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Sample records for swedish boreal landscape

  1. Saproxylic beetles in a Swedish boreal forest landscape managed according to 'new forestry'

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    Stig Larsson; Barbara Ekbom; L. Martin Schroeder; Melodie A. McGeoch

    2006-01-01

    A major threat to biodiversity in Swedish forests is the decline of Coarse Woody Debris (CWD), which is an essential resource for many organisms and plays an essential role for the structure and function of boreal forests. Removal of CWD in commercial forestry has depleted important resources for many rare wood-living (saproxylic) beetles. Replenishment of CWD has been...

  2. Landscape scale patterns in the character of natural organic matter in a Swedish boreal stream network

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    J. Temnerud

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines landscape-scale patterns in the character of natural organic matter (NOM and tests for relationships to catchment soil, vegetation and topography. The drainage network of a boreal catchment, subcatchment size 0.12–78 km2, in Northern Sweden was sampled in August 2002 during a period of stable low water flow. The NOM was characterized with UV/Vis spectroscopy, fluorescence, XAD-8 fractionation (%humic substances, gel permeation chromatography (apparent molecular weight, and elemental composition (C:N. The largest spatial variation was found for C:N, absorbance ratio, and specific visible absorptivity. The lowest variation was in fluorescence index, %humic substances and molecular retention time. The variation in total organic carbon (TOC, iron and aluminium concentration was more than twice that of C:N. Between headwater and downstream sites no significant changes were distinguished in the NOM character. At stream reaches, junctions and lakes little change (<10% in NOM character was observed. Common factor analysis and partial least squares regression (PLS revealed that the spatial variation in surface coverage of lakes and mires could explain some of the variation of TOC and NOM character. Our suggestion is that the mosaic of landscape elements (different amounts of water from lakes, forest soil and mires delivers NOM with varying characteristics to a channel network that mixes conservatively downstream, with possible small changes at some stream reaches, junctions and lakes.

  3. On the decline of ground lichen forests in the Swedish boreal landscape: Implications for reindeer husbandry and sustainable forest management.

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    Sandström, Per; Cory, Neil; Svensson, Johan; Hedenås, Henrik; Jougda, Leif; Borchert, Nanna

    2016-05-01

    Lichens are a bottleneck resource for circumpolar populations of reindeer, and as such, for reindeer husbandry as an indigenous Sami land-use tradition in northern Sweden. This study uses ground lichen data and forest information collected within the Swedish National Forest Inventory since 1953, on the scale of northern Sweden. We found a 71 % decline in the area of lichen-abundant forests over the last 60 years. A decline was observed in all regions and age classes and especially coincided with a decrease of >60 year old, open pine forests, which was the primary explanatory factor in our model. The effects of reindeer numbers were inconclusive in explaining the decrease in lichen-abundant forest. The role that forestry has played in causing this decline can be debated, but forestry can have a significant role in reversing the trend and improving ground lichen conditions.

  4. Specific discharge variability in a boreal landscape

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    Lyon, Steve W.; Nathanson, Marcus; Spans, André; Grabs, Thomas; Laudon, Hjalmar; Temnerud, Johan; Bishop, Kevin H.; Seibert, Jan

    2012-08-01

    Specific discharge variations within a mesoscale catchment were studied on the basis of three synoptic sampling campaigns. These were conducted during stable flow conditions within the Krycklan catchment study area in northern Sweden. During each campaign, about 80 individual locations were measured for discharge draining from catchment areas ranging between 0.12 and 67 km2. These discharge samplings allowed for the comparison between years within a given season (September 2005 versus September 2008) and between seasons within a given year (May 2008 versus September 2008) of specific discharge across this boreal landscape. There was considerable variability in specific discharge across this landscape. The ratio of the interquartile range (IQR) defined as the difference between the 75th and 25th percentiles of the specific discharges to the median of the specific discharges ranged from 37% to 43%. Factor analysis was used to explore potential relations between landscape characteristics and the specific discharge observed for 55 of the individual locations that were measured in all three synoptic sampling campaigns. Percentage wet area (i.e., wetlands, mires, and lakes) and elevation were found to be directly related to the specific discharge during the drier September 2008 sampling while potential annual evaporation was found to be inversely related. There was less of a relationship determined during the wetter post spring flood May 2008 sampling and the late summer rewetted September 2005 sampling. These results indicate the ability of forests to "dry out" parts of the catchment over the summer months while wetlands "keep wet" other parts. To demonstrate the biogeochemical implications of such spatiotemporal variations in specific discharge, we estimate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exports with available data for the May 2008 and September 2008 samplings using both the spatially variable observed specific discharges and the spatially constant catchment average

  5. Northwest Boreal Landscape Conservation Cooperative strategic plan 2015 - 2025

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    Markon, Carl; Schroff, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Northwest Boreal Landscape Conservation Cooperative (NWB LCC) is a voluntary, diverse, self-directed management-science partnership, informing and promoting integrated science, sustainable natural and cultural resource management, and conservation to address impacts of climate change and other stressors within and across ecosystems. The NWB LCC area includes parts of Alaska, Yukon, Northwest Territories, and British Columbia. Our partnership reflects both the broad geographic scope and an extensive array of active and engaged participants including resource management organizations, government representatives, policy makers, Tribes and First Nations, industry leaders, researchers, non-governmental organizations, and research/education institutions. Bringing together diverse partners will help assure the northwest boreal is a functioning, sustainable landscape. We live in an era of profound conservation challenges, including the loss and fragmentation of habitats, genetic isolation, invasive species, and unnatural wildfire. The effects of rapidly changing climate are already evident on the landscape. In these circumstances, it is imperative that natural resource management agencies, science providers, Tribes, First Nations, conservation organizations, and other stakeholders work together to understand the drivers and impacts of landscape change and to determine how best to address those challenges. Further, it is essential that the public and communities receive clear communication about the vision and activities of the NWB LCC. Open public access to NWB LCC activities and products will promote acceptance and support of the science that guides potential changes in management action and conservation strategy. This strategic plan provides a great opportunity for the NWB LCC to share our approach and intentions to the LCC members, collaborators, communities, and the public at large.

  6. Evidence for nonuniform permafrost degradation after fire in boreal landscapes

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    Minsley, Burke J.; Pastick, Neal J.; Wylie, Bruce K.; Brown, Dana R.N.; Kass, M. Andy

    2016-01-01

    Fire can be a significant driver of permafrost change in boreal landscapes, altering the availability of soil carbon and nutrients that have important implications for future climate and ecological succession. However, not all landscapes are equally susceptible to fire-induced change. As fire frequency is expected to increase in the high latitudes, methods to understand the vulnerability and resilience of different landscapes to permafrost degradation are needed. We present a combination of multiscale remote sensing, geophysical, and field observations that reveal details of both near-surface (1 m) impacts of fire on permafrost. Along 11 transects that span burned-unburned boundaries in different landscape settings within interior Alaska, subsurface electrical resistivity and nuclear magnetic resonance data indicate locations where permafrost appears to be resilient to disturbance from fire, areas where warm permafrost conditions exist that may be most vulnerable to future change, and also areas where permafrost has thawed. High-resolution geophysical data corroborate remote sensing interpretations of near-surface permafrost and also add new high-fidelity details of spatial heterogeneity that extend from the shallow subsurface to depths of about 10 m. Results show that postfire impacts on permafrost can be variable and depend on multiple factors such as fire severity, soil texture, soil moisture, and time since fire.

  7. Community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi in Swedish boreal forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Lena [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    1998-12-31

    The main aim of this work has been to elucidate the species composition and community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with mature trees and naturally regenerated seedlings in natural boreal forests in Sweden. Further, the effects of disturbances, such as wildfire and nitrogen inputs, were studied. Sporocarp surveys, morphological stratification and DNA-based analyses of mycorrhizas were used to describe the mycorrhizal fungal communities. In addition, a reference database useful for identifying individual mycorrhizas was developed based on analyses of sporocarp tissue. Overall, the species richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi was at least 30 to 40 times higher than that of their host trees. Naturally regenerated seedlings were colonized by the ectomycorrhizal fungal species present in the mycelial network of the old trees, indicating that the species composition will remain about the same provided that the host does not disappear. Wildfire, disturbing the fungal continuum, caused a shift in the frequencies of ectomycorrhizal fungi rather than a change in species composition. Nitrogen addition did not have any detectable effect on the abundance or species richness of mycorrhizas, but led to a decrease in sporocarp production. In all the studies, there was little resemblance between the species composition of sporocarps and that of mycorrhizas. The ITS-RFLP reference database was very useful in identifying single mycorrhizas, and proved to be a powerful tool for species identification of unknown mycorrhizas 76 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Contributions of ignitions, fuels, and weather to the spatial patterns of burn probability of a boreal landscape

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    Marc-Andre Parisien; Sean A. Parks; Carol Miller; Meg A. Krawchuck; Mark Heathcott; Max A. Moritz

    2011-01-01

    The spatial pattern of fire observed across boreal landscapes is the outcome of complex interactions among components of the fire environment. We investigated how the naturally occurring patterns of ignitions, fuels, and weather generate spatial pattern of burn probability (BP) in a large and highly fireprone boreal landscape of western Canada, Wood Buffalo National...

  9. Simulating restoration strategies for a southern boreal forest landscape with complex land ownership patterns

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    Douglas J. Shinneman; Meredith W. Cornett; Brian J. Palik

    2010-01-01

    Restoring altered forest landscapes toward their ranges of natural variability (RNV) may enhance ecosystem sustainability and resiliency, but such efforts can be hampered by complex land ownership and management patterns. We evaluated restoration potential for southern-boreal forests in the ~2.1 million ha Border Lakes Region of northern Minnesota (U.S.A.) and...

  10. Radioactive caesium in Boreal forest landscapes - Dynamics and transport in food webs. Summary of research 1986-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, R.; Nylen, T.; Palo, T

    1998-12-01

    The need for - but also the paucity of - radioecological knowledge concerning the boreal forest became particularly apparent after the nuclear power plant accident in Chernobyl in April 1986. As a consequence several new projects were initiated in the Nordic countries with particular focus on the behaviour of radioactivecaesium in terrestrial and aquatic systems characteristic for the Fenno-Scandinavian landscapes. Among these new projects a multi-disciplinary co-operation in Umeaa between scientists at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, and the Defence Research Establishment emerged. Initially this joint work focused mainly on descriptions of the dynamic changes of the content of radioactive caesium in soil-plant and animal communities in the county of Vaesterbotten. Most of the studies have been performed at the Vindeln experimental forest, 60 km NW of Umeaa. Plants of key interest were: bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), birch (Betula spp.), and pine (Pinus sylvestris), and among the animals: the moose (Alces alces) and a small rodent, the forest vole (Clethrionomus glareolus). Gradually over the past ten years the research has entered the stage where the specific causes of the caesium behaviour have been addressed - partly by the help of models developed for simulating forest ecosystems, partly by complementary field experiments. This paper reviews our main findings on this theme concerning the behaviour of radioactive caesium in boreal landscapes and significant pathways to man, as has become apparent from the radioecological co-operation dating from about ten years back. A list of the publications arising from these studies since 1986 is also presented in this report.

  11. Survival of Adult Songbirds in Boreal Forest Landscapes Fragmented by Clearcuts and Natural Openings

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    Darroch M. Whitaker

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available There exists little information on demographic responses of boreal songbirds to logging. We conducted a 4-yr (2003-2006 songbird mark-recapture study in western Newfoundland, where land cover is a naturally heterogeneous mosaic of productive spruce-fir forest, stunted taiga, and openings such as bogs, fens, and riparian zones. We compared apparent survival and rate of transience for adults of 14 species between areas having forests fragmented primarily by either natural openings or 3-7 yr-old clearcuts. Data were collected on three landscape pairs, with birds being marked on three 4-6 ha netting sites on each landscape (total = 18 netting sites. Survival rates were estimated using multi-strata mark-recapture models with landscape types specified as model strata. Landscape type was retained in the best model for only two species, Ruby-crowned Kinglet and Yellow-rumped Warbler, in both cases indicating lower apparent survival in landscapes having clearcuts. Though parameter estimates suggested lower survival in clearcut landscapes for several species, meta-analysis across all species detected no general difference between landscape types. Further, we did not detect any relation between landscape differences in survival and a species' habitat affinity, migratory strategy, or the proportion of transients in its population. Although sensitivity to logging was limited, we observed high interspecific variation in rates of breeding season apparent survival (48% [Dark-eyed Junco] to 100% [several species], overwinter apparent survival (0.3% [Ruby-crowned Kinglet] to 86.5% [Gray Jay], and transience (≈0% [several species] to 61% [Ruby-crowned Kinglet in clearcut landscapes]. For Lincoln's and White-throated Sparrows, over-winter apparent survival was >2× higher for males than females, and rate of transience was > 8× higher for White-throated Sparrow males than females. Moderately male-biased sex ratios suggested that both lower mortality and higher

  12. Warmer spring conditions increase annual methane emissions from a boreal peat landscape with sporadic permafrost

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    Helbig, Manuel; Quinton, William L.; Sonnentag, Oliver

    2017-11-01

    About a fifth of the global wetland methane emissions originate from boreal peatlands, which represent an important land cover type in boreal landscapes in the sporadic permafrost zone. There, rising air temperatures could lead to warmer spring and longer growing seasons, changing landscape methane emissions. To quantify the effect of warmer spring conditions on methane emissions of a boreal peat landscape in the sporadic permafrost zone of northwestern Canada, we analyzed four years (2013–2016) of methane fluxes measured with the eddy covariance technique and long-term (1951–2016) meteorological observations from a nearby climate station. In May, after snowmelt was complete, mean air temperatures were more than 2 °C warmer in 2013, 2015, and 2016 than in 2014. Mean growing season (May–August) air temperatures, in contrast, differed by less than 1 °C over the four years. Warmer May air temperatures caused earlier wetland soil warming, with temperatures rising from ~0 °C to >12 °C 25 to 40 days earlier and leading to ~6 °C warmer mean soil temperatures between May and June. However, from July to August, soil temperatures were similar among years. Mean May to August and annual methane emissions (6.4 g CH4 m‑2 and 9.4 g CH4 m‑2, respectively) of years with warmer spring (i.e. May) temperatures exceeded emissions during the cooler year by 20%–30% (4.5 g CH4 m‑2 and 7.2 g CH4 m‑2, respectively). Among years with warmer springs, growing season methane emissions varied little (±0.5 g CH4 m‑2). The observed interannual differences are most likely caused by a strong soil temperature control on methane fluxes and large soil temperature differences during the spring. Thus, in a warming climate, methane emissions from waterlogged boreal peat landscapes at the southern limit of permafrost are likely to increase in response to more frequent occurrences of warm springs.

  13. Landscape control on the hydrogeochemistry of As, Co and Pb in a boreal stream network

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    Wällstedt, Teresia; Björkvald, Louise; Laudon, Hjalmar; Borg, Hans; Mörth, Carl-Magnus

    2017-08-01

    In a boreal stream network, stream water concentrations of As, Co and Pb (filtered, Pb showed significant but contrasting relationship to landscape type, while As concentrations were not related to landscape type. Highest concentrations of Pb were found in the wetland dominated streams (>30% wetland), which was suggested to be controlled by atmospheric deposition in combination with high DOC release from the wetlands. For Co, the highest concentrations were found in the forest dominated sites (>98% forest), which were attributed to the weathering of minerogenic sources. Contrasting response to runoff events could also be related to landscape type; during the spring flood, decreasing concentrations of As, Co and Pb were observed in the wetland dominated catchments due to dilution, while increasing concentrations during spring flood were observed in the mixed catchments (2-30% wetland) and to some degree in the forested catchments, probably due to flushing of the organic-rich riparian sources. Further, metal speciation was calculated using the geochemical equilibrium model Visual MINTEQ. This suggests that dissolved inorganic species of As and Co dominated in headwater streams with low pH while DOC had a major influencing role for Pb. In the larger mixed streams where pH was higher and precipitation of e.g. colloidal Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides was favoured, the major influencing factor was instead adsorption to colloidal Fe for As and Pb, while association to organic matter and colloids of e.g. Mn influenced the concentrations of Co. We thus conclude that landscape type and the magnitude of the runoff events are of great importance for the spatial and temporal variations of As, Co and Pb in this boreal stream network. Projected climate change, with increasing runoff, may therefore influence riverine concentrations and fluxes differently, depending on the prevailing landscape type.

  14. Are Boreal Ovenbirds, Seiurus aurocapilla, More Prone to Move across Inhospitable Landscapes in Alberta's Boreal Mixedwood Forest than in Southern Québec's Temperate Deciduous Forest?

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    Marc Bélisle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Population life-history traits such as the propensity to move across inhospitable landscapes should be shaped by exposure to landscape structure over evolutionary time. Thus, birds that recently evolved in landscapes fragmented by natural disturbances such as fire would be expected to show greater behavioral and morphological vagility relative to conspecifics that evolved under less patchy landscapes shaped by fewer and finer-scaled disturbances, i.e., the resilience hypothesis. These predictions are not new, but they remain largely untested, even for well-studied taxa such as neotropical migrant birds. We combined two experimental translocation, i.e., homing, studies to test whether Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocapilla, from the historically dynamic boreal mixedwood forest of north-central Alberta (n = 55 is more vagile than Ovenbird from historically less dynamic deciduous forest of southern Québec (n = 89. We found no regional difference in either wing loading or the response of homing Ovenbird to landscape structure. Nevertheless, this study presents a heuristic framework that can advance the understanding of boreal landscape dynamics as an evolutionary force.

  15. Reorganization of vegetation, hydrology and soil carbon after permafrost degradation across heterogeneous boreal landscapes

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    Jorgenson, M. Torre; Harden, Jennifer; Kanevskiy, Mikhail; O'Donnell, Jonathan; Wickland, Kim; Ewing, Stephanie; Manies, Kristen; Zhuang, Qianlai; Shur, Yuri; Striegl, Robert G.; Koch, Josh

    2013-01-01

    The diversity of ecosystems across boreal landscapes, successional changes after disturbance and complicated permafrost histories, present enormous challenges for assessing how vegetation, water and soil carbon may respond to climate change in boreal regions. To address this complexity, we used a chronosequence approach to assess changes in vegetation composition, water storage and soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks along successional gradients within four landscapes: (1) rocky uplands on ice-poor hillside colluvium, (2) silty uplands on extremely ice-rich loess, (3) gravelly–sandy lowlands on ice-poor eolian sand and (4) peaty–silty lowlands on thick ice-rich peat deposits over reworked lowland loess. In rocky uplands, after fire permafrost thawed rapidly due to low ice contents, soils became well drained and SOC stocks decreased slightly. In silty uplands, after fire permafrost persisted, soils remained saturated and SOC decreased slightly. In gravelly–sandy lowlands where permafrost persisted in drier forest soils, loss of deeper permafrost around lakes has allowed recent widespread drainage of lakes that has exposed limnic material with high SOC to aerobic decomposition. In peaty–silty lowlands, 2–4 m of thaw settlement led to fragmented drainage patterns in isolated thermokarst bogs and flooding of soils, and surface soils accumulated new bog peat. We were not able to detect SOC changes in deeper soils, however, due to high variability. Complicated soil stratigraphy revealed that permafrost has repeatedly aggraded and degraded in all landscapes during the Holocene, although in silty uplands only the upper permafrost was affected. Overall, permafrost thaw has led to the reorganization of vegetation, water storage and flow paths, and patterns of SOC accumulation. However, changes have occurred over different timescales among landscapes: over decades in rocky uplands and gravelly–sandy lowlands in response to fire and lake drainage, over decades to

  16. Hydrological resiliency in the Western Boreal Plains: classification of hydrological responses using wavelet analysis to assess landscape resilience

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    Probert, Samantha; Kettridge, Nicholas; Devito, Kevin; Hannah, David; Parkin, Geoff

    2017-04-01

    The Boreal represents a system of substantial resilience to climate change, with minimal ecological change over the past 6000 years. However, unprecedented climatic warming, coupled with catchment disturbances could exceed thresholds of hydrological function in the Western Boreal Plains. Knowledge of ecohydrological and climatic feedbacks that shape the resilience of boreal forests has advanced significantly in recent years, but this knowledge is yet to be applied and understood at landscape scales. Hydrological modelling at the landscape scale is challenging in the WBP due to diverse, non-topographically driven hydrology across the mosaic of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This study functionally divides the geologic and ecological components of the landscape into Hydrologic Response Areas (HRAs) and wetland, forestland, interface and pond Hydrologic Units (HUs) to accurately characterise water storage and infer transmission at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Wavelet analysis is applied to pond and groundwater levels to describe the patterns of water storage in response to climate signals; to isolate dominant controls on hydrological responses and to assess the relative importance of physical controls between wet and dry climates. This identifies which components of the landscape exhibit greater magnitude and frequency of variability to wetting and drying trends, further to testing the hierarchical framework for hydrological storage controls of: climate, bedrock geology, surficial geology, soil, vegetation, and topography. Classifying HRA and HU hydrological function is essential to understand and predict water storage and redistribution through drought cycles and wet periods. This work recognises which landscape components are most sensitive under climate change and disturbance and also creates scope for hydrological resiliency research in Boreal systems by recognising critical landscape components and their role in landscape collapse or catastrophic

  17. Effect of climate change on soil temperature in Swedish boreal forests.

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    Jungqvist, Gunnar; Oni, Stephen K; Teutschbein, Claudia; Futter, Martyn N

    2014-01-01

    Complex non-linear relationships exist between air and soil temperature responses to climate change. Despite its influence on hydrological and biogeochemical processes, soil temperature has received less attention in climate impact studies. Here we present and apply an empirical soil temperature model to four forest sites along a climatic gradient of Sweden. Future air and soil temperature were projected using an ensemble of regional climate models. Annual average air and soil temperatures were projected to increase, but complex dynamics were projected on a seasonal scale. Future changes in winter soil temperature were strongly dependent on projected snow cover. At the northernmost site, winter soil temperatures changed very little due to insulating effects of snow cover but southern sites with little or no snow cover showed the largest projected winter soil warming. Projected soil warming was greatest in the spring (up to 4°C) in the north, suggesting earlier snowmelt, extension of growing season length and possible northward shifts in the boreal biome. This showed that the projected effects of climate change on soil temperature in snow dominated regions are complex and general assumptions of future soil temperature responses to climate change based on air temperature alone are inadequate and should be avoided in boreal regions.

  18. Effect of climate change on soil temperature in Swedish boreal forests.

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    Gunnar Jungqvist

    Full Text Available Complex non-linear relationships exist between air and soil temperature responses to climate change. Despite its influence on hydrological and biogeochemical processes, soil temperature has received less attention in climate impact studies. Here we present and apply an empirical soil temperature model to four forest sites along a climatic gradient of Sweden. Future air and soil temperature were projected using an ensemble of regional climate models. Annual average air and soil temperatures were projected to increase, but complex dynamics were projected on a seasonal scale. Future changes in winter soil temperature were strongly dependent on projected snow cover. At the northernmost site, winter soil temperatures changed very little due to insulating effects of snow cover but southern sites with little or no snow cover showed the largest projected winter soil warming. Projected soil warming was greatest in the spring (up to 4°C in the north, suggesting earlier snowmelt, extension of growing season length and possible northward shifts in the boreal biome. This showed that the projected effects of climate change on soil temperature in snow dominated regions are complex and general assumptions of future soil temperature responses to climate change based on air temperature alone are inadequate and should be avoided in boreal regions.

  19. Explaining geographic gradients in winter selection of landscapes by boreal caribou with implications under global changes in Eastern Canada.

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    Julien Beguin

    Full Text Available Many animal species exhibit broad-scale latitudinal or longitudinal gradients in their response to biotic and abiotic components of their habitat. Although knowing the underlying mechanism of these patterns can be critical to the development of sound measures for the preservation or recovery of endangered species, few studies have yet identified which processes drive the existence of geographical gradients in habitat selection. Using extensive spatial data of broad latitudinal and longitudinal extent, we tested three hypotheses that could explain the presence of geographical gradients in landscape selection of the endangered boreal woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou during winter in Eastern Canadian boreal forests: 1 climate-driven selection, which postulates that geographic gradients are surrogates for climatic gradients; 2 road-driven selection, which proposes that boreal caribou adjust their selection for certain habitat classes as a function of proximity to roads; and 3 an additive effect of both roads and climate. Our data strongly supported road-driven selection over climate influences. Thus, direct human alteration of landscapes drives boreal caribou distribution and should likely remain so until the climate changes sufficiently from present conditions. Boreal caribou avoided logged areas two-fold more strongly than burnt areas. Limiting the spread of road networks and accounting for the uneven impact of logging compared to wildfire should therefore be integral parts of any habitat management plan and conservation measures within the range of the endangered boreal caribou. The use of hierarchical spatial models allowed us to explore the distribution of spatially-structured errors in our models, which in turn provided valuable insights for generating alternative hypotheses about processes responsible for boreal caribou distribution.

  20. Visualizing the Forest in a Boreal Forest Landscape—The Perspective of Swedish Municipal Comprehensive Planning

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    Camilla Thellbro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available At the international policy level, there is a clear link between access to information about forests and the work towards sustainable land use. However, involving forests in planning for sustainable development (SuD at the Swedish local level, by means of municipal comprehensive planning (MCP, is complicated by sector structure and legislation. Currently, there is a gap or hole in the MCP process when it comes to use and access to knowledge about forest conditions and forest land use. This hole limits the possibilities to formulate well-informed municipal visions and goals for sustainable forest land use as well as for overall SuD. Here we introduce an approach for compilation and presentation of geographic information to increase the preconditions for integrating forest information into Swedish MCP. We produce information about forest ownership patterns and forest conditions in terms of age and significant ecological and social values in forests for a case study municipality. We conclude that it is possible to effectively compile geographic and forest-related information to fill the hole in the municipal land use map. Through our approach, MCP could be strengthened as a tool for overall land use planning and hence as a base in SuD planning.

  1. Tree species richness decreases while species evenness increases with disturbance frequency in a natural boreal forest landscape.

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    Yeboah, Daniel; Chen, Han Y H; Kingston, Steve

    2016-02-01

    Understanding species diversity and disturbance relationships is important for biodiversity conservation in disturbance-driven boreal forests. Species richness and evenness may respond differently with stand development following fire. Furthermore, few studies have simultaneously accounted for the influences of climate and local site conditions on species diversity. Using forest inventory data, we examined the relationships between species richness, Shannon's index, evenness, and time since last stand-replacing fire (TSF) in a large landscape of disturbance-driven boreal forest. TSF has negative effect on species richness and Shannon's index, and a positive effect on species evenness. Path analysis revealed that the environmental variables affect richness and Shannon's index only through their effects on TSF while affecting evenness directly as well as through their effects on TSF. Synthesis and applications. Our results demonstrate that species richness and Shannon's index decrease while species evenness increases with TSF in a boreal forest landscape. Furthermore, we show that disturbance frequency, local site conditions, and climate simultaneously influence tree species diversity through complex direct and indirect effects in the studied boreal forest.

  2. The positive net radiative greenhouse gas forcing of increasing methane emissions from a thawing boreal forest-wetland landscape.

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    Helbig, Manuel; Chasmer, Laura E; Kljun, NatasCha; Quinton, William L; Treat, Claire C; Sonnentag, Oliver

    2017-06-01

    At the southern margin of permafrost in North America, climate change causes widespread permafrost thaw. In boreal lowlands, thawing forested permafrost peat plateaus ('forest') lead to expansion of permafrost-free wetlands ('wetland'). Expanding wetland area with saturated and warmer organic soils is expected to increase landscape methane (CH4 ) emissions. Here, we quantify the thaw-induced increase in CH4 emissions for a boreal forest-wetland landscape in the southern Taiga Plains, Canada, and evaluate its impact on net radiative forcing relative to potential long-term net carbon dioxide (CO2 ) exchange. Using nested wetland and landscape eddy covariance net CH4 flux measurements in combination with flux footprint modeling, we find that landscape CH4 emissions increase with increasing wetland-to-forest ratio. Landscape CH4 emissions are most sensitive to this ratio during peak emission periods, when wetland soils are up to 10 °C warmer than forest soils. The cumulative growing season (May-October) wetland CH4 emission of ~13 g CH4  m-2 is the dominating contribution to the landscape CH4 emission of ~7 g CH4  m-2 . In contrast, forest contributions to landscape CH4 emissions appear to be negligible. The rapid wetland expansion of 0.26 ± 0.05% yr-1 in this region causes an estimated growing season increase of 0.034 ± 0.007 g CH4  m-2  yr-1 in landscape CH4 emissions. A long-term net CO2 uptake of >200 g CO2  m-2  yr-1 is required to offset the positive radiative forcing of increasing CH4 emissions until the end of the 21st century as indicated by an atmospheric CH4 and CO2 concentration model. However, long-term apparent carbon accumulation rates in similar boreal forest-wetland landscapes and eddy covariance landscape net CO2 flux measurements suggest a long-term net CO2 uptake between 49 and 157 g CO2  m-2  yr-1 . Thus, thaw-induced CH4 emission increases likely exert a positive net radiative greenhouse gas forcing through the 21st century.

  3. Direct and indirect climate change effects on carbon dioxide fluxes in a thawing boreal forest-wetland landscape.

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    Helbig, Manuel; Chasmer, Laura E; Desai, Ankur R; Kljun, Natascha; Quinton, William L; Sonnentag, Oliver

    2017-08-01

    In the sporadic permafrost zone of northwestern Canada, boreal forest carbon dioxide (CO2 ) fluxes will be altered directly by climate change through changing meteorological forcing and indirectly through changes in landscape functioning associated with thaw-induced collapse-scar bog ('wetland') expansion. However, their combined effect on landscape-scale net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEELAND ), resulting from changing gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER), remains unknown. Here, we quantify indirect land cover change impacts on NEELAND and direct climate change impacts on modeled temperature- and light-limited NEELAND of a boreal forest-wetland landscape. Using nested eddy covariance flux towers, we find both GPP and ER to be larger at the landscape compared to the wetland level. However, annual NEELAND (-20 g C m(-2) ) and wetland NEE (-24 g C m(-2) ) were similar, suggesting negligible wetland expansion effects on NEELAND . In contrast, we find non-negligible direct climate change impacts when modeling NEELAND using projected air temperature and incoming shortwave radiation. At the end of the 21st century, modeled GPP mainly increases in spring and fall due to reduced temperature limitation, but becomes more frequently light-limited in fall. In a warmer climate, ER increases year-round in the absence of moisture stress resulting in net CO2 uptake increases in the shoulder seasons and decreases during the summer. Annually, landscape net CO2 uptake is projected to decline by 25 ± 14 g C m(-2) for a moderate and 103 ± 38 g C m(-2) for a high warming scenario, potentially reversing recently observed positive net CO2 uptake trends across the boreal biome. Thus, even without moisture stress, net CO2 uptake of boreal forest-wetland landscapes may decline, and ultimately, these landscapes may turn into net CO2 sources under continued anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We conclude that NEELAND changes are more likely to be driven by

  4. Landscape controls on spatiotemporal variability of specific discharge in a boreal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, R.; Grabs, T.; Bishop, K. H.; Laudon, H.; Seibert, J.

    2014-12-01

    Spatial and temporal variability of specific discharge is rarely measured at the small-catchment-scale and is commonly ignored by most studies which instead assume spatially uniform specific discharge. This assumption is convenient but can lead to fundamentally wrong results, e.g., when calculating solute fluxes at the catchment scale. Pioneering work on 14, partly nested, sub-catchments in a boreal meso-scale (67 km2) catchment in Northern Sweden revealed substantial spatial and temporal variations in both the magnitude and timing of specific discharge. We explore the structure of this variability and its connection to the landscape characteristics using a 5-year gap filled time series of continuous flow records.For the long term (5 years) flow magnitudes for the various sub-catchments varied between 73 % and 132 % relative to the flow at the main outlet, with higher flows from wetland dominated catchments (Spearman rank correlation R=0.81). Looking at seasonal and short term flows, both more pronounced variability and stronger links to different landscape properties are seen. Spring flood magnitudes were correlated (R=0.61 to 0.80) with wet areas, while summer flows were negatively correlated to catchment tree volumes (R=-0.61 to -0.75) and potential evaporation (R=-0.48 to -0.78).On shorter timescales, from daily to monthly, also other catchment properties explained the observed spatial discharge variability. During dry periods of low summer baseflows, sub-catchments with deep fluvial deposits maintained a higher discharge than catchments with shallow soils. This pattern was reversed during summer stormflow events.The results show that there is a spatial structure in the specific discharge and that this structure is temporally variable. Different landscape characteristics influence the flows at different time scales, and the spatiotemporal discharge variability depends on seasonal climatic variability. The observed structure does not only influence mass balance

  5. Generalizing riparian hydrologic function in a heterogeneous landscape, Western Boreal Plain, Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devito, K.; Brown, S.; Hairabedian, M.; Landhäusser, S. M.; Mendoza, C. A.; Petrone, R.; Redding, R.; Riddell, J.; Silins, U.; Smerdon, B.; Snedden, J.

    2009-05-01

    The Western Boreal Plain (WBP) eco-region of western Canada is experiencing unprecedented development for forest, oil and gas resources stressing the need to assess the role and relative effectiveness of riparian areas in mitigating the impacts of land use changes on water quantity and quality. We compare findings from local scale transect studies across differing surficial geology at the Utikuma Region Study Area (URSA) to characterize the variability in hydrological and biogeochemical processes of riparian areas located on major landforms and landscape positions typical of the WBP. Within the study region, the recurring role of riparian areas on hydrological linkages from uplands to aquatic systems was removal of soil water and groundwater by vegetation and translocation of water to adjacent hillslopes regardless of groundwater function. Water table depressions at the base of hillslopes were commonly observed. The sub-humid climate and deep and heterogeneous surficial deposits result in minimal upland runoff and complex surface -groundwater interactions. Aquatic-riparian flow reversals and losing conditions (water table gradients from aquatic to upland regions) were common and perched stream, pond and wetland systems were observed in areas of contrasting soil texture. The type and seasonality of flow path and variability in riparian function were related to interactions between sub-humid climate, surficial geologic landforms (texture) and topographic position within these landforms. Riparian functions were highly variable in coarse textured outwash landforms and influenced by regional-scale flow system and seasonal freezing. Riparian interactions on fined grained lacustrine plain landscapes were largely restricted to near surface discharge and recharge flow through. In contrast, on poorly drained and mixed textured moraine landforms, riparian systems were often isolated or interacted with recharge or perched flow systems. Our findings not only point to the need

  6. A comparison of methane flux in a boreal landscape between a dry and a wet year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubier, Jill; Moore, Tim; Savage, Kathleen; Crill, Patrick

    2005-03-01

    We used field measurements of methane (CH4) flux from upland and wetland soils in the Northern Study Area (NSA) of BOREAS (BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study), near Thompson, Manitoba, during the summers of 1994 and 1996 to estimate the overall CH4 emission from a 1350 km2 landscape. June-September 1994 and 1996 were both drier and warmer than normal, but summer 1996 received 68 mm more precipitation than 1994, a 40% increase, and had a mean daily air temperature 0.6°C warmer than 1994. Upland soils consumed CH4 at rates from 0 to 1.0 mg m-2 d-1, with small spatial and temporal variations between years, and a weak dependence on soil temperature. In contrast, wetlands emitted CH4 at seasonal average rates ranging from 10 to 350 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, with high spatial and temporal variability, and increased an average of 60% during the wetter and warmer 1996. We used Landsat imagery, supervised classification, and ground truthing to scale point CH4 fluxes (1000 km2). We performed a sensitivity analysis for error terms in both areal coverage and CH4 flux, showing that the small areas of high CH4 emission (e.g., small ponds, graminoid fens, and permafrost collapse margins) contribute the largest uncertainty in both flux measurements and mapping. Although wetlands cover less than 30% of the landscape, areally extrapolated CH4 flux for the NSA increased by 61% from 10 to16 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 between years, entirely attributed to the increase in wetland CH4 emission. We conclude that CH4 fluxes will tend to be underestimated in areas where much of the landscape is covered by wetlands. This is due to the large spatial and temporal variability encountered in chamber-based measurements of wetland CH4 fluxes, strong sensitivity of wetland CH4 emission to small changes in climate, and because most remote sensing images do not adequately identify small areas of high CH4 flux.

  7. Landscape control of uranium and thorium in boreal streams – spatiotemporal variability and the role of wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lidman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of uranium and thorium in ten partly nested streams in the boreal forest region were monitored over a two-year period. The investigated catchments ranged from small headwaters (0.1 km2 up to a fourth-order stream (67 km2. Considerable spatiotemporal variations were observed, with little or no correlation between streams. The fluxes of both uranium and thorium varied substantially between the subcatchments, ranging from 1.7 to 30 g km−2 a−1 for uranium and from 3.2 to 24 g km−2 a−1 for thorium. Airborne gamma spectrometry was used to measure the concentrations of uranium and thorium in surface soils throughout the catchment, suggesting that the concentrations of uranium and thorium in mineral soils are similar throughout the catchment. The fluxes of uranium and thorium were compared to a wide range of parameters characterising the investigated catchments and the chemistry of the stream water, e.g. soil concentrations of these elements, pH, TOC (total organic carbon, Al, Si and hydrogen carbonate, but it was concluded that the spatial variabilities in the fluxes of both uranium and thorium mainly were controlled by wetlands. The results indicate that there is a predictable and systematic accumulation of both uranium and thorium in boreal wetlands that is large enough to control the transport of these elements. On the landscape scale approximately 65–80% of uranium and 55–65% of thorium entering a wetland were estimated to be retained in the peat. Overall, accumulation in mires and other types of wetlands was estimated to decrease the fluxes of uranium and thorium from the boreal forest landscape by 30–40%, indicating that wetlands play an important role for the biogeochemical cycling of uranium and thorium in the boreal forest landscape. The atmospheric deposition of uranium and thorium was also quantified, and its contribution to boreal streams was

  8. Metal transport in the boreal landscape-the role of wetlands and the affinity for organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidman, Fredrik; Köhler, Stephan J; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Laudon, Hjalmar

    2014-04-01

    Stream water concentrations of 13 major and trace elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, La, Mg, Na, Ni, Si, Sr, U, Y) were used to estimate fluxes from 15 boreal catchments. All elements displayed a significant negative correlation to the wetland coverage, but the influence of wetlands was stronger for organophilic metals; 73% of the spatial differences in the normalized element fluxes could be explained based only on the wetland coverage and the affinity for organic matter, which was quantified using thermodynamic modeling. When the analysis was restrained to the smaller streams (wetlands may decrease the fluxes of metals from boreal forests to downstream recipients by up to 40% at otherwise similar runoff. We suggest that the decrease in element fluxes is caused by a combination of low weathering in peat soils and accumulation of organophilic metals in peat. The model could not explain the spatial patterns for some metals with low affinity for organic matter, some redox-sensitive metals, and some metals with exceptionally high atmospheric deposition, but the results still demonstrate that wetlands play an important role for the biogeochemical cycling of many metals in the boreal landscape.

  9. Estimating Net Primary Production of Swedish Forest Landscapes by Combining Mechanistic Modeling and Remote Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagesson, Håkan Torbern; Smith, Benjamin; Løfgren, Anders

    2009-01-01

    and the Beer-Lambert law. LAI estimates were compared with satellite-extrapolated field estimates of LAI, and the results were generally acceptable. NPP estimates directly from the dynamic vegetation model and estimates obtained by combining the model estimates with remote sensing information were, on average......The aim of this study was to investigate a combination of satellite images of leaf area index (LAI) with processbased vegetation modeling for the accurate assessment of the carbon balances of Swedish forest ecosystems at the scale of a landscape. Monthly climatologic data were used as inputs...... in a dynamic vegetation model, the Lund Potsdam Jena-General Ecosystem Simulator. Model estimates of net primary production (NPP) and the fraction of absorbed photosynthetic active radiation were constrained by combining them with satellite-based LAI images using a general light use efficiency (LUE) model...

  10. Earthworm impacts on organo-mineral interactions and soil carbon inventories in Fennoscandian boreal and sub-arctic landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackett, Adrian; Yoo, Kyungsoo; Cameron, Erin; Klaminder, Jonatan

    2017-04-01

    Boreal and sub-arctic environments sustain some of the most pristine and fragile ecosystems in the world and house a disproportionate amount of the global soil carbon pool. Although the historical view of soil carbon turnover has focused on the intrinsic molecular structure of organic matter, recent work has highlighted the importance of stabilizing soil carbon on reactive mineral surfaces. However, the rates and mechanisms controlling these processes at high latitudes are poorly understood. Here we explored the biogeochemical impacts of deep-burrowing earthworm species on a range of Fennoscandian forest soils to investigate how earthworms impact soil carbon inventories and organo-mineral associations across boreal and sub-arctic landscapes. We sampled soils and earthworms at six sites spanning almost ten degrees latitude and encompassing a wide range of soil types and textures, permitting simultaneous consideration of how climate and mineralogy affect earthworm-mediated shifts in soil carbon dynamics. Across all sites, earthworms significantly decreased the carbon and nitrogen contents of the upper 10 cm, presumably through consumption of the humus layer and subsequent incorporation of the underlying mineral soil into upper organic horizons. Their mixing of humus and underlying soil also generally increased the proportion of mineral surface area occluded by organic matter, although the extent to which earthworms facilitate such organo-mineral interactions appears to be controlled by soil texture and mineralogy. This work indicates that quantitative measurements of mineral surface area and its extent of coverage by soil organic matter facilitate scaling up of molecular interactions between organic matter and minerals to the level of soil profiles and landscapes. Our preliminary data also strongly suggests that earthworms have profound effects on the fate of soil carbon and nitrogen in boreal and sub-arctic environments, highlighting the need for a better

  11. Selection of bed-sites by roe deer Capreolus capreolus fawns in a boreal landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnell, J.D.C.; Nijhuis, P.G.T.; Teurlings, I.J.M.; Andersen, R.

    1999-01-01

    Bed-site selection by 19 radio-collared roe deer Capreolus capreolus fawns from seven family groups was studied during June-July 1998 in southeastern Norway. The habitat consisted of small agricultural fields surrounded by industrially exploited boreal forest. Within the forest, fawns selected

  12. Changes in growth of pristine boreal North American forests from 1950 to 2005 driven by landscape demographics and species traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardin, M. P.; Guo, X. J.; Bernier, P. Y.; Raulier, F.; Gauthier, S.

    2012-07-01

    In spite of the many factors that are occurring and known for positively affecting the growth of forests, some boreal forests across North America have recently felt the adverse impacts of environmental changes. Knowledge of causes for productivity declines in North American boreal forests remains limited, and this is owed to the large spatial and temporal scales involved, and the many plant processes affected. Here, the response of pristine eastern boreal North American (PEBNA) forests to ongoing climatic changes is examined using in situ data, community ecology statistics, and species-specific model simulations of carbon exchanges forced by contemporary climatic data. To examine trends in forest growth, we used a recently acquired collection of tree-ring width data from 252 sample plots distributed in PEBNA forests dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P.) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.). Results of linear trend analysis on the tree growth data highlight a dominating forest growth decline in overmature forests (age > 120 years) from 1950 to 2005. In contrast, improving growth conditions are seen in jack pine and mature (70-120 years) black spruce stands. Multivariate analysis of climate and growth relationships suggests that responses of PEBNA forests to climate are dependent on demographic and species traits via their mediation of temperature and water stress constraints. In support of this hypothesis, the simulation experiment suggests that in old-growth black spruce stands the benefit to growth brought on by a longer growing season may have been low in comparison with the increasing moisture stress and respiration losses caused by warmer summer temperatures. Predicted increases in wildfire frequency in PEBNA forests will likely enhance the positive response of landscape-level forest growth to climate change by shifting the forest distribution to younger age classes while also enhancing the jack pine component.

  13. A framework to optimize the restoration and retention of large mature forest tracts in managed boreal landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Mathieu; Garet, Jérôme

    The decreasing abundance of mature forests and their fragmentation have been identified as major threats for the preservation of biodiversity in managed landscapes. In this study, we developed a multi-level framework to coordinate forest harvestings so as to optimize the retention or restoration of large mature forest tracts in managed forests. We used mixed-integer programming for this optimization, and integrated realistic management assumptions regarding stand yield and operational harvest constraints. The model was parameterized for eastern Canadian boreal forests, where clear-cutting is the main silvicultural system, and is used to examine two hypotheses. First, we tested if mature forest tract targets had more negative impacts on wood supplies when implemented in landscapes that are very different from targeted conditions. Second, we tested the hypothesis that using more partial cuts can be useful to attenuate the negative impacts of mature forest targets on wood supplies. The results indicate that without the integration of an explicit mature forest tract target, the optimization leads to relatively high fragmentation levels. Forcing the retention or restoration of large mature forest tracts on 40% of the landscapes had negative impacts on wood supplies in all types of landscapes, but these impacts were less important in landscapes that were initially fragmented. This counter-intuitive result is explained by the presence in the models of an operational constraint that forbids diffuse patterns of harvestings, which are more costly. Once this constraint is applied, the residual impact of the mature forest tract target is low. The results also indicate that partial cuts are of very limited use to attenuate the impacts of mature forest tract targets on wood supplies in highly fragmented landscapes. Partial cuts are somewhat more useful in landscapes that are less fragmented, but they have to be well coordinated with clearcut schedules in order to contribute

  14. High-latitude cooling associated with landscape changes from North American boreal forest fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Rogers

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fires in the boreal forests of North America are generally stand-replacing, killing the majority of trees and initiating succession that may last over a century. Functional variation during succession can affect local surface energy budgets and, potentially, regional climate. Burn area across Alaska and Canada has increased in the last few decades and is projected to be substantially higher by the end of the 21st century because of a warmer climate with longer growing seasons. Here we simulated changes in forest composition due to altered burn area using a stochastic model of fire occurrence, historical fire data from national inventories, and succession trajectories derived from remote sensing. When coupled to an Earth system model, younger vegetation from increased burning cooled the high-latitude atmosphere, primarily in the winter and spring, with noticeable feedbacks from the ocean and sea ice. Results from multiple scenarios suggest that a doubling of burn area would cool the surface by 0.23 ± 0.09 °C across boreal North America during winter and spring months (December through May. This could provide a negative feedback to winter warming on the order of 3–5% for a doubling, and 14–23% for a quadrupling, of burn area. Maximum cooling occurs in the areas of greatest burning, and between February and April when albedo changes are largest and solar insolation is moderate. Further work is needed to integrate all the climate drivers from boreal forest fires, including aerosols and greenhouse gasses.

  15. Social-Natural Landscape Reorganised: Swedish Forest-edge Farmers and Wolf Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjolander-Lindqvist Annelie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The politics and the underlying reasons behind the recovery of the Scandinavian wolf population are increasingly contested. According to official policy, wolves should be guaranteed a place in the Swedish natural world. However, the conflict over whether Sweden should host a wolf population sets views on biodiversity and sustainable development against the perspective that local traditions and livelihoods are threatened by the return of wolves. These diverging environmental visions can be seen as competing interests and understandings of nature and wildlife. The desire of the state and nature conservation organisations to implement measures to provide conditions fostering wolf survival are counterbalanced by local action groups and community residents struggling to maintain conditions for conserving summer pastures, opportunities for hunting with sporting dogs, and other recreational activities such as mushroom- and berry-picking. Not only are these activities considered to have high natural and cultural value, the European Union (EU has stated that small-scale farming is important for maintaining the landscape and safeguarding the survival of values associated with ′agri-environmental′ habitats. The conflict between the interest groups is essentially about the access to and use of environmental resources. Squeezed between policies safeguarding wolf populations, preventing cruelty to animals and implementing activities required by the EU agricultural programme, farmers in areas with resident wolf populations have come to take part in processes that may reinforce rural identity.

  16. Effects of harvesting on spatial and temporal diversity of carbon stocks in a boreal forest landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter-Mikaelian, Michael T; Colombo, Stephen J; Chen, Jiaxin

    2013-10-01

    Carbon stocks in managed forests of Ontario, Canada, and in harvested wood products originated from these forests were estimated for 2010-2100. Simulations included four future forest harvesting scenarios based on historical harvesting levels (low, average, high, and maximum available) and a no-harvest scenario. In four harvesting scenarios, forest carbon stocks in Ontario's managed forest were estimated to range from 6202 to 6227 Mt C (millions of tons of carbon) in 2010, and from 6121 to 6428 Mt C by 2100. Inclusion of carbon stored in harvested wood products in use and in landfills changed the projected range in 2100 to 6710-6742 Mt C. For the no-harvest scenario, forest carbon stocks were projected to change from 6246 Mt C in 2010 to 6680 Mt C in 2100. Spatial variation in projected forest carbon stocks was strongly related to changes in forest age (r = 0.603), but had weak correlation with harvesting rates. For all managed forests in Ontario combined, projected carbon stocks in combined forest and harvested wood products converged to within 2% difference by 2100. The results suggest that harvesting in the boreal forest, if applied within limits of sustainable forest management, will eventually have a relatively small effect on long-term combined forest and wood products carbon stocks. However, there was a large time lag to approach carbon equality, with more than 90 years with a net reduction in stored carbon in harvested forests plus wood products compared to nonharvested boreal forest which also has low rates of natural disturbance. The eventual near equivalency of carbon stocks in nonharvested forest and forest that is harvested and protected from natural disturbance reflects both the accumulation of carbon in harvested wood products and the relatively young age at which boreal forest stands undergo natural succession in the absence of disturbance.

  17. Energy, water and carbon exchange in a boreal forest landscape - NOPEX experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldin, S.; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Gottschalk, L.

    1999-01-01

    of the European boreal zone. This paper summarises results from NOPEX in its first phase, dealing with spring- and summertime conditions. Two concentrated field efforts (CFE1 on 27 May-23 June 1994, CFE2 on 18 April-14 July 1995) were carried out with coordinated measurements of energy, water, and CO2 budgets...... over the whole area with a roughness length of approximately 1.5 m, whereas fluxes of sensible heat and other scalars depend on the averaging scale, Local measurements of soil moisture can be classified and meaningful averages can be deduced with a 1 km resolution. Lakes play an important role...

  18. Spatial variability of organic matter molecular composition and elemental geochemistry in surface sediments of a small boreal Swedish lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolu, Julie; Rydberg, Johan; Meyer-Jacob, Carsten; Gerber, Lorenz; Bindler, Richard

    2017-04-01

    The composition of sediment organic matter (OM) exerts a strong control on biogeochemical processes in lakes, such as those involved in the fate of carbon, nutrients and trace metals. While between-lake spatial variability of OM quality is increasingly investigated, we explored in this study how the molecular composition of sediment OM varies spatially within a single lake and related this variability to physical parameters and elemental geochemistry. Surface sediment samples (0-10 cm) from 42 locations in Härsvatten - a small boreal forest lake with a complex basin morphometry - were analyzed for OM molecular composition using pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry for the contents of 23 major and trace elements and biogenic silica. We identified 162 organic compounds belonging to different biochemical classes of OM (e.g., carbohydrates, lignin and lipids). Close relationships were found between the spatial patterns of sediment OM molecular composition and elemental geochemistry. Differences in the source types of OM (i.e., terrestrial, aquatic plant and algal) were linked to the individual basin morphometries and chemical status of the lake. The variability in OM molecular composition was further driven by the degradation status of these different source pools, which appeared to be related to sedimentary physicochemical parameters (e.g., redox conditions) and to the molecular structure of the organic compounds. Given the high spatial variation in OM molecular composition within Härsvatten and its close relationship with elemental geochemistry, the potential for large spatial variability across lakes should be considered when studying biogeochemical processes involved in the cycling of carbon, nutrients and trace elements or when assessing lake budgets.

  19. Boreal forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essen, P.A.; Ericson, L. [Univ. of Umeaa, Dept. of Ecological Botany, Umeaa (Sweden); Ehnstroem, B. [Swedish Univ., of Agricultural Sciences, Swedish Threatened Species Unit, Uppsala (Sweden); Sjoeberg, K. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Animal Ecology, Umeaa (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    We review patterns and processes important for biodiversity in the Fennoscandian boreal forest, describe man`s past and present impact and outline a strategy for conservation. Natural disturbances, particularly forest fire and gap formation, create much of the structural and functional diversity in forest ecosystems. Several boreal plants and animals are adapted to fire regimes. In contrast, many organisms (epiphytic lichens, fungi, invertebrates) require stable conditions with long continuity in canopy cover. The highly mechanized and efficient Fennoscandian forest industry has developed during the last century. The result is that most natural forest has been lost and that several hundreds of species, mainly cryptograms and invertebrates, are threatened. The forestry is now in a transition from exploitation to sustainable production and has recently incorporated some measures to protect the environment. Programmes for maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest should include at least three parts. First, the system of forest reserves must be significantly improved through protection of large representative ecosystems and key biotopes that host threatened species. Second, we must restore ecosystem properties that have been lost or altered. Natural disturbance regimes must be allowed to operate or be imitated, for example by artificial fire management. Stand-level management should particularly increase the amount of coarse woody debris, the number of old deciduous trees and large, old conifers, by using partial cutting. Third, natural variation should also be mimicked at the landscape level, for example, by reducing fragmentation and increasing links between landscape elements. Long-term experiments are required to evaluate the success of different management methods in maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest. (au) 260 refs.

  20. Spatial scaling patterns and functional redundancies in a changing boreal lake landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Uden, Daniel R.; Johnson, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Global transformations extend beyond local habitats; therefore, larger-scale approaches are needed to assess community-level responses and resilience to unfolding environmental changes. Using longterm data (1996–2011), we evaluated spatial patterns and functional redundancies in the littoral invertebrate communities of 85 Swedish lakes, with the objective of assessing their potential resilience to environmental change at regional scales (that is, spatial resilience). Multivariate spatial modeling was used to differentiate groups of invertebrate species exhibiting spatial patterns in composition and abundance (that is, deterministic species) from those lacking spatial patterns (that is, stochastic species). We then determined the functional feeding attributes of the deterministic and stochastic invertebrate species, to infer resilience. Between one and three distinct spatial patterns in invertebrate composition and abundance were identified in approximately one-third of the species; the remainder were stochastic. We observed substantial differences in metrics between deterministic and stochastic species. Functional richness and diversity decreased over time in the deterministic group, suggesting a loss of resilience in regional invertebrate communities. However, taxon richness and redundancy increased monotonically in the stochastic group, indicating the capacity of regional invertebrate communities to adapt to change. Our results suggest that a refined picture of spatial resilience emerges if patterns of both the deterministic and stochastic species are accounted for. Spatially extensive monitoring may help increase our mechanistic understanding of community-level responses and resilience to regional environmental change, insights that are critical for developing management and conservation agendas in this current period of rapid environmental transformation.

  1. Landscape patterns of species-level association between ground-beetles and overstory trees in boreal forests of western Canada (Coleoptera, Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Bergeron

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Spatial associations between species of trees and ground-beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae involve many indirect ecological processes, likely reflecting the function of numerous forest ecosystem components. Describing and quantifying these associations at the landscape scale is basic to the development of a surrogate-based framework for biodiversity monitoring and conservation. In this study, we used a systematic sampling grid covering 84 km2 of boreal mixedwood forest to characterize the ground-beetle assemblage associated with each tree species occurring on this landscape. Projecting the distribution of relative basal area of each tree species on the beetle ordination diagram suggests that the carabid community is structured by the same environmental factors that affects the distribution of trees, or perhaps even by trees per se. Interestingly beetle species are associated with tree species of the same rank order of abundance on this landscape, suggesting that conservation of less abundant trees will concomitantly foster conservation of less abundant beetle species. Landscape patterns of association described here are based on characteristics that can be directly linked to provincial forest inventories, providing a basis that is already available for use of tree species as biodiversity surrogates in boreal forest land management.

  2. Comparison of snow melt properties across multiple spatial scales and landscape units in interior sub-Arctic boreal Alaskan watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, K. E.; Cherry, J. E.; Hiemstra, C. A.; Bolton, W. R.

    2013-12-01

    Infiltration Capacity hydrologic model) and provide greater understanding of error and resultant model sensitivities associated with regional observations of snow cover across the sub-Arctic boreal landscape.

  3. Whose landscape? - An anthropological perspective on landscape perception in reindeer tending (In Swedish with Summary in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Järpe

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available When we talk publicly about landscape and land use, both in legal and in popular contexts, the evaluation of our natural environment is usually based on an industrial concept of land and landscape. "Nature" is seen as a resource to be used or managed in different ways. My research originates in a questioning of this assumption: can we take for granted that the same perceptions and evaluations are shared by all concerned parties? In this article, I will use an ecologic anthropological perspective to consider the livelihood of reindeer tending and suggest an alternative to what can be called a scientific understanding of the world. I maintain that the relations that people have with their environment, and the values that they ascribe to it, are perceptions that are shaped and affected in our interactions with the surrounding world, and that these perceptions vary between different groups of people. Land use, land rights, access to fishing waters, and who gets to hunt what; these are not only questions about how we should manage the landscape, but also about whose landscape we are managing. Arguing that the reindeer tenders' landscape is a shifting mosaic of varying conditions that they must relate to rather than an object to be used and controlled by human interests, I want to show how anthropological research can provide an insight into the different perspectives and modes of understanding that we need to consider in the formulation of future policies and laws. At least if we want to resolve land use conflicts in contested areas fairly and on a sustainable long-term basis.

  4. Development of a Parameterization for Mesoscale Hydrological Modeling and Application to Landscape and Climate Change in the Interior Alaska Boreal Forest Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endalamaw, Abraham Melesse

    The Interior Alaska boreal forest ecosystem is one of the largest ecosystems on earth and lies between the warmer southerly temperate and colder Arctic regions. The ecosystem is underlain by discontinuous permafrost. The presence or absence of permafrost primarily controls water pathways and ecosystem composition. As a result, the region hosts two distinct ecotypes that transition over a very short spatial scale--often on the order of meters. Accurate mesoscale hydrological modeling of the region is critical as the region is experiencing unprecedented ecological and hydrological changes that have regional and global implications. However, accurate representation of the landscape heterogeneity and mesoscale hydrological processes has remained a big challenge. This study addressed this challenge by developing a simple landscape model from the hill-slope studies and in situ measurements over the past several decades. The new approach improves the mesoscale prediction of several hydrological processes including streamflow and evapotranspiration (ET). The impact of climate induced landscape change under a changing climate is also investigated. In the projected climate scenario, Interior Alaska is projected to undergo a major landscape shift including transitioning from a coniferous-dominated to deciduous-dominated ecosystem and from discontinuous permafrost to either a sporadic or isolated permafrost region. This major landscape shift is predicted to have a larger and complex impact in the predicted runoff, evapotranspiration, and moisture deficit (precipitation minus evapotranspiration). Overall, a large increase in runoff, evapotranspiration, and moisture deficit is predicted under future climate. Most hydrological climate change impact studies do not usually include the projected change in landscape into the model. In this study, we found that ignoring the projected ecosystem change could lead to an inaccurate conclusion. Hence climate induced vegetation and

  5. Learning about the history of landscape use for the future: consequences for ecological and social systems in Swedish Bergslagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelstam, Per; Andersson, Kjell; Isacson, Maths; Gavrilov, Dmitri V; Axelsson, Robert; Bäckström, Mattias; Degerman, Erik; Elbakidze, Marine; Kazakova-Apkarimova, Elena Yu; Sartz, Lotta; Sädbom, Stefan; Törnblom, Johan

    2013-03-01

    Barriers and bridges to implement policies about sustainable development and sustainability commonly depend on the past development of social-ecological systems. Production of metals required integration of use of ore, streams for energy, and wood for bioenergy and construction, as well as of multiple societal actors. Focusing on the Swedish Bergslagen region as a case study we (1) describe the phases of natural resource use triggered by metallurgy, (2) the location and spatial extent of 22 definitions of Bergslagen divided into four zones as a proxy of cumulative pressure on landscapes, and (3) analyze the consequences for natural capital and society. We found clear gradients in industrial activity, stream alteration, and amount of natural forest from the core to the periphery of Bergslagen. Additionally, the legacy of top-down governance is linked to today's poorly diversified business sector and thus municipal vulnerability. Comparing the Bergslagen case study with other similar regions in Russia and Germany, we discuss the usefulness of multiple case studies.

