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Sample records for swedish baltic coast

  1. Seal dynamics on the Swedish west coast: Scenarios of competition as Baltic grey seal intrude on harbour seal territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Carl Johan

    2012-07-01

    The Kattegat-Skagerrak region on the Swedish west coast is home to an abundant harbour seal population (Phoca vitulina) and a small scattered grey seal population (Halichoerus grypus). In addition, grey seal from the growing population in the Baltic Sea frequently migrate into the Kattegat-Skagerrak. Harbour seals on the west coast of Sweden show relatively high population growth (approximately 9%) compared to the Baltic grey seal in ice-free habitats (approximately 6%), which, in theory, makes harbour seal the stronger competitor of the two in this region. However, incidents of disease in harbour seals that lower population growth are becoming more frequent. These epidemics are primarily caused by the Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV), and may reduce population size with up to 70%. This study models the average development under potential scenarios of competing harbour- and Baltic grey seal populations using Leslie matrices and the Lotka-Volterra model of inter-specific competition. The model is parameterised with previously published data, and resource overlap is incorporated through density dependent pup survival. Using numerical methods short- and long-term abundances are simulated under weak, moderate and strong competition and for different frequencies of PDV epidemics. Results show that the harbour seals are resilient to competition while exerting a negative effect on grey seal abundance under moderate to strong competition. Hence Baltic grey seal benefit from weaker levels of competition. Under moderate and strong competition grey seal abundance is a direct function of the PDV frequency as this reduces the competitive strength of harbour seals. Theoretically this means that higher frequencies of PDV or other pathogens epidemics could facilitate an expansion of Baltic grey seal into Kattegat-Skagerrak. Independent of interaction strength and frequency of epidemics the projected changes to abundances are slow (50-100 years), and even in exceedingly stable

  2. Plant and animal communities along the Swedish Baltic Sea coast - the building of a database of quantitative data collected by SCUBA divers, its use and some GIS applications in the Graesoe area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandman, Antonia; Kautsky, Hans [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology

    2004-06-01

    The aim of the project was to compile a single database with quantitative data collected by SCUBA divers from the whole Swedish Baltic Sea coast. Data of plant and animal biomass, together with position, depth and type of substrate from 19 areas along the Swedish coast from the county of Blekinge to Kalix in the Bothnian Bay were compiled in a single database. In all, the database contains 2,170 records (samples) from 179 different stations where in total 161 plant and 145 animal species have been found. The data were then illustrated by the geographical distribution of plant and animal biomass and by constructing a model to estimate future changes of the plant and animal communities in the Graesoe area in the Aaland Sea applying GIS-techniques. To illustrate the opportunities of the database the change of the composition of benthic plant and animal biomass with salinity was calculated. The proportion of marine species increased with increasing salinity and the benthic biomass was at its highest in the southern Baltic proper. Quantitative data from Grepen and the Graesoe-Singoe area were used to calculate present biomass in the Graesoe area. A scenario of the change in biomass distribution and total biomass caused by shore displacement was created using data from Raaneaa and Kalix in the Bothnian Bay. To map the biomass distribution the material was divided into different depth intervals. The change of biomass with time was calculated as a function of salinity change and reduction of the available area, caused by shore displacement. The total biomass for all plants and animals in the investigated area was 50,500 tonnes at present. In 2,000 years the total biomass will be 25,000 tonnes and in 4,000 years 3,600 tonnes due to shore displacement causing a decrease in both salinity and available substrate.To make an estimate of the species distribution and a rough estimate of their biomass in an unknown geographic area, the type of substrate, the depth and the wave

  3. Plant and animal communities along the Swedish Baltic Sea coast - the building of a database of quantitative data collected by SCUBA divers, its use and some GIS applications in the Graesoe area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandman, Antonia; Kautsky, Hans [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology

    2005-03-01

    The aim of the project was to compile a single database with quantitative data collected by SCUBA divers from the whole Swedish Baltic Sea coast. Data of plant and animal biomass, together with position, depth and type of substrate from 19 areas along the Swedish coast from the county of Blekinge to Kalix in the Bothnian Bay were compiled in a single database. In all, the database contains 2,170 records (samples) from 179 different stations where in total 161 plant and 145 animal species have been found. The data were then illustrated by the geographical distribution of plant and animal biomass and by constructing a model to estimate future changes of the plant and animal communities in the Graesoe area in the Aaland Sea applying GIS-techniques. To illustrate the opportunities of the database the change of the composition of benthic plant and animal biomass with salinity was calculated. The proportion of marine species increased with increasing salinity and the benthic biomass was at its highest in the southern Baltic proper. Quantitative data from Grepen and the Graesoe-Singoe area were used to calculate present biomass in the Graesoe area. A scenario of the change in biomass distribution and total biomass caused by shore displacement was created using data from Raaneaa and Kalix in the Bothnian Bay. To map the biomass distribution the material was divided into different depth intervals. The change of biomass with time was calculated as a function of salinity change and reduction of the available area, caused by shore displacement. The total biomass for all plants and animals in the investigated area was 50,500 tonnes at present. In 2,000 years the total biomass will be 25,000 tonnes and in 4,000 years 3,600 tonnes due to shore displacement causing a decrease in both salinity and available substrate.To make an estimate of the species distribution and a rough estimate of their biomass in an unknown geographic area, the type of substrate, the depth and the wave

  4. Characteristics of convective snow bands along the Swedish east coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeworrek, Julia; Wu, Lichuan; Dieterich, Christian; Rutgersson, Anna

    2017-03-01

    Convective snow bands develop in response to a cold air outbreak from the continent or the frozen sea over the open water surface of lakes or seas. The comparatively warm water body triggers shallow convection due to increased heat and moisture fluxes. Strong winds can align with this convection into wind-parallel cloud bands, which appear stationary as the wind direction remains consistent for the time period of the snow band event, delivering enduring snow precipitation at the approaching coast. The statistical analysis of a dataset from an 11-year high-resolution atmospheric regional climate model (RCA4) indicated 4 to 7 days a year of moderate to highly favourable conditions for the development of convective snow bands in the Baltic Sea region. The heaviest and most frequent lake effect snow was affecting the regions of Gävle and Västervik (along the Swedish east coast) as well as Gdansk (along the Polish coast). However, the hourly precipitation rate is often higher in Gävle than in the Västervik region. Two case studies comparing five different RCA4 model setups have shown that the Rossby Centre atmospheric regional climate model RCA4 provides a superior representation of the sea surface with more accurate sea surface temperature (SST) values when coupled to the ice-ocean model NEMO as opposed to the forcing by the ERA-40 reanalysis data. The refinement of the resolution of the atmospheric model component leads, especially in the horizontal direction, to significant improvement in the representation of the mesoscale circulation process as well as the local precipitation rate and area by the model.

  5. Microplastic concentrations in beach sediments along the German Baltic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolte, Andrea; Forster, Stefan; Gerdts, Gunnar; Schubert, Hendrik

    2015-10-15

    The contamination with microplastic particles and fibres was evaluated on beaches along the German Baltic coast. Sediments were sampled near the Warnow and Oder/Peene estuaries, on Rügen island and along the Rostock coast to derive possible entry pathways. Seasonal variations were monitored along the Rostock coast from March to July 2014. After density separation in saline solution, floating particles were found to be dominated by sand grains. Water surface tension is shown to be sufficient to explain floatation of grains with sizes less than 1.5mm. Selecting intensely coloured particles and fibres, we find lower limits of the microplastic concentrations of 0-7 particles/kg and 2-11 fibres/kg dry sediment. The largest microplastic contaminations are measured at the Peene outlet into the Baltic Sea and in the North Sea Jade Bay. City discharges, industrial production sites, fishing activity and tourism are the most likely sources for the highest microplastic concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The perception of aquaculture on the Swedish West Coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste E.; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Risén, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Efforts are on the way on the Swedish West Coast to develop the capacity for cultivation of marine resources, notably of kelps. Given that this is a region of great natural and national heritage, public opposition to marine developments has been identified as a possible risk factor. This survey...

  7. The perception of aquaculture on the Swedish West Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste E; Nordström, Jonas; Risén, Emma; Malmström, Maria E; Gröndahl, Fredrik

    2017-09-22

    Efforts are on the way on the Swedish West Coast to develop the capacity for cultivation of marine resources, notably of kelps. Given that this is a region of great natural and national heritage, public opposition to marine developments has been identified as a possible risk factor. This survey thus sought to shed light on awareness levels, perceptions of different types of aquaculture and on reactions to a scenario depicting future aquaculture developments on the West Coast. When asked about their general opinions of aquaculture, respondents tended to be favourable though a majority chose neutral responses. On the whole, respondents were favourable to the depicted scenario. Finally, it was found that the high-awareness group tended to be more supportive than the low or medium-awareness groups, hinting at the benefits of increasing awareness to reduce public aversion and to support a sustainable development of aquaculture on the Swedish West Coast.

  8. [Connecting the Baltic area : the Swedish postal System in the seventeenth century] / Kaarel Vanamölder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vanamölder, Kaarel, 1981-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Connecting the Baltic area : the Swedish postal System in the seventeenth century. Ed. by Heiko Droste. Södertörn Studies in History, 9, Södertörn Academic Studies, 42 (Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2011)

  9. PALAEOMAGNETISM OF THE SVECOFENNIAN LOFTAHAMMAR GABBRO AND SOME JOTNIAN DOLERITES IN THE SWEDISH PART OF THE BALTIC SHIELD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, R.P.E.

    1976-01-01

    Poorter, R.P.E., 1976. Palaeomagnetism of the Svecofennian Loftahammar gabbro and someJotnian dolerites in the Swedish part ofthe Baltic Shield. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 12: 51—64. The Svecofennian Loftahammar gabbro (Rb—Sr isochron age 1,694 - 106 year) and Jotnian dolerites (K—Ar

  10. Distribution and ecology of bees on the Polish Baltic coast (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Apiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaszak Józef

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides data on the distribution of 128 bee species on the Polish Baltic coast. This brings the total number of species of Apiformes in this region to 164, including those that I reported earlier. The bee fauna of the Polish coast is characterized by a very high proportion of bumblebees and cuckoo bees (locally up to 70-80% of the total catch, and the dominant proportion of Megachilidae, especially Megachile species. The species diversity and dominance structure of the Apiformes differ between the western coast (a very high proportion of bumblebees and the eastern coast (a large number of dominant species. These results confirm my earlier hypothesis regarding the maritime-continental gradient of bumblebee abundance, indicating that the densities of these insects are higher in NW Poland. This study is the first to assess bee densities on coastal dunes in Poland.

  11. Widespread waterborne pollution in central Swedish lakes and the Baltic Sea from pre-industrial mining and metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindler, Richard; Renberg, Ingemar; Rydberg, Johan; Andrén, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Metal pollution is viewed as a modern problem that began in the 19th century and accelerated through the 20th century; however, in many parts of the globe this view is wrong. Here, we studied past waterborne metal pollution in lake sediments from the Bergslagen region in central Sweden, one of many historically important mining regions in Europe. With a focus on lead (including isotopes), we trace mining impacts from a local scale, through a 120-km-long river system draining into Mälaren--Sweden's third largest lake, and finally also the Baltic Sea. Comparison of sediment and peat records shows that pollution from Swedish mining was largely waterborne and that atmospheric deposition was dominated by long-range transport from other regions. Swedish ore lead is detectable from the 10th century, but the greatest impact occurred during the 16th-18th centuries with improvements occurring over recent centuries, i.e., historical pollution > modern industrial pollution.

  12. Extreme sea levels at selected stations on the Baltic Sea coast

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    Tomasz Wolski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyse and describe the extreme characteristics of the water levels and illustrate them as the topography of the sea surface along the whole Baltic Sea coast. The general pattern is to show the maxima and minima of Baltic Sea water levels and the extent of their variations in the period from 1960 to 2010. A probability analysis is carried out on the annual sea level maxima and minima for 31 water level gauges in order to define the probability of occurrence of theoretical sea levels once in a specific number of years. The spatial distribution of sea levels for hundred-year maximum and minimum water levels is illustrated. Then, the number of storm surges for the accepted criteria are presented: these numbers increased in the 50-year period analysed. The final part of the work analyses some extreme storm events and calculates the static value and dynamic deformation of the sea surface by mesoscale, deep low-pressure systems.

  13. Sea level variability at the Lithuanian coast of the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dailidiene, I.; Tilickis, B.; Stankevicius, A. [Kalipeda Univ. Klaipeda (Lithuania); Davuliene, L. [Inst. of Physics, Vilnius (Lithuania); Myrberg, K. [Finnish Inst. of Marine Research, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyse the sea level variability at the Lithuanian coast during the last 100 years using all data available in Lithuania. The analysis, based on sea level data of the Klaipeda Strait for 1898-2002, clearly shows that the long-term sea level increased by about 13.9 cm. Furthermore, it is remarkable that the increase is not found to be linear during the study period. Only a negligible increase is found at every Lithuanian tide gauge until World War II. Starting from the middle of the last century the increase in sea level is more pronounced having a rate of about 3 mm per year since the 1970s. This rise leads to manifold practical problems concerning activities in the coastal areas. The water rise will intensify the intrusion of salty water into the Curonian Lagoon slowly changing the ecosystems in its northern part. The reasons behind this rise are related to enhanced and more frequent advection of warm and moist maritime air masses during the cold season (October-March). This is coupled with intensified air flow from the west with increasing air temperatures followed by rise in water temperatures and thermal expansion of sea water, the global rise of the sea level also playing an important role. The annual mean sea level fluctuation is found to be linked with the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. When the NAO index is positive during winter, the dominating and enhanced westerly flow across the North Atlantic advects relatively warm maritime air over northern Europe. These strong westerly winds cause more frequent flooding events in the southeastern part of the Baltic Sea at the Lithuanian coast. (orig.)

  14. Human-biometeorological conditions in the southern Baltic coast based on the universal thermal climate index (UTCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolendowicz, Leszek; Półrolniczak, Marek; Szyga-Pluta, Katarzyna; Bednorz, Ewa

    2017-10-01

    The paper focuses on bioclimatic conditions in the southern part of the Baltic coast based on universal thermal climate index values. Taking into consideration the observational data from coastline stations as well as reanalysis data from the National Center for Environmental Prediction and National Center for Atmospheric Research (sea level pressure and the 500 hPa geopotential height), the authors attempt to explain which of the synoptic situations are responsible for the occurrence of days with very strong and extreme cold or heat stress. The obtained results confirm that the extreme thermal heat and cold stress conditions are for the most part associated with high-pressure systems. The researched area is usually situated in the western or southern periphery of the anticyclones. The cold stress also occurs during the advection from west or northwest, caused by the direct influence of a low-pressure system whose center is situated over the North Sea, southern Scandinavia, or the southern Baltic Sea.

  15. Wind wave direction impact on the long-shore sediment transport rate, South East Baltic sea coast

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    Eglė Zuzevičiūtė

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Lithuanian coast of the south eastern part of the Baltic Sea represents a generic type of more or less straight, high-energy (in the Baltic Sea conditions, actively developing coasts that contain a relatively large amount of finer, mobile sediments, are open to predominating wind directions and are exposed to wave activity for a wide range of wave approach directions. The combination of the angular distribution of winds and the geometry of the coast are such that the wave-induced long-shore sediment transport is, in average, to the north over the entire Curonian spit and the mainland coast of Lithuania. Analysis of the field data performed by the G. Žilinskas (2008 from 1976-2007 revealed that the length of accumulative sections has been considerably reduced. Accordingly, the length of the gradually eroding sectors has increased in the end of the 20th century. In this study were analised potential variations in the long-shore sediment transport rate due changes of the wind wave directions. Sediment transport rate is estimated by the energy flux model, also known as the Coastal Engineering Research Centre (CERC model. The study area covers the entire coast of Lithuania. Entire coast was divided into 90 grids, about 1 km long beach sectors, at the 3 m depth isobaths. Wave directions calculated every 10 degrees. Most intensive long-shore sediment transport from south to the north was induced by waves from South. Changing wave approaching direction to the SW, long-shore sediment transport rate become smaller. Waves from WSW induce long shore sediment transport from opposite direction, from north to south. Westerly waves already induce maximum sediment transport to the south. It should be noticed that wave direction further shifting to the North induces sediment transport to the north again.DOI: 10.15181/csat.v3i1.225

  16. Variability of coastal water hydrodynamics in the southern Baltic - hindcast modelling of an upwelling event along the Polish coast

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    Andrzej Jankowski

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an attempt to reproduce, with theaid of a numerical circulation model, the hydrological conditions observedin the coastal area of the southern Baltic in September 1989.A large fall in surface layer seawater temperature was recordedin September 1989 at two coastal stations in the vicinity ofKolobrzeg and Wladyslawowo. This upwelling-like phenomenon was assumed tobe related to the specific anemobaric situation in September 1989,however typical of this phenomenon to occur along the Polish Baltic coast(Malicki & Mietus 1994. A three-dimensional (3-D sigma-coordinatebaroclinic model of the Baltic Sea, with a horizontal resolution of~5 km and 24 sigma-levels in the vertical, was applied to investigatewater circulation and thermohaline variability. Hindcastnumerical simulation showed that the model provided a good reproductionof the temporal history of the surface seawater temperature and theduration of the upwelling-like fall, but that the model results wereunderestimated. The maxima of this large fall in the surface layertemperature at both coastal stations are closely related to the phase ofchange of the upwelling-favourable wind direction to the opposite one.The results of simulation runs showed details of upwelling developmentdue to wind field fluctuations in time and differences in shaping thetemperature and current patterns in conjunction with the variations intopography and coastline features in some areas along the Polish coast.Two different hydrodynamic regimes of water movements along the coastresulting from topographical features (the Slupsk Bank can be distinguished.From the model simulation the specific conditions for the occurrence anddevelopment of upwelling at the eastern end of the Polish coast(in the vicinity of Wladyslawowo can be deduced.

  17. Spatial impact of the Oder river plume on water quality along the south-western Baltic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schernewski, G; Neumann, T; Podsetchine, V; Siegel, H

    2001-11-01

    The Oder (Odra) river is the most important nutrient source and pollutant for the south-western Baltic Sea. Adjacent German-Polish coastal waters, the Oder (Szczecin) Lagoon and the Oder (Pomeranian) Bight therefore suffer from severe eutrophication and water quality problems. At the same time, summer (bathing) tourism is the most important economical factor in this coastal zone, especially on the islands of Usedom and Wolin. On the basis of model simulations and remote sensing data we analysed the spatial extent and variability of the Oder river plume in the lagoon and the Balic Sea in common summer situations and during the extreme Oder flood in August 1997. Water quality shows pronounced gradients between coastal waters and open Baltic Sea. In the lagoon, it usually takes more than 6 weeks until Oder water enters the large western bay, the Kleines Haff. During transport, degradation, transformation and sedimentation processes alter the water quality and prevent the inner coast of Usedom from direct impact of polluted Oder water. Ongoing nutrient supply promotes intensive algal proliferation in all parts of the lagoon and contributes to the low water transparency. Oder water passing the lagoon and entering the Baltic Sea is transported over long distances in narrow bands along the shore. Under easterly winds the water quality near well-known spas on Usedom is reduced due to Oder river plume impact. Upwelling effects can have negative impact on water quality, too. Intensive blooms of potentially toxic blue-green algae species, are the rule in the lagoon and frequent in the Oder Bight in summer. They are a hazard and limit the acceptance of swimming beaches at the inner coast of Usedom. Practical consequences of variable water quality gradients e.g. on hygienic water sampling are discussed.

  18. Mapping of sensitivity to oil spills in the Lithuanian Baltic Sea coast.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Depellegrin, D.; Nerijus, B.; Groot, de R.S.

    2010-01-01

    This research develops an integrated environmental assessment tool for Lithuanian coastal area that takes due account of the major oil spill risks posed by the D-6 oil drilling platform, vessel traffic in the south-eastern Baltic Sea, and operation of the Butinge oil terminal. The goal of this paper

  19. Diseases and parasites of Baltic cod ( Gadus morhua ) from the Mecklenburg Bight to the Estonian coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellergaard, Stig; Lang, T.

    1999-01-01

    During the 1994 BMB/ICES Sea-going Workshop "Fish Diseases and Parasites in the Baltic Sea", the prevalences of skin ulcers, pseudobranchial swellings (X-cell disease), skeletal deformities, and the parasites Cryptocotyle lingua and Lernaeocera branchialis were recorded in cod in 11 areas from...

  20. Emergence of a new rhabdovirus associated with mass mortalities in eelpout (Zoarces viviparous) in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axen, C.; Hakhverdyan, M.; Boutrup, Torsten Snogdal

    2017-01-01

    We report the first description of a new Rhabdoviridae tentatively named eelpout rhabdovirus (EpRV genus Perhabdovirus). This virus was associated with mass mortalities in eelpout (Zoarces viviparous, Linnaeus) along the Swedish Baltic Sea coast line in 2014. Diseased fish showed signs of central...

  1. Assessment of theoretical near-shore wave power potential along the Lithuanian coast of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasiulis, E; Punys, P; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2015-01-01

    Gradually increasing interest in utilisation of wave energy through development of wave energy converters is directing more attention to areas of lower energy potential, such as the Baltic Sea, compared to the oceans. In this paper, the theoretical wave power potential in the Lithuanian coast...... is evaluated using available multi-year visual observation data. A brief review of European wave energy resources, focusing more on semi-enclosed seas, is provided, as well as a comparison between wave energy potential and conventional hydropower potential in European countries. A conventional hydrological...... method, designed for calculating a distribution of annual hydrologic variables, was adopted to evaluate the design wave heights. Wave power flux values for monthly, seasonal and annual wave conditions were evaluated for high, median and low intensity years. In addition multi-year annual and seasonal wave...

