality were evaluated. Concerning weight gain, in the periods of 0-7 and 0-14 days of age, the group fed the antibiotic product presented higher values as compared with the other treatments. However, in the periods of 0-21, 0-28 and 0-35 days of age, birds fed the antibiotic presented higher weight gain only in relation to the control group. Feed intake differences were detected only in the initial period of 0-7 days of age, with the group fed the antibiotic product presenting higher feed intake as compared with that fed the probiotic product, although these groups were not different from the control group. No statistical difference was detected in feed conversion ratio among treatments in any of the evaluated age intervals. Mortality was different only in the period of 0-14 days of age, which was higher in the control group as compared with that of the birds fed the probiotic product, but it was not different from the group receiving the antibiotic. Treatment with probiotic product containing Lactobacillus acidophillus, Streptococcus faecium and Bifidobacterium bifidum does not affect broiler performance.

  6. Coefficients of apparent absorption of the dietary nutrients from broiler feeds that include oil industry by-products (rapeseeds, grapes, buckthorn, flax and pumpkin meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Dumitra PANAITE

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A 42-day feeding trial was conducted on 120, day-old ROSS 308 chicks assigned to 4 (C; E1; E2; E3 groups. The broilers were housed in three-tier digestibility cages (5 broilers/cage which allowed the daily recording of the feed intake and excreta located in an experimental hall with controlled environmental conditions (27.07±2.750 C; humidity 64,80±9,57%; light regimen 23h. During the starter stage (1-10 days all chicks received a conventional compound feed (C. During the grower and finisher stages, compared to C formulation, the experimental diets different proportions, varying with the stage of development, of rapeseeds and grape meals (E1, buckthorn and flax meals (E2, pumpkin meal (lot E3. The balance study was conducted for 5 days, during weeks 4 and 6. During this period, average weights from each two cages (6 samples/group of feed consumed and excreta voided (dry matter basis were recorded and sampled for: dry matter, nitrogen, fat, fibre, ash and gross energy analysis. The chicks from E1 group had a lower (P≤0.05 coefficient of dietary nitrogen absorption than E2 chicks. The coefficients of apparent absorption of the dietary fat varied with the period of development. During the finishing stage, E3 chicks had a higher (P≤0.05 coefficient of fibre absorption than groups C, E1 and E2.

  7. Evaluating the suitability of maggot meal as a partial substitute of soya bean on the productive traits, digestibility indices and organoleptic properties of broiler meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S; Khan, R U; Sultan, A; Khan, M; Hayat, S U; Shahid, M S

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to replace soya bean meal with maggot meal at difference percentages. A total of 120 one-day-old broiler chicks were divided into four groups. Four diets were formulated with maggot meal to replace soya bean meal at the rate of 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% designated as A, B, C and D respectively. Feed and water were offered ad libitum during the study which lasted for 28 days. Feed intake decreased significantly in treated groups while body weight, Feed conversion ratio and dressing percentage increased significantly in group D. Apparent metabolizable energy increased significantly in the group fed 30% maggot meal; however, no significant difference was found in dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract, ash and nitrogen free extract between the control and treated groups. The result of sensory evaluation revealed that tenderness and juiciness increased significantly in group C and B respectively. The colour and flavour were most accepted in group B and C. The results indicate that replacement of soya bean meal at the rate of 30% in broiler feed produced most favourable results. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Assessment of serum biochemical parameters and pathological changes in broilers with chronic aflatoxicosis fed glucomannan-containing yeast product (Mycosorb and sodium bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizpour Aidin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of yeast glucomannan (YG and sodium bentonite (SB in reducing the toxicity in broilers fed a diet naturally contaminated with aflatoxin. Three hundred 7-day-old Ross 308 strain broilers were chosen and randomly assigned to 10 dietary treatments. Serum biochemical parameters and pathological changes in the liver were investigated at 42 d of age. Chickens fed a diet containing 250 ppb of aflatoxin displayed a decrease in uric acid, cholesterol, and triglycerides, and an increase in serum activities of AST and ALT when compared to control group. There were considerable gross and histopathological hepatic lesions (P < 0.05 in the form of small to moderate hydropic and/or fatty degeneration, bile duct hyperplasia, periportal fibrosis, cells infiltration, and congestion, in chickens fed the 250 ppb aflatoxincontaining diet. The addition of YG and SB to the aflatoxin-containing diet partially reduced the negative effects of aflatoxin. The 0.1% YG supplementation to the aflatoxin-contaminated diet significantly prevented the pathological effect of aflatoxin on serum biochemical parameters and liver, and was found to be more effective than other treatments.

  9. The effect of vitamin E, L-carnitine, and ginger on production traits, immune response, and antioxidant status in two broiler strains exposed to chronic heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Zia Ur; Chand, Naila; Khan, Rifat Ullah

    2017-12-01

    The present study was designed to find the effect of natural and synthetic antioxidants on the performance of two broiler strains under high ambient temperature. A total of 320 day-old chicks of Hubbard and Cobb were reared for a period for 21 days under the same nutritional and management systems. On day 21 onward, one subgroup was kept as control while other subgroups were provided with vitamin E (250 mg/kg), ginger (2 g/kg), and L-carnitine (500 mg/kg) in basal diets. Body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were significantly (P L-carnitine supplemented birds irrespective of the strain. Antibody titer against infectious bursal disease (IBD) and paraoxonase (PON1) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in vitamin E-supplemented birds compared to the other treatments. The number of heterophils and toal oxidant status (TOS) were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in vitamin E-supplemented birds. Blood glucose was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in vitamin E-supplemented birds, while total protein was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in vitamin E-supplemented group. In conclusion, the supplementation of vitamin E at the rate of 250 mg/kg improved the antioxidant status and immune response in the two broiler strains. Further, the two strains perform similarly in terms of performance and other health status parameters with no significant difference.

  10. Response of broiler chickens to different dietary crude protein and feeding regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JO Oyedeji

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Five isocaloric (3200kcal/kg diets were used in an experiment designed to investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP and feeding regimens on broiler performance. Day-old broilers were randomly distributed into four groups using a completely randomized design. Each group was replicated three times with ten broiler chicks per replicate. The experiment lasted for eight weeks. Broilers in group 1 received 23% CP from 0 to 3 weeks, 20% CP from 3 to 6 weeks and 18% CP from 6 to 8 weeks, while broilers in group 2 received 23% CP between 0 and 6 weeks and 18% CP between 6 and 8 weeks. Besides, broilers in group 3 were fed 23% CP from 0 to 4 weeks and 16% CP from 4 to 8 weeks, whereas group 4 was given 18% CP from 0 to weeks. Water was supplied ad libitum for broilers in the different dietary groups. A metabolic trial was carried out on the third week of the experiment using a total collection method. Proximate analyses of diets and faecal samples were performed according to the methods outlined by the Association Of the Official Analytical Chemists. Results at market age showed that broiler performance with respect to feed intake, weight gain, feed to gain ratio and water intake were not significantly influenced by CP regimens (p>0.05. Furthermore, CP regimens did not significantly influence broilers liveability (p>0.05. Protein retention, fat utilization and available fiber were not significantly influenced among treatments (p> 0.05. Economic data showed that cost to benefit ratio of producing broilers was comparable among broilers for all CP regimens used in this trial (p>0.05. It was concluded that a single diet of 18% CP and 3200kcal/kg metabolizable energy would be most suitable and convenient for farmers who are engaged in on-farm feed production for broilers as compared with the standard feeding regimens of broiler starter and broiler finisher diets.

  11. The Influence of Concentrace Mineral Drops on Performance Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Mugiyono

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available A research has been conducted in Experimental Farm Faculty of Animal Husbandry Unsoed from July 1 st until August 15 th, 1996. The purpose want to study the influence of CMD supplementation in drinking water consists of M0 = control; M1 = 0.5 drops/1000 cc, M2 = 1 drops/1000 cc; M3 = 1.5 drops/1000 cc and M4 = 2 drops/1000cc. The performance observed were growth, body weight, feed consumption, feed conversion, drinking water consumption; and income over feed and mineral cost (IOFMC. The research involved 100 broiler chickens divided that CMD supplementation until 2 drops/1000cc did not significantly affect on the performance of broiler chickens except in income over feed and mineral cost (P<0.05. (Animal Production 1(2: 56-62 (1999 Key Words: broiler, concentrace mineral drops, performance.

  12. Estimating Swedish biomass energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, J.; Lundqvist, U.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass is suggested to supply an increasing amount of energy in Sweden. There have been several studies estimating the potential supply of biomass energy, including that of the Swedish Energy Commission in 1995. The Energy Commission based its estimates of biomass supply on five other analyses which presented a wide variation in estimated future supply, in large part due to differing assumptions regarding important factors. In this paper, these studies are assessed, and the estimated potential biomass energy supplies are discusses regarding prices, technical progress and energy policy. The supply of logging residues depends on the demand for wood products and is limited by ecological, technological, and economic restrictions. The supply of stemwood from early thinning for energy and of straw from cereal and oil seed production is mainly dependent upon economic considerations. One major factor for the supply of willow and reed canary grass is the size of arable land projected to be not needed for food and fodder production. Future supply of biomass energy depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities. Biomass energy has to compete with other energy sources as well as with alternative uses of biomass such as forest products and food production. Technical progress may decrease the costs of biomass energy and thus increase the competitiveness. Economic instruments, including carbon taxes and subsidies, and allocation of research and development resources, are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of biomass energy

  13. Effect of the addition of glycosaminoglycans on bone and cartilaginous development of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgavioli, Sarah; Santos, Elaine T; Borges, Liliana L; Andrade-Garcia, Giuliana M; Castiblanco, Diana M C; Almeida, Vitor R; Garcia, Rodrigo G; Shimano, Antônio C; Nääs, Irenilza A; Baraldi-Artoni, Silvana M

    2017-09-01

    Locomotion issues in broiler production may decrease performance (carcass yield and traits) and lead to high financial losses. This study evaluates the addition of glucosaminoglycans in broiler diets to minimize the lack of proper bone development and joint weakening. The experiment was conducted using 2,160 broilers randomly distributed in a factorial pattern (3 × 3) using 3 levels of glucosamine sulfate (0, 0.12, and 0.24%) and 3 levels of chondroitin sulfate addition (0, 0.08, and 0.16%). Eight repetitions were used for each treatment, distributed in 72 pens with 30 broilers each. There was a quadratic effect on feed conversion for broilers from 1 to 42 d old (P = 0.0123) for the addition of chondroitin, and better feed conversion was obtained by adding 0.08% of chondroitin. The relative tibia weight, the width of the proximal epiphysis and diaphysis presented a linear increased effect in broilers at 42 d old. An interaction was found between the amount of chondroitin × glucosamine and the number of chondrocytes in the proximal cartilage of the tibia (P = 0.0072). There was a quadratic effect of glucosamine levels (P = 0.0107) in the birds that had received the 0.16% addition of chondroitin, and the presence of 0.18% glucosamine increased the number chondrocytes in the cartilage of broilers. These results provide the first evidence that broilers may benefit from increased dietary chondroitin sulfate. These results indicate that the addition of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfates in broiler feed rations might alleviate leg conditions and decrease financial losses in the broiler industry. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Effects of color temperatures (kelvin) of led bulbs on blood physiological variables of broilers grown to heavy weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light-emitting diode (LED) lighting is being used in the poultry industry to reduce energy usage in broiler production facilities. However, limited data are available comparing efficacy of different spectral distribution of LED bulbs on blood physiological variables of broilers grown to heavy weight...

  15. Performance of broilers fed with snail (Pomacea caniculata meal as substitute to fish meal or meat and bone meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulep, LJL.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Snail meal was used as a substitution to fish meat and bone meal in broiler rations. Final weightand feed conversion efficiency of the birds, profit and return on investment differed significantly among treatments. Feed consumption and production costs were comparable. Results show that snail meal can replace fish or meat and bone meal in broiler diets.

  16. Detection of Campylobacter Bacteria in Air Samples for Continuous Real-Time Monitoring of Campylobacter Colonization in Broiler Flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Katja Nyholm; Lund, Marianne; Skov, J.

    2009-01-01

    Improved monitoring tools are important for the control of Campylobacter bacteria in broiler production. In this study, we compare the sensitivities of detection of Campylobacter by PCR with feces, dust, and air samples during the lifetimes of broilers in two poultry houses and conclude that the ...

  17. Cultivation and qPCR detection of pathogenic and antibiotic resistant bacteria establishment in naive broiler houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Conventional commercial broiler production involves the rearing of more than 20,000 broilers in a single confined space, atop bedding material such as pine shavings or rice hulls, for approximately 6.5 weeks. This environment is known for harboring pathogens and antibiotic resistant bacteria, but ...

  18. Utilisation of synthetic amino acids by broiler breeder hens | Nonis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to examine the response of broiler breeder hens to feeds supplemented with synthetic lysine and methionine when fed once or twice daily during peak production. Replacing intact protein with increasing amounts of free lysine and methionine, up to 2.3 g/kg feed, had no effect on feed intake, ...

  19. Histopathology of the organs of Broiler Chickens exposed to flames ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histopathology of the organs of broiler chickens exposed to the flame and fumes of refined petroleum product kerosene at varying distances over a period of 16hrs daily for 56 days in a poultry house were evaluated. Kerosene burning was simulated in a designed burner. Kerosene flame in a designed burner was placed 4, ...

  20. Environmental Enrichment for Broiler Breeders: An Undeveloped Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riber, Anja B.; Jong, de Ingrid; Weerd, van de Heleen A.; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2017-01-01

    Welfare problems, such as hunger, frustration, aggression, and abnormal sexual behavior, are commonly found in broiler breeder production. To prevent or reduce these welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating enriched environments. We review the effect of the different types of

  1. Feeding broiler breeder flocks in relation to bird welfare aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2011-01-01

    To ensure health and reproductive capacity of the birds, broiler breeders are fed restricted during the rearing period, and to a lesser extent also during the production period. Although restricted feeding improves health and thereby bird welfare, on the other hand the birds are chronically hungry

  2. Optimal interventions to control campylobacter in broilers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Bodil Hald, Anna

    In a multi disciplinary project we have evaluated interventions against Campylobacter in the broiler production chain. Taking into account risk reduction, costs, practicability and public acceptance of decontamination, it was concluded that at present the optimal control measure for the Danish...

  3. Performance of broilers fed different combinations of Bambara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Production Research Advances ... Feeding trials were conducted with broiler starters and finishers to determine the effect of replacing maize with three combination ratios of bambara groundnut offal (BGO), cassava root meal ... At the starter phase, average daily feed intakes were 42.85, 57.21, 65.80 and 65.03g.

  4. A Risk Assessment Model for Campylobacter in Broiler Meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.J.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Havelaar, A.H.

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative microbiological risk assessment model describes the transmission of Campylobacter through the broiler meat production chain and at home, from entering the processing plant until consumption of a chicken breast fillet meal. The exposure model is linked to a dose-response model to allow

  5. Performance Characteristics And Muscle Fat Contents Of Broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to asses the effect of substituting maize at 10, 20, 30 and 40% of energy supplied by maize in a control diet (500 g/kg maize based) with energy from palm oil sludge (POS) on performance, muscle fat content and cost of production of 4-week old broiler chickens. A total of 200 starter shaver starbo ...

  6. Effect of bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) extract on broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    wood vinegar compounds to diets induced significant increases in hen-day egg production and feed conversion ratio, and in broiler hatchability. Bamboo extract ... could assist in protecting birds exposed to cold stress to maintain body weight gain and serum enzymatic activity in chickens. Materials and Methods. Bamboo ...

  7. Possibilities of more efficient usage of genetic potential of broilers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-03

    . Production of one day old chickens was 54.60 per housed hen and the consumption rate of food per produced egg was 503 g. Same authors concluded that broiler breeder flocks in. Serbia, during 1994, were not used in the ...

  8. Estimating sensitivity and specificity of a PCR for boot socks to detect Campylobacter in broiler primary production using Bayesian latent class analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matt, Monika; Nordentoft, Steen; Ian, Kopacka

    2016-01-01

    The present study compares three different assays for sample collection and detection of Campylobacter spp. in broiler flocks, based on (i) the collection of faecal samples from intestinal organs (caecum), (ii) individual faecal droppings collected from the bedding and (iii) faecal material...... collected by socks placed on the outside of a pair of boots (boot socks) and used for walking around in the flock. The two first methods are examined for Campylobacter using a culture method (ISO-10272-2:2006), while the boot socks are tested using PCR. The PCR-assay is a genus specific multiplex PCR...... samples were collected at slaughter.The results were evaluated in the absence of a gold standard using a Bayesian latent class model. Austrian results showed higher sensitivity for PCR detection in sock samples (0.98; Bayesian credible interval (BCI) [0.93-1]) than for culture of faecal droppings (0...

  9. Effect of a novel microbial phytase on production performance and tibia mineral concentration in broiler chickens given low-calcium diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A; Walk, C L; Ghosh, T K; Bedford, M R; Haldar, S

    2013-01-01

    1. In a 42-d feeding trial, 264 one-d-old, as hatched, Cobb 400 broiler chickens (6 pens per group, n = 11 per pen in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement) were fed on two concentrations of dietary calcium (Ca) (9.0 and 7.5 g/kg in starter, 7.5 and 6 g/kg in grower phases) and supplemental phytase (0 and 500 U/kg diet). 2. During d 0-21, the high Ca + phytase diet improved body weight. During d 0-42, feed intake was increased by the low Ca diet and decreased by phytase supplementation. Feed conversion ratio during d 0-21 was improved by the high Ca + phytase diet. 3. At d 42, Ca in duodenal digesta was reduced by low dietary Ca and supplemental phytase. High dietary Ca reduced P in duodenal and jejunal digesta. Phytase reduced digesta P and increased serum P concentration. 4. Relative tibia length decreased with low dietary Ca and increased with phytase. The robusticity index of tibia was improved by the low Ca diet and phytase supplementation. Phytase supplementation increased tibia ash and concentrations of Ca, magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) in tibia. The low Ca diet increased Mg, Mn and Fe and reduced Cu and Zn in tibia. 5. It was concluded that 7.5 g Ca/kg during weeks 0-3 and 6 g Ca/kg during weeks 3-6 sustained broiler performance and bone ash, while phytase supplementation facilitated tibia mineralisation, particularly during the grower phase.

  10. Níveis de Ruídos na Produção de Matrizes Pesadas: Estudo de Caso Sound Levels in Broilers Breeder Production System: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IA Nääs

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O setor econômico de produção de matrizes pesadas emprega um grande número de pessoas que permanecem cerca de 44 horas semanais dentro tanto das granjas de recria e produção, como nas salas adjacentes à câmara incubatória. O trabalho levantou os dados de níveis de ruídos em um sistema de produção de matrizes pesadas e de ovos férteis, nos galpões de recria do tipo Dark House, e produção de ovos nas salas de vacinação de pintinhos e de acondicionamento de ovos férteis, em dois dias consecutivos, por um período de 8 horas, durante as horas em que os trabalhadores se encontravam dentro dos locais. Os registros de nível de ruídos foram efetuados utilizando-se um equipamento nível sonoro marca Lutron SL 4001. Foram coletados os dados médios de nível normal e de intensidade alta intermitente. Os resultados obtidos mostram que, no galpão de produção e na sala de vacinação de pintinhos, é recomendado o uso de protetores auriculares para que se atenda à legislação vigente brasileira sobre salubridade, com relação a níveis de ruídos.The economical sector of broiler breeder production employs a large number of workers who stay around 44 hours per week within the buildings for both growing and production, as well as the areas surrounding the incubator chamber. This research evaluated the sound level in the broiler breeder production system , in the Dark House and in the egg production housing, in the chickling vaccination room and inside the room where the fertile eggs are conditioned for both transportation or to go inside the incubator chamber. The trial took place during two consecutive days, during 8 hours while the workers where in side the buildings. The level of noise was registered using the sound level equipment Lutron SL 4001. The results showed that inside the egg production housing, as well as the room where the vaccination of chickling takes place, there are levels of critical values where ear protection

  11. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Griller-Type Broilers of Four Genetic Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa Filho, JA; Almeida, M; Shimokomaki, M; Pinheiro, JW; Silva, CA; Michelan Filho, T; Bueno, FR; Oba, A

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Griller-type chickens are broilers slaughtered between27and 29 days old weighing 1.3 to 1.5 kg and sold as a whole carcasses. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of female broilers of four genetic lines reared for the production of griller-type chickens. A total of 960 broiler chicks was allotted in a randomized block design with four treatments and eight replicates of 30 birds per experimental plot. Each experimental ...

  12. Studies in Swedish Energy Opinion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Soeren; Hedberg, Per

    2012-07-01

    the 1970s, energy production was politicized big time in the industrialized world. The birth of the environmental movement, the oil crises in 1973 - 74 and the beginning conflict surrounding civilian nuclear power, put energy issues center stage on the political agenda. Energy policies - especially related to the development of nuclear power - came to dominate election campaigns, like in Sweden in 1976 or be the subject of referendums, like in Austria in 1978 or in Sweden in 1980. Critical voices toward the peaceful use of nuclear power - having started in America before being exported to Europe - gained real strength and public support all over the Western world by the nuclear accident at the Three Mile Island plant in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania in 1979. The energy genie was out of the bottle and out to stay. Fueled by the nuclear meltdowns in Chernobyl in 1986 and in Fukushima in 2011 and supplemented by conflicts over how to reduce the use of oil and coal, how to sensibly exploit the waste gas reserves, and how to develop renewable energy sources based on sun, wind and waves – have made all kinds of energy issues the focal point of political contentions ever since the early 1970s. In Sweden, as in many other countries, energy policies - often with nuclear power in the center - have been one of the most fought-over policy areas during the last thirty-forty years. And the contentious character of energy policies is not limited to the elite level of politics - to politicians, to media pundits or to lobbyists. It is also manifest among ordinary citizens. Energy issues - nuclear power and wind power in particular - are highly polarizing among voters as well. Given this historic background, starting in the 1970s, it was rather natural that energy questions - featuring most prominently questions related to nuclear power - would be important parts of the voter surveys performed by the Swedish National Elections Studies (SNES) at the Univ. of Gothenburg. The first book

  13. Impacto das variáveis ambientais em incubatório de estágio múltiplo de frangos de corte Impact of environmental variables in multi setter incubation in broiler's production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta S. Baracho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou a quantificar as características de resposta produtiva de pintos de corte provenientes de duas linhagens comerciais, em incubatório de regime de estágio múltiplo. Para tal, foram monitorados três lotes de ovos férteis em incubatório comercial, verificando o impacto das seguintes variáveis ambientais: temperatura, velocidade do ar, umidade relativa, concentração de dióxido de carbono e presença de fungos. O acompanhamento de pintos provenientes de duas linhagens comerciais distintas (Cobb® e Avian® foi feito em três lotes, quando também foram coletados dados de perdas. A análise de componentes principais foi empregada para associar as variáveis de ambiente, produção e perdas, observando a magnitude dos vetores. Os resultados mostraram que o ambiente de incubação influenciou diretamente no desempenho (qualidade, incidência de anormalidades e mortalidade das duas linhagens de frango de corte. Ambas as linhagens apresentaram perdas produtivas relacionadas à baixa temperatura de incubação na incubadora e no nascedouro, mostrando que a temperatura de incubação é o fator mais importante para que sejam alcançados índices produtivos ótimos.This research aimed to quantify the characteristics of the productive response of pullets from two distinct genetic strains in multi setter incubator. For this three batches of fertile eggs were monitored in a commercial incubator verifying the impact of the following environmental variables: temperature, air velocity, relative humidity, carbon dioxide concentration and presence of fungi. The follow up was done in three flocks of broiler pullets from two commercial genetic strains (Cobb® and Avian® also along with the data of losses. The principal components analysis was used for associating the variables of environment, production and losses by observing the magnitude of the vectors. Results showed that the environment of incubation influenced the performance

  14. Heat cost in a Swedish agrothermal plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, J.

    1978-01-01

    Low-grade heat is of rapidly increasing importance in Sweden and, therefore, so is the economic evaluation of such heat. The present heat cost is based on a detailed feasibility study of large-scale heated horticulture combined with electricity production from a Swedish boiling water reactor power plant. To estimate judiciously the cost of heat from a dual-purpose plant--such as a large-scale horticultural installation combined with and using low-grade waste heat from an electric power plant--is an almost classical problem: a measure of arbitrarity is unavoidable. The opportunity cost approach shown has presumably some new features. It results in an estimated cost of heat delivered from the turbine condenser heater in the power plant of 1.4 $/GJ (or 6.1 Swedish Crwn/GJ) in 1980, which is less than one-third of the cost of fuel only with conventional oil-fired heaters

  15. U.S. broiler housing ammonia emissions inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, R. S.; Casey, K. D.; Wheeler, E. F.; Xin, H.; Pescatore, A. J.

    Using recently published baseline ammonia emissions data for U.S. broiler chicken housing, we present a method of estimating their contribution to an annual ammonia budget that is different from that used by USEPA. Emission rate increases in a linear relationship with flock age from near zero at the start of the flock to a maximum at the end of the flock, 28-65 days later. Market weight of chickens raised for meat varies from "broilers" weighing about 2 kg to "roasters" weighing about 3 kg. Multiple flocks of birds are grown in a single house annually, with variable downtime to prepare the house between flocks. The method takes into account weight and number of chickens marketed. Uncertainty in baseline emissions estimates is used so that inventory estimates are provided with error estimates. The method also incorporates the condition of litter that birds are raised upon and the varying market weight of birds grown. Using 2003 USDA data on broiler production numbers, broiler housing is estimated to contribute 8.8-11.7 kT ammonia for new and built-up litter, respectively, in Kentucky and 240-324 kT ammonia for new and built-up litter, respectively, nationally. Results suggest that a 10% uncertainty in annual emission rate is expected for the market weight categories of broilers, heavy broilers, and roasters. A 27-47% reduction in annual housing emission rate is predicted if new rather than built-up litter were used for every flock. The estimating method can be adapted to other meat bird building emissions and future ammonia emission strategies, with suitable insertion of an age-dependent emission factor or slope into a predictive model equation. The method can be readily applied and is an alternative to that used by USEPA.