  6. Applying a framework for landscape planning under climate change for the conservation of biodiversity in the Finnish boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Triviño, Maria; Tikkanen, Olli-Pekka; Kouki, Jari; Strandman, Harri; Mönkkönen, Mikko

    2015-02-01

    Conservation strategies are often established without consideration of the impact of climate change. However, this impact is expected to threaten species and ecosystem persistence and to have dramatic effects towards the end of the 21st century. Landscape suitability for species under climate change is determined by several interacting factors including dispersal and human land use. Designing effective conservation strategies at regional scales to improve landscape suitability requires measuring the vulnerabilities of specific regions to climate change and determining their conservation capacities. Although methods for defining vulnerability categories are available, methods for doing this in a systematic, cost-effective way have not been identified. Here, we use an ecosystem model to define the potential resilience of the Finnish forest landscape by relating its current conservation capacity to its vulnerability to climate change. In applying this framework, we take into account the responses to climate change of a broad range of red-listed species with different niche requirements. This framework allowed us to identify four categories in which representation in the landscape varies among three IPCC emission scenarios (B1, low; A1B, intermediate; A2, high emissions): (i) susceptible (B1 = 24.7%, A1B = 26.4%, A2 = 26.2%), the most intact forest landscapes vulnerable to climate change, requiring management for heterogeneity and resilience; (ii) resilient (B1 = 2.2%, A1B = 0.5%, A2 = 0.6%), intact areas with low vulnerability that represent potential climate refugia and require conservation capacity maintenance; (iii) resistant (B1 = 6.7%, A1B = 0.8%, A2 = 1.1%), landscapes with low current conservation capacity and low vulnerability that are suitable for restoration projects; (iv) sensitive (B1 = 66.4%, A1B = 72.3%, A2 = 72.0%), low conservation capacity landscapes that are vulnerable and for which alternative conservation measures are required depending on the

  7. Applying a framework for landscape planning under climate change for the conservation of biodiversity in the Finnish boreal forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Triviño, Maria; Tikkanen, Olli Pekka

    2015-01-01

    among three IPCC emission scenarios (B1, low; A1B, intermediate; A2, high emissions): (i) susceptible (B1 = 24.7%, A1B = 26.4%, A2 = 26.2%), the most intact forest landscapes vulnerable to climate change, requiring management for heterogeneity and resilience; (ii) resilient (B1 = 2.2%, A1B = 0.5%, A2......Conservation strategies are often established without consideration of the impact of climate change. However, this impact is expected to threaten species and ecosystem persistence and to have dramatic effects towards the end of the 21st century. Landscape suitability for species under climate...... change is determined by several interacting factors including dispersal and human land use. Designing effective conservation strategies at regional scales to improve landscape suitability requires measuring the vulnerabilities of specific regions to climate change and determining their conservation...

  8. Swedish Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borgvall, Jonathan; Lif, Patrik

    2005-01-01

    .... The military research work presented here includes the three military administrations, FOI -- Swedish Defence Research Agency, FMV -- Swedish Defence Materiel Administration, and SNDC -- Swedish...

  9. Nitrogen alters carbon dynamics during early succession in boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven D. Allison; Tracy B. Gartner; Michelle C. Mack; Krista McGuire; Kathleen. Treseder

    2010-01-01

    Boreal forests are an important source of wood products, and fertilizers could be used to improve forest yields, especially in nutrient poor regions of the boreal zone. With climate change, fire frequencies may increase, resulting in a larger fraction of the boreal landscape present in early successional stages. Since most fertilization studies have focused on mature...

  10. Does connectivity exist for remnant boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou along the Lake Superior Coastal Range? Options for landscape restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine C. Drake

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic analysis can provide important information on the dynamic and spatial structure of groups of animals or populations. Little is known of the genetic population structure of caribou that inhabit the Lake Superior Coastal Range (LSCR and the level of gene flow between individuals within the range and beyond. From a landscape perspective, this range is spatially isolated and genetic connectivity within the range is presumed limited due to large water crossings on Lake Superior. This study aims to answer if animal movement can be discerned, using genetic population and relatedness analyses, within and beyond the LSCR. Faecal and hair samples collected between 2005 and 2015 in Pukaskwa National Park were analyzed for genetic markers and compared to 131 unique genotypes previously obtained from both within the LSCR and in the two next closest ranges. Animals from one nearshore island (i.e. Otter were more closely associated with offshore islands than other mainland caribou, likely a result of past movement and translocation rather than ongoing movement. Conversely, on another nearshore island (i.e. Pic, individuals assigned to a different genetic cluster and were related to animals further north outside the range, demonstrating some connectivity through the discontinuous distribution to the coast. Long-term population declines have been observed in the LSCR range despite genetic connectivity within the range and relatively low total habitat disturbance. Restoring connectivity of the LSCR so that it is not isolated from populations to the north is required for the recovery of the mainland portion of the coastal range. These genetic analyses provide some insights on where movements may occur and where landscape restoration efforts may best be directed to enhance connectivity.

  11. The Legacy of Logging—Estimating Arboreal Lichen Occurrence in a Boreal Multiple-Use Landscape on a Two Century Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstkotte, Tim; Moen, Jon; Lämås, Tomas; Helle, Timo

    2011-01-01

    In northern Sweden, the availability of arboreal lichens (Bryoria fuscescens, Alectoria sarmentosa) as winter grazing resources is an important element in reindeer husbandry. With the industrialization of forestry, forests rich in arboreal lichens have diminished considerably. Here, we analyze how forestry has impacted lichen availability from the 1920's to the present day and model its future development assuming different forest management scenarios. We recorded the current occurrence of B. fuscescens in 144 sampling plots, stratified by forest age class and dominant tree species in a 26,600 ha boreal forest landscape that is used for both reindeer herding and forestry. Lichen abundance was visually estimated in four classes: none, sparse, moderate and abundant. A binary logistic model using forest age as the independent variable was developed to predict the probability of lichens being present. Using this model, we found that lichens were present in stands that are at least 63 years old. Because of the relative paucity of stands rich in arboreal lichens, it was not possible to reliably determine how age affects the variation in abundance of older forest stands. The historical development of forests where arboreal lichens could potentially occur was studied using historic forestry records dating back 80 years. Between 1926 and the present day, forestry has reduced the cover of forests older than 60 years from 84% to 34%. The likely future spatial coverage of these stands over the next 120 years was estimated for two different management scenarios and an unmanaged reference scenario, using the Heureka strategic planning program. Under both the “business as usual” scenario and that involving more intensive forestry, continued decreases in lichen availability are projected. Our results emphasize the importance of alternative forestry practices, such as prolonged rotation periods, to increase the availability of arboreal lichens as a grazing resource for reindeer

  12. Correlations between potassium, rubidium and cesium ({sup 133}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) in sporocarps of Suillus variegatus in a Swedish boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinichuk, M., E-mail: Mykhailo.Vinichuk@slu.s [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Ecology, Zhytomyr State Technological University, 103 Cherniakhovsky Str., 10005 Zhytomyr (Ukraine); Rosen, K.; Johanson, K.J. [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Dahlberg, A. [Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7026, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-04-15

    An analysis of sporocarps of ectomycorrhizal fungi Suillus variegatus assessed whether cesium ({sup 133}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) uptake was correlated with potassium (K) or rubidium (Rb) uptake. The question was whether intraspecific correlations of Rb, K and {sup 133}Cs mass concentrations with {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in sporocarps were higher within, rather than among, different fungal species, and if genotypic origin of sporocarps within a population affected uptake and correlation. Sporocarps (n = 51) from a Swedish forest population affected by the fallout after the Chernobyl accident were studied. The concentrations were 31.9 {+-} 6.79 g kg{sup -1} for K (mean {+-} SD, dwt), 0.40 {+-} 0.09 g kg{sup -1} for Rb, 8.7 {+-} 4.36 mg kg{sup -1} for {sup 133}Cs and 63.7 {+-} 24.2 kBq kg{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs. The mass concentrations of {sup 133}Cs correlated with {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations (r = 0.61). There was correlation between both {sup 133}Cs concentrations (r = 0.75) and {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations (r = 0.44) and Rb, but the {sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs isotopic ratio negatively correlated with Rb concentration. Concentrations of K and Rb were weakly correlated (r = 0.51). The {sup 133}Cs mass concentrations, {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations and {sup 137}Cs/{sup 133}Cs isotopic ratios did not correlate with K concentrations. No differences between, within or, among genotypes in S. variegatus were found. This suggested the relationships between K, Rb, {sup 133}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in sporocarps of S. variegatus is similar to other fungal species. - Highlights: {yields} We studied uptake of Cs ({sup 133}Cs and {sup 137}Cs), K and Rb by Suillus variegates sporocarps. {yields} Genotypic origin of fungus did not affect uptake of studied elements (isotopes). {yields} Genotypic origin did not affect correlation between Cs ({sup 133}Cs and {sup 137}Cs), K and Rb.

  13. Age of vegetation simulated by Boreal ALFRESCO for the state of Alaska. Dataset generated in 2010. NAD83, Alaska Albers projection, http://spatialreference.org/ref/epsg/3338/

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — These rasters represent output from the Boreal ALFRESCO (Alaska Frame Based Ecosystem Code) model. Boreal ALFRESCO operates on an annual time step, in a landscape...

  14. The effects of farm size and organic farming on diversity of birds, pollinators, and plants in a Swedish landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfrage, Kristina; Björklund, Johanna; Salomonsson, Lennart

    2005-12-01

    This study compares diversity and abundance of birds plus abundance of butterflies, bumblebees and herbaceous plants between six small farms (farms (>135 ha arable land) in Roslagen in southeastern Sweden. Two of the large and four of the small farms were organic. Large-scale landscape mosaic and underlying bedrock were similar for all farms. Statistical analysis was performed using box-plots on medians and analysis of variance on mean values. More than twice as many bird species and territories, butterflies, and herbaceous plant species, and five times more bumblebees were found on the small compared to the large farms. The largest differences were found between small organic and large conventional farms. Differences were also noted between small and large organic farms: 56% more bird species were found on small organic than on large organic farms, although none of the farms used any pesticides. We therefore argue that the consideration of organic agriculture's effect on biodiversity should include factors affected by farm size.

  15. Strategic analysis of Swedish agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Fogelfors, Håkan; Wivstad, Maria; Eckersten, Henrik; Holstein, Fredrik; Johansson, Susanne; Verwijst, Theo

    2009-01-01

    This strategic analysis of Swedish agriculture – production systems and agricultural landscapes in a time of change – focuses on climate change, future availability of natural resources and economic regulation in a global food market. The background to the project was that the Faculty of Natural Resources and Agriculture of the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences identified an urgent need to explore the implications and opportunities of coming changes for agricultural production syste...

  16. Sustaining Aquatic Ecosystems in Boreal Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Schindler

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Few boreal waters are managed in a sustainable manner, because cumulative effects of a variety of human activities are not considered. Fisheries and water quality have declined in most large water bodies of the southern boreal zone. Some of the reasons are direct, including overexploitation of fisheries, alteration of flow patterns, introductions of non-native species, and discharge of eutrophying nutrients and persistent contaminants. However, improper management of watersheds and airsheds also causes degradation of aquatic ecosystems. Clear-cut logging, climatic warming, acid precipitation, and stratospheric ozone depletion are among the more important of these indirect stressors. There are important interactions among these stressors, requiring that they not be treated in isolation. Ecological sustainability of boreal waters would require that exploitation of all parts of the boreal landscape be much lower than it is at present. Unfortunately, management for sustainability is lagging far behind scientific understanding in most countries.

  17. Silviculture for restoration of degraded temperate and boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Palle Madsen; Emile S. Gardiner

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the temperate and boreal zones, human intervention has influenced landscapes and forests for millennia. The degree of human disturbance has only been constrained by the technology and resources available to different cultures and by time since initial habitation. Humans have influenced forests by regulating populations of browsers, clearing for agriculture,...

  18. Thresholds for Boreal Biome Transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, M.; Hirota, M.; Holmgren, M.; Nes, van E.H.; Chapin, F.S.

    2012-01-01

    Although the boreal region is warming twice as fast as the global average, the way in which the vast boreal forests and tundras may respond is poorly understood. Using satellite data, we reveal marked alternative modes in the frequency distributions of boreal tree cover. At the northern end and at

  19. Hydrological control of organic carbon support for bacterial growth in boreal headwater streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Martin; Laudon, Hjalmar; Jansson, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Terrestrial organic carbon is exported to freshwater systems where it serves as substrate for bacterial growth. Temporal variations in the terrigenous organic carbon support for aquatic bacteria are not well understood. In this paper, we demonstrate how the combined influence of landscape characteristics and hydrology can shape such variations. Using a 13-day bioassay approach, the production and respiration of bacteria were measured in water samples from six small Swedish streams (64 degrees N, 19 degrees E), draining coniferous forests, peat mires, and mixed catchments with typical boreal proportions between forest and mire coverage. Forest drainage supported higher bacterial production and higher bacterial growth efficiency than drainage from mires. The areal export of organic carbon was several times higher from mire than from forest at low runoff, while there was no difference at high flow. As a consequence, mixed streams (catchments including both mire and forest) were dominated by mire organic carbon with low support of bacterial production at low discharge situations but dominated by forest carbon supporting higher bacterial production at high flow. The stimulation of bacterial growth during high-flow episodes was a result of higher relative export of organic carbon via forest drainage rather than increased drainage of specific "high-quality" carbon pools in mire or forest soils.

  20. Resilience of Alaska’s boreal forest to climatic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, F.S.; McGuire, A. David; Ruess, Roger W.; Hollingsworth, Teresa N.; Mack, M.C.; Johnstone, J.F.; Kasischke, E.S.; Euskirchen, E.S.; Jones, J.B.; Jorgenson, M.T.; Kielland, K.; Kofinas, G.; Turetsky, M.R.; Yarie, J.; Lloyd, A.H.; Taylor, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the resilience of Alaska’s boreal forest system to rapid climatic change. Recent warming is associated with reduced growth of dominant tree species, plant disease and insect outbreaks, warming and thawing of permafrost, drying of lakes, increased wildfire extent, increased postfire recruitment of deciduous trees, and reduced safety of hunters traveling on river ice. These changes have modified key structural features, feedbacks, and interactions in the boreal forest, including reduced effects of upland permafrost on regional hydrology, expansion of boreal forest into tundra, and amplification of climate warming because of reduced albedo (shorter winter season) and carbon release from wildfires. Other temperature-sensitive processes for which no trends have been detected include composition of plant and microbial communities, long-term landscape-scale change in carbon stocks, stream discharge, mammalian population dynamics, and river access and subsistence opportunities for rural indigenous communities. Projections of continued warming suggest that Alaska’s boreal forest will undergo significant functional and structural changes within the next few decades that are unprecedented in the last 6000 years. The impact of these social–ecological changes will depend in part on the extent of landscape reorganization between uplands and lowlands and on policies regulating subsistence opportunities for rural communities.

  1. Resilience of Alaska's Boreal Forest to Climatic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, F. S., III; McGuire, A. D.; Ruess, R. W.; Hollingsworth, T. N.; Mack, M. C.; Johnstone, J. F.; Kasischke, E. S.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Jones, J. B.; Jorgenson, M. T.; hide

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the resilience of Alaska s boreal forest system to rapid climatic change. Recent warming is associated with reduced growth of dominant tree species, plant disease and insect outbreaks, warming and thawing of permafrost, drying of lakes, increased wildfire extent, increased postfire recruitment of deciduous trees, and reduced safety of hunters traveling on river ice. These changes have modified key structural features, feedbacks, and interactions in the boreal forest, including reduced effects of upland permafrost on regional hydrology, expansion of boreal forest into tundra, and amplification of climate warming because of reduced albedo (shorter winter season) and carbon release from wildfires. Other temperature-sensitive processes for which no trends have been detected include composition of plant and microbial communities, long-term landscape-scale change in carbon stocks, stream discharge, mammalian population dynamics, and river access and subsistence opportunities for rural indigenous communities. Projections of continued warming suggest that Alaska s boreal forest will undergo significant functional and structural changes within the next few decades that are unprecedented in the last 6000 years. The impact of these social ecological changes will depend in part on the extent of landscape reorganization between uplands and lowlands and on policies regulating subsistence opportunities for rural communities.

  2. Defining fire environment zones in the boreal forests of northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiwei; He, Hong S; Yang, Jian; Liang, Yu

    2015-06-15

    Fire activity in boreal forests will substantially increase with prolonged growing seasons under a warming climate. This trend poses challenges to managing fires in boreal forest landscapes. A fire environment zone map offers a basis for evaluating these fire-related problems and designing more effective fire management plans to improve the allocation of management resources across a landscape. Toward that goal, we identified three fire environment zones across boreal forest landscapes in northeastern China using analytical methods to identify spatial clustering of the environmental variables of climate, vegetation, topography, and human activity. The three fire environment zones were found to be in strong agreement with the spatial distributions of the historical fire data (occurrence, size, and frequency) for 1966-2005. This paper discusses how the resulting fire environment zone map can be used to guide forest fire management and fire regime prediction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evolution of Canada’s Boreal Forest Spatial Patterns as Seen from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickell, Paul D.; Coops, Nicholas C.; Gergel, Sarah E.; Andison, David W.; Marshall, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the development of landscape patterns over broad spatial and temporal scales is a major contribution to ecological sciences and is a critical area of research for forested land management. Boreal forests represent an excellent case study for such research because these forests have undergone significant changes over recent decades. We analyzed the temporal trends of four widely-used landscape pattern indices for boreal forests of Canada: forest cover, largest forest patch index, forest edge density, and core (interior) forest cover. The indices were computed over landscape extents ranging from 5,000 ha (n = 18,185) to 50,000 ha (n = 1,662) and across nine major ecozones of Canada. We used 26 years of Landsat satellite imagery to derive annualized trends of the landscape pattern indices. The largest declines in forest cover, largest forest patch index, and core forest cover were observed in the Boreal Shield, Boreal Plain, and Boreal Cordillera ecozones. Forest edge density increased at all landscape extents for all ecozones. Rapidly changing landscapes, defined as the 90th percentile of forest cover change, were among the most forested initially and were characterized by four times greater decrease in largest forest patch index, three times greater increase in forest edge density, and four times greater decrease in core forest cover compared with all 50,000 ha landscapes. Moreover, approximately 18% of all 50,000 ha landscapes did not change due to a lack of disturbance. The pattern database results provide important context for forest management agencies committed to implementing ecosystem-based management strategies. PMID:27383055

  4. Evolution of Canada's Boreal Forest Spatial Patterns as Seen from Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickell, Paul D; Coops, Nicholas C; Gergel, Sarah E; Andison, David W; Marshall, Peter L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the development of landscape patterns over broad spatial and temporal scales is a major contribution to ecological sciences and is a critical area of research for forested land management. Boreal forests represent an excellent case study for such research because these forests have undergone significant changes over recent decades. We analyzed the temporal trends of four widely-used landscape pattern indices for boreal forests of Canada: forest cover, largest forest patch index, forest edge density, and core (interior) forest cover. The indices were computed over landscape extents ranging from 5,000 ha (n = 18,185) to 50,000 ha (n = 1,662) and across nine major ecozones of Canada. We used 26 years of Landsat satellite imagery to derive annualized trends of the landscape pattern indices. The largest declines in forest cover, largest forest patch index, and core forest cover were observed in the Boreal Shield, Boreal Plain, and Boreal Cordillera ecozones. Forest edge density increased at all landscape extents for all ecozones. Rapidly changing landscapes, defined as the 90th percentile of forest cover change, were among the most forested initially and were characterized by four times greater decrease in largest forest patch index, three times greater increase in forest edge density, and four times greater decrease in core forest cover compared with all 50,000 ha landscapes. Moreover, approximately 18% of all 50,000 ha landscapes did not change due to a lack of disturbance. The pattern database results provide important context for forest management agencies committed to implementing ecosystem-based management strategies.

  5. Evolution of Canada's Boreal Forest Spatial Patterns as Seen from Space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D Pickell

    Full Text Available Understanding the development of landscape patterns over broad spatial and temporal scales is a major contribution to ecological sciences and is a critical area of research for forested land management. Boreal forests represent an excellent case study for such research because these forests have undergone significant changes over recent decades. We analyzed the temporal trends of four widely-used landscape pattern indices for boreal forests of Canada: forest cover, largest forest patch index, forest edge density, and core (interior forest cover. The indices were computed over landscape extents ranging from 5,000 ha (n = 18,185 to 50,000 ha (n = 1,662 and across nine major ecozones of Canada. We used 26 years of Landsat satellite imagery to derive annualized trends of the landscape pattern indices. The largest declines in forest cover, largest forest patch index, and core forest cover were observed in the Boreal Shield, Boreal Plain, and Boreal Cordillera ecozones. Forest edge density increased at all landscape extents for all ecozones. Rapidly changing landscapes, defined as the 90th percentile of forest cover change, were among the most forested initially and were characterized by four times greater decrease in largest forest patch index, three times greater increase in forest edge density, and four times greater decrease in core forest cover compared with all 50,000 ha landscapes. Moreover, approximately 18% of all 50,000 ha landscapes did not change due to a lack of disturbance. The pattern database results provide important context for forest management agencies committed to implementing ecosystem-based management strategies.

  6. Quantifying and characterizing boreal headwater NOM using hydrological understanding, absorbance spectroscopy, and fluorescence techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, José; Köhler, Stephan; Grabs, Thomas; Bishop, Kevin; Kothawala, Dolly; Schiff, Sherry; Futter, Martyn

    2017-04-01

    Boreal forests store large amounts of carbon, especially in headwater terrestrial-aquatic interfaces dominated by OM-rich riparian zones (RZs). Thus, RZs are the main source of natural organic matter (NOM) in boreal surface waters. We hydrologically illustrated that the transfer of substances, including NOM, from RZs to streams is dominated by a narrow depth range with the highest contribution to solute and water fluxes, the so-called dominant source layer (DSL). By comparing the size of potential sources in relation to lateral fluxes in the DSL in several RZs within a Swedish boreal catchment, we demonstrated that there is a potential long-lasting supply of NOM from these RZ into the stream. This was supported by rough estimates of primary production and 14C measurements, which indicated that modern carbon is the predominant fraction exported. Despite the overwhelming quantitative evidence that RZs are the source of NOM to boreal streams, few studies have compared NOM quality in streams, RZs, and upslope areas. Using absorbance indicators and fluorescence techniques we showed that the NOM character in several RZ sampling sites resembles that of the corresponding streams and differs from that of the upslope soils. Given that forecast future climate in the boreal region and depletion of sulfur pools are expected to increase NOM in aquatic systems, potentially disrupting water quality and the global carbon cycle, is critical to integrate quantitative and qualitative approaches to understand OM cycling in boreal RZs.

  7. Disturbance in boreal forest ecosystems: human impacts and natural processes. Proceedings of the International Boreal Forest Research Association 1997 annual meeting; 1997 August 4-7; Duluth, Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan G. Conard

    2000-01-01

    The papers in these proceedings cover a wide range of topics related to human and natural disturbance processes in forests of the boreal zone in North America and Eurasia. Topics include historic and predicted landscape change; forest management; disturbance by insects, fire, air pollution, severe weather, and global climate change; and carbon cycling.

  8. Host-pathogen metapopulation dynamics suggest high elevation refugia for boreal toads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Brittany A.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Muths, Erin L.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P

    2018-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are an increasingly common threat to wildlife. Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is an emerging infectious disease that has been linked to amphibian declines around the world. Few studies exist that explore amphibian-Bd dynamics at the landscape scale, limiting our ability to identify which factors are associated with variation in population susceptibility and to develop effective in situdisease management. Declines of boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas boreas) in the Southern Rocky Mountains are largely attributed to chytridiomycosis but variation exists in local extinction of boreal toads across this metapopulation. Using a large-scale historic dataset, we explored several potential factors influencing disease dynamics in the boreal toad-Bd system: geographic isolation of populations, amphibian community richness, elevational differences, and habitat permanence. We found evidence that boreal toad extinction risk was lowest at high elevations where temperatures may be sub-optimal for Bd growth and where small boreal toad populations may be below the threshold needed for efficient pathogen transmission. In addition, boreal toads were more likely to recolonize high elevation sites after local extinction, again suggesting that high elevations may provide refuge from disease for boreal toads. We illustrate a modeling framework that will be useful to natural resource managers striving to make decisions in amphibian-Bdsystems. Our data suggest that in the southern Rocky Mountains high elevation sites should be prioritized for conservation initiatives like reintroductions.

  9. The Swedish Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    2012-01-01

    The main characteristics of ‘the Swedish model’ are arguably related to the country's knowledge-intensive industry and its advanced welfare state. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the historical development of these two features of the Swedish economy. The first part looks at industrial...

  10. Thresholds for boreal biome transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Marten; Hirota, Marina; Holmgren, Milena; Van Nes, Egbert H; Chapin, F Stuart

    2012-12-26

    Although the boreal region is warming twice as fast as the global average, the way in which the vast boreal forests and tundras may respond is poorly understood. Using satellite data, we reveal marked alternative modes in the frequency distributions of boreal tree cover. At the northern end and at the dry continental southern extremes, treeless tundra and steppe, respectively, are the only possible states. However, over a broad intermediate temperature range, these treeless states coexist with boreal forest (∼75% tree cover) and with two more open woodland states (∼20% and ∼45% tree cover). Intermediate tree covers (e.g., ∼10%, ∼30%, and ∼60% tree cover) between these distinct states are relatively rare, suggesting that they may represent unstable states where the system dwells only transiently. Mechanisms for such instabilities remain to be unraveled, but our results have important implications for the anticipated response of these ecosystems to climatic change. The data reveal that boreal forest shows no gradual decline in tree cover toward its limits. Instead, our analysis suggests that it becomes less resilient in the sense that it may more easily shift into a sparse woodland or treeless state. Similarly, the relative scarcity of the intermediate ∼10% tree cover suggests that tundra may shift relatively abruptly to a more abundant tree cover. If our inferences are correct, climate change may invoke massive nonlinear shifts in boreal biomes.

  11. Decomposition of soil organic matter from boreal black spruce forest: environmental and chemical controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly P. Wickland; Jason C. Neff

    2007-01-01

    Black spruce forests are a dominant covertype in the boreal forest region, and they inhabit landscapes that span a wide range of hydrologic and thermal conditions. These forests often have large stores of soil organic carbon. Recent increases in temperature at northern latitudes may be stimulating decomposition rates of this soil carbon. It is unclear, however, how...

  12. Foreword: The dynamics of change in Alaska’s boreal forests: Resilience and vulnerability in response to climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, A. David; Chapin, F. Stuart; Ruess, Roger W.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term research by the Bonanza Creek (BNZ) Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) program has documented natural patterns of interannual and successional variability of the boreal forest in interior Alaska against which we can detect changes in system behavior. Between 2004 and 2010 the BNZ LTER program focused on understanding the dynamics of change through studying the resilience and vulnerability of Alaska's boreal forest in response to climate warming. The overarching question in this endeavor has been “How are boreal ecosystems responding, both gradually and abruptly, to climate warming, and what new landscape patterns are emerging?”

  13. Swedish Government Minister at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research recently visited CERN. The Swedish Minister was greeted by Swedish scientists working at CERN. Signing of the Swedish Computing Memorandum of Understanding. Pär Omling, Director-General of the Swedish Research Council (left), and Jos Engelen, CERN’s Chief Scientific Officer. Lars Leijonborg, the Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research, was welcomed to CERN by Director-General Robert Aymar on 10 March. After an introduction to the Laboratory’s activities, the Minister was given guided tours of the control room, the ATLAS surface hall and experiment cavern and the adjoining LHC tunnel. Mr Leijonborg was then greeted by Swedish scientists and given an overview of the Swedish research programme at CERN. Five Swedish university groups are taking part in LHC research. Swedish universities are notably involved in the manufacture of parts for the sub-detectors of AT...

  14. Nesting ecology of whimbrels in boreal Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Breeding ecology studies of boreal waders have been relatively scarce in North America. This paucity is due in part to boreal habitats being difficult to access, and...

  15. Resilience of Alaska's boreal forest to climatic change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapin, F.S. III; Ruess, R.W.; Euskirchen, E.S.; Jones, J.B.; Kielland, K.; Taylor, D.L. [Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States). Dept. of Biology, Inst. of Arctic Biology; McGuire, A.D. [United Sates Geological Survey, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Alaska Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit; Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States); Hollingsworth, T.N. [United States Dept. of Agriculture, Portland, OR (United States). Forest Services, Pacific Northwest Research Station; Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States); Mack, M.C. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Botany; Johnstone, J.F. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Kasischke, E.S. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Geography; Jorgenson, M.T. [Alaska Ecoscience, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Kofinas, G.P. [Alaska Univ., Fairanks, AK (United States). School of Natural Resources and Agricultureal Sciences, Inst. of Arctic Biology; Turetsky, M.R. [Guelph Univ., Guelph, ON (Canada). Dept. of Integrative Biology; Yarie, J. [Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States). Dept. of Forest Sciences, Forest Soils Laboratory; Lloyd, A.H. [Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT (United States). Dept. of Biology

    2010-07-15

    This paper reported on a study that evaluated the resilience of Alaska's boreal forest system to rapid climatic change. As the most northern and coldest forested biome, the boreal forest is underlain by discontinuous permafrost. High-latitude amplification of global warming has caused Alaska's boreal forest to warm twice as rapidly as the global average. Recent warming has resulted in reduced growth of dominant tree species, plant disease, insect outbreaks, thawing of permafrost, drying of lakes and increased wildfires. These changes have modified key structural features in the boreal forest, including long-term landscape-scale change in carbon stocks. This study reviewed the findings of the Bonanza Creek Long-Term Ecological Research program and determined that the Alaskan boreal system remains quite resilient but is undergoing changes in ecosystem and landscape structure, feedbacks, and interactions that, with continued warming, will likely cause reorganization or potentially transformation to a fundamentally different system. Permafrost will also remain relatively resilient to continued warming except in high-ice-content lowlands and in areas burned by severe wildfires. The greatest sources of uncertainty are changes in snow cover, which will influence the rate at which these changes occur. 71 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Vegetation limits the impact of a warm climate on boreal wildfires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardin, Martin P; Ali, Adam A; Carcaillet, Christopher; Blarquez, Olivier; Hély, Christelle; Terrier, Aurélie; Genries, Aurélie; Bergeron, Yves

    2013-09-01

    Strategic introduction of less flammable broadleaf vegetation into landscapes was suggested as a management strategy for decreasing the risk of boreal wildfires projected under climatic change. However, the realization and strength of this offsetting effect in an actual environment remain to be demonstrated. Here we combined paleoecological data, global climate models and wildfire modelling to assess regional fire frequency (RegFF, i.e. the number of fires through time) in boreal forests as it relates to tree species composition and climate over millennial time-scales. Lacustrine charcoals from northern landscapes of eastern boreal Canada indicate that RegFF during the mid-Holocene (6000-3000 yr ago) was significantly higher than pre-industrial RegFF (AD c. 1750). In southern landscapes, RegFF was not significantly higher than the pre-industrial RegFF in spite of the declining drought severity. The modelling experiment indicates that the high fire risk brought about by a warmer and drier climate in the south during the mid-Holocene was offset by a higher broadleaf component. Our data highlight an important function for broadleaf vegetation in determining boreal RegFF in a warmer climate. We estimate that its feedback may be large enough to offset the projected climate change impacts on drought conditions. © 2013 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Carbon balance and climate change in boreal forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatti, J. S.; Laird, L. D.; Banfield, E. [Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Van Kooten, G. C. [Victoria Univ., Dept. of Economics, Victoria, BC (Canada); Apps, M. J. [Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC (Canada); Campbell, I. D. [Natural Resources Canada, Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Campbell, C. [Canadian Forest Service, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Turetsky, M. R. [U. S. Geological Survey, Western Region Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Yu, Z. [Lehigh Univ., Earth and Environmental Sciences, Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Carbon is exchanged between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere through photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, and combustion, hence its importance to global climate. To explain that role, this chapter discusses the role of the boreal forest in the carbon cycle, the expected impacts of climate change on the boreal ecosystem, and the effects of various natural and human factors on the carbon balance of the forest. Economic and forest management issues in relation to carbon resources of the forest are also explored in light of the Kyoto Protocol commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, along with challenges to sustainable forest management seen from the vantage point of climatic change. Among natural disasters, fire, infestation by insects and pathogens,storms, floods, and landslides receive attention, whereas in the area of human impacts attention is focused on land-use practices, and forest stand and landscape-level management. An overview of the Kyoto Protocol, Canada's commitments, the concepts of emissions trading, and carbon credits and the role of forestry, is provided. Other subjects explored include options for minimizing carbon emission in boreal forestry, and the economic impacts of adaptation to climate change on forestry. 245 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs.

  18. The Swedish Academy Dictionary Project

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    (bo.wendt@svenskaakademien.se), Dictionary Staff of the Swedish Academy,. Lund, Sweden. Abstract: The Swedish Academy Dictionary is one of the world's largest dictionary projects. Work on it was started in 1884 and it will be completed by 2017. The dictionary describes the writ- ten standard language of Swedish from ...

  19. Ecological Sustainability of Birds in Boreal Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Niemi

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available We review characteristics of birds in boreal forests in the context of their ecological sustainability under both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. We identify the underlying ecological factors associated with boreal bird populations and their variability, review the interactions between boreal bird populations and disturbance, and describe some tools on how boreal bird populations may be conserved in the future. The boreal system has historically been an area with extensive disturbance such as fire, insect outbreaks, and wind. In addition, the boreal system is vulnerable to global climate change as well as increasing pressure on forest and water resources. Current knowledge indicates that birds play an important role in boreal forests, and sustaining these populations affords many benefits to the health of boreal forests. Many issues must be approached with caution, including the lack of knowledge on our ability to mimic natural disturbance regimes with management, our lack of understanding on fragmentation due to logging activity, which is different from permanent conversion to other land uses such as agriculture or residential area, and our lack of knowledge on what controls variability in boreal bird populations or the linkage between bird population fluctuations and productivity. The essential role that birds can provide is to clarify important ecological concerns and variables that not only will help to sustain bird populations, but also will contribute to the long-term health of the boreal forest for all species, including humans.

  20. Coupling of Water and Carbon Cycles in Boreal Ecosystems at Watershed and National Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; Ju, W.; Govind, A.; Sonnentag, O.

    2009-05-01

    The boreal landscapes is relatively flat giving the impression of spatial homogeneity. However, glacial activities have left distinct fingerprints on the vegetation distribution on moderately rolling terrains over the boreal landscape. Upland or lowland forests types or wetlands having various degrees of hydrological connectivitiy to the surrounding terrain are typical of the boreal landscape. The nature of the terrain creates unique hydrological conditions affecting the local-scale ecophysiological and biogeochemical processes. As part of the Canadian Carbon Program, we investigated the importance of lateral water redistribution through surface and subsurface flows in the spatial distribution of the vertical fluxes of water and carbon. A spatially explicit hydroecological model (BEPS-TerrainLab) has been developed and tested in forested and wetland watersheds . Remotely sensed vegetation parameters along with other spatial datasets are used to run this model, and tower flux data are used for partial validation. It is demonstrated in both forest and wetland watersheds that ignoring the lateral water redistribution over the landscape, commonly done in 1-dimensional bucket models, can cause considerable biases in the vertical carbon and water flux estimation, in addition to the distortion of the spatial patterns of these fluxes. The biases in the carbon flux are considerably larger than those in the water flux. The significance of these findings in national carbon budget estimation is demonstrated by separate modeling of 2015 watersheds over the Canadian landmass.

  1. Maintaining animal assemblages through single-species management: the case of threatened caribou in boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichet, Orphé; Dupuch, Angélique; Hébert, Christian; Le Borgne, Hélène Le; Fortin, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    With the intensification of human activities, preserving animal populations is a contemporary challenge of critical importance. In this context, the umbrella species concept is appealing because preserving a single species should result in the protection of multiple co-occurring species. Practitioners, though, face the task of having to find suitable umbrellas to develop single-species management guidelines. In North America, boreal forests must be managed to facilitate the recovery of the threatened boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Yet, the effect of caribou conservation on co-occurring animal species remains poorly documented. We tested if boreal caribou can constitute an effective umbrella for boreal fauna. Birds, small mammals, and insects were sampled along gradients of post-harvest and post-fire forest succession. Predictive models of occupancy were developed from the responses of 95 species to characteristics of forest stands and their surroundings. We then assessed the similarity of species occupancy expected between simulated harvested landscapes and a 90 000-km2 uncut landscape. Managed landscapes were simulated based on three levels of disturbance, two timber-harvest rotation cycles, and dispersed or aggregated cut-blocks. We found that management guidelines that were more likely to maintain caribou populations should also better preserve animal assemblages. Relative to fragmentation or harvest cycle, we detected a stronger effect of habitat loss on species assemblages. Disturbing 22%, 35%, and 45% of the landscape should result, respectively, in 80%, 60%, and 40% probability for caribou populations to be sustainable; in turn, this should result in regional species assemblages with Jaccard similarity indices of 0.86, 0.79, and 0.74, respectively, relative to the uncut landscape. Our study thus demonstrates the value of single-species management for animal conservation. Our quantitative approach allows for the evaluation of management guidelines prior

  2. Sources and sinks of carbon in boreal ecosystems of interior Alaska: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A. Douglas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Boreal ecosystems store large quantities of carbon but are increasingly vulnerable to carbon loss due to disturbance and climate warming. The boreal region in Alaska and Canada, largely underlain by discontinuous permafrost, presents a challenging landscape for itemizing carbon sources and sinks in soil and vegetation. The roles of fire, forest succession, and the presence (or absence of permafrost on carbon cycle, vegetation, and hydrologic processes have been the focus of multidisciplinary research in boreal ecosystems for the past 20 years. However, projections of a warming future climate, an increase in fire severity and extent, and the potential degradation of permafrost could lead to major landscape and carbon cycle changes over the next 20 to 50 years. To assist land managers in interior Alaska in adapting and managing for potential changes in the carbon cycle we developed this review paper by incorporating an overview of the climate, ecosystem processes, vegetation, and soil regimes. Our objective is to provide a synthesis of the most current carbon storage estimates and measurements to guide policy and land management decisions on how to best manage carbon sources and sinks. We surveyed estimates of aboveground and belowground carbon stocks for interior Alaska boreal ecosystems and summarized methane and carbon dioxide fluxes. These data have been converted into similar units to facilitate comparison across ecosystem compartments. We identify potential changes in the carbon cycle with climate change and human disturbance. A novel research question is how compounding disturbances affect carbon sources and sinks associated with boreal ecosystem processes. Finally, we provide recommendations to address the challenges facing land managers in efforts to manage carbon cycle processes. The results of this study can be used for carbon cycle management in other locations within the boreal biome which encompasses a broad distribution

  3. Large impacts of climatic warming on growth of boreal forests since 1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppi, Pekka E; Posch, Maximilian; Pirinen, Pentti

    2014-01-01

    Boreal forests are sensitive to climatic warming, because low temperatures hold back ecosystem processes, such as the mobilization of nitrogen in soils. A greening of the boreal landscape has been observed using remote sensing, and the seasonal amplitude of CO2 in the northern hemisphere has increased, indicating warming effects on ecosystem productivity. However, field observations on responses of ecosystem productivity have been lacking on a large sub-biome scale. Here we report a significant increase in the annual growth of boreal forests in Finland in response to climatic warming, especially since 1990. This finding is obtained by linking meteorological records and forest inventory data on an area between 60° and 70° northern latitude. An additional increase in growth has occurred in response to changes in other drivers, such as forest management, nitrogen deposition and/or CO2 concentration. A similar warming impact can be expected in the entire boreal zone, where warming takes place. Given the large size of the boreal biome - more than ten million km2- important climate feedbacks are at stake, such as the future carbon balance, transpiration and albedo.

  4. Large impacts of climatic warming on growth of boreal forests since 1960.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka E Kauppi

    Full Text Available Boreal forests are sensitive to climatic warming, because low temperatures hold back ecosystem processes, such as the mobilization of nitrogen in soils. A greening of the boreal landscape has been observed using remote sensing, and the seasonal amplitude of CO2 in the northern hemisphere has increased, indicating warming effects on ecosystem productivity. However, field observations on responses of ecosystem productivity have been lacking on a large sub-biome scale. Here we report a significant increase in the annual growth of boreal forests in Finland in response to climatic warming, especially since 1990. This finding is obtained by linking meteorological records and forest inventory data on an area between 60° and 70° northern latitude. An additional increase in growth has occurred in response to changes in other drivers, such as forest management, nitrogen deposition and/or CO2 concentration. A similar warming impact can be expected in the entire boreal zone, where warming takes place. Given the large size of the boreal biome - more than ten million km2- important climate feedbacks are at stake, such as the future carbon balance, transpiration and albedo.

  5. Simulating Changes in Fires and Ecology of the 21st Century Eurasian Boreal Forests of Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia Brazhnik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wildfires release the greatest amount of carbon into the atmosphere compared to other forest disturbances. To understand how current and potential future fire regimes may affect the role of the Eurasian boreal forest in the global carbon cycle, we employed a new, spatially-explicit fire module DISTURB-F (DISTURBance-Fire in tandem with a spatially-explicit, individually-based gap dynamics model SIBBORK (SIBerian BOReal forest simulator calibrated to Krasnoyarsk Region. DISTURB-F simulates the effect of forest fire on the boreal ecosystem, namely the mortality of all or only the susceptible trees (loss of biomass, i.e., carbon within the forested landscape. The fire module captures some important feedbacks between climate, fire and vegetation structure. We investigated the potential climate-driven changes in the fire regime and vegetation in middle and south taiga in central Siberia, a region with extensive boreal forest and rapidly changing climate. The output from this coupled simulation can be used to estimate carbon losses from the ecosystem as a result of fires of different sizes and intensities over the course of secondary succession (decades to centuries. Furthermore, it may be used to assess the post-fire carbon storage capacity of potential future forests, the structure and composition of which may differ significantly from current Eurasian boreal forests due to regeneration under a different climate.

  6. Fire impacts on European Boreal soils: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Oliva, Marc; Cerda, Artemi

    2016-04-01

    Fire is an important natural disturbance in boreal ecosystems, fundamental to understand plant distribution (Ryan, 2002; Wallenius et al., 2004; Granstrom, 2001). Nevertheless, nowadays the intense and successful, fire suppression measures are changing their ecological role (Pereira et al., 2013a,b). This is consequence of the lack of understanding of stakeholders and decision makers about the role of the fire in the ecosystems (Mierasukas and Pereira, 2013; Pereira et al., 2016). This fire suppression measures are increasing the amount of fuel accumulation and the risk of severe wildfires, which can increase of frequency and severity in a context of climate change. Fire is a good tool for landscape management and restoration of degraded ecosystems (Toivanen and Kotiaho, 2007). Fire is considered a soil forming factor (Certini, 2014) and in boreal environments it has been observed that low fire severities, do not change importantly soil properties, mean fire severities induce positive impacts on soil, since add an important amounts of nutrients into soil profile and high severity fires had negative impacts due to the high consumption of organic matter (Vanha-Majamaa et al., 2007; Pereira et al., 2014). References Certini, G., 2014. Fire as a soil-forming factor. Ambio, 43, 191-195 Granstrom A. 2001. Fire management for biodiversity in the European Boreal forest. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 3: 62-69. Mierauskas, P., Pereira, P. (2013) Stakeholders perception about prescribed fire use in Lithuania. First results, Flamma, 4(3), 157-161. Pereira, P., Cerdà, A., Jordán, A., Bolutiene, V., Úbeda, X., Pranskevicius, M., Mataix-Solera, J. (2013) Spatio-temporal vegetation recuperation after a grassland fire in Lithuania, Procedia Environmental Sciences, 19:856-864 Pereira, P., Mierauskas, P., Ubeda, X., Mataix-Solera, J.,Cerda, A. (2012) Fire in protected areas - the effect of the protection and importance of fire management, Environmental Research

  7. Fire Regime along Latitudinal Gradients of Continuous to Discontinuous Coniferous Boreal Forests in Eastern Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanne Portier; Sylvie Gauthier; Alain Leduc; Dominique Arseneault; Yves Bergeron

    2016-01-01

    Fire is the main disturbance in North American coniferous boreal forests. In Northern Quebec, Canada, where forest management is not allowed, the landscape is gradually constituted of more opened lichen woodlands. Those forests are discontinuous and show a low regeneration potential resulting from the cumulative effects of harsh climatic conditions and very short fire intervals. In a climate change context, and because the forest industry is interested in opening new territories to forest man...

  8. Landscape Studio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Lundsgaard

    2017-01-01

    Landscape studio documents is the biography of the method 'design conversation' and contributes to the way we work with landscapes. The blog communicates renewed landscape didactics and leads to the innovation of design practices.......Landscape studio documents is the biography of the method 'design conversation' and contributes to the way we work with landscapes. The blog communicates renewed landscape didactics and leads to the innovation of design practices....

  9. Salmonella in Swedish cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ågren, Estelle

    2017-01-01

    In Sweden, all herds detected with salmonella are put under restrictions and measures aiming at eradication are required. The purpose of these studies was to provide a basis for decisions on how surveillance and control of salmonella in Swedish cattle can be made more cost-efficient. Results from a bulk milk screening were used to investigate seroprevalence of salmonella and to study associations between salmonella status and geographical location, local animal density, number of test pos...

  10. Swedish electricity market 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The organization of the Swedish electricity market has been in a state of continual change since the electricity market reform was started in the early 1990s. The conditions for the development of the electricity market have changed since the new Electricity Act came into force on 1 January 1996. The purpose of the reform is to introduce greater competition on the electricity market and provide the consumers with greater freedom of choice and, by open trade in electricity, to create the conditions for more efficient pricing. Being the central energy authority, the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development, NUTEK, was entrusted by the Government with the task of following developments on the Swedish electricity market. The Network Authority, which has the supervisory function for the new electricity market, were entrusted by the Government with the task of following developments on the Swedish electricity market and regularly compiling and reporting current market information. The new electricity market has now been operative for ten months. The Network Authority has submitted to the Government a detailed report entitled `Developments on the electricity market`, dealing with the experience gained from the electricity market reform. The purpose of the publication is to provide the players on the electricity market - the decision makers, the media and the general public - with comprehensive and easily accessible information on the market conditions. The publication includes summaries of information on electricity production and use in recent years, the structure of the electricity market from the perspective of a player, electricity trade in Sweden and in northern Europe, electricity prices in Sweden and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment

  11. Swedish Family Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrstrom, Staffan

    1986-01-01

    Family policy remains one of the leading issues of Swedish domestic politics. All parties are agreed that families with children must be given a better deal in the wake of the economic crisis. But how is this to be done and how quickly can it be achieved? Is the expansion of day nursery facilities to be speeded up, or are parents to be given a…

  12. Continental divide: Predicting climate-mediated fragmentation and biodiversity loss in the boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Dennis L; Peers, Michael J L; Majchrzak, Yasmine N; Wehtje, Morgan; Ferreira, Catarina; Pickles, Rob S A; Row, Jeffrey R; Thornton, Daniel H

    2017-01-01

    Climate change threatens natural landscapes through shifting distribution and abundance of species and attendant change in the structure and function of ecosystems. However, it remains unclear how climate-mediated variation in species' environmental niche space may lead to large-scale fragmentation of species distributions, altered meta-population dynamics and gene flow, and disrupted ecosystem integrity. Such change may be especially relevant when species distributions are restricted either spatially or to a narrow environmental niche, or when environments are rapidly changing. Here, we use range-wide environmental niche models to posit that climate-mediated range fragmentation aggravates the direct effects of climate change on species in the boreal forest of North America. We show that climate change will directly alter environmental niche suitability for boreal-obligate species of trees, birds and mammals (n = 12), with most species ranges becoming smaller and shifting northward through time. Importantly, species distributions will become increasingly fragmented, as characterized by smaller mean size and greater isolation of environmentally-suitable landscape patches. This loss is especially pronounced along the Ontario-Québec border, where the boreal forest is narrowest and roughly 78% of suitable niche space could disappear by 2080. Despite the diversity of taxa surveyed, patterns of range fragmentation are remarkably consistent, with our models predicting that spruce grouse (Dendragapus canadensis), boreal chickadee (Poecile hudsonicus), moose (Alces americanus) and caribou (Rangifer tarandus) could have entirely disjunct east-west population segments in North America. These findings reveal potentially dire consequences of climate change on population continuity and species diversity in the boreal forest, highlighting the need to better understand: 1) extent and primary drivers of anticipated climate-mediated range loss and fragmentation; 2) diversity of

  13. Regional atmospheric cooling and wetting effect of permafrost thaw-induced boreal forest loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Manuel; Wischnewski, Karoline; Kljun, Natascha; Chasmer, Laura E; Quinton, William L; Detto, Matteo; Sonnentag, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    In the sporadic permafrost zone of North America, thaw-induced boreal forest loss is leading to permafrost-free wetland expansion. These land cover changes alter landscape-scale surface properties with potentially large, however, still unknown impacts on regional climates. In this study, we combine nested eddy covariance flux tower measurements with satellite remote sensing to characterize the impacts of boreal forest loss on albedo, eco-physiological and aerodynamic surface properties, and turbulent energy fluxes of a lowland boreal forest region in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Planetary boundary layer modelling is used to estimate the potential forest loss impact on regional air temperature and atmospheric moisture. We show that thaw-induced conversion of forests to wetlands increases albedo: and bulk surface conductance for water vapour and decreases aerodynamic surface temperature. At the same time, heat transfer efficiency is reduced. These shifts in land surface properties increase latent at the expense of sensible heat fluxes, thus, drastically reducing Bowen ratios. Due to the lower albedo of forests and their masking effect of highly reflective snow, available energy is lower in wetlands, especially in late winter. Modelling results demonstrate that a conversion of a present-day boreal forest-wetland to a hypothetical homogeneous wetland landscape could induce a near-surface cooling effect on regional air temperatures of up to 3-4 °C in late winter and 1-2 °C in summer. An atmospheric wetting effect in summer is indicated by a maximum increase in water vapour mixing ratios of 2 mmol mol-1 . At the same time, maximum boundary layer heights are reduced by about a third of the original height. In fall, simulated air temperature and atmospheric moisture between the two scenarios do not differ. Therefore, permafrost thaw-induced boreal forest loss may modify regional precipitation patterns and slow down regional warming trends. © 2016 John Wiley

  14. Environmental Management at Swedish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Karin

    2004-01-01

    Since 1996, all Swedish public authorities, which includes most universities, have been made responsible for contributing to the sustainable development of the society. Swedish universities are thus required to submit annual environmental reports about their policies, structures and actions. This study provides a review of the activities that…

  15. Estimation of Boreal Forest Attributes from Very High Resolution Pléiades Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik J. Persson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the potential of using very high resolution Pléiades imagery to estimate a number of common forest attributes for 10-m plots in boreal forest was examined, when a high-resolution terrain model was available. The explanatory variables were derived from three processing alternatives. Height metrics were extracted from image matching of the images acquired from different incidence angles. Spectral derivatives were derived by performing principal component analysis of the spectral bands and lastly, second order textural metrics were extracted from a gray-level co-occurrence matrix, computed with an 11 × 11 pixels moving window. The analysis took place at two Swedish test sites, Krycklan and Remningstorp, containing boreal and hemi-boreal forest. The lowest RMSE was estimated with 1.4 m (7.7% for Lorey’s mean height, 1.7 m (10% for airborne laser scanning height percentile 90, 5.1 m2·ha−1 (22% for basal area, 66 m3·ha−1 (27% for stem volume, and 26 tons·ha−1 (26% for above-ground biomass, respectively. It was found that the image-matched height metrics were most important in all models, and that the spectral and textural metrics contained similar information. Nevertheless, the best estimations were obtained when all three explanatory sources were used. To conclude, image-matched height metrics should be prioritised over spectral metrics when estimation of forest attributes is concerned.

  16. Changes in fungal communities along a boreal forest soil fertility gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterkenburg, Erica; Bahr, Adam; Brandström Durling, Mikael; Clemmensen, Karina E; Lindahl, Björn D

    2015-09-01

    Boreal forests harbour diverse fungal communities with decisive roles in decomposition and plant nutrition. Although changes in boreal plant communities along gradients in soil acidity and nitrogen (N) availability are well described, less is known about how fungal taxonomic and functional groups respond to soil fertility factors. We analysed fungal communities in humus and litter from 25 Swedish old-growth forests, ranging from N-rich Picea abies stands to acidic and N-poor Pinus sylvestris stands. 454-pyrosequencing of ITS2 amplicons was used to analyse community composition, and biomass was estimated by ergosterol analysis. Fungal community composition was significantly related to soil fertility at the levels of species, genera/orders and functional groups. Ascomycetes dominated in less fertile forests, whereas basidiomycetes increased in abundance in more fertile forests, both in litter and humus. The relative abundance of mycorrhizal fungi in the humus layer remained high even in the most fertile soils. Tolerance to acidity and nitrogen deficiency seems to be of greater importance than plant carbon (C) allocation patterns in determining responses of fungal communities to soil fertility, in old-growth boreal forests. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Anurans in a Subarctic Tundra Landscape Near Cape Churchill, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Boal, C.W.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Distribution, abundance, and habitat relationships of anurans inhabiting subarctic regions are poorly understood, and anuran monitoring protocols developed for temperate regions may not be applicable across large roadless areas of northern landscapes. In addition, arctic and subarctic regions of North America are predicted to experience changes in climate and, in some areas, are experiencing habitat alteration due to high rates of herbivory by breeding and migrating waterfowl. To better understand subarctic anuran abundance, distribution, and habitat associations, we conducted anuran calling surveys in the Cape Churchill region of Wapusk National Park, Manitoba, Canada, in 2004 and 2005. We conducted surveys along ~l-km transects distributed across three landscape types (coastal tundra, interior sedge meadow-tundra, and boreal forest-tundra interface) to estimate densities and probabilities of detection of Boreal Chorus Frogs (Pseudacris maculata) and Wood Frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus). We detected a Wood Frog or Boreal Chorus Frog on 22 (87%) of 26 transects surveyed, but probability of detection varied between years and species and among landscape types. Estimated densities of both species increased from the coastal zone inland toward the boreal forest edge. Our results suggest anurans occur across all three landscape types in our study area, but that species-specific spatial patterns exist in their abundances. Considerations for both spatial and temporal variation in abundance and detection probability need to be incorporated into surveys and monitoring programs for subarctic anurans.

  18. Negligible in-stream processing of dissolved organic matter in low order boreal streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothawala, Dolly; Ji, Xing; Laudon, Hjalmar; Ågren, Anneli; Futter, Martyn; Köhler, Stephan; Tranvik, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Low order boreal streams have been considered to be reactive interfaces where dissolved organic matter (DOM) enters inland waters from the surrounding catchment soils. Disentangling the relative influence of key environmental factors suspected to influence stream water DOM composition is highly relevant for predicting the reactivity, and fate of terrestrial DOM. Here, we examined changes to DOM composition using optical approaches from 17 boreal streams, ranging from first to fourth order, over 14 months. We identified two specific fluorescing components, which expressed either a clear mire-wetland or forest signature, providing distinct molecular markers of land cover that is typical of the boreal ecozone. In fact, land cover alone explained 49% of the variability in stream DOM composition. In contrast, seasonal fluctuations in hydrology only contributed to minor shifts (8%) in DOM composition. Perhaps most intriguingly, in-stream transformations to DOM composition were undetectable, suggesting that the extent of in-stream processing was negligible. These findings suggest that low order boreal streams act as passive pipes rather than active reactors. Ultimately, we find that that in-stream processing of DOM was restricted by water residence times (less than 2 days). In summary, these results now leave us better equipped to predict where in the landscape, and when during the year, key DOM transformations may occur within the aquatic conduit.

  19. Carbon balance of the Alaskan boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Yarie; Tim Hammond

    1996-01-01

    Determination of the carbon balance in a broad forest region like the Alaskan boreal forest requires the development of a number of important environmental (state factors) classes to allow for the development of carbon balance estimates.

  20. Boreal forest health and global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, S; Bernier, P; Kuuluvainen, T; Shvidenko, A Z; Schepaschenko, D G

    2015-08-21

    The boreal forest, one of the largest biomes on Earth, provides ecosystem services that benefit society at levels ranging from local to global. Currently, about two-thirds of the area covered by this biome is under some form of management, mostly for wood production. Services such as climate regulation are also provided by both the unmanaged and managed boreal forests. Although most of the boreal forests have retained the resilience to cope with current disturbances, projected environmental changes of unprecedented speed and amplitude pose a substantial threat to their health. Management options to reduce these threats are available and could be implemented, but economic incentives and a greater focus on the boreal biome in international fora are needed to support further adaptation and mitigation actions. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. A boreal invasion in response to climate change? Range shifts and community effects in the borderland between forest and tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmhagen, Bodil; Kindberg, Jonas; Hellström, Peter; Angerbjörn, Anders

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that climate warming will allow southern species to advance north and invade northern ecosystems. We review the changes in the Swedish mammal and bird community in boreal forest and alpine tundra since the nineteenth century, as well as suggested drivers of change. Observed changes include (1) range expansion and increased abundance in southern birds, ungulates, and carnivores; (2) range contraction and decline in northern birds and carnivores; and (3) abundance decline or periodically disrupted dynamics in cyclic populations of small and medium-sized mammals and birds. The first warm spell, 1930-1960, stands out as a period of substantial faunal change. However, in addition to climate warming, suggested drivers of change include land use and other anthropogenic factors. We hypothesize all these drivers interacted, primarily favoring southern generalists. Future research should aim to distinguish between effects of climate and land-use change in boreal and tundra ecosystems.

  2. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  3. Verification of satellite radar remote sensing based estimates of boreal and subalpine growing seasons using an ecosystem process model and surface biophysical measurement network information

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, K. C.; Kimball, J. S.; Zimmerman, R.

    2002-01-01

    We employ daily surface Radar backscatter data from the SeaWinds Ku-band Scatterometer onboard Quikscat to estimate landscape freeze-thaw state and associated length of the seasonal non-frozen period as a surrogate for determining the annual growing season across boreal and subalpine regions of North America for 2000 and 2001.

  4. Fire Severity and Soil Carbon Combustion in Boreal and Tundra Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, X. J.; Mack, M. C.; Baltzer, J. L.; Cummings, S.; Day, N.; Goetz, S.; Johnstone, J. F.; Rogers, B. M.; Turetsky, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Climate warming in northern latitudes has led to an intensification of wildfire disturbance. Increased fire frequency, extent, and severity is expected to strongly impact the structure and function of northern ecosystems. In this study, we examined 50 sites in a recently burned tundra ecosystem of Alaska, USA and 250 sites in recently burned boreal conifer forest ecosystems of Northwest Territories, Canada. The majority of organic carbon (C) in both boreal and tundra ecosystems resides in the soil organic layer (SOL) and combustion of this layer can lead to large C emissions. Through examining multiple fire scars in different regions, ranging in moisture, elevation, and pre-fire vegetation communities, we can determine the ecosystem, landscape, and regional controls on SOL combustion and the potential shift in C storage. In this research, we use scalable SOL consumption metrics to estimate depth of burn and the associated C emissions. Preliminary results from boreal conifer sites indicate that nearly 50% of the pre-fire soil C pool was combusted and that over 75% of the total C emitted from the extreme fire year of 2014 can be attributed to combustion of the SOL. Increased combustion of SOL associated with an intensifying fire regime could shift boreal and tundra ecosystems across a C cycle threshold: from net accumulation of C from the atmosphere over multiple fire cycles, to a net loss. Understanding changes in SOL combustion and C storage is essential for assessing the consequences of an altered fire regime on permafrost dynamics, vegetation regeneration, and the initiation of successional trajectories in tundra and boreal ecosystems.

  5. Landscape Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2017-01-01

    Landscape ecology is an interdisciplinary field of research and practice that deals with the mutual association between the spatial configuration and ecological functioning of landscapes, exploring and describing processes involved in the differentiation of spaces within landscapes......, and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...... pattern analysis and ecological interaction of land units. The landscape is seen as a holon: an assemblage of interrelated phenomena, both cultural and biophysical, that together form a complex whole. Enduring challenges to landscape ecology include the need to develop a systematic approach able...