  2. Baltic Salmon, Salmo salar, from Swedish River Lule Älv Is More Resistant to Furunculosis Compared to Rainbow Trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holten-Andersen, Lars; Dalsgaard, Inger; Buchmann, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Background Furunculosis, caused by Aeromonas salmonicida, continues to be a major health problem for the growing salmonid aquaculture. Despite effective vaccination programs regular outbreaks occur at the fish farms calling for repeated antibiotic treatment. We hypothesized that a difference in natural susceptibility to this disease might exist between Baltic salmon and the widely used rainbow trout. Study Design A cohabitation challenge model was applied to investigate the relative susceptibility to infection with A. salmonicida in rainbow trout and Baltic salmon. The course of infection was monitored daily over a 30-day period post challenge and the results were summarized in mortality curves. Results A. salmonicida was recovered from mortalities during the entire test period. At day 30 the survival was 6.2% and 34.0% for rainbow trout and Baltic salmon, respectively. Significant differences in susceptibility to A. salmonicida were demonstrated between the two salmonids and hazard ratio estimation between rainbow trout and Baltic salmon showed a 3.36 higher risk of dying from the infection in the former. Conclusion The finding that Baltic salmon carries a high level of natural resistance to furunculosis might raise new possibilities for salmonid aquaculture in terms of minimizing disease outbreaks and the use of antibiotics. PMID:22276121

  3. Baltic Salmon, Salmo salar, from Swedish River Lule Älv Is More Resistant to Furunculosis Compared to Rainbow Trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Lars; Dalsgaard, Inger; Buchmann, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Background: Furunculosis, caused by Aeromonas salmonicida, continues to be a major health problem for the growing salmonid aquaculture. Despite effective vaccination programs regular outbreaks occur at the fish farms calling for repeated antibiotic treatment. We hypothesized that a difference...... in natural susceptibility to this disease might exist between Baltic salmon and the widely used rainbow trout. Study Design: A cohabitation challenge model was applied to investigate the relative susceptibility to infection with A. salmonicida in rainbow trout and Baltic salmon. The course of infection...

  4. Seasonal oxygen depletion in a shallow sill fjord on the Swedish west coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Göran; Nordberg, Kjell; Arneborg, Lars; Bornmalm, Lennart; Harland, Rex; Robijn, Ardo; Ödalen, Malin

    2017-11-01

    During the summer of 2008, oxygen depleted water, between 5 and 12 m depth, was discovered in Sannäsfjord on the Swedish west coast. The resulting sediments were black, benthic macrofauna were absent and Beggiatoa bacterial mats were a characteristic feature. This phenomenon, which was observed several years in a row, appears to be a relatively new phenomenon starting in the mid-1980s. In this study we attempt to find the underlying causes by investigating climatic effects (temperature, wind and precipitation), the local supply of nutrients from land, ecosystem change and the supply of organic material from the open Skagerrak. An analysis of long meteorological time series indicates that climatic effects are contributory, but probably not a dominating factor leading to hypoxia. Results from an advection-diffusion model solving for oxygen show that the observed increase in the river supply of nutrients has a high potential to generate hypoxia. Although complex and more difficult to quantify, it appears that ecosystem changes, with higher abundance of filamentous algae, may have played an important role. It is also possible that an enhanced supply of organic material from the open Skagerrak has contributed.

  5. Extreme irgarol tolerance in an Ulva lactuca L. population on the Swedish west coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Ida; Arrhenius, Åsa; Backhaus, Thomas; Hilvarsson, Annelie; Holm, Kristina; Langford, Katherine; Tunovic, Timur; Blanck, Hans

    2013-11-15

    The herbicide irgarol 1051 is commonly used on ship hulls to prevent growth of algae, but as a component of self-eroding paints it can also spread in the surrounding waters and affect non-target organisms. The effect of irgarol on settlement and growth of zoospores from the marine macro algae Ulva lactuca from the Gullmar fjord on the Swedish west coast was investigated in the present study. The zoospores were allowed to settle and grow in the presence of irgarol, but neither settlement - nor growth inhibition was observed at concentrations of up to 2000 nmol l(-1). This is between 10 and 100 times higher than effect concentrations reported earlier for algae. Irgarol also induced the greening effect (4-fold increase in chlorophyll a content) in the settled zoospore/germling population, typical for photosystem II inhibitors like irgarol. This study support previous findings that irgarol constitutes a selection pressure in the marine environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Food intake of young cod and flounder in a shallow bay on the Swedish west coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihl, L.

    The importance of shallow soft bottom areas as nursery grounds for I-ground cod, Gadus morhua, and I- to IV-group flounder, Platichthys flesus, was investigated in a 20 000 m 2 bay, 0 to 1 m deep, on the Swedish west coast. To estimate the amount of visiting fish and their food intake the bay was enclosed with a net once a month from July to November 1979 and from April to November 1980. At each occasion about 60 cods and 8 to 50 flounders were caught. The total biomass of the cod and flounder was 1 to 14 kg and 2 to 13 kg wet weight, respectively. The cod preyed on mobile epifauna such as Carcinus maenas, Crangon crangon and Pomatoschistus spp., whereas the flounder was eating infauna mainly Mya arenaria, Cardium spp. and Nereis spp. The food intake within the area was calculated to approximate 35 and 10 kg wet weight from April to November for cod and flounder, respectively.

  7. Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorinated hydrocarbons in marine mammals, fishes, and birds from coasts of the Baltic and the Mediterranean Seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Corsolini, Simonetta; Falandysz, Jerzy; Oehme, Günter; Focardi, Silvano; Giesy, John P

    2002-08-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS; C8F17SO3-), perfluorooctanesulfonamide (FOSA; C8F17SO2NH2), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS; C6F13SO3-), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA; C7F15CO2-) were detected in 175 samples of liver and blood of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), common cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo), bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), common dolphins (Delphinus delphi), fin whales (Balenoptera physalus), and long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) from the Italian coast of the Mediterranean Sea and in livers of ringed seals (Phoca hispida), gray seals (Halichoerus grypus), white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from coastal areas of the Baltic Sea. PFOS was detected in all of the wildlife species analyzed. Concentrations of PFOS in blood decreased in order of bottlenose dolphins > bluefin tuna > swordfish. Mean PFOS concentrations (61 ng/ g, wet wt) in cormorant livers collected from Sardinia Island in the Mediterranean Sea were less than the concentrations of PFOA (95 ng/g, wetwt). PFOS concentrations in cormorant livers were significantly correlated with those of PFOA. FOSA was found in 14 of 19 livers or blood samples of marine mammals from the Mediterranean Sea. The highest concentration of 878 ng FOSA/g, wet wt, was found in the liver of a common dolphin. Livers of ringed and gray seals from the Bothnian Bay in the Baltic Sea contained PFOS concentrations ranging from 130 to 1,100 ng/g, wet wt. No relationships between PFOS concentrations and ages of ringed or gray seals were observed. Concentrations of PFOS in livers of seals were 5.5-fold greater than those in corresponding blood. A significant positive correlation existed between the PFOS concentrations in liver and blood, which indicates that blood can be used for nonlethal monitoring of PFOS. Trend analysis of PFOS concentrations in livers of white-tailed sea eagles collected from

  8. Root-associated fungi of Rosa rugosa grown on the frontal dunes of the Baltic Sea Coast in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkis, Audrius; Ihrmark, Katarina; Stenlid, Jan; Vasaitis, Rimvydas

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess fungal communities associated with fine living roots of Rosa rugosa Thunb grown on the frontal dunes of Curonian Spit at the Baltic Sea coast in Lithuania. The roots of R. rugosa were sampled at five sites (Nida, Preila, Pervalka, Juodkrante and Smiltyne) situated at a distance ca. 5-15 km from each other. Direct amplification, cloning and sequencing of fungal ITS rRNA from the fine roots resulted in 134 high-quality sequences, representing 31 fungal taxa among which saprotrophs and endophytes Mycena sp. (14.2 %), Tumularia sp. (14.2 %), Penicillium spinulosum (11.9 %) and Cadophora malorum (9.0 %) were most common. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi including Entrophospora baltica (0.7 %) and Rhizophagus irregularis (0.7 %) and potentially root pathogenic fungi--Ceratobasidium sp. (4.5 %), Fusarium oxysporum (3.0 %), Fusarium culmorum (0.7 %) and Ilyonectria crassa (0.7 %)--were also detected at low proportions. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the fine roots of R. rugosa are inhabited by various groups of fungi. Although saprotrophs and endophytes were dominant, the detection of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi indicated that these may be important for mineral nutrition of R. rugosa established on dry and poor fertility coastal dunes.

  9. Calculating Ivalent Dose Rate Field Structure Applying the Method of Optimal Interpollation in the Baltic Sea Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrijus Styra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Equivalent dose rate measurements were carried out in the Baltic Sea coast near Juodkrantė. The measurements were performed at the ground level and 1 meter above it at 63 points within the territory of 2,0´0,2 km on 2 July 2008 and 10 July 2008 under conditions of northern and southern wind directions respectively. The extreme rates of the equivalent dose rate were 51 and 90 nSv/h respectively which means that the structure of the equivalent dose field was unhomogeneous. The method of optimal interpollation was used to calculate and evaluate the structure of the equivalent dose rate field. This method was used in 3 cases when 63, 33 and 18 numbers of measurement were carried out. The identical structures of the equivalent dose field were accepted. Using 18 measurement points, coincidence between the measured and calculated values of the equivalent dose rate was satisfactory. Difference between the measured and calculated values does not exceed 15% in 80% of the measurement points.Article in Lithuanian

  10. Spatial patterns in heavy-mineral concentrations along the Curonian Spit coast, southeastern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupienis, Donatas; Buynevich, Ilya; Ryabchuk, Daria; Jarmalavičius, Darius; Žilinskas, Gintautas; Fedorovič, Julija; Kovaleva, Olga; Sergeev, Alexander; Cichoń-Pupienis, Anna

    2017-08-01

    The 98-km-long Curonian Spit is fronted by beaches mainly composed of quartz sand with minor high-density fractions. In this study heavy-mineral concentration (HMC) trends and grain-size statistical parameters were used to assess their role as indicators of natural processes, human activities, and patterns of longshore transport. A total of 92 surface sand samples were collected at 1 km intervals from the middle of the beach along the Baltic Sea shoreline of the spit between Klaipėda strait in Lithuania and Zelenogradsk in Russia. HMC contribution was assessed in the laboratory using bulk low-field magnetic susceptibility (MS) as a proxy for ferrimagnetic and paramagnetic mineral content. Quartz-dominated (background) sand is generally characterized by low MS values of κ 150 μSI are typical for heavy-mineral-rich sand. The greatest MS values along the middle of the beach occur in the southern part of the spit and are 40 times higher than in the northern sector. This pattern suggests the existence of a longshore particle flux with HMC distribution having the potential as a useful tracer of longshore sediment transport. Local anomalously high MS excursions are associated with contribution of iron-rich materials from adjacent man-made structures. Therefore, temporally constrained HMC distribution along the middle of the beach reflects the cumulative effect of antecedent geologic framework, longshore sediment transfer, erosional and accretionary processes, wave and wind climate, and local coastal protective structures.

  11. The geographical conditions of intensity of salty waters intrusions to coastal lakes on Polish Southern Baltic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslinski, R.

    2009-04-01

    Lakes situated on the coast of the southern Baltic function in different conditions than those in which typically inland reservoirs occur. They are situated in the contact zone of two environments: land and sea. These reservoirs together with their direct catchments form specific hydrographic arrangement, in which the course of physical, chemical and biological processes depends on the fact which of these two environments exerts a stronger influence at a given moment. This is important as the lakes situated in the shore zone of the southern Baltic are not exposed to phenomena caused by constant tides, as it is the case in open seas (Ataie-Ashtiani et al., 1999), but only to extreme hydrometeorological conditions, which lead to the formation of the phenomenon of intrusions of sea waters and of damming the free outflow of potamic waters (Demirel, 2004; Cieśliński, Drwal, 2005). What should also be remembered are the local hydrographic, hydrological and morphometric conditions. As a result of intrusions, in the waters of coastal lakes, apart from inland waters there are also waters of sea origin. The proportions of these genetically distinct waters are variable and differ in individual lakes (Grassi, Netti, 2000; Drwal, Cieśliński, 2007). Despite the difference in the causal factor triggering the phenomenon of salt water intrusions, the effect is usually the same as that observed, for instance, in lakes and lagoons of seas with tides (Ishitobi et al., 1999; De Louw, Oude Essink, 2001) and poorly flushed lagoon (Hsing-Juh et al., 2006) or estuaries (Uncles et al., 2002), though the scale of qualitative changes is greater in the case of open seas than in half-closed and closed seas. The status of the research carried out so far enables proposing a hypothesis that chlorides concentrations, as the best indicators for establishing the occurrence of the phenomenon of intrusions, depend not only on the meteorological factor but in some of the lakes on various

  12. Reduced Genetic Diversity and Increased Structure in American Mink on the Swedish Coast following Invasive Species Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Andrzej; Zalewska, Hanna; Lunneryd, Sven-Gunnar; André, Carl; Mikusiński, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Eradication and population reductions are often used to mitigate the negative impacts of non-native invasive species on native biodiversity. However, monitoring the effectiveness of non-native species control programmes is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these measures. Genetic monitoring could provide valuable insights into temporal changes in demographic, ecological, and evolutionary processes in invasive populations being subject to control programmes. Such programmes should cause a decrease in effective population size and/or in genetic diversity of the targeted non-native species and an increase in population genetic structuring over time. We used microsatellite DNA data from American mink (Neovison vison) to determine whether the removal of this predator on the Koster Islands archipelago and the nearby Swedish mainland affected genetic variation over six consecutive years of mink culling by trappers as part of a population control programme. We found that on Koster Islands allelic richness decreased (from on average 4.53 to 3.55), genetic structuring increased, and effective population size did not change. In contrast, the mink population from the Swedish coast showed no changes in genetic diversity or structure, suggesting the stability of this population over 6 years of culling. Effective population size did not change over time but was higher on the coast than on the islands across all years. Migration rates from the islands to the coast were almost two times higher than from the coast to the islands. Most migrants leaving the coast were localised on the southern edge of the archipelago, as expected from the direction of the sea current between the two sites. Genetic monitoring provided valuable information on temporal changes in the population of American mink suggesting that this approach can be used to evaluate and improve control programmes of invasive vertebrates.

  13. Reduced Genetic Diversity and Increased Structure in American Mink on the Swedish Coast following Invasive Species Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Zalewski

    Full Text Available Eradication and population reductions are often used to mitigate the negative impacts of non-native invasive species on native biodiversity. However, monitoring the effectiveness of non-native species control programmes is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these measures. Genetic monitoring could provide valuable insights into temporal changes in demographic, ecological, and evolutionary processes in invasive populations being subject to control programmes. Such programmes should cause a decrease in effective population size and/or in genetic diversity of the targeted non-native species and an increase in population genetic structuring over time. We used microsatellite DNA data from American mink (Neovison vison to determine whether the removal of this predator on the Koster Islands archipelago and the nearby Swedish mainland affected genetic variation over six consecutive years of mink culling by trappers as part of a population control programme. We found that on Koster Islands allelic richness decreased (from on average 4.53 to 3.55, genetic structuring increased, and effective population size did not change. In contrast, the mink population from the Swedish coast showed no changes in genetic diversity or structure, suggesting the stability of this population over 6 years of culling. Effective population size did not change over time but was higher on the coast than on the islands across all years. Migration rates from the islands to the coast were almost two times higher than from the coast to the islands. Most migrants leaving the coast were localised on the southern edge of the archipelago, as expected from the direction of the sea current between the two sites. Genetic monitoring provided valuable information on temporal changes in the population of American mink suggesting that this approach can be used to evaluate and improve control programmes of invasive vertebrates.

  14. Wind characterization for design and comparison with standards, an example from Lyse at the Swedish west coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganander, H. [Teknikgruppen AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Carlen, I. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Div. of Building Technology; Bergstroem, H. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1996-12-01

    The Lyse site at the Swedish west coast is an area with an archipelago of rocky islands to the west and an equally rocky mainland to the east. In between there are some open sea areas. As being the responsible project manager for the erection and the operation of a turbine at a site like Lyse, the question arises about characterization of the wind for design or purchase of a wind turbine. Or in other words what wind turbine class has to be used for the design, according to existing standards like for example IEC-1400 ? 3 refs, 10 figs

  15. Wind conditions along the Swedish coast. Quarterly report 4/1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvick, T.; Andersson, H.

    1984-06-01

    Offshore wind conditions along the Swedish coast have been analysed from available wind measurements and simulations by a dynamic wind-field model. The available wind data are primarily from eight offshore light houses. These measurements are made at 25-35 m above the sea level. The dynamic wind field model used is a two-dimensional, one-level primitiv equation-model. To characterize the greater scale we have used the geostrophic wind, obtained from the pressure field, and the temperature- and geopotential field from surface, 850 and 700 mb-levels. The properties of the smaller scale are described by digitalizing the topogrphy and the surface roughness in a grid. We have used the model to simulate the wind field within two different areas. The first are is 30 x 60 kilometres/sup 2/. The gridsize is 1 km /sup 2/ with 1800 calculation points. The simulations has ben made for every six hours during one year. Continous measurements have been made at 50 m height, at one site of the shore and at one site 10 km offshore. At those two points the model is verified to be capable to describe differences of the long-term wind-field between the two sites. The model seem to calculate to low wind speeds. The second simulation area the southern one-third of Sweden and the grid used is 22 kilometres giving 1845 calculation points. The results can be summarized as follows: The land to sea recovery of the wind speed is mainly taking place within 10-12 kilometres from the shore and the increase in windspeed is, as a mean about 0.8-1.2 m/s. The off-shore median wind speeds are 7.4-8.3 m/s and 8-9 m/s. The wind energy potentials can vary up to + /- 35 % between different offshore areas for other reasons than the distance from the shore. The median wind speeds at the best offshore areas are at least 0.7 m/s higher than at the best on-land sites. That corresponds to 25-35 percent higher energy production.

  16. On the comparability of knowledge transfer activities - a case study at the German Baltic Sea Coast focusing regional climate services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Insa

    2017-06-01

    In this article the comparability of knowledge transfer activities is discussed by accounting for external impacts. It is shown that factors which are neither part of the knowledge transfer activity nor part of the participating institution may have significant impact on the potential usefulness of knowledge transfer activities. Differences in the potential usefulness are leading to different initial conditions of the knowledge transfer activities. This needs to be taken into account when comparing different knowledge transfer activities, e.g., in program evaluations. This study is focusing on regional climate services at the German Baltic Sea coast. It is based on two surveys and experiences with two identical web tools applied on two regions with different spatial coverage. The results show that comparability among science based knowledge transfer activities is strongly limited through several external impacts. The potential usefulness and thus the initial condition of a particular knowledge transfer activity strongly depends on (1) the perceived priority of the focused topic, (2) the used information channels, (3) the conformity between the research agenda of service providing institutions and information demands in the public, as well as (4) on the spatial coverage of a service. It is suggested to account for the described external impacts for evaluations of knowledge transfer activities. The results show that the comparability of knowledge transfer activities is limited and challenge the adequacy of quantitative measures in this context. Moreover, as shown in this case study, in particular regional climate services should be individually evaluated on a long term perspective, by potential user groups and/or by its real users. It is further suggested that evaluation criteria should be co-developed with these stakeholder groups.

  17. A wind proxy based on migrating dunes at the Baltic coast: statistical analysis of the link between wind conditions and sand movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierstedt, Svenja E.; Hünicke, Birgit; Zorita, Eduardo; Ludwig, Juliane

    2017-07-01

    We statistically analyse the relationship between the structure of migrating dunes in the southern Baltic and the driving wind conditions over the past 26 years, with the long-term aim of using migrating dunes as a proxy for past wind conditions at an interannual resolution. The present analysis is based on the dune record derived from geo-radar measurements by Ludwig et al. (2017). The dune system is located at the Baltic Sea coast of Poland and is migrating from west to east along the coast. The dunes present layers with different thicknesses that can be assigned to absolute dates at interannual timescales and put in relation to seasonal wind conditions. To statistically analyse this record and calibrate it as a wind proxy, we used a gridded regional meteorological reanalysis data set (coastDat2) covering recent decades. The identified link between the dune annual layers and wind conditions was additionally supported by the co-variability between dune layers and observed sea level variations in the southern Baltic Sea. We include precipitation and temperature into our analysis, in addition to wind, to learn more about the dependency between these three atmospheric factors and their common influence on the dune system. We set up a statistical linear model based on the correlation between the frequency of days with specific wind conditions in a given season and dune migration velocities derived for that season. To some extent, the dune records can be seen as analogous to tree-ring width records, and hence we use a proxy validation method usually applied in dendrochronology, cross-validation with the leave-one-out method, when the observational record is short. The revealed correlations between the wind record from the reanalysis and the wind record derived from the dune structure is in the range between 0.28 and 0.63, yielding similar statistical validation skill as dendroclimatological records.