  16. Swedish-Estonian energy forest research cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, J.; Kirt, E.; Koppel, A.; Kull, K.; Noormets, A.; Roostalu, H.; Ross, V.; Ross, M.

    1996-01-01

    The Organization of Estonian energetic economy is aimed at cutting the usage of oil, gas and coal and increasing the local resources firewood, oil-shale and peat for fuel. The resources of low-valued firewood-brushwood, fallen deadwood etc. are available during the following 10-15 years, but in the future the cultivation of energy forest (willow) plantations will be actual. During the last 20 years the Swedish scientists have been extensively studying the willow forest selection, cultivation and use in energetics and waste water purification systems. A Swedish-Estonian energy forest research project was started in 1993 between the Swedish Agricultural University on one hand and Toravere Observatory, Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonian Academy of Sciences and Estonian Potato Processing Association on the other hand. In spring 5 willow plantations were established with the help of Swedish colleagues and obtained from Sweden 36000 willow cuttings. The aim of the project: a) To study experimentally and by means of mathematical modelling the biogeophysical aspects of growth and productivity of willow plantations in Sweden and Estonian climatological conditions. b) To study the possibility of using the willow plantations in waste waters purification. c) To study the economical efficiency of energy forest as an energy resource under the economic and environmental conditions of Estonia. d) To study the economic efficiency of willow plantations as a raw material for the basket industry in Estonia. e) To select the most productive and least vulnerable willow clones for practical application in energy plantations. During 1993 in all five plantations detailed analysis of soil properties has been carried out. In the plantation at Toravere Observatory phytometrical measurements were carried out - the growth of plant biomass leaf and stem area, vertical distribution of dry matter content, biomass and phyto area separately for leaves and stems has been performed. Some

  17. A role for flies (Diptera) in the transmission of Campylobacter to broilers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royden, A; Wedley, A; Merga, J Y; Rushton, S; Hald, B; Humphrey, T; Williams, N J

    2016-11-01

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial diarrhoeal disease worldwide, with raw and undercooked poultry meat and products the primary source of infection. Colonization of broiler chicken flocks with Campylobacter has proved difficult to prevent, even with high levels of biosecurity. Dipteran flies are proven carriers of Campylobacter and their ingress into broiler houses may contribute to its transmission to broiler chickens. However, this has not been investigated in the UK. Campylobacter was cultured from 2195 flies collected from four UK broiler farms. Of flies cultured individually, 0·22% [2/902, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0-0·53] were positive by culture for Campylobacter spp. Additionally, 1293 flies were grouped by family and cultured in 127 batches: 4/127 (3·15%, 95% CI 0·11-6·19) from three broiler farms were positive for Campylobacter. Multilocus sequence typing of isolates demonstrated that the flies were carrying broiler-associated sequence types, responsible for human enteric illness. Malaise traps were used to survey the dipteran species diversity on study farms and also revealed up to 612 flies present around broiler-house ventilation inlets over a 2-h period. Therefore, despite the low prevalence of Campylobacter cultured from flies, the risk of transmission by this route may be high, particularly during summer when fly populations are greatest.

  18. Viral and Bacterial Diseases in Broiler Chicken Farms at the Area of Banyumas District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Hastuti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Efforts to control viral and bacterial diseases in poultry broiler should always be done by various efforts. Maintenance of strict management, implementation and administration of vaccines and bio security program are some efforts that are often done by farmers in order to eliminate viral and bacterial diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the type of pathogenic viruses and bacteria that often infect broiler chickens and how to make efforts to control the broiler chicken farms in the subdistricts of Kedungbanteng and Baturraden, district of Banyumas. The research method was survey on broiler chicken farmers in the areas of Baturraden and Kedungbanteng of Banyumas district. Gradual cluster sampling was used in this study.  11  broiler chicken farms with various breeds were involved.  The current study found that types of bacterial disease that infected broiler chicken farms in the subdistricts of Kedungbanteng and Baturraden were Chronic Respiratory Disease (CRD and Colibacilosis, whereas viral diseases that infected were the Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD/Gumboro and New Castle Disease (ND, although the prevalence rate was low. The efforts to control the main virus diseases, IBD and ND, succeeded in pressing the two diseases sould be implemented. Key Words: viral disease, bacterial disease, broiler chicken farm S Hastuti and E Yuwono/Animal Production 13(3:198-206 (2011

  19. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter ...... infection of broiler flocks in summer....

  20. STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN KEMITRAAN TERNAK AYAM BROILER PT. XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifa Hanum

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The objectives of this research are to (1 analyze profit and BEP of plasma farmers (2 analyze internal and external strategic factors that influence development of broiler partnership in PT. XYZ, (3 formulate the alternative strategies of broiler partnership in PT. XYZ, (4 formulate selected priority strategy to develop broiler partnership in PT. XYZ. This research uses descriptive method based on case study on broiler partnership in PT. XYZ. Based on BEP analysis, BEP (production of plasma farmers is in the range 79,91%-86,58% from chick-in capacity, and BEP (price is in the range of Rp 11.684 – Rp 12.191 per chicken on market price. PT. XYZ partnership’s position in IE matric was second quadrant (grow and builds. The results of SWOT analysis are: a vertical integration strategy through feedmill, breeding and chicken slaughterhouse, b improving production capacity through capacity building of plasma farmers, c improvement in bio-security aspects of maintenance, and d improving the quality of technical staff and improving supervision. The priority strategy from QSPM analysis is improving production capacity through capacity building of plasma farmers. The strategy to improve production capacity can be done by maximize or add their capacity, and add the new plasma farmers.   Keywords: Broiler Partnership, Internal Environment, External Environment, Internal-external, Improvement Priority

  1. Does low-protein diet improve broiler performance under heat stress conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RL Furlan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition for broilers under high temperatures is extremely important for brazilian broiler chicken industry because the amounts of consumed nutrients and environmental temperature have great effects on bird performance and carcass quality. Among diet nutrients, protein has the highest heat increment; thus, during many years, diets with low protein level were recommended in order to reduce heat production in broiler chickens under heat stress. However, reports have shown that low-protein diets have negative effects on broiler performance when environmental temperature is high, because during heat stress, low food intake associated to a low diet protein induce amino acid deficiencies. Other studies have shown that broilers fed low-protein diets increase their energy requirement for maintenance with higher heat production. Thus, with the growth of broiler industry in tropical areas more challenges need to be faced by the farmers. So, both the ambient and nutritional conditions ought to be well managed to avoid negative effects on poultry production once they can affect the metabolism (body heat production under low temperature and body heat dissipation under high temperature with consequence on poultry performance (meat and eggs.

  2. Zootecnia de precisão: análise de imagens no estudo do comportamento de frangos de corte em estresse térmico Precision animal production: image analysis to study broiler's behavior under stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly B. Sevegnani

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A preocupação em se atingir níveis de bem-estar para que a produção avícola seja maximizada vem, ao longo desses últimos anos, ganhando maior importância pela complexidade com que os fatores de produção estão correlacionados. Há um número grande de variáveis influenciando o microclima dentro de uma instalação, e conhecer sua interferência na produtividade final é determinante para uma compreensão melhor dos fenômenos ambientais. A manutenção do conforto térmico dentro dos aviários é um dos problemas enfrentados pelos produtores avícolas. As aves respondem de maneira diferente, dependendo da condição de temperatura e umidade relativa internas. A ingestão de ração e água são influenciadas também pelas mesmas condições razão por que se fez, neste trabalho, a avaliação do comportamento de frangos de corte submetidos a diversas combinações de temperatura e umidade em câmara climática, monitorados por câmeras de vídeo, possibilitando o monitoramento individual das aves no estudo de seu comportamento ingestivo. Os resultados mostraram que, quanto maior a temperatura e mais velha a ave, maior foi a ingestão de água e menor a ingestão de ração.The concern about comfort levels in poultry production is increased during the recent years, gaining more importance due to complexity with which the production factors are correlated. A great number of climatic factors affect the environment inside the animal housing and to know it's influence on final production is determinent for better understanding of environmental phenomena. The maintenance of thermal comfort inside the poultry houses is one of the problems faced by the broiler producers. The birds respond in different ways depending on the conditions of internal temperature and relative humidity. The ingestion of ration and water is also influenced by the same conditions, reason for which, in this study, an evalution of behavior of broilers submitted to

  3. Technologies to mitigate the environmental impact of broiler production Tecnologias para mitigar o impacto ambiental da produção de frangos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar O. Oviedo-Rondón

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The broiler industry produces efficiently animal protein, but generates residues with high contents of N, P, K, trace minerals, and high bacterial charge. The rapid microbial decomposition of these residues cause ammonia volatilization, nuisance odor, fine particulate matter, and attract insects and rodents. This presentation will discuss the more effective methods to utilize these resources and minimize potential environmental impact. These procedures include planning, personnel training, zoning of areas used to dispose the final residues in crop lands, farm isolation, precision nutrition, litter and house management practices, and appropriate mortality disposal. Broiler litter has been used for animal feeding and power generation. Additionally, new technologies to reduce ammonia, odor and fine particle emissions, or reduction of P solubility will be presented.A criação industrial de frangos de corte tem sido eficiente na produção de proteína animal, no entanto geram resíduos com alto conteúdo de N, P, K, minerais traço, e alta carga de bactérias. A rápida degradação microbiana destes resíduos ocasiona volatilização de amônia, odores, e pó fino, além de atrair insetos e roedores. Esta apresentação discutirá os métodos mais efetivos para aproveitamento destes recursos e minimizar o possível impacto ambiental. Estes procedimentos incluem planejamento, capacitação do pessoal, zoneamento das áreas para dispor dos resíduos finais nas glebas, isolamento da granja, nutrição com precisão, praticas de manejo da cama e galpão, e correto manejo das aves mortas. A cama de frangos tem sido utilizada na alimentação animal e geração de energia. Adicionalmente serão apresentadas novas tecnologias visando à redução de emissões de amônia, odores e pó fino, ou a redução na solubilidade de fósforo.

  4. Straight-run vs. sex separate rearing for 2 broiler genetic lines Part 1: Live production parameters, carcass yield, and feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, M J; Zaragoza-Santacruz, S; Frost, T J; Halley, J; Pesti, G M

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of raising broilers under sex separate and straight-run conditions for 2 broiler strains. Day-old Ross 308 and Ross 708 chicks (n = 1,344) were separated by sex and placed in 48 pens according to the rearing type: sex separate (28 males or 28 females) or straight-run (14 males + 14 females). There were 3 dietary phases: starter (zero to 17 d), grower (17 to 32 d), and finisher (32 to 48 d). Birds' individual BW and feed intakes were measured at 12, 17, 25, 32, 42, and 48 d to evaluate performance. At 33, 43, and 49 d, 4 birds per pen were sampled for carcass yield evaluation. Additionally, from 06:00 to 06:30, 13:00 to 13:30, and 22:00 to 22:30, video records were taken to assess behavior at 45 days. Data were analyzed as CRD with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments over time. Throughout the experiment Ross 308 were heavier than the 708, and after 17 d, male pens had the heavier birds, followed by straight-run and then females. Straight-run pens had higher BW CV in comparison with sex separate pens. Sex separate male BW was negatively impacted from 17 to 32 days. On the other hand, females raised sex separate were heavier than females raised straight-run with lower CV from 25 to 41 days. Post 25 d, FCR was the lowest in male pens whereas feed intake was the highest for these pens after 17 days. Overall, males had total carcass cut-up weights higher than straight-run and females at the 3 processing times. The Ross 708 had higher white meat yields, whereas 308 had higher yields for dark meat. Feeding behavior results were not consistent over time. However, from 13:00 to 13:30, birds in female pens spent more time eating, followed by straight-run and then males. In conclusion, raising females in a straight-run system negatively impacted performance and CV, whereas males benefited from straight-run rearing, with the differences being possibly related to feeder space competition. © 2017

  5. Weight prediction of broiler chickens using 3D computer vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Anders Krogh; Lisouski, Pavel; Ahrendt, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In modern broiler houses, the broilers are traditionally weighed using automatic electronic platform weighers that the broilers have to visit voluntarily. Heavy broilers may avoid the weigher. Camera-based weighing systems have the potential of weighing a wider variety of broilers that would avoid...

  6. Feeding of Dehulled-micronized Faba Bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as Substitute for Soybean Meal in Guinea Fowl Broilers: Effect on Productive Performance and Meat Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Laudadio, Vito

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with dehulled-micronized faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor) in guinea fowl broilers on their growth traits, carcass quality, and meat fatty acids composition. In this trial, 120 day-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to two treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 weeks of age. Birds were fed two wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (78.3 g/kg) and a test diet containing dehulled-micronized faba bean (130 g/kg) as the main protein source. Substituting SBM with faba bean had no adverse effect on growth traits, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscles relative weight of the guinea fowls. Conversely, a decrease (pMeat from guinea fowls fed faba bean had less total lipids (pmeat and decreased the saturated fatty acid levels. Moreover, dietary faba bean improved the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in guinea fowl breast meat. Results indicated that substitution of SBM with faba bean meal in guinea fowl diet can improve carcass qualitative traits, enhancing also meat lipid profile without negatively affecting growth performance. PMID:26323403

  7. Modelling energy utilisation in broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabello, C B V; Sakomura, N K; Longo, F A; Couto, H P; Pacheco, C R; Fernandes, J B K

    2006-10-01

    1. The objective of this study was to determine a metabolisable energy (ME) requirement model for broiler breeder hens. The influence of temperature on ME requirements for maintenance was determined in experiments conducted in three environmental rooms with temperatures kept constant at 13, 21 and 30 degrees C using a comparative slaughter technique. The energy requirements for weight gain were determined based upon body energy content and efficiency of energy utilisation for weight gain. The energy requirements for egg production were determined on the basis of egg energy content and efficiency of energy deposition in the eggs. 2. The following model was developed using these results: ME = kgW0.75(806.53-26.45T + 0.50T2) + 31.90G + 10.04EM, where kgW0.75 is body weight (kg) raised to the power 0.75, T is temperature ( degrees C), G is weight gain (g) and EM is egg mass (g). 3. A feeding trial was conducted using 400 Hubbard Hi-Yield broiler breeder hens and 40 Peterson males from 31 to 46 weeks of age in order to compare use of the model with a recommended feeding programme for this strain of bird. The application of the model in breeder hens provided good productive and reproductive performance and better results in feed and energy conversion than in hens fed according to strain recommendation. In conclusion, the model evaluated predicted an ME intake which matched breeder hens' requirements.

  8. Broiler-Housing Conditions Affect the Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Mesa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the last decades animal production has considerably increased worldwide to sustain an ever-growing human population. Among animal reared for consumption purposes, chickens are undoubtedly one of the most successful, mainly due to their rapid growth rate. The development of broiler farming has been accompanied in recent years by a substantial attention to animal welfare. This study is aimed at assessing the effects of different housing conditions on both feed conversion ratio and mortality of male broiler flocks through a large-scale study (more than 100 million birds involving 977 farms belonging to one major producer. For this, we evaluated nine features of the housing system using a linear model with random effect. The features were: roofing, floor, drinkers, feeders, water source, color curtain color, management, light and ventilation. A total of 3516 poultry flocks were assessed. Positive ventilation, metal and clay roof, dirt floor and owner management were shown to reduced mortality. Concrete floor, negative ventilation, blue curtains, fluorescent lightening, owner management, tap water and well water significantly improved FCR. We discuss our findings in relation with economic constraints and provide advices to encourage farmers using simple devices that will improve both production and chicken survival.

  9. A simple steady state model of the distribution of vertical temperature in broiler houses without internal air circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, G; Beeking, F F

    1995-07-01

    1. The vertical temperature profile in a broiler house depends on several factors: ground temperature, heat production by the birds, heating of litter by resting birds, stratification and radiation, microbial heat production in the litter, moisture loss from litter and natural convection around the birds. The effect on the vertical temperature profile is calculated for each factor and the effects are finally combined to estimate vertical temperature distribution. 2. The vertical temperature profile in a commercial broiler house depends on the age of the birds. Influential factors for young broilers are ground temperature and stratification. For older broilers, influential factors are floor construction and ground-water table, heat production of broilers and litter, the behaviour of the broilers and air circulation in the house. 3. Temperatures in the living zone can differ appreciably, by a maximum of about 4 degrees C, from mean house temperature. 4. The velocity of air induced by the heat production of the broilers is about 5 cm/s. This provides good air mixing in the living zone.

  10. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The total production of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 65.6 TWh during 2002, which is a decrease compared to 2001. The energy capability factor for the 11 Swedish reactors averaged 80.8%. The PWRs at Ringhals averaged 87.6%, while the BWRs, not counting Oskarshamn 1, reached 89.2%. No events, which in accordance to conventions should be reported to IAEA, have occurred during 2002. Operational statistics are presented for each Swedish reactor. The hydroelectric power was 66 TWh, 16% lower than 2000. Wind power contributed 0.5 TWh, and remaining production sources, mainly from solid fuel plants combined with district heating, contributed 10.9 TWh. The electricity generation totalled 143 TWh, considerably less than the record high 2001 figure of 158.7 TWh. The preliminary figures for export were 14.8 TWh and and for import 20.1 TWh.

  11. Ammonia emissions in tunnel-ventilated broiler houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAO Lima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Gas production in broiler houses and their emissions are closely related to the microclimate established inside the house according to air temperature, humidity, and velocity. Therefore, the internal house environment is influenced by building typology and ventilation system. The objective of the present study was to evaluate ammonia emission rates in broiler houses equipped with different ventilation systems (negative or positive pressure and litter conditions (new or built-up. The environment of six commercial broiler houses was evaluated internal and external NH3 concentrations. Ventilation rates were recorded to estimate ammonia emission rates. The efficiency of circulation and exhaust fans was assessed, and higher ventilation rates were determined in negative-pressure houses due to the higher flow of the fans. Houses with new litter increased ammonia emission rates along the rearing period, indicating the relationship between gas emissions, bird age and ventilation rates, and presented a typical curve of NH3 emission increase. Negative-pressure houses with built-up litter presented higher emission rates during the first rearing week due to the high NH3 concentration during the brooding period, when the ventilation rates required to maintain chick thermal comfort are low. Although the results of the present study indicate an advantage of the positive-pressure systems as to gas emissions, further research is needed reduce gas emissions in broiler houses with negative-pressure systems.

  12. Efficiency of sepiolite in broilers diet as uranium adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrovic, Branislava M.; Lazarevic-Macanovic, Mirjana; Krstic, Nikola [University of Belgrade, Department of Radiology and Radiation Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Belgrade (Serbia); Jovanovic, Milijan [University of Belgrade, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Belgrade (Serbia); Janackovic, Djordje [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade (Serbia); Stojanovic, Mirjana [University of Belgrade, Institute for Technology of Nuclear and Other Mineral Row Materials, Belgrade (Serbia); Mirilovic, Milorad [University of Belgrade, Department of Economics and Statistics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-05-15

    The use of phosphate mineral products in animal nutrition, as a major source of phosphor and calcium, can lead to uranium entering the food chain. The aim of the present study was to determine the protective effect of natural sepiolite and sepiolite treated with acid for broilers after oral intake of uranium. The broilers were contaminated for 7 days with 25 mg/uranyl nitrate per day. Two different adsorbents (natural sepiolite and sepiolite treated with acid) were given via gastric tube immediately after the oral administration of uranium. Natural sepiolite reduced uranium distribution by 57 % in kidney, 80 % in liver, 42 % in brain, and 56 % in muscle. A lower protective effect was observed after the administration of sepiolite treated with acid, resulting in significant damage of intestinal villi in the form of shortening, fragmentation, and necrosis, and histopathological lesions on kidney in the form of edema and abruption of epithelial cells in tubules. When broilers received only sepiolite treated with acid (no uranyl nitrate), shortening of intestinal villi occurred. Kidney injuries were evident when uranium concentrations in kidney were 0.88 and 1.25 μg/g dry weight. It is concluded that adding of natural sepiolite to the diets of broilers can reduce uranium distribution in organs by significant amount without adverse side effects. (orig.)

  13. Differences in egg nutrient availability, development, and nutrient metabolism of broiler and layer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangsuay, A; Molenaar, R; Meijerhof, R; van den Anker, I; Heetkamp, M J W; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2015-03-01

    Selection for production traits of broilers and layers leads to physiological differences, which may already be present during incubation. This study aimed to investigate the influence of strain (broiler vs layer) on egg nutrient availability, embryonic development and nutrient metabolism. A total of 480 eggs with an egg weight range of 62.0 to 64.0 g from Lohmann Brown Lite and Ross 308 breeder flocks of 41 or 42 weeks of age were selected in two batches of 120 eggs per batch per strain. For each batch, 30 eggs per strain were used to determine egg composition, including nutrient and energy content, and 90 eggs per strain were separately incubated in one of two climate respiration chambers at an eggshell temperature of 37.8°C. The results showed that broiler eggs had a higher ratio of yolk: albumen with 2.41 g more yolk and 1.48 g less albumen than layers. The yolk energy content of broiler eggs was 46.32 kJ higher than that of layer eggs, whereas total energy content of broiler eggs was 47.85 kJ higher compared to layer eggs. Yolk-free body mass at incubation day 16 and chick weight and length at hatch were higher in broilers compared to layers. Respiration quotient of broiler embryos was higher than layer embryos during incubation day 8 to incubation day 10. A 0.24 g lower residual yolk at the hatch of broiler embryos than for the layer embryos indicated that broiler embryos used more yolk and had a higher energy utilization and energy deposition in yolk-free body mass. Heat production of broiler embryos was higher than that of layer embryos from incubation day 12 to incubation day 18, but efficiency of converting egg energy used by embryos to form yolk-free body mass was similar. In conclusion, broiler and layer embryos have different embryonic development patterns, which affect energy utilization and embryonic heat production. However, the embryos are equal in efficiency of converting the energy used to yolk-free body mass. © 2015 Poultry Science

  14. Leg disorders in broiler chickens: prevalence, risk factors and prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby G Knowles

    Full Text Available Broiler (meat chickens have been subjected to intense genetic selection. In the past 50 years, broiler growth rates have increased by over 300% (from 25 g per day to 100 g per day. There is growing societal concern that many broiler chickens have impaired locomotion or are even unable to walk. Here we present the results of a comprehensive survey of commercial flocks which quantifies the risk factors for poor locomotion in broiler chickens. We assessed the walking ability of 51,000 birds, representing 4.8 million birds within 176 flocks. We also obtained information on approximately 150 different management factors associated with each flock. At a mean age of 40 days, over 27.6% of birds in our study showed poor locomotion and 3.3% were almost unable to walk. The high prevalence of poor locomotion occurred despite culling policies designed to remove severely lame birds from flocks. We show that the primary risk factors associated with impaired locomotion and poor leg health are those specifically associated with rate of growth. Factors significantly associated with high gait score included the age of the bird (older birds, visit (second visit to same flock, bird genotype, not feeding whole wheat, a shorter dark period during the day, higher stocking density at the time of assessment, no use of antibiotic, and the use of intact feed pellets. The welfare implications are profound. Worldwide approximately 2 x 10(10 broilers are reared within similar husbandry systems. We identify a range of management factors that could be altered to reduce leg health problems, but implementation of these changes would be likely to reduce growth rate and production. A debate on the sustainability of current practice in the production of this important food source is required.

  15. Feeding of Dehulled-micronized Faba Bean ( var. minor as Substitute for Soybean Meal in Guinea Fowl Broilers: Effect on Productive Performance and Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Tufarelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the effect of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM with dehulled-micronized faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor in guinea fowl broilers on their growth traits, carcass quality, and meat fatty acids composition. In this trial, 120 day-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to two treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 weeks of age. Birds were fed two wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (78.3 g/kg and a test diet containing dehulled-micronized faba bean (130 g/kg as the main protein source. Substituting SBM with faba bean had no adverse effect on growth traits, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscles relative weight of the guinea fowls. Conversely, a decrease (p<0.05 of abdominal fat was found in guinea fowls fed the faba bean-diet. Breast muscle of birds fed faba bean had higher L* score (p<0.05 and water-holding capacity (p<0.05 than the SBM control diet. Meat from guinea fowls fed faba bean had less total lipids (p<0.05 and cholesterol (p<0.01, and higher concentrations of phospholipids (p<0.01. Feeding faba bean increased polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in breast meat and decreased the saturated fatty acid levels. Moreover, dietary faba bean improved the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in guinea fowl breast meat. Results indicated that substitution of SBM with faba bean meal in guinea fowl diet can improve carcass qualitative traits, enhancing also meat lipid profile without negatively affecting growth performance.

  16. Swedish encapsulation station review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G.

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB's document 'Plan 1996'. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL's Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International's experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation

  17. Swedish encapsulation station review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G. [NAC International, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB`s document `Plan 1996`. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL`s Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International`s experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation 19 refs, 9 figs, 35 tabs

  18. Verkstaden som skola eller skolan som verkstad: Om produktion som pedagogisk praktik i svensk yrkesutbildning [The workshop as school or the school as workshop: Production as educational practice in Swedish vocational education and training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    �sa Broberg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The workshop school was a particular form of education in the Swedish vocational education system of 1918. It was established and developed over a period of 50 years before it disappeared in the upper secondary reform of 1968. The workshop school differed, in many respects, from the kind of school workshops of today where students attain most of their vocational practice. It was not unusual that the workshop schools operated as small business enterprises on the local market, even when the municipality was the organizer of the education. The wide scope of this article is about this historical phenomenon. The aim is to investigate the production as a pedagogical tool through the artefacts and spaces of the workshop school. This is done within the theoretical framework materiality of schooling, a perspective that can be described as school archaeology. City- or municipal archives hold a treasure trove of photographs and narratives from the era of workshop schools in Sweden. They reveal how production shaped the content and relations to society in a very different way from the vocational training that takes place in the modern school workshop.