  6. The driving forces of landscape change in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Draux, Hélène; Fagerholm, Nora

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, landscapes worldwide have experienced changes (e.g., urbanization, agricultural intensification, expansion of renewable energy uses) at magnitudes that put their sustainability at risk. The understanding of the drivers of these landscape changes remains challenging, partly...... because landscape research is spread across many domains and disciplines. We here provide a systematic synthesis of 144 studies that identify the proximate and underlying drivers of landscape change across Europe. First, we categorize how driving forces have been addressed and find that most studies......; low Gross Domestic Product; boreal, steppic, and arctic landscapes; as well as forestland systems are underrepresented in the literature. Third, our review shows that land abandonment/extensification is the most prominent (62% of cases) among multiple proximate drivers of landscape change. Fourthly...

  7. Sources and sinks of carbon in boreal ecosystems of interior Alaska: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Thomas A.; Jones, Miriam C.; Hiemstra, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Boreal regions store large quantities of carbon but are increasingly vulnerable to carbon loss due to disturbance and climate warming. The boreal region, underlain by discontinuous permafrost, presents a challenging landscape for itemizing current and potential carbon sources and sinks in the boreal soil and vegetation. The roles of fire, forest succession, and the presence (or absence) of permafrost on carbon cycle, vegetation, and hydrologic processes have been the focus of multidisciplinary research in this area for the past 20 years. However, projections of a warming future climate, an increase in fire severity and extent, and the potential degradation of permafrost could lead to major landscape process changes over the next 20 to 50 years. This provides a major challenge for predicting how the interplay between land management activities and impacts of climate warming will affect carbon sources and sinks in Interior Alaska. To assist land managers in adapting and managing for potential changes in the Interior Alaska carbon cycle we developed this review paper incorporating an overview of the climate, ecosystem processes, vegetation types, and soil regimes in Interior Alaska with a focus on ramifications for the carbon cycle. Our objective is to provide a synthesis of the most current carbon storage estimates and measurements to support policy and land management decisions on how to best manage carbon sources and sinks in Interior Alaska. To support this we have surveyed relevant peer reviewed estimates of carbon stocks in aboveground and belowground biomass for Interior Alaska boreal ecosystems. We have also summarized methane and carbon dioxide fluxes from the same ecosystems. These data have been converted into the same units to facilitate comparison across ecosystem compartments. We identify potential changes in the carbon cycle with climate change and human disturbance including how compounding disturbances can affect the boreal system. Finally, we provide

  8. The Elusive Boreal Forest Thaumarchaeota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Bomberg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Archaea have, with increasing frequency, been found to colonize both agricultural and forest soils in temperate and boreal regions. The as yet uncultured group I.1c of the Thaumarchaeota has been of special interest. These Archaea are widely distributed in mature vegetated acidic soils, but little has been revealed of their physiological and biological characteristics. The I.1c Thaumarchaeota have been recognized as a microbial group influenced by plant roots and mycorrhizal fungi, but appear to have distinct features from their more common soil dwelling counterparts, such as the Nitrosotalea or Nitrososphaera. They appear to be highly dependent on soil pH, thriving in undisturbed vegetated soils with a pH of 5 or below. Research indicate that these Archaea require organic carbon and nitrogen sources for growth and that they may live both aerobically and anaerobically. Nevertheless, pure cultures of these microorganisms have not yet been obtained. This review will focus on what is known to date about the uncultured group I.1c Thaumarchaeota formerly known as the “Finnish Forest Soil” (FFS Archaea.

  9. Swedish encapsulation station review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G. [NAC International, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB`s document `Plan 1996`. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL`s Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International`s experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation 19 refs, 9 figs, 35 tabs

  10. Swedish vineyards: a utopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mårtensson A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Anna Mårtensson,1 Thord Karlsson,2 Jan-Gunnar Gustafsson31Department of Soil and Environment, 2Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden; 3Bio Evaluation AB, Uppsala, SwedenAbstract: As there is an increasing interest for setting up vineyards and wineries in Sweden, a cost analysis is becoming necessary. In this study, we assessed the potential for wine production in Sweden. The estimated annual costs varied from €15.1/per L for production of 1800 L wine per ha to €41.9 for 525 L per ha. For an annual production of 1800 L per ha potentially achieved in an established vineyard, the capital requirement is €730,000. It would take 6 years for the investment to be paid off if the wine was sold for €37.5 per L. The high production costs mean that the only viable option for success is to orientate production towards the exclusive upper segment.Keywords: cold climate conditions, wine production costs, wine quality

  11. Evaporation Dynamics of Moss and Bare Soil in Boreal Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, S.; Young, J. M.; Barron, C. G.; Bolton, W. R.

    2013-12-01

    Evaporation dynamics of mosses is a critical process in boreal and arctic systems and represents a key uncertainty in hydrology and climate models. At this point, moss evaporation is not well quantified at the plot or landscape scale. Relative to bare soil or litter evaporation, moss evaporation can be challenging to predict because the water flux is not isolated to the moss surface. Evaporation can originate from nearly 10 cm below the surface. Some mosses can wick moisture from even deeper than 10 cm, which subsequently evaporates. The goal of this study was to use field measurements to quantify the moss evaporation dynamics in a coniferous forest relative to bare ground or litter evaporation dynamics in a deciduous forest in Interior Alaska. Measurements were made in two ecosystem types within the boreal forest of Interior Alaska: a deciduous forest devoid of moss and a coniferous forest with a thick moss layer. A small clear chamber was attached to a LiCor 840 infrared gas analyzer in a closed loop system with a low flow rate. Water fluxes were measured for ~ 90 seconds on each plot in dry and wet soil and moss conditions. Additional measurements included: soil temperature, soil moisture, air temperature, barometric pressure, dew point, relative humidity, and wind speed. Thermal infrared images were also captured in congruence with water flux measurements to determine skin temperature. We found that the moss evaporation rate was over 100% greater than the soil evaporation rate (0.057 g/min vs. 0.024 g/min), and evaporation rates in both systems were most strongly driven by relative humidity and surface temperature. Surface temperature was lower at the birch site than the black spruce site because trees shade the surface beneath the birch. High fluxes associated with high water content were sustained for a longer period of time over the mosses compared to the bare soil. The thermal IR data showed that skin temperature lagged the evaporation flux, such that the

  12. Landscape co-evolution and river discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Ype; Temme, Arnaud

    2015-04-01

    Fresh water is crucial for society and ecosystems. However, our ability to secure fresh water resources under climatic and anthropogenic change is impaired by the complexity of interactions between human society, ecosystems, soils, and topography. These interactions cause landscape properties to co-evolve, continuously changing the flow paths of water through the landscape. These co-evolution driven flow path changes and their effect on river runoff are, to-date, poorly understood. In this presentation we introduce a spatially distributed landscape evolution model that incorporates growing vegetation and its effect on evapotranspiration, interception, infiltration, soil permeability, groundwater-surface water exchange and erosion. This landscape scale (10km2) model is calibrated to evolve towards well known empirical organising principles such as the Budyko curve and Hacks law under different climate conditions. To understand how positive and negative feedbacks within the model structure form complex landscape patterns of forests and peat bogs that resemble observed landscapes under humid and boreal climates, we analysed the effects of individual processes on the spatial distribution of vegetation and river peak and mean flows. Our results show that especially river peak flows and droughts decrease with increasing evolution of the landscape, which is a result that has direct implications for flood management.

  13. Landscape relatedness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norman, Anita J; Strønen, Astrid Vik; Fuglstad, Geir-Arne

    2017-01-01

    Context Methods for detecting contemporary, fine-scale population genetic structure in continuous populations are scarce. Yet such methods are vital for ecological and conservation studies, particularly under a changing landscape. Objectives Here we present a novel, spatially explicit method...... that we call landscape relatedness (LandRel). With this method, we aim to detect contemporary, fine-scale population structure that is sensitive to spatial and temporal changes in the landscape. Methods We interpolate spatially determined relatedness values based on SNP genotypes across the landscape...

  14. The Swedish Energy Market 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-01

    The Swedish Energy Market, 2005 is an annual publication that presents information and statistics on the network based energy markets in Sweden, i.e. the markets for electricity, natural gas and district heating. It also provides an overview of the issues that have arisen on these markets during the second half of 2004 and the first half of 2005. Considerable work is being carried out in the EU on creating a single market for electricity and natural gas. This publication therefore describes expansion of the Swedish market towards a Nordic and a European market. The publication normally includes a theme chapter, describing some event of particular interest for the Swedish energy market during the year. This year, the theme chapter is devoted to the Storm Gudrun, which struck the south of the country at the beginning of January, and its effects on electricity supply throughout the country. The chapter is based on the report submitted to the Government by the Energy Markets Inspectorate in the spring of 2005, and also includes a summary of the Inspectorate's proposals for measures to improve the security of electricity transmission. Energy in Sweden, which is another of the Swedish Energy Agency's annual publications, provides information and statistics on the development of the entire Swedish energy system.

  15. Health and safety strategy in Swedish agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Peter; Svennefelt, Catharina Alwall

    2012-01-01

    In Sweden there is a joint focus on injury prevention in agriculture and this is coordinated through the Swedish Committee on Working Environment (LAMK). LAMK is a network working for a good, healthy and safe working environment in Swedish agriculture from the view of the enterprise with the humans in focus. It is a committee consisting of representatives of authorities, institutions, companies, research & education institutions and organisations referring to the green sector. Examples of on-going initiatives & partners are presented which are included in this mission against injuries in agriculture. It involves the Swedish Work Environment Authority,, the Federation of Swedish Farmers (LRF), the Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU, the Federation of Swedish Forestry and Agricultural Employers (SLA) and the Swedish Municipal Worker's Union.

  16. Is the Swedish FRAX model appropriate for Swedish immigrants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, H; Odén, A; Lorentzon, M; McCloskey, E; Kanis, J A; Harvey, N C; Karlsson, M K; Mellström, D

    2015-11-01

    The incidence of hip fracture in Sweden is substantially lower in immigrants than in the population born in Sweden. Thus, the use of a FRAX® model in immigrants overestimates the risk of fracture, and the use of country of origin-specific models may be more appropriate. Age-specific fracture and mortality rates vary between countries so that FRAX tools are country-specific. In the case of immigrants, it is not known whether the model for the original or the new country is most appropriate. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of hip fractures in foreign-born and Swedish-born individuals residing in Sweden. We studied the incidence of hip fracture in all men and women aged 50 years or more in Sweden between 1987 and 2002. The population comprised 2.8 million Swedish-born and 270,000 foreign-born individuals. Incident hip fractures occurred in 239,842 Swedish-born and 12,563 foreign-born individuals. The hip fracture incidence rose with age for both groups and was higher for women than men amongst both Swedish-born and foreign-born individuals. The hip fracture incidence for the Swedish-born cohort was approximately twice that of immigrants. For example, at the age of 70 years, the annual hip fracture incidence (per 100,000) was 450 (95 % CI 446-454) for a Swedish-born woman and 239 (95 % CI 223-257) for a foreign-born woman at the time of immigration. The hip fracture incidence rose slowly with time from immigration (0.6 % per annum, 95 % CI 0.5-0.8 %) but remained significantly lower than for Swedish-born individuals even after 40 years of residence. The incidence of hip fracture in Sweden is substantially lower in immigrants than in the population native to Sweden. Although there was a small rise in age- and sex-specific incidence after immigration, the incidence remained markedly lower than that observed in Swedish-born individuals. Thus, the use of a FRAX model for Sweden will overestimate the risk of fracture for foreign-born individuals living

  17. Bonjour tristesse in Swedish suburbia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Jonas E

    2013-01-01

    the country. Global news media paralleled the Swedish situation with previous incidents in Paris in 2007, Athens in 2008 and London in 2011. Foreign offices, among others the American, British, Danish, and Norwegian ones, advised their citizens not to travel to Sweden: the Swedish welfare model...... and a high unemployment rate. The young generation experienced a Bonjour Tristesse! existence going in and out of unemployment. An existing dismay with architecture and physical planning of suburbia surfaced: The plausible responsibility of the body of architects was debated, since many esteemed profiles...... of the Swedish functionalist architecture had been involved in its realisation. One representative of the profession stated the need for upgrading the existing architecture to new user needs, while another one emphasised that the real group of inhabitants in suburbia is often not the group of users envisioned...

  18. Obstetric Thromboprophylaxis: The Swedish Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelle G. Lindqvist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstetric thromboprophylaxis is difficult. Since 10 years Swedish obstetricians have used a combined risk estimation model and recommendations concerning to whom, at what dose, when, and for how long thromboprophylaxis is to be administrated based on a weighted risk score. In this paper we describe the background and validation of the Swedish guidelines for obstetric thromboprophylaxis in women with moderate-high risk of VTE, that is, at similar or higher risk as the antepartum risk among women with history of thrombosis. The risk score is based on major risk factors (i.e., 5-fold increased risk of thromboembolism. We present data on the efficacy of the model, the cost-effectiveness, and the lifestyle advice that is given. We believe that the Swedish guidelines for obstetric thromboprophylaxis aid clinicians in providing women at increased risk of VTE with effective and appropriate thromboprophylaxis, thus avoiding both over- and under-treatment.

  19. Nordic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    This Box Set NORDIC LANDSCAPE presents Nordic Territories, a project by Rasmus Hjortshøj, exploring the man-made landscapes of the coastal territories and the entanglement of society and nature in times where it is no longer merely mankind subjected to nature, but where nature is equally being...

  20. Industrious Landscaping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida

    2018-01-01

    This article offers a history of landscaping at Søby brown coal beds – a former mining site in western Denmark. Exploring this industrial landscape through a series of projects that have made different natural resources appear, we argue that what is even recognized as resources shifts over time...... according to radically different and unpredictable agendas. Natural resources emerge as feats of particular political and historical landscape configurations, rather than fixed dormant sediments waiting to be exploited. This indicates that the Søby landscape is fundamentally volatile, as its resourcefulness...... has been seen interchangeably to rest with brown coal business, inexpensive estates for do-it-yourself people, pasture for grazing, and recreational forest, among other things. We discuss these rifts in landscaping, motivated by what we refer to as industriousness, to show that in an industrial site...

  1. The browning of Alaska's boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Beth Parent; David. Verbyla

    2010-01-01

    We used twelve Landsat scenes from the 1980s-2009 and regional 2000-2009 MODIS data to examine the long-term trend in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) within unburned areas of the Alaskan boreal forest. Our analysis shows that there has been a declining trend in NDVI in this region, with the strongest "browning trend" occurring in eastern...

  2. Boreal Forest Watch: A BOREAS Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Barrett N.

    1999-01-01

    The Boreal Forest Watch program was initiated in the fall of 1994 to act as an educational outreach program for the BOREAS project in both the BOREAS Southern Study Area (SSA) and Northern Study Area (NSA). Boreal Forest Watch (13FW) was designed to introduce area high school teachers and their students to the types of research activities occurring as part of the BOREAS study of Canadian boreal forests. Several teacher training workshops were offered to teachers from central and northern Saskatchewan and northern Manitoba between May, 1995 and February, 1999; teachers were introduced to techniques for involving their students in on-going environmental monitoring studies within local forested stands. Boreal Forest Watch is an educational outreach program which brings high school students and research scientists together to study the forest and foster a sustainable relationship between people and the planetary life-support system we depend upon. Personnel from the University of New Hampshire (UNH), Complex Systems Research Center (CSRC), with the cooperation from the Prince Albert National Park (PANP), instituted this program to help teachers within the BOREAS Study Areas offer real science research experience to their students. The program has the potential to complement large research projects, such as BOREAS, by providing useful student- collected data to scientists. Yet, the primary goal of BFW is to allow teachers and students to experience a hands-on, inquiry-based approach to leaming science - emulating the process followed by research scientists. In addition to introducing these teachers to on-going BOREAS research, the other goals of the BFW program were to: 1) to introduce authentic science topics and methods to students and teachers through hands-on, field-based activities; and, 2) to build a database of student-collected environmental monitoring data for future global change studies in the boreal region.

  3. Browning boreal forests of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, David

    2011-12-01

    The GIMMS NDVI dataset has been widely used to document a 'browning trend' in North American boreal forests (Goetz et al 2005, Bunn et al 2007, Beck and Goetz 2011). However, there has been speculation (Alcaraz-Segura et al 2010) that this trend may be an artifact due to processing algorithms rather than an actual decline in vegetation activity. This conclusion was based primarily on the fact that GIMMS NDVI did not capture NDVI recovery within most burned areas in boreal Canada, while another dataset consistently showed post-fire increasing NDVI. I believe that the results of Alcaraz-Segura et al (2010) were due simply to different pixel sizes of the two datasets (64 km2 versus 1 km2 pixels). Similar results have been obtained from tundra areas greening in Alaska, with the results simply due to these pixel size differences (Stow et al 2007). Furthermore, recent studies have documented boreal browning trends based on NDVI from other sensors. Beck and Goetz (2011) have shown the boreal browning trend derived from a different sensor (MODIS) to be very similar to the boreal browning trend derived from the GIMMS NDVI dataset for the circumpolar boreal region. Parent and Verbyla (2010) found similar declining NDVI patterns based on NDVI from Landsat sensors and GIMMS NDVI in boreal Alaska. Zhang et al (2008) found a similar 'browning trend' in boreal North America based on a production efficiency model using an integrated AVHRR and MODIS dataset. The declining NDVI trend in areas of boreal North America is consistent with tree-ring studies (D'Arrigo et al 2004, McGuire et al 2010, Beck et al 2011). The decline in tree growth may be due to temperature-induced drought stress (Barber et al 2000) caused by higher evaporative demands in a warming climate (Lloyd and Fastie 2002). In a circumpolar boreal study, Lloyd and Bunn (2007) found that a negative relationship between temperature and tree-ring growth occurred more frequently in warmer parts of species' ranges

  4. Industrious Landscaping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida

    2018-01-01

    has been seen interchangeably to rest with brown coal business, inexpensive estates for do-it-yourself people, pasture for grazing, and recreational forest, among other things. We discuss these rifts in landscaping, motivated by what we refer to as industriousness, to show that in an industrial site...... analysis of shifting landscape projects and has an essential methodological corollary, namely that fieldwork must be improvisational, situated, and humble. Rather than finding the ‘right’ field materials for a canonical landscape history of Søby, we develop a method of ‘dustballing’ – being blown here...

  5. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Jørgensen, Stina Marie Hasse

    2015-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015....

  6. Detecting Local Drivers of Fire Cycle Heterogeneity in Boreal Forests: A Scale Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Claude Bélisle

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Severe crown fires are determining disturbances for the composition and structure of boreal forests in North America. Fire cycle (FC associations with continental climate gradients are well known, but smaller scale controls remain poorly documented. Using a time since fire map (time scale of 300 years, the study aims to assess the relative contributions of local and regional controls on FC and to describe the relationship between FC heterogeneity and vegetation patterns. The study area, located in boreal eastern North America, was partitioned into watersheds according to five scales going from local (3 km2 to landscape (2800 km2 scales. Using survival analysis, we observed that dry surficial deposits and hydrography density better predict FC when measured at the local scale, while terrain complexity and slope position perform better when measured at the middle and landscape scales. The most parsimonious model was selected according to the Akaike information criterion to predict FC throughout the study area. We detected two FC zones, one short (159 years and one long (303 years, with specific age structures and tree compositions. We argue that the local heterogeneity of the fire regime contributes to ecosystem diversity and must be considered in ecosystem management.

  7. Methane production and consumption in grassland and boreal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimel, David S.; Burke, Ingrid C.; Johnston, Carol; Pastor, John

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of the this project were to develop a mechanistic understanding of methane production and oxidation suitable for incorporation into spatially explicit models for spatial extrapolation. Field studies were undertaken in Minnesota, Canada, and Colorado to explore the process controls over the two microbial mediated methane transformations in a range of environments. Field measurements were done in conjunction with ongoing studies in Canada (the Canadian Northern Wetlands Projects: NOWES) and in Colorado (The Shortgrass Steppe Long Term Ecological Research Project: LTER). One of the central hypotheses of the proposal was that methane production should be substrate limited, as well as being controlled by physical variables influencing microbial activity (temperature, oxidation status, and pH). Laboratory studies of peats from Canada and Minnesota (Northern and Southern Boreal) were conducted with amendments of a methanogenic substrate at multiple temperatures and at multiple pHs (the latter by titrating samples). The studies showed control by substrate, pH, and temperature in order in anaerobic samples. Field and laboratory manipulations of natural plant litter, rather than an acetogenic substrate, showed similarly large effects. The studies concluded that substrate is an important control over methanogenesis, that substrate availability in the field is closely coupled to the chemistry of the dominant vegetation influencing its decomposition rate, that most methane is produced from recent plant litter, and that landscape changes in pH are an important control, highly correlated with vegetation.

  8. Preferential sequestration of terrestrial organic matter in boreal lake sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemette, François; von Wachenfeldt, Eddie; Kothawala, Dolly N.; Bastviken, David; Tranvik, Lars J.

    2017-04-01

    The molecular composition and origin has recently been demonstrated to play a critical role in the persistence of organic matter in lake water, but it is unclear to what degree chemical attributes and sources may also control settling and burial of organic matter in lake sediments. Here we compared the annual contribution of allochthonous and autochthonous sources to the organic matter settling in the water column and present in the sediments of 12 boreal lakes. We used the fluorescence properties and elemental composition of the organic matter to trace its origin and found a consistent pattern of increasing contribution of terrestrial compounds in the sediments as compared to the settling matter, with an annual average allochthony of 87% and 57%, respectively. Seasonal data revealed a predominance of in-lake-produced compounds sinking in the water column in summer. Yet only a slight concurrent decrease in the contribution of terrestrial C to lake sediments was observed during the same period, and sediment allochthony increased again to high levels in autumn. Our results reveal a preferential preservation of allochthonous matter in the sediments and highlight the role of lakes as sequesters of organic carbon primarily originating from the surrounding landscape.

  9. Variation in soil carbon dioxide efflux at two spatial scales in a topographically complex boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Katharine C.; Wickland, Kimberly P.; Striegl, Rob; Neff, Jason C.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dynamics of high-latitude regions are an important and highly uncertain component of global carbon budgets, and efforts to constrain estimates of soil-atmosphere carbon exchange in these regions are contingent on accurate representations of spatial and temporal variability in carbon fluxes. This study explores spatial and temporal variability in soilatmosphere carbon dynamics at both fine and coarse spatial scales in a high-elevation, permafrost-dominated boreal black spruce forest. We evaluate the importance of landscape-level investigations of soil-atmosphere carbon dynamics by characterizing seasonal trends in soil-atmosphere carbon exchange, describing soil temperature-moisture-respiration relations, and quantifying temporal and spatial variability at two spatial scales: the plot scale (0–5 m) and the landscape scale (500–1000 m). Plot-scale spatial variability (average variation on a given measurement day) in soil CO2 efflux ranged from a coefficient of variation (CV) of 0.25 to 0.69, and plot-scale temporal variability (average variation of plots across measurement days) in efflux ranged from a CV of 0.19 to 0.36. Landscape-scale spatial and temporal variability in efflux was represented by a CV of 0.40 and 0.31, respectively, indicating that plot-scale spatial variability in soil respiration is as great as landscape-scale spatial variability at this site. While soil respiration was related to soil temperature at both the plot- and landscape scale, landscape-level descriptions of soil moisture were necessary to define soil respiration-moisture relations. Soil moisture variability was also integral to explaining temporal variability in soil respiration. Our results have important implications for research efforts in high-latitude regions where remote study sites make landscape-scale field campaigns challenging.

  10. The Boreal Virtual Forest. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana Univ.-Purdue Univ., Indianapolis.

    This CD-ROM is an educational CD-ROM aimed at classroom audiences in 5th grade and above. Using QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR), the Boreal Virtual Forest is designed so that students are able to see views from inside the central hardwood forest and look up or down or spin around 360 degrees. The program allows students to become familiar with…

  11. Browning boreal forests of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    David. Verbyla

    2011-01-01

    The GIMMS NDVI dataset has been widely used to document a “browning trend” in North American boreal forests (Goetz et al. 2005, Bunn et al. 2007, Beck and Goetz 2011). However, there has been speculation (Alcaraz-Segura et al. 2010) that this trend may be an artifact due to processing algorithms rather than an actual decline in vegetation activity. This conclusion was...

  12. Endoparasites in some Swedish Amphibians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1988-01-01

    A study was made of the endoparasites in specimens of Rana arvalis and R. temporaria collected on two occasions from a locality of southern Sweden. Some frogs were investigated directly after capture while other frogs were kept hibernating and the composition of the parasites as well as the behav...... not previously been reported from Sweden. The late Prof. O. Nybelin's unpublished records of parasites found in Swedish amphibians are also given....

  13. Swedish minister rebuilds scientists' trust

    CERN Multimedia

    Sylwan, P

    1999-01-01

    Thomas Ostros, Sweden's new science minister is aiming to improve links with the science community, severely strained during the tenure of Carl Tham. Significantly, he confirmed that he will not be making any further changes to the managment of the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research. He also announced a 5 per cent increase in government funding for science which will be used to strengthen basic research and education (1 page).

  14. NO3 hotspots in pristine watershed of the Boreal Plain: interactions of local landforms and regional hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devito, K. J.; Petrone, R.; Jiang, T.; Zhan, X.; Palmer, A.; Hancock, T.

    2009-05-01

    Surface and ground water nitrate (NO3-N) concentrations of 3 mg/L, and often greater than 10 mg/L, are frequently observed in pristine watersheds of the Western Boreal Plain, Alberta, Canada. Such concentrations are greater then expected in non-disturbed locations, and in some cases are well above the WHO recommended levels. Nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from soil surfaces in these nitrate hot spots range from 10- 100, and on occasion greater then 500 ug/m2/h and may contribute significantly to global green house gas emissions. Nitrate hot spots are frequently observed in topographic low riparian areas with large water table fluctuations within humic organics sediments. However, their occurrence is not consistent in riparian zones across the landscape making it difficult to generalize N dynamics based solely on local influences of soil temperature, moisture and carbon dynamics. The Boreal Plain is characterized by sub-humid climate and deep heterogeneous glacial deposits resulting in complex surface - groundwater interactions with diverse geochemistry due to variable geologic strata that may also influence initial source and dynamics of N in individual riparian locations. We present representative distributions of surface and groundwater NO3-N concentration in the Boreal Plain, Alberta and put forward a series of hypothesis to assess the relative role and interaction of local soil and vegetation characteristics with hydrogeology on regional scale nutrient source, flow path and soil moisture regimes. Understanding the regional and local controls of nitrate hotspots in pristine boreal forest are essential to provide background references and allow for accurate assessment of the impacts of climate change and intensive land use currently affecting the Boreal Plain.

  15. New Swedish environmental and sustainable education research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Öhman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of Education & Democracy presents examples froma new generation of Swedish research on environmental and sustainability education and thereby complement the picture of the current Swedish environmental and sustainability education research outlined in the recent Danish-Swedish special issue of Environmental EducationResearch (Vol 16, No 1 and the anthology Democracy and Values inEducation for Sustainable Development – Contributions from Swedish Research (Öhman 2008. All the contributors to this issue are associatedwith the Graduate School in Education and Sustainable Development (GRESD, either as PhD students or as supervisors.

  16. Arctic and boreal ecosystems of western North America as components of the climate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, F. S.; McGuire, A.D.; Randerson, J.; Pielke, R.; Baldocchi, D.; Hobbie, S.E.; Roulet, Nigel; Eugster, W.; Kasischke, E.; Rastetter, E.B.; Zimov, S.A.; Running, S.W.

    2000-01-01

    Synthesis of results from several Arctic and boreal research programmes provides evidence for the strong role of high-latitude ecosystems in the climate system. Average surface air temperature has increased 0.3??C per decade during the twentieth century in the western North American Arctic and boreal forest zones. Precipitation has also increased, but changes in soil moisture are uncertain. Disturbance rates have increased in the boreal forest; for example, there has been a doubling of the area burned in North America in the past 20 years. The disturbance regime in tundra may not have changed. Tundra has a 3-6-fold higher winter albedo than boreal forest, but summer albedo and energy partitioning differ more strongly among ecosystems within either tundra or boreal forest than between these two biomes. This indicates a need to improve our understanding of vegetation dynamics within, as well as between, biomes. If regional surface warming were to continue, changes in albedo and energy absorption would likely act as a positive feedback to regional warming due to earlier melting of snow and, over the long term, the northward movement of treeline. Surface drying and a change in dominance from mosses to vascular plants would also enhance sensible heat flux and regional warming in tundra. In the boreal forest of western North America, deciduous forests have twice the albedo of conifer forests in both winter and summer, 50-80% higher evapotranspiration, and therefore only 30-50% of the sensible heat flux of conifers in summer. Therefore, a warming-induced increase in fire frequency that increased the proportion of deciduous forests in the landscape, would act as a negative feedback to regional warming. Changes in thermokarst and the aerial extent of wetlands, lakes, and ponds would alter high-latitude methane flux. There is currently a wide discrepancy among estimates of the size and direction of CO2 flux between high-latitude ecosystems and the atmosphere. These

  17. Ecohydrology of Interior Alaska boreal forest systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, J.; Bolton, W. R.

    2012-12-01

    The ecohydrology of boreal forest ecosystems of Interior Alaska is not well understood largely because of challenges posed by the presence of discontinuous permafrost. Near-surface permafrost results in storage-dominated systems with cold, poorly drained soils, and slow growing, low statured coniferous trees (Picea mariana) or CDE's. The transition to permafrost-free areas can occur over a few meters and is accompanied by a vegetation community dominated by large deciduous trees (Populus sp. and Betula sp.) or DDE's. Typically, areas with permafrost are on north facing slopes and valley bottoms, and areas without permafrost are south facing. In Alaska's boreal forest, the permafrost is very warm and vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Once permafrost begins to thaw, the vegetation community shifts from coniferous to deciduous dominated. Streamflow in watersheds with a larger permafrost distribution tends to be higher and more responsive to precipitation events than in watersheds with low permafrost distribution. In fact, precipitation events in the low permafrost areas do not infiltrate past the rooting zone of the deciduous trees (~5-40 cm). This suggests that the deciduous trees may remove water from the system via uptake and transpiration. We focus on how vegetation water use affects boreal forest hydrology in areas of discontinuous permafrost. Specifically, we ask: what are the patterns of vegetation water use in areas with and without permafrost? This study focuses on the CDE and DDE systems. Our research sites are established on low and high locations on each aspect (south facing DDE, north facing CDE) to capture the variability associated with the different hillside drainage properties. At each of the four sites during the growing season, we measured various aspects of plant water use dynamics, including water flux, water content, water sources, depth of water uptake in the soil, and water stress. We use a Bayesian framework to analyze the data. We

  18. Remote Sensing of Forest Cover in Boreal Zones of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedykh, V. N.

    2011-12-01

    Ecological tension resulting from human activities generates a need for joint efforts of countries in the boreal zone aimed at sustainable forest development, including: conservation of forests binding carbon and ensuring stability of the atmosphere gas composition; preservation of purity and water content of forest areas as conditions ensuring sustainability of the historically formed structure of forest landscapes; and preservation of all flora and fauna species composition diversity as a condition for sustainable existence and functioning of forest ecosystems. We have to address these problems urgently due to climate warming which can interact with the forest cover. In particular, in the forest zone of Siberia, the climate aridization will inevitably result in periodic drying of shallow bogs and upland forests with thick forest litter. This will bring fires of unprecedented intensity which will lead to catastrophic atmospheric pollution. In this connection, the above problems can be solved only by the united efforts of boreal-zone countries, through establishing a uniform system for remote sensing of forests aimed at obtaining and periodic update of comprehensive information for rational decision-making in prevention of adverse human effect on the forest. A need to join efforts in this field of natural resource management is determined by disparate data which were created expressly for economic accounting units used mainly for the solution of economic timber resource problems. However, ecological tasks outlined above can be solved appropriately only by using uniform technologies that are registered within natural territorial complexes (landscapes) established throughout the entire boreal zone. Knowledge of forest state within natural territorial entities having specific physiographic conditions, with account for current and future anthropogenic load, allow one to define evidence-based forest growth potential at these landscapes to ensure development of

  19. Thermokarst Rates Intensify Due to Climate Change and Forest Fragmentation in an Alaskan Boreal Forest Lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, M. J.; Genet, H.; McGuire, A. D.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Zhang, Y.; Brown, D. N.; Jorgenson, T.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Breen, A. L.; Bolton, W. R.

    2015-12-01

    Lowland boreal forest ecosystems in Alaska are dominated by wetlands comprised of a complex mosaic of fens, collapse scar-bogs, low shrub/scrub, and forests growing on elevated ice rich permafrost soils. Thermokarst has affected the lowlands of the Tanana Flats in central Alaska for centuries, as thawing permafrost collapses forests that transition to wetlands. Located within the discontinuous permafrost zone, this region has significantly warmed over the past half-century, and much of these carbon-rich permafrost soils are now within ~0.5o C of thawing. Increases in the collapse of lowland boreal forests in response to warming may have consequences for the climate system. This study evaluates the trajectories and potential drivers of 60 years of forest change in a landscape subjected to permafrost thaw in unburned dominant forest types (paper birch and black spruce) associated with location on elevated permafrost plateau and across multiple time periods (1949, 1978, 1986, 1998 and 2009) using historical and contemporary aerial and satellite images for change detection. We developed (i) a deterministic statistical model to evaluate the potential climatic controls on forest change using gradient boosting and regression tree analysis, and (ii) a 30x30 m land cover map of the Tanana Flats to estimate the potential landscape-level losses of forest area due to thermokarst from 1949 to 2009. Over the 60-year period, we observed a nonlinear loss of birch forests and a relatively continuous gain of spruce forest associated with thermokarst and forest succession, respectively. Gradient boosting and regression tree models identify precipitation and forest fragmentation as the primary factors controlling birch and spruce forest change, respectively. Between 1950-2009 landscape-level analysis estimates a transition of ~15 km² of birch forest area to wetlands on the Tanana Flats, where the greatest change followed warm periods. This work highlights the vulnerability of lowland

  20. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Hasse, Stina

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Landscape demonstrates in direct, tangible and immediate ways effects of the disruption of the familiar. An ubiquitous technological medium, FM radio, is turned into an alien and unfamiliar one. Audience participation, the environment, radio signals and noise create a site...

  1. Rock, Paper, Protest: The Fight for the Boreal Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunz, Sally; Whittaker, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Canada's boreal forests are second only to the Amazon in producing life-giving oxygen and providing a habitat for thousands of species, from the large woodland caribou to the smallest organisms. The boreal forests are the lifeblood of many Aboriginal communities and the thousands of workers, Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal, who harvest and process…

  2. Controls on moss evaporation in a boreal black spruce forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Arp, W.J.; Chapin, F.S.

    2004-01-01

    [1] Mosses are an important component of the boreal forest, but little is known about their contribution to ecosystem carbon, water, and energy exchange. We studied the role of mosses in boreal forest evapotranspiration by conducting two experiments in a black spruce forest in Fairbanks, Alaska.

  3. Ecology of Canada lynx in southern boreal forests [Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith B. Aubry; Gary M. Koehler; John R. Squires

    2000-01-01

    Canada lynx occur throughout boreal forests of North America, but ecological conditions in southern regions differ in many respects from those in Canada and Alaska. To evaluate the extent to which lynx ecology and population biology may differ between these regions, we review existing information from southern boreal forests and compare our findings to...

  4. Swedish Opinion on Nuclear Power 1986 - 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Soeren

    2012-11-01

    This report contains the Swedish opinion on Nuclear Power and European Attitudes on Nuclear Power. It also includes European Attitudes Towards the Future of Three Energy Sources; Nuclear Energy, Wind Power and Solar Power - with a focus on the Swedish opinion. Results from measurements done by the SOM Inst. are presented.

  5. Is spoken Danish less intelligible than Swedish?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooskens, Charlotte; van Heuven, Vincent J.; van Bezooijen, Renee; Pacilly, Jos J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The most straightforward way to explain why Danes understand spoken Swedish relatively better than Swedes understand spoken Danish would be that spoken Danish is intrinsically a more difficult language to understand than spoken Swedish. We discuss circumstantial evidence suggesting that Danish is

  6. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  7. Lichen conservation in heavily managed boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullin, Richard Troy; Thompson, Ian D; Newmaster, Steven G

    2013-10-01

    Lichens are an important component of the boreal forest, where they are long lived, tend to accumulate in older stands, and are a major food source for the threatened woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou). To be fully sustainable, silvicultural practices in the boreal forest must include the conservation of ecological integrity. Dominant forest management practices, however, have short-term negative effects on lichen diversity, particularly the application of herbicides. To better understand the long-term effects of forest management, we examined lichen regeneration in 35 mixed black spruce (Picea mariana) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest stands across northern Ontario to determine recovery following logging and postharvest silvicultural practices. Our forest stands were 25-40 years old and had undergone 3 common sivilcultural treatments that included harvested and planted; harvested, planted, and treated with N-[phosphonomethyl] glycine (glyphosate); and harvested, planted, and treated with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Forest stands with herbicide treatments had lower lichen biomass and higher beta and gamma diversity than planted stands that were not treated chemically or control stands. In northwestern Ontario, planted stands that were not treated chemically had significantly greater (p < 0.05) alpha diversity than stands treated with herbicides or control stands. Our results show that common silvicultural practices do not emulate natural disturbances caused by wildfires in the boreal forest for the lichen community. We suggest a reduction in the amount of chemical application be considered in areas where lichen biomass is likely to be high and where the recovery of woodland caribou is an objective. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Contemporary Danish landscape research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejre, Henrik; Brandt, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Danish landscape research blossomed during the 1990’ies thanks to several transdisciplinary research programmes involving several institutions. The main themes of the programmes encompassed Landscape change, landscape and biological diversity, nature and landscape management, use and monitoring o...... of the countryside. The values of the Danish landscape pertain mainly to the coastal landscapes. The threats include the industrilization of the agricultural landsclaes and,in places urban sprawl.......Danish landscape research blossomed during the 1990’ies thanks to several transdisciplinary research programmes involving several institutions. The main themes of the programmes encompassed Landscape change, landscape and biological diversity, nature and landscape management, use and monitoring...

  9. Understanding the Combined Influence of Boreal Landuse and Climate Change on Catchment Functioning through Virtual Forest Alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutschbein, Claudia; Grabs, Thomas; Karlsen, Reinert H.; Laudon, Hjalmar; Bishop, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    The available scientific literature on hydrological climate change impacts in boreal regions in northern Europe consistently suggests increasing amounts of annual river streamflow. In these regions, the present-day streamflow regimes with low winter flow and a dominating snow-melt driven spring flood peak will transform to regimes with a much lower amplitude and an earlier initiation and peaking of the spring flood. Such changes lead to alterations of flow duration curves, indicating lower chances for both high and low flows in a future warmer climate. The question arises as to whether one can draw such generalized conclusions in terms of future hydrological changes for a larger boreal region based on a selection of representative catchment studies. One could argue that nearby catchments within the same climate zone should function in similar ways, which means that conclusions can be drawn for a larger region with the same climate conditions. It is, however, well acknowledged that present-day hydrological functioning and the variability at multiple temporal and spatial scales are not only controlled by external climatic conditions, but also by physical properties such as topographic features, soil characteristics, catchment area, land cover, vegetation type or geology. Consequently, this raises the question as to what extend variability in projected future streamflow changes is predetermined by the landscape characteristics in a catchment. To answer this question, we explored how landscape characteristics such as topography, geology, soils and land cover influence the way boreal catchments respond to changing climate conditions. Based on an ensemble of 15 regional climate models bias-corrected with a distribution-mapping approach, present and future streamflow in 14 neighbouring and rather similar catchments in Northern Sweden was simulated with the HBV model. We established functional relationships between a range of landscape characteristics and projected future

  10. Occurrence and Distribution of Synthetic Organic Substances in Boreal Coniferous Forest Soils Fertilized with Hygienized Municipal Sewage Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Tysklind

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and distribution of synthetic organic substances following application of dried and granulated (hygienized municipal sewage sludge in Swedish boreal coniferous forests were investigated. Elevated concentrations of triclosan (TCS, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were detected in the humus layer. Concentrations of ethinyl estradiol (EE2, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin (FQs, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were not significantly influenced. Maximum concentrations in humus were as follows (in ng/g dry matter: TCS; 778; PBDEs; 25; and PCB7; 16.7. Fertilization did not alter the levels of the substances in mineral soil, ground water, and various types of samples related to air. Further research within this area is needed, including ecotoxicological effects and fate, in order to improve the knowledge regarding the use of sludge as a fertilizing agent. Continuous annual monitoring, with respect to sampling and analysis, should be conducted on the already-fertilized fields.

  11. Functional roles affect diversity-succession relationships for boreal beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloise Gibb

    Full Text Available Species diversity commonly increases with succession and this relationship is an important justification for conserving large areas of old-growth habitats. However, species with different ecological roles respond differently to succession. We examined the relationship between a range of diversity measures and time since disturbance for boreal forest beetles collected over a 285 year forest chronosequence. We compared responses of "functional" groups related to threat status, dependence on dead wood habitats, diet and the type of trap in which they were collected (indicative of the breadth of ecologies of species. We examined fits of commonly used rank-abundance models for each age class and traditional and derived diversity indices. Rank abundance distributions were closest to the Zipf-Mandelbrot distribution, suggesting little role for competition in structuring most assemblages. Diversity measures for most functional groups increased with succession, but differences in slopes were common. Evenness declined with succession; more so for red-listed species than common species. Saproxylic species increased in diversity with succession while non-saproxylic species did not. Slopes for fungivores were steeper than other diet groups, while detritivores were not strongly affected by succession. Species trapped using emergence traps (log specialists responded more weakly to succession than those trapped using flight intercept traps (representing a broader set of ecologies. Species associated with microhabitats that accumulate with succession (fungi and dead wood thus showed the strongest diversity responses to succession. These clear differences between functional group responses to forest succession should be considered in planning landscapes for optimum conservation value, particularly functional resilience.

  12. Modelling CO2emissions from water surface of a boreal hydroelectric reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weifeng; Roulet, Nigel T; Kim, Youngil; Strachan, Ian B; Del Giorgio, Paul; Prairie, Yves T; Tremblay, Alain

    2018-01-15

    To quantify CO 2 emissions from water surface of a reservoir that was shaped by flooding the boreal landscape, we developed a daily time-step reservoir biogeochemistry model. We calibrated the model using the measured concentrations of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (C) in a young boreal hydroelectric reservoir, Eastmain-1 (EM-1), in northern Quebec, Canada. We validated the model against observed CO 2 fluxes from an eddy covariance tower in the middle of EM-1. The model predicted the variability of CO 2 emissions reasonably well compared to the observations (root mean square error: 0.4-1.3gCm -2 day -1 , revised Willmott index: 0.16-0.55). In particular, we demonstrated that the annual reservoir surface effluxes were initially high, steeply declined in the first three years, and then steadily decreased to ~115gCm -2 yr -1 with increasing reservoir age over the estimated "engineering" reservoir lifetime (i.e., 100years). Sensitivity analyses revealed that increasing air temperature stimulated CO 2 emissions by enhancing CO 2 production in the water column and sediment, and extending the duration of open water period over which emissions occur. Increasing the amount of terrestrial organic C flooded can enhance benthic CO 2 fluxes and CO 2 emissions from the reservoir water surface, but the effects were not significant over the simulation period. The model is useful for the understanding of the mechanism of C dynamics in reservoirs and could be used to assist the hydro-power industry and others interested in the role of boreal hydroelectric reservoirs as sources of greenhouse gas emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Charcoal reflectance reveals early holocene boreal deciduous forests burned at high intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudspith, Victoria A; Belcher, Claire M; Kelly, Ryan; Hu, Feng Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Wildfire size, frequency, and severity are increasing in the Alaskan boreal forest in response to climate warming. One of the potential impacts of this changing fire regime is the alteration of successional trajectories, from black spruce to mixed stands dominated by aspen, a vegetation composition not experienced since the early Holocene. Such changes in vegetation composition may consequently alter the intensity of fires, influencing fire feedbacks to the ecosystem. Paleorecords document past wildfire-vegetation dynamics and as such, are imperative for our understanding of how these ecosystems will respond to future climate warming. For the first time, we have used reflectance measurements of macroscopic charcoal particles (>180μm) from an Alaskan lake-sediment record to estimate ancient charring temperatures (termed pyrolysis intensity). We demonstrate that pyrolysis intensity increased markedly from an interval of birch tundra 11 ky ago (mean 1.52%Ro; 485°C), to the expansion of trees on the landscape ~10.5 ky ago, remaining high to the present (mean 3.54%Ro; 640°C) irrespective of stand composition. Despite differing flammabilities and adaptations to fire, the highest pyrolysis intensities derive from two intervals with distinct vegetation compositions. 1) the expansion of mixed aspen and spruce woodland at 10 cal. kyr BP, and 2) the establishment of black spruce, and the modern boreal forest at 4 cal. kyr BP. Based on our analysis, we infer that predicted expansion of deciduous trees into the boreal forest in the future could lead to high intensity, but low severity fires, potentially moderating future climate-fire feedbacks.

  14. Charcoal reflectance reveals early holocene boreal deciduous forests burned at high intensities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A Hudspith

    Full Text Available Wildfire size, frequency, and severity are increasing in the Alaskan boreal forest in response to climate warming. One of the potential impacts of this changing fire regime is the alteration of successional trajectories, from black spruce to mixed stands dominated by aspen, a vegetation composition not experienced since the early Holocene. Such changes in vegetation composition may consequently alter the intensity of fires, influencing fire feedbacks to the ecosystem. Paleorecords document past wildfire-vegetation dynamics and as such, are imperative for our understanding of how these ecosystems will respond to future climate warming. For the first time, we have used reflectance measurements of macroscopic charcoal particles (>180μm from an Alaskan lake-sediment record to estimate ancient charring temperatures (termed pyrolysis intensity. We demonstrate that pyrolysis intensity increased markedly from an interval of birch tundra 11 ky ago (mean 1.52%Ro; 485°C, to the expansion of trees on the landscape ~10.5 ky ago, remaining high to the present (mean 3.54%Ro; 640°C irrespective of stand composition. Despite differing flammabilities and adaptations to fire, the highest pyrolysis intensities derive from two intervals with distinct vegetation compositions. 1 the expansion of mixed aspen and spruce woodland at 10 cal. kyr BP, and 2 the establishment of black spruce, and the modern boreal forest at 4 cal. kyr BP. Based on our analysis, we infer that predicted expansion of deciduous trees into the boreal forest in the future could lead to high intensity, but low severity fires, potentially moderating future climate-fire feedbacks.

  15. Climate change implications of shifting forest management strategy in a boreal forest ecosystem of Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Ryan M; Antón-Fernández, Clara; Astrup, Rasmus; Cherubini, Francesco; Kvalevåg, Maria; Strømman, Anders H

    2014-02-01

    Empirical models alongside remotely sensed and station measured meteorological observations are employed to investigate both the local and global direct climate change impacts of alternative forest management strategies within a boreal ecosystem of eastern Norway. Stand-level analysis is firstly executed to attribute differences in daily, seasonal, and annual mean surface temperatures to differences in surface intrinsic biophysical properties across conifer, deciduous, and clear-cut sites. Relative to a conifer site, a slight local cooling of −0.13 °C at a deciduous site and −0.25 °C at a clear-cut site were observed over a 6-year period, which were mostly attributed to a higher albedo throughout the year. When monthly mean albedo trajectories over the entire managed forest landscape were taken into consideration, we found that strategies promoting natural regeneration of coniferous sites with native deciduous species led to substantial global direct climate cooling benefits relative to those maintaining current silviculture regimes – despite predicted long-term regional warming feedbacks and a reduced albedo in spring and autumn months. The magnitude and duration of the cooling benefit depended largely on whether management strategies jointly promoted an enhanced material supply over business-as-usual levels. Expressed in terms of an equivalent CO2 emission pulse at the start of the simulation, the net climate response at the end of the 21st century spanned −8 to −159 Tg-CO2-eq., depending on whether near-term harvest levels increased or followed current trends, respectively. This magnitude equates to approximately −20 to −300% of Norway's annual domestic (production) emission impact. Our analysis supports the assertion that a carbon-only focus in the design and implementation of forest management policy in boreal and other climatically similar regions can be counterproductive – and at best – suboptimal if boreal forests are to be used as a

  16. Patterns of Canopy and Surface Layer Consumption in a Boreal Forest Fire from Repeat Airborne Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Michael; Morton, Douglas C.; Cook, Bruce D.; Andersen, Hans-Erik; Babcock, Chad; Pattison, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Fire in the boreal region is the dominant agent of forest disturbance with direct impacts on ecosystem structure, carbon cycling, and global climate. Global and biome-scale impacts are mediated by burn severity, measured as loss of forest canopy and consumption of the soil organic layer. To date, knowledge of the spatial variability in burn severity has been limited by sparse field sampling and moderate resolution satellite data. Here, we used pre- and post-fire airborne lidar data to directly estimate changes in canopy vertical structure and surface elevation for a 2005 boreal forest fire on Alaskas Kenai Peninsula. We found that both canopy and surface losses were strongly linked to pre-fire species composition and exhibited important fine-scale spatial variability at sub-30m resolution. The fractional reduction in canopy volume ranged from 0.61 in lowland black spruce stands to 0.27 in mixed white spruce and broad leaf forest. Residual structure largely reflects standing dead trees, highlighting the influence of pre-fire forest structure on delayed carbon losses from above ground biomass, post-fire albedo, and variability in understory light environments. Median loss of surface elevation was highest in lowland black spruce stands (0.18 m) but much lower in mixed stands (0.02 m), consistent with differences in pre-fire organic layer accumulation. Spatially continuous depth-of-burn estimates from repeat lidar measurements provide novel information to constrain carbon emissions from the surface organic layer and may inform related research on post-fire successional trajectories. Spectral measures of burn severity from Landsat were correlated with canopy (r = 0.76) and surface (r = -0.71) removal in black spruce stands but captured less of the spatial variability in fire effects for mixed stands (canopy r = 0.56, surface r = -0.26), underscoring the difficulty in capturing fire effects in heterogeneous boreal forest landscapes using proxy measures of burn severity

  17. Clearcutting and Site Preparation, but Not Planting, Promoted Early Tree Regeneration in Boreal Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Morimoto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The stand initiation stage decisively influences future forest structure and composition, particularly in the boreal forest which is a stand replacement disturbance driven system. In boreal Alaska, the conventional forest management paradigm has focused on the production of large-dimension timber, particularly white spruce (Picea glauca. However, energy generation and heating from wood is increasing, and is likely to significantly expand total forest harvest, further shifting management focus to fuelwood production. We evaluated the effects of forest harvest management practices on post-harvest regeneration by examining whether harvest type, site preparation method, and reforestation technique resulted in differences in forest regeneration in terms of species presence, dominance, basal area, and total stem biomass using a stochastic gradient boosting (TreeNet algorithm. We recorded diameter at breast height and height of white spruce, birch (Betula neoalaskana, and aspen (Populus tremuloides in 726 plots from 30 harvest units, distributed across the various harvest and treatment types, harvest years, harvest sizes, and geographical locations. Our results indicate that management practices suitable/acceptable for woody biomass production differ from the more traditional dimensional timber production from white spruce-focused management. Artificial reforestation does not differ from natural regeneration in obtaining more stems or producing greater biomass. Clearcutting and site preparation increased tree regeneration, basal area, and woody biomass when compared to a partial harvest with no site preparation. Planting of white spruce in the Alaskan boreal forest may only be necessary in some specific circumstances, such as years with no/low white spruce seed crop, or in landscapes depleted of seed trees.

  18. Threshold responses in regional runoff from a heterogeneous low relief terrain - Western Canada's Boreal Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devito, Kevin; Anderson, Axel; Kettridge, Nick; Mendoza, Carl; Petrone, Rich; Silins, Uldis; Smith, Kevin; Waddington, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Runoff from larger catchments (>1000km) in the continental Boreal Plains (BP) eco-region of Western Canada, although low, can range over 3 orders of magnitude (4 mm to 350 mm/yr) among years and be difficult to predict. This region of western Canada is experiencing unprecedentedly rapid and large-scale industrial development. There is a need to assess and understand the dominant controls on the temporal and spatial threshold responses of regional runoff generation to be able to predict and mitigate the potential impacts of land use and effectiveness of reclamation practices on surface water quantity and quality. The Boreal Plain climate has regional moisture deficit (P 200 mm) states occurring every 2-3 decades. The differing CMD states altered the hydrologic connectivity among different portions of HRA's and HUs within catchments. During dry states base flow conditions ranged by over an order of magnitude (2 to 80 mm/yr), and increased with percent area of coarse textured HRAs. In fine textured landforms significant runoff was observed only in catchments with >30% wetland area. During mesic conditions catchment runoff coefficients were positively correlated with percent wetland area, suggesting that wetland networks were the primary source areas of surface water to regional runoff. During the infrequent wet states, runoff coefficients were similar among all catchments indicating that storage in forest HUs was exceeded and both forestlands and wetlands contribute to catchment runoff. Integrating the CMD with the configuration of wetland and forestland HUs and the type of glacial landforms HRAs rather than topographic drainage networks appears to better represent water cycling and sink source dynamics controlling runoff in low relief glacial landscapes such as the Boreal Plain.

  19. Compositional Changes in Foliage Phenolics with Plant Age, a Natural Experiment in Boreal Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wam, Hilde Karine; Stolter, Caroline; Nybakken, Line

    2017-09-01

    The composition of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) extensively impacts ecosystem functioning. It is vital that we understand temporal patterns in the plants' allocation of resources to PSMs, particularly those influenced by human activity. Existing data are insufficient in the long-term perspective of perennial plants (age or ontogeny). We analysed phenolic concentrations in foliage from birch (Betula pubescens Ehr.) considered to be undamaged and growing on 5, 10 and 15 years old clear-cuts in two boreal forest landscapes in Norway, sampled at the peak of the growing season. In sum, low molecular weight phenolic concentrations decreased with age. Apart from one apigenin glycoside, the low molecular weight phenolics co-varied similarly at all ages, suggesting a lack of temporal compound-specific prioritisation of this group. In contrast, the concentration of MeOH-soluble condensed tannins increased with age. The compositional shift fits well with several hypotheses that may provide proximate explanations for age patterns in PSM allocations, including both resource constraints and external pressures. Regardless of these explanations, our study adds an important perennial perspective (plant age) to temporal PSM patterns already well-known in boreal plant phenology (foliage age).

  20. Comparing soil biogeochemical processes in novel and natural boreal forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Quideau

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Emulating the variability that exists in the natural landscape prior to disturbance should be a goal of soil reconstruction and land reclamation efforts following resource extraction. Long-term ecosystem sustainability within reclaimed landscapes can only be achieved with the re-establishment of biogeochemical processes between reconstructed soils and plants. In this study, we assessed key soil biogeochemical attributes (nutrient availability, organic matter composition, and microbial communities in reconstructed, novel, anthropogenic ecosystems, covering different reclamation treatments following open-cast mining for oil extraction. We compared the attributes to those present in a range of natural soils representative of mature boreal forest ecosystems in the same area of Northern Alberta. Soil nutrient availability was determined in situ with resin probes, organic matter composition was described with 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and soil microbial community structure was characterized using phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Significant differences among natural ecosystems were apparent in nutrient availability and seemed more related to the dominant tree cover than to soil type. When analyzed together, all natural forests differed significantly from the novel ecosystems, in particular with respect to soil organic matter composition. However, there was some overlap between the reconstructed soils and some of the natural ecosystems in nutrient availability and microbial communities, but not in organic matter characteristics. Hence, our results illustrate the importance of considering the range of natural landscape variability and including several soil biogeochemical attributes when comparing novel, anthropogenic ecosystems to the mature ecosystems that constitute ecological targets.

  1. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on the understorey carbon balance over the growing season in a boreal Pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, D. B.; Eisele, B.; Hasselquist, N. J.

    2013-08-01

    Boreal forests play a key role in the global carbon cycle and are facing rapid shifts in nitrogen availability with poorly understood consequences for ecosystem function and global climate. We quantified the effects of nitrogen availability on carbon fluxes from a relatively understudied component of these forests - understorey vegetation - at three intervals over the summer growing period in a northern Swedish Scots Pine stand. Nitrogen addition altered both photosynthetic carbon uptake and respiratory release, but the magnitude and direction of this effect depended on the time during the growing season and the amount of nitrogen added. Specifically, nitrogen addition stimulated net ecosystem carbon uptake only in the late growing season. We find evidence for species-specific control of understorey carbon sink strength, as photosynthesis per unit ground area was positively correlated only with the abundance of the vascular plant Vaccinium myrtillus and no others. Comparison of photosynthetic carbon uptake with data on plant carbon dioxide release from the study site, indicate that understorey vegetation photosynthate was mainly supplying respiratory demands for much of the year. Only in the late season with nitrogen addition did understorey vegetation appear to experience a large surplus of carbon in excess of respiratory requirements. Further work, simultaneously comparing all major biomass and respiratory carbon fluxes in understorey and tree vegetation, is required to resolve the likely impacts of environmental changes on whole-ecosystem carbon sequestration in boreal forests.

  2. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on the forest floor carbon balance over the growing season in a boreal pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, D. B.; Eisele, B.; Hasselquist, N. J.

    2013-12-01

    Boreal forests play a key role in the global carbon cycle and are facing rapid shifts in nitrogen availability with poorly understood consequences for ecosystem function and global climate change. We quantified the effects of increasing nitrogen availability on carbon fluxes from a relatively understudied component of these forests - the forest floor - at three intervals over the summer growing period in a northern Swedish Scots pine stand. Nitrogen addition altered both the uptake and release of carbon dioxide from the forest floor, but the magnitude and direction of this effect depended on the time during the growing season and the amount of nitrogen added. Specifically, nitrogen addition stimulated net forest floor carbon uptake only in the late growing season. We find evidence for species-specific control of forest floor carbon sink strength, as photosynthesis per unit ground area was positively correlated only with the abundance of the vascular plant Vaccinium myrtillus and no others. Comparison of understorey vegetation photosynthesis and respiration from the study site indicates that understorey vegetation photosynthate was mainly supplying respiratory demands for much of the year. Only in the late season with nitrogen addition did understorey vegetation appear to experience a large surplus of carbon in excess of respiratory requirements. Further work, simultaneously comparing all major biomass and respiratory carbon fluxes in forest floor and tree vegetation, is required to resolve the likely impacts of environmental changes on whole-ecosystem carbon sequestration in boreal forests.

  3. [Review on landscape heterogeneity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yutao; Yu, Xinxiao; Guang, Wenbin

    2002-04-01

    On the base of precedent studies, the occurring mechanism, classification, measurement methods, and the important role of landscape heterogeneity in landscape ecology were reviewed. The inner and outer uncertain factors result in landscape heterogeneity. Landscape heterogeneity has close relations with landscape stability, landscape design, architecture, management and disturbance, scale and ecological diversity in ecology. Complexity of landscape heterogeneity research, non-system of measurement indices and methods, difficulties and limitations of landscape heterogeneity modelling were all discussed respectively. In addition, it is suggested that the theory and methods of ecological complexity should be used to improve landscape heterogeneity research.

  4. Gender Integration and the Swedish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Daniel Marcus Sunil

    This paper discusses different gender aspects of the Swedish Armed Forces with specific references to sexual harassment and prostitution. By using the concept of Hegemonic Masculinity, sexual harassment of the women in the Swedish Armed Forces is explained in terms of a need of the men within...... the organisation to reinforce the notion of women as inferior and subordinate to men, whereby the external hegemony is believed to be restored. Likewise, male Swedish peacekeepers’ demand for prostitution during international peacekeeping missions is explained in terms of a need to confirm manhood and as homo...

  5. Changing Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tunby Gulbrandsen, Ib; Kamstrup, Andreas; Koed Madsen, Anders

    to production, cooperation and communication. Following, we have witnessed a growing number of calls for attention to the effects of new ICT’s on the concept of strategic management and strategizing. Despite the numerous calls, few have answered. In this article we aim at providing a possible response beginning...... with an analysis of the changing organizational landscape created by new ICT’s like Google, Facebook, Wikipedia, iPods, smart phones and Wi-Fi. Based on five netno- and ethno-graphic investigations of the intertwinement of ICT’s and organizational work, we point to three features that have changed the scene: new...