  18. A statistical approach to coastal upwelling in the Baltic Sea based on the analysis of satellite data for 1990-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lehmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A statistical analysis of Baltic Sea upwelling has been carried out to cover, for the first time, the entire sea area for the period 1990-2009. Weekly composite SST maps based on NOAA/AVHRR satellite data were used to evaluate the location and frequency of upwelling. The results obtained were analysed and compared with earlier studies with excellent agreement. Our study enables the most intense upwelling areas in the entire Baltic Sea to be evaluated. According to the analysis of 443 SST maps, the most common upwelling regions are found off the Swedish south and east coasts (frequency 10-25%, the Swedish coast of the Bothnian Bay (16%, the southern tip of Gotland (up to 15%, and the Finnish coast of the Gulf of Finland (up to 15%. Pronounced upwelling also occurs off the Estonian coast and the Baltic east coast (up to 15%, the Polish coast and the west coast of Rügen (10-15%; otherwise the upwelling frequency was between 5 and 10%. Additionally, simulated SST distributions derived from a Baltic Sea numerical model were analysed for the same period. Furthermore, at specific positions close to the coastline, surface winds based on the SMHI meteorological data base were analysed for the same 20-year period. Wind components parallel to the coast were discriminated into favourable and unfavourable winds forcing upwelling. The obtained frequencies of upwelling-favourable winds fit very well the observed upwelling frequencies derived from satellite SST maps. A positive trend of upwelling frequencies along the Swedish east coast and the Finnish coast of the Gulf of Finland was calculated for the period 1990-2009.

  19. Two rare halophyte species: Aster tripolium L. and Plantago maritima L. on the Baltic coast in Poland – their resources, distribution and implications for conservation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarus Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of geobotanical studies on the distribution and resources of Aster tripolium L. and Plantago maritima L, two rare halophytes in Poland. The research was conducted in northern Poland, along the Baltic coast in 2013. The present distribution of the two species was compared with historical data and general trends of and threats to these two species were examined. In total, 33 sites of A. tripolium and 18 of P. maritima were found in the research area. The resources of both species have been perceptibly depleting during last 150 years, which is mostly due to human agencies (e.g. habitat devastation caused by growing urban areas and the change in management and/or habitat condition. In order to preserve both species, it may be necessary to start an ex situ conservation program.

  20. Assessment of the present and future offshore wind power potential: a case study in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizuma, Lita; Avotniece, Zanita; Rupainis, Sergejs; Teilans, Artis

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind energy development promises to be a significant domestic renewable energy source in Latvia. The reliable prediction of present and future wind resources at offshore sites is crucial for planning and selecting the location for wind farms. The overall goal of this paper is the assessment of offshore wind power potential in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast as well as the identification of a trend in the future wind energy potential for the study territory. The regional climate model CLM and High Resolution Limited Area Model (Hirlam) simulations were used to obtain the wind climatology data for the study area. The results indicated that offshore wind energy is promising for expanding the national electricity generation and will continue to be a stable resource for electricity generation in the region over the 21st century.

  1. Assessment of the Present and Future Offshore Wind Power Potential: A Case Study in a Target Territory of the Baltic Sea Near the Latvian Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teilans, Artis

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind energy development promises to be a significant domestic renewable energy source in Latvia. The reliable prediction of present and future wind resources at offshore sites is crucial for planning and selecting the location for wind farms. The overall goal of this paper is the assessment of offshore wind power potential in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast as well as the identification of a trend in the future wind energy potential for the study territory. The regional climate model CLM and High Resolution Limited Area Model (Hirlam) simulations were used to obtain the wind climatology data for the study area. The results indicated that offshore wind energy is promising for expanding the national electricity generation and will continue to be a stable resource for electricity generation in the region over the 21st century. PMID:23983619

  2. Assessment of the Present and Future Offshore Wind Power Potential: A Case Study in a Target Territory of the Baltic Sea Near the Latvian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lita Lizuma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Offshore wind energy development promises to be a significant domestic renewable energy source in Latvia. The reliable prediction of present and future wind resources at offshore sites is crucial for planning and selecting the location for wind farms. The overall goal of this paper is the assessment of offshore wind power potential in a target territory of the Baltic Sea near the Latvian coast as well as the identification of a trend in the future wind energy potential for the study territory. The regional climate model CLM and High Resolution Limited Area Model (Hirlam simulations were used to obtain the wind climatology data for the study area. The results indicated that offshore wind energy is promising for expanding the national electricity generation and will continue to be a stable resource for electricity generation in the region over the 21st century.

  3. Liver histopathology in Baltic flounder (Platichthys flesus) as indicator of biological effects of contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Thomas; Wosniok, Werner; Barsiene, Janina; Broeg, Katja; Kopecka, Justyna; Parkkonen, Jari

    2006-01-01

    Results are presented of a study on liver histopathology in Baltic flounder (Platichthys flesus) carried out in 2001 and 2002 in four coastal sampling areas of the Baltic Sea: Kvädöfjärden (Swedish east coast, reference area), Klaipeda-Butinge (Lithuanian coast), Gulf of Gdansk (Polish coast), and Wismar Bay (German coast) within the framework of the EU-funded BEEP project. Liver lesions were diagnosed and categorised using standardised methodologies and, for a spatial and temporal assessment of the prevalence and types of lesions detected, a scoring system was applied, involving the calculation of mean histopathology lesion scores. 83.0% of the 436 female flounder examined (size range: 20-43 cm total length, age range: 2-8 years) were affected by liver lesions, out of which 74.3% were assigned to the category of non-specific, 3.4% to the category of early toxicopathic non-neoplastic, 4.6% to the category of pre-neoplastic and 0.7% to the category of neoplastic lesions. Mean lesions scores were highest in the areas at the Lithuanian and Swedish coast and there is indication of an impact of the age structure of the flounder populations studied, the sampling season as well as of contaminant effects.

  4. Water budget and the role of land-sea interactions of a coastal wetland at the German Baltic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstert, Axel; Thomas, Graeff; Konrad, Miegel; Selle, Benny; Thomas, Salzmann; Christian, Franck

    2017-04-01

    Coastal low moors are characteristic elements of the landscapes along Germany's Baltic Sea coastline. Under natural conditions, their hydrological peculiarities include exchange processes between the fens and the Baltic Sea. Due to human interventions such as the construction of dunes and dykes, drainage systems and lately also renaturation measures, their hydrological regime has been changed various times during the past centuries. The nature reserve "Hütelmoor und Heiligensee" northeast of the city Rostock has been selected as a natural observatory, instrumented with a number of measurement devices, and is therefore well-suited for investigating the effects of past and future changes. This contribution presents the observational programme and aims at identifying the relevant hydrological processes that affect the water balance of such wetlands. The investigations are based on a monitoring network measuring groundwater levels and electric conductivity within the moor's body since 2009, as well as on measurements of the surface water fluxes across the catchment boundaries and of meteorological parameters. The measurements enable the identification of the governing hydrological processes and patterns. On the basis of a system water budgeting approach we derived balancing of the different water flows across the system's borders (precipitation, evapotranspiration, inflows from the neighbouring parts of the catchment area, subterranean exchange processes with the Baltic Sea and the area's superficial discharge). Furthermore, the episodic input of salty water in case of heavy storm tides may provide a natural tracer. This tracer allows to better identify both vertical processes in the lowland (precipitation, evaporation and rising groundwater levels) as well as lateral transport processes (such as, e.g., water fluxes between groundwater bodies and the area`s trench system or land-sea interactions).

  5. Integrated modelling and management of nutrients and eutrophication in river basin - coast - sea systems: A southern Baltic Sea perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schernewski, Gerald

    2014-05-01

    The Odra river basin (area: 120,000 km2, average discharge: 550 m³/s, annual N-load 60,000 t) and the Oder (Szczecin) Lagoon (687 km²) are the eutrophication hot-spot in the south-western Baltic region. To be able to carry out large scale, spatially integrative analyses, we linked the river basin nutrient flux model MONERIS to the coastal 3D-hydrodynamic and ecosystem model ERGOM. Objectives were a) to analyse the eutrophication history in the river basin and the resulting functional changes in the coastal waters between early 1960's and today and b) to analyse the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus management scenarios in the Oder/Odra river basin on coastal and Baltic Sea water quality. The models show that an optimal river basin management with reduced nutrient loads (e.g. N-load reduction of 35%) would have positive effects on lagoon water quality and algae biomass. The availability of nutrients, N/P ratios and processes like denitrification and nitrogen-fixation would show spatial and temporal changes. It would have positive consequences for ecosystems functions, like the nutrient retention capacity, as well. However, this optimal scenario is by far not sufficient to ensure a good coastal water quality according to the European Water Framework Directive. A "good" water quality in the river will not be sufficient to ensure a "good" water quality in the coastal waters. Further, nitrogen load reductions bear the risk of increased potentially toxic, blue-green algae blooms. The presentation will a) summarize recent results (Schernewski et al. 2009, Schernewski et al. 2011, 2012), b) give an overview how the models were used to provide a comprehensive and consistent set of water quality thresholds and maximum allowable riverine loads for the Water Framework Directive and c) will show the implications for an optimised river basin - lagoon quality management.

  6. Social analysis of the Roman Iron age societies in the Baltic sea region

    OpenAIRE

    Kačkutė, Rūta

    2015-01-01

    The present paper attempts at reconstructing the societies that existed in the Roman period in the western part of Lithuania, the Lower Nemunas (Lithuania) and on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea – on the Zealand Island (Sjaelland) (Denmark), on the Skåne Peninsular (Sweden), on the Bornholm Island (Denmark), and on the Swedish islands of Gotland and Öland and at comparing them after having analysed the burial material on the basis of the theories and research methods of post-processual s...

  7. Swedish Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borgvall, Jonathan; Lif, Patrik

    2005-01-01

    .... The military research work presented here includes the three military administrations, FOI -- Swedish Defence Research Agency, FMV -- Swedish Defence Materiel Administration, and SNDC -- Swedish...

  8. Population differentiation of Potamogeton pectinatus in the Baltic Sea with reference to waterfowl dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, R A; Gornall, R J; Preston, C D; Croft, J M

    2002-10-01

    Forty populations of Potamogeton pectinatus L. were sampled from around the Baltic Sea basin. Analysis of 62 ISSR 'loci' showed that the number of clones per population is very variable but shows a tendency to decrease with latitude. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that, overall, just over half the variability is stored within populations and just under half between them (phi(ST) 0.496). In pairwise comparisons, most populations are significantly differentiated. Genetic distance between populations, as measured by phi(ST), increases with geographical distance. Levels of population differentiation, however, are lower on the southeastern Swedish coast than elsewhere, a reduction correlated with the importance of this area as a staging post for the massive migrations of waterfowl from arctic Russia and western Siberia. Cumulative plots of phi(ST) against geographical distance along this coast suggest that, although it does not prevent significant population differentiation, bird traffic reduces it over distances of 150-200 km.

  9. Long-term observations on salinity dynamics in a tideless shallow coastal lagoon of the Southern Baltic Sea coast and their biological relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, R.; Baudler, H.; Glass, Ä.; Dümcke, K.; Karsten, U.

    2006-05-01

    The Darß-Zingst Bodden Chain (DZBC) is a tideless shallow inner coastal water of the Southern Baltic Sea. Important water volumes are exchanged with the Baltic Sea in dependence of wind direction and strength, water levels and coastal water currents. The Bodden chain is a system of 4 consecutive water basins which are connected via narrow streams with the opening to the Baltic Sea in the west. The innermost Bodden basins are predominantly influenced by freshwater and the outermost basins receive more Baltic Sea water. The whole Bodden chain was subject to a substantial eutrophication for decades until 1990. Macrophytes vanished, phytoplankton formed dense blooms throughout the growing season and organic matter accumulated in the system. The water mixing varies in time and is very different for the separate water basins what obscures trends of biological parameters, e.g. phytoplankton composition, primary production and benthic organisms. Thus, the process of 30 years' eutrophication and especially of re-mesotrophication for the last 15 years is difficult to describe and verify without an indicator for the portion of mesotrophic Baltic Sea water at the monitoring locations. Therefore, variability of salinity was described on short-term, seasonal and long-term ranges as well as spatial gradients. The data set is based on 29 years of daily measurements for the central part of the Bodden chain. In contrast to deep fjords of the northern Baltic Sea, maximum salinity changes were ca. 1 psu per day not for more than consecutive 5 days in the same direction. In contrast to the outer coastal waters of the Baltic Sea, lowest salinities occurred always in early spring and highest in autumn indicating a completely different set of meteorological and hydrological parameters affecting seasonality. Annual averages of Bodden salinity correlated with values of the Baltic Sea, but deviations from the mean were twice as high. The long-term mean at the central Bodden chain (Zingster

  10. Extreme sea levels at selected stations on the Baltic Sea coast** This work was financed by the Polish National Centre for Science research project No. 2011/01/B/ST10/06470.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Wolski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyse and describe the extreme characteristics of the water levels and illustrate them as the topography of the sea surface along the whole Baltic Sea coast. The general pattern is to show the maxima and minima of Baltic Sea water levels and the extent of their variations in the period from 1960 to 2010. A probability analysis is carried out on the annual sea level maxima and minima for 31 water level gauges in order to define the probability of occurrence of theoretical sea levels once in a specific number of years. The spatial distribution of sea levels for hundred-year maximum and minimum water levels is illustrated. Then, the number of storm surges for the accepted criteria are presented: these numbers increased in the 50-year period analysed. The final part of the work analyses some extreme storm events and calculates the static value and dynamic deformation of the sea surface by mesoscale, deep low-pressure systems.

  11. A follow-up study of selected biomarkers of health in cod Gadus morhua L. collected from the southern Baltic off the Polish coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucinska, J D; Morka, D; Grabowski, Z; Smith, H

    2017-12-01

    Selected biomarkers of health were examined in 50 post-spawning cod Gadus morhua collected in November 2015 from the southern Baltic. The biomarkers included condition factor (CF), macroscopic lesions, histopathology of spleen, liver and gonads, and morphometry of follicular atresia and hepatic and splenic melanomacrophage cells (MMC). All fish appeared in good body condition. One fish had a dermal ulcer, and in seven, macroscopic nematodes were noted within body cavity. Microscopic lesions in the liver included biliary myxozoanosis, microsporidial and necrocentric granulomas, parasitic hepatitis, multifocal necrosis, foci of cellular alterations, spongiosis, peliosis and cytoplasmic fibrillar inclusions. The spleen and gonads had microsporidial and/or necrocentric granulomas. Some of the biomarkers showed differences as compared to spawning cod collected in May from the same location in 2012, most importantly values an order of magnitude lower for splenic MMC in post-spawning fish. In post-spawning fish, there were statistically significant correlations between MMC, CF, follicular atresia, parasitic hepatitis and microsporidiosis. This is the first comparison of biomarkers of health in post-spawning and spawning Baltic cod. Future studies need to examine the relationships of biomarkers to levels of pollutants in the environment and in tissues of cod. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Introduction for the SI "Understanding the Baltic Sea"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikauniece, Anda; Markus Meier, H. E.; Kalniņa, Laimdota

    2017-08-01

    The Baltic Sea is a semi-enclosed sea with a low salinity, slow water exchange and distinguished stratification. Natural properties of the Baltic thus promote development of anoxic areas at the deepest parts of the sea. In addition, the coasts of the Baltic Sea are heavily populated - 85 million inhabitants living in the drainage basin and 9 countries surrounding the sea, most of them highly industrially developed. Anthropogenic activities consequently add considerable pressure on the already vulnerable environment of the sea. Eutrophication, over-fishing and changed food-web, oil pollution, occurrence of hazardous substances, damage of seafloor by trawling and construction works are all present in the Baltic Sea.

  13. Regional decision-makers as potential users of Extreme Weather Event Attribution - Case studies from the German Baltic Sea coast and the Greater Paris area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Schwab

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Extreme Event Attribution has raised increasing attention in climate science in the last years. It means to judge the extent to which certain weather-related extreme events have changed due to human influences on climate with probabilistic statements. Extreme Event Attribution is often anticipated to spur more than just scientific ambition. It is able to provide answers to a commonly asked questions after extreme events, namely, ‘can we blame it on climate change’ and is assumed to support decision-making of various actors engaged in climate change mitigation and adaptation. More in-depth research is widely lacking about who these actors are; in which context they can make use of it; and what requirements they have, to be able to actually apply Extreme Event Attribution. We have therefore addressed these questions with two empirical case studies looking at regional decision-makers who deal with storm surge risks in the German Baltic Sea region and heat waves in the Greater Paris area. Stakeholder interviews and workshops reveal that fields of application and requirements are diverse, difficult to explicitly identify, and often clearly associated with stakeholders' specific mandate, the hazard background, and the regional socio-economic setting. Among the considered stakeholders in the Baltic Sea region, Extreme Event Attribution is perceived to be most useful to awareness-raising, in particular for climate change mitigation. They emphasised the importance of receiving understandable information - and that, rather later, but with smaller uncertainties than faster, but with higher uncertainties. In the Paris case, we typically talked to people engaged in adaptation with expertise in terms of climate science, but narrowly defined mandates which is typical for the Paris-centred political system with highly specialised public experts. The interviewees claimed that Extreme Event Attribution is most useful to political leverage and public

  14. Baltic Eye: Focusing on Science and Communication to Improve Policy Making for the Baltic Sea Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrackin, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    In order to better communicate relevant scientific knowledge to policy- and decision makers, Stockholm University and the Baltic Sea 2020 Foundation partnered to create Baltic Eye in 2014. Seven scientists and two communicators constitute the core team of this initiative. The team integrates communications with scientific analysis and synthesis of Baltic Sea environmental issues. In the past year, the team has focused on two main issues: fisheries management and microplastics. Baltic Sea cod stocks are in poor condition, with large numbers of small individuals. Baltic Eye recommended improvements to the European Union's multiannual fisheries plan to better align with ecosystem-based management principles: prioritization of cod stock recovery, greater consideration of natural variability of temperature and salinity (which affects cod spawning success), and inclusion of mechanisms to adjust quotas in the event of major environmental changes. Communications included policy briefs and debate articles targeted to the European Parliament, national government ministries, and non-governmental organizations. Every year, up to 40 tons of microplastics from personal care products are released in the Baltic Sea catchment. Baltic Eye raised awareness of the issue and made recommended ways to reduce microplastic emissions. Communications included a public presentation to journalists, politicians, and representatives of Swedish government ministries. A policy brief was provided Heads of Delegates of the Helsinki Commission (for protrection of the Baltic Sea environment) in advance of a meeting to develop a plan of action for marine litter. Researchers were interviewed for radio, TV, and print media in Sweden, Finland, and Germany. Next steps are to engage with multinational manufacturers about plans to voluntarily phase out microplastics in personal care products.

  15. Emergence of the Zoonotic Biliary Trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum in Grey Seals (Halichoerus grypus in the Baltic Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksija S Neimanis

    Full Text Available The biliary trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum parasitizes a wide range of fish-eating mammals, including humans. Here we report the emergence of this parasite in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus in the Baltic Sea. One hundred eighty-three of 1 554 grey seals (11.9% examined from 2002-2013 had detectable hepatobiliary trematode infection. Parasite identification was confirmed as P. truncatum by sequencing the ITS2 region of a pool of five to 10 trematodes from each of ten seals collected off the coast of seven different Swedish counties. The proportion of seals parasitized by P. truncatum increased significantly over time and with increasing age of seals. Males were 3.1 times more likely to be parasitized than females and animals killed in fishery interactions were less likely to be parasitized than animals found dead or hunted. There was no significant difference in parasitism of seals examined from the Gulf of Bothnia versus those examined from the Baltic Proper. Although the majority of infections were mild, P. truncatum can cause severe hepatobiliary disease and resulted in liver failure in at least one seal. Because cyprinid fish are the second intermediate host for opisthorchiid trematodes, diets of grey seals from the Baltic Sea were analysed regarding presence of cyprinids. The proportion of gastrointestinal tracts containing cyprinid remains was ten times higher in seals examined from 2008 to 2013 (12.2% than those examined from 2002 to 2007 (1.2% and coincided with a general increase of trematode parasitism in the host population. The emergence and relatively common occurrence of P. truncatum in grey seals signals the presence of this parasite in the Baltic Sea ecosystem and demonstrates how aquatic mammals can serve as excellent sentinels of marine ecosystem change. Investigation of drivers behind P. truncatum emergence and infection risk for other mammals, including humans, is highly warranted.

  16. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki

    2010-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s....... Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout...... about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest...

  17. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki

    2011-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s....... Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout...... about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest...

  18. The use of algae in monitoring discharges of radionuclides. Experiences from the 1992 and 1993 monitoring programmes at the Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoeijs, P. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecological Botany; Simenstad, P. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    All four Swedish nuclear power plants (Forsmark, Oskarshamn, Barsebaeck and Ringhals) use brackish water as coolant (Baltic Sea and Swedish west coast). Radionuclides are discharged together with the cooling water. The gamma spectra of monthly algal samples harvested in 1992 and 1993 close to the discharge points of these power plants were determined within the routine monitoring programmes. The main radionuclides detected in the algal samples were {sup 54}Mn, {sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs. Most {sup 137}Cs in the samples from the northern Baltic Sea (Forsmark) still originated from the 1986 Chernobyl accident. Other radionuclides, notably {sup 51}Cr, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 124}b, {sup 125}Sb and {sup 134}Cs, were regularly detected at s of the sites. Transfer factors from discharge to algae were generally in the order of 0.3-3 Bq kg{sup -1} per MBq discharge. For the major discharged radionuclides, significant linear relationships were in most cases found between discharges and concentrations in algal samples. Differences in transfer factors and regression coefficients were explained by location of the sampling sites and type of radionuclide. It is concluded that algal samples provide useful complements to water and sediment samples in the monitoring programmes since radionuclide concentrations are much higher in algal samples and proportional to the discharges. 21 refs, figs.