  19. Evaluation of Yucca schidigera extract as feed additive on performance of broiler chicks in winter season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sarada Prasanna; Kaur, Daljeet; Sethi, A P S; Sharma, A; Chandra, M

    2015-04-01

    Yucca schidigera extract has been successfully used as feed additives in the poultry industry. It enhances the growth and productivity in broiler production. Hence, the present study was designed to analyze the effect of Y. schidigera extract in growth, carcass quality and behavior along with its economical utility in broiler rearing. Total, 120 numbers of day-old broiler chicks of equal sex ratio were randomly divided into Yucca supplemented treatment and control group, each having 60 birds in three replications of 20 numbers. The feeding management and rearing conditions were similar for all the groups as per the standard except the Yucca supplementation in the treatment group @ 125 mg/kg of feed. The parameters with respect to growth, carcass, behavior, and litter content were recorded as per standard procedures. The Yucca supplementation can effectively enhance growth of 173 g in 6(th) week by utilizing lesser feed intake than control group, which ultimately proves better feed conversion rate, protein efficiency ratio, and energy efficiency ratio in broiler production. Eviscerated weight of 58.50% for the treatment group was significantly higher (pYucca group (32.23%) was significantly higher (pYucca supplementation in the diet on live weight basis. Numerically, lower percentage of moisture was present in Yucca treated group than the control. From this study, it can be concluded that Yucca supplementation has an important role in augmenting broiler's growth performance, efficiency to utilize feed, protein and energy, and survivability. Hence, use of Yucca powder in broiler ration could be beneficial to maintain the litter quality, which directly enhances the productivity in broiler production without any adverse effect.

  20. The Swedish National Defence Research Establishment and the plans for Swedish nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonter, Thomas

    2001-03-01

    This study analyses the Swedish nuclear weapons research since 1945 carried out by the Swedish National Defence Research Establishment (FOA). The most important aspect of this research was dealing with protection in broad terms against nuclear weapons attacks. However, another aspect was also important from early on - to conduct research aiming at a possible production of nuclear weapons. FOA performed an extended research up to 1968, when the Swedish Government signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which meant the end of these production plans. Up to this date, five main investigations about the technical conditions were made, 1948, 1953, 1955, 1957 and 1965, which all together expanded the Swedish know-how to produce a bomb. The Swedish plans to procure nuclear weapons were not an issue in the debate until the mid 50's. The reason for this was simple, prior to 1954 the plans were secretly held within a small group of involved politicians, military and researchers. The change of this procedure did take place when the Swedish Supreme Commander in a public defence report in 1954 favoured a Swedish Nuclear weapons option. In 1958 FOA had reached a technical level that allowed the Parliament to make a decision. Two programs were proposed - the L-programme (the Loading Programme), to be used if the parliament would say yes to a production of nuclear weapons, and the S-programme (the Protection Programme), if the Parliament would say no. The debate on the issue had now created problems for the Social Democratic Government. The Prime Minister, Tage Erlander, who had earlier defended a procurement of nuclear weapons, was now forced to reach a compromise. The compromise was presented to the parliament in a creative manner that meant that only the S-programme would be allowed. The Government argued that the technical level did allow a 'freedom of action' up to at least the beginning of the 60's when Sweden was mature to make a decision on the issue. During this period

  1. Effect of elevated dietary amino acid levels in high canola meal diets on productive traits and cecal microbiota population of broiler chickens in a pair-feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toghyani, M; Girish, C K; Wu, S B; Iji, P A; Swick, R A

    2017-05-01

    A pair-feeding study was conducted to determine if reduced feed intake (FI) in broiler chickens fed high canola meal (CM) diets per se accounts for reduced growth performance and whether this lower growth rate can be mitigated by increasing dietary amino acid (AA) levels. Five experimental wheat-based diets were formulated as follows: soybean meal (SBM) diet, high CM diet with normal AA concentration, and high CM diets with 3, 6, or 9% additional AA concentration (Lys, Met+Cys, Thr, Ile, Arg, and Val). Another group of birds was pair-fed with SBM diet to the consumption levels of birds fed CM diet with normal AA. There were 6 replicates of 17 male 10-day-old Ross 308 chicks per treatment over grower and finisher periods. Birds fed the CM diets had reduced FI and BWG, but improved FCR (P < 0.01) compared to SBM ad libitum fed birds. The SBM pair-fed birds gained the same weight and exhibited similar FCR compared to CM fed birds. Additional 9% AA improved FCR (P < 0.01) compared to SBM and CM diets with normal AA. No significant differences were observed in ileal digestibility of DM, energy, crude protein, and AA between CM with normal AA and SBM diets. The additional 6 and 9% AA in CM diets increased digestibility of crude protein and some AA (P < 0.05). SBM ad libitum and CM + 6 and 9% AA fed birds had the highest and lowest relative weight of abdominal fat, respectively (P < 0.05). Addition of 6 and 9% AA in CM diets increased relative carcass and breast yields (P < 0.01). Serum triglyceride level was higher in SBM ad libitum fed birds (P < 0.05). The composition of microbiota in the ceca was not affected by treatments. This study showed that reduced growth of birds fed high CM diets is primarily mediated through reduced FI. This growth depression could partially be ameliorated by increasing dietary AA levels. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Growth heterogeneity in broiler breeder pullets is settled before the onset of feed restriction but is not predicted by size at hatch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindholm, C.; Jönsson, J.; Calais, A.; Middelkoop, A.; Yngwe, N.; Berndtson, E.; Lees, J.J.; Hult, E.; Altimiras, J.

    2017-01-01

    Uniform growth is a desirable trait in all large-scale animal production systems because it simplifies animal management and increases profitability. In parental broiler flocks, so-called broiler breeders, low growth uniformity is largely attributed to the feed competition that arises from

  3. The Swedish Energy Market 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    The Swedish Energy Market, 2005 is an annual publication that presents information and statistics on the network based energy markets in Sweden, i.e. the markets for electricity, natural gas and district heating. It also provides an overview of the issues that have arisen on these markets during the second half of 2004 and the first half of 2005. Considerable work is being carried out in the EU on creating a single market for electricity and natural gas. This publication therefore describes expansion of the Swedish market towards a Nordic and a European market. The publication normally includes a theme chapter, describing some event of particular interest for the Swedish energy market during the year. This year, the theme chapter is devoted to the Storm Gudrun, which struck the south of the country at the beginning of January, and its effects on electricity supply throughout the country. The chapter is based on the report submitted to the Government by the Energy Markets Inspectorate in the spring of 2005, and also includes a summary of the Inspectorate's proposals for measures to improve the security of electricity transmission. Energy in Sweden, which is another of the Swedish Energy Agency's annual publications, provides information and statistics on the development of the entire Swedish energy system

  4. The Swedish Energy Market 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-01

    The Swedish Energy Market, 2005 is an annual publication that presents information and statistics on the network based energy markets in Sweden, i.e. the markets for electricity, natural gas and district heating. It also provides an overview of the issues that have arisen on these markets during the second half of 2004 and the first half of 2005. Considerable work is being carried out in the EU on creating a single market for electricity and natural gas. This publication therefore describes expansion of the Swedish market towards a Nordic and a European market. The publication normally includes a theme chapter, describing some event of particular interest for the Swedish energy market during the year. This year, the theme chapter is devoted to the Storm Gudrun, which struck the south of the country at the beginning of January, and its effects on electricity supply throughout the country. The chapter is based on the report submitted to the Government by the Energy Markets Inspectorate in the spring of 2005, and also includes a summary of the Inspectorate's proposals for measures to improve the security of electricity transmission. Energy in Sweden, which is another of the Swedish Energy Agency's annual publications, provides information and statistics on the development of the entire Swedish energy system.

  5. Effects of time of change from broiler starter to broiler finisher diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of time of change from broiler starter ration (BSR) to broiler finisher ration (BFR) on growth performance and economy of gain of meat- type chickens. Six hundred Abor Acres broiler chickens were used in an 8-week study in which same starter and finisher diets were fed but at ...

  6. Characterization of heat waves affecting mortality rates of broilers between 29 days and market age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Vale

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate may affect broiler production, especially where there are heat waves, which may cause high mortality rates due to the heat stress. Heat wave prediction and characterization may allow early mitigation actions to be taken. Data Mining is one of the tools used for such a characterization, particularly when a large number of variables is involved. The objective of this study was to classify heat waves that promote broiler chicken mortality in poultry houses equipped with minimal environmental control. A single day of heat, a heat-shock day, is capable of producing high broiler mortality. In poultry houses equipped with fans and evaporative cooling, the characterization of heat waves affecting broiler mortality between 29 days of age and market age presented 89.34% Model Accuracy and 0.73 Class Precision for high mortality. There was no influence on high mortality (HM of birds between 29 and 31 days of age. Maximum temperature humidity index (THI above 30.6 ºC was the main characteristic of days when there was a heat wave, causing high mortality in broilers older than 31 days. The high mortality of broilers between 31 and 40 days of age occurred when maximum THI was above 30.6 ºC and maximum temperature of the day was above 34.4 ºC. There were two main causes of high mortality of broilers older than 40 days: 1 maximum THI above 30.6 ºC and minimum THI equal or lower than 15.5 ºC; 2 maximum THI above 30.6 ºC, minimum THI lower than 15.5 ºC, and the time of maximum temperature later than 15:00h. The heat wave influence on broiler mortality lasted an average of 2.7 days.

  7. Effect of dietary phytoestrogens, feed restriction, and their interaction on reproductive status of broiler pullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Madnurkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: A major problem faced by the broiler industry around the world is a lowered reproductive fitness of breeding hens which can cause major economic impact in terms of lowered hatchable egg production. In broiler breeders, a lot of the selection pressure has been exerted on growth, conformation and feed efficiency as a result broiler breeder hens are prone to several metabolic disorders and reproductive anomalies. Present study was conducted to assess the effect of phytoestrogen, feed restrictions (75% of their control ad libitum, and their interaction on reproductive parameters in high and low body weight broiler breeder hens. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty-eight healthy female broiler breeder pullets were divided randomly into eight groups from the same hatch and strain. They were transferred to individual laying cages. Birds received ad libitum drinking water and feeding, depend on divided group i.e., ad libitum or restricted feeding (75% of control ad libitum counterpart separately for heavy or low body weight till first egg laid in respective groups. Experimental diets made with practical feed ingredients as per institution recommendation (broiler breeder ration as per experimental planning. Results: Phytoestrogen significantly (p<0.05 improved egg number and size in broiler breeding hens by checking reproductive anomalies (internal laying, double hierarchy, and follicular atresia, restructuring ovarian, and oviductal functional development besides improved physiological maturation of infundibulum. Unlike phytoestrogen, feed restriction as expected delayed the age of sexual maturity but helped in a reduction of ovary weight, number of yellow follicle, number of atretic yellow follicle, incidence of double hierarchy, and internal ovulation. Interaction between phytoestrogen and feed restriction did not give any additional remunerative advantage. Conclusions: It is concluded that phytoestrogens and limited feed

  8. Work organization and technological resources in broiler production: an ergonomics approach Organização do trabalho e dos recursos tecnólogicos empregados na avicultura de corte: uma abordagem ergonômica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Alexandra Marchant Dinten

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Ergonomic Work Analysis has made it possible to identify the main factors behind the difficulties encountered by workers in (routinely performing their tasks. The purpose of this work was studying the relationship between the forms of work organization, the technology used in broiler production, and the impacts of both factors on this type of work from an ergonomics perspective. Both teamwork and cooperation among workers were proven to help minimizing efforts and achieving better results. If on one hand higher technological level adopted could elicit using a smaller number of workers as well as make broiler handling easier and more effective/precise, on the other hand it generated sub-tasks and made equipment operation much more dependent upon close supervision by the workers. So at the same time as the physical stress on the workers was being reduced with lighter load being carried, psychic stress was being increased with the pressure of close supervision. The analysis of production results expressed by the Production Factor (PF indicator used in an advanced trend analysis using the Technology Utility tool, has shown that properties with a totally or partly familial workforce achieved better production results than those using a patronal workforce, possibly resulting from the fact that workers within a family-based workforce have more autonomy and, therefore, become more motivated to pursue their goals, and that facilitates achieving good results.O método da Análise Ergonômica do Trabalho permite identificar os principais fatores relacionados às dificuldades na execução das tarefas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar as relações entre as formas de organização do trabalho, a tecnologia empregada na produção e os impactos sobre o trabalho do ponto de vista ergonômico. O trabalho em equipe e a colaboração entre os funcionários ajudam a minimizar esforços e alcançar melhores resultados. Se por um lado o grau de tecnologia

  9. Resposta produtiva de reprodutoras pesadas recriadas com diferentes quantidades de ração Productive results of broiler breeders hens that during the growing period received differents quantities of feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antônio Budel

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Na área de produção animal, mais especificamente no caso de matrizes avícolas tipo corte, tem sido dada atenção especial ao melhoramento genético das mesmas. Recomendações quanto ao manejo geral das aves não tem tido a mesma evolução. Existem dúvidas quanto a quantidade ideal de ração a ser fornecida por ave/dia, principalmente durante a recria, para que ela tenha um desenvolvimento corporal adequado e, conseqüentemente, expresse ao máximo o seu potencial produtivo. Este experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar parâmetros produtivos de matrizes de corte recriadas com diferentes quantidades de ração. Da 5ª a 20ª semana as aves foram alimentadas com 15% a menos de ração do que recomenda o manual da linhagem (ARBOR ACRES, 1992; T1, 10% a menos (T2, a quantidade padrão (T3 e 10% a mais de ração sobre a quantidade padrão (T4. Os resultados mostram que o peso corporal das aves é diretamente afetado (P0,05 que as mais leves (T1 e T2, sendo que estas por sua vez, produziram maior número de ovos incubáveis (PIn animal production, particularly in the área of broiler breeders, special attention has been given to the genetic improvement of these birds. General management practices of these birds have not suffered the same development. There are doubts in relation to the ideal quantity of feed to be offered per bird/day, particularly during the growing period, só that the bird may have an adequate corporal development and expresses to the maximum all of the productive potential. This experiment was conducted in order to analyse production parameters of broiler breeders grown with varying quantities of feed. From the 5th to the 20th week of age the birds were fed 15% less ration than that recommended by the breed manual (ARBOR ACRES, 1992; T1, 10% less (T2 the quantity recommended (T3 and 10% more than the recommended quantity. The results show that the body weight of the birds is directly affected by the quantity

  10. Extraction and physicochemical characterization of broiler (Gallus gallus domesticus) skin gelatin compared to commercial bovine gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykin-Dinçer, E; Koç, A; Erbas, M

    2017-09-01

    Gelatin was extracted from broiler (Gallus gallus domesticus) skins and analyzed to compare its physicochemical properties with those of commercial bovine gelatin. The average yield of broiler skin gelatin was 6.5% on a wet weight basis. Broiler skin gelatin had more α1-and α2-chains than β-chain and contained high molecular weight (γ-chain) polymers. Glycine was the dominant amino acid in broiler skin gelatin (20.26%), followed by proline (Pro) (15.12%) then hydroxyproline (Hyp) (11.36%). Compared to commercial bovine gelatin, broiler skin gelatin had less total imino acids (Pro and Hyp) but a higher (33.65 vs. 31.38°C) melting temperature (P commercial bovine gelatins appeared to be associated with differences in their amino acid composition and molecular weight distribution. The sensory evaluation results revealed that broiler skin gelatin could be a potential alternative to commercial bovine gelatin, useful in various food products. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Is the Swedish FRAX model appropriate for Swedish immigrants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, H; Odén, A; Lorentzon, M; McCloskey, E; Kanis, J A; Harvey, N C; Karlsson, M K; Mellström, D

    2015-11-01

    The incidence of hip fracture in Sweden is substantially lower in immigrants than in the population born in Sweden. Thus, the use of a FRAX® model in immigrants overestimates the risk of fracture, and the use of country of origin-specific models may be more appropriate. Age-specific fracture and mortality rates vary between countries so that FRAX tools are country-specific. In the case of immigrants, it is not known whether the model for the original or the new country is most appropriate. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of hip fractures in foreign-born and Swedish-born individuals residing in Sweden. We studied the incidence of hip fracture in all men and women aged 50 years or more in Sweden between 1987 and 2002. The population comprised 2.8 million Swedish-born and 270,000 foreign-born individuals. Incident hip fractures occurred in 239,842 Swedish-born and 12,563 foreign-born individuals. The hip fracture incidence rose with age for both groups and was higher for women than men amongst both Swedish-born and foreign-born individuals. The hip fracture incidence for the Swedish-born cohort was approximately twice that of immigrants. For example, at the age of 70 years, the annual hip fracture incidence (per 100,000) was 450 (95 % CI 446-454) for a Swedish-born woman and 239 (95 % CI 223-257) for a foreign-born woman at the time of immigration. The hip fracture incidence rose slowly with time from immigration (0.6 % per annum, 95 % CI 0.5-0.8 %) but remained significantly lower than for Swedish-born individuals even after 40 years of residence. The incidence of hip fracture in Sweden is substantially lower in immigrants than in the population native to Sweden. Although there was a small rise in age- and sex-specific incidence after immigration, the incidence remained markedly lower than that observed in Swedish-born individuals. Thus, the use of a FRAX model for Sweden will overestimate the risk of fracture for foreign-born individuals living

  12. galenicals in modern medicine: focus on swedish bitters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Galenicals were very popular in clinical medicine till late 1960s at which time the pharmaceutical industry revolutionized drug research and production. Almost four decades later, old but useful galenicals such as SWEDISH BITTERS® have been rediscovered and registered in conformity with Food and Drug Administration ...

  13. Classification of Swedish Learner Essays by CEFR Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodina, Elena; Pilán, Ildikó; Alfter, David

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes initial efforts on creating a system for the automatic assessment of Swedish second language (L2) learner essays from two points of view: holistic evaluation of the reached level according to the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR), and the lexical analysis of texts for receptive and productive vocabulary per CEFR…

  14. Corn grain yield and soil properties after 10 years of broiler litter amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of broiler litter nutrients for crop production benefits crops, soils, and aids in disposing manure. Understanding corn (Zea mays L.) grain production and soil properties resulting from long-term poultry litter amendment helps establish a sustainable animal manure based corn production with low ...

  15. Obstetric Thromboprophylaxis: The Swedish Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelle G. Lindqvist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstetric thromboprophylaxis is difficult. Since 10 years Swedish obstetricians have used a combined risk estimation model and recommendations concerning to whom, at what dose, when, and for how long thromboprophylaxis is to be administrated based on a weighted risk score. In this paper we describe the background and validation of the Swedish guidelines for obstetric thromboprophylaxis in women with moderate-high risk of VTE, that is, at similar or higher risk as the antepartum risk among women with history of thrombosis. The risk score is based on major risk factors (i.e., 5-fold increased risk of thromboembolism. We present data on the efficacy of the model, the cost-effectiveness, and the lifestyle advice that is given. We believe that the Swedish guidelines for obstetric thromboprophylaxis aid clinicians in providing women at increased risk of VTE with effective and appropriate thromboprophylaxis, thus avoiding both over- and under-treatment.

  16. The Determining Factors of Entrepreneurial Activity in Broiler Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhanuddin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia still requires approximately 4 million entrepreneurs to become a developed country. This research aimed at identifying and analyzing the factors forming the broiler farm entrepreneurial activities that contribute on generating new entrepreneurs in Indonesia. Primary data were collected through questionnaire and analyzed by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. Independent latent variables were innovations (IN, productions (DP, competitiveness (DS, risks (PR, labors (TK, and policies (KP, and then entrepreneurial activities (AK as dependent latent variable. The results showed that the model was built (MODEL1 as measurement model and MODEL2 as structural model had goodness fit and good reliability measurement variables (CR≥0.70, VE≥0.50. Innovation was reflected by the level of willingness to innovate (λ=0.63 and level of technology (λ=0.62. Production was reflected by production efficiency (λ=0.62 and cost control (λ=0.43. Competitiveness was reflected by the internet (λ=0.56, the cost of starting (λ=0.55, and new business formation (λ=0.58. Labor was reflected by the training and development (λ=0.57, and motivation (λ=0.42. Policies was reflected by access to land (λ=0.56, technical assistance (λ=0.60, research and technology (λ=0.66, and copyright protection (λ=0.64. The entrepreneurial activity of broiler farms were formed by innovation (γ=0.91, competitiveness (γ=0.94, and policies (γ=0.98. Broiler farms contributed positively to generate new entrepreneurs. Production and information technology development program, facilitation of the creation of new ventures program, business expansion program, and a program of strengthening intellectual property rights on broiler farms should be a priority of the Indonesian government programs in the future.

  17. The influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage on growth performance and intestinal colonization with Campylobacter jejuni in broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Engberg, Ricarda Greuel

    2016-01-01

    An infection trial and a production trial over 35 days were conducted in parallel to study the influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on the intestinal Campylobacter jejuni colonization and broiler performance, respectively. The CKMS was used at dietary inclusion levels of 15...... with the inclusion of CKMS on broiler diets as a result of a higher DM content in the litter material. It is concluded that CKMS did not influence intestinal Campylobacter colonization, but improved the foot pad health of broilers....

  18. The effect of feeding a commercial essential oil product on Clostridium perfringens numbers in the intestine of broiler chickens measured by real-time PCR targeting the α-toxin-encoding gene (plc)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Lone; Højberg, Ole; Schramm, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    was to investigate the influence of a commercial essential oil blend, CRINA® Poultry, on the intestinal C. perfringens population in broilers vaccinated against coccidiosis. The observed C. perfringens levels were relatively high in general and peaked at 27 days of bird age with numbers ranging from 7 to 8 log cells...... concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/kg feed of the essential oil blend did not reduce the intestinal numbers of C. perfringens compared to a non-supplemented control group (P>0.05). Further, the essential oil blend failed to improve (P>0.05) both the growth and feed conversion ratio of the broilers. For rapid...

  19. MARKET CHOICES FOR BROILER CHICKEN MEAT IN THE OPINION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Augustyńska-Prejsnar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has, been growing a increase in consumption of poultry meat in Poland. The most important material for slaughter poultry are broilers. Among factors that influence rising demand for poultry meat are: low price, availability of raw materials and promotional campaigns of safe nutrition. Its nutritional and sensory value makes it a choice product. University students are a specific group that has aroused the interest of nutritionists. The students’ lifestyle is characterised by high active social life and intense responsibilities, which ought to be augmented with a carefully chosen diet. The youth do not only have significant impact on the family purchasing decisions but display a strong purchasing power due to financial resources at their disposal and would in the future become mature and rational consumers. The article lists factors that determine purchasing needs, reasons for choice of markets and the consumption frequency of broiler meat. The feeling of lack of other products coupled with current sales promotions were, in the opinion of the students surveyed, often responsible for the decision to purchase of broiler chicken meat. Low price and the ease of preparation were also key reasons for the choice of this meat product. Responding students noted that skinless chicken breast fillet was most commonly consumed.

  20. Swedish snus and the GothiaTek® standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ringberger Tommy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Some smokeless tobacco products, such as Swedish snus, are today considered to be associated with substantially fewer health hazards than cigarettes. This risk differential has contributed to the scientific debate about the possibilities of harm reduction within the tobacco area. Although current manufacturing methods for snus build on those that were introduced more than a century ago, the low levels of unwanted substances in modern Swedish snus are largely due to improvements in production techniques and selection of raw materials in combination with several programs for quality assurance and quality control. These measures have been successively introduced during the past 30-40 years. In the late 1990s they formed the basis for a voluntary quality standard for Swedish snus named GothiaTek®. In recent years the standard has been accepted by the members of the trade organization European Smokeless Tobacco Council (ESTOC so it has now evolved into an industrial standard for all smokeless tobacco products in Europe. The initial impetus for the mentioned changes of the production was quality problems related to microbial activity and formation of ammonia and nitrite in the finished products. Other contributing factors were that snus came under the jurisdiction of the Swedish Food Act in 1971, and concerns that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s about health effects of tobacco, and the significance of agrochemical residues and other potential toxicants in food stuffs. This paper summarizes the historical development of the manufacture of Swedish snus, describes the chemical composition of modern snus, and gives the background and rationale for the GothiaTek® standard, including the selection of constituents for which the standard sets limits. The paper also discusses the potential future of this voluntary standard in relation to current discussions about tobacco harm reduction and regulatory science in tobacco control.

  1. Effects of lysolecithin supplementation in low-energy diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, viscosity and intestinal morphology of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, G A; Poutahidis, T; Chalvatzi, S; Di Benedetto, M; Hardas, A; Tsiouris, V; Georgopoulou, I; Arsenos, G; Fortomaris, P D

    2018-01-16

    1. The study aimed to investigate the effect of lysolecithin supplementation in low-energy diets on growth, nutrient digestibility and intestinal mucosa characteristics of broilers. 2. A total of 800 one-d-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were assigned to 4 dietary treatments consisting of 10 replicates of 20 broilers each. Broilers were fed with 4 different diets: (i) HE: positive control group broilers received a diet with unaltered energy; (ii) LE: negative control group broilers received a diet with lower energy of about 0.27 MJ/kg; (iii) LElys500: broilers received a diet similar to LE supplemented with 500 g/tn lysolecithin product (Lysoforte Booster Dry TM ); and (iv) LElys300: broilers received a diet similar to LE supplemented with 300 g/tn lysolecithin product. The experimental period was 42 d. 3. Body weight gain in treatments HE was higher than LE during the overall experimental period, while LElys500 and LElys300 had intermediate values. Feed conversion ratio was lower in HE and LElys500 than LE group, while the LElys300 had intermediate values. Fat digestibility was improved in both LElys 500 and LElys300 compared to the HE group. Apparent metabolisable energy (AMEn) was higher in HE, LElys500 and LElys300 than LE. Ileum viscosity at 42 d was also affected, being higher in LE group compared to HE. At 28 d mucosal thickness was lower both in LElys500 and LElys300 compared to HE and LE, while no difference occurred between treatment proliferation patterns of duodenal epithelial cells. 4. These findings indicated that lysolecithin supplementation at 500 g/tn of feed in low-energy diets maintained broiler performance. Supplementation of reformulated low-energy diets induced an increase in digesta viscosity. Lysolecithin supplementation resulted in variable alterations in the duodenum mucosal morphology.