  6. Cuban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.; Portela, Armando

    This accessible book offers a vivid geographic portrait of Cuba, exploring the island’s streetscapes, sugar cane fields, beaches, and rural settlements; its billboards, government buildings, and national landmarks. The authors illuminate how natural and built landscapes have shaped Cuban identity...... (cubanidad), and vice versa. They provide a unique perspective on Cuba’s distinct historical periods and political economies, from the colonial period through republicanism and today’s socialist era. Compelling topics include the legacies of slavery and the sugar industry, the past and future of urban...

  7. Studies in Swedish Energy Opinion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Soeren; Hedberg, Per

    2012-07-01

    the 1970s, energy production was politicized big time in the industrialized world. The birth of the environmental movement, the oil crises in 1973 - 74 and the beginning conflict surrounding civilian nuclear power, put energy issues center stage on the political agenda. Energy policies - especially related to the development of nuclear power - came to dominate election campaigns, like in Sweden in 1976 or be the subject of referendums, like in Austria in 1978 or in Sweden in 1980. Critical voices toward the peaceful use of nuclear power - having started in America before being exported to Europe - gained real strength and public support all over the Western world by the nuclear accident at the Three Mile Island plant in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania in 1979. The energy genie was out of the bottle and out to stay. Fueled by the nuclear meltdowns in Chernobyl in 1986 and in Fukushima in 2011 and supplemented by conflicts over how to reduce the use of oil and coal, how to sensibly exploit the waste gas reserves, and how to develop renewable energy sources based on sun, wind and waves – have made all kinds of energy issues the focal point of political contentions ever since the early 1970s. In Sweden, as in many other countries, energy policies - often with nuclear power in the center - have been one of the most fought-over policy areas during the last thirty-forty years. And the contentious character of energy policies is not limited to the elite level of politics - to politicians, to media pundits or to lobbyists. It is also manifest among ordinary citizens. Energy issues - nuclear power and wind power in particular - are highly polarizing among voters as well. Given this historic background, starting in the 1970s, it was rather natural that energy questions - featuring most prominently questions related to nuclear power - would be important parts of the voter surveys performed by the Swedish National Elections Studies (SNES) at the Univ. of Gothenburg. The first book

  8. The Perfect Fire? Aging Stands in the Alaskan Boreal Forest Encounter Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, D.; Rupp, S.; Duffy, P.

    2008-12-01

    The ecological responses of the boreal forest to climate change have global significance because of the large amount of carbon stored in its soils and biomass. Fire, mostly ignited by lightning, is the keystone disturbance agent in this forest. It triggers cycles of forest succession in its wake, and burning is the main avenue for carbon release back to the atmosphere. We studied the interactions between climate, fires, forest succession, and the age distributions of forest stands in a 60-million hectare region of Interior Alaska over the past 150 years. First we developed a statistical model relating climate to area burned over the period of record (1950-2005). Next we combined this model with climate reconstructions to extend the estimates of area burned back to A.D. 1860. We checked the resultant fire history against stand-age data from 5000 living trees sampled in the study region. Then we fed the history of area burned into a computer model that simulates forest succession on real landscapes. Results show striking changes in the means and variances of stand ages over the last 150 years in response to interactions between climate change and the successional dynamics of the boreal forest. Average stand age increased steadily between 1880 and 1940 and has fluctuated at high levels since then, indicating a historically unusual abundance of flammable stands. This accumulation of old stands has created the potential for unusually large fires. Some support for this conclusion comes from the unprecedented large sizes of the areas burned in 2004 and 2005. Further support comes when we add to the analysis the forecasts made by global climate models for Alaska over the next twenty years. Bracketing estimates for climate warming and precipitation change suggest that warmer, drier summers combined with aging forest stands will cause a series of unusually large fires, the like of which have not occurred in the region for >150 years. We infer that the enhanced burning of the

  9. Broadleaf deciduous forest counterbalanced the direct effect of climate on Holocene fire regime in hemiboreal/boreal region (NE Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurdean, Angelica; Veski, Siim; Florescu, Gabriela; Vannière, Boris; Pfeiffer, Mirjam; O'Hara, Robert B.; Stivrins, Normunds; Amon, Leeli; Heinsalu, Atko; Vassiljev, Jüri; Hickler, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Disturbances by fire are essential for the functioning of boreal/hemiboreal forests, but knowledge of long-term fire regime dynamics is limited. We analysed macrocharcoal morphologies and pollen of a sediment record from Lake Lielais Svētiņu (eastern Latvia), and in conjunction with fire traits analysis present the first record of Holocene variability in fire regime, fuel sources and fire types in boreal forests of the Baltic region. We found a phase of moderate to high fire activity during the cool and moist early (mean fire return interval; mFRI of ∼280 years; 11,700-7500 cal yr BP) and the late (mFRI of ∼190 years; 4500-0 cal yr BP) Holocene and low fire activity (mFRI of ∼630 years) during the Holocene Thermal Optimum (7500-4500 cal yr BP). Charcoal morphotypes and the pollen record show the predominance of frequent surface fires, occasionally transitioning to the crown during Pinus sylvestris-Betula boreal forests and less frequent surface fires during the dominance of temperate deciduous forests. In contrast to the prevailing opinion that fires in boreal forests are mostly low to moderate severity surface fires, we found evidence for common occurrence of stand-replacing crown fires in Picea abies canopy. Our results highlight that charcoal morphotypes analysis allows for distinguishing the fuel types and surface from crown fires, therefore significantly advancing our interpretation of fire regime. Future warmer temperatures and increase in the frequency of dry spells and abundant biomass accumulation can enhance the fire risk on the one hand, but will probably promote the expansion of broadleaf deciduous forests to higher latitudes, on the other hand. By highlighting the capability of broadleaf deciduous forests to act as fire-suppressing landscape elements, our results suggest that fire activity may not increase in the Baltic area under future climate change.

  10. PESP Landscaping Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscaping practices can positively or negatively affect local environments and human health. The Landscaping Initiative seeks to enhance benefits of landscaping while reducing need for pesticides, fertilizers, etc., by working with partners.

  11. Ferride geochemistry of Swedish precambrian iron ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loberg, B. E. H.; Horndahl, A.-K.

    1983-10-01

    Chemical analysis for major and trace elements have been performed on 30 Swedish Precambrian iron ores and on some from Iran and Chile. The Swedish ores consist of apatite iron ores, quartz-banded iron ores, skarn and limestone iron ores from the two main ore districts of Sweden, the Bergslagen and the Norrbotten province. Some Swedish titaniferous iron ores were also included in the investigation. The trace element data show that the Swedish ores can be subdivided into two major groups: 1. orthomagmatic and exhalative, 2. sedimentary. Within group 1 the titaniferous iron ores are distinguished by their high Ti-contents. From the ferride contents of the Kiruna apatite iron ores, the ores are considered to be mobilization products of skarn iron ores from the Norbotten province.

  12. BOREAS TE-04 Branch Bag Data from Boreal Tree Species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains 1996 TE-04 data of branch bag studies of photosynthesis, respiration and stomatal conductance of boreal forest species using the open MPH-1000 system.

  13. NPP Boreal Forest: Schefferville, Canada, 1974, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains two files (.txt format). One file provides above- and below-ground biomass, soil, and nutrient data for a mature boreal ecosystem (subarctic...

  14. NPP Boreal Forest: Schefferville, Canada, 1974, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains two files (.txt format). One file provides above- and below-ground biomass, soil, and nutrient data for a mature boreal ecosystem...

  15. BOREAS TE-04 Branch Bag Data from Boreal Tree Species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Contains 1996 TE-04 data of branch bag studies of photosynthesis, respiration and stomatal conductance of boreal forest species using the open MPH-1000...

  16. BOREAS TE-04 Gas Exchange Data from Boreal Tree Species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains TE-04 data on gas exchange studies of photosynthesis, respiration and stomatal conductance of boreal forest species using the MPH-1000 system.

  17. BOREAS TE-04 Gas Exchange Data from Boreal Tree Species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Contains TE-04 data on gas exchange studies of photosynthesis, respiration and stomatal conductance of boreal forest species using the MPH-1000 system.

  18. NPP Boreal Forest: Flakaliden, Sweden, 1986-1996, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains three files (.txt format) for an established 8.25 ha boreal forest dominated by Norway spruce, Picea abies, at Flakaliden (64.12 N 19.45 E) in...

  19. NPP Boreal Forest: Kuusamo, Finland, 1967-1972, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains three files (.txt format). One file provides stand characteristics, biomass, and production allocation data for an old-growth boreal forest...

  20. NPP Boreal Forest: Kuusamo, Finland, 1967-1971, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains three files (.txt format). One file provides stand characteristics, biomass, and production allocation data for an old-growth boreal...

  1. Hydrological response to changing climate conditions: Spatial streamflow variability in the boreal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutschbein, Claudia; Grabs, Thomas; Karlsen, Reinert H.; Laudon, Hjalmar; Bishop, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    It has long been recognized that streamflow-generating processes are not only dependent on climatic conditions, but also affected by physical catchment properties such as topography, geology, soils and land cover. We hypothesize that these landscape characteristics do not only lead to highly variable hydrologic behavior of rather similar catchments under the same stationary climate conditions (Karlsen et al., 2014), but that they also play a fundamental role for the sensitivity of a catchment to a changing climate (Teutschbein et al., 2015). A multi-model ensemble based on 15 regional climate models was combined with a multi-catchment approach to explore the hydrologic sensitivity of 14 partially nested and rather similar catchments in Northern Sweden to changing climate conditions and the importance of small-scale spatial variability. Current (1981-2010) and future (2061-2090) streamflow was simulated with the HBV model. As expected, projected increases in temperature and precipitation resulted in increased total available streamflow, with lower spring and summer flows, but substantially higher winter streamflow. Furthermore, significant changes in flow durations with lower chances of both high and low flows can be expected in boreal Sweden in the future. This overall trend in projected streamflow pattern changes was comparable among the analyzed catchments while the magnitude of change differed considerably. This suggests that catchments belonging to the same region can show distinctly different degrees of hydrological responses to the same external climate change signal. We reason that differences in spatially distributed physical catchment properties at smaller scales are not only of great importance for current streamflow behavior, but also play a major role as first-order control for the sensitivity of catchments to changing climate conditions. References Karlsen, R.H., T. Grabs, K. Bishop, H. Laudon, and J. Seibert (2014). Landscape controls on

  2. [A new source of methane in boreal forests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhin, V A; Voronin, P Iu

    2008-01-01

    Methane was found among the gases evolved during natural wood decay caused by bracket fungi in boreal forests. Methane was detected both in decaying wood and fungal fruiting bodies. A scheme of symbiotic association of wood-degrading fungi and anaerobic microorganisms providing the methanogenesis in the wood was proposed. The scale of mycogenic methane emission has to be consistent with the huge volume of decaying wood in boreal forest ecosystems.

  3. Boreal forest biomass classification with TanDEM-X

    OpenAIRE

    Torano Caicoya, Astor; Kugler, Florian; Papathanassiou, Kostas; Hajnsek, Irena

    2012-01-01

    High spatial resolution X-band interferometric SAR data from the TanDEM-X, in the operational DEM generation mode, are sensitive to forest structure and can therefore be used for thematic boreal forest classification of forest environments. The interferometric coherence in absence of temporal decorrelation depends strongly on forest height and structure. Due to the rather homogenous structure of boreal forest, forest biomass can be derived from forest height, on the basis of allometric equati...

  4. Resistance of the boreal forest to high burn rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héon, Jessie; Arseneault, Dominique; Parisien, Marc-André

    2014-09-23

    Boreal ecosystems and their large carbon stocks are strongly shaped by extensive wildfires. Coupling climate projections with records of area burned during the last 3 decades across the North American boreal zone suggests that area burned will increase by 30-500% by the end of the 21st century, with a cascading effect on ecosystem dynamics and on the boreal carbon balance. Fire size and the frequency of large-fire years are both expected to increase. However, how fire size and time since previous fire will influence future burn rates is poorly understood, mostly because of incomplete records of past fire overlaps. Here, we reconstruct the length of overlapping fires along a 190-km-long transect during the last 200 y in one of the most fire-prone boreal regions of North America to document how fire size and time since previous fire will influence future fire recurrence. We provide direct field evidence that extreme burn rates can be sustained by a few occasional droughts triggering immense fires. However, we also show that the most fire-prone areas of the North American boreal forest are resistant to high burn rates because of overabundant young forest stands, thereby creating a fuel-mediated negative feedback on fire activity. These findings will help refine projections of fire effect on boreal ecosystems and their large carbon stocks.

  5. Towards a Manitoba Hydro boreal woodland caribou strategy: Outcomes from Manitoba Hydro boreal woodland caribou workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona E. Scurrah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Manitoba Hydro is responsible for the continued supply of energy to meet the needs of the province and is committed to protecting the environment when planning the construction and operation of its facilities. Corporate policy dictates ongoing improvement of Environmental Management Systems (EMS in order to meet or surpass regulatory requirements. Environmental objectives are reviewed annually and programs are modified when necessary to address improvements in environmental performance. Manitoba Hydro plans and constructs major transmission projects throughout northern Manitoba which includes areas occupied by boreal woodland caribou. In recognition of the potential issues associated with hydro transmission construction in boreal caribou range, Manitoba Hydro hosted an expert workshop on May 8, 2007 to provide objective advice in the development of a draft corporate strategy that effectively directs targeted monitoring and research for environmental assessment and mitigation. The workshop focused on assessing the potential threats to boreal woodland caribou from a transmission line construction and operation perspective, and identifying appropriate approaches in site selection and environmental assessment (SSEA and long-term monitoring and research. A total of nine threat categories were reviewed to determine the degree and magnitude of potential effects that may result from transmission construction and operation; and of the original nine, five final threat categories were delineated. The main elements of the workshop provided strategic approaches for proactive pre-construction monitoring, research on recruitment and mortality for local populations impacted by ROWs and control areas, and various habitat monitoring, management, and mitigation techniques. Research and monitoring priorities have been identified and continued collaboration with Manitoba Conservation and other land users were also identified.

  6. Changing Arctic ecosystems--the role of ecosystem changes across the Boreal-Arctic transition zone on the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNew, Lance; Handel, Colleen; Pearce, John; DeGange, Anthony R.; Holland-Bartels, Leslie; Whalen, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Arctic and boreal ecosystems provide important breeding habitat for more than half of North America’s migratory birds as well as many resident species. Northern landscapes are projected to experience more pronounced climate-related changes in habitat than most other regions. These changes include increases in shrub growth, conversion of tundra to forest, alteration of wetlands, shifts in species’ composition, and changes in the frequency and scale of fires and insect outbreaks. Changing habitat conditions, in turn, may have significant effects on the distribution and abundance of wildlife in these critical northern ecosystems. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting studies in the Boreal–Arctic transition zone of Alaska, an environment of accelerated change in this sensitive margin between Arctic tundra and boreal forest.

  7. Swedish health care in perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, O W

    1992-01-01

    The evolution and current problems of the Swedish health services are placed in an international comparative perspective with other industrially developed democratic states as to cost control, distribution of facilities and personnel, management of waiting lists for services, and differences in use of services. All of these countries are experiencing the same aforementioned problems differing mainly in degree. It is suggested that Sweden as well as other countries needs to reconceptualize the meaning of equality of access relative to the apparent emergence of private insurance as waiting lists grow for quality of life procedures such as lens and hip replacement. A concept of a basic service for everybody and so-called luxury service for those who wish to buy it needs to be faced in political debate. It is clear that government is unable to finance and supply the range of demand of a consumption good represented by a modern medicine. In so far as Sweden has been regarded as a model it appears that no country is a model anymore. The complexities of a modern health service has overwhelmed all countries and can be regarded as a sublime loss of innocence.

  8. Methane dynamics in different boreal lake types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Juutinen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the variability in concentrations of dissolved CH4 and annual flux estimates in the pelagic zone in a statistically defined sample of 207 lakes in Finland. The lakes were situated in the boreal zone, in an area where the mean annual air temperature ranges from −2.8 to 5.9°C. We examined how lake CH4 dynamics related to regional lake types assessed according to the EU water framework directive. Ten lake types were defined on the basis of water chemistry, color, and size. Lakes were sampled for dissolved CH4 concentrations four times per year, at four different depths at the deepest point of each lake. We found that CH4 concentrations and fluxes to the atmosphere tended to be high in nutrient rich calcareous lakes, and that the shallow lakes had the greatest surface water concentrations. Methane concentration in the hypolimnion was related to oxygen and nutrient concentrations, and to lake depth or lake area. The surface water CH4 concentration was related to the depth or area of lake. Methane concentration close to the bottom can be viewed as proxy of lake status in terms of frequency of anoxia and nutrient levels. The mean pelagic CH4 release from randomly selected lakes was 49 mmol m−2 a−1. The sum CH4 flux (storage and diffusion correlated with lake depth, area and nutrient content, and CH4 release was greatest from the shallow nutrient rich and humic lakes. Our results support earlier lake studies regarding the regulating factors and also the magnitude of global emission estimate. These results propose that in boreal region small lakes have higher CH4 fluxes per unit area than larger lakes, and that the small lakes have a disproportionate significance regarding to the CH4 release.

  9. Landscaping for energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This publication by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory addresses the use of landscaping for energy efficiency. The topics of the publication include minimizing energy expenses; landscaping for a cleaner environment; climate, site, and design considerations; planning landscape; and selecting and planting trees and shrubs. A source list for more information on landscaping for energy efficiency and a reading list are included.

  10. Exploring the Visual Landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Van Lammeren, R.; Van der Hoeven, F.

    2011-01-01

    Exploring the Visual Landscape is about the combination of landscape research and planning, visual perception and Geographic Information Science. It showcases possible ways of getting a grip on themes like: landscape openness, cluttering of the rural landscape, high-rise buildings in relation to

  11. Harvesting interacts with climate change to affect future habitat quality of a focal species in eastern Canada's boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Junior A; Boulanger, Yan; Cyr, Dominic; Taylor, Anthony R; Price, David T; St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues

    2018-01-01

    Many studies project future bird ranges by relying on correlative species distribution models. Such models do not usually represent important processes explicitly related to climate change and harvesting, which limits their potential for predicting and understanding the future of boreal bird assemblages at the landscape scale. In this study, we attempted to assess the cumulative and specific impacts of both harvesting and climate-induced changes on wildfires and stand-level processes (e.g., reproduction, growth) in the boreal forest of eastern Canada. The projected changes in these landscape- and stand-scale processes (referred to as "drivers of change") were then assessed for their impacts on future habitats and potential productivity of black-backed woodpecker (BBWO; Picoides arcticus), a focal species representative of deadwood and old-growth biodiversity in eastern Canada. Forest attributes were simulated using a forest landscape model, LANDIS-II, and were used to infer future landscape suitability to BBWO under three anthropogenic climate forcing scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5), compared to the historical baseline. We found climate change is likely to be detrimental for BBWO, with up to 92% decline in potential productivity under the worst-case climate forcing scenario (RCP 8.5). However, large declines were also projected under baseline climate, underlining the importance of harvest in determining future BBWO productivity. Present-day harvesting practices were the single most important cause of declining areas of old-growth coniferous forest, and hence appeared as the single most important driver of future BBWO productivity, regardless of the climate scenario. Climate-induced increases in fire activity would further promote young, deciduous stands at the expense of old-growth coniferous stands. This suggests that the biodiversity associated with deadwood and old-growth boreal forests may be greatly altered by the cumulative impacts of natural and

  12. Compensation in Swedish infrastructure projects and suggestions on policy improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Persson

    2015-07-01

    were never explicitly mentioned in permits, but in practice a ratio of 1:1 (often measured as area or length was usually applied. The compensation measures typically consisted in recreating the same kind of natural asset that was affected, in a location close to the damaged area. In the two cases specially studied, the road and railway planning processes were not properly adjusted to integrate compensation issues, resulting in unnecessary bureaucracy and insufficient co-ordination between different projects, such as between the environmental-impact assessment process and the compensation process or between closely related sub-projects in the same region. To meet the EU’s goal of no net loss of biodiversity, we suggest that policy requirements should be made stricter and that incentives for voluntary compensation should be created. In line with the goals of Swedish national transport policy and the European Landscape Convention, account should be taken of social and cultural aspects, and there should be a shift from a narrow focus on individual projects to a broader planning approach, since this would allow compensation measures to be taken where they can deliver the greatest environmental benefits.

  13. Snow and Vegetation Interactions at Boundaries in Alaska's Boreal Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, C. A.; Sturm, M.

    2012-12-01

    There has been increased attention on snow-vegetation interactions in Arctic tundra because of rapid climate-driven changes affecting that snow-dominated ecosystem. Yet, far less attention is paid to boreal forest snow-vegetation interactions even though climatic conditions are changing there as well. Further, it is the prevalent terrestrial biome on the planet. The forest is a variable patchwork of trees, shrubs, grasses, and forbs shaped by wind, fire, topography, water drainage, and permafrost. These patches and their boundaries have a corresponding effect on boreal snow distributions; however, measurements characterizing boreal snow are sparse and focus within patches (vs. between patches). Unfortunately, remote sensing approaches in such forested areas frequently fall short due to coarse footprint size and dense canopy cover. Over the last several years we have been examining the characteristics of snow cover within and across boundaries in the boreal forest, seeking to identify gradients in snow depth due to snow-vegetation interactions as well identifying methods whereby boreal forest surveys could be improved. Specifically, we collected end-of-season snow measurements in the Alaska boreal forest during long-distance traverses in the Tanana Basin in 2010 (26 sites) and within the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge in 2011 (26 sites). At each site (all relatively flat), hundreds of snow depths were collected using a GPS-equipped Magnaprobe, which is an automated tool for measuring and locating individual snow depths. Corresponding canopy properties included NDVI determined from high-resolution satellite imagery; canopy properties were variable among the 1ha sites and some areas had recently burned. Among sites, NDVI had the largest correlation with snow depths; elevation was not significant. Vegetation transition zones play important roles in explaining observed snow depth. Similar to treeline work showing nutrient and energy gradients are influenced by

  14. Carbon in boreal coniferous forest soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westman, C.J.; Ilvesniemi, H.; Liski, J.; Mecke, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology; Fritze, H.; Helmisaari, H.S.; Pietikaeinen, J.; Smolander, A. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Vantaa (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The working hypothesis of the research was that the soil of boreal forests is a large carbon store and the amount of C is still increasing in young soils, like in the forest soils of Finland, which makes these soils important sinks for atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Since the processes defining the soil C balance, primary production of plants and decomposition, are dependent on environmental factors and site properties, it was assumed that the organic carbon pool in the soil is also dependent on the same factors. The soil C store is therefore likely to change in response to climatic warming. The aim of this research was to estimate the C balance of forest soil in Finland and predict changes in the balance in response to changes in climatic conditions. To achieve the aim (1) intensive empirical experimentation on the density of C in different pools in the soil and on fluxes between the pools was done was done, (2) the effect of site fertility and climate on the amount and properties of organic C in forest soil was investigated and (3) dynamic modelling for investigating dynamics of the soil C storage was used

  15. Thermokarst rates intensify due to climate change and forest fragmentation in an Alaskan boreal forest lowland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Mark J; Genet, Hélène; McGuire, Anthony D; Euskirchen, Eugénie S; Zhang, Yujin; Brown, Dana R N; Jorgenson, Mark T; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Breen, Amy; Bolton, William R

    2016-02-01

    Lowland boreal forest ecosystems in Alaska are dominated by wetlands comprised of a complex mosaic of fens, collapse-scar bogs, low shrub/scrub, and forests growing on elevated ice-rich permafrost soils. Thermokarst has affected the lowlands of the Tanana Flats in central Alaska for centuries, as thawing permafrost collapses forests that transition to wetlands. Located within the discontinuous permafrost zone, this region has significantly warmed over the past half-century, and much of these carbon-rich permafrost soils are now within ~0.5 °C of thawing. Increased permafrost thaw in lowland boreal forests in response to warming may have consequences for the climate system. This study evaluates the trajectories and potential drivers of 60 years of forest change in a landscape subjected to permafrost thaw in unburned dominant forest types (paper birch and black spruce) associated with location on elevated permafrost plateau and across multiple time periods (1949, 1978, 1986, 1998, and 2009) using historical and contemporary aerial and satellite images for change detection. We developed (i) a deterministic statistical model to evaluate the potential climatic controls on forest change using gradient boosting and regression tree analysis, and (ii) a 30 × 30 m land cover map of the Tanana Flats to estimate the potential landscape-level losses of forest area due to thermokarst from 1949 to 2009. Over the 60-year period, we observed a nonlinear loss of birch forests and a relatively continuous gain of spruce forest associated with thermokarst and forest succession, while gradient boosting/regression tree models identify precipitation and forest fragmentation as the primary factors controlling birch and spruce forest change, respectively. Between 1950 and 2009, landscape-level analysis estimates a transition of ~15 km² or ~7% of birch forests to wetlands, where the greatest change followed warm periods. This work highlights that the vulnerability and resilience of

  16. Fire-induced changes in boreal forest canopy volume and soil organic matter from multi-temporal airborne lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, M.; Cook, B.; Andersen, H. E.; Babcock, C. R.; Morton, D. C.

    2016-12-01

    Fire in boreal forests initiates a cascade of biogeochemical and biophysical processes. Over typical fire return intervals, net radiative forcing from boreal forest fires depends on the offsetting impacts of greenhouse gas emissions and post-fire changes in land surface albedo. Whether boreal forest fires warm or cool the climate over these multi-decadal intervals depends on the magnitude of fire emissions and the time scales of decomposition, albedo changes, and forest regrowth. Our understanding of vegetation and surface organic matter (SOM) changes from boreal forest fires is shaped by field measurements and moderate resolution remote sensing data. Intensive field plot measurements offer detailed data on overstory, understory, and SOM changes from fire, but sparse plot data can be difficult to extend across the heterogeneous boreal forest landscape. Conversely, satellite measurements of burn severity are spatially extensive but only provide proxy measures of fire effects. In this research, we seek to bridge the scale gap between existing intensive and extensive methods using a combination of airborne lidar data and time series of Landsat data to evaluate pre- and post-fire conditions across Alaska's Kenai Peninsula. Lidar-based estimates of pre-fire stand structure and composition were essential to characterize the loss of canopy volume from fires between 2001 and 2014, quantify transitions from live to dead standing carbon pools, and isolate vegetation recovery following fire over 1 to 13 year time scales. Results from this study demonstrate the utility of lidar for estimating pre-fire structure and species composition at the scale of individual tree crowns. Multi-temporal airborne lidar data also provide essential insights regarding the heterogeneity of canopy and SOM losses at a sub-Landsat pixel scale. Fire effects are forest-structure and species dependent with variable temporal lags in carbon release due to delayed mortality (>5 years post fire) and

  17. Collected Data from The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study, NASA, CD-ROM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) project information and data collected at selected sites in the boreal forest of Saskatchewan and...

  18. Boreal forests, aerosols and the impacts on clouds and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, Dominick V; Bonn, Boris; Carslaw, Kenneth S

    2008-12-28

    Previous studies have concluded that boreal forests warm the climate because the cooling from storage of carbon in vegetation and soils is cancelled out by the warming due to the absorption of the Sun's heat by the dark forest canopy. However, these studies ignored the impacts of forests on atmospheric aerosol. We use a global atmospheric model to show that, through emission of organic vapours and the resulting condensational growth of newly formed particles, boreal forests double regional cloud condensation nuclei concentrations (from approx. 100 to approx. 200 cm(-3)). Using a simple radiative model, we estimate that the resulting change in cloud albedo causes a radiative forcing of between -1.8 and -6.7 W m(-2) of forest. This forcing may be sufficiently large to result in boreal forests having an overall cooling impact on climate. We propose that the combination of climate forcings related to boreal forests may result in an important global homeostasis. In cold climatic conditions, the snow-vegetation albedo effect dominates and boreal forests warm the climate, whereas in warmer climates they may emit sufficiently large amounts of organic vapour modifying cloud albedo and acting to cool climate.

  19. Tensions in Stakeholder Relations for a Swedish Football Club

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghagen, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Swedish football is an industry not yet being as commercial as the big leagues and is regulated in terms of ownership of clubs. This implies a need for management of stakeholder relations for a Swedish football club. This paper identifies important stakeholders in Swedish football and discusses...

  20. Working on an historical dictionary: the Swedish academy dictionary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Working on an historical dictionary: the Swedish academy dictionary project. P Stille, B-O Wendt. Abstract. The Swedish Academy Dictionary is one of the world's largest dictionary projects. Work on it was started in 1884 and it will be completed by 2017. The dictionary describes the written standard language of Swedish ...

  1. Phonology of a southern Swedish idiolect

    OpenAIRE

    Svantesson, Jan-Olof

    2001-01-01

    In this egocentric article I describe briefly the segmental phonology of my own southern Swedish idiolect. I grew up in Getinge in central Halland, about 20 km north of Halmstad, speaking a regional variant of southern Standard Swedish. Although my dialect has certainly changed somewhat after I moved to Lund in 1964 at the age of 20, I believe that I still retain the basic pronunciation of vowels and consonants from my original dialect. There is one older description of the Getinge dialect by...

  2. Market reforms in Swedish health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the main characteristics of reforms in the Swedish health services, as exemplified by the "Stockholm Model" introduced in 1992 in Stockholm county. The author discusses the motives behind these reforms, the already-evident increases in costs that are occurring, and the effect...... of these reforms on public support for the welfare state.......This report presents the main characteristics of reforms in the Swedish health services, as exemplified by the "Stockholm Model" introduced in 1992 in Stockholm county. The author discusses the motives behind these reforms, the already-evident increases in costs that are occurring, and the effect...

  3. The changing effects of Alaska's boreal forest on the climate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.S. Euskirchen; A.D. McGuire; F.S. Chapin; T.S. Rupp

    2010-01-01

    In the boreal forests of Alaska, recent changes in climate have influenced the exchange of trace gases, water, and energy between these forests and the atmosphere. These changes in the structure and function of boreal forests can then feed back to impact regional and global climates. We examine the type and magnitude of the climate feedbacks from boreal forests in...

  4. Ecology of snowshoe hares in southern boreal and montane forests [Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen E. Hodges

    2000-01-01

    Snowshoe hares occur in many of the montane and sub-boreal forests of the continental United States, as well as throughout the boreal forests of Canada and Alaska. Population dynamics in their southern range were previously thought to be noncyclic, in contrast to the strong 10-year fluctuation that typifies boreal populations of snowshoe hares. Time series data and...

  5. Land cover mapping, fire regeneration, and scaling studies in the Canadian boreal forest with 1 km AVHRR and Landsat TM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyaert, L. T.; Hall, F. G.; Loveland, T. R.

    1997-12-01

    A multitemporal 1 km advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) land cover analysis approach was used as the basis for regional land cover mapping, fire disturbance-regeneration, and multiresolution land cover scaling studies in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada. The land cover classification was developed by using regional field observations from ground and low-level aircraft transits to analyze spectral-temporal clusters that were derived from an unsupervised cluster analysis of monthly normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) image composites (April-September 1992). Quantitative areal proportions of the major boreal forest components were determined for a 821 km × 619 km region, ranging from the southern grasslands-boreal forest ecotone to the northern boreal transitional forest. The boreal wetlands (mostly lowland black spruce, tamarack, mosses, fens, and bogs) occupied approximately 33% of the region, while lakes accounted for another 13%. Upland mixed coniferous-deciduous forests represented 23% of the ecosystem. A SW-NE productivity gradient across the region is manifested by three levels of tree stand density for both the boreal wetland conifer and the mixed forest classes, which are generally aligned with isopleths of regional growing degree days. Approximately 30% of the region was directly affected by fire disturbance within the preceding 30-35 years, especially in the Canadian Shield Zone where large fire-regeneration patterns contribute to the heterogeneous boreal landscape. Intercomparisons with land cover classifications derived from 30-m Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data provided important insights into the relative accuracy of the 1 km AVHRR land cover classification. Primarily due to the multitemporal NDVI image compositing process, the 1 km AVHRR land cover classes have an effective spatial resolution in the 3-4 km range; therefore fens, bogs, small water bodies, and small patches of dry jack pine cannot be resolved within

  6. Land cover mapping, fire regeneration, and scaling studies in the Canadian boreal forest with 1 km AVHRR and Landsat TM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyaert, L.T.; Hall, F.G.; Loveland, T.R.

    1997-01-01

    A multitemporal 1 km advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) land cover analysis approach was used as the basis for regional land cover mapping, fire disturbance-regeneration, and multiresolution land cover scaling studies in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada. The land cover classification was developed by using regional field observations from ground and low-level aircraft transits to analyze spectral-temporal clusters that were derived from an unsupervised cluster analysis of monthly normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) image composites (April-September 1992). Quantitative areal proportions of the major boreal forest components were determined for a 821 km ?? 619 km region, ranging from the southern grasslands-boreal forest ecotone to the northern boreal transitional forest. The boreal wetlands (mostly lowland black spruce, tamarack, mosses, fens, and bogs) occupied approximately 33% of the region, while lakes accounted for another 13%. Upland mixed coniferous-deciduous forests represented 23% of the ecosystem. A SW-NE productivity gradient across the region is manifested by three levels of tree stand density for both the boreal wetland conifer and the mixed forest classes, which are generally aligned with isopleths of regional growing degree days. Approximately 30% of the region was directly affected by fire disturbance within the preceding 30-35 years, especially in the Canadian Shield Zone where large fire-regeneration patterns contribute to the heterogeneous boreal landscape. Intercomparisons with land cover classifications derived from 30-m Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data provided important insights into the relative accuracy of the 1 km AVHRR land cover classification. Primarily due to the multitemporal NDVI image compositing process, the 1 km AVHRR land cover classes have an effective spatial resolution in the 3-4 km range; therefore fens, bogs, small water bodies, and small patches of dry jack pine cannot be resolved within

  7. Impacts of forestry on boreal forests: An ecosystem services perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjanmies, Tähti; Triviño, María; Le Tortorec, Eric; Mazziotta, Adriano; Snäll, Tord; Mönkkönen, Mikko

    2017-11-01

    Forests are widely recognized as major providers of ecosystem services, including timber, other forest products, recreation, regulation of water, soil and air quality, and climate change mitigation. Extensive tracts of boreal forests are actively managed for timber production, but actions aimed at increasing timber yields also affect other forest functions and services. Here, we present an overview of the environmental impacts of forest management from the perspective of ecosystem services. We show how prevailing forestry practices may have substantial but diverse effects on the various ecosystem services provided by boreal forests. Several aspects of these processes remain poorly known and warrant a greater role in future studies, including the role of community structure. Conflicts among different interests related to boreal forests are most likely to occur, but the concept of ecosystem services may provide a useful framework for identifying and resolving these conflicts.

  8. Ambassadors of the Swedish Nation: National Images in the Teaching of the Swedish Lecturers in Germany 1918-1945

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerlund, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the teaching of Swedish language lecturers active in Germany during the first half of the twentieth century. It shows the centrality of literature and literary constructions and analyses images of Swedishness and the Swedish nation present in the teaching material of that time in relation to the national image present in…

  9. Disturbance-mediated heterogeneity drives pollinator diversity in boreal managed forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Antonio; Kouki, Jari

    2017-03-01

    Intensive forest management, together with fire suppression, have decreased structural complexity and altered dynamics of boreal forests profoundly. Such management threatens forest biodiversity and can reduce the provision of ecosystem services. Although the importance of ecosystem services is widely acknowledged, conservation strategies are hindered by poor knowledge about diversity patterns of service provider species as well as on mechanisms affecting these assemblages at different spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we assessed the effect of disturbance management on forest pollinator communities. To do so, we used a large-scale ecological experiment conducted in the year 2000, where forest complexity was manipulated with different harvest regimes and prescribed fire. Results were consistent with a positive response of pollinators to increasing habitat heterogeneity driven by past disturbances. Harvested sites harbored a diverse pollinator community, and showed higher spatial and temporal turnover in species richness. Conversely, old-growth forest communities were a nested subset of harvested sites and contained half of their total diversity. Variation in community composition (β diversity) was primarily affected by species temporal turnover. Throughout the season, β diversity was controlled by fire and harvesting legacies, which provide environmental heterogeneity in the form of flowering and nesting resources over space and time. Conservation strategies may undervalue ecosystem services in dynamic, naturally disturbance-driven, landscapes when relying solely on undisturbed forests areas. However, maintaining natural dynamics in early successional forests, by emulating natural disturbances at harvesting, hold promise for the conservation of both biodiversity and ecosystem services in boreal forests. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Increased autumn rainfall disrupts predator-prey interactions in fragmented boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terraube, Julien; Villers, Alexandre; Poudré, Léo; Varjonen, Rauno; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2017-04-01

    There is a pressing need to understand how changing climate interacts with land-use change to affect predator-prey interactions in fragmented landscapes. This is particularly true in boreal ecosystems facing fast climate change and intensification in forestry practices. Here, we investigated the relative influence of autumn climate and habitat quality on the food-storing behaviour of a generalist predator, the pygmy owl, using a unique data set of 15 850 prey items recorded in western Finland over 12 years. Our results highlighted strong effects of autumn climate (number of days with rainfall and with temperature prey biomass stored, (ii) the number of bank voles (main prey) stored, and (iii) the scaled mass index of pygmy owls. Increasing proportions of old spruce forests strengthened the functional response of owls to variations in vole abundance and were more prone to switch from main prey to alternative prey (passerine birds) depending on local climate conditions. High-quality habitat may allow pygmy owls to buffer negative effects of inclement weather and cyclic variation in vole abundance. Additionally, our results evidenced sex-specific trends in body condition, as the scaled mass index of smaller males increased while the scaled mass index of larger females decreased over the study period, probably due to sex-specific foraging strategies and energy requirements. Long-term temporal stability in local vole abundance refutes the hypothesis of climate-driven change in vole abundance and suggests that rainier autumns could reduce the vulnerability of small mammals to predation by pygmy owls. As small rodents are key prey species for many predators in northern ecosystems, our findings raise concern about the impact of global change on boreal food webs through changes in main prey vulnerability. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Biodiversity and landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgewater, P. B.

    1988-12-01

    Biodiversity and landscape pattern and process are inextricably linked. Maximum biodiversity occurs where landscape patterns and processes are most heterogeneous. Human use of landscapes in Australia and New Zealand has changed biodiversity patterns. European settlement introduced many species from Europe, America, Africa and Asia to the landscapes of Australia and New Zealand. These species have caused a decline in native biodiversity of much greater significance than their addition to the biodiversity. Future landscape management should seek to maintain maximum landscape heterogeneity, thereby ensuring the maximum persistence of biodiversity.

  12. Patterns of canopy and surface layer consumption in a boreal forest fire from repeat airborne lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Michael; Morton, Douglas C.; Cook, Bruce D.; Andersen, Hans-Erik; Babcock, Chad; Pattison, Robert

    2017-05-01

    Fire in the boreal region is the dominant agent of forest disturbance with direct impacts on ecosystem structure, carbon cycling, and global climate. Global and biome-scale impacts are mediated by burn severity, measured as loss of forest canopy and consumption of the soil organic layer. To date, knowledge of the spatial variability in burn severity has been limited by sparse field sampling and moderate resolution satellite data. Here, we used pre- and post-fire airborne lidar data to directly estimate changes in canopy vertical structure and surface elevation for a 2005 boreal forest fire on Alaska’s Kenai Peninsula. We found that both canopy and surface losses were strongly linked to pre-fire species composition and exhibited important fine-scale spatial variability at sub-30 m resolution. The fractional reduction in canopy volume ranged from 0.61 in lowland black spruce stands to 0.27 in mixed white spruce and broadleaf forest. Residual structure largely reflects standing dead trees, highlighting the influence of pre-fire forest structure on delayed carbon losses from aboveground biomass, post-fire albedo, and variability in understory light environments. Median loss of surface elevation was highest in lowland black spruce stands (0.18 m) but much lower in mixed stands (0.02 m), consistent with differences in pre-fire organic layer accumulation. Spatially continuous depth-of-burn estimates from repeat lidar measurements provide novel information to constrain carbon emissions from the surface organic layer and may inform related research on post-fire successional trajectories. Spectral measures of burn severity from Landsat were correlated with canopy (r = 0.76) and surface (r = -0.71) removal in black spruce stands but captured less of the spatial variability in fire effects for mixed stands (canopy r = 0.56, surface r = -0.26), underscoring the difficulty in capturing fire effects in heterogeneous boreal forest landscapes using proxy measures of burn

  13. Fire Regime along Latitudinal Gradients of Continuous to Discontinuous Coniferous Boreal Forests in Eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Portier

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fire is the main disturbance in North American coniferous boreal forests. In Northern Quebec, Canada, where forest management is not allowed, the landscape is gradually constituted of more opened lichen woodlands. Those forests are discontinuous and show a low regeneration potential resulting from the cumulative effects of harsh climatic conditions and very short fire intervals. In a climate change context, and because the forest industry is interested in opening new territories to forest management in the north, it is crucial to better understand how and why fire risk varies from the north to the south at the transition between the discontinuous and continuous boreal forest. We used time-since-fire (TSF data from fire archives as well as a broad field campaign in Quebec’s coniferous boreal forests along four north-south transects in order to reconstruct the fire history of the past 150 to 300 years. We performed survival analyses in each transect in order to (1 determine if climate influences the fire risk along the latitudinal gradient; (2 fractionate the transects into different fire risk zones; and (3 quantify the fire cycle—defined as the time required to burn an area equivalent to the size of the study area—of each zone and compare its estimated value with current fire activity. Results suggest that drought conditions are moderately to highly responsible for the increasing fire risk from south to north in the three westernmost transects. No climate influence was observed in the last one, possibly because of its complex physical environment. Fire cycles are shortening from south to north, and from east to west. Limits between high and low fire risk zones are consistent with the limit between discontinuous and continuous forests, established based on recent fire activity. Compared to the last 40 years, fire cycles of the last 150–300 years are shorter. Our results suggest that as drought episodes are expected to become more frequent

  14. The distribution of radioactive caesium in boreal forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, R. [National Defence Research Establishment, Dept. of NBC Defence, Umeaa (Sweden)

    1994-12-31

    The behaviour of radioactive caesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) in boreal forests of the Nordic countries is reviewed with emphasis on its distribution in various time perspectives. The analysis has thus been focused on data of relevance for both early and later phases after fallout over forest areas. Possibilities and limitation in using data from other time periods or regions, than that characterised by fallout over the boreal zones after the Chernobyl event are also discussed. This concerns extrapolations from information pertaining to neighbouring ecological areas - at higher altitudes (alpine, and sub-alpine regions) or below the southern limit (i.e. in the hemiboreal and nemoboreal zones), and to future time with respect to predictions of the behaviour of Cs-137, based on results for OLD (i.e. from atmospheric weapons tests - mainly in the sixties) versus CHERNOBYL caesium. Beside the principal terrestrial constituents of the soil-plant-animal system, the BOREAL FOREST ECOSYSTEM will for the present purpose be considered to comprise the semi-aquatic and aquatic components pertaining to peat, open peat bog, and ground water. This implies that run-off from a catchment constitutes the main link between the terrestrial part considered here and the aquatic ecosystem proper. In boreal forests the humus layer usually retains a major fraction of the fallout of radioactive caesium, evidently even several decades after deposition. This notable feature, as well as a persistent high availability in important food-chains, emerges from the present Nordic radioecological research. Both constitute facets of a singularity conservative - although not at all static - situation prevailing for radioactive caesium in the boreal forest. The implication is that for Cs-137 physical decay will be the major factor of loss from the boreal ecosystem in a long-term perspective, and that runoff, particularly from peat bogs, is expected to be the second in order of importance. (orig./HP).

  15. Arctic and Boreal Carbon Stocks and Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuur, E.; McGuire, A. D.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2016-12-01

    A newly enlarged soil carbon database with an order of magnitude more numerous deep sampling sites has verified the widespread pattern of large quantities of organic carbon accumulated deep in permafrost (perennially frozen) zone soils. The known pool of permafrost carbon across the northern circumpolar permafrost zone is now estimated to be 1330-1580 Pg carbon, with the potential for an additional 400 Pg carbon in deep permafrost sediments that remain largely unquantified. New work has also sharpened our understanding of carbon pools in the Yedoma region, portion of Siberia and Alaska that remained ice-free during the last glacial period. These soils accumulated carbon as permafrost formed during glacial periods, but some of that initial C thawed as a result of landscape processes, in particular lake formation, which altered the distribution of permafrost. The current Yedoma region, comprising permafrost from the last glacial period together with thaw features that accumulated additional C before becoming frozen again, together contains several hundred Pg C in deep (> 1m) soils. A more comprehensive understanding of these landscape processes causing permafrost to thaw abruptly has shown that upland and lowland landscapes are susceptible to abrupt thaw and that this process is likely to be an important mechanism as permafrost thaws in a warming climate. Large-scale models for the most part do not yet incorporate abrupt thaw mechanisms, but can simulate direct climate warming effects on ecosystem carbon balance. Model projections tend to estimate losses of carbon in line with empirical measurements, but differ in the extent that they project that soil carbon loss will be compensated by new plant growth and carbon input to the surface soil. Together, the loss of carbon from thawing permafrost soils and disturbance by fire in combination with offsetting plant uptake response determines the net effect of high latitudes on the carbon cycle of both North America and the

  16. Boreal Wood Centre, Manning, Alberta: Project update, 1995-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaton, H.

    1996-12-31

    The Boreal Wood Centre in Manning, Alberta was created to promote the wise use of timber resources in the boreal forest of north-west Alberta. The Centre encourages sustainable practices in woodlands operations and assists manufacturers of solid wood to add more value to their products. The Centre carries out its mandate by applied research, training in forestry or wood products manufacturing, and educating the public and industry on the importance of value-added manufacturing. This report outlines the progress of the Centre in its first year of development. It includes a draft action plan for 1996-97.

  17. Leisure, Government and Governance: A Swedish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    The leisure sector has witnessed a tremendous expansion since 1960. The purpose of this article is to analyse the decisions and goals of Swedish government policy during the period 1962 to 2005. The empirical analysis covers government Propositions and governmental investigations. The fields covered are sports, culture, exercise, tourism and…

  18. Training Entrepreneurship at Universities: A Swedish Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klofsten, Magnus

    2000-01-01

    The Entrepreneurship and New Business Development Program trains Swedish individuals in the startup of technology- or knowledge-based enterprises. Built on the characteristics of entrepreneurial behavior, the program features a holistic outlook, a network of established entrepreneurs, mentoring, a mix of theory and practice, and focus on the…

  19. Exergy use in the Swedish society 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, G.

    1997-07-01

    The exergy concept is reviewed as a tool for resource accounting. Conversions of energy and material resources in the Swedish society in 1994 are described in terms of exergy. Necessary concepts and conventions are introduced. Exergy losses in transformations of material resources and in conversions of various forms of energy into heat are described in some detail

  20. SWEDISH CRIME FICTION AS SOCIALLY INVOLVED LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Samsel-Chojnacka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Swedish crime novel has been transforming for many years to become more socially involved. The ambition of many writers is not only to entertain the readers but also to participating in the social debate, criticizing the political and economical system, focusing on important issues such as violence against women, exploitation of working class by the privileged ruling class, the problems of a modern family and the situation of immigrants. Since the moment when in the mid 60’s two journalists Maj Sjöwall and Per Wahlöö decided to use popular literature to spread social matters many other Swedish writers have decided to follow their way. Some of them are journalists – like Liza Marklund, Börge Hellström and Anders Roslund or Stieg Larsson. Their novels as well as the ones written by Henning Mannkel on Kurt Wallander have become crucial evidence of changes of Swedish society in the past twenty years. Modern Swedish crime fiction illustrates the population in the model fashion that is the reason why it can become one of the interests of the sociology of literature.

  1. Mathematics and Didactic Contract in Swedish Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacour, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study and analyse how a teacher implements an outdoor realistic problem situation for children aged 4-5 in a Swedish preschool. By an "outdoor realistic problem situation", I mean a situation initiated by a teacher in which children come into contact with mathematical concepts and in which the outside…

  2. Computers and the landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary H. Elsner

    1979-01-01

    Computers can analyze and help to plan the visual aspects of large wildland landscapes. This paper categorizes and explains current computer methods available. It also contains a futuristic dialogue between a landscape architect and a computer.

  3. Characterizing European cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tieskens, Koen F.; Schulp, Catharina J E; Levers, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Almost all rural areas in Europe have been shaped or altered by humans and can be considered cultural landscapes, many of which now are considered to entail valuable cultural heritage. Current dynamics in land management have put cultural landscapes under a huge pressure of agricultural...... intensification and land abandonment. To prevent the loss of cultural landscapes, knowledge on the location of different types of cultural landscapes is needed. In this paper, we present a characterization of European cultural landscapes based on the prevalence of three key dimensions of cultural landscapes......: landscape structure, management intensity, and value and meaning. We mapped these dimensions across Europe at a 1-km resolution by combining proxies on management intensity and landscape structure with new indicators such as social media usage and registered traditional food products. We integrated...

  4. Salvage logging following fires can minimize boreal caribou habitat loss while maintaining forest quotas: An example of compensatory cumulative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beguin, Julien; McIntire, Eliot J B; Raulier, Frédéric

    2015-11-01

    Protected area networks are the dominant conservation approach that is used worldwide for protecting biodiversity. Conservation planning in managed forests, however, presents challenges when endangered species use old-growth forests targeted by the forest industry for timber supply. In many ecosystems, this challenge is further complicated by the occurrence of natural disturbance events that disrupt forest attributes at multiple scales. Using spatially explicit landscape simulation experiments, we gather insights into how these large scale, multifaceted processes (fire risk, timber harvesting and the amount of protected area) influenced both the persistence of the threatened boreal caribou and the level of timber supply in the boreal forest of eastern Canada. Our result showed that failure to account explicitly and a priori for fire risk in the calculation of timber supply led to an overestimation of timber harvest volume, which in turn led to rates of cumulative disturbances that threatened both the long-term persistence of boreal caribou and the sustainability of the timber supply itself. Salvage logging, however, allowed some compensatory cumulative effects. It minimised the reductions of timber supply within a range of ∼10% while reducing the negative impact of cumulative disturbances caused by fire and logging on caribou. With the global increase of the human footprint on forest ecosystems, our approach and results provide useful tools and insights for managers to resolve what often appear as lose-lose situation between the persistence of species at risk and timber harvest in other forest ecosystems. These tools contribute to bridge the gap between conservation and forest management, two disciplines that remain too often disconnected in practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Swedish attitudes towards persons with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högberg, Torbjörn; Magnusson, Annabella; Lützén, Kim; Ewalds-Kvist, Béatrice

    2012-04-01

    Negative and stigmatizing attitudes towards persons with mental illness must be dealt with to facilitate the sufferers' social acceptance. The present study aimed at survey Swedish attitudes towards persons with mental illness related to factors impacting these attitudes. New CAMI-S based on the questionnaire "Community Attitudes to Mental Illness in Sweden" ([CAMI] Taylor & Dear, 1981) was developed with nine behavioral-intention items and thus comprised a total of 29 items. Of 5000 Swedish people, 2391 agreed to complete the questionnaire. Principal component analysis rendered four factors reflecting attitudes towards the mentally ill: Intention to Interact, Fearful and Avoidant, Open-minded and Pro-Integration, as well as Community Mental Health Ideology. The factors were analyzed for trends in attitudes. By MANOVA, the experience of mental illness effects on mind-set towards the sufferers was assessed. By means of logistic regression, demographic factors contributing to positive attitudes towards persons with mental illness residing in the neighborhood were assessed. By New CAMI-S, the Swedish attitudes towards the mentally ill were surveyed and trends in agreement with living next to a person with mental illness were revealed in three out of four factors derived by principal component analysis. Aspects impacting the Swedish attitudes towards persons with mental illness and willingness to have him/her residing in the neighborhood comprised experience of mental illness, female gender, age (31-50 years), born in Scandinavia or outside Europe, only 9 years of compulsory school and accommodation in flat. The New CAMI-S came out as a useful tool to screen Swedish attitudes towards persons with mental illness. Most Swedes were prepared to live next to the mentally ill.

  6. Professional reinventions: Swedish psychologists, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagius, Peter; Münger, Ann-Charlotte

    2016-11-01

    Since the early 20th century, the Swedish psychology profession has undergone several changes in its essential tasks, epistemological foundations, and social roles. These changes occurred through an ongoing "tuning" with Swedish society, in which the profession strove to appear relevant to society's concerns and problems as well as enroll others to share the profession's goals and aims. Studying the history of the profession can thus shed light on the changing definitions and contours of the psychology profession itself as well as on the organization of the society in which it acts. This article examines the history of the Swedish psychology profession from 1990 to 2010, through an analysis of the discussions and debates taking place in the Swedish Psychological Association's journal. The analytical framework used draws on work done within actor-network theory and science studies. We argue that the profession's institutional connections, defining tasks, epistemological underpinnings, and social position have changed in major ways during these 2 decades. Overall, as a result of an increasingly felt insecurity, the profession has turned outward and tried to find new ways to legitimize itself to politicians, the media, patients, and customers through means such as a more economized vocabulary and novel forms of empirical research. These changes have led to a more socialized profession, now more closely tuned to other actors in Swedish society, leading to conflicts within the profession over whether this is an opportunity to better control their own destiny or if it will lead to a loss of autonomy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Prevalence of footrot in Swedish slaughter lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyman Ann-Kristin J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Footrot is a world-wide contagious disease in sheep and goats. It is an infection of the epidermis of the interdigital skin, and the germinal layers of the horn tissue of the feet. The first case of footrot in Swedish sheep was diagnosed in 2004. Due to difficulties in distinguishing benign footrot from early cases of virulent footrot and because there is no possibility for virulence testing of strains of Dichelobacter nodosus in Sweden, the diagnosis is based of the presence or absence of clinical signs of footrot in sheep flocks. Ever since the first diagnosed case the Swedish Animal Health Service has worked intensively to stop the spread of infection and control the disease at flock level. However, to continue this work effectively it is important to have knowledge about the distribution of the disease both nationally and regionally. Therefore, the aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of footrot in Swedish lambs at abattoirs and to assess the geographical distribution of the disease. Methods A prevalence study on footrot in Swedish lambs was performed by visual examination of 2000 feet from 500 lambs submitted from six slaughter houses. Each foot was scored according to a 0 to 5 scoring system, where feet with score ≥2 were defined as having footrot. Moreover, samples from feet with footrot were examined for Dichelobacter nodosus by culture and PCR. Results The prevalence of footrot at the individual sheep level was 5.8%, and Dichelobacter nodosus was found by culture and PCR in 83% and 97% of the samples from feet with footrot, respectively. Some minor differences in geographical distribution of footrot were found in this study. Conclusions In a national context, the findings indicate that footrot is fairly common in Swedish slaughter lambs, and should be regarded seriously.

  8. [Sources of Methane in the Boreal Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In determining the global methane budget the sources of methane must be balanced with the sinks and atmospheric inventory. The approximate contribution of the different methane sources to the budget has been establish showing the major terrestrial inputs as rice, wetlands, bogs, fens, and tundra. Measurements and modeling of production in these sources suggest that temperature, water table height and saturation along with substratum composition are important in controlling methane production and emission. The isotopic budget of 13 C and D/H in methane can be used as a tool to clarify the global budget. This approach has achieved success at constraining the inputs. Studies using the isotopic approach place constraints on global methane production from different sources. Also, the relation between the two biogenic production pathways, acetate fermentation and CO2 reduction, and the effect of substratum composition can be made using isotope measurements shows the relation between the different biogenic, thermogenic and anthropogenic sources of methane as a function of the carbon and hydrogen isotope values for each source and the atmosphere, tropospheric composition. Methane emissions from ponds and fens are a significant source in the methane budget of the boreal region. An initial study in 1993 and 1994 on the isotopic composition of this methane source and the isotopic composition in relation to oxidation of methane at the sediment surface of the ponds or fen was conducted as part of our BOREAS project. The isotopic composition of methane emitted by saturated anoxic sediment is dependent on the sediment composition and geochemistry, but will be influenced by in situ oxidation, in part, a function of rooted plant activity. The influence of oxidation mediated by rooted plant activities on the isotopic composition of methane is not well known and will depend on the plant type, sediment temperature, and numerous other variables. Information on this isotopic composition

  9. Flowscapes : Infrastructure as landscape, landscape as infrastructure. Graduation Lab Landscape Architecture 2012/2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.; De Vries, C.

    2012-01-01

    Flowscapes explores infrastructure as a type of landscape and landscape as a type of infrastructure, and is focused on landscape architectonic design of transportation-, green- and water infrastructures. These landscape infrastructures are considered armatures for urban and rural development. With

  10. Differential Atmospheric Controls on Transpiration of Boreal Trees: A Potential Factor in Pre-mature Tree Mortality in Green-Tree Retention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladon, K. D.; Silins, U.; Lieffers, V. J.

    2004-05-01

    Green-tree retention, a harvesting strategy that involves the preservation of isolated and interconnected patches of live trees within the boundaries of harvested areas, is assumed to emulate natural disturbance, while preserving forest canopy continuity for wildlife habitat, maintaining forest biodiversity, and many other landscape level objectives. Unfortunately, many of the retention trees die within a few years after harvesting, thus much of the desired function of these trees is lost. This research focuses on understanding the relationship between changes in micro-climate following harvesting and transpiration, potentially leading to drought-induced mortality of aspen, balsam poplar, white spruce, and white birch. Continuous measurements of whole-tree water use (sap flow) and micro-climate were taken before and after harvesting of two adjacent boreal mixedwood stands in west-central Alberta in the summer of 2003. Differences in micro-climate including radiation, air temperature, relative humidity and wind penetration into the canopy produced large differences in atmospheric moisture demand (PET) between partially harvested (green-tree retention) and undisturbed forest canopies. The variability in atmospheric conditions created large differences in sap flow velocity and transpiration rates among these four boreal species. Differential transpiration rates among species will be discussed in context of atmospheric controls on water use and drought tolerance of boreal trees with differing autecology and/or hydraulic architecture.

  11. Modelling atmospheric OH-reactivity in a boreal forest ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, D.; Smolander, S.; Sogachev, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    We have modelled the total atmospheric OH-reactivity in a boreal forest and investigated the individual contributions from gas phase inorganic species, isoprene, monoterpenes, and methane along with other important VOCs. Daily and seasonal variation in OH-reactivity for the year 2008 was examined...

  12. Moss-nitrogen input to boreal forest soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousk, Kathrin; Jones, Davey; DeLuca, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria living epiphytically on mosses in pristine, unpolluted areas fix substantial amounts of atmospheric nitrogen (N) and therefore represent a primary source of N in N-limited boreal forests. However, the fate of this N is unclear, in particular, how the fixed N2 enters the soil...

  13. Modeling Alaska boreal forests with a controlled trend surface approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo Zhou; Jingjing Liang

    2012-01-01

    An approach of Controlled Trend Surface was proposed to simultaneously take into consideration large-scale spatial trends and nonspatial effects. A geospatial model of the Alaska boreal forest was developed from 446 permanent sample plots, which addressed large-scale spatial trends in recruitment, diameter growth, and mortality. The model was tested on two sets of...

  14. Resilience of Alaska's boreal forest to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.S. Chapin; A.D. McGuire; R.W. Ruess; T.N. Hollingsworth; M.C. Mack; J.F. Johnstone; E.S. Kasischke; E.S. Euskirchen; J.B. Jones; M.T. Jorgenson; K. Kielland; G.P. Kofinas; M.R. Turetsky; J. Yarie; A.H. Lloyd; D.L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the resilience of Alaska's boreal forest system to rapid climatic change. Recent warming is associated with reduced growth of dominant tree species, plant disease and insect outbreaks, warming and thawing of permafrost, drying of lakes, increased wildfire extent, increased postfire recruitment of deciduous trees, and reduced safety of hunters...

  15. Boreal forests and atmosphere - Biosphere exchange of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arrigo, Rosanne; Jacoby, Gordon C.; Fung, Inez Y.

    1987-01-01

    Two approaches to investigating the role of boreal forests in the global carbon cycle are presented. First, a tracer support model which incorporates the normalized-difference vegetation index obtained from advanced, very high resolution radiometer radiances was used to simulate the annual cycle of CO2 in the atmosphere. Results indicate that the seasonal growth of the combined boreal forests of North America and Eurasia accounts for about 50 percent of the mean seasonal CO2 amplitude recorded at Pt. Barrow, Alaska and about 30 percent of the more globally representative CO2 signal at Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Second, tree-ring width data from four boreal treeline sites in northern Canada were positively correlated with Pt. Barrow CO2 drawdown for the period 1971-1982. These results suggest that large-scale changes in the growth of boreal forests may be contributing to the observed increasing trend in CO2 amplitude. They further suggest that tree-ring data may be applicable as indices for CO2 uptake and remote sensing estimates of photosynthetic activity.