  19. Baltic Landscapes : Festival of Images from Baltics

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Hanno Soans eesti projektist "Analogue TV" N.E.W.S. (north-east-west-süd) seminaril. Eesti videoprogramm näitusel "Baltic Landscapes" (kunstnikud A. Maimik, K. Kaljo, E-L. Semper, M. Raat, M. Laanemets, K. Sukmit, J. Zoova) Bornholmis

  20. Changes in the extreme wave heights over the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtseva, Nadia; Soomere, Tarmo

    2017-04-01

    Storms over the Baltic Sea and northwestern Europe have a large impact on the population, offshore industry, and shipping. The understanding of extreme events in sea wave heights and their change due to the climate change and variability is critical for assessment of flooding risks and coastal protection. The BACCII Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin showed that the extreme events analysis of wind waves is currently not very well addressed, as well as satellite observations of the wave heights. Here we discuss the analysis of all existing satellite altimetry data over the Baltic Sea Basin regarding extremes in the wave heights. In this talk for the first time, we present an analysis of 100-yr return periods, fitted generalized Pareto and Weibull distributions, number, and frequency of extreme events in wave heights in the Baltic Sea measured by the multi-mission satellite altimetry. The data span more than 23 years and provide an excellent spatial coverage over the Baltic Sea, allowing to study in details spatial variations and changes in extreme wave heights. The analysis is based on an application of the Initial Distribution Method, Annual Maxima method and Peak-Over-Threshold approach to satellite altimetry data, all validated in comparison with in-situ wave height measurements. Here we show that the 100-yr return periods of wave heights show significant spatial changes over the Baltic Sea indicating a decrease in the southern part of the Baltic Sea and an increase in adjacent areas, which can significantly affect coast vulnerability. Here we compare the observed shift with storm track database data and discuss a spatial correlation and possible connection between the changes in the storm tracks over the Baltic Sea and the change in the extreme wave heights.

  1. Nutrient trends through time in Sweden's Baltic Drainage Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, I.; Destouni, G.; Prieto, C.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in climate and land-use have and will continue to modify regional hydrology, in turn impacting environmental health, agricultural productivity and water resource quality and availability. The Baltic region is an area of interest as the coast spans nine countries- serving over 100 million people. The Baltic Sea contains one of the largest human caused hypoxic dead zones due to eutrophication driven by anthropogenic excess loading of nutrients. Policies to reduce these loads include also international directives and agreements, such as the EU Water Framework Directive, adopted in 2000 to protect and improve water quality throughout the European Union, and the Baltic Sea Action Plan under the Helsinki Commission aimed specifically at reducing the nutrient loading to and mitigating the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea. In light of these policies and amidst the number of studies on the Baltic Sea we ask, using the accessible nutrient and discharge data what does nutrient loading look like today? Are the most excessive loads going down? Observed nutrient and flow time series across Sweden allow for answering these questions, by spatial and temporal trend analysis of loads from various parts of Sweden to the Baltic Sea. Analyzing these observed time series in conjunction with the ecological health status classifications of the EU Water Framework Directive, allows in particular for answering the question if the loads into the water bodies with the poorest water quality, and from those to the Baltic Sea, are improving, being maintained or deteriorating. Such insight is required to contribute to relevant and efficient water and nutrient load management. Furthermore, empirically calculating nutrient loads, rather than only modeling, reveals that the water body health classification may not reflect what water bodies actually contribute the heaviest loads to the Baltic Sea. This work also underscores the importance of comprehensive analysis of all available data from

  2. Improved resiliency and well-being among military personnel in a Swedish Naval Force after a counter-piracy operation off the coast of Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäccman, Charlotte; Hjärthag, Fredrik; Almqvist, Kjerstin

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore: (1) how the psychological health of the members of the first European Union Naval Force (ME01) was affected by international deployment off the coast of Somalia; and (2) if and how organizational and personal factors (e.g., type of personnel category, previous experiences, and resilience) affected their psychological health and well-being post-deployment. The study had an exploratory longitudinal design, where the participants were assessed both before and after deployment (i.e., T1 and T2). The participants (n = 129, 120 men, 9 women) were equally distributed between officers (n = 68; 64 men, 4 women) and sailors (n = 61; 56 men, 5 women). The members' average age was 31 years, ranging from 20 to 61. For the majority (78%) ME01 was their first international deployment and officers were, in general, more experienced than sailors. The overall results showed that the members' reported a positive experience with improved resilience and well-being (e.g., sense of coherence). However, the result also showed that type of personnel category (i.e., officer or sailor) affected their psychological health. Why and how these differences among military personnel arise is discussed, but deserves further attention. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Baltic Klint beneath the central Baltic Sea and its comparison with the North Estonian Klint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuuling, Igor; Flodén, Tom

    2016-06-01

    Along its contact with the Baltic Shield, the margin of the East European Platform reveals a well-developed, flooded terraced relief. The most striking and consistent set of escarpments at the contact of the Lower Palaeozoic calcareous and terrigenous rocks, known as the Baltic Klint (BK), extends from northwest of Russia to the Swedish island of Öland. Marine seismic reflection profiling in 1990-2004 revealed the central Baltic Sea Klint (BSK) section in detail and enabled comparison of its geology/geomorphology with a classical klint-section onshore, namely the North Estonian Klint (NEK). The conception of the BK onshore, which is based on the land-sea separating terraced relief in northern Estonia, is not fully applicable beneath the sea. Therefore, we consider that the BSK includes the entire terraced Cambrian outcrop. We suggest the term "Baltic Klint Complex" to include the well-terraced margin of the Ordovician limestone outcrop, which is weakly developed in Estonia. Because of a steady lithological framework of the bedrock layers across the southern slope of the Fennoscandian Shield, the central BSK in the western and the NEK in the eastern part of the Baltic Homocline have largely identical morphologies. The North Estonian Ordovician limestone plateau with the calcareous crest of the BK extends across the central Baltic Sea, whereas morphological changes/variations along the Klint base occur due to the east-westerly lithostratigraphic/thickness changes in the siliciclastic Cambrian sequence. The verge of the NEK, located some 30-50 m above sea level, starts to drop in altitude as its east-westerly course turns to northeast-southwest in western Estonia. Further westwards, the BK shifts gradually into southerly deepening (0.1-0.2°) layers as its crest drops to c. 150 m below sea level (b.s.l.) near Gotska Sandön. This course change is accompanied by a considerable decrease in thickness of the platform sedimentary cover, as below the central Baltic Sea the

  4. South Baltic Wind Atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    A first version of a wind atlas for the South Baltic Sea has been developed using the WRF mesoscale model and verified by data from tall Danish and German masts. Six different boundary-layer parametrization schemes were evaluated by comparing the WRF results to the observed wind profiles at the m......A first version of a wind atlas for the South Baltic Sea has been developed using the WRF mesoscale model and verified by data from tall Danish and German masts. Six different boundary-layer parametrization schemes were evaluated by comparing the WRF results to the observed wind profiles...

  5. Future conditions for integration of the Baltic Electricity Supply System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The economies of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania developed in close association with the north-west region of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true for energy supply systems and electricity generation and transmission; the Baltic States depend on Russia for much of their primary energy needs, and export power to Russia and Belarus. In restructuring their electricity industries, the Baltic States hope to establish closer relationships and trade with Western Europe. The initial focus has been on changes to the legislative framework, industry restructuring and the establishment of new regulatory institutions. Vertically integrated utilities are in the process of being broken up into a number of separate generation, transmission and distribution companies. This restructuring is a prelude to privatisation. The states aim to establish a common power market among themselves, and hope to integrate this market with neighbouring (Nordic and European) markets. Despite the target set by the Baltic authorities of a common market by 2001, there is little clarity, as yet, on the framework and guidelines for the structure and functioning of the market. This process is supported by other players in the region, and the EU has recently prioritised closer co-operation and harmonisation of power networks in the Baltic Sea region. The Swedish National Energy Administration has identified cooperation on energy and environmental issues in the Baltic Sea region as one of its priorities. Consequently, the Administration commissioned ECON to analyse the conditions for closer linkages between the Baltic and Nordic electricity systems. This report presents the findings of this analysis.

  6. Wind Wave Climate of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedeva, Alisa

    2017-04-01

    Storms in the Baltic Sea in autumn and winter are very frequent. In this research the goal is to estimate decadal and interannual changes of the wave fields for the entire Baltic Sea. The wave parameters, such as significant wave heights and periods, were simulated for the period 1979-2015 years based on NCEP/CFSR Reanalysis data fields and for the period 1948-2010 years based on NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data. For accuracy estimation of the model the statistical characteristics, such as correlation coefficient, bias, scatter index and RMSE were calculated. Also two computational meshes were compared: rectangular and triangulated. In this study the third generation spectral wind-wave model SWAN was used for simulations. For wind input data two types of wind reanalysis were chosen: NCEP/CFSR with 1-hour time step and NCEP/NCAR with time step of 6 hours. The final computational grid for rectangular mesh for the Baltic Sea is 0.05×0.05°. The simulated data were compared with instrumental data of the Sweden buoys and of the acoustic wave recorder fixed at the Russian oil platform. The results reveal that for the Baltic Sea it is more efficient to use rectangular mesh for the deep open area and irregular mesh near the coast. Simulations using wind data from NCEP/NCAR significantly decreases the quality of the results compared with NCEP/CFSR wind data: Bias increases in 10 times (-0.730), RMSE - in 2-3 times (0.89). The following results of numerical modeling using NCEP/NCAR the storm situations, when the significant wave height exceeded 2 meters, were identified for the 63-year period. An average of about 50 storms per year happened in the Baltic Sea in this time period. The storminess of the Baltic Sea tends to increase. The twenty-year periodicity with the increase in the 70-s and 90-s years of XX century was revealed. The average yearly significant wave height increases in the second part of the century too and differs from 2.4 to 3.3 m. Storm cyclones are connected

  7. Baltic financial markets attractive

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Tallinnas toimunud konverentsil East Baltic Summit tõdesid eksperdid, et Balti riikidel on välisinvestorite silmis positiivne maine. Esinejate hulgas olid Rootsi endine peaminister Carl Bildt, Baltimaade juhtivaid eksperte Bengt Dennis, investeerimispankur Rain Lõhmus, East Capitali president Peter Elam Hakansson

  8. Baltic Exchange toodi Tallinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Viimane osa merekonteineritesse kokkupakitud Londoni laevandus- ja merebörsi Baltic Exchange'i endise peakorteri detailidest jõudis 2007. a. juunis Tallinna. Hoone detailid ostnud ärimehed Heiti Hääl ja Eerik-Niiles Kross plaanivad leida hoonele koha Tallinna kesklinnas. E.-N. Krossi kommentaar

  9. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations

  10. Think - Baltic Extension / Kalle Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Kalle

    2002-01-01

    Tallinna TÜ Rehabilitatsiooni tehnoloogia keskus korraldas pressikonverentsi, kus tutvustati osalemist EL V raamprogrammis Think - Baltic Extension, mis on suunatud puuetega inimeste tööhõive tagamisele

  11. Swedish, Finnish style crisis for the Baltics? / Todd Graham

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Graham, Todd

    2006-01-01

    Majandusteadlased võrdlevad käesolevat Baltimaade kinnisvara- ja laenubuumi 1980ndate lõpul ning 1990ndate algul Rootis ja Soomes toimunuga. Juhtumites ka oluliselt erinevaid jooni. Kuidas peaks reageerima valitsus

  12. Top-down regulation, climate and multi-decadal changes in coastal zoobenthos communities in two Baltic Sea areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Jens; Bergström, Lena; Gårdmark, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The structure of many marine ecosystems has changed substantially during recent decades, as a result of overexploitation, climate change and eutrophication. Despite of the apparent ecological and economical importance of coastal areas and communities, this aspect has received relatively little attention in coastal systems. Here we assess the temporal development of zoobenthos communities in two areas on the Swedish Baltic Sea coast during 30 years, and relate their development to changes in climate, eutrophication and top-down regulation from fish. Both communities show substantial structural changes, with a decrease in marine polychaetes and species sensitive to increased water temperatures. Concurrently, opportunistic species tolerant to environmental perturbation have increased in abundance. Species composition show a similar temporal development in both communities and significant changes in species composition occurred in both data sets in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The change in species composition was associated with large scale changes in climate (salinity and water temperature) and to the structure of the local fish community, whereas we found no effects of nutrient loading or ambient nutrient concentrations. Our results suggest that these coastal zoobenthos communities have gone through substantial structural changes over the last 30 years, resulting in communities of different species composition with potentially different ecological functions. We hence suggest that the temporal development of coastal zoobenthos communities should be assessed in light of prevailing climatic conditions considering the potential for top-down effects exerted by local fish communities.

  13. Morphological and genetic divergence in Swedish postglacial stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) populations

    OpenAIRE

    Englund Göran; Johansson Frank; Lussetti Daniel; Mobley Kenyon B; Bokma Folmer

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background An important objective of evolutionary biology is to understand the processes that govern phenotypic variation in natural populations. We assessed patterns of morphological and genetic divergence among coastal and inland lake populations of nine-spined stickleback in northern Sweden. Coastal populations are either from the Baltic coast (n = 5) or from nearby coastal lakes (n = 3) that became isolated from the Baltic Sea (< 100 years before present, ybp). Inland populations...

  14. Access to distributed marine databases on the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, A.; Axe, P.; Bock, S.; Kaitala, S.; Manscher, O. H.; Rodriguez-Medina, M.; Olsonen, R.; Priha, I.; Tikka, K.

    2012-04-01

    Baltic Nest Institute, Stockholm University (Sweden) in cooperation with Department of Bioscience/DCE, National Centre for Environment and Energy, Aarhus University (Denmark), Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research (Germany), Finnish Environment Institute, Finnish Meteorological Institute and Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute developed a data assessment system, aimed at providing tools for online analysis of marine environmental data (temperature, salinity, chemical properties) from distributed collection of databases on the Baltic Sea. Such approach allows users to have fast access to the most recent data from all major data providers and providers remain in control of their data. The system contains a web data portal, which provides concurrent access to distributed marine databases and presents information in a unified way. Two client programs use the data portal and provide tools to analyse the data. The DAS - Data Assimilation System (http://nest.su.se/das/) accesses databases through the data portal and allow analysing the raw data and creating gridded data, which can be used as initial fields for 3D hydrodynamic models. A decision support system Nest (http://nest.su.se/nest/) developed and maintained at the Stockholm University as a tool to support decision-making at international negotiations regarding the Baltic Sea environment also uses the data portal to access marine data, provide access to the raw data and perform time-series analysis. The data portal designed to output data in a common format (CSV) for further post-processing using other software. It makes the system open to develop another client programs for data analysis.

  15. Model simulation of inflow water to the Baltic Sea based on 129I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, P.; Chen, X.G.; Bao, D.X.

    2013-01-01

    The semi-enclosed Baltic Sea represents a vital economic and recreational resource for more than 90 million people inhabiting its coasts. Extensive contamination of this sea by a variety of anthropogenic pollutants has raised the concern of the people in the region. Quantifying seawater inflow...

  16. Finnish Archaeologists’ Contacts with the Baltic Countries during the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Salminen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Finnish archaeologists, especially Aarne Michaël Tallgren, had established contacts with their colleagues in the Baltic countries before the Second World War. In the summer of 1939, the world situation became a dominant theme in letters between archaeologists. The outbreak of war in Europe and the military base negotiations in Moscow evoked increasing concern. After the Soviet attack on Finland, only a few Finnish and Baltic archaeologists stayed in contact, but communications revived quickly after the Finnish-Soviet peace treaty of 1940. Estonian archaeologist Harri Moora saw the trials of war as a punishment for forgetting all spiritual values in previous years. The Soviet occupation of the Baltic countries in 1940 broke all contacts for longer than a year. After Germany had occupied the Baltic countries in 1941 and was allied with Finland in war against the Soviet Union, connections could be resumed to some extent. Tallgren, together with the Swedish State Antiquarian Sigurd Curman, now started planning the evacuation of children from Estonia to Sweden. In 1942, scholarly discussion returned to the correspondence, although only on a practical level, but already in early 1943 all correspondence became impossible. At the same time, Finnish archaeologists were in contact with Baltic refugees, especially Francis Balodis from Latvia. There were also Scandinavian and British archaeologists with whom Finnish researchers exchanged information about colleagues in the Baltic countries. The communications mainly focused on three things: getting and spreading information regarding the current situation, offering both practical help and psychological support to colleagues in the Baltic countries, and attempting to re-establish the exchange of ideas within the scholarly community.

  17. Plastic pollution on the Baltic beaches of Kaliningrad region, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esiukova, Elena

    2017-01-30

    Contamination of sandy beaches of the Baltic Sea in Kaliningrad region is evaluated on the base of surveys carried out from June 2015 to January 2016. Quantity of macro/meso/microplastic objects in the upper 2cm of the sandy sediments of the wrack zone at 13 sampling sites all along the Russian coast is reported. Occurrence of paraffin and amber pieces at the same sites is pointed out. Special attention is paid to microplastics (range 0.5-5mm): its content ranges between 1.3 and 36.3 items per kg dry sediment. The prevailing found type is foamed plastic. No sound differences in contamination are discovered between beaches with high and low anthropogenic load. Mean level of contamination is of the same order of magnitude as has been reported by other authors for the Baltic Sea beaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Regional genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, J.; Lind, E. E.; Corell, H.; Grahn, M.; Smolarz, K.; Lönn, M.

    2017-08-01

    Connectivity plays an important role in shaping the genetic structure and in evolution of local adaptation. In the marine environment barriers to gene flow are in most cases caused by gradients in environmental factors, ocean circulation and/or larval behavior. Despite the long pelagic larval stages, with high potential for dispersal many marine organisms have been shown to have a fine scale genetic structuring. In this study, by using a combination of high-resolution genetic markers, species hybridization data and biophysical modeling we can present a comprehensive picture of the evolutionary landscape for a keystone species in the Baltic Sea, the blue mussel. We identified distinct genetic differentiation between the West Coast, Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea regions, with lower gene diversity in the Bothnian Sea. Oceanographic connectivity together with salinity and to some extent species identity provides explanations for the genetic differentiation between the West Coast and the Baltic Sea (Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea). The genetic differentiation between the Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea cannot be directly explained by oceanographic connectivity, species identity or salinity, while the lower connectivity to the Bothnian Sea may explain the lower gene diversity.

  19. Survey of transportation of liquid bulk chemicals in the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posti, A.; Hakkinen, J.

    2012-07-01

    This study is made as a part of the Chembaltic (Risks of Maritime Transportation of Chemicals in Baltic Sea) project which gathers information on the chemicals transported in the Baltic Sea. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of handling volumes of liquid bulk chemicals (including liquefied gases) in the Baltic Sea ports and to find out what the most transported liquid bulk chemicals in the Baltic Sea are. Oil and oil products are also viewed in this study but only in a general level. Oils and oil products may also include chemical-related substances (e.g. certain bio-fuels which belong to MARPOL annex II category) in some cargo statistics. Chemicals in packaged form are excluded from the study. Most of the facts about the transport volumes of chemicals presented in this study are based on secondary written sources of Scandinavian, Russian, Baltic and international origin. Furthermore, statistical sources, academic journals, periodicals, newspapers and in later years also different homepages on the Internet have been used as sources of information. Chemical handling volumes in Finnish ports were examined in more detail by using a nationwide vessel traffic system called PortNet. Many previous studies have shown that the Baltic Sea ports are annually handling more than 11 million tonnes of liquid chemicals transported in bulk. Based on this study, it appears that the number may be even higher. The liquid bulk chemicals account for approximately 4 % of the total amount of liquid bulk cargoes handled in the Baltic Sea ports. Most of the liquid bulk chemicals are handled in Finnish and Swedish ports and their proportion of all liquid chemicals handled in the Baltic Sea is altogether over 50 %. The most handled chemicals in the Baltic Sea ports are methanol, sodium hydroxide solution, ammonia, sulphuric and phosphoric acid, pentanes, aromatic free solvents, xylenes, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethanol and ethanol solutions. All of these chemicals

  20. Pattern and dynamics of the ground vegetation in south Swedish Carpinus betulus forests. Importance of soil chemistry and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Conservation Biology, Uppsala (Sweden); Falkengren-Grerup, U.; Tyler, G. [Plant Ecology, Dept. of Ecology, Lund (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    The vegetation and environmental conditions of south Swedish horn-beam Carpinus betulus forests are described with data from 35 permanent sample plots. The main floristic gradient of the ground vegetation is closely related to acid-base properties of the top soil: Base saturation, pH and organic matter content. Other floristic differences are related to tree canopy cover and the distance of the sample plots to the Baltic coast. Species richness of herbaceous plants typical of forests increases with soil pH. The number of other herbaceous species, occurring in both forests and open habitats, and of woody species is not related to pH. Comparisons of vegetation data from 1983 and 1993 show relatively small compositional differences of the herbaceous forest flora. The number of other herbaceous species increased considerably in those plots where canopy trees had been cut after 1983. The number of new species in managed plots increases with soil pH. Species losses and gains of the herbaceous forest flora between 1983 and 1993 are generally lower as compared with other herbaceous species and woody species. However, the ground cover of herbaceous forest species, especially of Oxalis acetosella and Lamium galeobdolon, was considerably lower in 1993 as compared to 1983 in both unmanaged and managed plots. Possible explanations for this decrease are current soil acidification and drought during the growing season. (au) 32 refs.

  1. The Swedish Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    2012-01-01

    The main characteristics of ‘the Swedish model’ are arguably related to the country's knowledge-intensive industry and its advanced welfare state. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the historical development of these two features of the Swedish economy. The first part looks at industrial...