  2. Bem-estar na produção de frango de corte em diferentes sistemas de criação Animal welfare in different housing systems of broiler production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aérica C Nazareno

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi conduzida com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes sistemas de criação para frangos de corte, caracterizando o ambiente térmico, os parâmetros fisiológicos e o comportamento animal. O experimento foi realizado no decorrer de um ciclo produtivo de 42 dias, no município de Carpina, Estado de Pernambuco, na Estação Experimental de Pequenos Animais da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida em um módulo de produção dividido em 15 boxes, com 10 aves por Box, e densidade de 10 aves por m², totalizando 150 aves, submetidas a três sistemas de criação: semiconfinado com 3 m² por ave de área de piquete (SC 3, semiconfinado com 6 m² por ave de área de piquete (SC 6 e confinamento total (CONF. O delineamento experimental para análise geral dos dados foi inteiramente casualizado (DIC em parcelas subdivididas, sendo as semanas alocadas nas parcelas, e os sistemas de criação (SC 3, SC 6, CONF e EXT, nas subparcelas, com as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey. As variáveis meteorológicas, índices de conforto e os parâmetros fisiológicos apontam o sistema de criação SC 3 como aquele que permitiu melhor acondicionamento térmico natural às aves, apresentando valores médios da ordem de 25,4 ºC; 69,9 kJ kg-1; 75,7; 65,12 movimentos min-1 e 41,92 ºC para temperatura de bulbo seco, entalpia, índice de temperatura de globo e umidade, frequência respiratória e temperatura cloacal, respectivamente. As aves submetidas ao sistema de criação SC 3 foram as que tiveram melhor oportunidade de expressar seus comportamentos naturais e de explorar o ambiente externo ao módulo de criação, potencializando o bem-estar animal.This research was carried out to evaluate different housing systems for broiler chickens production, characterizing the thermal environment, physiological parameters and animal behavior. The experiment was conducted in a production cycle of 42 days, in the city of

  3. Emission factors of greenhouse gases from layer and broiler barns in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwabie, N. Martin; Acobta, Ada N.; Manga, Veronica E.; VanderZaag, Andrew C.

    2018-03-01

    Limited information is available in the literature on greenhouse gas (GHG) quantification from livestock production systems in Africa. Therefore, this project was carried out to generate baseline emission factors of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from broiler and layer barns with building design typical of Cameroon. Emissions were measured from two broiler barns during the entire production cycles and a layer barn for a limited period using flux chambers. Methane emission factors from the broiler barns with mud and cement floors were 0.96 ± 1.04 and 0.36 ± 0.17 mg bird-1 hr-1 respectively, and 0.76 ± 0.56 mg bird-1 hr-1 from the layer barn with cement floor. Nitrous oxide emission from the broiler barns with mud and cement floors were 12.94 ± 10.11 and 1.68 ± 1.02 mg bird-1 hr-1 respectively, and 0.21 ± 0.28 mg bird-1 hr-1 from the layer barn. Carbon dioxide emission factors from the broiler barns with mud and cement floors were 9327 ± 3508 and 25526 ± 6904 mg bird-1 hr-1 respectively, and 8942 ± 36756 mg bird-1 hr-1 from the layer barn. When scaled per livestock unit (LU), where 1 LU is 500 kg bird weight, CH4 emissions were 0.16 ± 0.17 and 0.06 ± 0.03 g LU-1 hr-1 from the broiler barns, and 0.19 ± 0.14 g LU-1 hr-1 from the layer barn. Nitrous oxide emissions were 2.16 ± 1.69 and 0.28 ± 0.17 g LU-1 hr-1 from the broiler barns, and 0.05 ± 0.07 g LU-1 hr-1 from the layer barn. Broilers reared in management systems with wood shavings on mud floor had relatively high CH4 and N2O emissions compared to broilers on wood shavings and cement floor, with the contrary observed for CO2. The emissions N2O were significantly higher from broiler barns compared to layer barns. Emissions were higher in the mornings compared to later periods of the day. Given the observed results, GHG emission mitigation strategies need to be customised for each building design and management system.

  4. Mineral profiling, carcass quality and sensory evaluation of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation to determine the mineral composition, carcass quality and organoleptic properties of the meat of broilers fed basal broiler feeds supplemented with different leaf meals was conducted. Four treatments: basal proprietary broiler feed only (T1 - PBF) as control, basal proprietary broiler feeds supplemented with ...

  5. Working conditions, health and productivity among dentists in Swedish public dental care - a prospective study during a 5-year period of rationalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolander, B.; Jonker, D.; Winkel, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    patients per dentist increased, and perceived physical working conditions improved while perceived work control and leadership deteriorated. Structural equation modelling showed that physical factors were important for health and productivity. When assessing risks in the work environment, there is a need......In recent decades, comprehensive rationalisations have been implemented in public dentistry in Sweden. How rationalisations affect working conditions, health and production from a long-term perspective has been poorly investigated. This study aims to analyse changes and associations in dentists......' working conditions, health and productivity during a 5-year period. In 2003 and 2008, 65 dentists responded to questionnaires measuring work conditions and health. Treatment times for patients and productivity were tracked in electronic registers. Paired t-tests showed that the number of treated adult...

  6. Spatial variability of enthalpy in broiler house during the heating phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia F. P. Ferraz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The thermal environment inside a broiler house has a great influence on animal welfare and productivity during the production phase. Enthalpy is a thermodynamic property that has been proposed to evaluate the internal broiler house environment, for being an indicator of the amount of energy contained in a mixture of water vapor and dry air. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the spatial variability of enthalpy in a broiler house during the heating phase using geostatistics. The experiment was conducted in the spring season, in a commercial broiler house with heating system consisting of two furnaces that heat the air indirectly, in the first 14 days of the birds' life. It was possible to characterize enthalpy variability using geostatistical techniques, which allowed observing the spatial dependence through kriging maps. The analyses of the maps allowed observing problems in the heating system in regions inside the broiler house, which may cause a thermal discomfort to the animals besides productive and economic losses.

  7. The Swedish Academy Dictionary Project

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    language, heavily influenced by Low German. During the period of Early Modern Swedish (1526–1732), several bilingual or multilingual dictionaries were written to facilitate the learning of other lan- guages, such as Latin, German, English and French. It also brought the first attempt at a descriptive monolingual dictionary of ...

  8. Choosing a Commercial Broiler Strain Based on Multicriteria Decision Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini SA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the complexity and amount of information in a wide variety of comparative performance reports in poultry production, making a decision is difficult. This problem is overcomed only when all data can be put into a common unit. For this purpose, five different decision making analysis approaches including  Maximin, Equally likely, Weighted average, Ordered weighted averages and Technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution were used to choose the best broiler strain among three ones based on their comparative performance and carcass characteristics. Commercial broiler strains of 6000 designated as R, A, and C (each strain 2000 were randomly allocated into three treatments of five replicates. In this study, all methods showed similar results except Maximin approach. Comparing different methods indicated that strain C with the highest world share market has the best performance followed by strains R and A.

  9. Susceptibility of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecium isolated from pigs and broiler chickens to tetracycline degradation products and distribution of tetracycline resistance determinants in E-coli from food animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, G.; Halling-Sørensen, B.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2003-01-01

    One hundred Escherichia coli isolates from diseased and healthy pigs, cattle and broiler chickens were screened for the presence of tetracycline resistance genes tet(A), (13), (C), (D) or (E). The tet(A) gene was the most abundant (71% of the 100 isolates) followed by tet(B) (25%). The predominan...

  10. Effect of polyphenols extracted from Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on physiological changes, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, oxidative stress and body weight of broilers (Gallus domesticus) under chronic heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aengwanich, Worapol; Suttajit, Maitree

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this experiment was to determine the effect of polyphenols extracted from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on physiological changes, oxidative stress and production of male broilers maintained at high environmental temperatures. The results found that body temperature and respiratory rate of broilers maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C was higher than broilers maintained at 26 +/- 2 degrees C (P < 0.05). On day 1, the heterophil/ lymphocyte ratio of broilers maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C and received polyphenols at 300 and 400 mg/kg in diets was lower than broilers that received polyphenols at 0 and 200 mg/kg in diets (P < 0.05). At week 1, the malondialdehyde of the broilers maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C who received polyphenols at 400 mg/ kg in their diet was lower than broilers that received polyphenols at 100 and 200 mg/kg in diets (P < 0.05). At week 1, the body weights of broilers that were maintained at 38 +/- 2 degrees C who received polyphenols at 100-500 mg/ kg in diets, and broilers maintained at 26 +/- 2 degrees C were higher than that of the control group which had not been treated with a polyphenol diet (P < 0.05). This study indicated that polyphenols could reduce heat stress, oxidative stress and improve the growth rate of heat-stressed broilers.

  11. Desempenho produtivo e bioeconômico de frangos de corte criados em diferentes sistemas de aquecimento Productive and bioeconomical performance of broiler chicks grown under different heating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Giovanni de Abreu

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - Este experimento foi realizado em duas fases para estudar o efeito de diferentes sistemas de aquecimento em piso sobre os desempenhos produtivo e bioeconômico de frangos de corte. Um total de 500 pintos de um dia, 50% macho e 50% fêmea, em cada círculo de proteção, foi distribuído em um delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com sete tratamentos e quatro blocos. Os sistemas de aquecimento testados foram: placa de fibra de vidro sem cobertura de lona plástica; placa de fibra de vidro com cobertura de lona plástica; resistência embutida no piso sem cobertura de lona plástica; resistência embutida no piso com cobertura de lona plástica; placa de argamassa armada sem cobertura de lona plástica; placa de argamassa armada com cobertura de lona plástica; e campânula a gás. O aquecimento foi mantido por 21 dias, iniciando com a temperatura de 35ºC na primeira semana, com redução de 3ºC por semana. Peso vivo, ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e mortalidade foram avaliados. Os consumos de energia elétrica e de gás foram registrados durante todo o período de aquecimento, para comparação de custos. O sistema de aquecimento placa de argamassa com cobertura de lona plástica foi o mais indicado, pois propiciou boas condições térmicas e maior margem bruta no final do período de criação.ABSTRACT - This experiment was carried out in two phases to study the effect of different heating systems on the productive and bioeconomical performances in broilers. Five hundred one-day broiler chicks, 50% male and 50% female, in each protected circle, were allotted to a randomized block design with seven treatments and four blocks. The heating systems were: fiber glass plate without plastic sheet cover, fiber glass plate with plastic sheet cover; built-in floor resistance without plastic sheet cover, built-in floor resistance with plastic sheet cover; mortar plate without plastic sheet cover, mortar

  12. Broiler Campylobacter contamination and human campylobacteriosis in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callicott, Kenneth A; Harğardóttir, Hjördís; Georgsson, Franklín; Reiersen, Jarle; Friğriksdóttir, Vala; Gunnarsson, Eggert; Michel, Pascal; Bisaillon, Jean-Robert; Kristinsson, Karl G; Briem, Haraldur; Hiett, Kelli L; Needleman, David S; Stern, Norman J

    2008-11-01

    To examine whether there is a relationship between the degree of Campylobacter contamination observed in product lots of retail Icelandic broiler chicken carcasses and the incidence of human disease, 1,617 isolates from 327 individual product lots were genetically matched (using the flaA short variable region [SVR[) to 289 isolates from cases of human campylobacteriosis whose onset was within approximately 2 weeks from the date of processing. When there was genetic identity between broiler isolates and human isolates within the appropriate time frame, a retail product lot was classified as implicated in human disease. According to the results of this analysis, there were multiple clusters of human disease linked to the same process lot or lots. Implicated and nonimplicated retail product lots were compared for four lot descriptors: lot size, prevalence, mean contamination, and maximum contamination (as characterized by direct rinse plating). For retail product distributed fresh, Mann-Whitney U tests showed that implicated product lots had significantly (P = 0.0055) higher mean contamination than nonimplicated lots. The corresponding median values were 3.56 log CFU/carcass for implicated lots and 2.72 log CFU/carcass for nonimplicated lots. For frozen retail product, implicated lots were significantly (P = 0.0281) larger than nonimplicated lots. When the time frame was removed, retail product lots containing Campylobacter flaA SVR genotypes also seen in human disease had significantly higher mean and maximum contamination numbers than lots containing no genotypes seen in human disease for both fresh and frozen product. Our results suggest that cases of broiler-borne campylobacteriosis may occur in clusters and that the differences in mean contamination levels may provide a basis for regulatory action that is more specific than a presence-absence standard.

  13. Process and product in writing--a methodological contribution to the assessment of written narratives in 8-12-year-old Swedish children using ScriptLog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asker-Arnason, Lena; Wengelin, Asa; Sahlén, Birgitta

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-seven children, with typical language development (TLD), 8-10 years old and 10-12 years old, were assessed with keystroke-logging in order to investigate their narrative writing. Measures of the writing process and the written product were used. One purpose was to explore how children produce written narratives in on-line production, and to relate the writing process to the written product. The results showed that those children who produced the final text faster, also wrote stories that comprised of more words. In the group of older children, children with better narrative ability used less pause time than those with worse ability, and the girls were faster writers than the boys. We believe that keystroke-logging gives valuable information for the assessment of young children's writing and that it is a potentially valid assessment tool for children from about 10 years of age.

  14. Haematological and biochemical responses of starter broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the haematological and biochemical responses of starter broiler chickens fed copper and probiotics supplemented diets. A total of 180-day old Marshal broiler chicks were randomly allotted to six treatment groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were divided into three replicates of ten ...

  15. Lesions in Broiler Chicks Following Experimental Contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of feed contamination with battery waste on the performance, organs weights as well as the histology of some internal organs of broiler chicks. A total of 120 1- d old broiler chicks were allotted to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design.

  16. Growth performance and immunological responses of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the growth performance and immune response of broiler chickens fed synbiotic and diet acidifier to Newcastle disease vaccinations. One hundred and forty four (144) day old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments replicated thrice with 12 birds per replicate ...

  17. Effect of probiotics on broiler meat quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... The study was carried out on “Hubbard Isa Starbo” broilers to evaluate the raw meat quality of both probiotics and conventional ... performance have indicated that probiotic supplemen- tation can have positive ..... Influence of dietary supplementation with Streptococcus faecium M-74 on broiler body weight ...

  18. Growth and carcass characteristics of broiler birds fed agro-by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five agro-by-products were included at different levels (0 %, 5 %, 7.5 %, 10 % and 12.5 %) in the diets of one hundred and twenty (120) broiler birds to evaluate growth performance and carcass characteristics in a study that lasted for eight (8) weeks. The agro-by-products were protein source (crayfish dust and cowpea ...

  19. Disease-induced variability of genetic correlations: ascites in broilers as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greef, de K.H.; Janss, L.L.G.; Vereijken, A.L.J.; Pit, R.; Gerritsen, C.L.M.

    2001-01-01

    Breeding against a production disease is complicated by multiple relationships between productivity, disease, and environment. Ascites in broilers is such a disease. The combination of the reasonably well understood etiology (a physiological/pathological cascade due to inadequate oxygen supply) and

  20. Phonaesthemes and sound symbolism in Swedish brand names

    OpenAIRE

    Abelin, Åsa

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of sound symbolism in Swedish brand names. A general principle of brand name design is that effective names should be distinctive, recognizable, easy to pronounce and meaningful. Much money is invested in designing powerful brand names, where the emotional impact of the names on consumers is also relevant and it is important to avoid negative connotations. Customers prefer brand names, which say something about the product, as this reduces product uncertaint...

  1. Evaluation of Yucca schidigera extract as feed additive on performance of broiler chicks in winter season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarada Prasanna Sahoo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Yucca schidigera extract has been successfully used as feed additives in the poultry industry. It enhances the growth and productivity in broiler production. Hence, the present study was designed to analyze the effect of Y. schidigera extract in growth, carcass quality and behavior along with its economical utility in broiler rearing. Materials and Methods: Total, 120 numbers of day-old broiler chicks of equal sex ratio were randomly divided into Yucca supplemented treatment and control group, each having 60 birds in three replications of 20 numbers. The feeding management and rearing conditions were similar for all the groups as per the standard except the Yucca supplementation in the treatment group @ 125 mg/kg of feed. The parameters with respect to growth, carcass, behavior, and litter content were recorded as per standard procedures. Results: The Yucca supplementation can effectively enhance growth of 173 g in 6th week by utilizing lesser feed intake than control group, which ultimately proves better feed conversion rate, protein efficiency ratio, and energy efficiency ratio in broiler production. Eviscerated weight of 58.50% for the treatment group was significantly higher (p<0.05 than 54.10% in the control group. The breast meat yield of Yucca group (32.23% was significantly higher (p<0.05 than control (30.33%. More frequency of agonistic behavioral expressions was noticed in the control group than the treatment group. A profit of 43.68% was received by usage of Yucca supplementation in the diet on live weight basis. Numerically, lower percentage of moisture was present in Yucca treated group than the control. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that Yucca supplementation has an important role in augmenting broiler‘s growth performance, efficiency to utilize feed, protein and energy, and survivability. Hence, use of Yucca powder in broiler ration could be beneficial to maintain the litter quality, which directly

  2. Profile of Serum Metabolites and Proteins of Broiler Breeders in Rearing Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Rezende

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The excellence of modern broiler production is based on the genetic improvement of broiler strains for high growth rate and high egg production, associated with technological developments in nutrition, management, and health. Over the last decades, the clinical biochemistry of broilers has been studied to determine serum biochemical component values; however, there are still many knowledge gaps on factors that determine changes in these values. In this study, the serum lipid and protein profiles of 4-week-old male and female Cobb broiler breeders were evaluated. Blood samples were collected on a commercial farm located in the city of Uberlândia, MG, Brazil. The following parameters were evaluated: total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin to globulin ratio (A/V, uric acid, urea, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels using an automatic analyzer. The results showed sex-specific biochemical patterns for most blood parameters evaluated. Moreover, the obtained values were different from those obtained in many published studies with broilers and commercial layers, stressing the need to develop further studies with chickens of different ages.

  3. Efisiensi Penggunaan Energi Metabolis Ransum Berbasis Onggok yang Difermentasi Bacillus amyloliquefaciens pada Ayam Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wizna

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-fermented tapioca by-products (onggok on the metabolism energy differences in the diets to the performance of broilers. Eighty unsexed three day old broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 20 pens (four chicks/pen. This experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with four dietary treatments (3000, 2900, 2800 and 2700 kkal/kg for broilers of energy metabolism in diets and five replications. Measured variables were feed consumption, average body weight gain, feed conversion, carcass percentage, abdominal fat percentage and income over feed cost (IOFC. Results of the experiment indicated that feed consumption, average body weight gain, feed conversion, carcass percentage, abdominal fat percentage and income over feed cost (IOFC were not affected (P>0.05 by levels of metabolism energy in the diets for broilers. In conclusion, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-fermented tapioca by-products (onggok can be included up to 40% with energy metabolism 2700 kkal/kg in broilers diets and improved the efficiency of metabolizable energy.

  4. Effects of remedial measures on long term transfer of radiocaesium from soil to agricultural products as calculated from Swedish field experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loensjoe, H.; Rosen, K.; Haak, E.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive studies on the transfer of radiocaesium from soil to agricultural products under long term field conditions have been performed in Sweden since 1961. Effects of various remedial measures to be taken after farm land contamination have been studied in long term microplot experiments, in ploughing experiments and in conventional field experiments in Chernobyl fallout areas. Furthermore, the transfer of radiocaesium in various farm ecosystems, as influenced by farm management practices and the line of production applied, has been calculated. Fertilization with potassium has been found to effectively reduce the transfer of radiocaesium from the soil to various crops. The best effects were found on peat and sandy soils in the Chernobyl fallout areas, where a reduction by a factor of 2-5 or more has been recorded. Also, on clay soils heavy K application was found to depress the Cs transfer appreciably. Placement of the nuclide below the normal ploughing depth reduced the Cs transfer by a factor of 2-3 as compared with the effect of a homogeneous distribution in the plough layer. With a combination of deep placement and K fertilization a reduction by a factor of 10 or more has been obtained. It seems possible to reduce the caesium transfer from soil to food by a factor of 5-10 by changing the line of production on a farm in various ways. (author). 12 refs, 5 tabs

  5. Broiler Pre-Slaughter Water Diet with Grass Lemongrass (Cymbopogon Citratus Stapf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RG Garcia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The pre-slaughter management is one of the predisposing factors to the reduction in the quality of the carcass and broiler meat, mainly for being a stressful condition. This study evaluates the inclusion of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf in the water used in the diet of pre-slaughter broilers for the first time. The carcass and meat quality parameters were evaluated. The experiment was carried out in the poultry production of an experimental sector of the Federal University of Grande Dourados - UFGD. A total of 2,594 broilers were distributed in an entirely randomized design in a factorial arrangement of 3x2x2, with three different lemongrass concentrations in the form of infusion (0. 1 and 5 g/L, two sexes and two genetic strains (Ross 308® and Cobb 500®, and with four replications. After 42 days, 144 broilers were slaughtered, and the quality parameters of carcass and meat were evaluated. A higher incidence of scratches and higher water retention capacity were found in Ross 308® male (p<0.05. Less exudate of breast fillets loss was observed in broiler Ross 308® males 72 h post-mortem (p<0.05. There was an interaction between sex and lemongrass levels in the drinking water of the broilers in the sensory analysis of meat (p<0.05, more preferably of chewiness and juiciness for males undergoing free diet for juiciness and lemongrass in the female diet with 5g/L. The use of lemongrass infusions in pre-slaughter did not bring considerable benefits to the quality of carcass and meat of broiler.

  6. VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS OF BROILER TO INCREASE COMPETITIVENESS (Case Study at PT. Charoen Pokphand Indonesia, Tbk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surip Prayugo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to (1 map the value chain in broiler at PT. Charoen Pokphand Indonesia, Tbk (CPI; (2 analyze the value chain governance in broiler at CPI; (3 analyze the margin of marketing at broiler industry both on farm or off farm; (3 analyze the gap between the expectation and the performance of consumers (farmers upon using products of CPI and (4 recognize factors influencing competitiveness in broiler industry; and (5 to formulate strategy for value chain upgrading at CPI in order to increase competitiveness of broiler. As revealed by the value chain analysis, the role of CPI in this value chain is highly significant. All poultry inputs (DOC, feed, veterinary medicine, and poultry equipments are supplied by CPI. As for downstream sector, CPI processes broiler into its derivatives. The type of value chain governance between feed supplier, DOC, and veterinary medicine, poultry equipment, and poultry derivates belongs to market value chain. Whereas the type of value chain governance between carcass supplier and restaurant belongs to captive value chain. Based on the margin of marketing analysis, the party that gains the lowest margin is farmer and the party that receives the highest margin is the processor. In gap analysis, the lowest attribute of competitiveness is the feed spending and the highest attribute is the spending on veterinary medicine for two months. Factors that influence the competitiveness in poultry industry are condition, demand, industry competition, main industries and supporting industries, and government’s role.Keywords: Value Chain, Competitiveness, Broiler, PT. Charoen Pokphand Indonesia, Tbk, Margin of Marketing Analysis, Gap Analysis, SWOT Analysis

  7. Broilers fed dietary vitamins harbor higher diversity of cecal bacteria and higher ratio of Clostridium, Faecalibacterium, and Lactobacillus than broilers with no dietary vitamins revealed by 16S rRNA gene clone libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu-heng; Peng, Huan-wei; Wright, André-Denis G; Bai, Shi-ping; Ding, Xue-mei; Zeng, Qiu-feng; Li, Hua; Zheng, Ping; Su, Zhuo-wei; Cui, Ren-yong; Zhang, Ke-ying

    2013-09-01

    Research on the interaction between dietary vitamins and intestinal bacteria is poorly understood. To investigate the effect of dietary vitamins on the cecal bacterial communities, 2 bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from pooled PCR products obtained from the cecal digesta of 28-d broilers fed diets with vitamins (V) at the NRC level or with no vitamins (NV). The results showed that BW gain and average feed intake of V broilers was significantly higher (P vitamins can increase the ratio of facultative pathogenic bacteria and decrease the diversity of bacteria in the cecum of broilers. Our results provide new leads for further investigations on the interaction between dietary vitamin additives and the gut health of broilers.

  8. Neutrophils stimulation index in people under consumption of broiler chickens meat at pre-slaughter stress correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Grabovskyi

    2015-09-01

    introduced before slaughter (experimental group. The neutrophils stimulation index decreased in men blood (–2,21 after consumption of broiler chickens meat at pre-slaughter stress (control group. The neutrophils stimulation index in men blood of experimental and control groups differed by 34,8%, but did not go beyond the physiological norm. At the final stage of poultry feeding it is necessary to consider pre-slaughter stress and to apply biologically active substances of natural origin, such as spleen extract. The results obtained in the experiment on broiler chickens can be used in studies of non-specific resistance indices of the farm animals for increasing the organism resistance, correction and avoiding of pre-slaughter stress and improvement of product quality

  9. Optimal dietary inclusion of organically complexed zinc for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Y M; Choct, M; Iji, P A; Bruerton, K

    2009-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal content of organically complexed zinc (Zn) for broiler chickens. 2. Five different Zn and manganese (Mn) dietary contents from organically complexed supplements including a control diet containing 15 mg Mn and 20 mg Zn/kg diet, were randomly fed to one-day-old Cobb broilers (each treatment had 6 replicates of 4 birds) for 35 d. Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly. At the end of the experiment, two birds from each cage were killed and their right tibia were collected to measure bone size, strength and mineral contents. 3. Body weight gain and total tibia copper (Cu), iron (Fe), Mn and Zn contents increased linearly with supplemental Zn and Mn intake. The optimal Zn requirements for broilers at 1-14 and 14-35 d of age were 58 and 68 mg/kg diet, respectively. 4. Supplementation of Mn and Zn had no effect on tibia bone width and strength, but increased tibia length. 5. In commercial practice, organically complexed Zn may need to be supplemented during the entire period of production at a higher content than NRC recommendation but it is not necessary to exceed 70 mg/kg diet.