  16. Who is the new sheriff in town regulating boreal forest growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park Williams, A.; Xu, Chonggang; McDowell, Nate G.

    2011-12-01

    spruce growth from temperature limitation and there is now a new sheriff in town regulating annual growth rate. Who this new sheriff is, however, remains an open and important question. Another interesting result in the Andreu-Hayles et al study is that the relationship between temperature and density of tree-ring latewood (the dark band formed at the end of the growing season) was stable throughout the 20th century. This means that although temperature may no longer be the primary factor governing annual growth, it still has an important physiological impact at the end of the growing season. The stability of the latewood density-temperature relationship also offers a promising implication for dendroclimatic studies. While non-linear relationships between ring widths and temperature may make it difficult to use ring widths to infer information about historical temperature variability for some sites, Andreu-Hayles et al add to the evidence (e.g., Barber et al 2000, Davi et al 2003, D'Arrigo et al 2009) that latewood density may be particularly useful in reconstructing historical temperature at high latitudes. While the divergence problem and new contribution by Andreu-Hayles et al are interesting on their own, they are also important because they highlight the current limits to our understanding of the mechanisms driving boreal forest growth and survival. As Allen et al (2010) pointed out, understanding and predicting the consequences of climate changes on forests is emerging as a grand challenge for global change scientists. This is particularly true at high latitudes because boreal forests store ~32% of Earth's terrestrial forest carbon, more than twice that of temperate forests (Pan et al 2011). Will continued warming turn boreal forests into a sink or source of atmospheric CO2? And will boreal forest growth and distribution change enough to significantly impact the energy balance of high latitude landscapes and thereby influence large-scale atmospheric circulation? To

  17. Potential Roles of Swedish Forestry in the Context of Climate Change Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Lundmark

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, where forests cover more than 60% of the land area, silviculture and the use of forest products by industry and society play crucial roles in the national carbon balance. A scientific challenge is to understand how different forest management and wood use strategies can best contribute to climate change mitigation benefits. This study uses a set of models to analyze the effects of different forest management and wood use strategies in Sweden on carbon dioxide emissions and removals through 2105. If the present Swedish forest use strategy is continued, the long-term climate change mitigation benefit will correspond to more than 60 million tons of avoided or reduced emissions of carbon dioxide annually, compared to a scenario with similar consumption patterns in society but where non-renewable products are used instead of forest-based products. On average about 470 kg of carbon dioxide emissions are avoided for each cubic meter of biomass harvested, after accounting for carbon stock changes, substitution effects and all emissions related to forest management and industrial processes. Due to Sweden’s large export share of forest-based products, the climate change mitigation effect of Swedish forestry is larger abroad than within the country. The study also shows that silvicultural methods to increase forest biomass production can further reduce net carbon dioxide emissions by an additional 40 million tons of per year. Forestry’s contribution to climate change mitigation could be significantly increased if management of the boreal forest were oriented towards increased biomass production and if more wood were used to substitute fossil fuels and energy-intensive materials.

  18. Factors limiting the recovery of boreal toads (Bufo b. boreas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, C.; Corn, P.S.; Jones, M.S.; Livo, L.J.; Muths, E.; Loeffler, C.W.; Lannoo, M.

    2005-01-01

    Boreal toads (Bufo b. boreas) are widely distributed over much of the mountainous western United States. Populations in the Southern Rocky Mountains suffered extensive declines in the late 1970s through early 1980s (Carey, 1993). At the time, these mass mortalities were thought to be associated with a bacterial infection (Carey, 1993). Although the few populations that survived the mass die-offs were not systematically monitored until at least 1993, no mass mortalities had been observed until 1996 when die-offs were observed. A mycotic skin infection associated with a chytrid fungus is now causing mortality of toads in at least two of the populations (M.S. Jones and D.E. Green, unpublished data; Muths et al., 2003). Boreal toads are now absent throughout large areas of their former distribution in Colorado and southern Wyoming and may be extinct in New Mexico (Corn et al., 1989; Carey, 1993; Stuart and Painter, 1994). These toads are classified as “endangered” by Colorado and New Mexico and are designated as a protected non-game species in Wyoming. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has categorized the Southern Rocky Mountain populations for federal listing and is currently reviewing their designation as a “warranted but precluded” species for possible listing in the next few years. For the management of boreal toads and their habitats, a Boreal Toad Recovery Team was formed by the Colorado Division of Wildlife in 1995 as part of a collaborative effort with federal agencies within the United States’ departments of the Interior and Agriculture and with agencies in two adjoining states. To date, conservation agreements have been signed by eight state and federal agencies and by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program. Although boreal toads were considered common throughout their range in Colorado, no comprehensive surveys of the numbers and sizes of their populations were conducted prior to mass die-offs in the 1970s. Surveys completed in the late 1980s to

  19. Analysis of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone: A test of AVIRIS capabilities in the Eastern Canadian subarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goward, Samuel N.; Petzold, Donald E.

    1989-01-01

    A comparison was conducted between ground reflectance spectra collected in Schefferville, Canada and imaging spectrometer observations acquired by the AVIRIS sensor in a flight of the ER-2 Aircraft over the same region. The high spectral contrasts present in the Canadian Subarctic appeared to provide an effective test of the operational readiness of the AVIRIS sensor. Previous studies show that in this location various land cover materials possess a wide variety of visible/near infrared reflectance properties. Thus, this landscape served as an excellent test for the sensing variabilities of the newly developed AVIRIS sensor. An underlying hypothesis was that the unique visible/near infrared spectral reflectance patterns of Subarctic lichens could be detected from high altitudes by this advanced imaging spectrometer. The relation between lichen occurrence and boreal forest-tundra ecotone dynamics was investigated.

  20. Increases in terrestrially derived carbon stimulate organic carbon processing and CO2 emissions in boreal aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Jean-François; Guillemette, François; Berggren, Martin; Del Giorgio, Paul A.

    2013-12-01

    The concentrations of terrestrially derived dissolved organic carbon have been increasing throughout northern aquatic ecosystems in recent decades, but whether these shifts have an impact on aquatic carbon emissions at the continental scale depends on the potential for this terrestrial carbon to be converted into carbon dioxide. Here, via the analysis of hundreds of boreal lakes, rivers and wetlands in Canada, we show that, contrary to conventional assumptions, the proportion of biologically degradable dissolved organic carbon remains constant and the photochemical degradability increases with terrestrial influence. Thus, degradation potential increases with increasing amounts of terrestrial carbon. Our results provide empirical evidence of a strong causal link between dissolved organic carbon concentrations and aquatic fluxes of carbon dioxide, mediated by the degradation of land-derived organic carbon in aquatic ecosystems. Future shifts in the patterns of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon in inland waters thus have the potential to significantly increase aquatic carbon emissions across northern landscapes.

  1. BOREAS (Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study): Global change and biosphere-atmosphere interactions in the boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Piers J.

    1991-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystems Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) is a cooperative field and analysis project involving elements of land surface climatology, tropospheric chemistry, and terrestrial ecology. The goal of the study is to understand the interactions between the boreal forest biome and the atmosphere in order to clarify their roles in global change. The study will be centered on two 20 by 20 km sites within the North American boreal forest region, located near the northern and southern limits of the biome. Studies based at these sites will be used to explore the roles of various environmental factors in controlling the extent and character of the biome. The sites will be the subject of surface, airborne, and satellite based observations which aim to improve understanding of the biological and physical processes and states which govern the exchanges of energy, water, carbon, and trace gases between boreal forest ecosystems and the atmosphere. Particular reference will be made to those processes and states that may be sensitive to global change. The study also aims to develop the use of remote sensing techniques to transfer understanding of the above process from local scales out to regional scales. The BOREAS project is being planned for 1992-1996, with a major field effort in 1994.

  2. Early Spring Post-Fire Snow Albedo Dynamics in High Latitude Boreal Forests Using Landsat-8 OLI Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuosen; Erb, Angela M.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Sun, Qingsong; Liu, Yan; Yang, Yun; Shuai, Yanmin; Casey, Kimberly A.; Roman, Miguel O.

    2016-01-01

    Taking advantage of the improved radiometric resolution of Landsat-8 OLI which, unlike previous Landsat sensors, does not saturate over snow, the progress of fire recovery progress at the landscape scale (less than 100 m) is examined. High quality Landsat-8 albedo retrievals can now capture the true reflective and layered character of snow cover over a full range of land surface conditions and vegetation densities. This new capability particularly improves the assessment of post-fire vegetation dynamics across low- to high-burn severity gradients in Arctic and boreal regions in the early spring, when the albedos during recovery show the greatest variation. We use 30 m resolution Landsat-8 surface reflectances with concurrent coarser resolution (500 m) MODIS high quality full inversion surface Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDF) products to produce higher resolution values of surface albedo. The high resolution full expression shortwave blue sky albedo product performs well with an overall RMSE of 0.0267 between tower and satellite measures under both snow-free and snow-covered conditions. While the importance of post-fire albedo recovery can be discerned from the MODIS albedo product at regional and global scales, our study addresses the particular importance of early spring post-fire albedo recovery at the landscape scale by considering the significant spatial heterogeneity of burn severity, and the impact of snow on the early spring albedo of various vegetation recovery types. We found that variations in early spring albedo within a single MODIS gridded pixel can be larger than 0.6. Since the frequency and severity of wildfires in Arctic and boreal systems is expected to increase in the coming decades, the dynamics of albedo in response to these rapid surface changes will increasingly impact the energy balance and contribute to other climate processes and physical feedback mechanisms. Surface radiation products derived from Landsat-8 data will

  3. Climate sensitivity of reproduction in a mast-seeding boreal conifer across its distributional range from lowland to treeline forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Carl A; Schmidt, Joshua H; Johnstone, Jill F

    2014-03-01

    Mast-seeding conifers such as Picea glauca exhibit synchronous production of large seed crops over wide areas, suggesting climate factors as possible triggers for episodic high seed production. Rapidly changing climatic conditions may thus alter the tempo and spatial pattern of masting of dominant species with potentially far-reaching ecological consequences. Understanding the future reproductive dynamics of ecosystems including boreal forests, which may be dominated by mast-seeding species, requires identifying the specific cues that drive variation in reproductive output across landscape gradients and among years. Here we used annual data collected at three sites spanning an elevation gradient in interior Alaska, USA between 1986 and 2011 to produce the first quantitative models for climate controls over both seedfall and seed viability in P. glauca, a dominant boreal conifer. We identified positive associations between seedfall and increased summer precipitation and decreased summer warmth in all years except for the year prior to seedfall. Seed viability showed a contrasting response, with positive correlations to summer warmth in all years analyzed except for one, and an especially positive response to warm and wet conditions in the seedfall year. Finally, we found substantial reductions in reproductive potential of P. glauca at high elevation due to significantly reduced seed viability there. Our results indicate that major variation in the reproductive potential of this species may occur in different landscape positions in response to warming, with decreasing reproductive success in areas prone to drought stress contrasted with increasing success in higher elevation areas currently limited by cool summer temperatures.

  4. Fluxes of Dissolved Organic Carbon within Soils across a Boreal Forest Ecosystem Latitudinal Transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowering, K.; Edwards, K.; Billings, S. A.; Skinner, A.; Warren, J.; Ziegler, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    .2 mmol C m-2 d-1 in the most southern site, from 3.2 to 15.3 mmol C m-2 d-1 at the mid-latitude site, and from 2.8 to 5.8 mmol C m-2 d-1 at the highest latitude site. Higher DOC fluxes in the warmer climates may be explained in part by higher overall decomposition rates and litter fall inputs, which would increase DOC production in the soil. In addition, there appears to be a seasonal effect on DOC fluxes across the 3 sites; lowest fluxes were measured during snowmelt and highest fluxes were measured during the spring and autumn. Given the very different DOC fluxes observed across sites of different climate (study period mean of 14.4 mmol C m-2 d-1 in the warmest and 4.8 mmol C m-2 d-1 in the coolest) this pool appears to be very sensitive to climatic conditions. These results suggest that soil DOC fluxes may be greatly increased by climate warming in eastern boreal forests, highlighting the importance of better understanding and quantifying this C flux across the boreal landscape.

  5. N2O concentrations in boreal lakes are linked to nitrate and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortelainen, Pirkko; Rantakari, Miitta; Alm, Jukka; Larmola, Tuula; Juutinen, Sari; Bergström, Irina; Huttunen, Jari T.; Silvola, Jouko; Martikainen, Pertti J.

    2013-04-01

    While regional and global estimates for carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emission from lakes are presently available, nitrous oxide (N2O) evasion from lakes and streams and the primary drivers regulating the fluxes have remained poorly studied. Freshwater N2O data are scarce and mostly based on short term measurements from a few lakes/rivers. The largest N2O data was collected by Whitfield et al. (2011) focusing on 121 small, polymictic headwater lakes in Ireland in spring 2008. We gathered the so-far largest seasonal/annual N2O data from boreal lakes. A subpopulation of 112 lakes from the boreal zone in Finland (from 60oN to 69oN) was randomly selected from the Nordic Lake Survey (NLS) data base. Water chemistry, catchment land use, climatic drivers and variables linked to catchment topography (e.g. max depth of the lake) were determined for each lake. The lakes were sampled four times per year (before and after ice melt, at the end of a summer stratification and during a fall overturn) from four depths (1 m from the surface, middle of the lake, 1 m from the sediment and 20 cm from the sediment) at the deepest point of the lake for N2O concentrations and physical and chemical characteristics. Finnish lakes are predominantly dimictic and the average length of the ice cover period ranges from about 5 months in the south to over 7 months in the north. The variability in N2O concentrations in the lake population was large in each season and depth. Although highest N2O concentrations were often found in bottom water samples, N2O and oxygen were poorly linked to each other (weak correlation only in winter samples). This is in contrast to CO2 concentrations in the study lakes, which were strongly linked to oxygen concentrations (r2= 0.79, n = 2740, p agricultural land. Our N2O data from randomly selected lakes can be used to estimate the role of freshwater ecosystems to landscape N2O emission in boreal zone and the most important drivers contributing to freshwater

  6. Simulating boreal forest carbon dynamics after stand-replacing fire disturbance: insights from a global process-based vegetation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, C.; Ciais, P.; Luyssaert, S.; Cadule, P.; Harden, J.; Randerson, J.; Bellassen, V.; Wang, T.; Piao, S.L.; Poulter, B.; Viovy, N.

    2013-01-01

    Stand-replacing fires are the dominant fire type in North American boreal forests. They leave a historical legacy of a mosaic landscape of different aged forest cohorts. This forest age dynamics must be included in vegetation models to accurately quantify the role of fire in the historical and current regional forest carbon balance. The present study adapted the global process-based vegetation model ORCHIDEE to simulate the CO2 emissions from boreal forest fire and the subsequent recovery after a stand-replacing fire; the model represents postfire new cohort establishment, forest stand structure and the self-thinning process. Simulation results are evaluated against observations of three clusters of postfire forest chronosequences in Canada and Alaska. The variables evaluated include: fire carbon emissions, CO2 fluxes (gross primary production, total ecosystem respiration and net ecosystem exchange), leaf area index, and biometric measurements (aboveground biomass carbon, forest floor carbon, woody debris carbon, stand individual density, stand basal area, and mean diameter at breast height). When forced by local climate and the atmospheric CO2 history at each chronosequence site, the model simulations generally match the observed CO2 fluxes and carbon stock data well, with model-measurement mean square root of deviation comparable with the measurement accuracy (for CO2 flux ~100 g C m−2 yr−1, for biomass carbon ~1000 g C m−2 and for soil carbon ~2000 g C m−2). We find that the current postfire forest carbon sink at the evaluation sites, as observed by chronosequence methods, is mainly due to a combination of historical CO2 increase and forest succession. Climate change and variability during this period offsets some of these expected carbon gains. The negative impacts of climate were a likely consequence of increasing water stress caused by significant temperature increases that were not matched by concurrent increases in precipitation. Our simulation

  7. The relative influence of land cover, hydrology, and in-stream processing on the composition of dissolved organic matter in boreal streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothawala, Dolly N.; Ji, Xing; Laudon, Hjalmar; Ögren, Anneli M.; Futter, Martyn N.; Köhler, Stephan J.; Tranvik, Lars J.

    2015-08-01

    Low-order boreal streams are particularly sensitive interfaces where dissolved organic matter (DOM) is transported from soils to inland waters. Disentangling the relative influence of key environmental factors suspected to influence stream water DOM composition is highly relevant to predicting the reactivity and fate of terrestrial DOM entering inland waters. Here we examined changes to DOM composition using absorbance and fluorescence, from 17 boreal streams ranging from first to fourth orders, over 14 months, including the rarely studied winter season, and two snowmelt periods (n = 836). We also analyzed soil pore water samples from three forest soil lysimeters to a depth of 70 cm (n = 60). Of five identified fluorescing parallel factor analysis components, two (C4 and C5) expressed a clear mire wetland or forest signature, providing distinct molecular markers of dominant land cover. In fact, land cover alone explained 49% of the variability in DOM composition. In contrast, seasonal fluctuations in hydrology only contributed to minor shifts (8%) in the composition of stream water DOM, while in-stream transformations to DOM composition were undetectable. These findings suggest that low-order boreal streams act as a passive pipe, since in-stream processing of DOM is restricted by short water residence times (6 h to 2 days). In addition, we demonstrated the sensitivity of optical approaches to distinguish between key terrestrial sources of DOM in the boreal landscape. By distinguishing the proportional leverage of key environmental controls on headwater stream DOM composition, we are better equipped to predict where and when key DOM transformations occur in the aquatic conduit.

  8. Ethnic Swedish parents' experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence in Swedish paediatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavallali, Azar G; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Jirwe, Maria

    2014-06-01

    Sweden has a population of a little more than 9.4 million. The rapid growth of immigration in Sweden has resulted in an increased number of minority ethnic patients and minority ethnic nurses in the Swedish healthcare system. This also applies to paediatric care. The purpose of this study was to explore how parents with ethnic Swedish backgrounds experience minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence and the care the nurses provide in a Swedish paediatric care context. This exploratory qualitative study is of 14 parents with an ethnic Swedish background whose child was in a ward at a children's hospital in Stockholm County Council. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews to identify parents' perceptions and experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence. The interviews were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The analyses of the interviews led to four main categories: influence of nurses' ethnicity; significance of cross-cultural communication; cross-cultural skills; and the importance of nursing education. Nurses' ethnicity did not have much impact on parents' satisfaction with their child's care. The parents attached importance to nurses' language skills and to their adaptation and awareness of Swedish culture. They also attached weight to nurses' professional knowledge and personal attributes. The role of nursing education to increase nurses' cultural awareness was highlighted too. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  9. Reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisell, Kristin; Winblad, Ulrika; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, a reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector took place, and a fundamental change in ownership and structure followed. The reregulation provides an opportunity to reveal the politicians' views on pharmacies. The aim of this study was to explore and analyze the political arguments...... for the reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector in 2009. The method used was a qualitative content analysis of written political documents regarding the reregulation. The primary rationales for the reregulation were better availability, efficiency, price pressure, and safe usage of medicines. During...... are better equipped to perform public activities. The results point to that the reform was done almost solely in order to introduce private ownership in the pharmacy sector, and was not initiated in order to solve any general problems, or to enhance patient outcomes of medicine use....

  10. Recent landscape research in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Csorba, Péter; Lóczy, Dénes; Mezosi, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    Both the study of landscape types and investigations of the interactions between landscape factors have a long tradition in Hungarian landscape geography. Major achievements in landscape synthesis were the two-volume Inventory of microregions in Hungary. In the various schools of landscape geography fundamental research is directed at investigations of landscape pattern, landscape sensitivity, geo-ecological mapping and urban ecology. The major trends in applied research are the optimisation ...

  11. Workplace Incivility in a Swedish Context

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Torkelson; Kristoffer Holm; Martin Bäckström

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated workplace incivility in a Swedish context. The first aim was to assess how common the phenomenon is and the second was to study which groups (gender, age, ethnicity, and power position) are most targeted by workplace incivility and are more prone to act in an uncivil way. Additionally, the relationships between experienced and witnessed incivility and wellbeing as well as instigated incivility were investigated. An online survey was administered by SIFO (the nat...

  12. Diversity work in a Swedish Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Risberg, Annette

    2012-01-01

    This paper builds on a case study of diversity work in a Swedish municipality, Malmö. It focuses on certain actors partaking in the diversity work done in the municipality that of a gender and diversity committee and its members – here called diversity ambassadors. I will describe the work of the diversity ambassadors and discuss what impact they could possibly have on the organization. Organizational efforts to change inequalities at the workplace may take different forms. The literature ...

  13. The swedish challenge; Le pari Suedois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tregouet, R

    2006-07-01

    Sweden decided to be the first country without petroleum for 2020. The author presents the major energy policy axis implemented by the swedish government to delete the part of the produced energy by the petroleum: development of the renewable energies, research programs of the transportation sector concerning the alternative fuels for the motors, energy efficiency and development of the biomass to replace the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  14. Patient safety as perceived by Swedish leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Härenstam, Karin Pukk; Elg, Mattias; Svensson, Carina; Brommels, Mats; Øvretveit, John

    2009-01-01

    Artikkelen beskriver en studie hvor hensikten var å kartlegge svenske helselederes bevissthet knyttet til pasientsikkerhet, deres prioritering av sikkerhetsspørsmål, og deres syn på ledelsesstrategier som er egnet i pasientsikkerhetsarbeid. The purpose of this paper is to survey Swedish healthcare leaders' patient safety awareness, the priority they give to safety issues and their views on suitable safety management strategies. A total 623 leaders of a sample of 1,129 responded to a mail q...

  15. Spirometric reference equations for Swedish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisman, Jonas; Kim, Jeong-Lim; Olin, Anna-Carin; Torén, Kjell; Bake, Björn

    2017-11-01

    New spirometric reference equations for Swedish adults are required. Three different older sets of reference equations clinically used in Sweden have various drawbacks and the recently published 'The Global Lung Function 2012 (GLI) equations' have been shown not to be adequate for Swedish normal, healthy non-smokers. We have recently concluded that a piecewise linear model presented by Lubinski and Gólczewski accurately describes the distribution of spirometric variables in a large Swedish random population sample. This piecewise linear model also offers the important advantage of implementing easily physiologically interpretable coefficients. The present study aimed at presenting piecewise linear reference equations for Swedish adults based on a random population sample of 6685 individuals aged 25-75 years. Predicted normal values by the piecewise linear reference equations and lower limit normal (LLN) were compared with the three reference equations frequently used clinically in Sweden and the GLI equations. We found predicted normal values according to the present piecewise linear reference equations close to 100% predicted normal as expected, whereas the other equations either overestimated or underestimated normal subjects. Concerning LLN, the present equations, i.e. 1·645 × RSD, showed the least deviation from the expected 5% and, e.g., the GLI equations systematically identified too few subjects below LLN. We conclude that the present piecewise linear reference equations, based on a relatively large general population sample, ought to be considered for clinical use in Sweden. Application of 1·645 × RSD below predicted value gave an acceptably accurate LLN. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Patient safety as perceived by Swedish leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härenstam, Karin Pukk; Elg, Mattias; Svensson, Carina; Brommels, Mats; Ovretveit, John

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to survey Swedish healthcare leaders' patient safety awareness, the priority they give to safety issues and their views on suitable safety management strategies. A total 623 leaders of a sample of 1,129 responded to a mail questionnaire (55 percent response rate). Descriptive statistics of the responses are presented as frequency distributions across respondent subgroups. Means were tested for similarity by a repetitive one-way ANOVA procedure. Homogeneous response groups were sought by hierarchical cluster analysis. Swedish healthcare leaders show relatively high safety awareness and how their organizations prioritize safety management. There is a marked polarization between leaders; half feel that the system works reasonably well, and that adequate funds are available to improve or maintain services. The other half thinks the system needs major change and calls for additional funding. A majority sees system errors as the main cause for adverse events; a substantial minority find human errors to be more important. Two-thirds were willing to make safety performance information on organizations and specialties public, one third was restrictive. Survey instruments used to explore leaders' patient safety views have not yet been rigorously tested against psychometric criteria. One hospital type was slightly over-represented and three regions somewhat under-represented in the respondent groups. This is the first systematic attempt to explore the views of Swedish healthcare leaders on patient safety. It provides input to a national strategy to improve patient safety.

  17. Psychosocial work environment among Swedish audiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännström, K Jonas; Båsjö, Sara; Larsson, Josefina; Lood, Sofie; Lundå, Stefan; Notsten, Margareta; Taheri, Satu Turunen

    2013-03-01

    The study examined the self-reported psychosocial work environment for audiologists working in three practice types (public, completely private, and private but publicly funded). A cross-sectional e-mail survey using the demand-control-support questionnaire, a short version of the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) questionnaire, and descriptive data. Five-hundred Swedish licensed audiologists. Overall, the results indicate differences in psychosocial work environment pertaining to the practice types. These differences are small and the type explains few percent of the variability accounted in the measures of psychosocial work environment. Social support seems important for the psychosocial work environment and is considered a reward in itself. Using the demand-control model, 29% of the audiologists reported working in a high-stress psychosocial work environment. Using the ERI-ratio to estimate the imbalance between effort and reward it was shown that that 86% of the participants experienced an unfavorable work situation where the rewards do not correspond to the efforts made. The organizational framework has minor effect on self-reported psychosocial work environment for Swedish licensed audiologists. The percentage of unfavorable ERI-ratios seen in Swedish audiologists seems conspicuously high compared to other working populations in general, but also compared to other health service workers.

  18. Origin and Availability of Large Cavities for Barrow’s Goldeneye (Bucephala islandica, a Species at Risk Inhabiting the Eastern Canadian Boreal Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Andrée Vaillancourt,

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Large secondary-nesting birds such as ducks rely on appropriate cavities for breeding. The main objective of this study was to assess the availability of large cavities and the potential of a managed boreal coniferous landscape to provide nesting trees within the breeding area of the eastern population of Barrow’s Goldeneye (Bucephala islandica, a cavity-nesting species at risk in Canada. Woodpecker surveys were conducted in both conifer and mixed-wood landscapes, and cavities were sought in line transects distributed in unharvested and linear remnant stands of balsam fir (Abies balsamea and black spruce (Picea mariana as well as in cutblocks. No Pileated Woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus were detected in the breeding area of Barrow’s Goldeneye, but the species was present in the nearby lowland area in which trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides is abundant. Only 10 trees (0.2% of those sampled supported cavities considered suitable for Barrow’s Goldeneye in terms of dimensions and canopy openness. Most of the suitable cavities found during this study were nonexcavated apical (chimney cavities in relatively short snags that showed advanced states of decay. A diameter-at-breast-height threshold was determined for each tree species, after which the probability of cavity occurrence was enhanced in terms of potential cavity trees for Barrow’s Goldeneye. Remnant linear forest sites had lower potential tree densities than did their unharvested equivalents. Large cavities were thus a rare component in this boreal landscape, suggesting that they may be a limiting factor for this population at risk. Current even-aged forest management that mainly relies on clear-cut practices is likely to further reduce the potential of this landscape to provide trees with suitable cavities.

  19. Tanning beauty ideals among Swedish adults who exercise regularly

    OpenAIRE

    Cedercreutz, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Tanning beauty ideals among Swedish adults who exercise regularly Introduction: The majority of the Swedish population exercise regularly, and it has been reported that they believe having an attractive body is important. While research has shown that Swedes wish to be tanned, it is unknown whether there are any correlations to their exercise habits. Aims: The primary aim was to determine tanned skin tone ideals and tanning beauty ideals among regularly exercising Swedish adults. Associati...

  20. The Swedish version of the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; Rosenberg, Patricia; Lindskär, Erik; Amato, Clara; Al Nima, Ali

    2017-10-01

    The data include responses to the Swedish version of a questionnaire used to operationalize self-regulation or regulatory mode: assessment and locomotion. The data was collected among 567 Swedish high school and university students (see Garcia and Lindskär, 2016 [1]). In this article, we also include the Swedish version of the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire. The data is available, SPSS file, as supplementary material in this article.

  1. Geomorphology controls the trophic base of stream food webs in a boreal watershed .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Adrianne P; Schindler, Daniel E; Brett, Michael T

    2015-07-01

    Abstract. Physical attributes of rivers control the quantity and quality of energy sources available to consumers, but it remains untested whether geomorphic conditions of whole watersheds affect the assimilation of different resources by stream organisms. We compared the fatty acid (FA) compositions of two invertebrate taxa (caddisflies, mayflies) collected from 16 streams in southwest Alaska, USA, to assess how assimilation of terrestrial organic matter (OM) and algae varied across a landscape gradient in watershed features. We found relatively higher assimilation of algae in high-gradient streams compared with low-gradient streams, and the opposite pattern for assimilation of terrestrial OM and microbes. The strength of these patterns was more pronounced for caddisflies than mayflies. Invertebrates from low-gradient watersheds had FA markers unique to methane-oxidizing bacteria and sulfate-reducing microbes, indicating a contribution of anaerobic pathways to primary consumers. Diversity of FA composition was highest in watersheds of intermediate slopes that contain both significant terrestrial inputs as well as high algal biomass. By controlling the accumulation rate and processing of terrestrial OM, watershed features influence the energetic base of food webs in boreal streams.

  2. Scaling Hydrologic Processes in Boreal Forest Stands: New Eco-hydrological Perspectives or Deja vu?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silins, U.; Lieffers, V. J.; Landhausser, S. M.; Mendoza, C. A.; Devito, K. J.; Petrone, R. M.; Gan, T. Y.

    2006-12-01

    The leaf area of forest canopies is both main attribute of stands controlling water balance through transpiration and interception, and "engine" driving stand growth, stand dynamics, and forest succession. While transpiration and interception dynamics are classic themes in forest hydrology, we present results from our eco-hydrological research on boreal trees to highlight how more recent eco-physiological insights into species specific controls over water use and leaf area such as hydraulic architecture, cavitation, sapwood-leaf area relationships, and root system controls over water uptake are providing new insights into integrated atmospheric-autecological controls over these hydrologic processes. These results are discussed in the context of newer eco-hydrological frameworks which may serve to aid in exploring how forest disturbance and subsequent trajectories of hydrologic recovery are likely to affect both forest growth dynamics and hydrology of forested landscapes in response to forest management, severe forest pest epidemics such as the Mountain Pine Beetle epidemic in Western Canada, and climate change.

  3. Monitoring a boreal wildfire using multi-temporal Radarsat-1 intensity and coherence images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykhus, Russell P.; Lu, Zhong

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-five C-band Radarsat-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired from the summer of 2002 to the summer of 2005 are used to map a 2003 boreal wildfire (B346) in the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska under conditions of near-persistent cloud cover. Our analysis is primarily based on the 15 SAR scenes acquired during arctic growing seasons. The Radarsat-1 intensity data are used to map the onset and progression of the fire, and interferometric coherence images are used to qualify burn severity and monitor post-fire recovery. We base our analysis of the fire on three test sites, two from within the fire and one unburned site. The B346 fire increased backscattered intensity values for the two burn study sites by approximately 5–6 dB and substantially reduced coherence from background levels of approximately 0.8 in unburned background forested areas to approximately 0.2 in the burned area. Using ancillary vegetation information from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) and information on burn severity from Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) data, we conclude that burn site 2 was more severely burned than burn site 1 and that C-band interferometric coherence data are useful for mapping landscape changes due to fire. Differences in burn severity and topography are determined to be the likely reasons for the observed differences in post-fire intensity and coherence trends between burn sites.

  4. Effects of Lakes on Wildfire Activity in the Boreal Forests of Saskatchewan, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E. Nielsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Large lakes can act as firebreaks resulting in distinct patterns in the forest mosaic. Although this is well acknowledged, much less is known about how wildfire is affected by different landscape measures of water and their interactions. Here we examine how these factors relate to historic patterns of wildfire over a 35-year period (1980–2014 for the boreal forest of Saskatchewan, Canada. This includes the amount of water in different-sized neighborhoods, the presence of islands, and the direction, distance, and shape of nearest lake of different sizes. All individual factors affected wildfire presence, with lake sizes ≥5000 ha and amount of water within a 1000-ha surrounding area the most supported spatial scales. Overall, wildfires were two-times less likely on islands, more likely further from lakes that were circular in shape, and in areas with less surrounding water. Interactive effects were common, including the effect of direction to lake as a function of distance from lakeshore and amount of surrounding water. Our results point to a strong, but complex, bottom-up control of local wildfire activity based on the configuration of natural firebreaks. In fact, fire rotation periods predicted for one area varied more than 15-fold (<47 to >700 years depending on local patterns in lakes. Old-growth forests within this fire-prone ecosystem are therefore likely to depend on the surrounding configuration of larger lakes.

  5. Browning of boreal freshwaters coupled to carbon-iron interactions along the aquatic continuum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesa A Weyhenmeyer

    Full Text Available The color of freshwaters, often measured as absorbance, influences a number of ecosystem services including biodiversity, fish production, and drinking water quality. Many countries have recently reported on increasing trends of water color in freshwaters, for which drivers are still not fully understood. We show here with more than 58000 water samples from the boreal and hemiboreal region of Sweden and Canada that absorbance of filtered water (a₄₂₀ co-varied with dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations (R²  = 0.85, P<0.0001, but that a₄₂₀ relative to DOC is increased by the presence of iron (Fe. We found that concentrations of Fe significantly declined with increasing water retention in the landscape, resulting in significantly lower Fe concentrations in lakes compared to running waters. The Fe loss along the aquatic continuum corresponded to a proportional loss in a₄₂₀, suggesting a tight biogeochemical coupling between colored dissolved organic matter and Fe. Since water is being flushed at increasing rates due to enhanced runoff in the studied regions, diminished loss of Fe along the aquatic continuum may be one reason for observed trends in a₄₂₀, and in particular in a₄₂₀/DOC increases. If trends of increased Fe concentrations in freshwaters continue, water color will further increase with various effects on ecosystem services and biogeochemical cycles.

  6. Indigenous ExtrACTIVISM in Boreal Canada: Colonial Legacies, Contemporary Struggles and Sovereign Futures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J. Willow

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches contemporary extractivism as an environmentally and socially destructive extension of an enduring colonial societal structure. Manifested in massive hydroelectric developments, clearcut logging, mining, and unconventional oil and gas production, extractivism removes natural resources from their points of origin and dislocates the emplaced benefits they provide. Because externally imposed resource extraction threatens Indigenous peoples’ land-based self-determination, industrial sites often become contested, politicized landscapes. Consequently, I also illuminate the struggles of those who strive to turn dreams for sovereign futures into reality through extrACTIVIST resistance to extractivist schemes. Presenting four case synopses—from across Canada’s boreal forest and spanning a broad range of extractive undertakings—that highlight both sides of the extractivism/ACTIVISM formulation, this article exposes the political roots of resource-related conflicts and contributes to an emerging comparative political ecology of settler colonialism. While extractivism’s environmental effects are immediate and arresting, these physical transformations have significant cultural consequences that are underlain by profound political inequities. I ultimately suggest that because extractivism is colonial in its causal logic, effective opposition cannot emerge from environmentalism alone, but will instead arise from movements that pose systemic challenges to conjoined processes of social, economic, and environmental injustice.

  7. A 30 year study of carbon, groundwater, and climate coupling in a large boreal peat basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, P. H.; Siegel, D. I.; Chanton, J. P.; Reeve, A. S.; Slater, L.; Rosenberry, D. O.; Morin, P. J.; Carpenter, M.; Rhoades, J.; Nolan, J.; Parsekian, A.; O'Brien, M.; Sarkar, S.; Corbett, J. E.; D'Andrilli, J.

    2007-12-01

    Scaling biogeochemical processes across complex regional landscapes remains one of the most important challenges for deciphering the global methane cycle. For the past 30 years we have investigated the coupling of climate, groundwater, and methane cycling in the Glacial Lake Agassiz peatlands in northern Minnesota. Periodic droughts perturb the local and regional groundwater flow systems in this region altering the transport of inorganic solutes, organic acids and labile carbon substrates within the thick peat deposits. Two instrument stations at the bog crest and fen water track in the Red Lake peatland showed that large volumes of free-phase gas are trapped under confining layers in the deeper peat that episodically rupture to release large masses of methane bubbles to the atmosphere. These ebullition events are marked by abrupt depressuring cycles at depth and also by significant vertical and horizontal displacements of the peat surface. In the most recent phase of our investigations an integrated set of GPS stations and instrumented piezometers were installed to continuously pinpoint the location and calculate the magnitude of methane ebullition across a 160 square kilometer bog complex. The similarity of the vegetation patterns in this large bog complex to those found in other large peat basins in North America facilitates the transfer of these regional-scale ebullition fluxes to a broad swath of boreal America.

  8. Boreal partners in flight: Working together to build a regional research and monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Colleen M.; Bonney, Rick; Pashley, David N.; Cooper, Robert J.; Niles, Larry

    1999-01-01

    Boreal regions of western North America regularly support breeding populations of 130 species of landbirds, including 68 Nearctic-Neotropical migrants. Primary conservation concerns within the region include increased timber harvesting, insect outbreaks, fire suppression, mining, impacts of military training activities, urbanization, and recreational activities. Under auspices of Partners in Flight, biologists, land and resource managers, and conservationists from Alaska and western Canada have combined efforts to develop a regional research and monitoring program for landbirds. An experimental monitoring program has been under way during the past four years to test the relative statistical power and cost-effectiveness of various monitoring methods in Alaska. Joint efforts currently include the Alaska Checklist Project on National Wildlife Refuges, 75 Breeding Bird Surveys along the road system, 122 Off-road Point Count routes, 27 Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship banding sites, and 8 migration banding stations. The ultimate goal is to design a comprehensive monitoring program that is sensitive to changes in population size, survival rates, and productivity, but robust enough to accommodate logistical constraints that arise when working in vast, roadless areas with limited funds and staff. Primary challenges that must be faced to assure the long-term future of such a program are obtaining long-term commitment from resource agencies in the region, integrating this program with other national and regional programs that address those species and habitats that are inadequately monitored by established techniques, and developing cooperative research, monitoring, and management programs at the landscape level.

  9. Lines of landscape organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschal, Mette

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a landscape analysis of the earliest linear landscape boundaries on Skovbjerg Moraine, Denmark, during the first millennium BC. Using Delaunay triangulation as well as classic distribution analyses, it demonstrates that landscape boundaries articulated already established use......-patterns close to roads, but also intercepted the central lines of movement and conflicted with previous ways of organizing the landscape. This development is interpreted as a different form of large-scale landholding, in which livestock possibly played a dominant role and boundaries were used to confiscate land...... in the zones bordering suitable pastures. This situation shows obvious parallels with southern Britain centuries earlier. It is discussed how the study of these physical boundaries provides new insights into the organization of pre-Roman landscapes, not only demonstrating a continuing engagement with landscape...

  10. Genomic Energy Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Wolynes, Peter G

    2017-02-07

    Energy landscape theory, developed in the context of protein folding, provides, to our knowledge, a new perspective on chromosome architecture. We review what has been learned concerning the topology and structure of both the interphase and mitotic chromosomes from effective energy landscapes constructed using Hi-C data. Energy landscape thinking raises new questions about the nonequilibrium dynamics of the chromosome and gene regulation. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dartmoor: A Landscape Study

    OpenAIRE

    Klemen, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    At the heart of Devon in the southwest of England lies Dartmoor, a large expanse of high moorland and rocky tors. Anyone who has visited Dartmoor or seen photographs and read about it will have their own personal images and feelings for the place, which will be as varied as the landscape. Over recent years landscape approaches have adopted strategies to understand how people experience and perceive the landscape that surrounds them (Ingold 2000, Thomas 1999, Tilley 1994). Phenomenology attemp...

  12. Landscape Ecology and problems of European cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Parallel to a growing global cooperation among landscape ecologists, different regional trends within landscape ecology seems to arise, related to different geographical and historical conditions. Modern landscape ecology in Europe has developed as an interdisciplinary activity inspired by practi...

  13. Boreal Forest Biomass Classification with TanDEM-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torano Caicoya, Astor; Kugler, Florian; Hajnsek, Irena; Papathanassiou, Kostas

    2013-08-01

    High spatial resolution X-band interferometric SAR data from TanDEM-X acquired in the operational DEM generation mode are sensitive to forest structure and can therefore be used for thematic boreal forest classification. The interferometric coherence in absence of temporal decorrelation depends strongly on forest height and structure. Due to the rather homogenous structure of boreal forest, forest biomass can be derived from forest height, on the basis of allometric equations with sufficient accuracy and can therefore, be used for thematic classification applications. Two test sites in mid- and southern Sweden are investigated. A maximum of 4 biomass classes, up to 150 Mg/ha, for a single baseline scenario and 5 biomass classes up to 250 Mg/ha for a dual baseline scenario, are achieved.

  14. Boreal forest albedo and its spatial and temporal variation

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusinen, Nea

    2014-01-01

    Surface albedo refers to the fraction of solar irradiance that is reflected by a surface. Accurate characterisation of the albedo of various land cover types is required for evaluating the energy exchange between the Earth s surface and the atmosphere. The optical and structural properties of a surface determine its albedo. Boreal forest albedo can vary due to factors such as tree species composition, forest structure, understorey vegetation composition, and seasonal changes in vegetation and...

  15. Foreword to the special issue: the Boreal Triassic

    OpenAIRE

    Mørk, Atle; Nakrem, Hans Arne; Hounslow, Mark; Weitschat, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    This collection of papers on the Boreal Triassic grew from a conference in 2002, which was initiated as part of the networking activities linked to the International Geosciences Project (IGCP) 467—Triassic Time and Trans-Panthalassa Correlations—from an original suggestion by Mark Hounslow and Mike Orchard of the International Union of Geological Sciences Subcommission on Triassic Stratigraphy. The aim of the conference was to provide insight on improved Low- to High-Latitude correlations, an...

  16. Climate-Induced Boreal Forest Change: Predictions versus Current Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Amber J.; Tchebakova, Nadezda M.; French, Nancy H. F.; Flannigan, Michael D.; Shugart, Herman H.; Stocks, Brian J.; Sukhinin, Anatoly I.; Parfenova, E. I.; Chapin, F. Stuart, III; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    For about three decades, there have been many predictions of the potential ecological response in boreal regions to the currently warmer conditions. In essence, a widespread, naturally occurring experiment has been conducted over time. In this paper, we describe previously modeled predictions of ecological change in boreal Alaska, Canada and Russia, and then we investigate potential evidence of current climate-induced change. For instance, ecological models have suggested that warming will induce the northern and upslope migration of the treeline and an alteration in the current mosaic structure of boreal forests. We present evidence of the migration of keystone ecosystems in the upland and lowland treeline of mountainous regions across southern Siberia. Ecological models have also predicted a moisture-stress-related dieback in white spruce trees in Alaska, and current investigations show that as temperatures increase, white spruce tree growth is declining. Additionally, it was suggested that increases in infestation and wildfire disturbance would be catalysts that precipitate the alteration of the current mosaic forest composition. In Siberia, five of the last seven years have resulted in extreme fire seasons, and extreme fire years have also been more frequent in both Alaska and Canada. In addition, Alaska has experienced extreme and geographically expansive multi-year outbreaks of the spruce beetle, which had been previously limited by the cold, moist environment. We suggest that there is substantial evidence throughout the circumboreal region to conclude that the biosphere within the boreal terrestrial environment has already responded to the transient effects of climate change. Additionally, temperature increases and warming-induced change are progressing faster than had been predicted in some regions, suggesting a potential non-linear rapid response to changes in climate, as opposed to the predicted slow linear response to climate change.

  17. Landscape agronomy : a new field for addressing agricultural landscape dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Marraccini, Élisa; Moonen, Anna Camilla; Galli, Mariassunta; Lardon, Sylvie; Rapey, Hélène; Thenail, Claudine; Bonari, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Landscape dynamics increasingly challenge agronomists to explain how and why agricultural landscapes are designed and managed by farmers. Nevertheless, agronomy is rarely included in the wide range of disciplines involved in landscape research. In this paper, we describe how landscape agronomy can help explain the relationship between farming systems and agricultural landscape dynamics. For this, we propose a conceptual model of agricultural landscape dynamics that illustrates the specific co...

  18. Predicting Climate Change Impacts to the Canadian Boreal Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisalyn A. Nelson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to alter temperature, precipitation, and seasonality with potentially acute impacts on Canada’s boreal. In this research we predicted future spatial distributions of biodiversity in Canada’s boreal for 2020, 2050, and 2080 using indirect indicators derived from remote sensing and based on vegetation productivity. Vegetation productivity indices, representing annual amounts and variability of greenness, have been shown to relate to tree and wildlife richness in Canada’s boreal. Relationships between historical satellite-derived productivity and climate data were applied to modelled scenarios of future climate to predict and map potential future vegetation productivity for 592 regions across Canada. Results indicated that the pattern of vegetation productivity will become more homogenous, particularly west of Hudson Bay. We expect climate change to impact biodiversity along north/south gradients and by 2080 vegetation distributions will be dominated by processes of seasonality in the north and a combination of cumulative greenness and minimum cover in the south. The Hudson Plains, which host the world’s largest and most contiguous wetland, are predicted to experience less seasonality and more greenness. The spatial distribution of predicted trends in vegetation productivity was emphasized over absolute values, in order to support regional biodiversity assessments and conservation planning.

  19. Energy Landscapes and the Landscape of Fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Austin J; Creel, Scott; Wilson, Rory P; Cooke, Steven J

    2017-02-01

    Animals are not distributed randomly in space and time because their movement ecology is influenced by a variety of factors. Energy landscapes and the landscape of fear have recently emerged as largely independent paradigms, both reshaping our perspectives and thinking relating to the spatial ecology of animals across heterogeneous landscapes. We argue that these paradigms are not distinct but rather complementary, collectively providing a better mechanistic basis for understanding the spatial ecology and decision-making of wild animals. We discuss the theoretical underpinnings of each paradigm and illuminate their complementary nature through case studies, then integrate these concepts quantitatively by constructing quantitative pathways of movement modulated by energy and fear to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the spatial ecology of wild animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Harvesting interacts with climate change to affect future habitat quality of a focal species in eastern Canada’s boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Yan; Cyr, Dominic; Taylor, Anthony R.; Price, David T.; St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues

    2018-01-01

    Many studies project future bird ranges by relying on correlative species distribution models. Such models do not usually represent important processes explicitly related to climate change and harvesting, which limits their potential for predicting and understanding the future of boreal bird assemblages at the landscape scale. In this study, we attempted to assess the cumulative and specific impacts of both harvesting and climate-induced changes on wildfires and stand-level processes (e.g., reproduction, growth) in the boreal forest of eastern Canada. The projected changes in these landscape- and stand-scale processes (referred to as “drivers of change”) were then assessed for their impacts on future habitats and potential productivity of black-backed woodpecker (BBWO; Picoides arcticus), a focal species representative of deadwood and old-growth biodiversity in eastern Canada. Forest attributes were simulated using a forest landscape model, LANDIS-II, and were used to infer future landscape suitability to BBWO under three anthropogenic climate forcing scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5), compared to the historical baseline. We found climate change is likely to be detrimental for BBWO, with up to 92% decline in potential productivity under the worst-case climate forcing scenario (RCP 8.5). However, large declines were also projected under baseline climate, underlining the importance of harvest in determining future BBWO productivity. Present-day harvesting practices were the single most important cause of declining areas of old-growth coniferous forest, and hence appeared as the single most important driver of future BBWO productivity, regardless of the climate scenario. Climate-induced increases in fire activity would further promote young, deciduous stands at the expense of old-growth coniferous stands. This suggests that the biodiversity associated with deadwood and old-growth boreal forests may be greatly altered by the cumulative impacts of natural and

  1. Principles of landscape architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Urbanism at the Faculty of Architecture and Built Environment, TU Delft considers urbanism as a planning and design oriented activity towards urban and rural landscapes. It aims to enhance, restore or create landscapes from a perspective of sustainable development, so as to guide,

  2. The Value of Landscaping

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Landscaping is one of the most cost effective tools for improving and sustaining the quality of life, whether in the city, the suburbs, or the country. Landscaping is an integral part of our culture and plays an essential role in the quality of our environment, affecting our economic well-being and our physical and psychological health.

  3. Glossary on agricultural landscapes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, A.; Centeri, C.; Renes, J.; Roth, M.; Printsman, A.; Palang, H.; Benito Jorda, M.-D.; Verlarde, M.D.; Kruckenberg, H.

    2010-01-01

    T he following glossary of terms related to the European agricultural landscape shall serve as a common basis for all parties, working in or on agricultural landscapes. Some of the terms are quite common and sometimes used in our every day language, but they often have different meanings in

  4. Retrospective landscape analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzbøger, Bo

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of maps from the 18th and 19th centuries, a retrospective analysis was carried out of documentary settlement and landscape data extending back to the Middle Ages with the intention of identifying and dating general structural and dynamic features of the cultural landscape in a selected...

  5. Urban Landscape Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Steiner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cities present significant opportunities for new landscape perspectives that can help inform conservation and development decisions. Early in the twenty-first century, the majority of the planet’s population became urban as more people lived in city-regions for the first time in our history. As the global population increases, so does this urbanization. The environmental challenges of population and urban growth are profound. Landscapes represent a synthesis of natural and cultural processes. Cities are certainly cultural phenomena. Historically, cities provided refuge from nature. The expanding field of urban ecology, coupled with landscape ecology, can enhance how the dual natural and cultural dimensions of landscapes in cities are understood. Furthermore, concepts such as ecosystem services and green infrastructure are proving useful for urban landscape planning and design. Examples from Dayton, Ohio; Brooklyn, New York; and Austin, Texas are presented.

  6. Problem Solving in Swedish Mathematics Textbooks for Upper Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehmer, Daniel; Ryve, Andreas; Van Steenbrugge, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse how mathematical problem solving is represented in mathematical textbooks for Swedish upper secondary school. The analysis comprises dominating Swedish textbook series, and relates to uncovering (a) the quantity of tasks that are actually mathematical problems, (b) their location in the chapter, (c) their…

  7. Psychosocial working conditions and depressive symptoms among Swedish employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Theorell, Töres; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate prospective associations between working conditions and depressive symptoms in Swedish men and women. METHODS: The study was based on SLOSH (N = 5,985), a follow-up of a representative sample of gainfully employed Swedes 16-64 years of age from the Swedish Work Environment...

  8. Preschool Education and Day Care for Swedish Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jeanne

    A comprehensive study of the types of care provided for Swedish children is presented. The point is made that the three major frameworks which support the Swedish philosophy of early childhood education are those of Arnold Gesell, Jean Piaget, and Erik H. Erikson. From all three sources, preschool teachers learn the concept of epigenesis, the…

  9. Parental Expectations of the Swedish Municipal School of Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilliedahl, Jonathan; Georgii-Hemming, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This article draws on a study designed to analyse parental expectations of the Swedish municipal school of arts (hereafter MSA) (in Swedish: kommunal musik- och kulturskola). The study is based on in-depth interviews conducted and informed by grounded theory. Although parental expectations are scarcely uniform, the study reveals a hope that the…

  10. The Position of the Deaf in the Swedish Labor Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydberg, Emelie; Gellerstedt, Lotta Coniavitis; Danermark, Berth

    2010-01-01

    The position of deaf people in the Swedish labor market is described and analyzed. A population of 2,144 people born from 1941 to 1980 who attended special education programs for the deaf was compared to 100,000 randomly chosen individuals from the total Swedish population born during the same period. Data on these individuals consisted of…

  11. Global health education in Swedish medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, S; Agardh, A; Holmer, H; Krantz, G; Hagander, L

    2015-11-01

    Global health education is increasingly acknowledged as an opportunity for medical schools to prepare future practitioners for the broad health challenges of our time. The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of global health education in Swedish medical schools and to assess students' perceived needs for such education. Data on global health education were collected from all medical faculties in Sweden for the years 2000-2013. In addition, 76% (439/577) of all Swedish medical students in their final semester answered a structured questionnaire. Global health education is offered at four of Sweden's seven medical schools, and most medical students have had no global health education. Medical students in their final semester consider themselves to lack knowledge and skills in areas such as the global burden of disease (51%), social determinants of health (52%), culture and health (60%), climate and health (62%), health promotion and disease prevention (66%), strategies for equal access to health care (69%) and global health care systems (72%). A significant association was found between self-assessed competence and the amount of global health education received (pmedical students (83%) wished to have more global health education added to the curriculum. Most Swedish medical students have had no global health education as part of their medical school curriculum. Expanded education in global health is sought after by medical students and could strengthen the professional development of future medical doctors in a wide range of topics important for practitioners in the global world of the twenty-first century. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  12. Tree Water Use May Significantly Impact Boreal Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. M.; Bolton, W. R.

    2013-12-01

    The ecohydrology of boreal forest ecosystems of Interior Alaska is not well understood largely because of challenges posed by the presence of discontinuous permafrost. Near-surface permafrost results in storage-dominated systems with cold, poorly drained soils, and slow growing, low statured coniferous trees (Picea mariana) or CDE's. The transition to permafrost-free areas can occur over a few meters and is accompanied by a vegetation community dominated by large deciduous trees (Populus sp. and Betula sp.) or DDE's. Typically, areas with permafrost are on north facing slopes and valley bottoms, and areas without permafrost are south facing. In Alaska's boreal forest, the permafrost is very warm and vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Once permafrost begins to thaw, the vegetation community shifts from coniferous to deciduous dominated. Streamflow in watersheds with a larger permafrost distribution tends to be higher and more responsive to precipitation events than in watersheds with low permafrost distribution. In fact, precipitation events in the low permafrost areas do not infiltrate past the rooting zone of the deciduous trees (~5-40 cm). This suggests that the deciduous trees may remove water from the system via uptake and transpiration. We focus on how vegetation water use affects boreal forest hydrology in areas of discontinuous permafrost. Specifically, we ask: what are the patterns of vegetation water use in areas with and without permafrost? This study focuses on the CDE and DDE systems. Our research sites are established on low and high locations on each aspect (south facing DDE, north facing CDE) to capture the variability associated with the different hillside drainage properties. At each of the four sites during the growing season, we measured various aspects of plant water use dynamics, including water flux, water content, water sources, depth of water uptake in the soil, and water stress. We use a Bayesian framework to analyze the data. We

  13. TALL-HERB BOREAL FORESTS ON NORTH URAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Aleinikov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the pressing aims of today’s natural resource management is its re-orientation to preserving and restoring ecological functions of ecosystems, among which the function of biodiversity maintenance plays an indicator role. The majority of today’s forests have not retained their natural appearance as the result of long-standing human impact. In this connection, refugia studies are becoming particularly interesting, as they give us an insight into the natural appearance of forests. Materials and methods. Studies were performed in dark conifer forests of the Pechora–Ilych reserve, in the lower reaches of the Bol’shaya Porozhnyaya River in 2013 yr. Vegetation data sampling was done at 50 temporary square plots of a fixed size (100 m2 randomly placed within a forest type. A list of plant species with species abundance was made for each forest layer. The overstorey (or tree canopy layer was denoted by the Latin letter A. The understorey layer (indicated by the letter B included tree undergrowth and tall shrubs. Ground vegetation was subdivided into the layers C and D. Layer C (field layer comprised the herbaceous species (herbs, grasses, sedges and dwarf shrubs together with low shrubs, tree and shrub seedlings. The height of the field layer was defined by the maximal height of the herbaceous species, ferns, and dwarf shrubs; the height varied from several cm to more than 200 cm in the ‘tall-herb’ forest types. Layer D (bottom layer included cryptogamic species (bryophytes and lichens. Species abundance in the each layer was usually assessed using the Braun-Blanquet cover scale (Braun-Blanquet 1928. The nomenclature used follows Cherepanov’s (1995 for vascular plants, and Ignatov & Afonina’s (1992. Results. The present article contains descriptions of unique tall-herb boreal forests of European Russia preserved in certain refugia which did not experience prolonged anthropogenic impact or any other catastrophes

  14. Climate and landscape influence on indicators of lake carbon cycling through spatial patterns in dissolved organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Jean-Francois; Seekell, David A; Del Giorgio, Paul A

    2015-12-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are strongly influenced by both climate and the surrounding landscape, yet the specific pathways connecting climatic and landscape drivers to the functioning of lake ecosystems are poorly understood. Here, we hypothesize that the links that exist between spatial patterns in climate and landscape properties and the spatial variation in lake carbon (C) cycling at regional scales are at least partly mediated by the movement of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the aquatic component of the landscape. We assembled a set of indicators of lake C cycling (bacterial respiration and production, chlorophyll a, production to respiration ratio, and partial pressure of CO2 ), DOC concentration and composition, and landscape and climate characteristics for 239 temperate and boreal lakes spanning large environmental and geographic gradients across seven regions. There were various degrees of spatial structure in climate and landscape features that were coherent with the regionally structured patterns observed in lake DOC and indicators of C cycling. These different regions aligned well, albeit nonlinearly along a mean annual temperature gradient; whereas there was a considerable statistical effect of climate and landscape properties on lake C cycling, the direct effect was small and the overall effect was almost entirely overlapping with that of DOC concentration and composition. Our results suggest that key climatic and landscape signals are conveyed to lakes in part via the movement of terrestrial DOC to lakes and that DOC acts both as a driver of lake C cycling and as a proxy for other external signals. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Communication problems in Swedish Mental Health reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Jonas

    2005-01-01

    In a study on the implementation of the Swedish Mental Health reform in the county of Gavleborg in Sweden, attention was called, at an early stage, to the need for relevant theories on the nature of the obstacles that slowed down the reform process. Data had initially been gathered from interviews with persons from all levels of the implementation work. A Grounded Theory (GT) study was carried out using these data in order to generate a theory on the nature of the obstacles. Two separate analyses were made, one based on data from experts and decision makers and the other based on data from consumers and staff. Each of these analyses generated a theory with great explanatory and predictive value. In a further analysis, it became possible to merge the theories into an expanded theory with a greater general validity within the entire field of the Swedish Mental Health reform process. The expanded theory states that the psychiatric reform in Sweden is slowed down by obstacles preventing the transfer of information: 1) between staff in the mental health services and staff in the social services; 2) between social services' care givers and consumers. One reason for not removing these obstacles is that they serve an important purpose for those involved, in terms of preserving group identity, which gives them the opportunity to exert influence on their situation and provides room for manoeuvring.

  16. Mortality in Swedish patients with Hirschsprung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löf Granström, Anna; Wester, Tomas

    2017-11-01

    Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) has previously been associated with increased mortality. The aim of this study was to assess mortality in patients with Hirschsprung disease in a population-based cohort. This was a nationwide, population-based cohort study. The study exposure was HSCR and the study outcome was death. The cohort included all individuals with HSCR registered in the Swedish National Patient Register between 1964 and 2013 and ten age- and sex-matched controls per patient, randomly selected from the Population Register. Mortality and cause of death were assessed using the Swedish National Causes of Death Register. The cohort comprised 739 individuals with HSCR (565 male) and 7390 controls (5650 male). Median age of the cohort was 19 years (range 2-49). Twenty-two (3.0%) individuals with HSCR had died at median age 2.5 years (range 0-35) compared to 49 (0.7%) controls at median age 20 years (0-44), p < 0.001. Hazard ratio for death in HSCR patients compared to healthy controls was 4.77 (confidence interval (CI) 95% 2.87-7.91), and when adjusted for Down syndrome, the hazard ratio was 3.6 (CI 95% 2.04-6.37). The mortality rate in the HSCR cohort was 3%, which was higher than in controls also when data were adjusted for Down syndrome.

  17. Welfare Landscape and Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2017-01-01

    Danish housing developments of the post-war era were a cornerstone in the implementation of the welfare vision and the overall urban and landscape planning in the post-war period. The new city was a horizontal city and – as it will be my primary ambition to show – a green and landscape-like city....... The landscape came, in Denmark, to play a prominent role and became synonymous with ‘The Good Life’, but it also presented a number of moral imperatives. The article concerns how communities and community feelings found their expression in the Danish ‘welfare landscapes’....