  2. Does thalli complexity and biomass affect the associated flora and fauna of two co-occurring Fucus species in the Baltic Sea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schagerström, Ellen; Forslund, Helena; Kautsky, Lena; Pärnoja, Merli; Kotta, Jonne

    2014-08-01

    On rocky shores, fucoids provide habitat, shelter and food for associated biota. In the northern parts of the Baltic, the Bothnian Sea, the new fucoid species Fucus radicans (Bergström et Kautsky) was recently described. This study compares the thallus complexity and size as well as quantified the abundance and biomass of epiphytic algae and invertebrate taxa of the two fucoid species F. radicans and Fucus vesiculosus L. from sympatric sites in the Bothnian Sea on the Swedish coast and around the Estonian island Saaremaa. We found that F. radicans was more complex than F. vesiculosus within the whole study range, but both species had a more complex thallus structure in the Bothnian Sea compared to Estonia. The complexity of host algae did not contribute to their associated flora and fauna taxon richness; instead, the size of thalli was a good proxy for associated communities. Specifically, on a biomass basis, F. vesiculosus displayed highest species richness and highest faunal abundance in the Bothnian Sea, whereas no such differences were found around Saaremaa, probably because both Fucus species had similar height around Saaremaa whereas F. vesiculosus grew much taller and larger in the Bothnian Sea. There were some unique associated macroalgal and invertebrate species that were found only on either of the fucoids, indicating the importance of separating them as species in surveys and monitoring.

  3. Changes in extreme sea levels in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, Christian; Gröger, Matthias; Andersson, Helén; Nerheim, Signild; Jönsson, Anette

    2016-04-01

    A newly developed shallow water model for the Baltic Sea and North Sea is presented. The model is validated by means of a comparison with hindcast simulations with observational data sets. The aim of the development is to provide and apply a modelling tool to model extreme sea levels in the Baltic Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak. The model approach will support the direct analysis of extreme sea level observations in the past and provide the possibility to extend the statistical data base by producing very long time series or very large ensembles of coastal sea levels. This effort is intended to contribute to an assessment of risks due to storm surges and coastal flooding in the 21st century along the coast of Sweden. By using different RCP climate scenarios downscaled with a regional, coupled climate model atmospheric forcing is available to project possible changes in extreme sea levels into the future. Projected sea level rise, changes in dynamical sea level in the North East Atlantic and tidal forcing in the northern North Sea are applied as boundary condition which allows to investigate their impact on the dynamics of regional sea level variability. Initial experiments focus on the impact of model resolution, resolution in the atmospheric forcing and the amount of details necessary in the bathymetry to faithfully model coastal sea level in the Baltic Sea and North Sea.

  4. Swedish Government Minister at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research recently visited CERN. The Swedish Minister was greeted by Swedish scientists working at CERN. Signing of the Swedish Computing Memorandum of Understanding. Pär Omling, Director-General of the Swedish Research Council (left), and Jos Engelen, CERN’s Chief Scientific Officer. Lars Leijonborg, the Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research, was welcomed to CERN by Director-General Robert Aymar on 10 March. After an introduction to the Laboratory’s activities, the Minister was given guided tours of the control room, the ATLAS surface hall and experiment cavern and the adjoining LHC tunnel. Mr Leijonborg was then greeted by Swedish scientists and given an overview of the Swedish research programme at CERN. Five Swedish university groups are taking part in LHC research. Swedish universities are notably involved in the manufacture of parts for the sub-detectors of AT...

  5. Recipient Capacity of Tvaeren, a Baltic Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnedal, P.O.; Bergstroem, S.O.W.

    1966-07-15

    The research station at Studsvik is situated on the Baltic coast and includes several reactors and laboratories, a waste disposal plant serving both the station and waste producers outside Studsvik. A storage plant for irradiated fuel from power reactors has also been built. A total of 850 people are employed. The waste disposal plant was designed for a personnel of 900 using foreign information to correlate waste amounts to personnel. After a delay production has increased at a rate very close to the one expected. The composition of the waste is varied and difficult to predict. Minor amounts of fission products, active corrosion products, and fissile materials have been detected. Most of the waste activity is released to a strait leading into the Bay. Large volumes of water with very low specific activity are released immediately off the coast. Hydrological and dispersion data for the bay are quoted from a paper presented at the symposium mentioned below. The Baltic has brackish water. Both the chemistry and the biology are quite different from those of marine or fresh water recipients. A short description is given of the fauna and flora and important food webs are discussed. The different ways in which man is exposed to radioactivity in waste releases are dependent upon biological accumulation in living organisms and adsorption to dead materials. Fish consumption is the type of exposure which is likely to be the most critical, though it is possible that the exposure from sunbathing and fishing-gear handling could reach similar significance if conservative calculations are used. Accumulation factors from water to fish are given for iron, cobalt,and zinc . Permissible releases have been calculated using relevant accumulation factors. Fission products and corrosion products seem to be of similar significance with regard to possible human exposure. Permission to release liquid waste is granted by water courts in Sweden and operations inspected by special authorities

  6. Construction of transport and energy networks in the Baltic region as an impetus for regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Alexey

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In light of some new aspects of the EU functioning, particularly, the recovery from the 2008-2009 global crisis, transportation and energy development projects are coming to the forefront in the Baltic region. At the same time, there is a need to consider EU’s recent adoption of a common seven-year financial program (2014—2020, which serves, in effect, as the Union’s budget. Given that, one may conclude that the countries of the Baltic region are entering a new stage of development. We look at the role and significance of transportation and energy projects as an instrument of economic development. Having studied the largest transport and energy projects in the Baltic region, we were able to show that the new infrastructure networks supported the investment expansion of Swedish and Finnish companies into the post-communist countries of the Baltic Region. Which, in its turn, allowed the Nordic investors to expand their domestic markets. The analysis also shows that the experience of private businesses proves a recent theoretical concept — the pyramid of regional development factors. As a result, the actual regional policy of the EU cannot be considered in the narrow sense of the Cohesion Policy alone.

  7. Construction of transport and energy networks in the Baltic region as an impetus for regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Alexey

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In light of some new aspects of the EU functioning, particularly, the recovery from the 2008-2009 global crisis, transportation and energy development projects are coming to the forefront in the Baltic region. At the same time, there is a need to consider EU’s recent adoption of a common seven-year financial program (2014—2020, which serves, in effect, as the Union’s budget. Given that, one may conclude that the countries of the Baltic region are entering a new stage of development. We look at the role and significance of transportation and energy projects as an instrument of economic development. Having studied the largest transport and energy projects in the Baltic region, we were able to show that the new infrastructure networks supported the investment expansion of Swedish and Finnish companies into the post-communist countries of the Baltic Region. Which, in its turn, allowed the Nordic investors to expand their domestic markets. The analysis also shows that the experience of private businesses proves a recent theoretical concept — the pyramid of regional development factors. As a result, the actual regional policy of the EU cannot be considered in the narrow sense of the Cohesion Policy alone.

  8. Construction of transport and energy networks in the Baltic region as an impetus for regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Alexey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In light of some new aspects of the EU functioning, particularly, the recovery from the 2008-2009 global crisis, transportation and energy development projects are coming to the forefront in the Baltic region. At the same time, there is a need to consider EU’s recent adoption of a common seven-year financial program (2014—2020, which serves, in effect, as the Union’s budget. Given that, one may conclude that the countries of the Baltic region are entering a new stage of development. We look at the role and significance of transportation and energy projects as an instrument of economic development. Having studied the largest transport and energy projects in the Baltic region, we were able to show that the new infrastructure networks supported the investment expansion of Swedish and Finnish companies into the post-communist countries of the Baltic Region. Which, in its turn, allowed the Nordic investors to expand their domestic markets. The analysis also shows that the experience of private businesses proves a recent theoretical concept — the pyramid of regional development factors. As a result, the actual regional policy of the EU cannot be considered in the narrow sense of the Cohesion Policy alone.

  9. Baltic Exchange teper v Tallinne

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Viimane osa merekonteineritesse kokkupakitud Londoni laevandus- ja merebörsi Baltic Exchange'i endise peakorteri detailidest jõudis 2007. a. juunis Tallinna. Hoone detailid ostnud ärimehed Heiti Hääl ja Eerik-Niiles Kross plaanivad leida hoonele koha Tallinna kesklinnas. E.-N. Krossi kommentaar

  10. [Pietro U. Dini. Prelude to Baltic linguistics : earliest theories about Baltic languages (16th century)] / Stefan Donecker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Donecker, Stefan, 1977-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Dini, Pietro U. Prelude to Baltic linguistics : earliest theories about Baltic languages (16th century). (On the boundary of two worlds : identity, freedom, and moral imagination in the Baltics, 36). Verlag Rodopi, Amsterdam und New York 2014

  11. The Swedish Academy Dictionary Project

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    (bo.wendt@svenskaakademien.se), Dictionary Staff of the Swedish Academy,. Lund, Sweden. Abstract: The Swedish Academy Dictionary is one of the world's largest dictionary projects. Work on it was started in 1884 and it will be completed by 2017. The dictionary describes the writ- ten standard language of Swedish from ...

  12. Modern Hanseatic Trends in the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyeva N. A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical analysis of Hanseatic traditions may produce consequential methodological material for the study of the 21st century Baltic regionalisation. Current trends in the development of the Baltic region, whose academic analysis is impossible without considering earlier cases of successful interactions between the peoples of the Baltic Sea region, necessitate political, economic, and historical research on the strengths and weaknesses of the Hanseatic League. Unfortunately, in the 21st century, the Baltic region turned into a stage for geopolitical controversies. This took a toll on the efficiency of cooperation between the cities of Russia’s North-West and their Baltic counterparts. Therefore, it is important to seize the opportunities provided by the information society and focus on the innovative areas of regional cooperation. An interesting example is the partnership between Baltic universities, which is aimed to draw up an international agenda for sustainable regional development. Baltic cities are involved in various forms of cross-border cooperation, providing opportunities for interstate relations and contributes to laying down crossborder cooperation roadmaps and developing civil society networks. It can be concluded, that the history of the Hanseatic League and its current incarnation — the New Hanse — testify to the fact that productive economic, cultural, and other relations can be established between states but also between cities and universities, thus contributing to closer economic, political and cultural ties between the peoples of the Baltic region.

  13. Scaling the Baltic Sea environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    2008-01-01

    The Baltic Sea environment has since the early 1970s passed through several phases of spatial objectification in which the ostensibly well-defined semi-enclosed sea has been framed and reframed as a geographical object for intergovernmental environmental politics. Based on a historical analysis......-scientific logic, but should rather be seen as temporal outcomes of scale framing processes, processes that are accentuated by contemporary conceptions of the environment (or nature) in terms of multi-scalar ecosystems. This has implications for how an environmental concern is perceived and politically addressed....

  14. Water circulation and recharge pathways of coastal lakes along the southern Baltic Sea in northern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieśliński Roman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe water circulation patterns for selected lakes found along the Baltic coast in northern Poland and to determine primary recharge mechanisms or pathways that produce an influx or loss of lake water. A secondary purpose of the paper is to determine the magnitude of recharge for each studied source of water – river water influx, surface runoff from direct catchments, forced influx from polders surrounding lakes, and periodic marine water intrusions from the nearby Baltic Sea. It is also important to determine the magnitude of water outflow from lakes to the sea via existing linkages as well as to compare horizontal influx and outflow data. The study area consisted of five lakes located along the Baltic Sea in northern Poland: Łebsko, Gardno, Bukowo, Kopań, Resko Przymorskie. The main driving force of the studied lakes are large rivers that drain lake catchment areas and periodic brackish water intrusions by the Baltic Sea.

  15. Salmonella in Swedish cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ågren, Estelle

    2017-01-01

    In Sweden, all herds detected with salmonella are put under restrictions and measures aiming at eradication are required. The purpose of these studies was to provide a basis for decisions on how surveillance and control of salmonella in Swedish cattle can be made more cost-efficient. Results from a bulk milk screening were used to investigate seroprevalence of salmonella and to study associations between salmonella status and geographical location, local animal density, number of test pos...

  16. Swedish electricity market 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The organization of the Swedish electricity market has been in a state of continual change since the electricity market reform was started in the early 1990s. The conditions for the development of the electricity market have changed since the new Electricity Act came into force on 1 January 1996. The purpose of the reform is to introduce greater competition on the electricity market and provide the consumers with greater freedom of choice and, by open trade in electricity, to create the conditions for more efficient pricing. Being the central energy authority, the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development, NUTEK, was entrusted by the Government with the task of following developments on the Swedish electricity market. The Network Authority, which has the supervisory function for the new electricity market, were entrusted by the Government with the task of following developments on the Swedish electricity market and regularly compiling and reporting current market information. The new electricity market has now been operative for ten months. The Network Authority has submitted to the Government a detailed report entitled `Developments on the electricity market`, dealing with the experience gained from the electricity market reform. The purpose of the publication is to provide the players on the electricity market - the decision makers, the media and the general public - with comprehensive and easily accessible information on the market conditions. The publication includes summaries of information on electricity production and use in recent years, the structure of the electricity market from the perspective of a player, electricity trade in Sweden and in northern Europe, electricity prices in Sweden and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment

  17. Swedish Family Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrstrom, Staffan

    1986-01-01

    Family policy remains one of the leading issues of Swedish domestic politics. All parties are agreed that families with children must be given a better deal in the wake of the economic crisis. But how is this to be done and how quickly can it be achieved? Is the expansion of day nursery facilities to be speeded up, or are parents to be given a…

  18. Cold War and the environment: the role of Finland in international environmental politics in the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Tuomas; Laakkonen, Simo

    2007-04-01

    The Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area signed in 1974 in Helsinki is probably the most important environmental agreement consummated in the Baltic Sea region. This article is the first study that explores the history of this agreement, also known as the Helsinki Convention, by using primary archival sources. The principal sources are the archives of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland. We examine the role of Finland in the process that led to the signing of the Helsinki Convention from the perspective of international politics. The study focuses primarily on Finnish, Swedish, and Soviet state-level parties from the end of the 1960s to 1974. We show that Cold War politics affected in several ways negotiations and contents of the Helsinki Convention. We also argue that the Soviet Union used the emerging international environmental issues as a new tool of power politics.

  19. Physical and meteorological data collected from current meters and other instruments from Swedish Lightships from 1860 to 1989 (NODC Accession 0113242)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Lightships were placed along the Swedish coast to lead the Mariners from 1844 to 1972. From 1860 routine measurements of meteorological and oceanographic...

  20. The influence of major rivers discharges on physical and biological state of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudkowska, Aleksandra; Cieszyńska, Agata

    2017-04-01

    River discharges are one of very important factors affecting the marine ecosystem functioning. Land-originated inflows, carrying fresh, nutrient-rich water can be often defined as the factor responsible for creating new physical and biochemical conditions, which in turn can create more or less favorable medium for many marine organisms to run their biological cycles within. In some basins, the Baltic Sea including, land-originated water inflows are usually associated with the eutrophication and are the factors, which trigger this process. It is clear that not only because of the riverine discharges, the nutrients levels in the sea increase. To exemplify in the case of phosphorus, the nutrient concentration can be raised by 'internal re-loading', which is caused by phosphorus pools accumulated in the sediments of the sea bed being released back to the water under anoxic conditions. In the present study, we focused on the major Baltic rivers inflows and their impact on the environmental state of the basin. We have examined river discharges (expressed as volumetric inflow in m3 s-1) and the nutrient load (phosphorus, nitrogen) accompanied by these inflows. Data for our investigation were derived from EHype model (Swedish Meteorological Institute Server, http://hypeweb.smhi.se/europehype/time-series/). From the river discharge model data set spanned over 1981 - 2010, we have calculated long-term trends and the basic statistics: annual and monthly means, percentiles (10th, 50th, 90th). The trends were defined to be statistically significant at the confidence level of 95% (p river runoffs significance evaluation in the Baltic Sea area. This work has been funded by the National Centre of Science project (contract number: 2012/07/N/ST10/03485) entitled: "Improved understanding of phytoplankton blooms in the Baltic Sea based on numerical models and existing data sets". The Author (AC) received funding from National Centre of Sciences in doctoral scholarship program

  1. Teredo navalis in the Baltic Sea: Larval Dynamics of an Invasive Wood-Boring Bivalve at the Edge of Its Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Lippert

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wooden groin systems on the southwestern Baltic Sea coast are a traditional and important coastal-protection facility, but have been regularly infested and destroyed by the wood-boring bivalve Teredo navalis since the early 1990s. The occurrence of T. navalis was presumed to be limited mainly by the prevailing low salinities. Recently, a possible range expansion of this invasive species to the more eastern parts of the Baltic Sea has been discussed. T. navalis larval settlement was therefore monitored at the distribution boundary of the species in the Baltic Sea over a period of 4 years. At 7 stations along the prevailing salinity gradient on the Mecklenburg-western Pomeranian coast, larval traps were installed at regular time intervals, while at the same time water temperature and salinity were measured continuously every hour. Correlations between measured abiotic parameters and borehole abundance of T. navalis were tested. For the German Baltic Sea coast, no range expansion of T. navalis was confirmed. The salinity and temperatures at the groin systems varied among the study years, and significant correlations between T. navalis borehole abundance and salinity as well as temperature were found. Higher summer temperatures favor the T. navalis borehole abundance on the Mecklenburg-western Pomeranian coast, and may slightly shift the distribution border of this species toward lower salinities.

  2. Solar radiation in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Dera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The influx of solar radiation to the Baltic Sea and its penetration into its waters is described on the basis of selected results of optical and bio-optical studies in the Baltic published by various authors during the past ca 50 years. The variability in the natural irradiance of this sea is illustrated on time scales from short-term fluctuations occurring during a single day to differences in mean monthly values over a period of many years. Data on variability of the proportions between UV, VIS and IR energy in the light reaching the sea surface are also discussed.Long-term monthly mean values of the incident solar radiation flux at the surface of the Baltic Proper are given; they were obtained from meteorological and solar radiation measurements and model approximations. The transmittances of these mean monthly radiation fluxes across the surface of the Baltic are given, as are the typical energyand spectral characteristics of the underwater irradiance, its attenuation with depth in the sea and the associated euphotic zone depths, as well as typical ranges of variability of these characteristics in different Baltic basins. Some of these characteristics are illustrated by typical empirical data. These mean values are not fully representative, however, because with the sole use of classical in situ measurement methods from on board research vessels in the Baltic, it has not been possible to gather a sufficientlyrepresentative set of empirical data that would adequately reflect the variability of the optical characteristics of all the basins of this sea. The article goes on to introduce the statistical model of vertical distributions of chlorophyll a concentration in the Baltic and the bio-optical model of Baltic Case 2 waters, the use of which contribute very significantly to this description of the optical characteristics and will enable this data set to be hugely expanded to include all the Baltic basins. This opportunity is presented by the

  3. New Zopheridae (Coleoptera: Tenebrionoidea) from Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Vitalii I; Bukejs, Andris

    2016-10-25

    Four new zopherid species are described and illustrated from Eocene Baltic amber: Xylolaemus legalovi sp. nov., X. richardklebsi sp. nov., Diodesma slipinskii sp. nov., and Endophloeus gorskii sp. nov. A key to species of Xylolaemus Redtenbacher, described from Baltic amber, and a checklist of fossil Zopheridae are provided. The montane distribution of several recent representatives of dendrophilous zopherids in Europe and the connection of such a distributional type with modern human activity is discussed.

  4. The Chernobyl accident and the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilus, E. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2007-07-01

    The impact of the radioactive fallout caused by the accident at the Chernobyl NPP on the Baltic Sea is discussed in this paper. The fallout from Chernobyl was very unevenly distributed in the drainage area of the Baltic Sea; the Bothnian Sea and the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland received most of the deposition. This was reflected in the activity concentrations of the main fallout nuclides (especially {sup 137}Cs) that have been found in the marine environment of the Baltic Sea since then. The maximum concentrations that were detected soon after the fallout decreased significantly in a short time, and the distribution pattern of the Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs has changed over the course of time as a consequence of river discharges, mixing of water masses, sea currents and sedimentation processes. Sea currents have transported caesium from the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia into the Baltic Proper and further out of the Baltic Sea into the North Sea. In addition, a considerable amount of {sup 137}Cs has been bound in the seabed of the Baltic Sea. In general, the concentrations of man-made radionuclides in the sediments have been at or below the concentrations of naturally-occurring radionuclides, and are not expected to cause harmful effects on the wildlife in the Baltic Sea. The exposure of the population to radiation caused by the ingestion of Baltic Sea fish after the Chernobyl accident was considered to be low compared with the mean annual exposure of Finns to radiation or to the dose caused by natural radionuclides in the sea. (orig.)

  5. Tria Pharmaceuticals in the Baltics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kratochvil, Renate; Nell, Phillip C.

    2016-01-01

    Linda, a management consultant, had to solve a tricky problem regarding difficulties with the 'Baltic region subsidiary' of a global pharmaceutical company. She was hired by their Regional Headquarters (RHQ) for Central and Eastern Europe to disentangle this multifaceted challenge (eg sales down...... on the topic were the cultural misunderstandings between the employees of the various countries, or the company’s outdated products. Linda was challenged to, first, get a clear and comprehensive picture of the situation, and, second, propose a well-conceived solution to the RHQ. This case is written as a two......-part series to emphasize on the importance of extensive information, data, and collection of opinions to fully grasp the situation. We suggest four questions for this Teaching Case Study. Question 1 revolves around defining the case study challenges. In order to archive this, we first propose to identify...