  10. Listeria Species in Broiler Poultry Farms: Potential Public Health Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahshan, Hesham; Merwad, Abdallah Mohamed Amin; Mohamed, Taisir Saber

    2016-09-28

    Broiler meat production worldwide has been plagued by lethal food-poisoning bacteria diseases, including listeriosis. A fatality rate of 15.6% was recorded in human beings in the EU in 2015. During 2013, a total of 200 poultry farm samples, including litter, chicken breast, farm feed, and drinking water, were collected to generate baseline data for the characterization of the genus Listeria in broiler poultry farms. Listeria spp. were detected in a total of 95 (47.5%) poultry farm samples. The isolates of Listeria spp. included L. innocua (28.5%), L. ivanovii (12.5%), L. welshimeri (4.5%), and L. monocytogenes and L. seeligeri (1% each). Listeria spp. contamination rates were higher in farm feed (70%), followed by litter (52.5%), chicken breasts (42.2%), and drinking water (10%). Almost all Listeria spp. isolates were resistant to more than three classes of antibiotics (multidrug resistant). Besides this, we observed a significant resistance level to penicillin and fluoroquinolone drugs. However, lower resistance levels were recorded for broad-spectrum cephalosporins. The inlA, inlC, and inlJ virulence genes were detected in almost all of the L. monocytogenes isolates. Thus, food safety management approaches and interventions at all stages of the broiler rearing cycle were needed to control cross-contamination and the zoonotic potential of listeriosis.

  11. Barriers to Business Model Innovation in Swedish Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Sivertsson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Swedish agricultural companies, especially small farms, are struggling to be profitable in difficult economic times. It is a challenge for Swedish farmers to compete with imported products on prices. The agricultural industry, however, supports the view that through business model innovation, farms can increase their competitive advantage. This paper identifies and describes some of the barriers Swedish small farms encounter when they consider business model innovation. A qualitative approach is used in the study. Agriculture business consultants were interviewed. In a focus group led by the researchers, farmers discussed business model innovation, including the exogenous and endogenous barriers to such innovation. The paper concludes many barriers exist when farmers consider innovation of agricultural business models. Some barriers are caused by human factors, such as individuals’ attitudes, histories, and traditions. Other barriers are more contextual in nature and relate to a particular industry or company setting. Still other barriers, such as government regulations, value chain position, and weather, are more abstract. All barriers, however, merit attention when Swedish agricultural companies develop new business models.

  12. Swedish mines. Underground exploitation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paucard, A.

    1960-01-01

    Between 1949 and 1957, 10 engineers of the Mining research and exploitation department of the CEA visited 17 Swedish mines during 5 field trips. This paper presents a compilation of the information gathered during these field trips concerning the different underground mining techniques used in Swedish iron mines: mining with backfilling (Central Sweden and Boliden mines); mining without backfilling (mines of the polar circle area). The following techniques are described successively: pillar drawing and backfilled slices (Ammeberg, Falun, Garpenberg, Boliden group), sub-level pillar drawing (Grangesberg, Bloettberget, Haeksberg), empty room and sub-level pillar drawing (Bodas, Haksberg, Stripa, Bastkarn), storage chamber pillar drawing (Bodas, Haeksberg, Bastkarn), and pillar drawing by block caving (ldkerberget). Reprint of a paper published in Revue de l'Industrie Minerale, vol. 41, no. 12, 1959 [fr

  13. Swedish minister rebuilds scientists' trust

    CERN Multimedia

    Sylwan, P

    1999-01-01

    Thomas Ostros, Sweden's new science minister is aiming to improve links with the science community, severely strained during the tenure of Carl Tham. Significantly, he confirmed that he will not be making any further changes to the managment of the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research. He also announced a 5 per cent increase in government funding for science which will be used to strengthen basic research and education (1 page).

  14. Influence of Covering Reused Broiler Litter with Plastic Canvas on Litter Characteristics and Bacteriology and the Subsequent Immunity and Microbiology of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Mesa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In broiler production, the litter is reused for consecutives flocks, and it is treated during down time between flocks to reduce its microbial load. Although covering the litter with a plastic canvas is a common litter treatment in the field, there is little scientific information available on its efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of covering broiler litter with a plastic canvas for eight days on litter microbiological, physical, and chemical parameters, and on the intestinal microbiota and immunity of broilers. In the first trial, reused litter from a previous flock was distributed into three treatments, with six replicates each: L1 (negative control, litter free from Salmonella Enteritidis (SE and Eimeria maxima (EM and not covered, L2 (positive control, litter with SE and EM, and not covered, and L3 (litter with SE and EM, and covered with plastic canvas for eight days. Litter total bacteria, Enterobacteria, Lactobacillus, SE, and EM counts, and litter pH, temperature, moisture, and ammonia emission were determined on days 1 and 8. In the second trial, broilers were housed on those litters according to the treatments described above, and their intestinal microbiota, gut CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes and macrophages, and liver and intestinal pro-inflammatory interleukin (IFN-γ, IL-1β e IL-18 levels were evaluated on days 14 and 28. A significant reduction of litter bacterial populations was observed in the litter covered with plastic canvas. A significantly higher mRNA IFN-γ gene expression (12.5-fold was observed in the jejunum and liver of broilers reared on the litter with Enterobacteria counts. No EM reduction was observed in the covered litter. Covering reused broiler litter with plastic canvas reduces initial litter bacterial load as a result of the interaction between physical and chemical parameters.

  15. Swedish earthquakes and acceleration probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slunga, R.

    1979-03-01

    A method to assign probabilities to ground accelerations for Swedish sites is described. As hardly any nearfield instrumental data is available we are left with the problem of interpreting macroseismic data in terms of acceleration. By theoretical wave propagation computations the relation between seismic strength of the earthquake, focal depth, distance and ground accelerations are calculated. We found that most Swedish earthquake of the area, the 1904 earthquake 100 km south of Oslo, is an exception and probably had a focal depth exceeding 25 km. For the nuclear power plant sites an annual probability of 10 -5 has been proposed as interesting. This probability gives ground accelerations in the range 5-20 % for the sites. This acceleration is for a free bedrock site. For consistency all acceleration results in this study are given for bedrock sites. When applicating our model to the 1904 earthquake and assuming the focal zone to be in the lower crust we get the epicentral acceleration of this earthquake to be 5-15 % g. The results above are based on an analyses of macrosismic data as relevant instrumental data is lacking. However, the macroseismic acceleration model deduced in this study gives epicentral ground acceleration of small Swedish earthquakes in agreement with existent distant instrumental data. (author)

  16. Effect of different amino acids density diets on lysine, methionine and protein efficiency in Arian broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Nasr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages provided by amino acid (AA densities to broiler performance have been well documented, but little research has been reported on comparing the effect of different densities, i.e. high, medium, standard and low amino acid levels (HAA, MAA, SAA, and LAA, on protein and energy efficiency in broiler. This study evaluated the effects of the four different amino acid densities in a completely randomized experimental design on 800 male (10 replicates per treatment broilers. All diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. In broilers receiving HAA, there had been a significant increase in body weight at Day 42. Feeding broilers with HAA diets significantly increased protein and energy intake in the grower period and during the overall study period (0-42 days of age (P<0.05. There was a significant difference in efficiency of lysine and methionine during all time periods (P<0.05 and HAA levels were significantly higher than SAA. Protein efficiency ratio (PER and energy efficiency ratio (EER were not affected by an increase in AA density. AA levels had a significant effect on production efficiency factor (PEF. The results of this study suggest that additional lysine and methionine at 120% and other AA at 110% of National Research Council recommendations in starter and grower diets significantly improved body weight and PEF.

  17. The effect of acidified soapstocks on feed conversion and broiler skin pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardio, V T; Landin, L A; Waliszewski, K N; Badillo, T C; Perez-Gil, F

    2001-08-01

    The effect of different soapstocks (corn, sunflower, canola, and soybean) on productive performance and skin broiler pigmentation was investigated. Soapstock was added to reach 1.0% polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet. The addition of soybean soapstock significantly improved live body weight gain of the birds from 1 to 7 wk of age. A live body weight gain of 1,736 g/bird was calculated for broilers fed with the soybean soapstock diet. Feed conversion was significantly higher for broilers fed with the soybean soapstock diet, and no negative effect was observed. Compared to broilers fed with Pixtafil (100.0% pigmentation), those fed soybean soapstock (when added as a supplement of 1.0% polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet) reached 48.0% pigmentation, and those fed corn soapstock reached only 7.3%. When the diets were complemented with Pixtafil to reach 100% of calculated pigmentation, the soybean soapstock diet reached 100.8% pigmentation compared to a canola soapstock diet that reached 72.0% pigmentation. Acidified soybean soapstock could be a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids and of xantophyl pigments in broiler feeding.

  18. Emergy Evaluation of a Swedish Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindberg, Anna

    2007-03-01

    Today it is common to evaluate and compare energy systems in terms of emission of greenhouse gases. However, energy systems should not only reduce their pollution but also give a large energy return. One method used to measure energy efficiency is emergy (embodied energy, energy memory) evaluation, which was developed by the system ecologist Howard T. Odum. Odum defines emergy as the available energy of one kind previously used up directly and indirectly to make a service or product. Both work of nature and work of human economy in generating products and services are calculated in terms of emergy. Work of nature takes the form of natural resources and work of human economy includes labour, services and products used to transform natural resources into something of value to the economy. The quotient between work of nature and work of human economy gives the emergy return on investment of the investigated product. With this in mind the present work is an attempt to make an emergy evaluation of a Swedish nuclear power plant to estimate its emergy return on investment. The emergy return on investment ratio of a Swedish nuclear power plant is calculated to approximately 11 in this diploma thesis. This means that for all emergy the Swedish economy has invested in the nuclear power plant it gets 11 times more emergy in return in the form of electricity generated by nuclear power. The method used in this work may facilitate future emergy evaluations of other energy systems

  19. Emergy Evaluation of a Swedish Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindberg, Anna

    2007-03-15

    Today it is common to evaluate and compare energy systems in terms of emission of greenhouse gases. However, energy systems should not only reduce their pollution but also give a large energy return. One method used to measure energy efficiency is emergy (embodied energy, energy memory) evaluation, which was developed by the system ecologist Howard T. Odum. Odum defines emergy as the available energy of one kind previously used up directly and indirectly to make a service or product. Both work of nature and work of human economy in generating products and services are calculated in terms of emergy. Work of nature takes the form of natural resources and work of human economy includes labour, services and products used to transform natural resources into something of value to the economy. The quotient between work of nature and work of human economy gives the emergy return on investment of the investigated product. With this in mind the present work is an attempt to make an emergy evaluation of a Swedish nuclear power plant to estimate its emergy return on investment. The emergy return on investment ratio of a Swedish nuclear power plant is calculated to approximately 11 in this diploma thesis. This means that for all emergy the Swedish economy has invested in the nuclear power plant it gets 11 times more emergy in return in the form of electricity generated by nuclear power. The method used in this work may facilitate future emergy evaluations of other energy systems.

  20. Broiler health status has a major negative impact on broiler flock contamination with Campylobacter spp. in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legaudaite-Lydekaitiene, Viktorija; Serniene, Loreta; Vismantaite, Vaida

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for Campylobacter infection in broiler flocks in Lithuania. Each broiler flock was tested for the contamination with Campylobacter spp., and various broiler farm, flock and abattoir as well as the weather-associated characteristics were...... analysed using the statistical package SPSS. Study revealed that 59.3% of the examined broiler flocks were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. Statistical analysis revealed that broiler flock contamination with Campylobacter was abattoir- and farm-dependent. Among a number of risk factors (e.g. the number...... spp. in broilers. According to our results broiler health status has a major negative effect on broiler flock contamination with Campylobacter. Thus, it needs to be considered when improving control of Campylobacter spp. in broilers....

  1. Influence of stocking density on body conformation in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Softić Almira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment the influence of stocking density on the body conformation of broiler carcasses was investigated. One hundred and twenty broiler chickens were divided into three groups; each group comprised 40 chickens. At the end of the first week of the fattening period 20 chickens in each group were marked by random sampling. The first testing group (P1 represented the one with a lower stocking density (12 chickens per square meter; the second one (P2 with a higher stocking density (18 chickens per square meter, while the control group (K was set in accordance with the technological recommendations (15 chickens per square meter. Breast circumference, drumstick circumference, keel length (crista sterni, breast depth and breast angle were monitored and measured on a weekly basis. Body conformation measures were determined on the carcasses in a horizontal position with their backs placed on the table. The appropriate instruments such as millimetre tape, caliper and ZP-3 protractor were used. In addition, a weekly live weight and feed consumption were measured. Production results (live weight, gain, feed-to-gain ratio and European Production Index (EPI were calculated. Carcass grades were calculated based on the mass ratio of the cooled carcass and the live body weight before slaughtering. The research findings have confirmed that overcrowding in production facilities is always risky in regard to the expected production results. In contrast, by fully conforming to the production technology requirements, it is possible to achieve better production results.

  2. Risk factors for Campylobacter colonization in Danish broiler flocks, 2010 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, M; Sørensen, L L; Steenberg, B

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the two studies presented were to estimate the prevalence of Campylobacter-positive farms and flocks and to acquire updated knowledge about risk factors for the introduction of Campylobacter in Danish broiler flocks. In the first study, from September 2010 to September 2011...... in the Danish Broiler Production ( KIK: ) database. House- and flock-specific data collected in the surveys were supplemented with information obtained from the KIK database. Data obtained from the two studies were analyzed separately by logistic regression analysis. In both models, the dependent variable...... was "Campylobacter flock status (positive/negative)," which was based on real-time PCR testing of fecal material from the floor of each broiler house that had been collected preslaughter using a pair of tube gauze "socks." This material was pooled into one sample. Of the 25 farms visited, 17 had delivered...

  3. Prenatal phthalate exposures and anogenital distance in Swedish boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Carlstedt, Fredrik; Jönsson, Bo Ag

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phthalates are used as plasticizers in soft polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and in a large number of consumer products. Because of reported health risks, diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) has been introduced as a replacement for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in soft PVC. This raises concerns b...... distance in Swedish boys. Environ Health Perspect 123:101-107; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408163....

  4. Probiotic (Enterococcus faecium) induced responses of the hepatic proteome improves metabolic efficiency of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Aijuan; Luo, Jianjie; Meng, Kun; Li, Jianke; Bryden, Wayne L; Chang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Shu; Wang, L X N; Liu, Guohua; Yao, Bin

    2016-02-01

    The liver plays important roles in nutrient metabolism, detoxification and immunity. Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) is a probiotic that has been shown to have positive effects on broiler production. However, its molecular effects on liver metabolism have not been characterized. This study aims to further identify the biological roles of E. faecium by characterizing the hepatic proteomic changes of broilers (Gallus gallus) fed E. faecium using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and mass spectrometry (MS). Thirty-three proteins (50 protein spots) involved in nutrient metabolism, immunity and the antioxidant system were shown to be differentially expressed in the liver of broilers fed E. faecium than from birds not fed the probiotic. The biological processes of sulphur amino acids, vitamin and cellular hormone metabolism, sulphur compound biosynthesis and protein tetramerization were enhanced in the liver of broilers fed E. faecium. However, proteins involved in calcium ion flux, cell redox homeostasis and platelet activation related to hepatic immune responses were down-regulated in broilers fed E. faecium. These results indicate that the supplementation of poultry feed with E. faecium may alter the partitioning of nutrients and promote optimal nutrient utilization. This study assists in unraveling the molecular effects of the dietary probiotic, E. faecium, in the liver of broiler chickens. It shows that the probiotic improves the metabolism of nutrients and decreases inflammatory responses. Our findings extend previous knowledge of the mechanism of dietary probiotic action and provide new findings for research and future probiotic development.

  5. Serological monitoring of ornitobacteriosis in broilers in South Banat district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Pavle

    2014-01-01

    seropositive chickens per flock - 10 % of all examined samples. Although O. rhinotracheale is wide-spread in intensive broiler production in South Banat its presence does not always lead to clinical manifestation of respiratory tract disorders. Seropositive chickens are detected in the first week of life, which indicates the presence of maternal antibodies. Presence of antibodies as the response of organism to the natural infection is detected in chickens after four weeks of age.

  6. Effect of different salinity levels in drinking water on growth of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During breaks in supply of treated water, farmers turn to surface and underground sources, such as wells and boreholes. Though seemingly wholesome, such water usually contains dissolved salts of various kinds that may affect productivity in poultry and other farm livestock. Fifteen 2-week-old, imported broiler hybrid ...

  7. A role for flies (Diptera) in the transmission of Campylobacter to broilers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Royden, A.; Wedley, A.; Merga, J. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial diarrhoeal disease worldwide, with raw and undercooked poultry meat and products the primary source of infection. Colonization of broiler chicken flocks with Campylobacter has proved difficult to prevent, even with high levels of biosecurity. Dipteran...

  8. A Model for Setting Performance Objectives for Salmonella in the Broiler Supply Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, S.O.; Franz, E.; Rijgersberg, H.; Asselt, van E.D.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2010-01-01

    A stochastic model for setting performance objectives for Salmonella in the broiler supply chain was developed. The goal of this study was to develop a model by which performance objectives for Salmonella prevalence at various points in the production chain can be determined, based on a preset final

  9. Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbials augment macrophage function in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the function of Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbials (DFMs) on macrophage functions, i.e., nitric oxide (NO) production and phagocytosis in broiler chickens. DFMs used in this study were eight single strains designated as Bs2084, LSSAO1, 3AP4, Bs1...

  10. Trip report: a visit to the Swedish reindeer industry, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dau, J.; Dieterich, R.A.; Thomas, W.C.; Davis, L.T.

    1987-01-01

    The State of Alaska indicated recently that it will become more strict in enforcing inspection requirements for reindeer meat that is mixed with meat from domestic animals (e.g., In sausage production). Therefore. we wanted to observe how reindeer are slaughtered to meet Swedish meat inspection requirements. Additionally, by following the processing and marketing of reindeer in Sweden, we hoped to discover alternative products that do not require blending reindeer with beef or pork. The Chernobyl tragedy further affected our decision to visit Sweden in two ways It gave us the opportunity to review the Impacts of widespread, Intense radioactive contamination on reindeer and the reindeer industry: and it created a shortage or reindeer for human consumption in Sweden which In turn appeared to open a market for Alaska reindeer products. Between 13 and 23 November 1986, we traveled to Sweden to meet suppliers and processors in the Swedish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) industry. Wholesale and retail marketing of reindeer were reviewed in Stockholm; corralling, slaughter, and processing of reindeer were observed in Swedish Lapland. The specific objectives of this trip were as follows: 1) to observe reindeer slaughter facilities and techniques used in Sweden; 2) to trace the marketing of reindeer from Sami herders to retail outlets; 3) to assess radioactive contamination of reindeer and their ranges and observe how the problem is being handled; 4) to observe as many reindeer husbandry techniques as possible; and 5) to explore the possibility of establishing a market for Alaskan reindeer meat in Sweden

  11. Defining susceptibility of broiler chicks to colibacillosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ask, B.; Waaij, van der E.H.; Eck, van J.H.H.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Stegeman, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to define the susceptibility of broilers to colibacillosis through quantification of clinical responses and to examine the relationship between susceptibility and growth retardation. A challenge experiment was carried out twice. In each trial, 192 chicks were challenged

  12. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  13. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  14. Endoparasites in some Swedish Amphibians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1988-01-01

    A study was made of the endoparasites in specimens of Rana arvalis and R. temporaria collected on two occasions from a locality of southern Sweden. Some frogs were investigated directly after capture while other frogs were kept hibernating and the composition of the parasites as well...... as the behaviour of the parasites were studied after the termination of hibernation. Twelve species of parasites were found. Six of them, Polystoma integerrimum, Pleurogenes claviger (Trematoda), Rhabdias bufonis, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, Cosmocerca ornata and Oxysomatium brevicauda- tum (Nematoda), have...... not previously been reported from Sweden. The late Prof. O. Nybelin's unpublished records of parasites found in Swedish amphibians are also given....

  15. Relative toxicity of gossypol enantiomers in broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Lordelo, M.M.; Davis, A.J.; Calhoun, M.C.; Dowd, M.K.; Dale, N.M.

    2005-01-01

    Use of cottonseed meal in poultry diets has been avoided in large part because of fear of gossypol toxicity. Gossypol exists naturally as a mixture of 2 enantiomers that exhibit different biological activities. Two experiments were conducted to determine the relative toxicity of gossypol enantiomers on broilers. In the first experiment, 3-d-old broilers were fed a standard diet containing 0, 100, 200, 300, or 400 mg of gossypol from gossypol acetic acid per kilogram of...

  16. Haematological and serum biochemical profiles of broiler chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MOLM) on the haematological and serum biochemical profile of broiler chickens. Fresh Moringa leaves (FML) were shade-dried for four days and milled into meal. A total of two hundred broilers unsexed chickens (Anak strain) were randomly ...

  17. Methionine in Velvet Bean (Mucuna pruriens) Based Broiler Starter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mucuna pruriens) Based Broiler Starter. Diets and Bean Influence on Finishing Broilers. G. Olaboro. Department of Animal Science, Makerere University,. P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda. (Accepted for publication in May, 1992). Abstract.

  18. Broiler and swine production: animal welfare legislation scenario Produção de frangos de corte e suínos: cenário da legislação sobre bem-estar animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Baracat Tosi Rodrigues da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world largest meat exporter and one of the most recent demands of the import market is directed towards animal welfare. Codes, norms and legislations used in Brazil are out of date, and in most cases those adopted for both poultry and swine production are based on international standards to meet trade requirements. This research aimed to study and describe an overall scenario of the standards, norms and legislations for animal welfare items applied to broiler and swine production: rearing, handling and transportation. The critical points of these items were identified in accordance to standards and current literature on animal welfare issues, effective on January 2008. The comparison was based on given scores varying from 1-5 (very bad to very good as function of the existence of standard norms and legislations for each country and/or economic block, and for each type of demand, as well as the level of adoption by producers. When compared to counterparts Brazil detained the lowest score for all types of demands, and its mean score of norms is lower (p Brasil é o maior exportador de carne e uma das mais recentes importantes demandas do mercado importador está em torno do bem-estar animal. Os padrões, normas e legislações usadas no país são desatualizadas e, em muitos casos, estas são seguidas na produção animal são baseadas em padrões internacionais, para seguir requisitos do comércio que não atendem necessariamente o esquema brasileiro de alojamento. Esta pesquisa objetivou estudar e descrever o cenário das normas e legislações para as seguintes exigências, aplicadas a produção de frango de corte e suínos: alojamento, manejo e transporte, para subsidiar normas adequadas aplicadas às condições nacionais. Os pontos críticos destes itens foram identificados de acordo com padrões, normas de bem-estar animal e com a literatura vigente até Janeiro de 2008. A comparação foi baseada em escores atribu

  19. Model-predicted ammonia emission from two broiler houses with different rearing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsa Duarte Silva Lima

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia (NH3 emissions from broiler production can affect human and animal health and may cause acidification and eutrophication of the surrounding environment. This study aimed to estimate ammonia emissions from broiler litter in two systems of forced ventilation, the tunnel ventilation (TV and the dark house (DH. The experiment was carried out on eight commercial broiler houses, and the age of the birds (day, d, pH and litter temperature were recorded. Broilers were reared on built-up wood shaving litter using an average flock density of 14 bird m–2. Temperature and relative humidity inside the broiler houses were recorded in the morning during the grow-out period. A factorial experimental design was adopted, with two types of houses, four replicates and two flocks with two replicates each. A deterministic model was used to predict ammonia emissions using the litter pH and temperature, and the day of grow-out. The highest litter temperature and pH were found at 42 d of growth in both housing systems. Mean ambient air temperature and relative humidity did not differ in either system. Mean model predicted ammonia emission was higher in the DH rearing system (5200 mg NH3 m−2h−1 at 42 d than in the TV system (2700 mg NH3m−2 h−1 at 42 d. TV presented the lowest mean litter temperature and pH at 42 d of growth. In the last week of the broilers’ grow-out cycle, estimated ammonia emissions inside DH reached 5700 mg m−2h−1 in one of the flocks. Ammonia emissions were higher inside DH, and they did not differ between flocks. Assuming a broiler market weight in Brazil of close to 2 kg, ammonia emissions were equivalent to 12 g NH3 bird-marketed−1. Model-predicted ammonia emissions provided comprehensible estimations and might be used in abatement strategies for NH3 emission.

  20. Reduction of Phosphorus Pollution from Broilers Waste through Supplementation of Wheat Based Broilers Feed with Phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdel-Megeed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to reduce phosphorus pollution from broilers waste by supplementing phytase enzyme in broilers fee. Two hundred two-week-old broilers (Hubbard were selected and randomly allocated to three dietary treatment groups, one control group (without phytase and two trial groups (group A with 300 U/kg phytase and group B with 600 U/kg phytase. Each group was composed of 5 replicates with 10 chicks. Broilers fed the control diet (without phytase gained weight slower (P 0.05 reduces excreta P and Ca level. Phytase addition did not affect excreta pH. The presence of phytase in feed mixtures significantly (P > 0.05 improves the body weight gain and feed intake of broiler chickens.

  1. Cancer risks in Swedish Lapps who breed reindeer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiklund, K.; Holm, L.E.; Eklund, G.

    1990-01-01

    Cancer risks during the period 1961-1984 were studied in a cohort of 2,034 Swedish reindeer-breeding Lapps, a unique group whose culture and life-style differ considerably from those in the rest of the Swedish population. A total of 100 cases of cancer were observed versus 163 expected. Statistically significantly decreased risks were found for cancers of the colon, respiratory organs, female breast, male genital organs, and kidneys, and for malignant lymphomas. The stomach was the only site with a significantly increased risk. Reindeer-breeding Lapps have ingested fallout products via the lichen-reindeer-man food chain since the 1950s. However, no increased risk was found for the cancer sites considered to be most sensitive to radiation

  2. Foodborne disease prevention and broiler chickens with reduced Campylobacter infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks...... broiler chicken flocks....

  3. Modelling responses of broiler chickens to dietary balanced protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eits, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Protein is an important nutrient for growing broiler chickens, as it affects broiler performance, feed cost as well as nitrogen excretion. The objective of this dissertation was to develop a growth model for broiler chickens that could be easily used by practical nutritionists. The model should

  4. Carcass and organ characteristics of broilers fed graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of graded levels of heat-treated castor oil bean meal and supplementary L-lysine on carcass and organ characteristics of broiler birds was investigated. In experiment 1, 180 seven-day old broiler chicks (Anak strain) were randomly divided into 12 groups of 15 birds each. In experiment 2, 144 six weeks old broiler ...

  5. Influence of different energy sources on the performance of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of different energy sources on the performance of broiler chicks. PN Onu, LLC Ugwu, MO Otuma, EN Uchewa. Abstract. An experiment was conducted with 63 day-old Anak broiler chicks to investigate the growth response of broilers fed diets containing different energy sources. Three experimental diets were ...