  18. Effects of Dispersal-Related Factors on Species Distribution Model Accuracy for Boreal Lake Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Hallstan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Species distribution modeling is used in applied ecology; for example in predicting the consequences of global change. However, questions still remain about the robustness of model predictions. Here we estimate effects of landscape spatial configuration and organism flight ability—factors related to dispersal—on the accuracy of species distribution models. Distribution models were developed for 129 phytoplankton taxa, 164 littoral invertebrate taxa and 44 profundal invertebrate taxa sampled in 105 Swedish lakes, using six different modeling techniques (generalized linear models (GLM, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, classification tree analysis (CTA, mixture discriminant analysis (MDA, generalized boosting models (GBM and random forests (RF. Model accuracy was not affected by dispersal ability (i.e., invertebrate flight ability, but the accuracy of phytoplankton assemblage predictions and, to a lesser extent, littoral invertebrate assemblages were related to ecosystem size and connectivity. Although no general pattern across species or spatial configuration was evident from our study, we recommend that dispersal and spatial configuration of ecosystems should be considered when developing species distribution models.

  19. Summer movements of boreal toads (Bufo boreas boreas) in two western Montana basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Schmetterling; Michael K. Young

    2008-01-01

    The Boreal Toad (Bufo boreas boreas) is widely distributed in the western United States but has declined in portions of its range. Research directed at conserving Boreal Toads has indicated that their movements are largely terrestrial and often limited after the breeding season. We used a combination of stream-based netting, PIT tagging, and radio...

  20. The effect of fire intensity on soil respiration in Siberia boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Baker; A. V. Bogorodskaya

    2010-01-01

    Russian boreal forests have an annual wildfire activity averaging 10 to 20 million ha, which has increased in recent years. This wildfire activity, in response to changing climate has the potential to significantly affect the carbon storage capacity of Siberian forests. A better understanding of the effect of fire on soil respiration rates in the boreal forest of...

  1. Pennsylvania boreal conifer forests and their bird communities: past, present, and potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas A. Gross

    2010-01-01

    Pennsylvania spruce (Picea spp.)- and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis)-dominated forests, found primarily on glaciated parts of the Allegheny Plateau, are relicts of boreal forest that covered the region following glacial retreat. The timber era of the late 1800s and early 1900s (as late as 1942) destroyed most of the boreal...

  2. Age-related seasonal variation in captures of stream-borne Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas boreas, Bufonidae) in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Young; David A. Schmetterling

    2009-01-01

    Like many species of amphibians, Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas boreas, Bufonidae) are declining throughout portions of their range. Recent efforts have focused on describing the ecology of this species, yet few studies have evaluated demographic characteristics that may influence the persistence of Boreal Toad populations. Because Boreal Toads often...

  3. Landscape metrics, scales of resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Kevin McGarigal

    2008-01-01

    Effective implementation of the "multiple path" approach to managing green landscapes depends fundamentally on rigorous quantification of the composition and structure of the landscapes of concern at present, modelling landscape structure trajectories under alternative management paths, and monitoring landscape structure into the future to confirm...

  4. Landscape genetics and limiting factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Andrew J. Shirk; Erin L. Landguth

    2013-01-01

    Population connectivity is mediated by the movement of organisms or propagules through landscapes. However, little is known about how variation in the pattern of landscape mosaics affects the detectability of landscape genetic relationships. The goal of this paper is to explore the impacts of limiting factors on landscape genetic processes using simulation...

  5. Sensitivity of boreal forest regional water flux and net primary production simulations to sub-grid-scale land cover complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, J. S.; Running, S. W.; Saatchi, S. S.

    1999-11-01

    We use a general ecosystem process model (BIOME-BGC) coupled with remote sensing information to evaluate the sensitivity of boreal forest regional evapotranspiration (ET) and net primary production (NPP) to land cover spatial scale. Simulations were conducted over a 3 year period (1994-1996) at spatial scales ranging from 30 to 50 km within the BOREAS southern modeling subarea. Simulated fluxes were spatially complex, ranging from 0.1 to 3.9 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 and from 18 to 29 cm yr-1. Biomass and leaf area index heterogeneity predominantly controlled this complexity, while biophysical differences between deciduous and coniferous vegetation were of secondary importance. Spatial aggregation of land cover characteristics resulted in mean monthly NPP estimation bias from 25 to 48% (0.11-0.20 g C m-2 d-1) and annual estimation errors from 2 to 14% (0.04-0.31 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). Error was reduced at longer time intervals because coarse scale overestimation errors during spring were partially offset by underestimation of fine scale results during summer and winter. ET was relatively insensitive to land cover spatial scale with an average bias of less than 5% (0.04 kg m-2 d-1). Factors responsible for differences in scaling behavior between ET and NPP included compensating errors for ET calculations and boreal forest spatial and temporal NPP complexity. Careful consideration of landscape spatial and temporal heterogeneity is necessary to identify and mitigate potential error sources when using plot scale information to understand regional scale patterns. Remote sensing data integrated within an ecological process model framework provides an efficient mechanism to evaluate scaling behavior, interpret patterns in coarse resolution data, and identify appropriate scales of operation for various processes.

  6. Science of landscape restoration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Wet, Benita

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available or email bdewet@ csir.co.za. The science of landscape restoration Over the last two decades the ecological restoration of industrial land has developed into a specialist science combined with highly sophisticated management activities. A prime...

  7. Enhancement Through Landscaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Charles

    1985-01-01

    Landscaping can make the school environment more attractive, thus encouraging students' intellectual, emotional, and physical development. Guidelines are offered for comprehensive site planning, tree and plant selection, and grounds maintenance. (MLF)

  8. The Anti-Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    There have always been some uninhabitable places, but in the last century human beings have produced many more of them. These anti-landscapes have proliferated to include the sandy wastes of what was once the Aral Sea, severely polluted irrigated lands, open pit mines, blighted nuclear zones......, coastal areas inundated by rising seas, and many others. The Anti-Landscape examines the emergence of such sites, how they have been understood, and how some of them have been recovered for habitation. The anti-landscape refers both to artistic and literary representations and to specific places...... humanities. The Anti-Landscape provides an interdisciplinary approach that moves beyond the false duality of nature vs. culture, and beyond diagnosis and complaint to the recuperation of damaged sites into our complex heritage. Collection of essays based on a conference held at SDU in 2011....

  9. Landscape Water Budget Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    WaterSense created the Water Budget Tool as one option to help builders, landscape professionals, and irrigation professionals certified by a WaterSense labeled program meet the criteria specified in the WaterSense New Home Specification.

  10. Eco-Landscape Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flannery, John A; Smith, Karen M

    2015-01-01

    .... The effects of drought, melting polar ice and increased incidences of extreme weather events will impact on the diverse landscapes of the earth and a human population predicted to be 9 billion...

  11. Condensed landscape experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    ‘Re-thinking interaction between landscape and urban buildings’ participates in an interdisciplinary discourse about the theoretical and practical advantages of openly juxtaposing landscape and architecture without having one more advanced in importance. Recently, the greenification of buildings...... is becoming a standard in contemporary architecture. Merging architecture and landscape has turned into a principle for an ecological / sustainable architecture. Yet, my aspiration is to achieve a wider interaction involving an application of a wider range of perspectives, such as: urban identity, social...... demands, quality of space, mixture of functions, urban complexity, public life and cultural heritage. In order to launch such an approach, an understanding of the spatial, social and environmental significance of a radical re-thinking of relationships between architecture and landscape is necessary...

  12. PNW Hydrologic Landscape Class

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Work has been done to expand the hydrologic landscapes (HLs) concept and to develop an approach for using it to address streamflow vulnerability from climate change....

  13. From soil water to surface water - how the riparian zone controls element transport from a boreal forest to a stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidman, Fredrik; Boily, Åsa; Laudon, Hjalmar; Köhler, Stephan J.

    2017-06-01

    Boreal headwaters are often lined by strips of highly organic soils, which are the last terrestrial environment to leave an imprint on discharging groundwater before it enters a stream. Because these riparian soils are so different from the Podzol soils that dominate much of the boreal landscape, they are known to have a major impact on the biogeochemistry of important elements such as C, N, P and Fe and the transfer of these elements from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. For most elements, however, the role of the riparian zone has remained unclear, although it should be expected that the mobility of many elements is affected by changes in, for example, pH, redox potential and concentration of organic carbon as they are transported through the riparian zone. Therefore, soil water and groundwater was sampled at different depths along a 22 m hillslope transect in the Krycklan catchment in northern Sweden using soil lysimeters and analysed for a large number of major and trace elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Si, Sr, Th, Ti, U, V, Zn, Zr) and other parameters such as sulfate and total organic carbon (TOC). The results showed that the concentrations of most investigated elements increased substantially (up to 60 times) as the water flowed from the uphill mineral soils and into the riparian zone, largely as a result of higher TOC concentrations. The stream water concentrations of these elements were typically somewhat lower than in the riparian zone, but still considerably higher than in the uphill mineral soils, which suggests that riparian soils have a decisive impact on the water quality of boreal streams. The degree of enrichment in the riparian zone for different elements could be linked to the affinity for organic matter, indicating that the pattern with strongly elevated concentrations in riparian soils is typical for organophilic substances. One likely explanation is that the solubility of many

  14. Effects of soil drainage, canopy position, and needle age on leaf area index for a black spruce boreal chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond-Lamberty, B.; Wang, C.; Gower, S. T.

    2001-12-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) and vegetation cover are primary drivers of ecosystem models that simulate water and carbon exchange. Along with specific leaf area (SLA), LAI is critical for accurate physiological models at the stand, landscape, and biome levels. Wildfire is the primary disturbance in the boreal forest, producing a mosaic of different-aged stands with different LAI structures. The objectives of this study were to (i) compare several experimental methods for determining SLA; (ii) examine the effects of stand age, soil drainage, canopy position, tree species, and leaf age on specific leaf area (SLA); and (iii) characterize overstory and understory SLA, LAI and foliage biomass for a 130-year boreal black spruce chronosequence. The study was conducted on a 130-year boreal black spruce chronosequence near Thompson, Manitoba. The experimental design was a nested factorial design with soil drainage nested inside of stand age; separate well-drained and poorly drained areas were located within each of the seven sites in the chronosequence. The comparison of two experimental methods for determining leaf area (volume displacement vs. flatbed scanner) produced highly correlated results (N = 50, R2 = 0.91). Preliminary ANOVA results indicate that significant effects for SLA included needle age, stand age, the age * species interaction (all p < 0.01), and soil drainage (p = 0.01). Canopy position (top, middle, or bottom of canopy) was not significant (p = 0.16). Specific leaf area values for black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) averaged 5.44 and 4.61 m2 kg-1 for current-year and older foliage, respectively, and 6.20 and 4.68 m2 kg-1 for jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.). Values for deciduous species were considerably higher. Overstory hemispheric area index (HSAI) varied significantly (p = 0.02) across the chronosequence, from 0.22 m2 m-2 in the young stands to 5.83 m2 m-2 in the older ones. These LAI figures were in good agreement with previous optically based

  15. Diverse growth trends and climate responses across Eurasia's boreal forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellmann, L.; Agafonov, L.; Ljungqvist, F. C.; Churakova (Sidorova), O.; Duethorn, E.; Esper, J.; Hulsmann, L.; Kirdyanov, A. V.; Moiseev, P.; Myglan, V. S.; Nikolaev, A. N.; Reinig, F.; Schweingruber, F. H.; Solomina, O.; Tegel, W.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 7 (2016), č. článku 074021. ISSN 1748-9326 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : 20th-century summer warmth * tree-ring chronology * scots pine * 2 millennia * temperature variability * northern-hemisphere * central siberia * worlds forest s * white spruce * carbon-cycle * boreal forest * climate variability * dendroecology * Eurasia * forest productivity * global warming * high northern latitudes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.404, year: 2016

  16. Hydrogen peroxide distribution, production, and decay in boreal lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Häkkinen, P J; Anesio, Alexandre Magno; Granéli, Wilhelm

    2004-01-01

    The distribution, production, and decay of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were studied in 10 boreal lakes of differing physical-chemical characteristics. Diurnal and vertical fluctuations in H2O2 concentration were followed in the lakes by sampling at six depths three times per day. In addition, incubations of water filtered through 0.2-mu mesh were made under artificial irradiation to study the abiotic production and decay of H2O2. H2O2 concentrations after 8 h of artificial irradiation were signi...

  17. Modelling atmospheric OH-reactivity in a boreal forest ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, D.; Smolander, S.; Sogachev, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    OH sink, and in our opinion, the reason for missing OH-reactivity is due to unmeasured unknown BVOCs, and limitations in our knowledge of atmospheric chemistry including uncertainties in rate constants. Furthermore, we found that the OH-reactivity correlates with both organic and inorganic compounds......We have modelled the total atmospheric OH-reactivity in a boreal forest and investigated the individual contributions from gas phase inorganic species, isoprene, monoterpenes, and methane along with other important VOCs. Daily and seasonal variation in OH-reactivity for the year 2008 was examined...

  18. Trace gas emissions from chaparral and boreal forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofer, Wesley R., III; Levine, Joel S.; Sebacher, Daniel I.; Winstead, Edward L.; Riggan, Philip J.; Stocks, Brian J.; Brass, James A.; Ambrosia, Vincent G.

    1989-01-01

    Using smoke samples collected during low-level helicopter flights, the mixing ratios of CO2, CO, CH4, total nonmethane hydrocarbons, H2, and N2O over burning chaparral in southern California and over a burning boreal forest site in northern Ontario, Canada, were determined. Carbon dioxide-normalized emission ratios were determined for each trace gas for conditions of flaming, mixed, and smoldering combustion. The emission ratios for these trace gases were found to be highest for the smoldering combustion, generally thought to be the least efficient combustion stage. However, high emission ratios for these gases could be also produced during very vigorous flaming combustion.

  19. Principles of landscape architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Nijhuis, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Urbanism at the Faculty of Architecture and Built Environment, TU Delft considers urbanism as a planning and design oriented activity towards urban and rural landscapes. It aims to enhance, restore or create landscapes from a perspective of sustainable development, so as to guide, harmonise and shape changes which are brought about by social, economic and environmental processes. In this respect we can consider urbanism as an object or goal-oriented interdisciplinary approac...

  20. Villages in landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    , and the physical appearance of many villages and detached farms can at best be characterized as shockingly inferior. It can be argued that the Danish society has grossly omitted to take care of the largest and most important part of its cultural heritage in the Danish landscape; 6-7,000 large and small villages...... dispersed in the Danish cultural landscape.These villages are crucial to the future of rural areas and are normally neglected....

  1. Stakeholder involvement in Swedish nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Section for Science and Technology Studies

    2006-09-15

    This report concerning Swedish nuclear waste management has been produced as part of a cross national research project: CARL - A Social Science Research Project into the Effects of Stakeholder involvement on Decision-Making in Radioactive Waste Management. Besides Sweden, the participating countries are Belgium, Canada, Finland, Slovenia and United Kingdom. A social science research team, working for three years, is in the first phase conducting research in their own countries in order to produce 6 country reports. During the next years the focus will shift to comparisons of stakeholder involvement practices in the participating countries. The report addresses current practices of Swedish nuclear waste management and their historical development. The main focus is on past, current and emerging patterns of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a deep repository for the final disposal of Sweden's spent nuclear fuel. The general questions attended to in the report are: Who are the main stakeholders, and how have they emerged and gained recognition as such? What are the issues currently subject to stakeholder involvement and how have these been decided upon? How is stakeholder involvement organized locally and nationally and how has this changed over time? How has stakeholder involvement gained acceptance as an activity of value in the siting of major waste facilities? The report have attempted to show the development of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a final repository for Sweden's spent nuclear fuel as resembling something other than a straightforward linear process of improvement and refinement. Stakeholder involvement has developed, over the past 15 years or so, into something more like a patchwork of different shapes and forms. Some of the forces that may well contribute to the further elaboration of the patchwork of stakeholder involvement have been pointed out, contingently modifying once more its overall colour and orientation. Questions

  2. Ecological aspects of historical and contemporary Swedish and Danish mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Oluf

    2014-01-01

    preventive and curative measures introduced in the second half of the twentieth century? Hansen (2013) proposed a multivariate hazard model aiming at separating ecological factors in terms of endogenous biological from exogenous effects in human mortality. He explored some of its analytic potentials...... the early 1960s to now. This has been a blow to the national pride. Is the better contemporary Swedish life expectancy associated with selection spurred by different timing of the modern Swedish and Danish long term decline of mortality? Or could it be rooted in more expedient Swedish behavior and better...

  3. Comparing Danish and Swedish versions of PISA scientific literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serder, Malmø University, Margareta; Sørensen, Helene

    This paper presents a comparison between the Swedish, Danish, English, and French versions of three scientific literacy test-units from the released PISA items 2006. More specifically it compares how different words and concepts have been translated in the Swedish and Danish tests, compared...... to the English and French original versions. Differences that occur as a result of the translation process concerning words’ meaning are demonstrated. The possible consequences of such differences are exemplified by an excerpt from a situation in which Swedish 15-year-old students collaboratively worked...

  4. Are boys discriminated in Swedish high schools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinnerich, Bjørn Tyrefors; Höglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading.Werigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind...... and non-blind grading. The non-blind test score is on average 15% lower for boys than for girls. Blind grading lowers the average grades with 13%, indicating that personal ties and/or grade inflation are important in non-blind grading. But we find no evidence of discrimination against boys in grading....... The point estimate of the discrimination effect is close to zero with a 95% confidence interval of±4.5% of the average non-blind grade....

  5. Wood flow problems in the Swedish forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Dick [Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Roennqvist, M. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematics

    1998-12-31

    In this paper we give an overview of the wood-flow in Sweden including a description of organization and planning. Based on that, we will describe a number of applications or problem areas in the wood-flow chain that are currently considered by the Swedish forest companies to be important and potential in order to improve overall operations. We have focused on applications which are short term planning or operative planning. We do not give any final results as much of the development is currently ongoing or is still in a planning phase. Instead we describe what kind of models and decision support systems that could be applied in order to improve co-operation within and integration of the wood-flow chain 13 refs, 20 figs, 1 tab

  6. Swedish Taxation in a 150-year Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenkula Mikael

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the development of taxation in Sweden from 1862 to 2010. The examination includes six key aspects of the Swedish tax system, namely the taxation of labor income, capital income, wealth, inheritances and gifts, consumption and real estate. The importance of these taxes varied greatly over time and Sweden increasingly relied on broad-based taxes (such as income taxes and general consumption taxes and taxes that were less visible to the public (such as payroll taxes and social security contributions. The tax-to-GDP ratio was initially low and relatively stable, but from the 1930s, the ratio increased sharply for nearly 50 years. Towards the end of the period, the tax-to-GDP ratio declined significantly.

  7. Gendered portraits of depression in Swedish newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengs, Carita; Johansson, Eva; Danielsson, Ulla; Lehti, Arja; Hammarström, Anne

    2008-07-01

    Mass media are influential mediators of information, knowledge, and narratives of health and illness. In this article, we report on an examination of personal accounts of illness as presented in three Swedish newspapers, focusing on the gendered representation of laypersons' experiences of depression. A database search identified all articles mentioning depression during the year 2002. Twenty six articles focusing on personal experiences of depression were then subjected to a qualitative content analysis. We identified four themes: displaying a successful facade, experiencing a cracking facade, losing and regaining control, and explaining the illness. We found both similarities and differences with regard to gendered experiences. The mediated accounts of depression both upheld and challenged traditional gender stereotypes. The women's stories were more detailed, relational, emotionally oriented, and embodied. The portrayal of men was less emotional and expressive, and described a more dramatic onset of depression, reflecting hegemonic patterns of masculinity.

  8. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    During 1997 the PWRs in Ringhals performed extremely well (capability factors 85-90%), the unit Ringhals 2 reached the best capability factor since commercial operation started in 1976. The BWRs made an average 76% capability, which is somewhat less than in 1996. The slightly reduced capability derives from ongoing modernization projects at several units. At the youngest plants, Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3, capability and utilization were very high. Events and data for 1997 are given for each reactor, together with operational statistics for the years 1990-1997. A number of safety-related events are reported, which occurred st the Swedish plants during 1997. These events are classified as level 1 or higher on the international nuclear event scale (INES).

  9. Perceived employability trajectories: A Swedish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnroos Née Kirves, Kaisa; Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia; Leineweber, Constanze

    2017-07-27

    This study identified perceived employability trajectories and their associations with sleeping difficulties and depressive symptoms over time. The sample was part of the Swedish Longitudinal Survey on Health from 2008 to 2014 (n=4,583). Two stable trajectories (high and low perceived employability over time) and three trajectories with changes (increasing, decreasing, and V-shaped perceived employability over time) were identified. Workers with stable low perceived employability reported more sleeping difficulties and depressive symptoms than those who perceived high or increasing employability. Perceived employability is a rather stable personal resource, which is associated with well-being over time. However, changes in perceived employability do not seem to be echoed in well-being, at least not as immediately as theoretically expected.

  10. Shifts in microbial communities and soil nutrients along a fire chronosequence in Alaskan boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treseder, K. K.; Mack, M. C.; Cross, A.

    2002-12-01

    Fires are important pathways of carbon loss from boreal forests, while microbial communities form equally important mechanisms for carbon accumulation between fires. We used a chronosequence in Alaska to examine shifts in microbial abundance and community composition in the several decades following severe fire, and then related these responses to soil characteristics in the same sites. The sites are located in upland forests near Delta Junction, Alaska, and represent stages at 3-, 15-, 45-, and over 100-yr following fire. Plant communities shift from herbaceous species in the youngest site, to deciduous shrubs and trees (e.g. Populus tremuloides and Salix) in the intermediate sites, to black spruce (Picea mariana) forest in the oldest site. Soil organic matter accumulated 2.8-fold over time. Potential mineralization was highest in the intermediate-aged sites, as was nitrification and standing pools of inorganic nitrogen. In contrast, inorganic phosphorus pools were highest immediately following fire, and then decreased nine-fold with age. As measured with BiologTM plates, bacterial diversity and abundance were greatest in the oldest sites. Plant roots in the intermediate-aged sites displayed higher colonization by ecto- and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi than those in the youngest and oldest sites. Likewise, glomalin, a glycoprotein produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, was most abundant in the 14-yr old site. Glomalin is believed to contribute to the formation of water-stable aggregates in the soil. However, water stable aggregates were most abundant in the younger sites and did not follow the pattern of glomalin or arbuscular mycorrhizal abundance. Our results indicate that fire may maintain landscape-level diversity of microbial functional groups, and that carbon sequestration in microbial tissues (e.g. glomalin and fungal biomass) may be greatest in areas that have burned several decades earlier. Changes in soil structure may not be directly attributable to

  11. Modeling the Response of Boreal Forest Expansion on the Summer Arctic Frontal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liess, S.; Snyder, P. K.; Harding, K. J.

    2010-12-01

    Arctic warming over the last 100 years has resulted in a longer growing season in boreal and tundra ecosystems, especially during summertime. This has led to a northward expansion of the boreal forest and a decrease in the surface albedo. Corresponding changes to the surface and atmospheric energy budgets have generally contributed to a broad region of warming over areas where boreal forest has expanded into tundra. Mesoscale and synoptic scale dynamics are likewise affected. Previous studies have identified a relationship between the positioning of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and the Arctic frontal zone in summer. This study focuses on the effects of boreal forest expansion on the summer Arctic frontal zone when albedo differences between tundra and boreal forest are at a maximum. The Arctic climate during the month of June was simulated with the WRF regional model coupled to the NOAH land surface model with 30 km horizontal resolution over the polar stereographic domain north of 50°N. The current distribution of vegetation is based on a recent MODIS-derived land cover data set. Two sets of experiments were conducted. One control experiment with observed land cover, and one sensitivity experiment where all grid points classified as open shrubland north of the boreal forest were replaced with either evergreen or deciduous boreal needleleaf forest depending on the type of boreal forest presently located south of a given open shrubland location. Both the boreal expansion and control simulations consist of 13 ensemble members. Results show a significant increase in storm track activity over areas with expanded boreal forest and to the north, where the increase in the meridional temperature gradient is strongest, particularly in eastern Russia, and eastern North America. A blocking high over eastern Russia contributes to a northward shift in the jet stream over this area. Storm track activity also increases over northern Europe and central Russia to the south of

  12. Functional gene pyrosequencing reveals core proteobacterial denitrifiers in boreal lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatta eSaarenheimo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Denitrification is an important microbial process in aquatic ecosystems that can reduce the effects of eutrophication. Here, quantification and pyrosequencing of nirS, nirK and nosZ genes encoding for nitrite and nitrous oxide reductases was performed in sediment samples from four boreal lakes to determine the structure and seasonal stability of denitrifying microbial populations. Sediment quality and nitrate concentrations were linked to the quantity and diversity of denitrification genes, the abundance of denitrifying populations (nirS and nosZ genes correlated with coupled nitrification-denitrification (Dn, and the denitrification of the overlying water (Dw correlated with the nirS/nirK ratio. The number of core nirS, nirK and nosZ OTUs was low (6, 7 and 3, respectively, and most of these core OTUs were shared among the lakes. Dominant nirK sequences matched best with those of the order Rhizobiales, which was one of the main bacterial orders present in the sediment microbiomes, whereas the dominant nirS sequences were affiliated with the order Burkholderiales. Over half of the nosZ sequences belonged to a single OTU of the order Burkholderiales, but coupled nitrification-denitrification rate correlated with another dominant nosZ OTU assigned to the order Rhodospirillales. The study indicates that a few core proteobacterial clusters may drive denitrification in boreal lake sediments, as the same Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria denitrifier clusters were present in different lakes and seasons.

  13. Antioxidant Potential of Bark Extracts from Boreal Forest Conifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Legault

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The bark of boreal forest conifers has been traditionally used by Native Americans to treat various ailments and diseases. Some of these diseases involve reactive oxygen species (ROS that can be prevented by the consumption of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds that can be found in medicinal plants. In this study, ultrasonic assisted extraction has been performed under various solvent conditions (water:ethanol mixtures on the bark of seven boreal forest conifers used by Native Americans including: Pinus strobus, Pinus resinosa, Pinus banksiana, Picea mariana, Picea glauca, Larix laricina, and Abies balsamea. The total phenolic content, as well as ORACFL potency and cellular antioxidant activity (IC50, were evaluated for all bark extracts, and compared with the standardized water extract of Pinus maritima bark (Pycnogenol, which showed clinical efficiency to prevent ROS deleterious effects. The best overall phenolic extraction yield and antioxidant potential was obtained with Picea glauca and Picea mariana. Interestingly, total phenolic content of these bark extracts was similar to Pycnogenol but their antioxidant activity were higher. Moreover, most of the extracts did not inhibit the growth of human skin fibroblasts, WS1. A significant correlation was found between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity for water extracts suggesting that these compounds are involved in the activity.

  14. Antioxidant Potential of Bark Extracts from Boreal Forest Conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legault, Jean; Girard-Lalancette, Karl; Dufour, Dominic; Pichette, André

    2013-01-01

    The bark of boreal forest conifers has been traditionally used by Native Americans to treat various ailments and diseases. Some of these diseases involve reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can be prevented by the consumption of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds that can be found in medicinal plants. In this study, ultrasonic assisted extraction has been performed under various solvent conditions (water:ethanol mixtures) on the bark of seven boreal forest conifers used by Native Americans including: Pinus strobus, Pinus resinosa, Pinus banksiana, Picea mariana, Picea glauca, Larix laricina, and Abies balsamea. The total phenolic content, as well as ORACFL potency and cellular antioxidant activity (IC50), were evaluated for all bark extracts, and compared with the standardized water extract of Pinus maritima bark (Pycnogenol), which showed clinical efficiency to prevent ROS deleterious effects. The best overall phenolic extraction yield and antioxidant potential was obtained with Picea glauca and Picea mariana. Interestingly, total phenolic content of these bark extracts was similar to Pycnogenol but their antioxidant activity were higher. Moreover, most of the extracts did not inhibit the growth of human skin fibroblasts, WS1. A significant correlation was found between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity for water extracts suggesting that these compounds are involved in the activity. PMID:26784337

  15. Leaf area dynamics of a boreal black spruce fire chronosequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond-Lamberty, B; Wang, C; Gower, S T; Norman, J

    2002-10-01

    Specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf area index (LAI) were estimated using site-specific allometric equations for a boreal black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) fire chronosequence in northern Manitoba, Canada. Stands ranged from 3 to 131 years in age and had soils that were categorized as well or poorly drained. The goals of the study were to: (i) measure SLA for the dominant tree and understory species of boreal black spruce-dominated stands, and examine the effect of various biophysical conditions on SLA; and (ii) examine leaf area dynamics of both understory and overstory for well- and poorly drained stands in the chronosequence. Overall, average SLA values for black spruce (n = 215), jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb., n = 72) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx., n = 27) were 5.82 +/- 1.91, 5.76 +/- 1.91 and 17.42 +/- 2.21 m2 x kg-1, respectively. Foliage age, stand age, vertical position in the canopy and soil drainage had significant effects on SLA. Black spruce dominated overstory LAI in the older stands. Well-drained stands had significantly higher overstory LAI (P 40%) of total leaf area in all stands except the oldest.

  16. Semiotics in landscape design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Jorgensen

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper claims that concepts of language can help us create better and more relevant landscape design. It is based on research undertaken by Karsten Jørgensen (1989, and subsequent studies carried out at the department of Land Use and Landscape Planning at the Agricultural University in Norway. The 'signs' that constitute the design language are categorised using the analytical vocabulary of landscape design; for example, elements, materials, effects and shapes. Studies of these signs are based on elements of semiotics and cognitive science, especially the Umwelt-theories developed by Jakob von Uexküll (Hoffmeyer 1994. We are constantly exposed to numerous signs of different kinds. Everywhere in society we see signs around us; for example, traffic signs, advertising signs and logos. It is therefore relevant to introduce the term 'semiosphere' in order to focus on the significance of semiosis at all levels of activity in the world, from cellular activities, to complex systems of development such as those found in a population. This study focuses on the semantic aspects of landscape architecture. In explaining the meaning of a statement, it is useful to have a set of rules or 'codes' to correlate a specific expression with a specific interpretation. These codes may be based on conventions, or on similarity between or stylisation of objects, such as natural or cultural landscapes. In any case, they are based on the interpreter's language and 'mind-structure'. At a general level, it is only possible to study sign content. To analyse meaning in landscape design you have to look at the context; for example, the overall composition of a garden or park and the situation, which includes the interpreter's cultural background, their experiences and so on. In other words, you have to analyse a specific case to be able to speak reasonably about meaning in landscape (designs.

  17. New infrastructures, new landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Nifosì

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available New infrastructures, new landscapes AbstractThe paper will discuss one recent Italian project that share a common background: the relevance of the existing maritime landscape as a non negotiable value. The studies will be discussed in details a feasibility study for the new port in Monfalcone. National infrastructural policies emphasize competitiveness and connection as a central issue incultural, economic and political development of communities . Based on networks and system development along passageways that make up the European infrastructural armor; the two are considered at the meantime as cause and effect of "territorialisation”. These two views are obviously mutually dependent. It's hard to think about a strong attractiveness out of the network, and to be part of the latter encourages competitiveness. Nonetheless this has proved to be conflictual when landscape values and the related attractiveness are considered.The presented case study project, is pursuing the ambition to promote a new approach in realizing large infrastructures; its double role is to improve connectivity and to generate lasting and positive impact on the local regions. It deal with issues of inter-modality and the construction of nodes and lines which connects Europe, and its markets.Reverting the usual approach which consider landscape project as as a way to mitigate or to compensate for the infrastructure, the goal is to succeed in realizing large infrastructural works by conceiving them as an occasion to reinterpret a region or, as extraordinary opportunities, to build new landscapes.The strategy proposed consists in achieving structural images based on the reinforcement of the environmental and historical-landscape systems. Starting from the reinterpretation of local maritime context and resources it is possible not just to preserve the attractiveness of a specific landscape but also to conceive infrastructure in a more efficient way. 

  18. Underestimation of soil carbon stocks by Yasso07, Q, and CENTURY models in boreal forest linked to overlooking site fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ťupek, Boris; Ortiz, Carina; Hashimoto, Shoji; Stendahl, Johan; Dahlgren, Jonas; Karltun, Erik; Lehtonen, Aleksi

    2016-04-01

    The soil organic carbon stock (SOC) changes estimated by the most process based soil carbon models (e.g. Yasso07, Q and CENTURY), needed for reporting of changes in soil carbon amounts for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and for mitigation of anthropogenic CO2 emissions by soil carbon management, can be biased if in a large mosaic of environments the models are missing a key factor driving SOC sequestration. To our knowledge soil nutrient status as a missing driver of these models was not tested in previous studies. Although, it's known that models fail to reconstruct the spatial variation and that soil nutrient status drives the ecosystem carbon use efficiency and soil carbon sequestration. We evaluated SOC stock estimates of Yasso07, Q and CENTURY process based models against the field data from Swedish Forest Soil National Inventories (3230 samples) organized by recursive partitioning method (RPART) into distinct soil groups with underlying SOC stock development linked to physicochemical conditions. These models worked for most soils with approximately average SOC stocks, but could not reproduce higher measured SOC stocks in our application. The Yasso07 and Q models that used only climate and litterfall input data and ignored soil properties generally agreed with two third of measurements. However, in comparison with measurements grouped according to the gradient of soil nutrient status we found that the models underestimated for the Swedish boreal forest soils with higher site fertility. Accounting for soil texture (clay, silt, and sand content) and structure (bulk density) in CENTURY model showed no improvement on carbon stock estimates, as CENTURY deviated in similar manner. We highlighted the mechanisms why models deviate from the measurements and the ways of considering soil nutrient status in further model development. Our analysis suggested that the models indeed lack other predominat drivers of SOC stabilization

  19. European landscape architecture and territorial strategies for water landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diedrich, Lisa Babette

    2010-01-01

    This article sums up the author’s lecture at the 2009 Sydney Resilient Water Landscapes Symposium and presents a series of realized or planned European landscape architectural and urbanistic projects on water landscapes taken from the recently published book On Site/ Landscape Architecture Europe...... and accompanying reflections. The hypothesis is that further scientific research can help defining weaknesses and strengths of the existing water landscape designs in terms of resilience, extract principles and tools, improve the weak ones and communicate the strong ones and develop general quality criteria...... and tools for future resilient water landscapes....

  20. Carbon sequestration from boreal wildfires via Pyrogenic Carbon production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan; Preston, Caroline

    2014-05-01

    Fire releases important quantities of carbon (C) to the atmosphere. Every year, an average of 460 Million ha burn around the globe, generating C emissions equivalent to a third of the current annual contribution from fossil fuel combustion. Over the longer-term wildfires are widely considered as 'net zero C emission events', because C emissions from fires, excluding those associated with deforestation and peatland fires, are balanced by C uptake by regenerating vegetation. This 'zero C emission' scenario, however, may be flawed, as it does not consider the production of pyrogenic C (PyC). During fire, part of the biomass C burnt is emitted to the atmosphere but part is transformed into PyC (i.e. charcoal). The enhanced resistance of PyC to environmental degradation compared to unburnt biomass gives it the potential to sequester C over the medium/long term. Therefore, after complete regeneration of the vegetation, the PyC generated may represent an additional C pool and, hence, recurring fire-regrowth cycles could represent net sinks of atmospheric C. To estimate the quantitative importance of PyC production, accurate data on PyC generation with respect to the fuel combusted are needed. Unfortunately, detailed quantification of fuel prior to fire is normally only available for prescribed and experimental fires, which are usually of low-intensity and therefore not representative of higher-intensity wildfires. Furthermore, what little data is available is usually based on only a specific fraction of the PyC present following burning rather than the whole range of PyC products and pools (i.e. PyC in soil, ash, downed wood and standing vegetation). To address this research gap, we utilized the globally unique FireSmart experimental forest fires in Northwest Canada. They are aimed to reproduce wildfire conditions typical for boreal forest and, at the same time, allow pre-fire fuel assessment, fire behaviour monitoring and immediate post-fire fuel and PyC inventory. This

  1. Geomorpho-Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabollini, Piero; Lugeri, Francesca; Amadio, Vittorio

    2014-05-01

    Landscape is the object of human perceptions, being the image of spatial organization of elements and structures: mankind lives the first approach with the environment, viewing and feeling the landscape. Many definitions of landscape have been given over time: in this case we refer to the Landscape defined as the result of interaction among physical, biotic and anthropic phenomena acting in a different spatial-temporal scale (Foreman & Godron) Following an Aristotelic approach in studying nature, we can assert that " Shape is synthesis": so it is possible to read the land features as the expression of the endogenous and exogenous processes that mould earth surfaces; moreover, Landscape is the result of the interaction of natural and cultural components, and conditions the spatial-temporal development of a region. The study of the Landscape offers results useful in order to promote sustainable development, ecotourism, enhancement of natural and cultural heritage, popularization of the scientific knowledge. In Italy, a very important GIS-based tool to represent the territory is the "Carta della Natura" ("Map of Nature", presently coordinated by the ISPRA) that aims at assessing the state of the whole Italian territory, analyzing Landscape. The methodology follows a holistic approach, taking into consideration all the components of a landscape and then integrating the information. Each individual landscape, studied at different scales, shows distinctive elements: structural, which depend on physical form and specific spatial organization; functional, which depend on relationships created between biotic and abiotic elements, and dynamic, which depend on the successive evolution of the structure. The identification of the landscape units, recognized at different scales of analysis, allows an evaluation of the state of the land, referring to the dual risk/resource which characterizes the Italian country. An interesting opportunity is to discover those areas of unusual

  2. The Origins of Intergenerational Associations: Lessons from Swedish Adoption Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjorklund, A.; Lindahl, M.; Plug, E.J.S.

    2006-01-01

    We use unique Swedish data with information on adopted children's biological and adoptive parents to estimate intergenerational mobility associations in earnings and education. We argue that the impact from biological parents captures broad prebirth factors, including genes and prenatal environment,

  3. Doctrinal Imbalance: A Study of Swedish Army Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    patience with endless grammar and spelling corrections. Furthermore, Dr. Sterrett also involved his wife, military historian Dr. Corinne Mahaffey, and his...provocative statement of the Swedish supreme commander. The Swedish Army teaches that doctrine derives from a balance between resources, national...it comes to writing a new doctrine, but none of them evaluates doctrine against a specific scenario using the actual forces the doctrine is supposed

  4. About the Alleged Racism among Swedish Police Officers

    OpenAIRE

    Sjögren, Erika

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of the present research was to investigate whether Swedish police officers who often are accused of being racist are more prejudiced toward people with non Swedish-origin than other occupational groups. Three groups (n = 108) – police officers, fire fighters and teachers participated in the study that was carried out using questionnaires and IAT-tests. The study showed that the police officers were not the most prejudiced occupational group in the explicit measurements and were t...

  5. Components of success in academic reading tasks for Swedish students

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Shaw; Alan McMillion

    2011-01-01

    In a parallel-language environment students are often required to read in a language different from the one they use in lectures, seminars, and among themselves. Relatively little research has been done on the overall reading success of such groups or on the componential make up of their L2 reading skills. This paper compares the English-language reading skills of Swedish students of biology with that of equivalent British biology students. Many Swedish readers perform within or above the nor...

  6. Key success factors : The internationalisation of Swedish fashion companies

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, Stefan; Knudsen, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    Background: The Swedish fashion market today quickly becomes too small, even for the new companies, and they are quick to take the step abroad and launch their internationalisation process. With a focus on the four Swed-ish fashion companies Filippa K, Acne Jeans, Nudie Jeans and Whyred, we have analysed how these representatives of the industry have interna-tionalised themselves. The companies have chosen different ways to promote their brand and how to control the perceived image of the bra...

  7. A study of Swedish tourists going on vacation in thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Rong; PANTO, SITTHIPHON

    2010-01-01

    Date: 2010-05-25 Program: International Marketing Course Master Thesis International Marketing (EFO705) Authors Ms. RongPan Mr. Sitthiphon Panto Teacher Tobias Eltebrandt Title A study of Swedish tourist going on vacation in Thailand Research question Which factors affect Swedish travelers’ decision making in choosing Thailand as a traveling destination? Target audience This report could be beneficial for Tourism Authority of Thailand. The target audiences including Government sector who resp...

  8. National recovery strategy for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou, boreal population, in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Hervieux

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Recovery planning for the boreal population of woodland caribou is a complex task, spanning eight Canadian provinces and territories. To accommodate unique situations across the country, recovery planning for this Species at Risk Act-listed threatened species is occurring at both provincial/ territorial and national levels. The national recovery strategy strives to identify nationally important issues and provide direction for provinces and territories as they plan and implement boreal caribou recovery within their jurisdictions. The national vision is to conserve and recover boreal caribou and their habitat across Canada. Specific goals are to: 1 Prevent extirpation of local boreal caribou populations from all existing caribou ranges; and 2 Maintain or enhance local boreal caribou populations at or to self-sustaining levels within all existing caribou ranges; and 3 Maintain or enhance boreal caribou habitat to support self-sustaining local populations. Nineteen broad national approaches are identified. These approaches include items relating to: habitat planning and management, caribou population monitoring and management, management of human-caused mortality, management of other wildlife species, consideration of government legislation and policy,promotion of stewardship and public outreach, and research. Specific outcomes are provided for each stated recovery approach. For more information on Canada's national recovery strategy for the boreal population of woodland caribou please see www.speciesatrisk.gc.ca/recovery/default_e.cfm

  9. The effects of boreal forest expansion on the summer Arctic frontal zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liess, Stefan; Snyder, Peter K.; Harding, Keith J. [University of Minnesota, Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, Saint Paul, MN (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Over the last 100 years, Arctic warming has resulted in a longer growing season in boreal and tundra ecosystems. This has contributed to a slow northward expansion of the boreal forest and a decrease in the surface albedo. Corresponding changes to the surface and atmospheric energy budgets have contributed to a broad region of warming over areas of boreal forest expansion. In addition, mesoscale and synoptic scale patterns have changed as a result of the excess energy at and near the surface. Previous studies have identified a relationship between the positioning of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and the Arctic frontal zone in summer. This study examines the climate response to hypothetical boreal forest expansion and its influence on the summer Arctic frontal zone. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting model over the Northern Hemisphere, an experiment was performed to evaluate the atmospheric response to expansion of evergreen and deciduous boreal needleleaf forests into open shrubland along the northern boundary of the existing forest. Results show that the lower surface albedo with forest expansion leads to a local increase in net radiation and an average hemispheric warming of 0.6 C at and near the surface during June with some locations warming by 1-2 C. This warming contributes to changes in the meridional temperature gradient that enhances the Arctic frontal zone and strengthens the summertime jet. This experiment suggests that continued Northern Hemisphere high-latitude warming and boreal forest expansion might contribute to additional climate changes during the summer. (orig.)

  10. Water quality in riparian boreal forest: a multi-method approach to scale biogeochemical drivers from groundwater hotspots to catchment outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploum, Stefan; Kuglerová, Lenka; Leach, Jason; Laudon, Hjalmar

    2017-04-01

    Stream chemistry in boreal regions is for a large degree defined by the riparian zone. Within the riparian zone, groundwater hotspots represent a very small area, but likely play a major role in controlling stream water quality. Hotspots have shown to be unique in their plant species richness, soil texture and biogeochemistry. Also in terms of stream metabolism, hotspots show different responses, either due to local biotic or abiotic conditions. Readily available hydrological mapping tools, combined with biogeochemical data (stream temperature and stable water isotopes) show that there is great potential in predicting groundwater hotspots using terrain-based approaches. However, the role of individual hotspots varies in time. Presumably their hydrological regime is highly dependent on landscape properties of the upstream area. To improve the predictability of hotspots in space and time, a mechanistic understanding is needed. We achieve this by a combined approach including a damming experiment, high resolution optic fiber stream temperature measurements (DTS), a dense groundwater well network, stream and groundwater trace element analysis, frost monitoring and infrared (IR) imagery. This field-based strategy sheds light on the underlying drivers of groundwater hotspots and links them to landscape characteristics. This allows to move away from highly monitored reaches, and evaluate the relation between upland landscape features and the temporal variability of groundwater exfiltration rates on a catchment scale.

  11. Memorial landscape. Resilience through time and landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hang

    2017-01-01

    The project is based on 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan, and aims at building a landscape that evokes the memory of the past in Rikuzentakata area, and contributes to delaying the unpredictable tsunami in the future. The water: The proposal introduces a strategy of “changeable landscape” structure that move with water dynamics, using water itself as a design element to shape different memory gardens. The memory: The art of memory is in relation to the art of garden. The land’s mem...

  12. Subcontractors and Component Suppliers in the Swedish Wind Power Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Linn

    2003-05-01

    This paper studies the Swedish component suppliers in the wind power industry. This group has not received much attention so far, and today very little is known. This study addresses the fact that the Swedish component suppliers have not been able to penetrate the wind power market despite the Swedish industry's strength in mechanical and electrical engineering. The aims of this paper were to gather information regarding the existing production and to identify factors that affect the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. To date, although Sweden has spent considerable amounts of money on projects involving wind turbines, there is no series production of large wind turbines in Sweden. The historical development of the wind turbine industry suggests this alone would have inhibited the development of component production in Sweden. Yet, the country's proximity and good access to large wind turbine producing countries should be an advantage. Various factors and issues are identified and discussed in this paper that are relevant for the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. These include market and product development, buyer-supplier relationships, export and sourcing behaviors, and time of market entry. This is a first step towards increasing the knowledge of Swedish component production and it is recognized that more studies are required. Various areas where relevant knowledge is largely missing or scarce are identified and discussed as well, and should serve as relevant starting points for continued research.

  13. Traditional use of medicinal plants in the boreal forest of Canada: review and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The boreal forest of Canada is home to several hundred thousands Aboriginal people who have been using medicinal plants in traditional health care systems for thousands of years. This knowledge, transmitted by oral tradition from generation to generation, has been eroding in recent decades due to rapid cultural change. Until now, published reviews about traditional uses of medicinal plants in boreal Canada have focused either on particular Aboriginal groups or on restricted regions. Here, we present a review of traditional uses of medicinal plants by the Aboriginal people of the entire Canadian boreal forest in order to provide comprehensive documentation, identify research gaps, and suggest perspectives for future research. Methods A review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, theses and reports. Results A total of 546 medicinal plant taxa used by the Aboriginal people of the Canadian boreal forest were reported in the reviewed literature. These plants were used to treat 28 disease and disorder categories, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by musculoskeletal disorders. Herbs were the primary source of medicinal plants, followed by shrubs. The medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the western Canadian boreal forest has been given considerably less attention by researchers. Canada is lacking comprehensive policy on harvesting, conservation and use of medicinal plants. This could be explained by the illusion of an infinite boreal forest, or by the fact that many boreal medicinal plant species are widely distributed. Conclusion To our knowledge, this review is the most comprehensive to date to reveal the rich traditional medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the Canadian boreal forest. Future ethnobotanical research endeavours should focus on documenting the knowledge held by Aboriginal groups that have so far received less attention, particularly those of the western

  14. Traditional use of medicinal plants in the boreal forest of Canada: review and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uprety, Yadav; Asselin, Hugo; Dhakal, Archana; Julien, Nancy

    2012-01-30

    The boreal forest of Canada is home to several hundred thousands Aboriginal people who have been using medicinal plants in traditional health care systems for thousands of years. This knowledge, transmitted by oral tradition from generation to generation, has been eroding in recent decades due to rapid cultural change. Until now, published reviews about traditional uses of medicinal plants in boreal Canada have focused either on particular Aboriginal groups or on restricted regions. Here, we present a review of traditional uses of medicinal plants by the Aboriginal people of the entire Canadian boreal forest in order to provide comprehensive documentation, identify research gaps, and suggest perspectives for future research. A review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, theses and reports. A total of 546 medicinal plant taxa used by the Aboriginal people of the Canadian boreal forest were reported in the reviewed literature. These plants were used to treat 28 disease and disorder categories, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by musculoskeletal disorders. Herbs were the primary source of medicinal plants, followed by shrubs. The medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the western Canadian boreal forest has been given considerably less attention by researchers. Canada is lacking comprehensive policy on harvesting, conservation and use of medicinal plants. This could be explained by the illusion of an infinite boreal forest, or by the fact that many boreal medicinal plant species are widely distributed. To our knowledge, this review is the most comprehensive to date to reveal the rich traditional medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the Canadian boreal forest. Future ethnobotanical research endeavours should focus on documenting the knowledge held by Aboriginal groups that have so far received less attention, particularly those of the western boreal forest. In addition, several

  15. Decreases in Soil Moisture and Organic Matter Quality Suppress Microbial Decomposition Following a Boreal Forest Fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, Sandra R.; Berhe, Asmeret A.; Treseder, Kathleen K.

    2015-08-01

    Climate warming is projected to increase the frequency and severity of wildfires in boreal forests, and increased wildfire activity may alter the large soil carbon (C) stocks in boreal forests. Changes in boreal soil C stocks that result from increased wildfire activity will be regulated in part by the response of microbial decomposition to fire, but post-fire changes in microbial decomposition are poorly understood. Here, we investigate the response of microbial decomposition to a boreal forest fire in interior Alaska and test the mechanisms that control post-fire changes in microbial decomposition. We used a reciprocal transplant between a recently burned boreal forest stand and a late successional boreal forest stand to test how post-fire changes in abiotic conditions, soil organic matter (SOM) composition, and soil microbial communities influence microbial decomposition. We found that SOM decomposing at the burned site lost 30.9% less mass over two years than SOM decomposing at the unburned site, indicating that post-fire changes in abiotic conditions suppress microbial decomposition. Our results suggest that moisture availability is one abiotic factor that constrains microbial decomposition in recently burned forests. In addition, we observed that burned SOM decomposed more slowly than unburned SOM, but the exact nature of SOM changes in the recently burned stand are unclear. Finally, we found no evidence that post-fire changes in soil microbial community composition significantly affect decomposition. Taken together, our study has demonstrated that boreal forest fires can suppress microbial decomposition due to post-fire changes in abiotic factors and the composition of SOM. Models that predict the consequences of increased wildfires for C storage in boreal forests may increase their predictive power by incorporating the observed negative response of microbial decomposition to boreal wildfires.

  16. Multifunctional landscape practice and accessibility in manorial landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    Structural development of modern productivistic agriculture characterized by marked specialization and increasing size of holdings are in general considered one of the main reasons behind a declining accessibility of landscape values within agricultural landscapes in most developed countries...... the trends at the other big modern specialized holdings. A historical tradition for access to the manorial landscape as an integrated part of the pre-capitalist way of landscape management at the manorial estates might play a certain role, but it is anticipated that this is being of less importance than...... the multifunctional landscape strategy supporting a certain public access. A study of this thesis is presented based on an analysis of multifunctionality, landscape development and accessibility in Danish Manorial landscapes and eventual linkages between their multifunctional landscape strategy, their history...

  17. Exploring biomolecular energy landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jerelle A; Röder, Konstantin; Chakraborty, Debayan; Mantell, Rosemary G; Wales, David J

    2017-06-27

    The potential energy landscape perspective provides both a conceptual and a computational framework for predicting, understanding and designing molecular properties. In this Feature Article, we highlight some recent advances that greatly facilitate structure prediction and analysis of global thermodynamics and kinetics in proteins and nucleic acids. The geometry optimisation procedures, on which these calculations are based, can be accelerated significantly using local rigidification of selected degrees of freedom, and through implementations on graphics processing units. Results of progressive local rigidification are first summarised for trpzip1, including a systematic analysis of the heat capacity and rearrangement rates. Benchmarks for all the essential optimisation procedures are then provided for a variety of proteins. Applications are then illustrated from a study of how mutation affects the energy landscape for a coiled-coil protein, and for transitions in helix morphology for a DNA duplex. Both systems exhibit an intrinsically multifunnel landscape, with the potential to act as biomolecular switches.

  18. Landscapes of the Anthropocene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to explore the dramatic increase in the power of human agency over the environment through an analysis of landscape change. It discusses the processes that have shaped new landscapes in the capitalist world before focusing on one place that is characteristic...... since the 1840s, when indigenous forests were transformed into improved landscapes of sown grass. The chapter is shaped by a broad question. What can be learned from this place about the ways in which people have exercised and are coming to terms with what Gibson-Graham and Roelvink describe as our...... ‘gargantuan agency’ and ‘almost unbearable level of responsibility’ in the Anthropocene (2009, 321)? It concludes with a discussion of the concept of ‘middle landscapes’ as one means by which the planetary dominion of humanity might be tempered with a realization of its dependence on terrestrial ecosystems...

  19. Qualifying Urban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel; Nielsen, Tom; Daugaard, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The article presents an attempt to develop alternatives to the dominant planning and design principles used in building and rebuilding the contemporary urban landscape. The basic idea is that the ‘forces of modernisation’ driving current development might result in a broader and more interesting...... for contemporary urban landscape design practice....... to the task of constructing and improving things. With this goal, a set of objectives based in important insights from recent urban theory are formulated constituting the normative spine of the analysis of a number of found situations as basis for formulating eight generic concepts of qualification...

  20. Digital landscapes of imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starlight Vattano

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes that exist in the expression of an imaginative sequence define their shape through the digital representation. These hyperreal dimensions, combine imagination and representation as constituents a new reality, which follows the utopian, suprematist and constructivist theories, where the two-dimensional dynamics is transformed into an infinite space in which the imagination creates new forms. Although interpretations of the urban landscape film, put in place a correspondence between reality and virtuality, into the modeling of spatial movements, from which do not arise contraries, but only interdependencies. It is a particular type of representation that takes shape via the digital in motion and provides new tools for urban representation.

  1. Imagine A Collective Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Silvia Campanini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Iceland plays a key role in the circumpolar context. The research investigates the fields of both the icelandic cultural landscape perception and the icelandic cultural identity. It considers the book Ultima thule; or, a summer in Iceland and Ólafur Elíasson art works as two sides of a same medal: the Iceland on the brain concept (F. Burton. The transition from a cultural identity to a collective landscape identity is investigated analysing Imagine J. Lennon's song which inspired Yõko Ono's work art titled Imagine Peace Tower.

  2. Investigating biodiversity trajectories using scenarios--lessons from two contrasting agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindborg, Regina; Stenseke, Marie; Cousins, Sara A O; Bengtsson, Jan; Berg, Ake; Gustafsson, Tomas; Sjödin, N Erik; Eriksson, Ove

    2009-01-01

    Agriculture is the major land use at a global scale. In addition to food production, multifunctionality of landscapes, including values and ecosystem services like biodiversity, recreation and culture, is now focus for management. This study explores how a scenario approach, involving different stakeholders, may help to improve landscape management for biodiversity conservation. Local farmers and executives at the County Administrative Board were invited to discuss rural development and conditions for farmland biodiversity in two Swedish landscapes. The potential biodiversity for three future land use scenarios for the two landscapes was discussed: nature conservation, outdoor recreation and energy production, and compared with current and historical landscapes in each region. Analyses of habitat areas, connectedness and landscape diversity suggested that the energy and recreation scenarios had a negative impact on farmland biodiversity, whereas the nature conservation scenario, the current and historically reconstructed landscapes had a higher potential for biodiversity. The farmers appreciated the nature conservation scenario, but also the energy production scenario and they highlighted the need of increased subsidies for management of biodiversity. The farmers in the high production area were less interested in nature quality per se. The executives had similar opinions as the farmers, but disagreed on the advantages with energy production, as this would be in conflict with the high biodiversity and recreational values. The local physical and socio-economical conditions differ between landscapes and potentially shaped the stakeholders emotional attachment to the local environment, their opinions and decisions on how to manage the land. We stress the importance of incorporating local knowledge, visions and regional prerequisites for different land uses in conservation, since site and landscape specific planning for biodiversity together with a flexible subsidy

  3. Genetic anticipation in Swedish Lynch syndrome families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny von Salomé

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Among hereditary colorectal cancer predisposing syndromes, Lynch syndrome (LS caused by mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 is the most common. Patients with LS have an increased risk of early onset colon and endometrial cancer, but also other tumors that generally have an earlier onset compared to the general population. However, age at first primary cancer varies within families and genetic anticipation, i.e. decreasing age at onset in successive generations, has been suggested in LS. Anticipation is a well-known phenomenon in e.g neurodegenerative diseases and several reports have studied anticipation in heritable cancer. The purpose of this study is to determine whether anticipation can be shown in a nationwide cohort of Swedish LS families referred to the regional departments of clinical genetics in Lund, Stockholm, Linköping, Uppsala and Umeå between the years 1990-2013. We analyzed a homogenous group of mutation carriers, utilizing information from both affected and non-affected family members. In total, 239 families with a mismatch repair gene mutation (96 MLH1 families, 90 MSH2 families including one family with an EPCAM-MSH2 deletion, 39 MSH6 families, 12 PMS2 families, and 2 MLH1+PMS2 families comprising 1028 at-risk carriers were identified among the Swedish LS families, of which 1003 mutation carriers had available follow-up information and could be included in the study. Using a normal random effects model (NREM we estimate a 2.1 year decrease in age of diagnosis per generation. An alternative analysis using a mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards model (COX-R estimates a hazard ratio of exp(0.171, or about 1.19, for age of diagnosis between consecutive generations. LS-associated gene-specific anticipation effects are evident for MSH2 (2.6 years/generation for NREM and hazard ratio of 1.33 for COX-R and PMS2 (7.3 years/generation and hazard ratio of 1.86. The estimated anticipation effects for MLH1

  4. Parasite control practices on Swedish horse farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison David A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virtually all horses are infected with helminth parasites. For some decades, the control of parasites of Swedish horses has been based on routine treatments with anthelmintics, often several times per year. Since anthelmintic resistance is becoming an increasing problem it is essential to develop more sustainable control strategies, which are adapted to different types of horse management. The aim of this study was to obtain information on practices used by Swedish horse owners for the control of endoparasites. Methods A questionnaire with 26 questions about management practices and parasite control routines was posted to 627 randomly selected horse establishments covering most types of horse management in Sweden. Results The response rate was good in all categories of respondents (66–78%. A total of 444 questionnaires were used in the analyses. It was found that virtually all horses had access to grazing areas, usually permanent. Generally, pasture hygiene was infrequently practiced. Thirty-six percent of the respondents clipped or chain harrowed their pastures, whereas weekly removal of faeces from the grazing areas was performed by 6% of the respondents, and mixed or rotational grazing with other livestock by 10%. The number of anthelmintic treatments per year varied from 1–8 with an average of 3.2. Thirty-eight percent considered late autumn (Oct-Dec to be the most important time for deworming. This finding, and an increased use of macrocyclic lactones in the autumn, suggests a concern about bot flies, Gasterophilus intestinalis. Only 1% of the respondents stated that faecal egg counts (FEC were performed on a regular basis. The relatively high cost of FEC analyses compared to purchase of anthelmintics was thought to contribute to the preference of deworming without a previous FEC. From the study it was evident that all categories of horse owners took advice mainly from veterinarians. Conclusion The results show that

  5. Parasite control practices on Swedish horse farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Eva Osterman; Rautalinko, Erik; Uggla, Arvid; Waller, Peter J; Morrison, David A; Höglund, Johan

    2007-09-26

    Virtually all horses are infected with helminth parasites. For some decades, the control of parasites of Swedish horses has been based on routine treatments with anthelmintics, often several times per year. Since anthelmintic resistance is becoming an increasing problem it is essential to develop more sustainable control strategies, which are adapted to different types of horse management. The aim of this study was to obtain information on practices used by Swedish horse owners for the control of endoparasites. A questionnaire with 26 questions about management practices and parasite control routines was posted to 627 randomly selected horse establishments covering most types of horse management in Sweden. The response rate was good in all categories of respondents (66-78%). A total of 444 questionnaires were used in the analyses. It was found that virtually all horses had access to grazing areas, usually permanent. Generally, pasture hygiene was infrequently practiced. Thirty-six percent of the respondents clipped or chain harrowed their pastures, whereas weekly removal of faeces from the grazing areas was performed by 6% of the respondents, and mixed or rotational grazing with other livestock by 10%. The number of anthelmintic treatments per year varied from 1-8 with an average of 3.2. Thirty-eight percent considered late autumn (Oct-Dec) to be the most important time for deworming. This finding, and an increased use of macrocyclic lactones in the autumn, suggests a concern about bot flies, Gasterophilus intestinalis. Only 1% of the respondents stated that faecal egg counts (FEC) were performed on a regular basis. The relatively high cost of FEC analyses compared to purchase of anthelmintics was thought to contribute to the preference of deworming without a previous FEC. From the study it was evident that all categories of horse owners took advice mainly from veterinarians. The results show that routines for endoparasite control can be improved in many horse

  6. Experiences from new Swedish passive house projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janson, U. [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden). Energy and Building Design

    2009-07-01

    Passive houses are common in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, and their use is being considered in Sweden as a means to decrease carbon dioxide emissions and address climate change issues. It is anticipated that the use of passive houses in Sweden may contribute to the country's plan to decrease energy use in buildings by 20 per cent per heated unit area before 2020 compared to 1995 energy use. The first Swedish passive house project was built in Lindas in 2001. The Lindas project includes 20 terrace houses and was built according to the German Passive house standard with a maximum use of space heating of 15 kWh per m{sup 2} per year. Although tenants expressed satisfaction in terms of indoor comfort and reduced energy consumption, not many passive houses have been built in Sweden since the project was launched. Therefore, in 2005, the the Department of Energy and Building Design at Lund University launched 4 new Passive house research projects involving 2 apartment buildings, 1 family house and 1 renovation project. The main purpose was to gain information on the entire building process and determine what knowledge, components and systems are required for widespread construction of passive houses in a cold climate. Only residential buildings were studied for this project. The passive houses were closely followed from the clients decision to build a passive house, through the planning process, the building process, measurements of actual energy use after the tenants moved in and the tenants' opinions on living in a passive house. The study showed that passive houses offer high indoor comfort with low energy requirement for heating. One of the passive houses consumed 44 kWh per m{sup 2} per year of district heating for heating and domestic hot water, which constitutes a 72 per cent reduction compared to the Swedish average of 160 kWh per m{sup 2} per year. There is no special architecture or building material needed to build a passive house, but moderate

  7. Physical and chemical characteristics of lakes across heterogeneous landscapes in arctic and subarctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, A. S.; O'Donnell, J. A.; Schmidt, J. H.; Kristenson, H. J.; Swanson, D. K.