  6. Environmental Management at Swedish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Karin

    2004-01-01

    Since 1996, all Swedish public authorities, which includes most universities, have been made responsible for contributing to the sustainable development of the society. Swedish universities are thus required to submit annual environmental reports about their policies, structures and actions. This study provides a review of the activities that…

  7. Long and Short Term Variability of the Main Physical Parameters in the Coastal Area of the SE Baltic Proper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingelaite, Toma; Rukseniene, Viktorija; Dailidiene, Inga

    2015-04-01

    Keywords: SE Baltic Sea, coastal upwelling, IR Remote Sensing The memory of the ocean and seas of atmospheric forcing events contributes to the long-term climate change. Intensifying climate change processes in the North Atlantic region including Baltic Sea has drawn widespread interest, as a changing water temperature has ecological, economic and social impact in coastal areas of the Europe seas. In this work we analyse long and short term variability of the main physical parameters in the coastal area of the South Eastern Baltic Sea Proper. The analysis of long term variability is based on monitoring data measured in the South Eastern Baltic Sea for the last 50 years. The main focus of the long term variability is changes of hydro meteorological parameters relevant to the observed changes in the climate.The water salinity variations in the Baltic Sea near the Lithuanian coast and in the Curonian Lagoon, a shallow and enclosed sub-basin of the Baltic Sea, were analysed along with the time series of some related hydroclimatic factors. The short term water temperature and salinity variations were analysed with a strong focus on coastal upwelling events. Combining both remote sensing and in situ monitoring data physical parameters such as vertical salinity variations during upwelling events was analysed. The coastal upwelling in the SE Baltic Sea coast, depending on its scale and intensity, may lead to an intrusion of colder and saltier marine waters to the Curonian Lagoon resulting in hydrodynamic changes and pronounced temperature drop extending for 30-40 km further down the Lagoon. The study results show that increasing trends of water level, air and water temperature, and decreasing ice cover duration are related to the changes in meso-scale atmospheric circulation, and more specifically, to the changes in regional and local wind regime climate. That is in a good agreement with the increasing trends in local higher intensity of westerly winds, and with the winter

  8. Human Hair, Baltic Grey Seal (Halichoerus grypus) Fur and Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) Feathers as Accumulators of Bisphenol A and Alkylphenols

    OpenAIRE

    Nehring, Iga; Staniszewska, Marta; Falkowska, Lucyna

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the concentration of bisphenol A (BPA), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), and 4-nonylphenol (NP), in human hair, the fur of Baltic grey seals and the feathers of herring gulls. Hair was collected from 42 volunteers, while grey seal fur (n?=?17) came from the seal centre in Hel (Marine Station of Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk) and gull covert feathers (n?=?26) were collected from dead herring gulls along the Southern Baltic coast. Assays of ph...

  9. Organic carbon sequestration in coastal sediments across the Baltic Sea over the last 150 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryves, David; Lewis, Jonathan; Rasmussen, Peter; Weckström, Kaarina; Andrén, Elinor; Clarke, Annemarie; Andersen, Thorbjørn; Yang, Handong; Hietanen, Susanah; Jilbert, Tom; Aigars, Juris; Anderson, N. John

    2017-04-01

    Coastal areas are extremely vulnerable to impacts from changing marine conditions, which are increasingly being driven by human activity (e.g. nutrient cycling, salinity, hydrography, sea level, climate change). Recent research into the complex and dynamic cycling of carbon in many increasingly nutrient-enriched coastal systems has suggested that they have switched from being net C sources to net C sinks over the last 150 years. This study seeks to explore carbon sequestration rates over the last 150 years from several key regions across the coastal Baltic Sea by synthesising organic carbon (OC) inventories from multiple well-dated sedimentary records from Baltic coasts. Such data will provide insight into long-term coastal change and how terrestrial human impact is influencing the ecology and biogeochemistry of the Baltic Sea. To examine past and present rates of carbon burial in key coastal areas of the Baltic Sea, a synthesis of 30-40 sediment cores from across the Baltic Sea is presented here from Baltic Denmark, Germany, Latvia, western Sweden and southern Finland, and are primarily from near-shore and shallow fjord/estuarine sites. The majority of sites span the last 100-150 years and the majority (>75%) are independently dated using 210Pb. Unsupported 210Pb inventories also allow raw sedimentation rates to be corrected for sediment focussing, permitting regionally reliable estimates of OC accumulation rates to be calculated and provide a plausible basis for upscaling OC accumulation rates within these key regions of the Baltic. Preliminary data analyses suggest a major step-change in system behaviour during the 20th century following low, stable ( 10 g OC m-2 yr-1 focussing corrected, OCFC) rates pre-1900. The initial rise in burial rates occurs early in the 1900s though is punctuated by a slight fall during the 1930s/1940s. After 1950, burial rates dramatically rise (consistently up to 45 g OCFC m-2 yr-1; 4 x pre-1900 rates), a pattern which is repeated

  10. Brief communication: Characteristic properties of extreme wave events observed in the northern Baltic Proper, Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-V. Björkqvist

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A significant wave height of 7 m has been measured five times by the northern Baltic Proper wave buoy in the Baltic Sea, exceeding 8 m twice (2004 and 2017. We classified these storms into two groups by duration and wave steepness. Interestingly, the two highest events exhibited opposite properties, with the 2017 event being the longest storm on record. This storm is also the first where the harshest wave conditions were modelled to occur in the western part of the Baltic Proper. The metrics quantifying the storm's duration and steepness might aid in issuing warnings for extreme wave conditions.

  11. Brief communication: Characteristic properties of extreme wave events observed in the northern Baltic Proper, Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkqvist, Jan-Victor; Tuomi, Laura; Tollman, Niko; Kangas, Antti; Pettersson, Heidi; Marjamaa, Riikka; Jokinen, Hannu; Fortelius, Carl

    2017-09-01

    A significant wave height of 7 m has been measured five times by the northern Baltic Proper wave buoy in the Baltic Sea, exceeding 8 m twice (2004 and 2017). We classified these storms into two groups by duration and wave steepness. Interestingly, the two highest events exhibited opposite properties, with the 2017 event being the longest storm on record. This storm is also the first where the harshest wave conditions were modelled to occur in the western part of the Baltic Proper. The metrics quantifying the storm's duration and steepness might aid in issuing warnings for extreme wave conditions.

  12. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-06

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants.

  13. The Costs of a Cleaner baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Sisse Liv; Konrad, Maria Theresia Hedegaard; Hasler, Berit

    2009-01-01

    of the results was nutrient reduction targets for each country - the BSAP targets. Because the Baltic Sea is such an international marine area, receiving pollutants from many  countries, an international approach is necessary to make effective solutions. But is the BSAP the most cost-effective solution...... is to establish a framework for prescribing cost minimising efficient scenarios of reduced nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea. Nutrient loads derive from both airborne and waterborne emissions. Three scenarios are presented and compared; one where the BSAP target is fulfilled by cost-minimisation, and one where...... the BSAP targets are set as target reductions for each countries.  The comparison reveals what the additional costs of fulfilling a political target for each country are instead pursuing a cost effective solution for the Baltic Sea.  In addition  we simulate cost minimising solutions for obtaining...

  14. Nordic Baltic innovation platform for Creative Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas; Järvinen, Juha; Koski, Emilia

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this project report is to explore the potential the current status of Creative Industries (CI) and design innovation programmes provide in the Nordic-Baltic area. Moreover, this report reviews the possibilities of building an innovation platform in the Nordic-Baltic region....... To illustrate the prevailing situation, this report reviews and analyses Creative Industries and design innovation systems and actors, design promotion and its actors in each country, activities and measures – around design – in each country (main research programmes, innovation transfer systems) and finally......, results achieved in each country (new knowledge created, new forms of activities etc.), in the Nordic and Baltic region, respectively. This report concludes with discussion and an idea of how the innovation platform could be built....

  15. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  16. Status of biodiversity in the Baltic Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henn Ojaveer

    Full Text Available The brackish Baltic Sea hosts species of various origins and environmental tolerances. These immigrated to the sea 10,000 to 15,000 years ago or have been introduced to the area over the relatively recent history of the system. The Baltic Sea has only one known endemic species. While information on some abiotic parameters extends back as long as five centuries and first quantitative snapshot data on biota (on exploited fish populations originate generally from the same time, international coordination of research began in the early twentieth century. Continuous, annual Baltic Sea-wide long-term datasets on several organism groups (plankton, benthos, fish are generally available since the mid-1950s. Based on a variety of available data sources (published papers, reports, grey literature, unpublished data, the Baltic Sea, incl. Kattegat, hosts altogether at least 6,065 species, including at least 1,700 phytoplankton, 442 phytobenthos, at least 1,199 zooplankton, at least 569 meiozoobenthos, 1,476 macrozoobenthos, at least 380 vertebrate parasites, about 200 fish, 3 seal, and 83 bird species. In general, but not in all organism groups, high sub-regional total species richness is associated with elevated salinity. Although in comparison with fully marine areas the Baltic Sea supports fewer species, several facets of the system's diversity remain underexplored to this day, such as micro-organisms, foraminiferans, meiobenthos and parasites. In the future, climate change and its interactions with multiple anthropogenic forcings are likely to have major impacts on the Baltic biodiversity.

  17. Status of Biodiversity in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojaveer, Henn; Jaanus, Andres; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Martin, Georg; Olenin, Sergej; Radziejewska, Teresa; Telesh, Irena; Zettler, Michael L.; Zaiko, Anastasija

    2010-01-01

    The brackish Baltic Sea hosts species of various origins and environmental tolerances. These immigrated to the sea 10,000 to 15,000 years ago or have been introduced to the area over the relatively recent history of the system. The Baltic Sea has only one known endemic species. While information on some abiotic parameters extends back as long as five centuries and first quantitative snapshot data on biota (on exploited fish populations) originate generally from the same time, international coordination of research began in the early twentieth century. Continuous, annual Baltic Sea-wide long-term datasets on several organism groups (plankton, benthos, fish) are generally available since the mid-1950s. Based on a variety of available data sources (published papers, reports, grey literature, unpublished data), the Baltic Sea, incl. Kattegat, hosts altogether at least 6,065 species, including at least 1,700 phytoplankton, 442 phytobenthos, at least 1,199 zooplankton, at least 569 meiozoobenthos, 1,476 macrozoobenthos, at least 380 vertebrate parasites, about 200 fish, 3 seal, and 83 bird species. In general, but not in all organism groups, high sub-regional total species richness is associated with elevated salinity. Although in comparison with fully marine areas the Baltic Sea supports fewer species, several facets of the system's diversity remain underexplored to this day, such as micro-organisms, foraminiferans, meiobenthos and parasites. In the future, climate change and its interactions with multiple anthropogenic forcings are likely to have major impacts on the Baltic biodiversity. PMID:20824189

  18. Deposition of large organic particles (macrodetritus in a sandy beach system (Puck Bay, Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Kotwicki

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of organic macrodetritus deposited on the sandy shores of the southern Baltic, and to determine the type of washout material and their chemical composition (carbon and nitrogen.     Over 900 samples of macrodetritus (particles retained on a 0.5 mm sieve were collected from seven sampling locations along a 120 km stretch of coastline in Poland at monthly intervals in 2002. Analysis of the C and N content of several categories of detritus supplied information about seasonal changes in and the ageing of algal debris, and indicated that the amount of carrion is constant; the latter is apparently always metabolised very rapidly. The annual deposition of macroalgal detritus on this coast was estimated at 15 000 tonnes fresh weight, that is around 75% of the primary production of filamentous macroalgae in Puck Bay.     In comparison with the amounts of kelp deposited on sandy beaches in South Africa (Griffiths & Stenton-Dozey 1981, the massive seaweed washouts on Mediterranean beaches (Morand & Briand 1996, or the deposition of algal mats in the northern Baltic (Norkko & Bonsdorff 1996a, the quantities of macrodetritus on the shore in the study area are average, even allowing for the fact that the Baltic Sea is highly eutrophic (HELCOM 2005.

  19. Energy Policy in the Baltics: A Study of Regional Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Jessica Annette

    Regionalism, especially in the form of macro-regions, has emerged as a force of cooperation and integration within the European Union. The Baltic states, who have cooperated more closely since acceding to the EU, provide an effective case study for testing the unifying power of regionalism. As small states that have shared a damaging dependence on Russian energy imports, the three Baltic states share the incentive to cooperate as a region and develop their internal gas, oil, and electricity capacities. The Baltic states have displayed uneven tendencies of cooperation when it comes to energy, however. After presenting an overview of regionalism in the EU, this paper examines EU policy regarding energy in the Baltics, energy ties between the Baltics and other countries, and specific energy projects in the Baltics to show that while the Baltics do not yet have a strong tradition of cooperation in the energy sector, they have laid the groundwork to strengthen future ties.

  20. Grey seal predation on forage fish in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Aro; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Aho, Teija

    has increased accordingly. The diet of grey seal in the Baltic consists of ca. 20 fish species. The most abundant prey items in the Baltic proper are Baltic herring, sprat, and cod, and in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay Baltic herring, Coregonus sp., Baltic salmon, and sea trout. An adult seal...... consumes on average round 4.5 kg fish per day, of which 55% are clupeoids in the Baltic Main basin and 70% in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. According to acoustic estimates, predator– prey distribution patterns, migration patterns, and multispecies analysis (SMS), the predation effect of grey seals...... on Baltic herring and sprat stocks is still at a very low level. Hence, with present grey seal stock sizes, the impact of seal predation can be ignored in whole Baltic‐scale herring and sprat stock management considerations. Locally, however, grey seal–fishery interactions play an important role and should...

  1. The UNDP/GEF Baltic wind atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathmann, O.

    2003-11-01

    In the frame of the Regional Baltic Wind Energy Programme, sponsored by the Global Environment Facility through the UNDP, a publicly available wind resource database for the wind-energy relevant areas of the Baltic Countries has been established. A 2-year measurement campaign has been performed based on 7 stations in the coastal area: the 3 Lithuanian sites Kretinga, Vilkyciai and Taurage; the Latvian site Saernate; and the 3 Estonian sites Prangli, Virtsu and Uulu. In addition, private data measured at the Estonian site Tuerisalu was made available to the project. (au)

  2. Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea – value of water quality improvements & risk perceptions Dr. Marianne Zandersen1 Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University Abstract The Baltic Sea is heavily eutrofied and the trend has gone from bad to worse. The hypoxic zone has increased about 4...... of the water column to the bottom waters/deepwater. The expected effects include a slowing down of the sediment release from the bottom and improvement of the possibilities for aerobic bacterial decomposition and over time for the establishment of fauna. The projects test a bio-engineered approach to speeding...

  3. Qualitative and quantitative composition of microplastics particles during the expeditionary measurement program in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esiukova, Elena; Bagaeva, Margarita; Chubarenko, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    According to the tasks of the Russian Science Foundation project "Physical and dynamical properties of marine microplastics particles and their transport in a basin with vertical and horizontal salinity gradient on the example of the Baltic Sea" number 15-17-10020, a comprehensive expeditionary program of measurements in the South-Eastern Baltic started. The project is aimed at finding solutions for a number of problems caused by superfluous plastic pollution in the World Ocean and, in particular, in the Baltic Sea. This pollution has been accumulating for years and just recently it has become obvious that only multidisciplinary approach (geographical, biological, chemical, etc.) to the issues related to the processes of transformation of properties and propagation of plastic particles will allow the study of physical aspects of the problem. During the first stage of the study samples should be selected from the water surface, water column at various horizons, bottom sediments in the Baltic Sea, from different areas at the beaches - in order to further examine the qualitative and quantitative composition of microplastic particles in different seasons for different hydrophysical situations. Reconnaissance survey was begun to choose the fields for research close to point and distributed sources of microplastics. Preference is given to those beaches that are exposed to maximum anthropogenic pollution: areas around the town of Baltiysk, the northern part of the Vistula Spit (near the settlement of Kosa), and the Sambia peninsula coast (settlements of Yantarny, Donskoye, Primorye, Kulikovo, towns of Svetlogorsk, Pionersky, Zelenogradsk). Locations for experimental sites were found in order to assess time for formation of microplastics (Vistula Spit, Kosa settlement). In June-November, 2015 there were 5 expeditions in the waters of the South-Eastern Baltic, 7 expeditions along the coast line of the Baltic Sea (in Kaliningrad Oblast), and 5 expeditions to the Vistula

  4. Strategic analysis of Swedish agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Fogelfors, Håkan; Wivstad, Maria; Eckersten, Henrik; Holstein, Fredrik; Johansson, Susanne; Verwijst, Theo

    2009-01-01

    This strategic analysis of Swedish agriculture – production systems and agricultural landscapes in a time of change – focuses on climate change, future availability of natural resources and economic regulation in a global food market. The background to the project was that the Faculty of Natural Resources and Agriculture of the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences identified an urgent need to explore the implications and opportunities of coming changes for agricultural production syste...

  5. Numerical modelling of thermodynamics and dynamics of sea ice in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical dynamic-thermo-dynamic sea-ice model for the Baltic Sea is used to analyze the variability of ice conditions in three winter seasons. The modelling results are validated with station (water temperature and satellite data (ice concentration as well as by qualitative comparisons with the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute ice charts. Analysis of the results addresses two major questions. One concerns effects of meteorological forcing on the spatio-temporal distribution of ice concentration in the Baltic. Patterns of correlations between air temperature, wind speed, and ice-covered area are demonstrated to be different in larger, more open sub-basins (e.g., the Bothnian Sea than in the smaller ones (e.g., the Bothnian Bay. Whereas the correlations with the air temperature are positive in both cases, the influence of wind is pronounced only in large basins, leading to increase/decrease of areas with small/large ice concentrations, respectively. The other question concerns the role of ice dynamics in the evolution of the ice cover. By means of simulations with the dynamic model turned on and off, the ice dynamics is shown to play a crucial role in interactions between the ice and the upper layers of the water column, especially during periods with highly varying wind speeds and directions. In particular, due to the fragmentation of the ice cover and the modified surface fluxes, the ice dynamics influences the rate of change of the total ice volume, in some cases by as much as 1 km3 per day. As opposed to most other numerical studies on the sea-ice in the Baltic Sea, this work concentrates on the short-term variability of the ice cover and its response to the synoptic-scale forcing.

  6. The Baltic haline conveyor belt or the overturning circulation and mixing in the Baltic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döös, Kristofer; Meier, H E Markus; Döscher, Ralf

    2004-06-01

    A study of the water-mass circulation of the Baltic has been undertaken by making use of a three dimensional Baltic Sea model simulation. The saline water from the North Atlantic is traced through the Danish Sounds into the Baltic where it upwells and mixes with the fresh water inflow from the rivers forming a Baltic haline conveyor belt. The mixing of the saline water from the Great Belt and Oresund with the fresh water is investigated making use of overturning stream functions and Lagrangian trajectories. The overturning stream function was calculated as a function of four different vertical coordinates (depth, salinity, temperature and density) in order to understand the path of the water and where it upwells and mixes. Evidence of a fictive depth overturning cell similar to the Deacon Cell in the Southern Ocean was found in the Baltic proper corresponding to the gyre circulation around Gotland, which vanishes when the overturning stream function is projected on density layers. A Lagrangian trajectory study was performed to obtain a better view of the circulation and mixing of the saline and fresh waters. The residence time of the water masses in the Baltic is calculated to be 26-29 years and the Lagrangian dispersion reaches basin saturation after 5 years.

  7. Gypsum karst of the Baltic Republics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paukstys B.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Republics of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have karst areas developed in both carbonate and gypsiferous rocks. In the north, within the Republic of Estonia, Ordovician and Silurian limestones and dolomites crop out, or are covered by glacial Quaternary sediments. To the south, in Latvia and Lithuania, gypsum karst is actively developing in evaporites of Late Devonian (Frasnian age. Although gypsum and mixed sulphate-carbonate karst only occupy small areas in the Baltic countries, they have important engineering and geo-ecological consequences. Due to the rapid dissolution of gypsum, the evolution of gypsum karst causes not only geological hazards such as subsidence, but it also has a highly adverse effect on groundwater quality. The karst territory of the Baltic states lies along the western side of the area, called the Great Devonian Field that form part of the Russian Plain. Within southern Latvia and northern Lithuania there is an area, exceeding 1000 sq. km, where mature gypsum karst occurs at the land surface and in the subsurface. This karst area is referred to here as the Gypsum Karst Region of the Baltic States. Here the surface karst forms include sinkholes, karst shafts, land subsidence, lakes and dolines. In Lithuania the maximum density of sinkholes is 200 per sq. km; in Latvia they reach 138 units per sq. km. Caves, enlarged dissolution voids and cavities are uncommon in both areas.

  8. Spongillaflies (Neuroptera, Sisyridae) in Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichard, Wilfried; Wedmann, Sonja; Weiterschan, Thomas

    2016-08-26

    Two spongillaflies species are described and illustrated from Eocene Baltic amber: Paleosisyra minor n. sp. and Paleosisyra electrobaltica Wichard et al., 2009; the latter species was described based on a female and is now re-described in consideration of the male genitalia of two new male specimens. Extant Sisyridae comprise few species, and their fossil record is very scarce.

  9. Baltic Ring may soon become reality

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Põhja-Euroopa energiasüsteemide ühendamiseks loodud projekti Baltic Ring raames kirjutasid Leedu ja Poola alla elektrivõrkude ühendamise lepingule. Välisminister Urmas Paet tõdeb, et Eesti on huvitatud Leedu tuumaenergia tulevikust

  10. Nato enlarging into the Baltic States

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Prahas 21.-22. novembrini 2002 toimunud NATO tippkohtumisest ja seal vastu võetud otsusest Balti riikide alliansiga ühinemise kohta. Vt. samas: Russia's attitude to the NATO enlargement; Bush in Vilnius; Baltic states' prime ministers' met; Supporting USA?

  11. Strengthening Nordic-Baltic Defense Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2014-01-01

    and troubling challenge to the way international security has been structured in Europe since the end of the Cold War. While most of the existing defense cooperation with a view of strengthening defense capabilities has been carried out within the internationally renowned framework of NORDEFCO...... the NATO aspect of Nordic-Baltic security....