  6. Effect of Litter on Development and Severity of Foot-Pad Dermatitis and Behavior of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Zikic

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of litter type and litter treatment with enzymatic-bacterial production incidence and severity of footpad dermatitis and consequently on behavior of broiler chickens. A total of 1,200 one day-old Ross 308 broilers were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 4 replicates in 2 x 2 factorial design. The first factor was the physical form of the straw (chopped on approximately 2 cm or un-chopped and the second factor was addition of enzymatic-bacterial product applied directly on the straw. Each replicate consisted of 75 as-hatched birds per pen. Occurrence and severity of the footpad dermatitis and histological evaluation of the scores was done at the end of the trial (42 days of age. During the trial, at 3 and 6 weeks of age, broiler behavior was observed by Scan Sampling Method. The results showed that chopped straw significantly lowered the incidence of footpad dermatitis. Chopped straw in combination with enzymatic-bacterial product showed the lowest footpad dermatitis score in broilers. Histological procedures confirmed the macroscopic evaluation of the footpad dermatitis severity. The chopped straw had a significant effect on some behavioral patterns of broiler chickens. Differences were observed for dust bathing and scratching. Correlation between footpad dermatitis and birds locomotor activity was not confirmed.

  7. How to interpret Swedish energy policy - Facts and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rising, Agneta; Bohl, Torsten; Wikdahl, Carl-Erik

    1998-01-01

    The Swedish parliament decided on June 10, 1997 that one of the two reactors at the Barsebaeck nuclear power plant shall be closed before mid 1998 and the other until three years later. Some weeks before the 1998 PIME Conference (on December 18) the same parliament is planning to accept a new act, which will make it possible for the government to close any reactor in the future without ay reference to the level of safety. Sweden is known 'internationally to have a successful nuclear power programme and to be in the front line to develop safe nuclear waste methods. The decision in the Swedish parliament therefore came as a surprise not only in Sweden but to a large part of the nuclear power industry, all over the world. Nuclear power accounts for half the power generated in Sweden. here are twelve nuclear power units with a net output of 10 000 MW and an annual energy generation capacity of more than 70 TWh. Nuclear production in Sweden has proved to be technically, economically and environmentally highly successful. ne capacity factors have normally been high, the production costs are low and so are the releases of radioactivity and doses to the personnel. All twelve nuclear units are still highly competitive generators on the deregulated Nordic electricity market and a fe time of at least 40 years is expected for a the nuclear units, as they are being modernised continuously. The estimated safety standard of all twelve units is among the highest in the world. A dynamic nuclear waste programme has been launched. Swedish waste management techniques have achieved world leadership in several important areas. The main part of the explanation can be found in the skilful political strategy of one or two political parties which have been advocating the premature phase-out of the nuclear power programme since the mid 70's. The anti- nuclear policy was introduced in the Swedish parliament already in the 1976 general election, when the Centre Party with a strong antinuclear

  8. An economic analysis of the impact of subclinical (mild) necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, James T; Bauer, Sharon; Young, Virginia; Pauling, Gail; Wilson, Jeff

    2010-12-01

    Costs to broiler producers associated with subclinical (mild) necrotic enteritis (SNE) were estimated using published information on impacts on body weight and feed conversion rate (FCR) associated with SNE and costs and revenues associated with broiler production. Estimates were expressed in U.S. dollars from the perspective of poultry producers. SNE was estimated to result in a 12% reduction in body weight and a 10.9% increase in FCR compared with healthy birds. For the purposes of this analysis, we considered scenarios involving hypothetical flocks of 20,000 birds raised to final body weights ranging from 4.63 to 7.94 lb. The incidence of SNE was assumed to occur at 20% based on the literature. For flocks raised for the length of time required to reach these target weights, SNE resulted in a loss to producers ranging from US$878.19 to US$1480.52 per flock. When feed costs required to obtain SNE flocks having a total live body weight equal to equivalent healthy flocks at market age were calculated, the increased cost to producers ranged from US$370.49 to US$739.38 per flock. SNE has the potential to cause a significant negative economic impact in broiler flocks. Strategies to reduce the incidence of SNE may help to increase the profitability of broiler production.

  9. Investigation of the pathogenesis of Enterococcus cecorum after intravenous, intratracheal or oral experimental infections of broilers and broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoefner, Ida; Christensen, Jens Peter

    is known concerning transmission and pathogenesis in broilers and their parents. Consequently, a set of experimental E. cecorum infections were conducted in broiler breeders and broilers. The bacteria was inoculated at two doses using intravenous (IV), intratracheal (IT) and oral (PO) route of infection...

  10. Competitive Exclusion Reduces Transmission and Excretion of Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Daniela; van Essen-Zandbergen, Alieda; Smid, Bregtje; Veldman, Kees T; Boender, Gert Jan; Fischer, Egil A J; Mevius, Dik J; van der Goot, Jeanet A

    2017-06-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases (pAmpC) are enzymes able to hydrolyze a large variety of β-lactam antibiotics, including third-generation cephalosporins and monobactams. Broilers and broiler meat products can be highly contaminated with ESBL- and pAmpC-producing Escherichia coli strains, also known as extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant E. coli strains, and can be a source for human infections. As few data on interventions to reduce the presence of ESC-resistant E. coli in broilers are available, we used transmission experiments to examine the role of competitive exclusion (CE) on reducing transmission and excretion in broilers. A broiler model to study the transmission of ESC-resistant E. coli was set up. Day-old chickens were challenged with an ESBL-producing E. coli strain isolated from healthy broilers in the Netherlands. Challenged and not challenged chicks were housed together in pairs or in groups, and ESBL-producing E. coli transmission was monitored via selective culturing of cloacal swab specimens. We observed a statistically significant reduction in both the transmission and excretion of ESBL-producing E. coli in chicks treated with the probiotic flora before E. coli challenge compared to the transmission and excretion in untreated controls. In conclusion, our results support the use of competitive exclusion as an intervention strategy to control ESC-resistant E. coli in the field. IMPORTANCE Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases are a primary cause of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics among members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in humans, animals, and the environment. Food-producing animals are not exempt from this, with a high prevalence being seen in broilers, and there is evidence pointing to a possible foodborne source for human contamination. We investigated the effect of administration of a commercial probiotic product as an intervention to

  11. Exploring how to engage Swedish Millennials with pension planning

    OpenAIRE

    LÖVGREN, ANDREAS; MAGNUSSON, MATTIAS

    2016-01-01

    An aging Swedish population is putting an increased pressure on the Swedish pension system. To address this, the Swedish pension system was reformed in the late 1990s. This reformation resulted in an increased individual responsibility for pension investments among the Swedish population. The individual responsibility has shown to be challenging for many since they feel a great uncertainty in this area. Adding to the notion that the Swedish population is aging; young Swedes are also entering ...

  12. Effect of temperature-humidity index on live performance in broiler chickens grown from 49 to 63 days of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thermal environment in poultry housing is a primary influence on production efficiency and live performance. Heavy broilers (body weight > 3.2 kg) typically require high ventilation rates to maintain thermal comfort and production efficiency. However, large birds are observed to pant in mild to ...

  13. Predominant discourses in Swedish nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth; Pilhammar-Anderson, Ewa

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the predominant discourse in the field of Swedish nursing in 2000, 25 years after nursing was introduced as an academic discipline in Sweden. The method used was content analysis and deconstructive analysis of discourses. Laws, statutes, regulations, and examination requirements, including official reports, recruitment campaigns, and media coverage, were analyzed. The findings uncovered competing discourses striving to gain hegemony. In the public sector, official requirements competed against the media fixation on gender stereotypes and the realities of local recruitment campaigns. Media has a major role in disseminating prevailing conceptions and conventions pertaining to the nursing profession. As a result, decision makers, students, patients, and family members could get lower expectations of the professional competence of nursing practitioners than would otherwise have been the case in the absence of media exposure.

  14. Different Levels of Digestible Methionine on Performance of Broiler Starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WL Bryden

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary protein and amino acid supply is the most expensive component of poultry diets. Therefore several efforts made by the industry to minimize the cost of the protein portion of the diet. Accordingly, there has been a recent move to use digestible amino acid values in the formulation of poultry diets. The efficiency of protein utilization depends to a large extent on the amino acid composition of the diet. The study was conducted to determine the digestible methionine requirement of broilers during the starter periods. One hundred and seventy five (175 chicks were allocated to 5 treatments with five replicates of seven chicks per replicate in a completely randomized design. Chicks were fed experimental diets from one day old to 21 days of age. Dietary treatments included 5 titrated levels each of digestible methionine (3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, and 9.0 g/kg diet added to a basal diet. The allowance of digestible methionine, rather than digestible sulphur amino acids was used in formulating the diets. Supplemental synthetic DL-Methionine which were considered to be 100% digestible were added to diets to obtain the concentration of the digestible amino acid. Each week until the conclusion of the trial, birds were individually weighed, feed intake per pen was measured, and feed conversion ratio (FCR was computed. This study suggested that the digestible methionine requirement for broiler starter is 4.7 g/kg for optimal body weight gain and 4.6 g/kg for optimal feed conversion ratio. (Animal Production 12(1: 6-11 (2010Key Words: amino acid, broiler, digestible, methionine, starter

  15. Survey of skin pigmentation of yellow-skinned broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirri, F; Petracci, M; Bianchi, M; Meluzzi, A

    2010-07-01

    The appearance of whole carcass and skin-on cut-up products is an important attribute that deeply affects the consumer's choice. Skin pigmentation is affected mainly by genetics, concentration and dietary source of pigments, health status of the birds, and scalding-plucking conditions during slaughtering, although other factors might play an important role. Retailers request batches of broiler chicken carcasses characterized by uniform skin pigmentation to be sold as whole carcass or parts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability of skin color of yellow-skinned broilers reared under intensive conditions. For the study, a total of 2,300 medium size broiler chickens (2,300 to 2,500 g of live weight) from 23 flocks (100 birds/flock; n = 12 flocks of males and n = 11 flocks of females; n = 12 flocks of Ross 508 and n = 11 flocks of Ross 308) were randomly selected in a single slaughterhouse. The color measurements were carried out on both breast and thigh pterylae as well as on shank skin adopting the L* a* b* system and using a Minolta colorimeter CR 300. The overall range in measured yellowness (b*) was fairly large for all skin color measurement positions. For breast, a mean value of 22.77 (SD = 5.12) was observed, with values ranging from 7.45 to 39.12. Average values of thigh and shank were 20.23 (SD = 5.02; range 1.99 to 37.82) and 53.99 (SD = 8.13; range 24.22 to 78.65), respectively. A higher skin yellowness was observed in females in all body parts as well as in Ross 308. Yellowness values of breast and thigh were significantly correlated (r = 0.85; P < 0.01), suggesting that the color evaluation may be carried out only on one measurement position of the skin.

  16. Heat stress and vitamin E in diets for broilers as a mitigating measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Santos Dalólio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This review aimed to identify the importance of vitamin E dietary supplementation to broilers subjected to heat stress in relation to metabolism, growth performance and quality of animal products and its effects on immune system. Vitamin E is the concentration of tocopherol and tocotrienol, which can be found in natural or synthetic form. This vitamin is essential for the integrity of reproductive, muscular, circulatory, nervous and immune systems of the animals. In order to reduce the harmful effects of high temperatures in poultry production, vitamin E supplementation is a viable alternative for the sector. Some studies indicate its potential antioxidant effect able to modulate inflammatory responses and physiological adjustments to mitigate the undesirable effects of exposure of broilers to high temperatures. Moreover, it has been found increased viability of animals due to the greater activation of the immune system, and improved quality of animal products given to the deposition in tissues with consequent nutritional enrichment of meat products.

  17. Serotype tracking of Salmonella through integrated broiler chicken operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J S; Cox, N A; Craven, S E; Cosby, D E

    2002-05-01

    The widespread presence of Salmonella in all phases of broiler chicken production and processing is well documented. However, little information is available to indicate the identity and movement of specific serotypes of Salmonella through the different phases of an integrated operation. In this study, samples were collected from the breeder farm, from the hatchery, from the previous grow-out flock, from the flock during grow-out, and from carcasses after processing. Salmonella were recovered from 6, 98, 24, 60, and 7% of the samples, respectively, in the first trial and from 7, 98, 26, 22, and 36% of the samples, respectively, in the second trial. Seven different serotypes were identified in the first trial, and 12 different serotypes were identified in the second trial. For both trials there was poor correlation between the serotypes found in the breeder farms and those found in the hatchery. This finding and the fact that similar serotypes were found in the hatchery in both trials suggests that there was an endemic population of Salmonella in the hatchery. An association between the serotypes found in the hatchery and those found on the final processed carcasses was observed in both trials. This study confirms that a successful intervention program for broiler production operations must be multifaceted, with one component being disinfection in the hatchery.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Motile Serovars of Salmonella enterica from Breeder and Commercial Broiler Poultry Farms in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Himel; Biswas, Paritosh K.; Olsen, Katharina E. P.; Shil, Subrata K.; Christensen, Jens P.

    2013-01-01

    Contaminated poultry and poultry products are a major source of motile Salmonellae for human salmonellosis worldwide. Local circulation of any motile Salmonella serovar in poultry has a wider public health impact beyond its source of origin for being dispersed elsewhere through poultry trades or human travels. To investigate the status of motile Salmonella serovars in breeder farms in Bangladesh, multiple flocks of two breeder farms were observed for a period of six months. In addition, a cross-sectional survey was carried out to determine the prevalence and serovar distribution of motile Salmonella by randomly selecting 100 commercial broiler poultry farms. Five pooled faecal samples representing an entire housed flock of breeders or broilers were screened for presence of motile Salmonella following conventional bacteriological procedures. The Salmonella isolates obtained were subsequently serotyped, and characterized by plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The results revealed that both the breeder farms were positive with three Salmonella serovars: S. Virchow, S. Paratyphi B var Java (S. Java) and S. Enteritidis. Eleven of the 100 broiler farms investigated were positive for motile Salmonella, giving a farm-level prevalence of 11% (95% confidence interval 5–17%). S. Virchow and S. Kentucky were the two predominant serovars isolated from the broiler farms. The PFGE genotyping demonstrated that the isolates belonging to the same serovars were closely related due to variation in only 1–4 bands. All the S. Virchow and S. Java isolates, irrespective of breeder or broiler farm origin, were plasmid-free, except for one S. Virchow isolate from a broiler farm that harboured a 9.7 kb-sized plasmid. The S. Kentucky isolates belonged to three plasmid profiles having plasmids of four different sizes, ranging from 2.7 to 109 kb. This is the first report of any motile Salmonella serovars from breeder and commercial broiler poultry farms in

  19. Molecular characterization of motile serovars of Salmonella enterica from breeder and commercial broiler poultry farms in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himel Barua

    Full Text Available Contaminated poultry and poultry products are a major source of motile Salmonellae for human salmonellosis worldwide. Local circulation of any motile Salmonella serovar in poultry has a wider public health impact beyond its source of origin for being dispersed elsewhere through poultry trades or human travels. To investigate the status of motile Salmonella serovars in breeder farms in Bangladesh, multiple flocks of two breeder farms were observed for a period of six months. In addition, a cross-sectional survey was carried out to determine the prevalence and serovar distribution of motile Salmonella by randomly selecting 100 commercial broiler poultry farms. Five pooled faecal samples representing an entire housed flock of breeders or broilers were screened for presence of motile Salmonella following conventional bacteriological procedures. The Salmonella isolates obtained were subsequently serotyped, and characterized by plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. The results revealed that both the breeder farms were positive with three Salmonella serovars: S. Virchow, S. Paratyphi B var Java (S. Java and S. Enteritidis. Eleven of the 100 broiler farms investigated were positive for motile Salmonella, giving a farm-level prevalence of 11% (95% confidence interval 5-17%. S. Virchow and S. Kentucky were the two predominant serovars isolated from the broiler farms. The PFGE genotyping demonstrated that the isolates belonging to the same serovars were closely related due to variation in only 1-4 bands. All the S. Virchow and S. Java isolates, irrespective of breeder or broiler farm origin, were plasmid-free, except for one S. Virchow isolate from a broiler farm that harboured a 9.7 kb-sized plasmid. The S. Kentucky isolates belonged to three plasmid profiles having plasmids of four different sizes, ranging from 2.7 to 109 kb. This is the first report of any motile Salmonella serovars from breeder and commercial broiler poultry

  20. Molecular characterization of motile serovars of Salmonella enterica from breeder and commercial broiler poultry farms in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Himel; Biswas, Paritosh K; Olsen, Katharina E P; Shil, Subrata K; Christensen, Jens P

    2013-01-01

    Contaminated poultry and poultry products are a major source of motile Salmonellae for human salmonellosis worldwide. Local circulation of any motile Salmonella serovar in poultry has a wider public health impact beyond its source of origin for being dispersed elsewhere through poultry trades or human travels. To investigate the status of motile Salmonella serovars in breeder farms in Bangladesh, multiple flocks of two breeder farms were observed for a period of six months. In addition, a cross-sectional survey was carried out to determine the prevalence and serovar distribution of motile Salmonella by randomly selecting 100 commercial broiler poultry farms. Five pooled faecal samples representing an entire housed flock of breeders or broilers were screened for presence of motile Salmonella following conventional bacteriological procedures. The Salmonella isolates obtained were subsequently serotyped, and characterized by plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The results revealed that both the breeder farms were positive with three Salmonella serovars: S. Virchow, S. Paratyphi B var Java (S. Java) and S. Enteritidis. Eleven of the 100 broiler farms investigated were positive for motile Salmonella, giving a farm-level prevalence of 11% (95% confidence interval 5-17%). S. Virchow and S. Kentucky were the two predominant serovars isolated from the broiler farms. The PFGE genotyping demonstrated that the isolates belonging to the same serovars were closely related due to variation in only 1-4 bands. All the S. Virchow and S. Java isolates, irrespective of breeder or broiler farm origin, were plasmid-free, except for one S. Virchow isolate from a broiler farm that harboured a 9.7 kb-sized plasmid. The S. Kentucky isolates belonged to three plasmid profiles having plasmids of four different sizes, ranging from 2.7 to 109 kb. This is the first report of any motile Salmonella serovars from breeder and commercial broiler poultry farms in Bangladesh.

  1. Presence of antimicrobial resistance in coliform bacteria from hatching broiler eggs with emphasis on ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhoud, H; Chantziaras, I; Iguer-Ouada, M; Moula, N; Garmyn, A; Martel, A; Touati, A; Smet, A; Haesebrouck, F; Boyen, F

    2016-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is recognized as one of the most important global health challenges. Broilers are an important reservoir of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in general and, more particularly, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Since contamination of 1-day-old chicks is a potential risk factor for the introduction of antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the broiler production chain, the presence of antimicrobial resistant coliform bacteria in broiler hatching eggs was explored in the present study. Samples from 186 hatching eggs, collected from 11 broiler breeder farms, were inoculated on MacConkey agar with or without ceftiofur and investigated for the presence of antimicrobial resistant lactose-positive Enterobacteriaceae, particularly, ESBL/AmpC-producers. Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae were obtained from the eggshells in 10 out of 11 (10/11) sampled farms. The majority of the isolates were recovered from crushed eggshells after external decontamination suggesting that these bacteria are concealed from the disinfectants in the egg shell pores. Antimicrobial resistance testing revealed that approximately 30% of the isolates showed resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulphonamides, while the majority of isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, nitrofurantoin, aminoglycosides, florfenicol, neomycin and apramycin. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins was detected in eight Enterobacteriaceae isolates from five different broiler breeder farms. The ESBL phenotype was confirmed by the double disk synergy test and blaSHV-12, blaTEM-52 and blaACT-39 resistance genes were detected by PCR. This report is the first to present broiler hatching eggs as carriers and a potential source of ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae for broiler chicks.

  2. Suicide rate among former Swedish peacekeeping personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Per-Olof; Lundin, Tom; Larsson, Gerry

    2007-03-01

    Increased suicide rates for military personnel suffering from post-traumatic stress disorders have been reported in various countries. Although it is known that some peacekeepers are exposed to potentially traumatic events and are thus at risk of suffering from post-traumatic stress reactions, only a few studies have examined suicide rates in this group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the suicide rate among former Swedish peacekeeping personnel. We compared 39,768 former Swedish peacekeepers to the general population in the National General Population Registry and the Cause-of-Death Registry. A lower number of suicides was found among former Swedish peacekeepers than in the general population. In conclusion, Swedish personnel serving in international peace-keeping operations do not show a higher suicide rate than the general population. Unique problems associated with this research area are discussed.

  3. Supplementation of nitrocompounds in broiler diets: Effects on bird performance, ammonia volatilization and nitrogen retention in broiler manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowrer, Jake E; Sedlacek, Paula; Kim, Jihyuk; Ritz, Casey; Kim, Woo K

    2016-02-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary nitrocompounds on bird performance, ammonia volatilization, and changes in manure nitrogen (N). A total of 200 one-day-old male chicks (Cobb 500) were used for this study. The chicks were raised in electrically heated battery brooders for 18 days. On day 1, birds were allocated into five treatment groups with four replicated pens: (T1) control, a corn and soybean meal diet (3,100 kcal kg -1 metabolizable energy (ME) and 21% Crude Protein (CP)); (T2) 16.7 mg kg -1 nitroethanol (NEL); (T3) 33.3 mg kg -1 NEL; (T4) 16.7 mg kg -1 nitropropanol (NPL); and (T5) 33.3 mg kg -1 NPL. The body weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured on days 7, 14 and 18. Volatized ammonia (VA) and other N forms were measured at collection and following 2 weeks of incubation at 30°C. Broiler growth was not adversely affected by the nitrocompounds at concentrations up to 33.3 mg kg -1 . The results show that initial manure pH was reduced by adding nitroethanol (NEL) and nitropropanol (NPL) to the diet by 0.2 and 0.5 pH units, respectively. Total VA after 2 weeks was unaffected by dietary treatment. The amounts of uric acid decomposed and ammonia produced were closely balanced in the control sample. However, this balance was significantly different among the manures produced by birds receiving nitrocompound treatments. The inclusion of NEL and NPL resulted in the presence of measurable amounts of Xanthine not found in the control group. This study indicates that supplementation of nitroethanol or nitropropanol into broiler diets up to 33.3 mg kg -1 influences uric acid degradation and ammonia production in broiler manure while maintaining optimal growth performance.

  4. Energy utilisation of broiler chickens in response to guanidinoacetic acid supplementation in diets with various energy contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale Saheb Fosoul, Sayed Sadra; Azarfar, Arash; Gheisari, Abbasali; Khosravinia, Heshmatollah

    2018-04-25

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on productive performance, intestinal morphometric features, blood parameters and energy utilisation in broiler chickens. A total of 390 male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were assigned to six dietary treatments based on a factorial arrangement (2×3) across 1-15 and 15-35-d periods. Experimental treatments consisted of two basal diets with standard (STD; starter: 12·56 MJ/kg and grower: 12·97 MJ/kg) and reduction (LME; starter: 11·93 MJ/kg and grower: 12·33 MJ/kg) of apparent metabolisable energy (AME) requirement of broiler chickens each supplemented with 0, 0·6 and 1·2 g/kg GAA. Supplemental 1·2 g/kg GAA decreased the negative effects of feed energy reduction on weight gain across starter, growing and the entire production phases (PEnergy retention as fat and total energy retention were increased when birds received LME diets supplemented with 1·2 g/kg GAA (Penergy for production (NEp) and total heat production increased in birds fed LME diets containing 1·2 g/kg GAA (P<0·05). A significant correlation was observed between dietary NEp and weight gain of broilers (r 0·493; P=0·0055), whereas this relationship was not seen with AME. Jejunal villus height and crypt depth were lower in birds fed LME diets (P<0·05). Serum concentration of creatinine increased in broilers fed LME diets either supplemented with 1·2 g/kg GAA or without GAA supplementation (P<0·05). Supplemental GAA improved performance of chickens fed LME diet possibly through enhanced dietary NEp. The NEp could be preferred over the AME to assess response of broiler chickens to dietary GAA supplementation.

  5. Comparison of milk protein composition and rennet coagulation properties in native Swedish dairy cow breeds and high-yielding Swedish Red cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Nina A; Glantz, Maria; Rosengaard, Anette K; Paulsson, Marie; Larsen, Lotte B

    2017-11-01

    cheese milk, which could be exploited in niche dairy products. In milk from Swedish Mountain cows, levels of ionic calcium seemed to be more important for rennet-induced gel firmness than variation in the relative protein profile. In Swedish Red, lower protein content as well as higher fraction of α S2 -CN and lower fraction of α S1 -CN 9P were related to NC milk. Further, a decrease in the frequency of the composite β-κ-CN genotype A 2 A 2 /AA through selective breeding could have a positive effect on milk coagulation properties. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Climatic factors and prevalence of Campylobacter in commercial broiler flocks in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachantasena, S; Charununtakorn, P; Muangnoicharoen, S; Hankla, L; Techawal, N; Chaveerach, P; Tuitemwong, P; Chokesajjawatee, N; Williams, N; Humphrey, T; Luangtongkum, T

    2017-04-01

    Campylobacter are bacteria associated with human foodborne disease worldwide. Poultry and poultry products are generally considered as a main source of these organisms. Compared to temperate zones, baseline information on Campylobacter in tropical regions is limited. Thus, the objectives of the present study were 1) to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter in Thai broiler flocks and 2) to investigate the association between climatic factors (i.e., rainfall, ambient temperature, and relative humidity) and Campylobacter colonization status of broiler flocks in Thailand. A total of 442 commercial broiler flocks reared in the central and northeastern regions of Thailand during 2012 to 2014 were investigated. Campylobacter positive status was identified in 252 examined flocks (57.01%; 95% CI 52.39 to 61.63%). Prevalence of Campylobacter in the northeastern region (54.46%; 95% CI 44.76 to 63.83%) was slightly lower than that of the central region (57.77%; 95% CI 52.47 to 62.90%). More than 65% of Campylobacter positive flocks in the central and northeastern regions had within-flock prevalence higher than 75%. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) revealed that the increased rainfall and relative humidity were associated with the increase of Campylobacter colonization in broiler flocks (P ≤ 0.05), while no relationship between ambient temperature and Campylobacter colonization status was identified. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Addition of Garlic Extract in Ration to Reduce Cholesterol Level of Broiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, M. M. D.; Pantaya, D.; Agus, A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to know the effect of garlic extract (GE) in reducing cholesterol level of broiler chicken by analyzing cholesterol level of broiler chicken blood. Two hundred one day broiler age were used in this study for 35 days. The chickens were randomly divided into four treatments, each treatment consist of five replications and each repetition consist of ten chickens. This research is used completely randomized design, such as: T0: 0% EBP, T1: 2%, T2: 4% and T3: 6%. Furthermore, at age 35 days each chicken was taken blood to be analyzed cholesterol levels, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and calculated the ratio of LDL and HDL levels. The data obtained were analyzed using software from Statistical Product and Service Solution (SPSS 16.0). The results of significant analysis continued by Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. Addition of GE from the 2% level decreases (P <0.05) of LDL and total cholesterol, and increases HDL and HDL-LDL ratio. The conclusions is obtained garlic extract plays an important role in lowering cholesterol levels of broiler meat.