    2017-04-01

    Lakes are an important component of high-latitude regions, providing habitat for fish and wildlife and playing a critical role in biogeochemical and global carbon cycles. High-latitude lakes are sensitive to climate change, in part due to their development within permafrost soils. Considerable heterogeneity exists across arctic and subarctic landscapes, yet little is known about how this landscape variability influences chemical and physical attributes of lakes. We investigated the physical and chemical limnology of 617 lakes in Alaska's boreal forest and boreal-arctic transition zone. We categorized lakes into 10 basin types based on parent material, topography, genesis, and permafrost characteristics. Physical parameters varied across lake basin types, with the deepest lakes occurring in ice-poor glacial deposits and ice-rich terrain, while the shallowest lakes were observed in floodplain deposits and coastal lowlands. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) concentrations were generally low across all landscapes, whereas total N and P were highest in lakes underlain by ice-rich Pleistocene loess. Total N and P concentrations were significantly correlated with chlorophyll a, indicating a possible colimitation of primary productivity in these systems. Base cation concentrations helped elucidate lake basin hydrology and the relative influence of shallow versus deep groundwater inputs to surface water. Using these results, we developed a simple conceptual model for each lake and landscape type based on differences in physical and chemical parameters. Overall, we expect that the vulnerability of lake ecosystems to climate change will vary across lake basin types and will be mediated by spatial patterns in permafrost characteristics and subsurface hydrology.

  8. Hydrologic landscape regions of Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrologic landscape regions group areas according to their similarity in landscape and climate characteristics. These characteristics represent variables assumed to...

  9. Landscape infrastructure : urbanism beyond engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bélanger, P.

    2013-01-01

    As ecology becomes the new engineering, the project of Landscape Infrastructure - a contemporary, synthetic alignment of the disciplines of landscape architecture, civil engineering and urban planning - is proposed here. Predominant challenges facing urban regions today are addressed, including

  10. A spatial theory for characterizing predator–multiprey interactions in heterogeneous landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Daniel; Buono, Pietro-Luciano; Schmitz, Oswald J.; Courbin, Nicolas; Losier, Chrystel; St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues; Drapeau, Pierre; Heppell, Sandra; Dussault, Claude; Brodeur, Vincent; Mainguy, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Trophic interactions in multiprey systems can be largely determined by prey distributions. Yet, classic predator–prey models assume spatially homogeneous interactions between predators and prey. We developed a spatially informed theory that predicts how habitat heterogeneity alters the landscape-scale distribution of mortality risk of prey from predation, and hence the nature of predator interactions in multiprey systems. The theoretical model is a spatially explicit, multiprey functional response in which species-specific advection–diffusion models account for the response of individual prey to habitat edges. The model demonstrates that distinct responses of alternative prey species can alter the consequences of conspecific aggregation, from increasing safety to increasing predation risk. Observations of threatened boreal caribou, moose and grey wolf interacting over 378 181 km2 of human-managed boreal forest support this principle. This empirically supported theory demonstrates how distinct responses of apparent competitors to landscape heterogeneity, including to human disturbances, can reverse density dependence in fitness correlates. PMID:26224710

  11. Mirror image hydrocarbons from Tropical and Boreal forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Williams

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpenes, emitted in large quantities by trees to attract pollinators and repel herbivores, can exist in mirror image forms called enantiomers. In this study such enantiomeric pairs have been measured in ambient air over extensive forest ecosystems in South America and northern Europe. For the dominant monoterpene, α-pinene, the (−-form was measured in large excess over the (+-form over the Tropical rainforest, whereas the reverse was observed over the Boreal forest. Interestingly, over the Tropical forest (−-α-pinene did not correlate with its own enantiomer, but correlated well with isoprene. The results indicate a remarkable ecosystem scale enantiomeric fingerprint and a nexus between the biosphere and atmosphere.

  12. Ozone Production from the 2004 North American Boreal Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, G. G.; Emmons, L. K.; Hess, P. G.; Honrath, R.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Val Martin, M.; Owen, R. C.; Avery, M. A.; Browell, E. V.; Holloway, J. S.; hide

    2006-01-01

    We examine the ozone production from boreal forest fires based on a case study of wildfires in Alaska and Canada in summer 2004. The model simulations were performed with the chemistry transport model, MOZART-4, and were evaluated by comparison with a comprehensive set of aircraft measurements. In the analysis we use measurements and model simulations of carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3) at the PICO-NARE station located in the Azores within the pathway of North American outflow. The modeled mixing ratios were used to test the robustness of the enhancement ratio deltaO3/deltaCO (defined as the excess O3 mixing ratio normalized by the increase in CO) and the feasibility for using this ratio in estimating the O3 production from the wildfires. Modeled and observed enhancement ratios are about 0.25 ppbv/ppbv which is in the range of values found in the literature, and results in a global net O3 production of 12.9 2 Tg O3 during summer 2004. This matches the net O3 production calculated in the model for a region extending from Alaska to the East Atlantic (9-11 Tg O3) indicating that observations at PICO-NARE representing photochemically well-aged plumes provide a good measure of the O3 production of North American boreal fires. However, net chemical loss of fire related O3 dominates in regions far downwind from the fires (e.g. Europe and Asia) resulting in a global net O3 production of 6 Tg O3 during the same time period. On average, the fires increased the O3 burden (surface-300 mbar) over Alaska and Canada during summer 2004 by about 7-9%, and over Europe by about 2-3%.

  13. Mechanisms influencing changes in lake area in Alaskan boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Jennifer K.; Griffith, Brad; Verbyla, David; Jones, Jeremy B.

    2011-01-01

    During the past ∼50 years, the number and area of lakes have declined in several regions in boreal forests. However, there has been substantial finer-scale heterogeneity; some lakes decreased in area, some showed no trend, and others increased. The objective of this study was to identify the primary mechanisms underlying heterogeneous trends in closed-basin lake area. Eight lake characteristics (δ18O, electrical conductivity, surface : volume index, bank slope, floating mat width, peat depth, thaw depth at shoreline, and thaw depth at the forest boundary) were compared for 15 lake pairs in Alaskan boreal forest where one lake had decreased in area since ∼1950, and the other had not. Mean differences in characteristics between paired lakes were used to identify the most likely of nine mechanistic scenarios that combined three potential mechanisms for decreasing lake area (talik drainage, surface water evaporation, and terrestrialization) with three potential mechanisms for nondecreasing lake area (subpermafrost groundwater recharge through an open talik, stable permafrost, and thermokarst). A priori expectations of the direction of mean differences between decreasing and nondecreasing paired lakes were generated for each scenario. Decreasing lakes had significantly greater electrical conductivity, greater surface : volume indices, shallower bank slopes, wider floating mats, greater peat depths, and shallower thaw depths at the forest boundary. These results indicated that the most likely scenario was terrestrialization as the mechanism for lake area reduction combined with thermokarst as the mechanism for nondecreasing lake area. Terrestrialization and thermokarst may have been enhanced by recent warming which has both accelerated permafrost thawing and lengthened the growing season, thereby increasing plant growth, floating mat encroachment, transpiration rates, and the accumulation of organic matter in lake basins. The transition to peatlands associated

  14. Comparative Modeling Studies of Boreal Water and Carbon Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, J.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The coordination of the modeling and field efforts for an Intensive Field Campaign (IFC) may resemble the chicken and egg dilemma. This session's theme advocates that early and proactive involvement by modeling teams can produce a scientific and operational benefit for the IFC and Experiment. This talk will provide some examples and suggestions originating from the NASA funded IFC's of the FIFE First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment, Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) and predominately Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Experiments. In February 1994 and prior to the final selection of the BOREAS study sites, a group of funded BOREAS investigators agreed to run their models with data for five community types representing the proposed tower flux sites. All participating models were given identical initial values and boundary conditions and driven with identical climate data. The objectives of the intercomparison exercise were: 1) compare simulation results of participating terrestrial, hydrological, and atmospheric models over selected time frames; 2) learn about model behavior and sensitivity to estimated boreal site and vegetation definitions; 3) prioritize BOREAS field data collection efforts supporting modeling studies; 4) identify individual model deficiencies as early as possible. Out of these objectives evolved some important coordination and science issues for the BOREAS Experiment that can be generalized to IFCs and long term archiving of the data. Some problems are acceptable because they are endemic to maintaining fair and open competition prior to the peer review process. Others are logistical and addressable through application of planning, management, and information sciences. This investigator has identified one source of measurement and model incompatibility that is manifest in the IFC scaling approach. Although intuitively obvious, scaling problems are already more formally defined in

  15. A landscape analysis plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy E. Fleenor

    2002-01-01

    A Landscape Analysis Plan (LAP) sets out broad guidelines for project development within boundaries of the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project. The plan must be a dynamic, living document, subject to change as new information arises over the course of this very long-term project (several decades). Two watersheds, each of 32,000 acres, were dedicated to...

  16. Landscape Designs for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Patricia

    This annotated bibliography includes summaries of 15 books and articles dealing with the topic of school landscape design, as well as a brief introduction that comments on recent trends in the field. Most of the publications cited are fairly recent; about two-thirds of them were published after 1970. Annotations range from approximately 125 to 250…

  17. Landscape as World Picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wamberg, Jacob

    are taken as a testimony to how cosmos splits into a chaotic Mother Earth and an indestructible masculine heaven. Finally, Volume I demonstrates that the ancient landscape images' exclusion of traces of cultivation (e.g. fields, roads, hedges, fences) is the result of work-shyness, a longing for the Golden...

  18. Landscape Planning of Schoolyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeva, A.; Khrapko, O.; Ivanova, O.

    2017-11-01

    The optimal landscape architecture planning of schoolyards allows for creation of favorable conditions for children personal development and physical fitness. The key principles of schoolyard landscape planning, same as for other areas intended for children, are as follows: establishment of a favorable microclimate, safety, aesthetic and educational environment. Green spaces play an essential role in this respect as they are essential to sanitary, hygienic, structural, and spatial planning performing decorative, artistic, cognitive, and educational functions in these areas. Various types of landscape plantings are used in school areas: borders, lawns, beds, vines, ornamental arrangements, and various potted plants. Children’s safety is the key principle when selecting a landscape design type and the plants’ range. Any allergenic, poisonous, thorny, strong-smelling or life-threatening plants are excluded. Plants on school grounds can serve as visual aids for studies. Drought-resistant, attractive, colorful, abundantly blooming plants with variable leaf texture are preferred. Ornamental trees and shrubs as well as perennials and annuals provide a broad plant range for school grounds.

  19. Diversity in Riparian Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Crow; Matthew E. Baker; Burton V. Barnes

    2000-01-01

    Therefore, in this chapter we focus on ecosystem diversity, defined as the number, kind, and pattern of landscape and waterscape ecosystems in a specified area and the ecological processes that are associated with these patterns (Lapin and Barnes 1995). One can then characterize eeosysterns as to their composition, structure, and function -- the attributes Of...

  20. Qualifying Urban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Clemmensen, Thomas; Daugaard, Morten; Nielsen, Tom

    This paper is based on a research project aimed at contributing to the qualification of the aesthetical value of the contemporary urban landscape. We see our work as part of a tradition within the architectural profession of making explorative projects, which combines analysis of the contemporary...

  1. Reprogramming the chromatin landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda, Tina B; Voss, Ty C; Sung, Myong-Hee

    2013-01-01

    , mechanistic details defining the cellular interactions between ER and GR are poorly understood. We investigated genome-wide binding profiles for ER and GR upon coactivation and characterized the status of the chromatin landscape. We describe a novel mechanism dictating the molecular interplay between ER...

  2. Complexity and valued landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael M. McCarthy

    1979-01-01

    The variable "complexity," or "diversity," has received a great deal of attention in recent research efforts concerned with visual resource management, including the identification of complexity as one of the primary evaluation measures. This paper describes research efforts that support the hypothesis that the landscapes we value are those with...

  3. Landscapes. Artists' Workshop Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Penny; Roundhill, Clare

    This instructional resource, designed to be used by and with elementary level students, provides inspiration for landscape painting by presenting the work of six different artists. These include: "Fuji in Clear Weather" (Katsushika Hokusai, 1823-29); "The Tree of Life" (Gustav Klimt, c. 1905-1909); "The Waterlily…

  4. Landscape genetics [Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin S. McKelvey; Samuel A. Cushman; Michael K. Schwartz

    2009-01-01

    In reading this book, you have observed that the spatial data used in landscape ecology come from many sources and in many forms. For many organisms, these data take the form of presence or absence at a location, or numbers of individuals at that same location. For species such as trees, where huge size differences exist between individuals, indices such as basal area...

  5. Attack rates of dengue fever in Swedish travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocklöv, Joacim; Lohr, Wolfgang; Hjertqvist, Marika; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2014-06-01

    Dengue is endemic in many countries visited by Swedish travellers. We aimed to determine the attack rate of dengue in Swedish travellers and analyse the trends over time and the geographical variation. We obtained the following data from the Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control for the y 1995-2010: number of Swedish residents with confirmed dengue, the country and year of infection. We also obtained registers on the Swedish annual air traveller arrivals to dengue endemic areas from the United Nations World Tourist Organization for the time period. We estimated attack rates with 95% confidence intervals (CI). In total, 925 Swedish travellers with confirmed dengue were reported. We found an increasing trend over time for most destinations. The majority of the dengue cases were acquired in Thailand (492 out of 925 travellers; 53%), with an attack rate of 13.6 (95% CI 12.7, 14.4) per 100,000 travellers. However, the 2 highest attack rates per 100,000 travellers were found for Sri Lanka (45.3, 95% CI 34.3, 56.4) and Bangladesh (42.6, 95% CI 23.8, 61.5). Information on attack rates in travellers is more helpful in guiding travel medicine practitioners than reports of absolute numbers, as the latter reflect travel preferences rather than the true risk. Although the majority of dengue infections in Swedish travellers were acquired in Thailand, the attack rates for dengue in travellers to Sri Lanka and Bangladesh were much higher. These data aid in refining information on the risk of dengue in travellers.

  6. Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Johanna; Holmqvist Gattario, Kristina; Frisén, Ann

    2017-06-01

    The relatively high gender equality in the Swedish society is likely to exert an influence on gender role construction. Hence, the present research aimed to investigate Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms. A mixed methods approach with two studies was used. In Study 1, young Swedish women's gender role conformity, as measured by the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory 45 (CFNI-45), was compared to the results from previously published studies in Canada, the United States, and Slovakia. Overall, Swedish women displayed less conformity than their foreign counterparts, with the largest difference on the subscale Sexual fidelity. In Study 2, focus group interviews with young Swedish women added a more complex picture of feminine norms in the Swedish society. For instance the results indicated that Swedish women, while living in a society with a strong gender equality discourse, are torn between the perceived need to invest in their appearances and the risk of being viewed as non-equal when doing so. In sum, despite the fact that traditional gender roles are less pronounced in Sweden, gender role conformity is still a pressing issue. Since attending to the potential roles of feminine norms in women's lives previously has been proposed to be useful in counseling and therapeutic work, the present research also offers valuable information for both researchers and practitioners. [Correction added on 5 May 2017, after first online publication in April 2017: An incorrect Abstract was inadvertently captured in the published article and has been corrected in this current version.]. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Descriptive approaches to landscape analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Burton Litton Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Descriptive landscape analyses include various procedures used to document visual/scenic resources. Historic and regional examples of landscape description represent desirable insight for contemporary professional inventory work. Routed and areal landscape inventories are discussed as basic tools. From them, qualitative and quantitative evaluations can be developed...

  8. Firewise Landscaping for Woodland Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Close, David

    2015-01-01

    A home in a woodland setting is surrounded by flammable vegetation. Firewise landscaping can help you create a defensible space or buffer zone around your home. This publication details landscaping zones which should be used when planning for fire protections and rates common landscaping plants by flammability.

  9. Tapetal dysplasia in a Swedish Vallhund dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Erin M; Teixeira, Leandro B C; Dubielzig, Richard R; Komáromy, András M

    2013-07-01

    To describe the gross, histopathological, and ultrastructural findings in a dog with bilateral tapetal dysplasia. The globes of a 15-year-old neutered male Swedish Vallhund dog with a ventrally displaced tapetum in both eyes were fixed in 10% formalin and submitted to the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin for histological evaluation. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and Melan-A immunohistochemistry (IHC), and tissues were subsequently processed for transmission electron microscopy. Bilateral fundic and gross examination revealed a tapetal fundus inferior to the optic nerve head (ONH) and a nontapetal fundus with mild scattering of tapetal tissue superior to the ONH. Histologically, there was decreased pigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium with only a few melanin granules in the peripheral retina. The affected tapetum was relatively acellular and fibrous with occasional tapetal cells scattered throughout the inner choroid or displaced into the vascular outer choroid. Special stains revealed that the tapetum was mostly composed of collagen (Masson's trichrome) and failed to express Melan-A (IHC) unlike a normal canine control tapetum. Ultrastructurally, the tapetum was markedly dysplastic both superior and inferior to the ONH with no uniformly arranged tapetal cells. The few cells identified within the tapetum contained irregularly arranged and disorganized electron-dense structures within their cytoplasm, which were interpreted as dysplastic tapetal rodlets. Based on microscopic and ultrastructural findings, this is the first report of tapetal dysplasia in a dog. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  10. Workplace Incivility in a Swedish Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Torkelson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated workplace incivility in a Swedish context. The first aim was to assess how common the phenomenon is and the second was to study which groups (gender, age, ethnicity, and power position are most targeted by workplace incivility and are more prone to act in an uncivil way. Additionally, the relationships between experienced and witnessed incivility and wellbeing as well as instigated incivility were investigated. An online survey was administered by SIFO (the national public opinion poll agency. The collected data consist of a stratified sample whose composition is identical to the working population in Sweden (N = 3001. The results show that almost three quarters of the respondents had been the target of coworker incivility and 52% of supervisor incivility at least one to two times in the past year. Of the respondents, 75% had witnessed coworkers and 58% witnessed a supervisor treating others in an uncivil way. Furthermore, 66% had instigated uncivil acts toward others. The results also show that female and younger employees are slightly more targeted by incivility from coworkers and younger employees and supervisors are slightly more prone to instigate incivility. Moreover, it was found that that experienced incivility was the strongest predictor of low well-being and that witnessed incivility was the strongest predictor of instigated incivility.

  11. Swedish entrepreneurs' use of occupational health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Kristina; Andersson, Ing-Marie; Josephson, Malin

    2011-10-01

    Small-scale enterprises are less often covered by occupational health services and have insufficient awareness about health and risks in the work environment. This study investigated how Swedish entrepreneurs in small-scale enterprises use occupational health services. The study used a questionnaire sent in two waves, 5 years apart. At baseline, 496 entrepreneurs responded, and 251 participated 5 years later. The questionnaire included items about affiliation with and use of occupational health services, physical and psychosocial work environments, work environment management, sources of work environment information, and membership in professional networks. Only 3% of entrepreneurs without employees and 19% of entrepreneurs with employees were affiliated with an occupational health service. Entrepreneurs affiliated with occupational health services were more active in work environment management and gathering information about the work environment. The occupational health services most used were health examinations, health care, and ergonomic risk assessments. Affiliation with occupational health services was 6% at both measurements, 4% at baseline, and 10% 5 years later. 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Geomorphology of anthropogenic landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofia, Giulia; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The construction of urban areas and the development of road networks leave a significant signature on the Earth surface, providing a geomorphological evidence to support the idea that humans are nowadays a geomorphic agent having deep effects on the morphological organization of the landscape. The reconstruction or identification of anthropogenic topographies, therefore, provides a mechanism for quantifying anthropogenic changes to the landscape systems in the Anthropocene. Following this research line, the present study tests the effectiveness of a recently published topographic index, the Slope Local Length of Autocorrelation (SLLAC, Sofia et al. 2014) to portrait anthropogenic geomorphology, focusing in particular on road network density, and urban complexity (UCI). At first, the research considers the increasing of anthropic structures and the resulting changes in the SLLAC and in two derived parameters (mean SLLAC per km2 and SLLAC roughness, or Surface Peak Curvature -Spc). As a second step, considering the SLLAC derived indices, the anthropogenic geomorphology is automatically depicted using a k-means clustering algorithm. In general, the increasing of road network density or of the UCI is positively correlated to the mean SLLAC per km2, while the Spc is negatively correlated to the increasing of the anthropic structures. Areas presenting different road network organization are effectively captured considering multiple combinations of the defined parameters. Landscapes with small scattered towns, and a network with long roads in a dendritic shape (with hierarchical branching) are characterized simultaneously by high mean SLLAC and low Spc. Large and complex urban areas served by rectilinear networks with numerous short straight lines and right angles, have either a maximized mean SLLAC or a minimized Spc or both. In all cases, the anthropogenic landscape identified by the procedure is comparable to the ones identified manually from orthophoto, with the

  13. Dominant Tree Species and Soil Type Affect the Fungal Community Structure in a Boreal Peatland Forest

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Hui; Terhonen, Eeva; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Tuovila, Hanna; Chen, Hongxin; Oghenekaro, Abbot O; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Kohler, Annegret; Kasanen, Risto; Vasander, Harri; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2016-01-01

    .... In this study, we have investigated the fungal diversity and community structure of both the organic soil layer and buried wood in boreal forest soils using high-throughput sequencing of the internal...

  14. NACP LiDAR-based Biomass Estimates, Boreal Forest Biome, North America, 2005-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides estimates of aboveground biomass (AGB) for defined land cover types within World Wildlife Fund (WWF) ecoregions across the boreal biome of...

  15. Lightning as a major driver of recent large fire years in North American boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veraverbeke, Sander; Rogers, Brendan M.; Goulden, Mike L.; Jandt, Randi R.; Miller, Charles E.; Wiggins, Elizabeth B.; Randerson, James T.

    2017-07-01

    Changes in climate and fire regimes are transforming the boreal forest, the world's largest biome. Boreal North America recently experienced two years with large burned area: 2014 in the Northwest Territories and 2015 in Alaska. Here we use climate, lightning, fire and vegetation data sets to assess the mechanisms contributing to large fire years. We find that lightning ignitions have increased since 1975, and that the 2014 and 2015 events coincided with a record number of lightning ignitions and exceptionally high levels of burning near the northern treeline. Lightning ignition explained more than 55% of the interannual variability in burned area, and was correlated with temperature and precipitation, which are projected to increase by mid-century. The analysis shows that lightning drives interannual and long-term ignition and burned area dynamics in boreal North America, and implies future ignition increases may increase carbon loss while accelerating the northward expansion of boreal forest.

  16. NPP Multi-Biome: Grassland, Boreal Forest, and Tropical Forest Sites, 1939-1996, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains one data file (.csv format) that provides net primary productivity (NPP) estimates for 34 grasslands, 14 tropical forests, and 5 boreal forest...

  17. LiDAR-based Biomass Estimates, Boreal Forest Biome, Eurasia, 2005-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides estimates of aboveground biomass (AGB) for defined land cover types within World Wildlife Fund (WWF) ecoregions across the boreal biome of...

  18. Russian Boreal Forest Disturbance Maps Derived from Landsat Imagery, 1984-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides Boreal forest disturbance maps at 30-m resolution for 55 selected sites across Northern Eurasia within the Russian Federation. Disturbance...

  19. Deciduous trees are a large and overlooked sink for snowmelt water in the boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jessica; Bolton, W. Robert; Bhatt, Uma; Cristobal, Jordi; Thoman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The terrestrial water cycle contains large uncertainties that impact our understanding of water budgets and climate dynamics. Water storage is a key uncertainty in the boreal water budget, with tree water storage often ignored. The goal of this study is to quantify tree water content during the snowmelt and growing season periods for Alaskan and western Canadian boreal forests. Deciduous trees reached saturation between snowmelt and leaf-out, taking up 21–25% of the available snowmelt water, while coniferous trees removed boreal deciduous tree area is expected to increase by 1–15%, potentially resulting in an additional 0.3–3 billion m3 of snowmelt water removed from the soil per year. This study is the first to show that deciduous tree water uptake of snowmelt water represents a large but overlooked aspect of the water balance in boreal watersheds.

  20. Differentiating moss from higher plants is critical in studying the carbon cycle of the boreal biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Liang, Shunlin; Zhao, Shuqing; Chen, Jingming; Xu, Wenfang; Li, Xianglan; Barr, Alan; Andrew Black, T; Yan, Wende; Goulden, Mike L; Kulmala, Liisa; Lindroth, Anders; Margolis, Hank A; Matsuura, Yojiro; Moors, Eddy; van der Molen, Michiel; Ohta, Takeshi; Pilegaard, Kim; Varlagin, Andrej; Vesala, Timo

    2014-06-26

    The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is used for estimating gross primary production (GPP), often includes contributions from both mosses and vascular plants in boreal ecosystems. For the same NDVI, moss can generate only about one-third of the GPP that vascular plants can because of its much lower photosynthetic capacity. Here, based on eddy covariance measurements, we show that the difference in photosynthetic capacity between these two plant functional types has never been explicitly included when estimating regional GPP in the boreal region, resulting in a substantial overestimation. The magnitude of this overestimation could have important implications regarding a change from a current carbon sink to a carbon source in the boreal region. Moss abundance, associated with ecosystem disturbances, needs to be mapped and incorporated into GPP estimates in order to adequately assess the role of the boreal region in the global carbon cycle.

  1. Fire Intensity and Burn Severity Metrics for Circumpolar Boreal Forests, 2001-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides products characterizing immediate and longer-term ecosystem changes from fires in the circumpolar boreal forests of Northern Eurasia and North...

  2. Waterbird - Expanded Scoter and Scaup Survey: Boreal Alaska and Old Crow Flats, Canada products

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Products resulting from the Yukon Flats NWR project "Waterbird - Expanded Scoter and Scaup Survey: Boreal Alaska and Old Crow Flats, Canada" (PRIMR survey...

  3. The Professional Landscape: The Historical Development of Professions in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brante

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of Professions & Professionalism seeks to explain the transition of occupations from non-professions to professions and the conditions and causes that generate professions (i.e., the bases of professionalization. Empirically, we use the histories of the Swedish professions, positing that these histories have several close similarities (and, of course, differences with those of other nations, thus making this project of international interest. Theoretically, we define a number of general concepts that are employed to explain the processes of professionalization. The most general concept, which covers the professional layer, is called the professional landscape. It is divided into a number of professional fields and generations, creating a typology of professions. The fields that are presented, together with the professions assuming key positions in the fields, are technology, health, social integration, social regulation, education, and academia. The historical emergence of the fields and the transition from occupation and pre-profession to full profession are outlined.

  4. 23 CFR 752.4 - Landscape development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.4 Landscape development. (a) Landscape development, which includes landscaping... landscaping and environmental design. (b) Landscape development should have provisions for plant establishment..., such as junkyard screening or urban landscaping projects. (c) In urban areas new and major...

  5. The changing effects of Alaska's boreal forests on the climate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euskirchen, E.S.; Chapin, F.S. III [Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States). Dept. of Biology, Inst. of Arctic Biology; McGuire, A.D. [United Sates Geological Survey, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Alaska Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit; Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States); Rupp, T.S. [Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States). Dept. of Forest Sciences

    2010-07-15

    The boreal forest is the northernmost forested biome and is expected to be sensitive to global warming. Recent climate warming in the boreal forests of Alaska has influenced the exchange of trace gases, water, and energy between the forests and the atmosphere. In turn, these changes in the structure and function of boreal forests can influence regional and global climates. This study examined the type and magnitude of the climate feedbacks from boreal forests in Alaska. Biogeophysical and biogeochemical feedbacks were examined with particular reference to surface energy balance across boreal ecosystems and over the full annual cycle. The impact of ground heat exchange on permafrost was studied in terms of vegetation dynamics and disturbance regimes such as fires and insect outbreaks. In general, research has indicated that the net effect of a warming climate is a positive regional feedback to warming. The main positive climate feedbacks are currently related to decreases in surface albedo due to decreases in snow cover. Fewer negative feedbacks have been identified, and they may not be large enough to counterbalance the large positive feedbacks. These positive feedbacks are most dominant at the regional scale and reduce the resilience of the boreal vegetation by amplifying the rate of regional warming. This paper also described carbon and methane release from permafrost degradation, changes in lake area, changes in land use and snow season changes. The role of earth system models in representing climate feedbacks from Alaskan boreal forests was discussed. It was concluded that although the boreal forest provides climate regulation as an ecosystem service, the net effect of the climate feedbacks to climate warming are not fully understood. As such, there is a need to continue to evaluate feedback pathways, given the recent warming in Alaska and the large variety of associated mechanisms that can change terrestrial ecosystems and affect the climate system. 59 refs

  6. The Effects of Moose (Alces alces) Browsing on Boreal Tree Species in Norway and Quebec

    OpenAIRE

    Nes, Toril

    2015-01-01

    The circumpolar boreal forest is important for recreational purposes, timber harvesting, game meat and as a CO2-storage. Biodiversity is important for maintaining these ecosystem services. Many boreal forests are experiencing an increase in the cervid populations. Densities of moose Alces alces not seen before in modern history have been reported several places. Knowledge about the interactions between this selective browser and the regenerating forest is therefore of importance for both the ...

  7. Impacts of elevated carbon dioxide and temperature on a boreal forest ecosystem (CLIMEX project)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breemen, N. van; Jenkins, A.; Wright, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of climate change on boreal forest ecosystems, both atmospheric CO2 (to 560 ppmv) and air temperature (by 3 degrees-5 degrees C above ambient) were increased at a forested headwater catchment in southern Norway. The entire catchment (860 m(2)) is enclosed within....... While the ecosystem now loses N, the long-term fate of soil N is a key uncertainty in predicting the future response of boreal ecosystems to climate change....

  8. Influence of fungi on N and C dynamics during organic matter decomposition in boreal forests

    OpenAIRE

    Baskaran, Preetisri

    2017-01-01

    Soils in terrestrial ecosystems store more carbon (C) than plants and the atmosphere combined, and ecosystems’ C dynamics are strongly dependent of nitrogen (N) availability. Moreover, plant production in boreal ecosystems is often limited by low N availability, and N retention in soils is a major constraint on N recirculation to plants. Soil fungi strongly influence C and N interactions in boreal ecosystems. However, a better knowledge of their role in the C and N interactions and balances i...

  9. Indirect effects of rodents on arthropods in a Scandinavian boreal forest

    OpenAIRE

    Malá, Barbora

    2016-01-01

    Rodents in boreal forest are an important component of food webs. Their role as drivers of the boreal forest ecosystem is debated. As herbivores they affect plant communities and alter qualities of plants. Consequently availability of food resources for other herbivorous species is altered. In my thesis I studied whether rodents indirectly influence communities of arthropods via plant resources. It is assumed that phytophagous arthropods respond to changes in plant resources by different feed...

  10. Transient peat properties in two pond-peatland complexes in the sub-humid Western Boreal Plain, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Petrone

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Canadian Western Boreal Plain (WBP, wetlands (ponds and peatlands comprise up to 50% of the landscape and represent unique habitat where summer precipitation is often outpaced by evapotranspiration and hillslope groundwater position does not follow topography. In this sub-humid location, groundwater fluxes and stores in riparian peatlands influence pond water levels and root zone moisture sources for forested uplands. To accurately describe the transport and retention of water in peat, it is important to consider peat subsidence. This paper quantifies the amount and effect of seasonal subsidence in a riparian peatland in the Utikuma Lake region in north-central Alberta, Canada. Results demonstrate that the deep and poorly decomposed peat deposits are resistant to compression, and that thick (and persistent ground frost hinders pore collapse (shrinkage above the water table until late summer when the ground has thawed. Even then, subsidence is still limited to the top 50 cm and is not closely related to changes in peatland water table or pond water level. Thus the water balance of these ponds and riparian areas appears to be less sensitive to peat volume changes than it is to the persistence of a substantial frost layer well into the snow-free period.

  11. Deregulation and internationalisation - impact on the Swedish nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haukeland, Sverre R. [Swedish Nuclear Society, Vattenfall Research and Development, 162 89 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    The deregulation of the Swedish electricity market in 1996 was well known in advance, and the nuclear power plants in Sweden, as well as their main suppliers, made early preparations for a this new situation. In a study - performed by the author at Malardalen University in Sweden - it is concluded that the electricity industry, including the nuclear power plants, was fundamentally transformed in conjunction with market liberalisation. Two large foreign companies, E-on and Fortum, entered the Swedish market and became part-owners of the nuclear plants. After deregulation, the electricity market in Sweden is dominated by these two companies and the large national company Vattenfall. Similarly, Vattenfall has recently grown into an international energy company, acquiring generation capacity in Northern Europe outside of Sweden, including nuclear power plants in Germany. Restructuring of the nuclear industry on the supplier side started in the 1980's, when the Swedish company ASEA and BBC of Switzerland merged to become ABB. Several years later the Swedish nuclear plant supplier ABB-Atom became part of Westinghouse Electric Company, today owned by Toshiba. The Swedish experience thus confirms an international trend of mergers and consolidation in the nuclear industry. (authors)

  12. Maternal use of Swedish snuff (snus) and risk of stillbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Anna-Karin; Cnattingius, Sven; Stephansson, Olof

    2010-11-01

    Swedish snuff has been discussed internationally as a safer alternative to tobacco smoking. International cigarette manufacturers are promoting new snuff products, and the use of Swedish snuff is increasing, especially among women of childbearing age. The effect of Swedish snuff on pregnancy complications is unknown. In this population-based cohort study, we estimated the risk of stillbirth in snuff users (n = 7629), light smokers (1-9 cigarettes/day; n = 41,488), and heavy smokers (≥10 cigarettes/day; n = 17,014), using nontobacco users (n = 504,531) as reference. Compared with nontobacco users, snuff users had an increased risk of stillbirth (adjusted odds ratio = 1.6 [95% confidence interval = 1.1-2.3]); the risk was higher for preterm (stillbirth (2.1 [1.3-3.4]). For light smokers, the adjusted odds ratio of stillbirth was 1.4 (1.2-1.7) and the corresponding risk for heavy smokers was 2.4 (2.0-3.0). When we excluded women with preeclampsia or antenatal bleeding and infants who were small for gestational age, the smoking-related risks of stillbirth was markedly attenuated; the elevated risk for snuff users remained the same level. Use of Swedish snuff during pregnancy was associated with a higher risk of stillbirth. The mechanism behind this increased risk seems to differ from the underlying mechanism in smokers. Swedish snuff does not appear to be a safe alternative to cigarette smoking during pregnancy.

  13. Aggregate analysis of vowel pronunciation in Swedish dialects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Leinonen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an aggregate analysis of vowel pronunciation in Swedish dialects is proposed by means of multidimensional scaling (MDS. The Gap statistic showed that no statistically significant partitioning of Swedish dialects can be made based on vowel pronunciation, which means that the dialects form a true linguistic continuum. Vowels recorded by 1,170 speakers at 98 sites were analyzed acoustically with principal components of Bark-filtered spectra, and the linguistic distances between varieties were computed as the Euclidean distance of the acoustic variables. The MDS analyses showed that the dialect areas that can be detected based on vowel pronunciation in modern rural varieties of Swedish largely correspond to the traditional Swedish dialect division and divisions of regional varieties of Standard Swedish. The results also show a large-scale ongoing dialect leveling. The change is largest in many central parts of the language area close to the biggest cities, while the dialects in more peripheral areas are relatively stable.

  14. Eight boreal wetlands as sources and sinks for methyl mercury in relation to soil acidity, C/N ratio, and small-scale flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjerngren, Ida; Meili, Markus; Björn, Erik; Skyllberg, Ulf

    2012-08-07

    Four years of catchment export and wetland input-output mass balances are reported for inorganic Hg (Hg(inorg)), methyl mercury (MeHg), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and sulfate in eight Swedish boreal wetlands. All wetlands had a history of artificial drainage and seven were subjected to small-scale flooding during the complete study period (two sites) or the two last years (five sites). We used an approach in which specific runoff data determined at hydrological stations situated at a distance from the studied sites were used in the calculation of water and element budgets. All wetlands except one were significant sinks for Hg(inorg). Seven wetlands were consistent sources of MeHg and one (an Alnus glutinosa swamp) was a significant sink. The pattern of MeHg yields was in good agreement with previously determined methylation and demethylation rates in the wetland soils of this study, with a maximum MeHg yield obtained in wetlands with an intermediate soil acidity (pH ∼5.0) and C/N ratio (∼20). We hypothesize that an increased nutrient status from poor to intermediate conditions promotes methylation over demethylation, whereas a further increase in nutrient status and trophy to meso- and eutrophic conditions promotes demethylation over methylation. Small-scale flooding showed no or moderate changes in MeHg yield, maintaining differences among wetlands related to nutrient status.

  15. Incidence of pyometra in Swedish insured cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Introduction: Forest restoration in temperate and boreal zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile Gardiner; Katrine Hahn; Magnus Löf

    2003-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed an acceleration of forest restoration activities around the globe. Afforestation of former agricultural land, rehabilitation of natural forest processes and structures at the stand and landscape levels, and conversion of single-species plantations to mixed-species stands are among the prominent types of restoration practices currently...

  17. Spatial and temporal patterns of pesticide losses in a small Swedish agricultural catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandin, Maria; Piikki, Kristin; Jarvis, Nicholas; Larsbo, Mats; Bishop, Kevin; Kreuger, Jenny

    2017-04-01

    Research at catchment and regional scales shows that losses of pesticides to surface water often originate from a relatively small fraction of the agricultural landscape. These 'hydrologic source areas' represent areas of land that are highly susceptible to fast transport processes, primarily surface runoff or rapid subsurface flows through soil macropores, either to subsurface field drainage systems or as shallow interflow on more strongly sloping land. A good understanding of the nature of transport pathways for pesticides to surface water in agricultural landscapes is essential for cost-effective identification and implementation of mitigation measures. However, the relative importance of surface and subsurface flows for transport of pesticides to surface waters in Sweden remains largely unknown, since very few studies have been performed under Swedish agro-environmental conditions. We conducted a monitoring study in a small sub-surface drained agricultural catchment in one of the main crop production regions in Sweden. Three small sub-catchments were selected for water sampling based on a high-resolution soil map developed from proximal sensing data; one sub-catchment was dominated by clay soils, another by coarse sandy soils while the third comprised a mix of soil types. Samples were collected from the stream, from field drains discharging into the stream and from within-field surface runoff during spring and early summer in three consecutive years. LC-MS/MS analyses of more than 100 compounds, covering the majority of the polar and semi-polar pesticides most frequently used in Swedish agriculture, were performed on all samples using accredited methods. Information on pesticide applications (products, doses and timing) was obtained from annual interviews with the farmers. There were clear and consistent differences in pesticide losses between the three sub-catchments, with the largest losses occurring in the area with clay soils, and negligible losses from the

  18. Trophic cascades, invasive species and body-size hierarchies interactively modulate climate change responses of ecotonal temperate–boreal forest

    OpenAIRE

    Frelich, Lee E.; Rolf O. Peterson; Dovčiak, Martin; Reich, Peter B.; John A Vucetich; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2012-01-01

    As the climate warms, boreal tree species are expected to be gradually replaced by temperate species within the southern boreal forest. Warming will be accompanied by changes in above- and below-ground consumers: large moose (Alces alces) replaced by smaller deer (Odocoileus virginianus) above-ground, and small detritivores replaced by larger exotic earthworms below-ground. These shifts may induce a cascade of ecological impacts across trophic levels that could alter the boreal to temperate f...

  19. Wildfire and landscape change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, P.; Cannon, S.; DeGraff, J.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire is a worldwide phenomenon that is expected to increase in extent and severity in the future, due to fuel accumulations, shifting land management practices, and climate change. It immediately affects the landscape by removing vegetation, depositing ash, influencing water-repellent soil formation, and physically weathering boulders and bedrock. These changes typically lead to increased erosion through sheetwash, rilling, dry ravel, and increased mass movement in the form of floods, debris flow, rockfall, and landslides. These process changes bring about landform changes as hillslopes are lowered and stream channels aggrade or incise at increased rates. Furthermore, development of alluvial fans, debris fans, and talus cones are enhanced. The window of disturbance to the landscape caused by wildfire is typically on the order of three to four years, with some effects persisting up to 30 years.

  20. Conceiving Landscape through Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farsø, Mads; Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    This article shows how the media of film can be integrated, explored and can add value to architectural design studios and practice. It elucidates how film may offer an alternative position in architecture, where landscapes and cities are thought, planned and developed in closer relation...... to their spatial and sensory effects on humans. It underscores that the film camera can work as a kind of amplifier of how we, with our bodies, perceive space and project space. In the “Landscape Film” Studio at University of Copenhagen the film medium was tested as a combined registration and design tool...... for a new Nature Park south of Copenhagen. The final studio films and designs show how resonate recordings of sound, time and a bodily presence may simulate an Einfühling that inspires an alternative architecture of relations: the ambient, the changeable and the volatile. They also emphasize that an ability...

  1. Driving the Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haff, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Technological modification of the earth's surface (e.g., agriculture, urbanization) is an old story in human history, but what about the future? The future of landscape in an accelerating technological world, beyond a relatively short time horizon, lies hidden behind an impenetrable veil of complexity. Sufficiently complex dynamics generates not only the trajectory of a variable of interest (e.g., vegetation cover) but also the environment in which that variable evolves (e.g., background climate). There is no way to anticipate what variables will define that environment—the dynamics creates its own variables. We are always open to surprise by a change of conditions we thought or assumed were fixed or by the appearance of new phenomena of whose possible existence we had been unaware or thought unlikely. This is especially true under the influence of technology, where novelty is the rule. Lack of direct long-term predictability of landscape change does not, however, mean we cannot say anything about its future. The presence of persistence (finite time scales) in a system means that prediction by a calibrated numerical model should be good for a limited period of time barring bad luck or faulty implementation. Short-term prediction, despite its limitations, provides an option for dealing with the longer-term future. If a computer-controlled car tries to drive itself from New York to Los Angeles, no conceivable (or possible) stand-alone software can be constructed to predict a priori the space-time trajectory of the vehicle. Yet the drive is normally completed easily by most drivers. The trip is successfully completed because each in a series of very short (linear) steps can be "corrected" on the fly by the driver, who takes her cues from the environment to keep the car on the road and headed toward its destination. This metaphor differs in a fundamental way from the usual notion of predicting geomorphic change, because it involves a goal—to reach a desired

  2. A Dip into the World of Particles for Swedish Teachers

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    For three full days, forty-one Swedish secondary school physics teachers were introduced to the rudiments of the particle physics. This series of courses is celebrating its tenth anniversary. The Swedish teachers followed lectures, visited CERN experiments... ... and analysed the latest DELPHI data. 'I am sure that, as in previous years, many of these teachers will return to CERN with their students. It is an excellent way of encouraging young people to orient themselves towards physics.' Staffan Hörnberg, Vice President of the International Centre for Education and Development, is enthusiastic about the repercussions of the teaching programme for Swedish teachers that he organises with CERN physicist, Richard Jacobsson. For the tenth consecutive year, this series of introductory courses to particle physics was a success. Forty-one teachers came from schools all over Sweden to take part in lectures and visits on the theme of particle physics, its methods of investigation, and its applications. San...

  3. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The total production of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 65.6 TWh during 2002, which is a decrease compared to 2001. The energy capability factor for the 11 Swedish reactors averaged 80.8%. The PWRs at Ringhals averaged 87.6%, while the BWRs, not counting Oskarshamn 1, reached 89.2%. No events, which in accordance to conventions should be reported to IAEA, have occurred during 2002. Operational statistics are presented for each Swedish reactor. The hydroelectric power was 66 TWh, 16% lower than 2000. Wind power contributed 0.5 TWh, and remaining production sources, mainly from solid fuel plants combined with district heating, contributed 10.9 TWh. The electricity generation totalled 143 TWh, considerably less than the record high 2001 figure of 158.7 TWh. The preliminary figures for export were 14.8 TWh and and for import 20.1 TWh.

  4. 4-Nonylphenol and bisphenol A in Swedish food and exposure in Swedish nursing women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllenhammar, Irina; Glynn, Anders; Darnerud, Per Ola; Lignell, Sanna; van Delft, Rob; Aune, Marie

    2012-08-01

    4-Nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) are phenolic substances used in high volumes by the industry. Studies on cells and in experimental animals have shown that both these compounds can be classified as estrogenic hormone disrupters. Information about the exposure of humans to NP and BPA is still scarce, especially regarding levels in human blood. The first aim of this study was to investigate possible sources of NP and BPA exposure from food, by analyzing the levels of NP and BPA from a Swedish food market basket, based on the Swedish per capita food consumption. A second aim was to investigate blood serum levels of NP and BPA, as well as NP-ethoxylates, among young women in Sweden (n=100). Moreover, associations between food consumption and blood NP and BPA levels were studied. In food, NP was to some extent found at levels above limit of quantification (LOQ 20 ng/g fresh weight) in fruits, cereal products, vegetables, and potatoes. BPA levels above LOQ (2 ng/g fresh weight) were found in fish, meats, potatoes, and dairy products. The estimated mean intakes per capita were (medium bound) 27 μg NP/day and 3.9 μg BPA/day, showing that food is a source of BPA and NP in the general Swedish population. In blood serum, free NP above limit of detection (LOD 0.5 ng/g) was detected in 46% of the study participants while detectable levels of total NP (LOD 0.8 ng/g) were observed in 43%. The corresponding percentages for BPA were 25% and 22%, respectively. The results indicate that there is a continuous source of exposure to NP and BPA that is high enough for free NP and BPA to be detected in some consumers. Among the participants with quantifiable levels of free and total NP (n=38), 85% (median, range: 38-112%) of the NP was present as free NP. For BPA 76% (49-109%) was detected as free BPA (n=15). All women had levels of ethoxylates of NP below LOD (0.1-0.7 ng/g). A significantly higher total consumption of fruits and vegetables was reported in questionnaires by

  5. Data anonymization patent landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Pejić Bach; Jasmina Pivar; Ksenija Dumičić

    2017-01-01

    The omnipresent, unstoppable increase in digital data has led to a greater understanding of the importance of data privacy. Different approaches are used to implement data privacy. The goal of this paper is to develop a data anonymization patent landscape, by determining the following: (i) the trend in data anonymization patenting, (ii) the type of technical content protected in data anonymization, (iii) the organizations and countries most active in patenting data anonymization know-how; and...

  6. Patent Landscape for Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey Streletskiy; Vladimir Zabavnikov; Emil Aslanov; Dmitriy Kotlov

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the methodological aspects of nanotechnology patent landscaping. The authors suggest that nanotechnologies take precedence over other technological trends, an assertion that is confirmed by current assessments and forecasts regarding the size of the nanotechnology product market. In this paper the authors analyse patent activity within the Russian Federation and globally by building a patent map of nanotechnology and the associated field of metallurgy. Using this as a ...

  7. Landscape evolution of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, S.S.R.; Sugden, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    The relative roles of fluvial versus glacial processes in shaping the landscape of Antarctica have been debated since the expeditions of Robert Scott and Ernest Shackleton in the early years of the 20th century. Here we build a synthesis of Antarctic landscape evolution based on the geomorphology of passive continental margins and former northern mid-latitude Pleistocene ice sheets. What makes Antarctica so interesting is that the terrestrial landscape retains elements of a record of change that extends back to the Oligocene. Thus there is the potential to link conditions on land with those in the oceans and atmosphere as the world switched from a greenhouse to a glacial world and the Antarctic ice sheet evolved to its present state. In common with other continental fragments of Gondwana there is a fluvial signature to the landscape in the form of the coastal erosion surfaces and escarpments, incised river valleys, and a continent-wide network of river basins. A selective superimposed glacial signature reflects the presence or absence of ice at the pressure melting point. Earliest continental-scale ice sheets formed around 34 Ma, growing from local ice caps centered on mountain massifs, and featured phases of ice-sheet expansion and contraction. These ice masses were most likely cold-based over uplands and warm-based across lowlands and near their margins. For 20 million years ice sheets fluctuated on Croll-Milankovitch frequencies. At ~14 Ma the ice sheet expanded to its maximum and deepened a preexisting radial array of troughs selectively through the coastal mountains and eroded the continental

  8. Estimating Snow Water Equivalent In The Swedish Mountains Based On The Frequency And Amplitude Of The Local Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvander, Susanne; Brown, Ian

    2013-12-01

    Estimating the snow water equivalent (SWE) of the seasonal snowpack is key information for the prediction of spring flood rates and the contribution to water reservoirs in Hydro-power production. By establishing the relationship between accumulation patterns and physical parameters in the landscape such as topographic features and vegetation, a model of accumulation patterns in different types of reference areas can be produced. However, detailed information on the spatial and temporal evolution of the snow pack is necessary in order to develop such an algorithm. By determining the frequency and amplitude of topography in the Swedish mountain regions and by measuring snow accumulation in these regions we can increase the accuracy of the estimation of SWE. This information can then aid the understanding of scaling issues over the region. Satellite imagery and products can then be used for up-scaling from high-resolution field data to derive new satellite algorithms in the future.

  9. Overstory influences on light attenuation patterns and understory plant community diversity and composition in southern boreal forests of Quebec

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bartemucci, Paula; Messier, Christian; Canham, Charles D

    2006-01-01

    We have characterized overstory light transmission, understory light levels, and plant communities in mixed wood boreal forests of northwestern Quebec with the objective of understanding how overstory...

  10. Pharmacist-patient communication in Swedish community pharmacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Erika; Ingman, Pontus; Ahmed, Ban

    2014-01-01

    of prescribed medicines at Swedish community pharmacies. METHOD: Non-participant observations and audio recordings were used as data-collecting methods. The content of the dialog was categorized into 2 deductively decided main categories-medicinal and non-medicinal issues-and 12 inductively decided...... in Swedish community pharmacies. Forty percent of the dialog concerns non-medical issues and almost half of the encounter was silent. CONCLUSION: Medicines are an essential treatment method in healthcare, and pharmaceutical expertise is available to patients who enter a community pharmacy. The results...

  11. Identification Of Minangkabau Landscape Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrina, M.; Gunawan, A.; Aris, Munandar

    2017-10-01

    Minangkabau is one of cultures in indonesia which occupies landscape intact. Landscape of Minangkabau have a very close relationship with the culture of the people. Uniqueness of Minangkabau culture and landscape forming an inseparable characterunity. The landscape is necessarily identified to know the inherent landscape characters. The objective of this study was to identify the character of the Minangkabau landscape characterizes its uniqueness. The study was conducted by using descriptive method comprised literature review and field observasion. Observed the landscape characters comprised two main features, they were major and minor features. Indetification of the features was conducted in two original areas (darek) of the Minangkabau traditional society. The research results showed that major features or natural features of the landscape were predominantly landform, landcover, and hidrology. All luhak (districts) of Minangkabau showed similar main features such as hill, canyon, lake, valley, and forest. The existence of natural features such as hills, canyon and valleys characterizes the nature of minangkabau landscape. Minor features formed by Minangkabau cultural society were agricultural land and settlement. Rumah gadang (big house) is one of famous minor features characterizes the Minangkabau culture. In addition, several historical artefacts of building and others structure may strengthen uniqueness of the Minangkabau landscape character, such as The royal palace, inscription, and tunnels.

  12. Nitrogen balance along a northern boreal forest fire chronosequence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjo Palviainen

    Full Text Available Fire is a major natural disturbance factor in boreal forests, and the frequency of forest fires is predicted to increase due to climate change. Nitrogen (N is a key determinant of carbon sequestration in boreal forests because the shortage of N limits tree growth. We studied changes in N pools and fluxes, and the overall N balance across a 155-year non stand-replacing fire chronosequence in sub-arctic Pinus sylvestris forests in Finland. Two years after the fire, total ecosystem N pool was 622 kg ha-1 of which 16% was in the vegetation, 8% in the dead biomass and 76% in the soil. 155 years after the fire, total N pool was 960 kg ha-1, with 27% in the vegetation, 3% in the dead biomass and 69% in the soil. This implies an annual accumulation rate of 2.28 kg ha-1 which was distributed equally between soil and biomass. The observed changes in N pools were consistent with the computed N balance +2.11 kg ha-1 yr-1 over the 155-year post-fire period. Nitrogen deposition was an important component of the N balance. The biological N fixation increased with succession and constituted 9% of the total N input during the 155 post-fire years. N2O fluxes were negligible (≤ 0.01 kg ha-1 yr-1 and did not differ among post-fire age classes. The number and intensity of microbial genes involved in N cycling were lower at the site 60 years after fire compared to the youngest and the oldest sites indicating potential differences in soil N cycling processes. The results suggest that in sub-arctic pine forests, the non-stand-replacing, intermediate-severity fires decrease considerably N pools in biomass but changes in soil and total ecosystem N pools are slight. Current fire-return interval does not seem to pose a great threat to ecosystem productivity and N status in these sub-arctic forests.

  13. Modelling boreal forest CO{sub 2} exchange and seasonality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thum, T.

    2009-07-01

    Man-induced climate change has raised the need to predict the future climate and its feedback to vegetation. These are studied with global climate models; to ensure the reliability of these predictions, it is important to have a biosphere description that is based upon the latest scientific knowledge. This work concentrates on the modelling of the CO{sub 2} exchange of the boreal coniferous forest, studying also the factors controlling its growing season and how these can be used in modelling. In addition, the modelling of CO{sub 2} gas exchange at several scales was studied. A canopy-level CO{sub 2} gas exchange model was developed based on the biochemical photosynthesis model. This model was first parameterized using CO{sub 2} exchange data obtained by eddy covariance (EC) measurements from a Scots pine forest at Sodankylae. The results were compared with a semi-empirical model that was also parameterized using EC measurements. Both of the models gave satisfactory results. The biochemical canopy-level model was further parameterized at three other coniferous forest sites located in Finland and Sweden. At all the sites, the two most important biochemical model parameters showed seasonal behaviour, i.e., their temperature responses changed according to the season. Modelling results were improved when these changeover dates were related to temperature indices. During summer-time the values of the biochemical model parameters were similar at all the four sites. Different control factors for CO{sub 2} gas exchange were studied at the four coniferous forests, including how well these factors can be used to predict the initiation and cessation of the CO{sub 2} uptake. Temperature indices, atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, surface albedo and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) were all found to be useful and have predictive power. In Finnish Lapland a trend toward an earlier start of the CO{sub 2} uptake in spring was also observed. In addition, a detailed simulation study

  14. Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) Science Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, D.; Schnase, J. L.; McInerney, M.; Webster, W. P.; Sinno, S.; Thompson, J. H.; Griffith, P. C.; Hoy, E.; Carroll, M.

    2014-12-01

    The effects of climate change are being revealed at alarming rates in the Arctic and Boreal regions of the planet. NASA's Terrestrial Ecology Program has launched a major field campaign to study these effects over the next 5 to 8 years. The Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) will challenge scientists to take measurements in the field, study remote observations, and even run models to better understand the impacts of a rapidly changing climate for areas of Alaska and western Canada. The NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has partnered with the Terrestrial Ecology Program to create a science cloud designed for this field campaign - the ABoVE Science Cloud. The cloud combines traditional high performance computing with emerging technologies to create an environment specifically designed for large-scale climate analytics. The ABoVE Science Cloud utilizes (1) virtualized high-speed InfiniBand networks, (2) a combination of high-performance file systems and object storage, and (3) virtual system environments tailored for data intensive, science applications. At the center of the architecture is a large object storage environment, much like a traditional high-performance file system, that supports data proximal processing using technologies like MapReduce on a Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS). Surrounding the storage is a cloud of high performance compute resources with many processing cores and large memory coupled to the storage through an InfiniBand network. Virtual systems can be tailored to a specific scientist and provisioned on the compute resources with extremely high-speed network connectivity to the storage and to other virtual systems. In this talk, we will present the architectural components of the science cloud and examples of how it is being used to meet the needs of the ABoVE campaign. In our experience, the science cloud approach significantly lowers the barriers and risks to organizations

  15. Tropical influence on boreal summer mid-latitude stationary waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douville, Herve [Meteo-France/CNRM-GAME, Toulouse (France); CNRM/GMGEC/VDR, Toulouse (France); Bielli, S.; Deque, M.; Tyteca, S.; Voldoire, A. [Meteo-France/CNRM-GAME, Toulouse (France); Cassou, C. [CNRS-Cerfacs, Toulouse (France); Hall, N.M.J. [CNES/LEGOS, Toulouse (France)

    2011-11-15

    While organized tropical convection is a well-known source of extratropical planetary waves, state-of-the-art climate models still show serious deficiencies in simulating accurately the atmospheric response to tropical sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and the associated teleconnections. In the present study, the remote influence of the tropical atmospheric circulation is evaluated in ensembles of global boreal summer simulations in which the Arpege-Climat atmospheric General Circulation Model (GCM) is nudged towards 6-h reanalyses. The nudging is applied either in the whole tropical band or in a regional summer monsoon domain. Sensitivity tests to the experimental design are first conducted using prescribed climatological SST. They show that the tropical relaxation does not improve the zonal mean extratropical climatology but does lead to a significantly improved representation of the mid-latitude stationary waves in both hemispheres. Low-pass filtering of the relaxation fields has no major effect on the model response, suggesting that high-frequency tropical variability is not responsible for extratropical biases. Dividing the nudging strength by a factor 10 only decreases the magnitude of the response. Model errors in each monsoon domain contribute to deficiencies in the model's mid-latitude climatology, although an exaggerated large-scale subsidence in the central equatorial Pacific appears as the main source of errors for the representation of stationary waves in the Arpege-Climat model. Case studies are then conducted using either climatological or observed SST. The focus is first on summer 2003 characterized by a strong and persistent anticyclonic anomaly over western Europe. This pattern is more realistic in nudging experiments than in simulations only driven by observed SST, especially when the nudging domain is centred over Central America. Other case studies also show a significant tropical forcing of the summer mid-latitude stationary waves

  16. Nitrogen balance along a northern boreal forest fire chronosequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palviainen, Marjo; Pumpanen, Jukka; Berninger, Frank; Ritala, Kaisa; Duan, Baoli; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Sun, Hui; Köster, Egle; Köster, Kajar

    2017-01-01

    Fire is a major natural disturbance factor in boreal forests, and the frequency of forest fires is predicted to increase due to climate change. Nitrogen (N) is a key determinant of carbon sequestration in boreal forests because the shortage of N limits tree growth. We studied changes in N pools and fluxes, and the overall N balance across a 155-year non stand-replacing fire chronosequence in sub-arctic Pinus sylvestris forests in Finland. Two years after the fire, total ecosystem N pool was 622 kg ha-1 of which 16% was in the vegetation, 8% in the dead biomass and 76% in the soil. 155 years after the fire, total N pool was 960 kg ha-1, with 27% in the vegetation, 3% in the dead biomass and 69% in the soil. This implies an annual accumulation rate of 2.28 kg ha-1 which was distributed equally between soil and biomass. The observed changes in N pools were consistent with the computed N balance +2.11 kg ha-1 yr-1 over the 155-year post-fire period. Nitrogen deposition was an important component of the N balance. The biological N fixation increased with succession and constituted 9% of the total N input during the 155 post-fire years. N2O fluxes were negligible (≤ 0.01 kg ha-1 yr-1) and did not differ among post-fire age classes. The number and intensity of microbial genes involved in N cycling were lower at the site 60 years after fire compared to the youngest and the oldest sites indicating potential differences in soil N cycling processes. The results suggest that in sub-arctic pine forests, the non-stand-replacing, intermediate-severity fires decrease considerably N pools in biomass but changes in soil and total ecosystem N pools are slight. Current fire-return interval does not seem to pose a great threat to ecosystem productivity and N status in these sub-arctic forests.