  12. Baltic air wars intensify / Dorian Ziedonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ziedonis, Dorian

    2008-01-01

    Leedu lennufirma FlyLAL pidi maksma ära 40 000 euro suuruse trahvi, et firma lennuk saaks Riia lennuväljalt lahkuda. Varem oli FlyLAL nõudnud Riia Lennujaamalt kompensatsiooni, kuna lennujaam oli võimaldanud Läti lennufirmal airBaltic maksta väiksemaid lennujaamatasusid

  13. Strategic Assurance and Signaling in the Baltics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    deterrence. As Adam Lowther puts it: “understanding the culture , interests, and objectives of adversaries has the potential to decrease the number...Finland could ensure supplies could still reach the Baltics from Scandinavia. An article released by the five Scandinavian countries of Iceland

  14. Baltic states torn between two lovers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belin, H.

    2008-03-15

    The electricity island formed by the Baltic States appears to be an anachronism in the EU. Although Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have adopted EU legislation, the three countries have maintained their synchronous relationship with the Russian electricity system. Will they one day be fully integrated into the UCTE (the association of transmission system operators in continental Europe) and become independent of their large neighbour?.

  15. Seasonal variability in the Baltic Sea level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Świrgoń

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sea level is subject to spatial and temporal variability on different scales. In this paper we investigate seasonal variability in the open Baltic Sea level using daily satellite altimetry data for the period 1 January 1993-31 December 2010. Our results indicate that there is a well-pronounced seasonal cycle in the 18-year average sea level and in its standard deviation. The average annual SLA amplitude in the open Baltic Sea is about 18 cm. The seasonal cycle of the SLA in the Baltic Sea is asymmetric in shape. In the autumn and winter (about 240-260 days per year, the 18-year average daily SLA are higher than the 18-year annual average SLA. In the spring and summer (about 100-120 days per year, the 18-year average daily SLA are lower than the 18-year annual average SLA. A similar asymmetry of the seasonal cycle is not observed in the North Sea and North Atlantic SLA data. The annual pattern of the sea level variability in the Baltic Sea is evident if one considers multi-year average time series, but the cycle can be obscured in some years.

  16. Molecular identification key based on PCR/RFLP for three polychaete sibling species of the genus Marenzelleria, and the species' current distribution in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, M.; Laine, A. O.; Jürss, K.; Bastrop, R.

    2008-06-01

    Studies of Marenzelleria species were often hampered by identification uncertainties when using morphological characters only. A newly developed PCR/RFLP protocol allows a more efficient discrimination of the three species Marenzelleria viridis, Marenzelleria neglecta and Marenzelleria arctia currently known for the Baltic Sea. The protocol is based on PCR amplification of two mitochondrial DNA gene segments (16S, COI) followed by digestion with restriction enzymes. As it is faster and cheaper than PCR/sequencing protocols used so far, the protocol is recommended for large-scale analyses. The markers allow an undoubted determination of species irrespective of life stage or condition of the worms in the samples. The protocol was validated on about 950 specimens sampled at more than 30 sites of the Baltic and the North Sea, and on specimens from populations of the North American east coast. Besides this test we used mitochondrial DNA sequences (16S, COI, Cytb) and starch gel electrophoresis to further investigate the distribution of the three Marenzelleria species in the Baltic Sea. The results show that M. viridis (formerly genetic type I or M. cf. wireni) occurred in the Öresund area, in the south western as well as in the eastern Baltic Sea, where it is found sympatric with M. neglecta. Allozyme electrophoresis indicated an introduction by range expansion from the North Sea. The second species, M. arctia, was only found in the northern Baltic Sea, where it sometimes occurred sympatric with M. neglecta or M. viridis. For Baltic M. arctia, the most probable way of introduction is by ship ballast water from the European Arctic. There is an urgent need for a new genetic analysis of all Marenzelleria populations of the Baltic Sea to unravel the current distribution of the three species.

  17. The Öland limestone - A Swedish stone used for more than one thousand years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouenborg, Björn; Wickström, Linda; Mikaelsson, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The second largest island in Sweden is the home of the "Öland limestone", a condensed and bedded limestone whose origin dates back to Lower Ordovician, i.e. about 480 M years ago. Öland is a part of the palaeocontinent Baltica that, at the time, was situated at low latitudes with deposition of the calcareous sediments in a cool water environment. The limestone on Öland represents a proximal ramp tectonic setting, with the oldest sediments deposited in the west and younger sediments deposited towards east and southeast. Fluctuating sea-levels have created erosional hard grounds such as the Flowery sheet. These hardgrounds are recognised by their vivid colours and trace fossils, and can be traced all over Baltica, but is maybe best represented on Öland. Ordovician limestones are present in many places in Sweden, but it is the occurrence on Öland that is the most renowned in a building stone perspective. One reason for this is the favourable trading location, an island off the Swedish East coast in middle of the trading routes between the Baltic countries and the continent. Other reasons are the pleasant aesthetical values with numerous orthoceratites and other fossils. The limestones on Öland differ in colour. From the red varieties (with oxidized iron) to brownish and grey. The bedding is mostly in the cm-scale which easily enables very exploitable thickness of slabs. Every mm limestone represents about 1000 years of deposition. The limestone has most likely been used in a very crude way for many thousand years, but archaeological evidence of a more industrialized usage is just a little more than 1000 years. It is known from the literature that the first official Swedish king, Gustav Vasa (16th century), desired this stone. At the time it was called "Öland marble", and the king "imported" specialists to process it further at the Royal Stone workshop on northern Öland. Remnants of tools and working sites still remain in an outdoor museum. Export of the

  18. Swedish encapsulation station review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G. [NAC International, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB`s document `Plan 1996`. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL`s Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International`s experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation 19 refs, 9 figs, 35 tabs

  19. Swedish vineyards: a utopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mårtensson A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Anna Mårtensson,1 Thord Karlsson,2 Jan-Gunnar Gustafsson31Department of Soil and Environment, 2Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden; 3Bio Evaluation AB, Uppsala, SwedenAbstract: As there is an increasing interest for setting up vineyards and wineries in Sweden, a cost analysis is becoming necessary. In this study, we assessed the potential for wine production in Sweden. The estimated annual costs varied from €15.1/per L for production of 1800 L wine per ha to €41.9 for 525 L per ha. For an annual production of 1800 L per ha potentially achieved in an established vineyard, the capital requirement is €730,000. It would take 6 years for the investment to be paid off if the wine was sold for €37.5 per L. The high production costs mean that the only viable option for success is to orientate production towards the exclusive upper segment.Keywords: cold climate conditions, wine production costs, wine quality

  20. Coastal processes of the Russian Baltic - modern trends, driving forces and human impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabchuk, Daria; Sivkov, Vadim; Kovaleva, Olga; Sergeev, Alexander; Zhamoida, Vladimir; Dorokhov, Dmitry

    2016-04-01

    In frame of EMODNET-geology project and Russian Science Foundation (project 14-37-00047), the Coastal Behavior maps for the Russian parts of Baltic were compiled. Several areas of the Baltic Sea coastal zone were chosen as case studies for more detailed mapping and analyses. According to annual observations rates of coastal erosion within some areas of the easternmost part of the Gulf of Finland are recently accelerated due to both natural (increasing of the extreme storm events frequency, accompanied by high water level) and anthropogenic (impact of St. Petersburg Flood Protection Facility, submarine sand mining, ineffective coast protection etc.) factors. The geological and geomorphic factors determine the long-term coastal zone development. The coasts mostly consist of easily erodible Quaternary deposits (clays and sands). They evolve under overall sediment deficiency. Moreover, some specific, small-scale features of the near-shore bottom, found by investigations using multibeam and side-scan sonar study, play a very important role in the entire erosion process. Average rates of coastal erosion is 0.5-1.0 m/year, but during the extreme storms, coastal escarpment can retreat for the distance up to 5 m at once. During late autumn and winter seasons of 2006-2007, 2011-2012 and 2013 years severe storms caused extreme erosion events damaged the coastal dunes with forming of active escarpment, destruction of coast protection and recreation infrastructure, complete transformation of sand accretion spits. In the southern coastal zone of the Gulf processes of long-shore sand waves occurred. Prognoses of coastal processes development based on annual observations (since 2004), remote sensing data analyses and modeling has shown that depending on different climate change scenarios coastal line of the study area can retreat for the distance from 50 to 100 m. The most intense coastal processes of the Russian part of the South-Eastern Baltic are observe within attached part of

  1. DMI's Baltic Sea Coastal operational forecasting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawski, Jens; Berg, Per; Weismann Poulsen, Jacob

    2017-04-01

    Operational forecasting is challenged with bridging the gap between the large scales of the driving weather systems and the local, human scales of the model applications. The limit of what can be represented by local model has been continuously shifted to higher and higher spatial resolution, with the aim to better resolve the local dynamic and to make it possible to describe processes that could only be parameterised in older versions, with the ultimate goal to improve the quality of the forecast. Current hardware trends demand a str onger focus on the development of efficient, highly parallelised software and require a refactoring of the code with a solid focus on portable performance. The gained performance can be used for running high resolution model with a larger coverage. Together with the development of efficient two-way nesting routines, this has made it possible to approach the near-coastal zone with model applications that can run in a time effective way. Denmarks Meteorological Institute uses the HBM(1) ocean circulation model for applications that covers the entire Baltic Sea and North Sea with an integrated model set-up that spans the range of horizontal resolution from 1nm for the entire Baltic Sea to approx. 200m resolution in local fjords (Limfjord). For the next model generation, the high resolution set-ups are going to be extended and new high resolution domains in coastal zones are either implemented or tested for operational use. For the first time it will be possible to cover large stretches of the Baltic coastal zone with sufficiently high resolution to model the local hydrodynamic adequately. (1) HBM stands for HIROMB-BOOS-Model, whereas HIROMB stands for "High Resolution Model for the Baltic Sea" and BOOS stands for "Baltic Operational Oceanography System".

  2. Analysis of trophic networks and carbon flows in south-eastern Baltic coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczak, Maciej T.; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Järv, Leili; Kotta, Jonne; Martin, Georg; Minde, Atis; Põllumäe, Arno; Razinkovas, Arturas; Strake, Solvita; Bucas, Martynas; Blenckner, Thorsten

    2009-04-01

    Carbon flows in five south-eastern Baltic coastal ecosystems (Puck Bay, Curonian Lagoon, Lithuanian coast, Gulf of Riga coast and Pärnu Bay) were compared on the basis of ECOPATH models using 12 common functional groups. The studied systems ranged from the hypertrophic Curonian Lagoon to the mesotrophic Gulf of Riga coast. Interestingly, we found that macrophytes were not consumed by grazers, but rather channelled into the detritus food chain. In all ecosystems fisheries had far reaching impacts on their target species and on the food-web in general. In particular, benthic food-webs were partly affected by indirect fisheries effects. For example, fisheries tend to change the biomass of piscivorous fish, causing a cascading effect on benthivorous fish and macrozoobenthos. These cascades are ecosystem specific and need to be considered when using benthic invertebrates as productivity and eutrophication indicators. Odum’s maturity attributes allowed a ranking of costal ecosystems according to their maturity. Namely, the community development decreased in the following order: Pärnu Bay > Gulf of Riga coast > Lithuanian coast > Puck Bay > Curonian Lagoon.

  3. Morphological and genetic divergence in Swedish postglacial stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Kenyon B; Lussetti, Daniel; Johansson, Frank; Englund, Göran; Bokma, Folmer

    2011-10-04

    An important objective of evolutionary biology is to understand the processes that govern phenotypic variation in natural populations. We assessed patterns of morphological and genetic divergence among coastal and inland lake populations of nine-spined stickleback in northern Sweden. Coastal populations are either from the Baltic coast (n = 5) or from nearby coastal lakes (n = 3) that became isolated from the Baltic Sea (spines per unit of body length than inland populations. Inland populations were larger, on average, and showed greater morphological variation than coastal populations. A principal component analysis (PCA) across all populations revealed two major morphological axes related to spine length (PC1, 47.7% variation) and body size (PC2, 32.9% variation). Analysis of PCA scores showed marked similarity in coastal (Baltic coast and coastal lake) populations. PCA scores indicate that inland populations with predators have higher within-group variance in spine length and lower within-group variance in body size than inland populations without predators. Estimates of within-group PST (a proxy for QST) from PCA scores are similar to estimates of FST for coastal lake populations but PST >FST for Baltic coast populations. PST >FST for PC1 and PC2 for inland predator and inland no predator populations, with the exception that PST size in inland populations lacking predators. Baltic coast and coastal lake populations show little morphological and genetic variation within and between groups suggesting that these populations experience similar ecological conditions and that time since isolation of coastal lakes has been insufficient to demonstrate divergent morphology in coastal lake populations. Inland populations, on the other hand, showed much greater morphological and genetic variation characteristic of long periods of isolation. Inland populations from lakes without predators generally have larger body size, and smaller spine length relative to body size

  4. Morphological and genetic divergence in Swedish postglacial stickleback (Pungitius pungitius populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Englund Göran

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important objective of evolutionary biology is to understand the processes that govern phenotypic variation in natural populations. We assessed patterns of morphological and genetic divergence among coastal and inland lake populations of nine-spined stickleback in northern Sweden. Coastal populations are either from the Baltic coast (n = 5 or from nearby coastal lakes (n = 3 that became isolated from the Baltic Sea ( Results Coastal populations showed little variation in 11 morphological traits and had longer spines per unit of body length than inland populations. Inland populations were larger, on average, and showed greater morphological variation than coastal populations. A principal component analysis (PCA across all populations revealed two major morphological axes related to spine length (PC1, 47.7% variation and body size (PC2, 32.9% variation. Analysis of PCA scores showed marked similarity in coastal (Baltic coast and coastal lake populations. PCA scores indicate that inland populations with predators have higher within-group variance in spine length and lower within-group variance in body size than inland populations without predators. Estimates of within-group PST (a proxy for QST from PCA scores are similar to estimates of FST for coastal lake populations but PST >FST for Baltic coast populations. PST >FST for PC1 and PC2 for inland predator and inland no predator populations, with the exception that PST FST for body size in inland populations lacking predators. Conclusions Baltic coast and coastal lake populations show little morphological and genetic variation within and between groups suggesting that these populations experience similar ecological conditions and that time since isolation of coastal lakes has been insufficient to demonstrate divergent morphology in coastal lake populations. Inland populations, on the other hand, showed much greater morphological and genetic variation characteristic of long

  5. Coastal erosion as a source of mercury into the marine environment along the Polish Baltic shore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Jędruch, Agnieszka; Łęczyński, Leszek; Saniewska, Dominika; Kwasigroch, Urszula

    2016-08-01

    The climate changes in recent years in the southern Baltic have been resulting in an increased frequency of natural extreme phenomena (i.e. storms, floods) and intensification of abrasion processes, which leads to introduction of large amounts of sedimentary deposits into the marine environment. The aim of this study was to determine the mercury load introduced to the Baltic Sea with deposits crumbling off the cliffs-parts of the coast that are the most exposed to abrasion. The studies were carried out close to five cliffs located on the Polish coast in the years 2011-2014. The results show that coastal erosion could be an important Hg source into the marine environment. This process is the third most important route, after riverine and precipitation input, by which Hg may enter the Gulf of Gdańsk. In the Hg budget in the gulf, the load caused by erosion (14.3 kg a(-1)) accounted for 80 % of the wet deposition and was 50 % higher than the amount of mercury introduced with dry deposition. Although the Hg concentration in the cliff deposits was similar to the natural background, due to their large mass, this problem could be significant. In addition, the preliminary studies on the impact of coastal erosion on the Hg level in the marine ecosystem have shown that this process may be one of the Hg sources into the trophic chain.

  6. The Swedish Energy Market 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-01

    The Swedish Energy Market, 2005 is an annual publication that presents information and statistics on the network based energy markets in Sweden, i.e. the markets for electricity, natural gas and district heating. It also provides an overview of the issues that have arisen on these markets during the second half of 2004 and the first half of 2005. Considerable work is being carried out in the EU on creating a single market for electricity and natural gas. This publication therefore describes expansion of the Swedish market towards a Nordic and a European market. The publication normally includes a theme chapter, describing some event of particular interest for the Swedish energy market during the year. This year, the theme chapter is devoted to the Storm Gudrun, which struck the south of the country at the beginning of January, and its effects on electricity supply throughout the country. The chapter is based on the report submitted to the Government by the Energy Markets Inspectorate in the spring of 2005, and also includes a summary of the Inspectorate's proposals for measures to improve the security of electricity transmission. Energy in Sweden, which is another of the Swedish Energy Agency's annual publications, provides information and statistics on the development of the entire Swedish energy system.

  7. Health and safety strategy in Swedish agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Peter; Svennefelt, Catharina Alwall

    2012-01-01

    In Sweden there is a joint focus on injury prevention in agriculture and this is coordinated through the Swedish Committee on Working Environment (LAMK). LAMK is a network working for a good, healthy and safe working environment in Swedish agriculture from the view of the enterprise with the humans in focus. It is a committee consisting of representatives of authorities, institutions, companies, research & education institutions and organisations referring to the green sector. Examples of on-going initiatives & partners are presented which are included in this mission against injuries in agriculture. It involves the Swedish Work Environment Authority,, the Federation of Swedish Farmers (LRF), the Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU, the Federation of Swedish Forestry and Agricultural Employers (SLA) and the Swedish Municipal Worker's Union.

  8. Is the Swedish FRAX model appropriate for Swedish immigrants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, H; Odén, A; Lorentzon, M; McCloskey, E; Kanis, J A; Harvey, N C; Karlsson, M K; Mellström, D

    2015-11-01

    The incidence of hip fracture in Sweden is substantially lower in immigrants than in the population born in Sweden. Thus, the use of a FRAX® model in immigrants overestimates the risk of fracture, and the use of country of origin-specific models may be more appropriate. Age-specific fracture and mortality rates vary between countries so that FRAX tools are country-specific. In the case of immigrants, it is not known whether the model for the original or the new country is most appropriate. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of hip fractures in foreign-born and Swedish-born individuals residing in Sweden. We studied the incidence of hip fracture in all men and women aged 50 years or more in Sweden between 1987 and 2002. The population comprised 2.8 million Swedish-born and 270,000 foreign-born individuals. Incident hip fractures occurred in 239,842 Swedish-born and 12,563 foreign-born individuals. The hip fracture incidence rose with age for both groups and was higher for women than men amongst both Swedish-born and foreign-born individuals. The hip fracture incidence for the Swedish-born cohort was approximately twice that of immigrants. For example, at the age of 70 years, the annual hip fracture incidence (per 100,000) was 450 (95 % CI 446-454) for a Swedish-born woman and 239 (95 % CI 223-257) for a foreign-born woman at the time of immigration. The hip fracture incidence rose slowly with time from immigration (0.6 % per annum, 95 % CI 0.5-0.8 %) but remained significantly lower than for Swedish-born individuals even after 40 years of residence. The incidence of hip fracture in Sweden is substantially lower in immigrants than in the population native to Sweden. Although there was a small rise in age- and sex-specific incidence after immigration, the incidence remained markedly lower than that observed in Swedish-born individuals. Thus, the use of a FRAX model for Sweden will overestimate the risk of fracture for foreign-born individuals living

  9. Bonjour tristesse in Swedish suburbia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Jonas E

    2013-01-01

    the country. Global news media paralleled the Swedish situation with previous incidents in Paris in 2007, Athens in 2008 and London in 2011. Foreign offices, among others the American, British, Danish, and Norwegian ones, advised their citizens not to travel to Sweden: the Swedish welfare model...... and a high unemployment rate. The young generation experienced a Bonjour Tristesse! existence going in and out of unemployment. An existing dismay with architecture and physical planning of suburbia surfaced: The plausible responsibility of the body of architects was debated, since many esteemed profiles...... of the Swedish functionalist architecture had been involved in its realisation. One representative of the profession stated the need for upgrading the existing architecture to new user needs, while another one emphasised that the real group of inhabitants in suburbia is often not the group of users envisioned...

  10. Obstetric Thromboprophylaxis: The Swedish Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelle G. Lindqvist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstetric thromboprophylaxis is difficult. Since 10 years Swedish obstetricians have used a combined risk estimation model and recommendations concerning to whom, at what dose, when, and for how long thromboprophylaxis is to be administrated based on a weighted risk score. In this paper we describe the background and validation of the Swedish guidelines for obstetric thromboprophylaxis in women with moderate-high risk of VTE, that is, at similar or higher risk as the antepartum risk among women with history of thrombosis. The risk score is based on major risk factors (i.e., 5-fold increased risk of thromboembolism. We present data on the efficacy of the model, the cost-effectiveness, and the lifestyle advice that is given. We believe that the Swedish guidelines for obstetric thromboprophylaxis aid clinicians in providing women at increased risk of VTE with effective and appropriate thromboprophylaxis, thus avoiding both over- and under-treatment.

  11. Recruitment processes in Baltic sprat - A re-evaluation of GLOBEC Germany hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Rüdiger; Peck, Myron A.; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Clemmesen, Catriona; Baumann, Hannes; Stepputtis, Daniel; Bernreuther, Matthias; Schmidt, Jörn O.; Temming, Axel; Köster, Fritz W.