  8. Animal Welfare and Food Safety Aspects of Confining Broiler Chickens to Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Sara; Greger, Michael

    2013-05-13

    In most areas of the world, broiler chickens are raised in floor systems, but cage confinement is becoming more common. The welfare of broiler chickens in cages is affected by movement restriction, poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, and prevention of key behavioral patterns such as dustbathing and ground scratching. Cages for broiler chickens also have a long history of causing skin and leg conditions that could further compromise welfare, but a lack of controlled studies makes it difficult to draw conclusions about newer cage designs. Cage environments are usually stocked at a higher density than open floor systems, and the limited studies available suggest that caging may lead to increased levels of fear and stress in the birds. Further, birds reared on the floor appear less likely to harbor and shed Salmonella, as litter may serve as a seeding agent for competitive exclusion by other microorganisms. Cages for laying hens used in egg production have met with substantial opposition due to welfare concerns and caging broiler chickens will likely be subject to the same kinds of social disapproval.

  9. Effects of gamma radiation on fungal microbiota and mycotoxins in broiler chicken feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simas, Monica Mattos dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the control of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in broiler feed by gamma radiation. Feed samples were treated with gamma radiation (0, 5 and 10 kGy) and contaminated with aflatoxins or fumonisins. Performance, hematological and biochemical results indicated that a 5 kGy dose was effective on the control of the deleterious effects caused by mycotoxins on broilers. No significant alterations were observed on the feed chemical composition. Irradiated samples presented lower fungal contamination than those not irradiated. We did not detect alterations on aflatoxin or fumonisin content of feed samples after irradiation. AFLP results demonstrated that Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides did not present any correlation between groups, toxin production and irradiation dose. We can conclude that the dose of 5 kGy is indicated for treatment of broiler feed. Despite the fact that it does not change the mycotoxin levels found in the samples, this dose significantly reduces the fungal microbiota and modifies the feed digestibility, increasing the final weight of broiler chickens. (author)

  10. Comparative efficacy of a phytogenic feed additive and an antibiotic growth promoter on production performance, caecal microbial population and humoral immune response of broiler chickens inoculated with enteric pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshi Wati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the efficacy of a commercially available phytogenic feed additive (PFA and an antibiotic growth promoter, which was bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD, on performance, nutrient retention, caecal colonization of bacteria and humoral immune responses against Newcastle disease in broiler chickens challenged orally with Salmonella enteritidis and Escherichia coli. One-day-old male Cobb 400 broiler chicks (n = 120 were fed with 1 a negative control (NC diet, which is the basal diet without any added growth promoter, 2 a positive control (PC diet, the basal diet supplemented with BMD, 500 mg/kg and 3 a diet supplemented with PFA (150 mg/kg for 39 days and the birds were inoculated with S. enteritidis and E. coli on d 28. Supplementation of PFA improved body weight, feed conversion ratio, retention of N and crude fiber, increased fecal moisture content and decreased digesta transit time as compared with the NC and PC groups (P < 0.01. Both the PC and the PFA was found to be equally effective in controlling the surge in numbers of Salmonella and E. coli following oral inoculation of these bacteria as compared with the NC group (P < 0.05 at 24 h past inoculation. Caecal content analysis on d 39 indicated lower numbers of Salmonella, E. coli and Clostridium in the PC and PFA groups as compared with the NC group (P < 0.05. The number of Lactobacillus in the PFA group was higher than those in the NC and PC groups (P < 0.05. Humoral immune response, measured as hemagglutination inhibition titer against Newcastle disease, was better in the PC and PFA groups compared with the NC group (P < 0.05 at d 21 but the difference did not last till d 39. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio was narrower (P < 0.001 and alkaline phosphatase activity was higher (P < 0.01 in the PFA group as compared with the NC and PC groups on d 39. It was concluded that the PFA, which is animal, environment and consumer friendly, may be used as an

  11. The Effect of the Litter Materials on Broiler Chickens Welfare and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil Gençoğlan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to review the quality and types of the litter material and its effect on the welfare and performance of the broiler chickens. Since the most suitable broiler rearing system is on the littered floor, the litter material is of great importance. Demand for litter material is also increasing, depending on the development in broiler production. Straws, wood shavings, and sawdust are widely used as litters material. Beside these, materials such as wheat, barley, rye, oats, sunflower, rice, hazelnut, maize, soya, peanut, cotton and sugarcane are used purely or mixed as a litters material. The quality of the litter is determined with the litter moisture, pH, ammonium nitrate content, caking level and water holding capacity. The ideal litter material should have a moisture content of 20-25%, a pH of 8-10, and ammonia content should not exceed 25 ppm. The thickness of the litter changes between 2 and 10 cm according to the type of the litter, and size of it should not exceed 0.6 cm. Increase in the litter moisture increases pH, NH3 concentration and caking. The type of litter material effects on the performance, welfare, health, behavior and product quality of broiler chickens. In addition, there are negative effects of litter materials on carcass defects, foot-leg problems, breast blisters or bruises, decrease in living power, and increase of microorganism development due to litter moisture, increase of gas and dust formation in poultry. These adverse effects cause large economic losses in intensive enterprises. For this reason, the quality and type of litter material is very important in broiler rearing.

  12. Estimation of the net energy requirement for maintenance in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective The net energy requirement for the maintenance (NEm of broilers was determined using regression models by the indirect calorimetry method (ICM or the comparative slaughter method (CSM. Methods A 2×4 factorial arrangement of treatments including the evaluation method (ICM or CSM and feed intake (25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% of ad libitum recommended was employed in this experiment. In the ICM, 96 male Arbor Acres (AA birds aged d 15 were used with 4 birds per replicate and 6 replicates in each treatment. In the CSM, 116 male AA birds aged d 15 were used. Among these 116 birds, 20 were selected as for initial data and 96 were assigned to 4 treatments with 6 replicate cages and 4 birds each. The linear regression between retained energy (RE and metabolizable energy intake (MEI or the logarithmic regression between heat production (HP and MEI were used to calculate the metabolizable or net energy requirement for maintenance (MEm or NEm, respectively. Results The evaluation method did not detect any differences in the metabolizable energy (ME, net energy (NE, and NE:ME of diet, and in the MEI, HP, and RE of broilers. The MEI, HP, and RE of broilers decreased (p<0.01 as the feed intake decreased. No evaluation method× feed intake interaction was observed on these parameters. The MEm and NEm estimated from the linear relationship were 594 and 386 kJ/kg of body weight (BW0.75/d in the ICM, and 618 and 404 kJ/kg of BW0.75/d in the CSM, respectively. The MEm and NEm estimated by logarithmic regression were 607 and 448 kJ/kg of BW0.75/d in the ICM, and were 619 and 462 kJ/kg of BW0.75/d in the CSM, respectively. Conclusion The NEm values obtained in this study provide references for estimating the NE values of broiler diets.

  13. Bacterial successions in the Broiler Gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Lawley, Blair; Tannock, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    feeding trial was performed with broilers receiving diets based on wheat (WBF), maize (MBF), and maize-based concentrates supplemented with 15% (CKMS-15) or 30% (CKMS-30) crimped kernel maize silage. The aim of the study was to investigate the bacterial community compositions in the contents....... The development of a “mature” microbiota in broilers occurred during the period from 15-22 days. A striking increase in the relative abundance of L. salivarius (17-36%) and clostridia (11-18%), and a concomitant decrease of L. reuteri was found in the ileum after d 15. De-conjugated bile salts increased...... in concentration in association with the increased populations of L. salivarius and clostridia. Both L. salivarius and clostridia de-conjugate bile acids, and an increase of these bacteria might be associated with growth reduction and GI disorders occurring in the critical period of broiler life between 20-30 days....

  14. Efeitos da inclusão do resíduo da semente de urucum (Bixa Orellana L. na dieta para frangos de corte: desempenho e características de carcaça Effects of increasing dietary annatto (Bixa Orellana L. seed by-product levels on carcass yield and performance for broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto Vilar da Silva

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados para se determinar o valor energético e o nível ótimo de inclusão do resíduo da semente de urucum (RSU na ração de frangos de corte. No primeiro ensaio, 60 pintos machos Ross-308 (peso vivo de 516 + 8,62 g foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramentecasualizado, com cinco repetições de seis aves, e alimentados à vontade com uma dieta basal (DB e uma mistura da DB + 30% RSU. As coletas de excretas foram realizadas no período de 20 a 25 dias de idade, pela manhã e à tarde. No segundo experimento, 1.190 frangos machos Ross foram alojados em boxes de 1,5 m² e alimentados de 1 a 21, 22 a 42 e de 43 a 47 dias de idade com rações contendo 0 (controle; 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5 e 15,0% do RSU. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com dez repetições de 17 aves. O RSU apresentou 12,12% PB e 2.233 kcal EMAn. A inclusão de 7,5% de RSU melhorou o consumo de ração no período de 22 a 42 dias de idade, mas piorou a conversão alimentar no período total (1 a 47 dias em comparação ao tratamento controle. Excluindo-se o tratamento controle da análise de variância, os rendimentos de carcaça e de coxa e o peso da coxa diminuíram linearmente, enquanto o rendimento de sobrecoxa foi otimizado com a inclusão de 9,9% do RSU na ração. Considerando-se os resultados de desempenho, recomenda-se a inclusão de até 5% de RSU na ração de frangos de corte.Two trials were conducted to evaluate the energetic value and the optimum level of increasing dietary annatto seed by-product (ASB levels for broiler chick. In the first trial, sixty Ross male broiler chicks (516 + 8.62 g were fed ad libitum with a basal diet (BD and a mixture of BD+30% ASB. The first trial was analyzed as a complete randomized design with five replications of six birds. Feces were collected in the morning and afternoon from age 20 to 25 days. In the second trial, 1,190 Ross male broiler chicks were allocated in boxes

  15. PREVALENT DISEASES AND OVERALL MORTALITY IN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farooq, Zahir-ud-Din, F .R. Durrani, M.A. Mian, N. Chand and J. Ahmed1

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Records from 62-broiler farms located in Swat, North West Frontier Province (NWFP, Pakistan were, collected during the year 1998 to investigate prevalent diseases and overall mortality in broilers. Losses due Hydro-pericardium syndrome (HPS were the highest (17.05 ± 2.08% and the lowest due to coccidiosis 9.39 ± 3.82%. Non-significant differences existed in mortality caused by Newcastle, IBD and yolk sac infection. Differences in losses caused by infectious coryza, enteritis and coccidiosis were also non- significant. Average overall mortality was 13.05 ± 1.16%, representing 7.59 ± 0.46% losses from day-1 to day 14 and 18.52 ± 0.95% from day-15 till marketing of broilers (42-50 days. Lower (p<0.05 overall mortality was observed in broilers reared on well-finished concrete floors (12.43 ± 1.45 % than in those on brick+mud made floors (14.36 ± 1.55. Higher (p<0.05 overall mortality was found in overcrowded houses 5.60 ± 5.62% than in optimally utilized houses (10.69 ± 1.51%. Overall mortality was higher (p<0.05 in flocks under substandard vaccination schedule (15.92 ± 1.55% than in those maintained under standard lancination schedule (10.20 ± 1.21%. Overall mortality was higher (21.11 ± 3.39% when the interval between two batches was ≤ 7 days than 16-20 days (5.72 ± 3.01%. Lower (p<0.05 overall mortality was und in broilers maintained under good hygienic ( 11.59 ±1.93% and sanitary conditions ( 10.82 ± 1.16% compared to those under poor hygienic and sanitary conditions (14.12 ± 2.81% and 15.15 ± 1.68 %respectively. Maintenance of broilers under good hygienic conditions on well finished concrete floor, providing the required space/broiler, following recommended vaccination schedule without HPS vaccine and keeping 8.20 days interval between two batches were suggested as key factors in reducing mortality among broilers in Swat

  16. Efeito da utilização de simbiótico e do sistema de criação sobre o desempenho e morfometria do epitélio gastrintestinal de frangos de corte tipo colonial = Effect of symbiotic use and production system on the performance and morphometrics of the intestinal epithelium of free-range broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Balog Neto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desempenho e a morfometria do epitélio intestinal de frangos de corte da linhagem colonial Label Rouge, submetidos a dietas com e sem adição de simbiótico, e distribuídos em dois sistemas de criação, confinados e com acesso apiquete. Foram utilizados 560 pintos de corte de um dia de idade, machos, distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com dois tratamentos, e quatro repetições de 35 aves cada. As aves que receberam simbiótico, na dieta, e as aves do sistema confiando obtiveram melhores resultados de desempenho em relação às aves dos demais tratamentos. Houve efeito da dieta sobre o peso do fígado e do íleo, e efeito do sistema de criação sobre o peso de moela e de jejuno. No duodeno, houve efeito da dieta apenas dentro do sistema de criação confinado para a largura das vilosidades. No jejuno, houve efeito do sistema de criação para profundidade de criptas. Foipossível concluir que a adição de simbiótico na alimentação de frangos de corte, tipo colonial, contribui para melhor desempenho, sem alterar a morfometria do epitélio gastrintestinal indiferente do sistema de criação.This study aimed to evaluate the performance and morphometrics of the intestinal epithelium of Label Rouge broilers submitted to diets with or without the addition of a symbiotic, and distributed into two production systems – indoors or with access to a paddock. A total number of 560 day-old male chicks were distributed in a completelyrandomized block design with two treatments, with four replications of 35 birds each. Birds fed the symbiotic and reared indoors presented better performance as compared to birds in the other treatments. The diet influenced liver and ileum weights, whereas the production system affected gizzard and jejunum weights. In the duodenum, only the indoor production system affected villi width. The production system influenced crypt depth in the jejunum. It was concluded

  17. Performance and carcass quality of broiler chickens fed diet containing pineapple waste meal fermented by “ragi tape”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandey, J. S.; Tulung, B.; Leke, J. R.; Sondakh, B. F. J.

    2018-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of pineapple waste meal fermented by “ragi tape” (FPW) in diets on the performance and carcass quality of broilers. The “ragi tape” was a traditional commercial product of yeast. Five dietary treatments containing 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% levels of FPW with four replicates were fed to 250 broiler chickens for 42 days in a completely randomized design. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. The variables were performance parameters and carcass quality. Results showed that the performance in finisher, carcass percentage and abdominal fat percentage were significantly affected by dietary treatments. Carcass percentage and abdominal fat percentage were significantly decrease in the proportion of 20% of FPW. However, the carcass percentage in treatments R0 - R4 were still in a good category. The higher the levels of FPW the lower the abdominal fat percentage signed that FPW treatments up to 20% resulted good category of broiler carcass. Income over feed cost and broiler cost analysis in 20% FPW treatment obtained the highest income and the lowest was 0% FPW treatment. It can be concluded that FPW can be fed to broiler chickens at up to 20% level.

  18. The Effect of Jatropha Curcas Seed Meal on Growth Performance and Internal Organs Development and Lesions in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CR Barros

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The meal of Jatropha curcas (JCM seed is a by-product of the biofuel industry and may potentially to be used as animal feed. However, its toxicity has prevented its utilization in animal nutrition mainly due to its high concentration of phorbol esters. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the dietary inclusion of JCM on the growth performance, feed digestibility and internal organs development of broilers. Thirty two 48-d-old Ross 308 broiler chickens housed in 16 pens (2 birds/pen were used in this study. Birds were randomly allocated to dietary treatments comprising four JCM levels (negative control, 25, 50, or 100 g JCM/kg of diet for four weeks. Results showed that increasing levels of JCM had a negative impact on broiler performance, reducing live weight, weight gain, and feed intake. Treatments led to a decrease of the relative weight of testis and spleen, and to an increase in heart relative weight. In broilers fed diets containing JCM, the testis were atrophic, presenting reduced size of the seminiferous tubule, which were small and lined within active sertoli cells and rare spermatogonia. This study illustrates the negative impact of diets containing JCM on broiler performance and JCM pathological effects on several organs.

  19. Evaluating and improving terminal hygiene practices on broiler farms to prevent Campylobacter cross-contamination between flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, Tara; Walsh, D; Whyte, P; Bolton, D

    2017-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate current cleaning practices in broiler houses by testing a range of sites after cleaning and disinfection and to test the efficacy of the most commonly used methods in a commercial broiler house after flock harvesting. Cleaning procedures on 20 broiler houses (10 separate farms) were examined by testing a range of sampling points (feeders, drinkers, walls, etc.) for total viable count (TVC), total Enterobacteriaceae count (TEC) and Campylobacter spp. after cleaning and disinfection, using culture based methods. In a second experiment, the six most commonly used commercially available disinfectants and/or detergent products were evaluated. The results of the first study demonstrated that critical areas in 12 of the 20 broiler houses were not effectively cleaned and disinfected between flocks as the tarmac apron, ante-room, house door, feeders, drinkers, walls, columns, barriers and/or bird weighs were Campylobacter positive. Thermal fogging with the combination of potassium peroxymonosulfate, sulfamic acid and sodium chloride (5%, v/v) or the glutaraldehyde and quaternary ammonium complex (0.3%, v/v) were the most effective treatments while other disinfectant treatments were considerably less effective. It was therefore concluded that farmers should review their broiler house cleaning and disinfection procedures if Campylobacter cross-contamination between successive flocks is to be prevented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Production yield analysis in the poultry processing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somsen, D.J.; Capelle, A.; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    The paper outlines a case study where the PYA-method (production yield analysis) was implemented at a poultry-slaughtering line, processing 9000 broiler chicks per hour. It was shown that the average live weight of a flock of broilers could be used to predict the maximum production yield of the

  1. Characterization of selection effects on broiler lines using DNA fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS Schmidt

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of selection for body weight on the genetic variability and diversity in broiler lines. Two paternal broiler lines (LL and LLc were used. LL line was selected for 12 generations for growth and carcass and reproduction characteristics. The LLc line was established from LL line in 1985 and mated at random. Blood samples from six chickens per line were collected and used for molecular analysis. Also, a DNA pool was made for each line to compare effects between lines. Data were analyzed considering the collected information on the presence or absence of DNA bands. Band sharing scores were calculated using the DICE coefficient. The pattern of the 21 most representative bands was used. DNA fingerprinting (DFP showed 90.48 % of polymorphism bands for both lines. Difference between lines was not due to the presence or absence of bands, but to the frequency of such bands in each genotype. Considering that both lines had the same genetic background, changes on band frequency were probably due to selection. Selection for body weight had an effect on the band frequency as evaluated by DFP, and for this reason this technique could be used as a tool in the selection process. Results also suggest that bands 4, 5 and 19 were linked to body weight traits, and bands 9, 10, 12, 13 and 21 were linked to reproductive traits such as egg production.

  2. Skin pigmentation evaluation in broilers fed natural and synthetic pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, M P; Hirschler, E M; Sams, A R

    2005-01-01

    Broiler carcass skin color is important in the United States and Mexico. This study evaluated the use of natural and synthetic pigments in broiler diets at commercial levels. Birds were fed natural or synthetic pigments at low or high levels, simulating US and Mexican commercial practices. Skin color was measured during live production (3 to 7 wk of age) and after slaughter and chilling. The natural pigments had consistently greater skin b* values (yellowness) than the synthetic pigments. The high levels produced greater skin b* values than the low levels, regardless of source. The synthetic pigments had a slower increase in skin b* but reached the same level as the natural low by 7 wk. There was no difference in skin a* values (redness) due to pigment source or level or the age of the bird. By 7 wk, all pigment sources approached plateau levels in the blood, but the synthetic pigment diet produced higher blood levels of yellow and red pigments than the natural pigment diets. Processing intensified skin yellowness and reduced skin redness. These data suggest that although synthetic pigments might have been absorbed better than natural ones, natural pigments were more efficient at increasing skin yellowness and there were only small differences between high and low levels for each pigment source. This finding may allow reduction in pigment use and feed cost to achieve the same skin acceptance by the consumer.

  3. The Influence of Gender on Growth Traits of Broiler Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Šmehýl

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the comparison of the impact of gender on selected production parameters of rabbits in conditions of intensive farming. The aim of this work was to study and to process the professional and scientific literature that deals with the growth of broiler rabbits. Another objective was to evaluate the growth parameters of the analyzed broiler rabbits population. Followed by an analytical evaluation of live weight differences between male and female hybrid subjects, and a confrontation of observed results with those published in professional and scientific publications. In particular time periods we compared the values of live weight of both sexes. At the 35 days of age live weight of both sexes were almost balanced, but in the 56th day we observed a slight difference in the values of live weight between the sexes. In the last time period, from the 77th to 105th day, the offspring of both sexes reached higher live weight, while we once again identified just small differences in the values of body weight between the two sexes. Over the whole period, we found a slightly higher live weight of males, but the differences between these values are minimal. This means, there is no statistically significant difference between males and females. In terms of statistical significance, we therefore found that the both sexes are growing equally, thus guiding the sex of newborn offspring, is in principle ineffective.

  4. The role of emigration and migration in Swedish industrialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlstrom, U

    1982-10-01

    It is possible, within a general equilibrium framework, to reveal some of the important mechansims in the rather complicated interplay among the variables causing demoeconomic development. The model for this study is a computable general equilibrium model within the tradition of multisectoral growth models and is designed to fit Swedish prewar development and to enable counterfactual analysis. The model is reviewed briefly followed by comments on the database, estimation procedure and validation; displays of some comparative static experiments; and an evaluation of the capability of the model in replicating Swedish demoeconomic development between 1871-90 before examining the counterfactual simulations which address the role of external and internal migration in Swedish industrialization. There are at least 2 reasons for carrying out comparative static experiments: by undertaking parameter changes and exploring the equilibrium effect on the model, further insights will be realized concerning the behavior of the model and its validity; and some of the comparative static experiments are interesting from the point of view of policy analysis because they reveal the static, total effect on the economy of changes in some variables discussed by 19th century Swedish politicians. The experiments are organized into 2 groups: rural and population experiments. The base run simulation from 1871-90 indicates that the model captures the essential factors of the demoeconomic development of Sweden. The model's ability to replicate historical trends in some of the crucial variables permits use of the base simulation as a reference point when undertaking counterfactual simulations. The 1st simulation evaluates the effects of emigration on the Swedish economy; the remaining 2 simulations assess the importance of rural to urban migration. The model indicates that without emigration real rural wages would have been 1.8% lower in 1880 and 10.0% lower in 1890. Urban wages would have been

  5. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters for ammonia-exposed broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Min; Bai, Jie; Wei, Fengxian; Xu, Bin; Sun, Quanyou; Li, Jie; Wang, Gaili; Tang, Xiangfang; Zhang, Hongfu; Yin, Qingqiang; Li, Shaoyu

    2017-08-01

    In order to estimate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) supplementation on relieving ammonia stress of broilers, 180 22-day-old male broilers were assigned to three groups, six replicates in each group and 10 birds per replicate. The three groups were: (1) a control group without ammonia stress; (2) exposure to 70 ppm atmospheric ammonia (AM); (3) exposure to 70 ppm atmospheric ammonia and administration of 300 mg/kg LA (AM + LA). The experimental period was 3 weeks. Results showed that average daily weight gain was increased and feed conversion ratio was decreased in the AM + LA group, compared with the AM group (P ammonia stress to restore broiler production performance to normal levels. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Genetic diversity and host associations in Campylobacter jejuni from human cases and broilers in 2000 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griekspoor, Petra; Engvall, Eva Olsson; Åkerlind, Britt; Olsen, Björn; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-07-09

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important food-borne pathogen, with a global distribution. It can colonize numerous host species, including both domestic and wild animals, but is particularly associated with birds (poultry and wild birds). For human campylobacteriosis, poultry products are deemed the most significant risk factor for acquiring infection. We conducted a genotyping and host attribution study of a large representative collection of C. jejuni isolated from humans and broilers in Sweden in the years 2000 and 2008. In total 673 broiler and human isolates from 10 different abattoirs and 6 different hospitals were genotyped with multilocus sequence typing. Source attribution analyses confirmed the strong linkage between broiler C. jejuni and domestic human cases, but also indicated a significant association to genotypes more commonly found in wild birds. Genotype distributions did not change dramatically between the two study years, suggesting a stable population of infecting bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary enzymatically treated Artemisia annua L. supplementation alleviates liver oxidative injury of broilers reared under high ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jingfei; He, Jintian; Bai, Kaiwen; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2017-09-01

    Heat stress induced by high ambient temperature is a major concern in commercial broiler production. To evaluate the effects of dietary enzymatically treated Artemisia annua L. (EA) supplementation on growth performance and liver oxidative injury of broilers reared under heat stress, a total of 320 22-day-old male broilers were randomly allotted into five groups with eight replicates of eight birds each. Broilers in the control group were housed at 22 ± 1 °C and fed the basal diet. Broilers in the HS, HS-EA1, HS-EA2, and HS-EA3 groups were fed basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.75, 1.00, and 1.25 g/kg EA, respectively, and reared under cyclic high temperature (34 ± 1 °C for 8 h/day and 22 ± 1 °C for 16 h/day). Broilers fed EA diets had higher final body weight, average daily body weight gain, and average daily feed intake, as well as liver concentration of reduced glutathione, activities of antioxidant enzymes, abilities to inhibit hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical (HS-EA2 and HS-EA3), and lower liver concentrations of reactive oxygen metabolites, malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyl (HS-EA1, HS-EA2, and HS-EA3) than HS group ( P < 0.05). EA treatment downregulated the mRNA levels of heat shock proteins 70 and 90, upregulated the mRNA levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (HS-EA1, HS-EA2, and HS-EA3) and heme oxygenase 1 (HS-EA2 and HS-EA3) in liver of heat-treated broilers ( P < 0.05). In conclusion, EA alleviated heat stress-induced growth depression and liver oxidative injury in broilers, possibly through improving the antioxidant capacity and regulating the pertinent mRNA expression. The appropriate inclusion level of EA in broiler diet is 1.00-1.25 g/kg.