  17. Ten-year responses of ground-dwelling spiders to retention harvest in the boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon, Jaime; Spence, John R; Langor, David W; Shorthouse, David P

    2016-12-01

    The Ecosystem Management Emulating Natural Disturbances (EMEND) project tests the hypothesis that varying levels of green tree retention maintain and retain forest biodiversity better than conventional clear-cutting. We studied epigaeic spiders to assess biodiversity changes 2, 5, and 10 yr following a range of partial retention harvests (clear-cut, 10-75% retention) and unharvested controls in four boreal mixedwood cover types. A total of 56 371 adult spiders representing 220 species was collected using pitfall traps. Lasting effects on forest structure were proportional to harvest intensity. These changes strongly influenced spider richness, abundance, and species composition, as well as assemblage recovery. Distinctive assemblages were associated with disturbance level, especially with partial harvests (≤50% retention), and these were dominated by open-habitat species even 10 yr after harvest. Assemblages were more similar to those of controls in the highest (75%) retention treatment, but significant recovery toward the structure of pre-disturbance assemblages was not detected for any prescription in any cover type. Although early responses to retention harvest suggested positive effects on spider assemblages, these are better explained as lag effects after harvest because assemblages were less similar to those of unharvested controls 5 yr post-harvest, and only minor recovery was observed 10 yr following harvest. Retention of forest biodiversity decreased over time, especially in conifer stands and the lower (10-50%) retention treatments. Overall, retention harvests retained biodiversity and promoted landscape heterogeneity somewhat better than clear-cutting; however, there was a clear gradient of response and no retention "threshold" for conservation can be recommended on the basis of our data. Furthermore, results suggest that retention harvest prescriptions should be adjusted for cover type. We show that low retention ameliorated impacts in broadleaved

  18. Regional Instability in the Abundance of Open Stands in the Boreal Forest of Eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rija Rapanoela

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fires are a key disturbance of boreal forests. In fact, they are the main source of renewal and evolution for forest stands. The variability of fire through space and time results in a diversified forest mosaic, altering their species composition, structure and productivity. A resilient forest is assumed to be in a state of dynamic equilibrium with the fire regime, so that the composition, age structure and succession stages of forests should be consistent with the fire regime. Dense spruce-moss stands tend, however, to diminish in favour of more open stands similar to spruce-lichen stands when subjected to more frequent and recurring disturbances. This study therefore focused on the effects of spatial and temporal variations in burn rates on the proportion of open stands over a large geographic area (175,000 km2 covered by black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. Britton, Sterns, Poggenb.. The study area was divided into 10 different zones according to burn rates, as measured using fire-related data collected between 1940 and 2006. To test if the abundance of open stands was unstable over time and not in equilibrium with the current fire regime, forest succession was simulated using a landscape dynamics model that showed that the abundance of open stands should increase progressively over time in zones where the average burn rate is high. The proportion of open stands generated during a specific historical period is correlated with the burn rate observed during the same period. Rising annual burn rates over the past two decades have thereby resulted in an immediate increase in the proportion of open stands. There is therefore a difference between the current proportion of open stands and the one expected if vegetation was in equilibrium with the disturbance regime, reflecting an instability that may significantly impact the way forest resources are managed. It is apparent from this study that forestry planning should consider the risks associated

  19. Impacts of Thermokarst Formation and Wildfire on Boreal Forest Carbon Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J. P.; Estop-Aragones, C.; Thierry, A.; Hartley, I. P.; Murton, J.; Charman, D.; Williams, M.; Phoenix, G. K.

    2014-12-01

    At the global scale permafrost temperatures are increasing, leading to a thickening of the active layer and an increase in the amount of previously immobilised C exposed to microbial decay and subsequent release to the atmosphere. Against the backdrop of this overall trend, perturbations to permafrost systems caused by wildfires or thermokarst driven wetland formation can cause dramatic shifts in the C exchange of these ecosystems as a result of the changes in plant communities and soil thermal regimes they cause. These dynamic components of permafrost landscapes are often neglected in coupled climate-C models. However, a clear understanding of the impact of these perturbations on C cycling is crucial if we are to accurately predict future permafrost feedbacks to climate change. This is particularly pertinent given that the frequency of both forest fires and thermokarst formation is likely to increase with future climate warming. In order to assess the impact of these perturbations on C cycling we established paired burned and unburned spruce forest and paired peat plateau and thaw feature field sites near Whitehorse, YT and Yellowknife, NT within the boreal region of Canada. At each site tree photosynthetic biomass was quantified using DBH based allometric scaling equations. A combination of percentage cover surveys, biomass harvests, and leaf area determination were used to calculate understory and wetland photosynthetic biomass. Measurements of spruce and understory photosynthesis and plant and soil respiration were made using specialised acrylic chambers and an IRGA. Combining these data has allowed us to determine the impact of thermokarst formation and wildfire on C exchange with the atmosphere. This has allowed us to assess whether the dramatic increase in plant productivity between peat plateau and wetland habitats has the potential to offset thermokarst associated C losses. We have also gained an understanding of whether increases in light availability for

  20. The Future of Eurasian Boreal Forests: Ecological Modeling Projections in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, D.; Shugart, H.

    2008-12-01

    Ecological modeling is one of the primary methodologies for making predictions on future changes in forested ecosystems such as those occurring in Northern Eurasia and Siberia. In particular, combining ecological modeling with global circulation model simulation outputs is a method in which scientists can forecast the impact of climate change on biodiversity (Thuiller, 2007) as well as the forested landscape. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) have been designed for specifically this purpose, however, these vegetation models run at large spatial scales and as a result make predictions that are highly uncertain (Purves and Pacala, 2008). In previous papers, we discussed the FAREAST forest gap model and its ability to accurately predict boreal forest dynamics at smaller scales and higher resolution than DGVMs. This presentation investigates the use of the FAREAST gap model, modified for spatial expansion to cover the entire country of Russia, to predict future land cover trends under different warming scenarios. The poster provides the initial framework for the project, as well as some initial results. The collection of input variables needed by FAREAST to model the Russian continent will involve collaboration with the Russian Academy of Sciences (CEPF). Together we have developed a framework in which to amalgamate both original (temperature, precipitation, soil values) parameters as well as new parameters (fire probability, logging probability) into a GIS database that can be integrated with the FAREAST model. This framework will be capable of providing visual and graphical output for interpretation of large model runs. In order to ensure accuracy in FAREAST's ability to simulate the current environment, a run of the model under current-day conditions will be compared to recent remote sensing land cover maps. The GLC2000 land cover classification project (EU JRC) will be the primary validation method with additional validation through other biophysical

  1. Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs Workshop Two: Agricultural Landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted two workshops on Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs with Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories in 2014. The second workshop focused on agricultural landscapes and took place in Argonne, IL from June 24—26, 2014. The workshop brought together experts to discuss how landscape design can contribute to the deployment and assessment of sustainable bioenergy. This report summarizes the discussions that occurred at this particular workshop.

  2. The effects of boreal forest expansion on the summer Arctic frontal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liess, Stefan; Snyder, Peter K.; Harding, Keith J.

    2012-05-01

    Over the last 100 years, Arctic warming has resulted in a longer growing season in boreal and tundra ecosystems. This has contributed to a slow northward expansion of the boreal forest and a decrease in the surface albedo. Corresponding changes to the surface and atmospheric energy budgets have contributed to a broad region of warming over areas of boreal forest expansion. In addition, mesoscale and synoptic scale patterns have changed as a result of the excess energy at and near the surface. Previous studies have identified a relationship between the positioning of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and the Arctic frontal zone in summer. This study examines the climate response to hypothetical boreal forest expansion and its influence on the summer Arctic frontal zone. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting model over the Northern Hemisphere, an experiment was performed to evaluate the atmospheric response to expansion of evergreen and deciduous boreal needleleaf forests into open shrubland along the northern boundary of the existing forest. Results show that the lower surface albedo with forest expansion leads to a local increase in net radiation and an average hemispheric warming of 0.6°C at and near the surface during June with some locations warming by 1-2°C. This warming contributes to changes in the meridional temperature gradient that enhances the Arctic frontal zone and strengthens the summertime jet. This experiment suggests that continued Northern Hemisphere high-latitude warming and boreal forest expansion might contribute to additional climate changes during the summer.

  3. Toward Conservation of Canada's Boreal Forest Avifauna: Design and Application of Ecological Models at Continental Extents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven G. Cumming

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Human development is increasing pressure on North America's mainly intact boreal forest. We outline the need for a comprehensive synthesis of existing data and for effective scientific tools to support conservation of this biome and of the birds that depend on it. To illustrate how broad collaborations can address these needs, we introduce and report on the Boreal Avian Modelling Project. This is a new partnership involving universities, government, private, and nongovernment groups that was created to develop spatially explicit, predictive models of boreal bird habitat associations across Canada. This initiative is designed to improve our understanding of the influence of environmental factors and human activities on boreal bird species, leading to spatially explicit predictive models of the distribution of avian populations. The intended applications of these models are land use planning and avian conservation across the nearctic boreal forest. In this essay, we present a description of the extensive collection of point count survey data assembled by the Project, and the library of spatial covariates used for modeling. We show how it is possible to account for a number of nuisance variables related to differences in survey protocol among source data sets and make some preliminary suggestions as to how future surveys could be standardized. We present a distance-sampling approach used to convert standardized point count data to density estimates, which we illustrate by providing habitat-specific densities and total population estimates for one species in a part of western Canada. We also illustrate the use of Classification and Regression Trees to develop species niche models from the standardized data. We conclude with a discussion of the need for a monitoring program for boreal birds in Canada, the role of predictive statistical models in developing such a program, and how monitoring could be related to boreal bird conservation through

  4. Lake size and water-column stability affect the importance of methane for pelagic food webs of boreal lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankaala, Paula; Lopez-Bellido, Jessica; Ojala, Anne; Tulonen, Tiina; Jones, Roger I.

    2013-04-01

    Physical forcing, related to lake size and morphometry, plays an important role in the landscape-scale biogeochemical processing and fluxes of terrestrial carbon in lakes. Boreal lakes are typically dimictic, with mixing of the water column in spring and autumn, but in small, sheltered, humic, forest lakes the spring mixing is often incomplete. This leads to a steep summer stratification and oxygen depletion in the hypolimnion of the lakes. As a result of anaerobic decomposition of organic matter, high concentrations of CH4are typical in these lakes. At the oxic-anoxic interface zone methanotrophic microbes oxidize CH4 to CO2 and partly incorporate CH4-C into microbial biomass, and thus potentially provide a diet source for pelagic consumers. We studied production at the base of the pelagic food web by methane oxidising bacteria (MOB), heterotrophic bacteria (HB) and phytoplankton (PP) in five boreal lakes with a dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration varying between 7 and 25 mg C L-1 and an area ranging from 0.004 to 13.4 km2. High MOB activity was detected in the water columns of the three smallest lakes having anoxia in the hypolimnion during summer. The highest MOB activities (ca. 2-12 μmol L-1 d-1) were observed when the CH4:O2 ratio varied between ca. 0.5-12. Seasonally, the highest MOB activities were measured during late-summer mixed layer deepening and autumnal mixing of the whole water column. The proportion of MOB in the total basal production was highest in the two smallest lakes (24-56 and 13-36%), having the steepest summertime stratification. The proportion MOB in the basal production decreased with lake size being 70% of basal production was by PP. In all studied lakes HB contributed only 10-23% of the total basal production, suggesting that a transfer of allochthonous DOC via HB plays only a modest role for the nutrition of the higher trophic levels.

  5. Understanding patchy landscape dynamics: towards a landscape language.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Gaucherel

    Full Text Available Patchy landscapes driven by human decisions and/or natural forces are still a challenge to be understood and modelled. No attempt has been made up to now to describe them by a coherent framework and to formalize landscape changing rules. Overcoming this lacuna was our first objective here, and this was largely based on the notion of Rewriting Systems, also called Formal Grammars. We used complicated scenarios of agricultural dynamics to model landscapes and to write their corresponding driving rule equations. Our second objective was to illustrate the relevance of this landscape language concept for landscape modelling through various grassland managements, with the final aim to assess their respective impacts on biological conservation. For this purpose, we made the assumptions that a higher grassland appearance frequency and higher land cover connectivity are favourable to species conservation. Ecological results revealed that dairy and beef livestock production systems are more favourable to wild species than is hog farming, although in different ways. Methodological results allowed us to efficiently model and formalize these landscape dynamics. This study demonstrates the applicability of the Rewriting System framework to the modelling of agricultural landscapes and, hopefully, to other patchy landscapes. The newly defined grammar is able to explain changes that are neither necessarily local nor Markovian, and opens a way to analytical modelling of landscape dynamics.

  6. The role of landscape planning in European landscape convention implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Nevena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important recent policy initiative concerning quality and diversity, as well as natural and cultural landscape's values within all Europe is European Landscape Convention. The Convention was adopted by Council of Europe's Community of Ministers on 20th October 2000., in Firenze, Italy. The main goal of the Convention is protection, planning and management of the landscape as important part of the quality of life for people living everywhere: in urban areas and in countryside, in degraded areas as well as in the areas with high quality and those recognized as being of outstanding beauty. Serbia has singed Convention on 21 of September 2007. Diversity and quality, the cultural and natural values linked to European landscapes are part of Europe's common heritage, and it is important to co-operate towards its protection, management and planning According to explored international experiences, landscape plan, with its known methodology, is recognized as the most suitable tool in the most Countries which have already implemented European Landscape Convention. As to situation in Serbia, landscape planning is not treated in adequate or appropriate way within system of spatial planning. On the basis of the recent European experiences regarding The European Landscape Convention, the paper will underline the inevitability of landscape planning integration into the spatial planning system at the national, regional and city level, in Serbia.

  7. Landscape Change Detected Over A 60 Year Period In The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, Using High Resolution Aerial Photographs And Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, J. C.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Boldenow, M.; Orndahl, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    We documented landscape change over a 60 year period in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in northeastern Alaska using aerial photographs and satellite images. We used a stratified random sample to allow inference to the whole refuge (78,050 km2), with five random sites in each of seven ecoregions. Each site (2 km2) had a systematic grid of 100 points for a total of 3500 points. We chose study sites in the overlap area covered by acceptable imagery in three time periods: aerial photographs from 1947 - 1955 and 1978 - 1988, Quick Bird and IKONOS satellite images from 2000 - 2007.At each point a 10 meter radius circle was visually evaluated in ARC-MAP for each time period for vegetation type, disturbance, presence of ice wedge polygon microtopography and surface water. A landscape change category was assigned to each point based on differences detected between the three periods. Change types were assigned for time interval 1, interval 2 and overall. Additional explanatory variables included elevation, slope, aspect, geology, physiography and temperature. Overall, 23% of points changed over the study period. Fire was the most common change agent, affecting 28% of the Boreal Forest points. The next most common change was degradation of soil ice wedges (thermokarst), detected at 12% of the points on the North Slope Tundra. The other most common changes included increase in cover of trees or shrubs (7% of Boreal Forest and Brooks Range points) and erosion or deposition on river floodplains and at the Beaufort Sea coast. Changes on the North Slope Tundra tended to be related to landscape wetting, mainly thermokarst. Changes in the Boreal Forest tended to involve landscape drying, including fire, reduced area of lakes and tree increase on wet sites. The second time interval coincided with a shift towards a warmer climate and had greater change in several categories including thermokarst, lake changes and tree and shrub increase.

  8. Integrated landscape initiatives in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Martín, María; Bieling, Claudia; Hart, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    Landscapes are linked to human well-being in a multitude of ways, some of which are challenged by global market forces and traditional management approaches. In response to this situation there has been a rise in local initiatives to sustain the values of landscape. The aim of this paper...... is to provide a systematic analysis of the spectrum of these initiatives in Europe in terms of patterns of organisation, participants, resources, problems, and landscape values addressed. This review collects examples of integrated landscape initiatives from all over Europe through systematic internet key word...... searches and canvassing of European umbrella organisations; followed by an online survey of representatives from the identified initiatives (n??=??71). Our results show that the most relevant characteristics of integrated landscape initiatives in Europe are: a holistic approach to landscape management...

  9. Overwintering of the boreal butterfly Colias palaeno in central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrba, P; Dolek, M; Nedved, O; Zahradnickova, H; Cerrato, C; Konvicka, M

    2014-01-01

    Colias palaeno (Linnaeus, 1761) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) is a butterfly with boreal distribution with declining populations in peat bogs and subalpine habitats in Central Europe. We investigated the cold tolerance of overwintering caterpillars from one mountain population from Czech Republic (960m a.s.l.) and one alpine population from Italy (2000m a.s.l.). We measured supercooling point (SCP), lower lethal temperature (LLT) and content of cryoprotectants. The caterpillars were freeze-avoiding, with lower LLT close to their very low SCP (-25 to -27 degree C). The mountain population accumulated high concentrations of glycerol (5% fresh mass) and sugars (trehalose 0.8%, glucose 0.2%), while the Italian alpine population only moderate amounts of glycerol (0.3%) and sugars (trehalose 0.5%, glucose 0.3%) without effect on their cold hardiness. Larvae that overwintered at +5 degree C had a lower body mass than those overwintering in natural conditions, indicating a metabolic weight loss, but both groups survived equally well. We hypothesize that the high concentration of glycerol contributes to the high desiccation tolerance.

  10. Decomposition of recalcitrant carbon under experimental warming in boreal forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana L Romero-Olivares

    Full Text Available Over the long term, soil carbon (C storage is partly determined by decomposition rate of carbon that is slow to decompose (i.e., recalcitrant C. According to thermodynamic theory, decomposition rates of recalcitrant C might differ from those of non-recalcitrant C in their sensitivities to global warming. We decomposed leaf litter in a warming experiment in Alaskan boreal forest, and measured mass loss of recalcitrant C (lignin vs. non-recalcitrant C (cellulose, hemicellulose, and sugars throughout 16 months. We found that these C fractions responded differently to warming. Specifically, after one year of decomposition, the ratio of recalcitrant C to non-recalcitrant C remaining in litter declined in the warmed plots compared to control. Consistent with this pattern, potential activities of enzymes targeting recalcitrant C increased with warming, relative to those targeting non-recalcitrant C. Even so, mass loss of individual C fractions showed that non-recalcitrant C is preferentially decomposed under control conditions whereas recalcitrant C losses remain unchanged between control and warmed plots. Moreover, overall mass loss was greater under control conditions. Our results imply that direct warming effects, as well as indirect warming effects (e.g. drying, may serve to maintain decomposition rates of recalcitrant C compared to non-recalcitrant C despite negative effects on overall decomposition.

  11. Main controlling factors of low flow in boreal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriö, Leo-Juhani; Marttila, Hannu; Ala-aho, Pertti; Kløve, Bjørn

    2017-04-01

    With recent climate projections, snow resources may decline in boreal region due to increased air temperature and decreased snowfall/total precipitation ratio. These changes can be reflected in hydrology as increased discharge in winter and a time shift and decrease in maximum discharge due to snowmelt, consequently decreasing the groundwater recharge and early summer discharge. Here, we evaluate how low flow conditions in winter and summer are related to the climate and catchment characteristics using existing data from long (over 30 years) and spatially well represented time series of meteorology and hydrology monitored at 64 headwater catchments in Finland. Multiple statistical and classification methods are used to investigate the relationships between numerous catchment characteristics and streamflow indicators. Deep storage, storage sensitivity and climate elasticity are calculated to study the catchments sensitivity on changes in climate and vegetation. Our preliminary results indicate that climate, geographical location and topography dominate the spatiotemporal variability of low flow conditions during winter and summer. Snow fraction of total precipitation was strongly positively correlated with winter and summer low flows. Coastal areas were more prone to low flow conditions with also relation to climate elasticity. Peatland were indicated to maintain the winter and summer base flow with negative relation also with storage sensitivity while forests on peatlands were positively related only with winter base flow. The study provide a more refined understanding of climate change and spatial responses in snow accumulation and melt.

  12. Observations of ozone depletion events in a Finnish boreal forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the concentrations and vertical profiles of ozone over a 20-year period (1996–2016 at the SMEAR II station in southern Finland. Our results showed that the typical daily median ozone concentrations were in the range of 20–50 ppb with clear diurnal and annual patterns. In general, the profile of ozone concentrations illustrated an increase as a function of heights. The main aim of our study was to address the frequency and strength of ozone depletion events at this boreal forest site. We observed more than a thousand of 10 min periods at 4.2 m, with ozone concentrations below 10 ppb, and a few tens of cases with ozone concentrations below 2 ppb. Among these observations, a number of ozone depletion events that lasted for more than 3 h were identified, and they occurred mainly in autumn and winter months. The low ozone concentrations were likely related to the formation of a low mixing layer under the conditions of low temperatures, low wind speeds, high relative humidities and limited intensity of solar radiation.

  13. Decomposition of recalcitrant carbon under experimental warming in boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Olivares, Adriana L; Allison, Steven D; Treseder, Kathleen K

    2017-01-01

    Over the long term, soil carbon (C) storage is partly determined by decomposition rate of carbon that is slow to decompose (i.e., recalcitrant C). According to thermodynamic theory, decomposition rates of recalcitrant C might differ from those of non-recalcitrant C in their sensitivities to global warming. We decomposed leaf litter in a warming experiment in Alaskan boreal forest, and measured mass loss of recalcitrant C (lignin) vs. non-recalcitrant C (cellulose, hemicellulose, and sugars) throughout 16 months. We found that these C fractions responded differently to warming. Specifically, after one year of decomposition, the ratio of recalcitrant C to non-recalcitrant C remaining in litter declined in the warmed plots compared to control. Consistent with this pattern, potential activities of enzymes targeting recalcitrant C increased with warming, relative to those targeting non-recalcitrant C. Even so, mass loss of individual C fractions showed that non-recalcitrant C is preferentially decomposed under control conditions whereas recalcitrant C losses remain unchanged between control and warmed plots. Moreover, overall mass loss was greater under control conditions. Our results imply that direct warming effects, as well as indirect warming effects (e.g. drying), may serve to maintain decomposition rates of recalcitrant C compared to non-recalcitrant C despite negative effects on overall decomposition.

  14. Observations of ozone depletion events in a Finnish boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuemeng; Quéléver, Lauriane L. J.; Fung, Pak L.; Kesti, Jutta; Rissanen, Matti P.; Bäck, Jaana; Keronen, Petri; Junninen, Heikki; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Markku

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the concentrations and vertical profiles of ozone over a 20-year period (1996-2016) at the SMEAR II station in southern Finland. Our results showed that the typical daily median ozone concentrations were in the range of 20-50 ppb with clear diurnal and annual patterns. In general, the profile of ozone concentrations illustrated an increase as a function of heights. The main aim of our study was to address the frequency and strength of ozone depletion events at this boreal forest site. We observed more than a thousand of 10 min periods at 4.2 m, with ozone concentrations below 10 ppb, and a few tens of cases with ozone concentrations below 2 ppb. Among these observations, a number of ozone depletion events that lasted for more than 3 h were identified, and they occurred mainly in autumn and winter months. The low ozone concentrations were likely related to the formation of a low mixing layer under the conditions of low temperatures, low wind speeds, high relative humidities and limited intensity of solar radiation.

  15. Structuring Effects of Deer in Boreal Forest Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steeve D. Côté

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many deer populations have recently increased worldwide leading to strong direct and indirect ecological and socioeconomical impacts on the composition, dynamic, and functions of forest ecosystems. Deer directly modify the composition and structure of vegetation communities, but they also indirectly affect other species of the ecosystem by modifying the structure of the vegetation. Here we review the results of a research program on overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus in the boreal forest of Anticosti Island (Québec, Canada aimed at identifying deer densities compatible with forest regeneration. Various silvicultural systems and treatments failed to regenerate deer habitat at high deer densities, but planting size-adapted seedlings could be effective at moderate densities. Using a controlled deer density experiment, we found vegetation recovery at deer densities ≤ 15 deer/km2. The same experiment revealed that other groups of organisms such as insects and birds responded favorably to a reduction of deer density. We also found that alternative successional trajectories may occur after a certain period of heavy browsing during early succession. We conclude that one of the most important remaining research gaps is the need to identify habitat-specific threshold densities at which deer impacts occur and then to design effective wildlife and forest management strategies to limit deer impacts and sustain ecosystem integrity.

  16. Treefall inputs to boreal soils and implications for C dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manies, K.; Harden, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Stand replacing fires are the dominant disturbance of black spruce-dominated boreal forests. A previous study (Manies et al. 2005) determined that fire-killed wood is the source of between 10% and 60% of the carbon (C) found in the deeper, more recalcitrant soil layers of these ecosystems, although these inputs vary spatially and temporally. In that study, we assumed that the turnover time for standing dead to be converted to woody debris was approximately nine years. Over the last decade, however, woody debris inventories within two Alaskan study sites, both of which burned in 1999, indicate a longer turnover time than previously estimated. We have used these new constraints on course woody debris inputs to update the original model and calculated the impact slower fall rates could have on C storage within the deep soil C pool. These new values increase the amount of wood-derived C by up to 20%, which in turn increases deep C storage. Understanding the source of soil C is important for modeling efforts, especially those that need to partition different sources of C to determine rates of C cycling. These results also have implications for land managers who are beginning to consider C storage as a part of their management strategies.

  17. Salinity Effects on Iron Speciation in Boreal River Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Simon D; Persson, Per; Kritzberg, Emma S

    2017-09-05

    Previous studies report high and increasing iron (Fe) concentrations in boreal river mouths. This Fe has shown relatively high stability to salinity-induced aggregation in estuaries. The aim of this study was to understand how the speciation of Fe affects stability over salinity gradients. For Fe to remain in suspension interactions with organic matter (OM) are fundamental and these interactions can be divided in two dominant phases: organically complexed Fe, and colloidal Fe (oxy)hydroxides, stabilized by surface interactions with OM. The stability of these two Fe phases was tested using mixing experiments with river water and artificial seawater. Fe speciation of river waters and salinity-induced aggregates was determined by synchrotron-based extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The relative contribution of the two Fe phases varied widely across the sampled rivers. Moreover, we found selective removal of Fe (oxy)hydroxides by aggregation at increasing salinity, while organically complexed Fe was less affected. However, Fe-OM complexes were also found in the aggregates, illustrating that the control of Fe stability is not explained by the prevalence of the respective Fe phases alone. Factors such as colloid size and the chemical composition of the OM may also impact the behavior of Fe species.

  18. Methane exchange in a boreal forest estimated by gradient method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Sundqvist

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Forests are generally considered to be net sinks of atmospheric methane (CH4 because of oxidation by methanotrophic bacteria in well-aerated forests soils. However, emissions from wet forest soils, and sometimes canopy fluxes, are often neglected when quantifying the CH4 budget of a forest. We used a modified Bowen ratio method and combined eddy covariance and gradient methods to estimate net CH4 exchange at a boreal forest site in central Sweden. Results indicate that the site is a net source of CH4. This is in contrast to soil, branch and leaf chamber measurements of uptake of CH4. Wetter soils within the footprint of the canopy are thought to be responsible for the discrepancy. We found no evidence for canopy emissions per se. However, the diel pattern of the CH4 exchange with minimum emissions at daytime correlated well with gross primary production, which supports an uptake in the canopy. More distant source areas could also contribute to the diel pattern; their contribution might be greater at night during stable boundary layer conditions.

  19. Decomposition of recalcitrant carbon under experimental warming in boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Steven D.; Treseder, Kathleen K.

    2017-01-01

    Over the long term, soil carbon (C) storage is partly determined by decomposition rate of carbon that is slow to decompose (i.e., recalcitrant C). According to thermodynamic theory, decomposition rates of recalcitrant C might differ from those of non-recalcitrant C in their sensitivities to global warming. We decomposed leaf litter in a warming experiment in Alaskan boreal forest, and measured mass loss of recalcitrant C (lignin) vs. non-recalcitrant C (cellulose, hemicellulose, and sugars) throughout 16 months. We found that these C fractions responded differently to warming. Specifically, after one year of decomposition, the ratio of recalcitrant C to non-recalcitrant C remaining in litter declined in the warmed plots compared to control. Consistent with this pattern, potential activities of enzymes targeting recalcitrant C increased with warming, relative to those targeting non-recalcitrant C. Even so, mass loss of individual C fractions showed that non-recalcitrant C is preferentially decomposed under control conditions whereas recalcitrant C losses remain unchanged between control and warmed plots. Moreover, overall mass loss was greater under control conditions. Our results imply that direct warming effects, as well as indirect warming effects (e.g. drying), may serve to maintain decomposition rates of recalcitrant C compared to non-recalcitrant C despite negative effects on overall decomposition. PMID:28622366

  20. Aged anthropogenic iodine in a boreal peat bog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maillant, S. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, UMR 1120 INPL-INRA, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Andra, Direction Scientifique, Service Transferts, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Sheppard, M.I. [ECOMatters, P.O. Box 430, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada); Echevarria, G. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, UMR 1120 INPL-INRA, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)]. E-mail: Guillaume.Echevarria@ensaia.inpl-nancy.fr; Denys, S. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, UMR 1120 INPL-INRA, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Andra, Direction Scientifique, Service Transferts, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Villemin, G. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, UMR 1120 INPL-INRA, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Tekely, P. [Laboratoire de Methodologie RMN, FRE CNRS 2415, Universite Henri Poincare, Nancy 1, Faculte des Sciences, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Leclerc-Cessac, E. [Andra, Direction Scientifique, Service Transferts, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Morel, J.L. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, UMR 1120 INPL-INRA, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2007-05-15

    This in situ study assesses the long term sorption of I in a natural peat bog, a matter that is scarcely addressed but required for safety studies such as for radioactive waste disposal. Fifteen years after the artificial contamination of a boreal peat bog, the groundwater (piezometers), the peat and the vegetation were resampled to determine I distribution with comparison to the initial situation (1989). Spectroscopic analyses (SS-NMR, electronic microscopy and EDX spectroscopy) were carried out on the peat solids to identify the sorption processes. Over the past 15 a the I has been spreading mostly outwards and possibly upwards in the groundwater. Sorption of I is higher at the surface of the bog (K {sub d} = 37.6 L kg{sup -1}) than at the bottom (K {sub d} = 5.1 L kg{sup -1}), and this is attributed to the oxic/anoxic conditions of the peat layers. The average surface K {sub d} values showed more than a 2-fold increase after 15 a. TEM-EDX analyses of the surface peat showed here for the first time that I was only associated with natural polyphenolic substances contained in humified plant tissues. Plants growing in the bog have not taken up much I with the exception of sedge species ([I]{sub sedgeleaves} is up to 283 mg kg{sup -1})

  1. Landscape Architecture in Contemporary Danish Suburban Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roden, Tina Maria

    2013-01-01

    it became a theory, landscape urbanism has been common practice in European design projects. This implies that the urban challenges have been in the centre of landscape thought and practice for so long that Danish landscape architecture already includes urbanism. In order to recover momentum in Danish urban...... design, it is argued that the current discourse of landscape urbanism needs to define itself more clearly in relation to the Danish landscape architecture tradition and more actively consider amenity and aesthetics. Via the discourse of landscape urbanism, landscape architecture in Danish suburban...... the indeterminacy of the future. KEYWORDS: Suburban development, landscape urbanism, landscape architecture, sustainability...

  2. GIS-based landscape design research : Stourhead landscape garden as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.

    2015-01-01

    Landscape design research is important for cultivating spatial intelligence in landscape architecture. This study explores GIS (geographic information systems) as a tool for landscape design research – investigating landscape designs to understand them as architectonic compositions and to acquire

  3. Growing season CH4 and N2O fluxes from a subarctic landscape in northern Finland; from chamber to landscape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmore, Kerry J.; Drewer, Julia; Levy, Peter E.; George, Charles; Lohila, Annalea; Aurela, Mika; Skiba, Ute M.

    2017-02-01

    Subarctic and boreal emissions of CH4 are important contributors to the atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) balance and subsequently the global radiative forcing. Whilst N2O emissions may be lower, the much greater radiative forcing they produce justifies their inclusion in GHG studies. In addition to the quantification of flux magnitude, it is essential that we understand the drivers of emissions to be able to accurately predict climate-driven changes and potential feedback mechanisms. Hence this study aims to increase our understanding of what drives fluxes of CH4 and N2O in a subarctic forest/wetland landscape during peak summer conditions and into the shoulder season, exploring both spatial and temporal variability, and uses satellite-derived spectral data to extrapolate from chamber-scale fluxes to a 2 km × 2 km landscape area.From static chamber measurements made during summer and autumn campaigns in 2012 in the Sodankylä region of northern Finland, we concluded that wetlands represent a significant source of CH4 (3.35 ± 0.44 mg C m-2 h-1 during the summer campaign and 0.62 ± 0.09 mg C m-2 h-1 during the autumn campaign), whilst the surrounding forests represent a small sink (-0.06 ± weighted by forest/wetland proportion (0.99 ± 0.16, 0.93 ± 0.12 mg C m-2 h-1, respectively). Hence we conclude that ignoring the detailed spatial variability in CH4 emissions within a landscape leads to a potentially significant underestimation of landscape-scale fluxes. Given the small magnitude of measured N2O fluxes a similar level of detailed upscaling was not needed; we conclude that N2O fluxes do not currently comprise an important component of the landscape-scale GHG budget at this site.

  4. Soil conservation service landscape resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally Schauman; Carolyn Adams

    1979-01-01

    SCS Landscape Resource Management (LRM) is the application of landscape architecture to SCS conservation activities. LRM includes but is not limited to visual resource management. LRM can be summarized in three principles: (1) SCS landscape architecture considers the landscape as a composite of ecological, social and visual resources; (2) SCS landscapes exist in the...

  5. Energy landscape Allgaeu; Energielandschaft Allgaeu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-01

    In tandems with questions on the energy policy turnaround, the topics cultural landscape history, morphology, actual land use, tourism, settlement development or infrastructure are summarized in regional concepts and designs to a consistent landscape. Thus, a true integration of renewable energies in the landscape enhances existing or creates completely new landscape qualities. Energy supply shall be understood as a component of the every day life world. The energy supply shall not be hidden any more, but it rather should be communicated as the brand 'Allgaeu'.

  6. Marc Treib: Representing Landscape Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2008-01-01

    The editor of Representing Landscape Architecture, Marc Treib, argues that there is good reason to evaluate the standard practices of representation that landscape architects have been using for so long. In the rush to the promised land of computer design these practices are now in danger of being...... left by the wayside. The 14 often both fitting and well crafted contributions of this publication offer an approach to how landscape architecture has been and is currently represented; in the design study, in presentation, in criticism, and in the creation of landscape architecture....

  7. A Passive Microwave L-Band Boreal Forest Freeze/Thaw and Vegetation Phenology Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A.; Sonnentag, O.; Pappas, C.; Mavrovic, A.; Royer, A.; Berg, A. A.; Rowlandson, T. L.; Lemay, J.; Helgason, W.; Barr, A.; Black, T. A.; Derksen, C.; Toose, P.

    2016-12-01

    The boreal forest is the second largest land biome in the world and thus plays a major role in the global and regional climate systems. The extent, timing and duration of seasonal freeze/thaw (F/T) state influences vegetation developmental stages (phenology) and, consequently, constitute an important control on how boreal forest ecosystems exchange carbon, water and energy with the atmosphere. The effective retrieval of seasonal F/T state from L-Band radiometry was demonstrated using satellite mission. However, disentangling the seasonally differing contributions from forest overstory and understory vegetation, and the soil surface to the satellite signal remains challenging. Here we present initial results from a radiometer field campaign to improve our understanding of the L-Band derived boreal forest F/T signal and vegetation phenology. Two L-Band surface-based radiometers (SBR) are installed on a micrometeorological tower at the Southern Old Black Spruce site in central Saskatchewan over the 2016-2017 F/T season. One radiometer unit is installed on the flux tower so it views forest including all overstory and understory vegetation and the moss-covered ground surface. A second radiometer unit is installed within the boreal forest overstory, viewing the understory and the ground surface. The objectives of our study are (i) to disentangle the L-Band F/T signal contribution of boreal forest overstory from the understory and ground surface, (ii) to link the L-Band F/T signal to related boreal forest structural and functional characteristics, and (iii) to investigate the use of the L-Band signal to characterize boreal forest carbon, water and energy fluxes. The SBR observations above and within the forest canopy are used to retrieve the transmissivity (γ) and the scattering albedo (ω), two parameters that describe the emission of the forest canopy though the F/T season. These two forest parameters are compared with boreal forest structural and functional

  8. Traditional use of medicinal plants in the boreal forest of Canada: review and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uprety Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The boreal forest of Canada is home to several hundred thousands Aboriginal people who have been using medicinal plants in traditional health care systems for thousands of years. This knowledge, transmitted by oral tradition from generation to generation, has been eroding in recent decades due to rapid cultural change. Until now, published reviews about traditional uses of medicinal plants in boreal Canada have focused either on particular Aboriginal groups or on restricted regions. Here, we present a review of traditional uses of medicinal plants by the Aboriginal people of the entire Canadian boreal forest in order to provide comprehensive documentation, identify research gaps, and suggest perspectives for future research. Methods A review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, theses and reports. Results A total of 546 medicinal plant taxa used by the Aboriginal people of the Canadian boreal forest were reported in the reviewed literature. These plants were used to treat 28 disease and disorder categories, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by musculoskeletal disorders. Herbs were the primary source of medicinal plants, followed by shrubs. The medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the western Canadian boreal forest has been given considerably less attention by researchers. Canada is lacking comprehensive policy on harvesting, conservation and use of medicinal plants. This could be explained by the illusion of an infinite boreal forest, or by the fact that many boreal medicinal plant species are widely distributed. Conclusion To our knowledge, this review is the most comprehensive to date to reveal the rich traditional medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the Canadian boreal forest. Future ethnobotanical research endeavours should focus on documenting the knowledge held by Aboriginal groups that have so far received less attention

  9. Barriers to Business Model Innovation in Swedish Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Sivertsson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Swedish agricultural companies, especially small farms, are struggling to be profitable in difficult economic times. It is a challenge for Swedish farmers to compete with imported products on prices. The agricultural industry, however, supports the view that through business model innovation, farms can increase their competitive advantage. This paper identifies and describes some of the barriers Swedish small farms encounter when they consider business model innovation. A qualitative approach is used in the study. Agriculture business consultants were interviewed. In a focus group led by the researchers, farmers discussed business model innovation, including the exogenous and endogenous barriers to such innovation. The paper concludes many barriers exist when farmers consider innovation of agricultural business models. Some barriers are caused by human factors, such as individuals’ attitudes, histories, and traditions. Other barriers are more contextual in nature and relate to a particular industry or company setting. Still other barriers, such as government regulations, value chain position, and weather, are more abstract. All barriers, however, merit attention when Swedish agricultural companies develop new business models.

  10. galenicals in modern medicine: focus on swedish bitters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Galenicals were very popular in clinical medicine till late 1960s at which time the pharmaceutical industry revolutionized drug research and production. Almost four decades later, old but useful galenicals such as SWEDISH BITTERS® have been rediscovered and registered in conformity with Food and Drug Administration ...

  11. The communicative and critical health literacy scale--Swedish version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wångdahl, Josefin M; Mårtensson, Lena I

    2014-02-01

    Health literacy (HL) is an important determinant for health and a valuable health indicator within public health. As such, it is a significant outcome variable of health promotion efforts. Valid and reliable instruments are needed to evaluate health promotion interventions and to assess levels of HL in a population. One of the few measurements of communicative and critical HL is the Japanese Communicative and Critical Health Literacy scale (C & C HL scale). To make it possible to use this instrument in Sweden, the C & C HL scale was translated into Swedish and different aspects of validity, including test-retest reliability, of the translated version were tested. After translation and back-translation, The Swedish C & C HL scale was tested for content validity and test-retest reliability. Data were collected from a committee consisting of public health experts and bilingual people, and from a test group of 35 persons. The Swedish C & C HL scale was understandable and showed evidence of content validity. The test-retest confirmed that it was stable over time, percentage agreements for the items ranging from 66% to 89% (M = 74%). The Swedish C & C HL scale is equivalent to the Japanese C & C HL scale in terms of language and content. The items cover the major aspects of communicative and critical HL and are understandable and stable over time, i.e., reliable.

  12. Politics, pleasure, violence: Swedish defence propaganda in social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferrada Stoehrel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Swedish Armed Forces have produced and distributed highly edited video clips on YouTube that show moving images of military activity. Alongside this development, mobile phone apps have emerged as an important channel through which the user can experience and take an interactive part in the staging of contemporary armed conflict. This article examines the way in which the aesthetic and affective experience of Swedish defence and security policy is socially and (media-culturally (co-constructed and how the official representation of Swedish military intervention (reproduces political and economic effects when these activities are distributed through traditional and social media such as YouTube and digital apps. Based on Isabela and Norman Fairclough’s thoughts on political discourse, Michel Foucault’s dialectic idea of power/knowledge, and Sara Ahmed’s concept of the affective, I discuss how the Swedish digital military aesthetic is part of a broader political and economic practice which has consequences beyond the digital, the semiotic and what might at first glance appear to be pure entertainment. 

  13. Politics, pleasure, violence: Swedish defence propaganda in social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferrada Stoehrel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Swedish Armed Forces have produced and distributed highly edited video clips on YouTube that show moving images of military activity. Along- side this development, mobile phone apps have emerged as an important channel through which the user can experience and take an interactive part in the staging of contemporary armed conflict. This article examines the way in which the aes- thetic and affective experience of Swedish defence and security policy is socially and (media-culturally (co-constructed and how the official representation of Swedish military intervention (reproduces political and economic effects when these activi- ties are distributed through traditional and social media such as YouTube and digital apps. Based on Isabela and Norman Fairclough’s thoughts on political discourse, Michel Foucault’s dialectic idea of power/knowledge, and Sara Ahmed’s concept of the affective, I discuss how the Swedish digital military aesthetic is part of a broader political and economic practice that has consequences beyond the digital, the semi- otic, and what might at first glance appear to be pure entertainment.

  14. LANDSAT language at our reach. First Swedish satellite. Civilization detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, D. L.; Bravo, V.

    1981-01-01

    Information on the use of LANDSAT data by Argentina is presented. Details on a Swedish satellite to be completed in 1984 and to be called VIKING are reported. Attempts to contact other civilizations in space by the use of radiotelescopes are discussed.

  15. Breaking bad habits by education - smoking dynamics among Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellsson, Gustav; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus

    2011-07-01

    In a dynamic Two-Part Model (2 PM), we find the effect of previous smoking on the participation decision to be decreasing with education among Swedish women, i.e. more educated are less state dependent. However, we do not find an analogous effect of education on the conditional intensity of consumption. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Swedish Lower Secondary School Teachers' Perceptions and Experiences Regarding Homework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Limin; Kristoffersson, Margaretha

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates homework in Swedish lower secondary schools: teachers' perceptions and experiences about it and their understanding of its potentials and challenges for students' learning and development. Data collected through an online survey (N = 201) mixed standardized questions and open questions. Descriptive statistics and…

  17. Syllable reduction and articulation rates in Danish, Norwegian and Swedish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilton, N.H.; Schüppert, Anja; Gooskens, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation compares articulation rates of phonological and phonetic syllables in Norwegian, Swedish and Danish to investigate differences in degrees of syllable deletion (reduction) among these three languages. For the investigation two sets of data are used: one consisting of recorded

  18. A Swedish Mutual Support Society of Problem Gamblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binde, Per

    2012-01-01

    Mutual support societies for problem gamblers have existed in Sweden for 20 years. They have helped more people with gambling problems than any other institution inside or outside the Swedish health care system. This paper outlines the background of these societies and describes the meetings of one of them. Data come from interviews with members…

  19. Effective Mathematics Teaching in Finnish and Swedish Teacher Education Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmi, Kirsti; Ryve, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article explores effective mathematics teaching as constructed in Finnish and Swedish teacher educators' discourses. Based on interview data from teacher educators as well as data from feedback discussions between teacher educators and prospective teachers in Sweden and Finland, the analysis shows that several aspects of the recent…

  20. The perception of aquaculture on the Swedish West Coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste E.; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Risén, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Efforts are on the way on the Swedish West Coast to develop the capacity for cultivation of marine resources, notably of kelps. Given that this is a region of great natural and national heritage, public opposition to marine developments has been identified as a possible risk factor. This survey...

  1. Self-medication with antibiotics in a Swedish general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, E; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM; Lundborg, CS

    To assess the extent of antibiotic self-medication in a Swedish population, a postal questionnaire was distributed to 1000 randomly selected subjects. The antibiotics used were in all but 3 cases reported to have been obtained with a prescription. Thus, prescribers are the primary target for

  2. A Perspective on Diversity, Equality and Equity in Swedish Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Olof; Davis, Anna; Geijer, Luule

    2007-01-01

    This study presents policy and theory as they apply to diversity, equality and equity in Swedish social and educational policy. All education in Sweden should, according to the curriculum (Lpo 94, 1994, p. 5) be of equivalent value, irrespective of where in the country it is provided and education should be adapted to each pupil's circumstances…

  3. Focal F0 peak shape and sentence mode in Swedish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert; Buanzur, Tuarik C.; Niebuhr, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Shape characteristics of rising-falling accentual F0 peaks of Stockholm Swedish Accent I words in narrow focus are studied in a corpus of 287 read sentences. The corpus includes statements and three types of polar questions. Results reveal a clear effect of sentence mode on the shape of the accen...

  4. Understandings of Climate Change Articulated by Swedish Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmqvist Olander, Mona; Olander, Clas

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated beliefs about climate change among Swedish secondary school students at the end of their K-12 education. An embedded mixed method approach was used to analyse 51 secondary school students' written responses to two questions: (1) What implies climate change? (2) What affects climate? A quantitative analysis of the responses…

  5. Swedish Schools and Gender Equality in the 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, as in many countries before Sweden, boys' academic achievements are getting considerable attention as the big gender issue. The Swedish gender equality policy that was put on the agenda in the 1970s is now associated with extreme discussions. This study aims to explore how gender equality was discussed in the 1970s, in connection with…

  6. The civic integrationist turn in Danish and Swedish school politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, Christian; Jensen, Kristian Kriegbaum

    2017-01-01

    , yet with different styles and content. Citizenship education in Denmark concentrates on reproducing a historically derived core of cultural values and knowledge to which minorities are expected to assimilate, while the Swedish model subscribes to a pluralist view that stresses mutual adaptation...

  7. Implementing Test Enhanced Learning: Swedish Teacher Students' Perception of Quizzing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyroos, Mikaela; Schéle, Ingrid; Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola

    2016-01-01

    Given previous findings on test enhanced learning, the present study examined the implementation of this practice in terms of quizzing, during the progress of a course. After completing the university course, 88 Swedish teacher students were asked to answer an adapted Retrieval Practice and Test Anxiety Survey. The results showed that students…

  8. Swedish Preschool Leadership--Supportive of Music or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This study uses observations and interviews to investigate how the leadership at three Swedish preschools in Sweden has impacted the didactic choices made. Two of these preschools use music as a tool for stimulating language and social development, while the third preschool serves as a comparison. The inspiration that the leadership has brought to…

  9. Patterns of Authority in Swedish Higher Education and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andren, Carl-Gustaf

    1983-01-01

    The current structure of governance and decision making in Swedish higher education and the effects of recent national reform on perceived and actual autonomy at the central, regional, and local levels are discussed. An initial desire for more decentralized decision making has turned to increasing demand for more guidance by central organizations.…

  10. Stonehenge and its Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    In the 1960s and 1970s, Stonehenge polarized academic opinion between those (mainly astronomers) who claimed it demonstrated great astronomical sophistication and those (mainly archaeologists) who denied it had anything to do with astronomy apart from the solstitial alignment of its main axis. Now, several decades later, links to the annual passage of the sun are generally recognized as an essential part of the function and meaning not only of Stonehenge but also of several other nearby monuments, giving us important insights into beliefs and actions relating to the seasonal cycle by the prehistoric communities who populated this chalkland landscape in the third millennium BC Links to the moon remain more debatable.

  11. Vertical and seasonal dynamics of fungal communities in boreal Scots pine forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santalahti, Minna; Sun, Hui; Jumpponen, Ari; Pennanen, Taina; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2016-11-01

    Fungal communities are important for carbon (C) transformations in boreal forests that are one of the largest C pools in terrestrial ecosystems, warranting thus further investigation of fungal community dynamics in time and space. We investigated fungal diversity and community composition seasonally and across defined soil horizons in boreal Scots pine forest in Finland using 454 pyrosequencing. We collected a total of 120 samples from five vertical soil horizons monthly from March to October; in March, under snow. Boreal forest soil generally harbored diverse fungal communities across soil horizons. The communities shifted drastically and rapidly over time. In late winter, saprotrophs dominated the community and were replaced by ectomycorrhizal fungi during the growing season. Our studies are among the first to dissect the spatial and temporal dynamics in boreal forest ecosystems and highlights the ecological importance of vertically distinct communities and their rapid seasonal dynamics. As climate change is predicted to result in warmer and longer snow-free winter seasons, as well as increase the rooting depth of trees in boreal forest, the seasonal and vertical distribution of fungal communities may change. These changes are likely to affect the organic matter decomposition by the soil-inhabiting fungi and thus alter organic C pools. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Territorio mediático-educativo en Suecia Media education landscape in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Bergman

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Conocer el «territorio mediático educativo» en Suecia, a partir de la perspectiva presentada por la catedrática y pedagoga Birgitta Qvarsell, es el objetivo de este trabajo, que reflexiona sobre la ciencia pedagógica de los medios, «media educology». Basado en el contexto sueco, nos ofrece un análisis global relacionando el impacto y desarrollo de la técnica con los medios de comunicación, reseñando sus influencias en la pedagogía y la educación, contando para ello con todos los actores de este impacto mediático. El trabajo recoge también datos de un reciente informe del Consejo de Medios del Departamento de Cultura sueco, titulado «Los jóvenes y los medios». In this paper we describe the Swedish media education landscape and Brigitta Qvarsell‘s perspective on the influence of technological development in media education in Swedish context. Results of data collection about the media consumption by children and young Swedish people are also included. The conclusion remarks the need for a new area with ethnographic and semiotic basis: media educology.

  13. The changing effects of Alaska’s boreal forests on the climate system

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    Euskirchen, E.S.; McGuire, A. David; Chapin, F.S.; Rupp, T.S.

    2010-01-01

    In the boreal forests of Alaska, recent changes in climate have influenced the exchange of trace gases, water, and energy between these forests and the atmosphere. These changes in the structure and function of boreal forests can then feed back to impact regional and global climates. In this manuscript, we examine the type and magnitude of the climate feedbacks from boreal forests in Alaska. Research generally suggests that the net effect of a warming climate is a positive regional feedback to warming. Currently, the primary positive climate feedbacks are likely related to decreases in surface albedo due to decreases in snow cover. Fewer negative feedbacks have been identified, and they may not be large enough to counterbalance the large positive feedbacks. These positive feedbacks are most pronounced at the regional scale and reduce the resilience of the boreal vegetation – climate system by amplifying the rate of regional warming. Given the recent warming in this region, the large variety of associated mechanisms that can alter terrestrial ecosystems and influence the climate system, and a reduction in the boreal forest resilience, there is a strong need to continue to quantify and evaluate the feedback pathways.

  14. Remote impact of North Atlantic sea surface temperature on rainfall in southwestern China during boreal spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Chen, Jiepeng; Wang, Xin; Luo, Xia; Yang, Daoyong; Zhou, Wen; Tan, Yanke; Yan, Hongming

    2018-01-01

    As an important oceanic signal, the North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) affects not only the climate variability over East China and Northeast China but also can affect climate variability over southwestern China (SWC). Based on station rainfall data and reanalysis datasets, the present study investigates the relationship of North Atlantic SST with SWC rainfall during boreal spring for the period 1979-2016. The results show that there is a significant positive correlation between North Atlantic SST and SWC rainfall during boreal spring. The atmospheric circulation over southern Asia associated with North Atlantic SST is favorable for positive rainfall anomalies. Further analyses show that North Atlantic SST can induce a North Atlantic-western Russia-western Tibetan Plateau-SWC (NRTC) teleconnection wave train from upper level to low level. At low level, two anomalous anticyclones are found over the mid-high latitude of North Atlantic and the western Tibetan Plateau, and two anomalous cyclones are observed over the western Russia and Bay of Bengal (BOB), respectively. The NRTC teleconnection wave train plays a bridging role between the North Atlantic SST and SWC rainfall during boreal spring. Both the observational analysis and two numerical experiments suggest that the North Atlantic SST during boreal spring can induce an anomalous cyclone over BOB by the NRTC teleconnection pattern. The anomalous cyclone over BOB favors moisture transport to SWC, accompanying with significant anomalous ascending motion, and thus results in positive rainfall anomalies in SWC during boreal spring.

  15. Long-term boreal forest dynamics and disturbances: a multi-proxy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivrins, Normunds; Aakala, Tuomas; Kuuluvainen, Timo; Pasanen, Leena; Ilvonen, Liisa; Holmström, Lasse; Seppä, Heikki

    2017-04-01

    The boreal forest provides a variety of ecosystem services that are threatened under the ongoing climate warming. Along with the climate, there are several factors (fire, human-impact, pathogens), which influence boreal forest dynamics. Combination of short and long-term studies allowing complex assessment of forest response to natural abiotic and biotic stress factors is necessary for sustainable management of the boreal forest now and in the future. The ongoing EBOR (Ecological history and long-term dynamics of the boreal forest ecosystem) project integrates forest ecological and palaeoecological approaches to study boreal forest dynamics and disturbances. Using pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, micro- and macrocharcoal, tree rings and fire scars, we analysed forest dynamics at stand-scale by sampling small forest hollows (small paludified depressions) and the surrounding forest stands in Finland and western Russia. Using charcoal data, we estimated a fire return interval of 320 years for the Russian sites, and, based on the fungi Neurospora that can grow on charred tree bark after a low-intensity fire, we were able to distinguish low- and high-intensity fire-events. In addition to the influence of fire events and/or fire regime changes, we further assessed potential relationships between tree species and herbivore presence and pathogens. As an example of such a relationship, our preliminary findings indicated a negative relationship between Picea and fungi Lasiosphaeria (caudata), which occurred during times of Picea decline.

  16. Biogeography of boreal passerine range dynamics in western North America: past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stralberg, Diana; Matsuoka, Steven; Handel, Colleen M.; Schmiegelow, Fiona K.A.; Hamann, Andreas; Bayne, Erin M.

    2017-01-01

    Many of the Neotropical migrant bird species that breed throughout the Canadian boreal region are not found in the Alaskan boreal region, separated by the northwestern cordilleran mountains, despite the presence of climatically suitable habitat. We asked whether biological or climatic factors constrain certain species from crossing this geographic barrier. Analyzing a comprehensive dataset for 80 boreal passerine species, we used phylogenetic logistic regression to evaluate the relative importance of physical, migratory and competition metrics versus current and paleoclimatic suitability factors. Controlling for current climatic suitability within boreal Alaska, we found that species with the greatest climatic suitability across the northwestern cordillera, presently and also during the mid-Holocene period, were most likely to be regular breeders in the Alaskan boreal region. Migratory strategy also played a role, but could not be disentangled from its strong phylogenetic basis. Our analysis suggests that the perceived barrier of the northwestern cordillera may be easily weakened as climate change improves conditions there for many forest species. The weakening of this barrier may lead to relatively rapid range expansions and the reshuffling of species communities. Species’ realized distributional shifts will be a function of the interplay between a changing climate and static topographic features.

  17. One Century of Treeline Change and Stability - Experiences from the Swedish Scandes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Kullman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper elaborates and visualizes processes recorded in a recent regional and multi-site study of elevational treeline dynamics during the period 1915 to 2007 in the Swedish Scandes. The purpose is to give a concrete face of the landscape transformation which is associated with the recorded treeline shifts. The main focus is on stand-level structure of past and present treelines and the advance zones, where climate change elicited responses by Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii, Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris. All species shifted their treelines upslope by a maximum of c. 200 m in elevation. Most sites, however, manifested changes of smaller magnitudes. This relates to topoclimatic constraints which decouple treeline performance from the macroclimate. The general character of sites which support large and small treeline shifts, respectively, are outlined. The spacing, age structure, growth rates of the tree advance zones are accounted for each of the concerned species. In temporal and spatial detail, the different tree species responded individualistically according to their specific ecologies. Current spread of young seedlings and saplings to increasingly higher elevations in the alpine tundra is particularly highlighted as it may represent the forefront of future treeline advance. It is argued that the current evolution of the treeline ecotone represents a fundamental, although not necessarily entirely unique, reversal of the long-term (Holocene trend of neoglacial treeline descent.

  18. Identifying the threshold of dominant controls on fire spread in a boreal forest landscape of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihua; Yang, Jian; He, Hong S

    2013-01-01

    The relative importance of fuel, topography, and weather on fire spread varies at different spatial scales, but how the relative importance of these controls respond to changing spatial scales is poorly understood. We designed a "moving window" resampling technique that allowed us to quantify the relative importance of controls on fire spread at continuous spatial scales using boosted regression trees methods. This quantification allowed us to identify the threshold value for fire size at which the dominant control switches from fuel at small sizes to weather at large sizes. Topography had a fluctuating effect on fire spread across the spatial scales, explaining 20-30% of relative importance. With increasing fire size, the dominant control switched from bottom-up controls (fuel and topography) to top-down controls (weather). Our analysis suggested that there is a threshold for fire size, above which fires are driven primarily by weather and more likely lead to larger fire size. We suggest that this threshold, which may be ecosystem-specific, can be identified using our "moving window" resampling technique. Although the threshold derived from this analytical method may rely heavily on the sampling technique, our study introduced an easily implemented approach to identify scale thresholds in wildfire regimes.

  19. An Online Landscape Object Library to Support Interactive Landscape Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Chan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Using landscape objects with geo-visualisation tools to create 3D virtual environments is becoming one of the most prominent communication techniques to understand landscape form, function and processes. Geo-visualisation tools can also provide useful participatory planning support systems to explore current and future environmental issues such as biodiversity loss, crop failure, competing pressures on water availability and land degradation. These issues can be addressed by understanding them in the context of their locality. In this paper we discuss some of the technologies which facilitate our work on the issues of sustainability and productivity, and ultimately support for planning and decision-making. We demonstrate an online Landscape Object Library application with a suite of geo-visualisation tools to support landscape planning. This suite includes: a GIS based Landscape Constructor tool, a modified version of a 3D game engine SIEVE (Spatial Information Exploration and Visualisation Environment and an interactive touch table display. By integrating the Landscape Object Library with this suite of geo-visualisation tools, we believe we developed a tool that can support a diversity of landscape planning activities. This is illustrated by trial case studies in biolink design, whole farm planning and renewable energy planning. We conclude the paper with an evaluation of our Landscape Object Library and the suite of geographical tools, and outline some further research directions.

  20. Editorial: Mapping the Intellectual Landscape of Landscape and Urban Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster; Wei-Ning. Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Maps are central to our understanding of landscapes. When this Editorship began to revise the journal's Aims and Scope for presentation in a forthcoming editorial, we sought ways in which we could identify the core knowledge base and boundaries, however permeable, of what the journal community considers to be Landscape and Urban Planning (LAND). Strategically, we...