  8. Addition of Medicinal Weeds in The Ration on Broiler Chicken Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of feeding medicinal weeds namely bandotan, patikan kebo and sidaguri on broiler chicken’s performance. The experiment used 100 broiler chicken 3 days of age and were kept for 5 weeks in battery cages. Each cage was 100 x 80 x 60 cm of size and consist 5 chickens. Design of this experiment was assigned to Completely Randomized Design (CRD with 4 treatments and 5 replications. The treatments were R0 (Basal ration without medicinal weed, R1 (95% basal ration + 5% bandotan (Ageratum conyzoides L, R2 (95% basal ration + 5% patikan kebo (Euphorbia hirta L dan R3 (95% basal ration + 5% sidaguri (Sida cordifolia. Ration and drinking water were ad libitum. Measured parameters were feed consumption, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA and the significant effects by Duncan’s multilple range test (DMRT. Results of this study showed that feeding 5% of medicinal weeds either bandotan, patikan kebo or sidaguri had similarly effect (P>0,05 on feed consumption, average daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio of broiler chicken. However, bandotan and sidaguri resulted average daily weight gain lower than patikan kebo. It is concluded that medicinal weeds bandotan, patikan kebo and sidagu could be fed to the chicken up to 5% without significant effect on broiler performance. Patikan kebo resulted better broiler performance than that of bandotan and sidaguri. (Animal Production 11(2: 103-108 (2009 Key Words: Ageratum conyzoides, Euphorbia hirta L, sida cordifolia, weeds

  9. Prevalence, quantitative load, and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. from broiler ceca and broiler skin samples in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokboonmongkol, C; Patchanee, P; Gölz, G; Zessin, K-H; Alter, T

    2013-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in broiler flocks by testing cecal contents at slaughter and to detect and quantify Campylobacter on broiler carcass skin samples of the corresponding slaughter batches, to determine antimicrobial resistance patterns of the Campylobacter isolates, and to genotype selected Campylobacter jejuni isolates using multilocus sequence typing analysis. Ninety-eight broiler flocks were included in the study. Intact ceca were randomly taken at the time of evisceration throughout a slaughter batch to detect Campylobacter spp. at the broiler flock level and one whole carcass per slaughter batch was taken for the detection of Campylobacter spp. on broiler skin. The prevalences of Campylobacter spp. in broiler ceca and broiler skin samples were 11.2% (11/98) and 51% (50/98), respectively. Even though most Campylobacter-positive broiler skin samples were contaminated with only up to 230 most probable number per gram, a substantial share (13.3%) showed very high Campylobacter numbers on the broiler skin samples (most probable number = ∞; lower confidence limit T(0) 580/g). From 32 C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates tested, the highest antimicrobial resistance rates were found for ciprofloxacin (81.2%), followed by tetracycline (40.6%), ampicillin (31.2%), and erythromycin (9.4%). All tested strains were sensitive to gentamicin. By multilocus sequence typing analysis, a total of 9 different sequence types were identified among 16 C. jejuni isolates. Campylobacter jejuni isolated from cecal content and carcass skin of the same farm or slaughter batch showed corresponding allelic profiles. Our data suggest that intense cross-contamination during the slaughter process led to a strong increase of Campylobacter prevalence on broiler skin compared with the prevalence in broiler ceca. To reduce Campylobacter prevalences on broiler skin, on-farm biosecurity measures need to be accompanied by control measures

  10. Standardized data in the broiler value chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yassin, H.; Velthuis, A.G.J.; Boerjan, M.; Lourens, A.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In the Dutch broiler chain, data are collected as a routine practice. However, there is wide variation in the content of data collected and in data collection systems. This variability hampers the use of field data in management information systems to support decisions. The objective of this study

  11. Detection of quantitative trait loci in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaam, van J.T.

    2000-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the development and application of methods for the detection of genes with a substantial influence on quantitative traits, so called quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in broilers. For the purpose of detection of QTLs, an experiment was initiated. A three generation

  12. End-weight prediction in broiler growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cangar, O.; Aerts, J.-M.; Vranken, E.; Berckmans, D.

    2006-01-01

    1. Two different methods, categorised as input-output and single output models, were evaluated for slaughter weight prediction of broiler chickens. The input-output models included linear and non-linear recursive modelling with a time-varying model structure, whereas the output models consisted only

  13. Feeding value of triticale for broiler chickens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edi Widodo

    2015-03-16

    Mar 16, 2015 ... Keywords: Cultivars, Bogong, Canobolas, Jackie, Tobruk and Endeavour, gross response, energy utilization. #. Corresponding .... Efficiency of ME use for protein retention (KREP) = REp/MEI ... Table 2 Gross responses of broiler chicken given diets based on triticale cultivars up to 7, 14 and 21 days old1.

  14. Alternative anticoccidial treatment of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmusharaf, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) and electromagnetic fields (EMF) in broiler chickens infected with Eimeria parasites. The question addressed was whether ingestion of MOS or exposure to EMF would counteract the coccidiosis-induced depression of growth performance and

  15. Transmission dynamics of Eimeria acervulina in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velkers, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    Control of the intestinal disease coccidiosis, caused by infections with Eimeria species, is a major challenge, especially for the broiler industry. Effective control strategies require a comprehensive understanding of processes that lead to infection and disease in a population. One of the key

  16. Improving broiler lifestyle: a CFD approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Humbert, U

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available industry. To be economically viable, it is required to build energy and cost effective housing while not compromising the health of the broilers. A broiler’s physiology is sensitive to the environment it resides in and slight fluctuations can have...

  17. Transmission dynamics of Eimeria acervulina in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velkers, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    Control of the intestinal disease coccidiosis, caused by infections with Eimeria species, is a major challenge, especially for the broiler industry. Effective control strategies require a comprehensive understanding of processes that lead to infection and disease in a population. One of the key

  18. GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKS FED DIETS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. A.O. Ani

    2012-06-15

    Jun 15, 2012 ... The effects of graded levels of raw bambara nut (Voandzeia subterranea L) waste and supplementary enzyme (Roxayzme G) on performance of broiler chicks ... nut waste in the diets increased (P < 0.05) average daily feed intake and feed cost per kg weight gain, but decreased (P < 0.05) final body weight, ...

  19. Lesions in Broiler Chicks Following Experimental Contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    the effects of graded levels of battery waste on the performance, organ weights and histological responses of some internal organs of broiler chicks. Materials and Methods. Experimental site: The experiment was carried out at the Poultry Unit of the. Teaching and Research Farm, Ladoke. Akintola University of Technology,.

  20. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Griller-Type Broilers of Four Genetic Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Barbosa Filho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Griller-type chickens are broilers slaughtered between27and 29 days old weighing 1.3 to 1.5 kg and sold as a whole carcasses. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of female broilers of four genetic lines reared for the production of griller-type chickens. A total of 960 broiler chicks was allotted in a randomized block design with four treatments and eight replicates of 30 birds per experimental plot. Each experimental treatment consisted of four different commercial lines, identified as A, B, C and D. The analyzed parameters were weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, livability, production efficiency index, carcass and cut yields, and meat quality according to breast meat color (L*, a*, b*, water-holding capacity (WHC, cooking losses, and shear force. Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and livability were different (p<0.05 among the lines; however, no differences were observed for the production efficiency index. Results show that lines presented similar performance; however, lines A, B, and C had a better carcass and breast yield, and line A, the best meat quality. Therefore, line A would be the most suitable for the production of griller-type chickens.

  1. Safety Assessment - Swedish Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellstroem, B.

    1996-01-01

    After the reactor accident at Three Mile Island, the Swedish nuclear power plants were equipped with filtered venting of the containment. Several types of accidents can be identified where the filtered venting has no effect on the radioactive release. The probability for such accidents is hopefully very small. It is not possible however to estimate the probability accurately. Experiences gained in the last years, which have been documented in official reports from the Nuclear Power Inspectorate indicate that the probability for core melt accidents in Swedish reactors can be significantly larger than estimated earlier. A probability up to one in a thousand operating years can not be excluded. There are so far no indications that aging of the plants has contributed to an increased accident risk. Maintaining the safety level with aging nuclear power plants can however be expected to be increasingly difficult. It is concluded that the 12 Swedish plants remain a major threat for severe radioactive pollution of the Swedish environment despite measures taken since 1980 to improve their safety. Closing of the nuclear power plants is the only possibility to eliminate this threat. It is recommended that until this is done, quantitative safety goals, same for all Swedish plants, shall be defined and strictly enforced. It is also recommended that utilities distributing misleading information about nuclear power risks shall have their operating license withdrawn. 37 refs

  2. Combination of an Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Yeast and Yeast Culture with a Direct-fed Microbial in the Feeds of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gómez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A balance trial experiment was carried out to evaluate the potential relationship between an enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast (EHY and yeast culture combined with a live Bacillus subtilis (Bs on the productive parameters, ileal digestibility, retention of nutrient and energy and villus morphology in broilers. Seventy two 28 d old, Ross B308 male broilers were assigned to a factorial combination of 2 levels of EHY (0 and 1 kg/ton of feed and 2 levels of Bs (0 and 125 g/ton of feed. The experiment lasted 2 weeks. Several treatment interactions were observed. EHY-fed broilers showed the lowest feed intake and feed conversion ratio whereas Bs-fed broilers showed the highest feed intake and intermediate feed conversion ratio (EHY and BS interaction, p<0.05. Also, EHY-fed broilers had greater ileal digestibility of dry matter (EHY and BS interaction, p<0.01 and energy (EHY and BS interaction, p<0.05 but these responses were counterbalanced by the combination of EHY and Bs. The thickness of the mucosa was similar between the control and EHY-fed broilers, but was lowest when Bs was added alone (EHY and BS interaction, p<0.01. The thickness of the villus was greater in EHY plus Bs-fed broilers, intermediate for the control and lower for Bs or EHY-fed broilers (EHY and BS interaction, p<0.05. The area of the villus was greater in the control and EHY plus Bs-fed broilers (EHY and BS interaction, p<0.05. In addition, EHY-fed broilers showed greater breast yield and nitrogen retention (p<0.01 and ashes digestibility (p<0.05. On the other hand, Bs-fed broilers had greater carcass and breast weight, nitrogen retention, energy excretion and villus height (p<0.05. In summary, EHY and Bs enhanced some growth, carcass and nutrient retention responses, but did not show any synergic relationship in these responses. Opposite to this, the results suggest that the positive effect of EHY on the feed conversion and digestibility of nutrients were counterbalanced by the

  3. Técnica da peroxidação para a determinação de metionina em amostras derivadas de ensaios de digestibilidade do trigo e seus subprodutos em frangos de corte The peroxidation technique for methionine determination in derived samples of digestibility assays of the wheat and its by-products in broilers chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Boscoli Lara

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento com excreta de aves usando comparar técnicas de hidrólise de aminoácidos com ou sem peroxidação prévia para determinação de metionina. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4 x 8, (métodos x tratamentos x alimentos com três repetições. Sete alimentos oriundos do trigo e uma ração-referência foram utilizados nos quatro tratamentos. Os dois primeiros tratamentos foram baseados na metodologia tradicional de consumo à vontade e utilizou-se o método da alimentação forçada com aves intactas e aves cecectomizadas nos tratamento 3 e 4, respectivamente. Somente a técnica de peroxidação da amostra com ácido perfórmico seguida de hidrólise apresentou resultados confiáveis na análise de biodisponibilidade e conteúdo de metionina do trigo e seu subprodutos.One experiment was conducted with broiler chickens, for evaluation of metabolizable methionine and its levels in the wheat and some of its products, comparing two analyses techniques of methionine determination; hydrolyze and peroxidation with performic acid before hydrolyze. The broilers were randomly distributed in factorial outline 2 x 4 x 8, (methods x treatments x feeds with three repetitions. Seven feeds by-products of wheat grain were used in the four treatments. The first two treatments were set in the traditional methodology of ad libitum consumption and in the treatments three and four, the method of forced feeding was used. The treatment four were tested in the caecectomised chickens. The results of this experiment suggested that only the peroxidation with performic acid before hydrolyze showed good result in measure metabolizable methionine and its levels of wheat and its by-products.

  4. Air quality in Swedish cities; Luftkvalitet i taetorter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, Karin; Persson, Karin; Lagerstroem, Malin [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Brodin, Yngve [Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-02-01

    Air quality in Swedish cities has improved considerably over the last decades as a result of reduced emissions from traffic, industrial activity and households. The situation is however far from acceptable, and no further improvement is seen during recent years. Urban air pollution is considered to contribute to the death of more than a thousand people in Sweden each year. Measurements of air quality in Swedish cities are carried out since many years. The measurements have shown that concentrations of all serious air pollutants but ozone have decreased strongly since the 1980s. The improvement is attributed to reduced emissions from motor traffic by means of catalytic converters and cleaner fuels as well as decreased emissions from industrial activity and energy production in Sweden and neighbouring countries. The present report does however show no further downward trend for concentrations of air pollutants in Swedish cities since the late 1990s, and the concentrations of the winter 2002/2003 were higher than several previous winters. This information is gained from measurements done by around forty municipalities and gathered within the so called URBAN-measurement-net managed by the IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, and additional information from around ten municipalities which perform own measurements. Climatic variability may play an important role for the increase seen in the winter of 2002/2003, but it is also probable that continuously increasing traffic have counteracted some of the ameliorative environmental effects of improved exhaust emission control and cleaner petrol and diesel fuels. Measurements of the winter 2002/2003 show that air quality conditions are unacceptable in perhaps half of the Swedish cities, and that they run the risk of not being able to attain environmental quality standards for one or more substances. The standards for particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide are those most difficult to manage within the time limits set

  5. Forestalling the business veto: Investment confidence and the rise of Swedish Social Democracy, 1932-1936

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, K.M.; Snow, S.G.

    2003-01-01

    Objective. We investigate the causes of the stability of Swedish business confidence in the early 1930s. Surprisingly, investors seemed unruffled by the Social Democrats' heterodox "Crisis Program", a proto-Keynesian response to the Great Depressions. This research allows a productive modification

  6. Identification of QTL on chromosome 18 associated with non-coagulating milk in Swedish Red cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duchemin, Sandrine I.; Glantz, Maria; Koning, De Dirk Jan; Paulsson, Marie; Fikse, Willem F.

    2016-01-01

    Non-coagulating (NC) milk, defined as milk not coagulating within 40 min after rennet-addition, can have a negative influence on cheese production. Its prevalence is estimated at 18% in the Swedish Red (SR) cow population. Our study aimed at identifying genomic regions and causal variants

  7. Variation in carbon footprint of milk due to management differences between Swedish dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksson, Maria; Flysjö, Anna Maria; Cederberg, Christel

    2011-01-01

    To identify mitigation options to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from milk production (i.e. the carbon footprint (CF) of milk), this study examined the variation in GHG emissions among dairy farms using data from previous CF studies on Swedish milk. Variations between farms...

  8. Campylobacter in Broiler Chicken and Broiler Meat in Sri Lanka : Influence of Semi-Automated vs. Wet Market Processing on Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Neck Skin Samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kottawatta, Kottawattage S A; van Bergen, Marcel A P; Abeynayake, Preeni; Wagenaar, Jaap A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126613354; Veldman, Kees T; Kalupahana, Ruwani S

    2017-01-01

    Broiler meat can become contaminated with Campylobacter of intestinal origin during processing. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and meat contamination at retail shops, and determine the influence of semi-automated and wet market processing on

  9. The bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Veldkamp, T.; Diepen, van, J.T.M.; Bikker, P.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for all farm animal species. It is commonly included in animal diets as zinc oxide, zinc sulphate or organically bound zinc. Umicore Zinc Chemicals developed zinc oxide products with different mean particle sizes. Umicore Zinc Chemicals requested Wageningen UR Livestock Research to determine the bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens. A precise estimate of the bioavailability of zinc sources is required both for fulf...

  10. Risk factors for Listeria monocytogenes contamination in French laying hens and broiler flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aury, Kristell; Le Bouquin, Sophie; Toquin, Marie-Thérèse; Huneau-Salaün, Adeline; Le Nôtre, Yolène; Allain, Virginie; Petetin, Isabelle; Fravalo, Philippe; Chemaly, Marianne

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to identify potential risk factors for Listeria monocytogenes contamination in French poultry production. Eighty-four flocks of layer hens kept in cages and 142 broiler flocks were included in this study. For each production type, a questionnaire was submitted to farmers and fecal samples were taken to assess the L. monocytogenes status of the flocks during a single visit to the farm. Two logistic regression models (specific to each production) were used to assess the association between management practices and the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination of the flock. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes-positive flocks was 30.9% (95% CI: 21.0; 40.9) and 31.7% (95% CI: 24.0; 39.4) for cage-layers and broiler flocks, respectively. For layer flocks, the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination was increased when pets were present on the production site. When droppings were evacuated by conveyor belt with deep pit storage, the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination decreased significantly. Feed meal was found to be associated with a higher risk of L. monocytogenes contamination than feed crumb. For broiler flocks, the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination was increased when farmers did not respect the principle of two areas (clean and dirty) at the poultry house entrance. A first disinfection by thermal fogging and the absence of pest control of the poultry house before the arrival of the next flock was found to increase the risk of contamination. When litter was not protected during storage and when farm staff also took care of other broiler chicken houses, the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination increased significantly. In the case of the watering system, nipples with cups were found to decrease the risk of contamination. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of silver nanoparticles on growth and health of broiler chickens after infection with Campylobacter jejuni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadalasetty, Krishna Prasad; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Engberg, Ricarda Margarete

    2018-01-01

    Background Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have gained much attention in recent years due to their biomedical applications, especially as antimicrobial agents. AgNP may be used in poultry production as an alternative to the use of antibiotic growth promoter. However, little is known about the impact...... functions and had no antibacterial effect on different intestinal bacterial groups, which may limit the applicability of AgNP against C. jejuni in broiler chickens...

  12. Tensions in Stakeholder Relations for a Swedish Football Club

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghagen, Sven

    2018-01-01

    Swedish football is an industry not yet being as commercial as the big leagues and is regulated in terms of ownership of clubs. This implies a need for management of stakeholder relations for a Swedish football club. This paper identifies important stakeholders in Swedish football and discusses...

  13. Spirulina as a functional ingredient in broiler chicken diets | Bonos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , especially eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid after spirulina supplementation. Therefore, spirulina could be a promising functional ingredient in broiler chicken nutrition. Keywords: Poultry, microalgae, performance, meat ...

  14. Unexpected consequences of genetic selection in broilers and turkeys: problems and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, P M

    2014-02-01

    1. Genetic theory leads to the expectation that unexpected consequences of genetic selection for production traits will inevitably occur and that these changes are likely to be undesirable. 2. Both artificial selection for production efficiency and "natural" selection for adaptation to the production environment result in selection sweeps that increase the frequencies of rare recessive alleles that have a negative effect on fitness. 3. Fitness is broadly defined as any trait that affects the ability to survive, reproduce and contribute to the next generation, such as musculoskeletal disease in growing broiler chickens and multiple ovulation in adult broiler parents. 4. Welfare concerns about the negative effects of genetic selection on bird welfare are sometimes exaggerated but are nevertheless real. Breeders have paid increasing attention to these traits over several decades and have demonstrated improvement in pedigree flocks. There is an urgent need to monitor changes in commercial flocks to ensure that genetic change is accompanied by improvements in that target population. 5. New technologies for trait measurement, whole genome selection and targeted genetic modification hold out the promise of efficient and rapid improvement of welfare traits in future breeding of broiler chickens and turkeys. The potential of targeted genetic modification for enhancing welfare traits is considerable, but the goal of achieving public acceptability for the progeny of transgenic poultry will be politically challenging.

  15. Emergence of a Clonal Lineage of Multidrug-Resistant ESBL-Producing Salmonella Infantis Transmitted from Broilers and Broiler Meat to Humans in Italy between 2011 and 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Franco

    Full Text Available We report the spread of a clone of multidrug-resistant (MDR, ESBL-producing (blaCTX-M-1 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis, in the Italian broiler chicken industry and along the food-chain. This was first detected in Italy in 2011 and led to human infection in Italy in 2013-2014.A set (n = 49 of extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC-resistant (R isolates of S. Infantis (2011-2014 from humans, food-producing animals and meat thereof, were studied along with a selected set of earlier and more recent ESC-susceptible (ESC-S isolates (n = 42, 2001-2014. They were characterized by macrorestriction-PFGE analysis and genetic environment of ESC-resistance. Isolates representative of PFGE-patterns and origin were submitted to Whole Genome Sequencing. The emerging ESC-R clone, detected mainly from broiler chickens, broiler meat and humans, showed a minimum pattern of clinical resistance to cefotaxime, tetracycline, sulfonamides, and trimethoprim, beside ciprofloxacin microbiological resistance (MIC 0.25 mg/L. All isolates of this clone harbored a conjugative megaplasmid (~ 280-320 Kb, similar to that described in ESC-susceptible S. Infantis in Israel (pESI-like in 2014. This megaplasmid carried the ESBL gene blaCTX-M-1, and additional genes [tet(A, sul1, dfrA1 and dfrA14] mediating cefotaxime, tetracycline, sulfonamide, and trimethoprim resistance. It also contained genes conferring enhanced colonization capability, virulence (fimbriae, yersiniabactin, resistance and fitness (qacE1, mer in the intensive-farming environment. This emerging clone of S. Infantis has been causing infections in humans, most likely through the broiler industry. Since S. Infantis is among major serovars causing human infections in Europe and is an emerging non-typhoidal Salmonella globally, further spread of this lineage in primary productions deserves quick and thorough risk-management strategies.

  16. Regional prices in the Swedish wood-fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, Bengt

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses, through a statistical survey, the regional distribution of prices on the commercial wood-fuel market for district heating plants and the pellets market for single family houses. The existing market watch of the national Swedish wood-fuel market has been developed for both refined and unrefined wood-fuels. The last five years the trend for wood-fuel prices on the district heating market has been stable, with a slight increase in the price of refined wood-fuels. However, on the young and fast-growing household market for pellets, prices have increased 12% during the last three years. The distribution of prices for northern, middle and southern Sweden indicates differences within 5% between the regions. The limited price difference between Swedish regions are a product of a large domestic supply and an increasing trade among regions in Europe, putting pressure on prices. Regional differences, mirrored as transportation distances and local production costs are key factors that could explain this regional price variation. However, the development of a commercial market with less regulation tends to level out prices. Consumers on the household market purchase small quantities and do not have the same possibility as district heating companies to take advantage of the oversupply opportunity and thus face a faster price development. The weaker market position of the consumers also tends to give homogeneous prices between regions of the residential sector. (Author)

  17. Energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in Swedish manufacturing industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo Martinez, C.I. [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, University of La Salle, Bogota (Colombia); Silveira, S [Energy and Climate Studies, Department of Energy Technology, KTH, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-02-15

    This paper analyses the trends in energy consumption and CO2 emissions as a result of energy efficiency improvements in Swedish manufacturing industries between 1993 and 2008. Using data at the two-digit level, the performance of this sector is studied in terms of CO2 emissions, energy consumption, energy efficiency measured as energy intensity, value of production, fuel sources, energy prices and energy taxes. It was found that energy consumption, energy intensity and CO2 emission intensity, measured as production values, have decreased significantly in the Swedish manufacturing industries during the period studied. The results of the decomposition analysis show that output growth has not required higher energy consumption, leading to a reduction in both energy and CO2 emission intensities. The role of structural changes has been minor, and the trends of energy efficiency and CO2 emissions have been similar during the sample period. A stochastic frontier model was used to determine possible factors that may have influenced these trends. The results demonstrate that high energy prices, energy taxes, investments and electricity consumption have influenced the reduction of energy and CO2 emission intensities, indicating that Sweden has applied an adequate and effective energy policy. The study confirms that it is possible to achieve economic growth and sustainable development whilst also reducing the pressure on resources and energy consumption and promoting the shift towards a low-carbon economy.

  18. Ambassadors of the Swedish Nation: National Images in the Teaching of the Swedish Lecturers in Germany 1918-1945

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerlund, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the teaching of Swedish language lecturers active in Germany during the first half of the twentieth century. It shows the centrality of literature and literary constructions and analyses images of Swedishness and the Swedish nation present in the teaching material of that time in relation to the national image present in…

  19. Staphylococcus simulans associated with endocarditis in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępień-Pyśniak, D; Wilczyński, J; Marek, A; Śmiech, A; Kosikowska, U; Hauschild, T

    2017-02-01

    This report suggests a strong association between coagulase-negative Staphylococcus simulans and endocarditis in broiler chickens of a single flock. Clinical signs included increased mortality and lameness, and some dead chickens were found on their backs. Lesions included cauliflower-like, fibrinous vegetative lesions on the left atrioventricular valve; cream-coloured, necrotic foci of varying size in the liver; and necrosis of the femoral head. Histopathological examination of the heart revealed multifocal conglomerates of bacterial colonies attached to the valvular endocardium, threads of fibrin, and inflammatory cells with the presence of heterophils. S. simulans strains were first identified by API ID32, and then confirmed with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry and by partial sequencing of the rpoB and dnaJ genes. These bacteria were resistant to methicillin but sensitive to vancomycin and characterized by slime production and protease activity.

  20. Immune responses to an Eimeria acervulina infection in different broilers lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, W.J.C.; Post, J.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Engel, B.; Boersma, W.J.A.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2007-01-01

    The (T-cell) immune responses of two different broiler lines to a primary Eimeria acervulina infection were investigated. The lines used were a commercial fast-growing broiler line and a slow-growing type of broiler as used in organic farming. Seven-day-old broilers of both lines were infected with