    2012-12-01

    The GLOBEC Germany program (2002-2007) had the ambitious goal to resolve the processes impacting the recruitment dynamics of Baltic sprat (Sprattus sprattus L.) by examining various factors affecting early life history stages. At the start of the research program, a number of general recruitment hypotheses were formulated, i.e. focusing on (1) predation, (2) food availability, (3) physical parameters, (4) the impact of current systems, and finally (5) the importance of top-down vs bottom-up effects. The present study synthesizes the results of field sampling (2002 and 2003), laboratory experiments, and modeling studies to re-evaluate these hypotheses for the Baltic sprat stock. Recruitment success was quite different in the 2 years investigated. Despite a lower spawning stock biomass in 2003, the total number of recruits was almost 2-fold higher that year compared to 2002. The higher recruitment success in 2003 could be attributed to enhanced survival success during the post-larval/juvenile stage, a life phase that appears to be critical for recruitment dynamics. In the state of the Baltic ecosystem during the period of investigation, we consider bottom-up control (e.g. temperature, prey abundance) to be more important than top-down control (predation mortality). This ranking in importance does not vary seasonally. Prevailing water circulation patterns and the transport dynamics of larval cohorts have a strong influence on sprat recruitment success. Pronounced transport to coastal areas is detrimental for year-class strength particularly at high sprat stock sizes. A suggested mechanism is density-dependant regulation of survival via intra- and inter-specific competition for prey in coastal areas. A documented change in larval vertical migration behavior between the early 1990s and early 2000s increased the transport potential to the coast, strengthening the coupling between inter-annual differences in the magnitude and direction of wind-driven surface currents and

  12. New airBaltic owner on board

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Transatlantic Holdings Company on ostnud 9,6 miljoni euro eest 59 110 airBalticu aktsiat. Läti majandusminister Artis Kampars soovib raskustesse sattunud lennufirma juhi Bertolt Flicki väljavahetamist. airBaltic plaanib koondamist. Riigikogu liige Arto Aas rõhutas, et airBalticu kadumine turult ei ole Eesti reisijate huvides, kuna ta on suuruselt kolmas lennukompanii Tallinna Lennujaamas

  13. Status of grey seals along mainland Europe from the Southwestern Baltic to France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Härkönen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The grey seal was a common species along mainland Europe during the Stone Age (8,000-5,500 BC. Along the North Sea coast populations started to decline substantially during the 11th century as a result of excessive hunting. The last breeding populations disappeared in the 16th century in the Wadden Sea, and before 1900 in the Kattegat-Skagerrak and the Southwestern Baltic as a result of an extermination campaign. No regular pupping occurred along mainland Europe until the end of the 1970s, when a breeding colony was established near Amrum in the German Wadden Sea. Somewhat later, additional breeding sites were discovered near Terschelling in the Dutch Wadden Sea (1980, at Helgoland, and off Brittany in France. Tracking of movements indicate these seal groups to be linked to the larger populations in the UK. Numbers of grey seals in the recolonised areas have increased over the years, but in the Kattegat-Skagerrak stable numbersof about 25 individuals have been observed since the 1970s, whereas more than 100 grey seals are found in the Southwestern Baltic. In the southeastern North Sea, 120 grey seals occur during moult at Helgoland, 120 in the German and over 1,130 in the Dutch parts of the Wadden Sea in 2004. Along the southern Dutch and Belgian coasts small groups are regularly observed, but no colonies have yet been established. In the colonies off Brittany in France about 105 grey seals have been counted. Successful pupping has only been recorded 3 times in the Kattegat-Skagerrak over the past 30 years, and 2-4 pups are born annually in France and the Southwestern Baltic. The relative strongholds for breeding along the European continent are the Dutch Wadden Sea, where in 2003/2004 at least 150 pups were recorded, Amrum in the German Wadden Sea (23 pups and Helgoland (8 pups. Consequently, total numbers of counted grey seals from the Southwestern Baltic to France amounted to at least 1,600 in 2004, while about 190 pups were born in the area.

  14. Baroclinic internal wave energy distribution in the Baltic Sea derived from 45 years of circulation simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybin, Artem; Soomere, Tarmo; Kurkina, Oxana; Kurkin, Andrey; Rouvinskaya, Ekaterina; Markus Meier, H. E.

    2016-04-01

    years and for single 5-yr intervals. The maxima of energy of such motions are concentrated in an approximately 50 km wide domain along the nearshore of Latvia and the Western Estonian archipelago. Several narrower regions of relatively high concentrations of energy are located around the southern tip of Sweden, along the coasts of Poland and the island of Gotland, and at the northern and north-eastern coasts of the Sea of Bothnia. The performed analysis sheds new light on the potential impact areas of long-period internal wave motions in the Baltic Sea and associated regions of intense mixing and large wave-driven near-bottom velocities.

  15. Mesoscale wind field modifications over the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Källstrand, B.; Bergström, H.; Højstrup, J.

    2000-01-01

    For two consecutive days during spring 1997, the wind field over the Baltic Sea has been studied. The strength of the geostrophic wind speed is the major difference in synoptic conditions between these two days. During both days, the mesoscale wind field over most of the Baltic Sea is quite heter...

  16. Baltic dimension of the European security and defence policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Gladysh

    2015-03-01

    The basic threats and security challenges for the Baltic States nowadays are defined, including possible aggression from Russia, which is broadcasted through the mainstream media as a reaction to the idea of protecting Russian­speaking population of the Baltic States and the establishment of «geopolitical balance through their return to the Russian sphere of influence».

  17. Rationale for restocking the Eastern Baltic cod stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Overton, Julia Lynne; Paulsen, Helge

    2008-01-01

    The Danish Institute for Fisheries Research and Bornholm's Salmon Hatchery examined the potential for restocking Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) in the eastern Baltic Sea. This cod population has adapted to the unique brackish water conditions where successful spawning depends on regular...

  18. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrén, T.; Barker Jorgensen, B.; Cotterill, C.; Green, S.; Slomp, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different settings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial–interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region with

  19. Implications of stock recovery for a neighbouring management unit: experience from the Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Hüssy, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Cod in the Baltic Sea is assessed and managed as two separate stocks, i.e. eastern and western Baltic cod. The eastern Baltic cod has recently started to recover after several decades of severe depletion. In the present study, we suggest that the recovery of the eastern Baltic cod population has ...

  20. Metal sources to the Baltic clam Macoma balthica (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the southern Baltic Sea (the Gulf of Gdansk)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokolowski, A.; Wolowicz, M.; Hummel, H.

    2007-01-01

    Metal concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in an infaunal facultative deposit-feeding bivalve, the Baltic clam Macoma balthica, in the Gulf of Gdansk (southern Baltic Sea) were assessed and compared to selected concentrations of metals in the environment. Between October 1996 and September

  1. Oceanographic influences on the distribution of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua , during spawning in the Bornholm Basin of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Lehmann, K.M.; St. John, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is a stratified, semi-enclosed sea typified by a low-salinity surface layer and a deep saline layer of varying volume, salinity, temperature and oxygen concentration. The relationships between these oceanographic factors and the distribution of Baltic cod are presented, utilizing r...

  2. Saint Petersburg as a Global Coastal City: Positioning in the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachininskii Stanislav

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic region consists of coastal areas of nine countries — Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. The region’s hubs are the port cities located along the Baltic Sea coast. However, Peter Taylor and Saskia Sassen’s classification identifies higher status cities and ‘global cities’, which are to be considered in the global context. Seven coastal regions are distinguished within this region, whose organising centers are the global coastal cities of Stockholm, Copenhagen, Helsinki, Riga, Tallinn, St. Petersburg, and Malmö. The concept of a “global city-region” (Sassen can be used as a methodological framework for analyzing this connection. Within this hierarchy, the dominant alpha group global city is Stockholm. The authors argue that, as a global coastal city, St. Petersburg forms the St. Petersburg coastal region, which can be defined as a typical "global city region". The index method shows that the position of St. Petersburg in the system of global coastal cities of the Baltic region is relatively favorable in view of its transport, logistics, and demographic potential and the advantageous geo-economic situation. St. Petersburg has certain competitive advantages in the region brought about by its demographic potential, port freight capacity, and the favorable geo-economic position of the "sea gate" of Russia. However, the level of high-tech services and ‘new economy’ development is not sufficient for the port to become a match for the top three cities (Stockholm, Helsinki, and Copenhagen. This is increasingly important because transboundary global city networks demonstrate that global cities are functions of global networks. Saint Petersburg is just starting to integrate into these networks through the Pulkovo airline hub and seaports of Ust-Luga, Primorsk, and Saint Petersburg.

  3. Saint Petersburg as a Global Coastal City: Positioning in the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachninsky S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic region consists of coastal areas of nine countries — Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. The region’s hubs are the port cities located along the Baltic Sea coast. However, Peter Taylor and Saskia Sassen’s classification identifies higher status cities and ‘global cities’, which are to be considered in the global context. Seven coastal regions are distinguished within this region, whose organising centers are the global coastal cities of Stockholm, Copenhagen, Helsinki, Riga, Tallinn, St. Petersburg, and Malmö. The concept of a “global city-region” (Sassen can be used as a methodological framework for analyzing this connection. Within this hierarchy, the dominant alpha group global city is Stockholm. The authors argue that, as a global coastal city, St. Petersburg forms the St. Petersburg coastal region, which can be defined as a typical "global city region". The index method shows that the position of St. Petersburg in the system of global coastal cities of the Baltic region is relatively favorable in view of its transport, logistics, and demographic potential and the advantageous geo-economic situation. St. Petersburg has certain competitive advantages in the region brought about by its demographic potential, port freight capacity, and the favorable geo-economic position of the "sea gate" of Russia. However, the level of high-tech services and ‘new economy’ development is not sufficient for the port to become a match for the top three cities (Stockholm, Helsinki, and Copenhagen. This is increasingly important because transboundary global city networks demonstrate that global cities are functions of global networks. Saint Petersburg is just starting to integrate into these networks through the Pulkovo airline hub and seaports of Ust-Luga, Primorsk, and Saint Petersburg.

  4. Understanding salt dynamics for a restored coastal wetland at the Baltic Sea in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selle, Benny; Gräff, Thomas; Salzmann, Thomas; Oswald, Sascha; Walther, Marc; Miegel, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    Coastal fens like the nature reserve „Hütelmoor und Heiligensee"(north-eastern Germany) are important landscape elements along the southern Baltic coast, which exchange fresh water and brackish water with the Baltic Sea. These exchange processes can be understood as experiments with a natural tracer, which may be used to investigate the hydrologic behaviour of these fen systems. With the establishment of coastal protection measures such as dunes and dikes, the installation of surface drainage and, more recently, also nature conservation measures, the hydrologic regime of these coastal wetlands constantly altered over the last centuries. The rehabilitated wetland „Hütelmoor und Heiligensee" is suitable for an analysis of hydrologic change as it was monitored over the time period since nature conservation measures started in the 1990s. Collected data sets include observation of groundwater levels and electrical conductivities, weather data as well as discharge at the outlet of the drainage catchment. In this study, we identifed processes and quantify process magnitudes that govern the salt balance of the study area including its variability in space and time. We found that - over the period of rehabilitation - salt water entered the catchment with episodic storm surges by wave overtopping of dunes. The intruded brackish water was then diluted, which is a slow process occurring over decades. It is governed by local groundwater recharge from precipitation and the inflow of relatively fresh groundwater from the hinterland. It is concluded that salt inputs from the Baltic Sea provide a natural tracer of hydrological processes, which can be readily monitored via electrical conductivity measurements.

  5. Endoparasites in some Swedish Amphibians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1988-01-01

    A study was made of the endoparasites in specimens of Rana arvalis and R. temporaria collected on two occasions from a locality of southern Sweden. Some frogs were investigated directly after capture while other frogs were kept hibernating and the composition of the parasites as well as the behav...... not previously been reported from Sweden. The late Prof. O. Nybelin's unpublished records of parasites found in Swedish amphibians are also given....

  6. Swedish minister rebuilds scientists' trust

    CERN Multimedia

    Sylwan, P

    1999-01-01

    Thomas Ostros, Sweden's new science minister is aiming to improve links with the science community, severely strained during the tenure of Carl Tham. Significantly, he confirmed that he will not be making any further changes to the managment of the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research. He also announced a 5 per cent increase in government funding for science which will be used to strengthen basic research and education (1 page).

  7. Analysis of late mid-Neolithic pottery illuminates the presenceof a Corded Ware Culture on the Baltic Island of Gotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Palmgren

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss variations seen in the ornamentation and modes of manufacturing pottery from the end of the mid-Neolithic 4600–4300 BP on the Island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea. The Pitted Ware cultural groups have been discussed as a western influence from the Swedish mainland, but the aDNA on skeletal remains point to eastern influences. We analyse and discuss pottery from the well-investigated Ajvide Pitted Ware site and what these variations mean in term of intra- and inter-island relationships, ethnicity and change, and we suggest the development of what could be described as a hybrid culture.

  8. (137)Cs, (40)K and (210)Po in marine mammals from the southern Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Tomasz; Góral, Marta; Szefer, Piotr; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Bojanowski, Ryszard

    2015-12-15

    This study provides information on baseline concentrations of the radionuclides Cesium-137, Potassium-40 and Polonium-210 in sea mammals from the Baltic Sea. The radionuclides were analyzed in the liver, kidney and muscle of harbor porpoises, striped dolphins, and gray and ringed seals from the Polish coast by γ- and α-spectrometry. Median (137)Cs activities were 14.8, 13.2 and 23.2 Bq kg(-1) w.w. in the liver, kidney and muscles, respectively. Activities of (40)K and (210)Po in the respective tissues were found to be 79.1, 79.8 and 111 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K and 58.1, 59.2 and 32.9 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Po. The measured (137)Cs concentrations were extraordinarily high in comparison to those reported in sea mammals from other locations. However, dose assessments did not imply health effects from (137)Cs exposure in Baltic Sea mammals. Correlations between (137)Cs tissue activities and reported sea water concentrations highlight the potential use of marine mammals for biomonitoring purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sulfur isotope biogeochemistry of soils from an episodically flooded coastal wetland, southern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Fernández, Luz Eva; Westphal, Julia; Schmiedinger, Iris; Kreuzburg, Matthias; Bahlo, Reiner; Koebsch, Franziska; Böttcher, Michael E.

    2017-04-01

    Coastal wetlands are under dynamic impact both from fresh water and salt water sources, thereby experiencing temporarily sulfur-excess and -limiting conditions. In the present study, nine up to 10 meter long sediment cores from a recently rewetted fen (Hütelmoor, southern Baltic Sea) which has been under impact by episodic flooding with brackish waters were investigated (isotope) geochemically. The sites are positioned at different distances to the Baltic Sea coastline. The soils were analyzed for the elemental composition (CNS), reactive iron and sedimentary sulfur contents, iron sulfide micro-textures, as well as the stable sulfur isotope composition of inorganic and organic sulfur fractions to understand signal development for the biogeochemical carbon-sulfur cycles in such a dynamic ecosystem. We found evidence for the activity of dissimilatory sulfate-reducing microorganisms and the associated formation of pyrite with different textures (framboids, single euhedral crystals and clusters) and sulfurization of organic matter. Sedimentary sulfur fractions and their stable isotope signatures are controlled by the availability of dissolved organic matter or methane, reactive iron, and in particular dissolved sulfate and thereby from the relative position to the coast line and the given lithology. d34S values in the pyrite fraction vary in a wide range between -21 and +15 per mil versus VCDT, in agreement with spatial and temporal dynamics in the extend of sulfate-limiting conditions during the oxidation of reduced carbon.

  10. Problem zone and pioneer region. The Baltic region between controversies of energy policy and cooperative projects; Problemzone und Vorreiterregion. Der Ostseeraum im Spannungsfeld energiepolitischer Kontroversen und Kooperationsvorhaben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Kai-Olaf

    2010-10-15

    This publication describes how for the EU states bordering on the Baltic coast energy policy and energy economy have become crucial fields of bilateral and regional cooperation. On the one side this is attributable to the controversial Nord Stream Pipeline, growing concerns over the security of supply, vulnerabilities in energy policy - be they real or imagined - and to competing energy economic interests. On the other side, what has drawn numerous players' attention to the greater Baltic region as an attractive area in terms of energy policy are the prospects for multilateral cooperation projects and associated hopes for greater regional solidarity in issues of energy policy. In this sense the Baltic region is not only an energy political problem zone but also a potential pioneer region, namely when it comes to energy economic and energy political integration within the EU. This ambivalence should continue to characterise the region for the foreseeable future. The extent to which energy economic integration will in future prevail over particular national interests of energy and security policy will greatly depend on the initiatives which the EU Baltic states succeed in launching cooperatively at EU level.

  11. Climate envelope modeling and dispersal simulations show little risk of range extension of the Shipworm, Teredo navalis (L., in the Baltic sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Appelqvist

    Full Text Available The shipworm, Teredo navalis, is absent from most of the Baltic Sea. In the last 20 years, increased frequency of T. navalis has been reported along the southern Baltic Sea coasts of Denmark, Germany, and Sweden, indicating possible range-extensions into previously unoccupied areas. We evaluated the effects of historical and projected near-future changes in salinity, temperature, and oxygen on the risk of spread of T. navalis in the Baltic. Specifically, we developed a simple, GIS-based, mechanistic climate envelope model to predict the spatial distribution of favourable conditions for adult reproduction and larval metamorphosis of T. navalis, based on published environmental tolerances to these factors. In addition, we used a high-resolution three-dimensional hydrographic model to simulate the probability of spread of T. navalis larvae within the study area. Climate envelope modeling showed that projected near-future climate change is not likely to change the overall distribution of T. navalis in the region, but will prolong the breeding season and increase the risk of shipworm establishment at the margins of the current range. Dispersal simulations indicated that the majority of larvae were philopatric, but those that spread over a wider area typically spread to areas unfavourable for their survival. Overall, therefore, we found no substantive evidence for climate-change related shifts in the distribution of T. navalis in the Baltic Sea, and no evidence for increased risk of spread in the near-future.

  12. New Swedish environmental and sustainable education research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Öhman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of Education & Democracy presents examples froma new generation of Swedish research on environmental and sustainability education and thereby complement the picture of the current Swedish environmental and sustainability education research outlined in the recent Danish-Swedish special issue of Environmental EducationResearch (Vol 16, No 1 and the anthology Democracy and Values inEducation for Sustainable Development – Contributions from Swedish Research (Öhman 2008. All the contributors to this issue are associatedwith the Graduate School in Education and Sustainable Development (GRESD, either as PhD students or as supervisors.

  13. Egg production of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissling, Anders; Florin, Ann-Britt; Thorsen, Anders; Bergström, Ulf

    2013-11-01

    In the brackish water Baltic Sea turbot spawn at ~ 6-9 psu along the coast and on offshore banks in ICES SD 24-29, with salinity influencing the reproductive success. The potential fecundity (the stock of vitellogenic oocytes in the pre-spawning ovary), egg size (diameter and dry weight of artificially fertilized 1-day-old eggs) and gonad dry weight were assessed for fish sampled in SD 25 and SD 28. Multiple regression analysis identified somatic weight, or total length in combination with Fulton's condition factor, as main predictors of fecundity and gonad dry weight with stage of maturity (oocyte packing density or leading cohort) as an additional predictor. For egg size, somatic weight was identified as main predictor while otolith weight (proxy for age) was an additional predictor. Univariate analysis using GLM revealed significantly higher fecundity and gonad dry weight for turbot from SD 28 (3378-3474 oocytes/g somatic weight) compared to those from SD 25 (2343 oocytes/g somatic weight), with no difference in egg size (1.05 ± 0.03 mm diameter and 46.8 ± 6.5 μg dry weight; mean ± sd). The difference in egg production matched egg survival probabilities in relation to salinity conditions suggesting selection for higher fecundity as a consequence of poorer reproductive success at lower salinities. This supports the hypothesis of higher size-specific fecundity towards the limit of the distribution of a species as an adaptation to harsher environmental conditions and lower offspring survival probabilities. Within SD 28 comparisons were made between two major fishing areas targeting spawning aggregations and a marine protected area without fishing. The outcome was inconclusive and is discussed with respect to potential fishery induced effects, effects of the salinity gradient, effects of specific year-classes, and effects of maturation status of sampled fish.

  14. The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salikov Aleksey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Baltic policy of united Germany from the 1990s until today. The authors set out to identify the significance of German-Baltic relations and the role of the Eastern policy in Russian-German relations. The method of dynamic comparison between the political and economic narrative in intergovernmental relations makes it possible to identify distinctive features of Germany’s Baltic policy in the context of current international relations. In particular, it is noted that Germany was most active in the Baltic region in the 1990s, when the country was establishing political, economic, and cultural ties with the new independent states. In the second half of the 1990s, Germany’s foreign policy became less intense. After the accession of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia to the EU and NATO in 2004, certain disagreements started to arise between Germany and the Baltics. It explains the lukewarm relations between them. The Ukraine events brought about a change in Germany’s regional policy. Despite Russia remaining one of the key economic and political counteractors, Germany, being a partner of the Baltics in the EU and NATO, cannot adopt a neutral position in the conflict of interests between the Baltics and Russia.

  15. Genetic signs of multiple colonization events in Baltic ciscoes with radiation into sympatric spring- and autumn-spawners confined to early postglacial arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delling, Bo; Palm, Stefan; Palkopoulou, Eleftheria; Prestegaard, Tore

    2014-11-01

    Presence of sympatric populations may reflect local diversification or secondary contact of already distinct forms. The Baltic cisco (Coregonus albula) normally spawns in late autumn, but in a few lakes in Northern Europe sympatric autumn and spring- or winter-spawners have been described. So far, the evolutionary relationships and taxonomic status of these main life history forms have remained largely unclear. With microsatellites and mtDNA sequences, we analyzed extant and extinct spring- and autumn-spawners from a total of 23 Swedish localities, including sympatric populations. Published sequences from Baltic ciscoes in Germany and Finland, and Coregonus sardinella from North America were also included together with novel mtDNA sequences from Siberian C. sardinella. A clear genetic structure within Sweden was found that included two population assemblages markedly differentiated at microsatellites and apparently fixed for mtDNA haplotypes from two distinct clades. All sympatric Swedish populations belonged to the same assemblage, suggesting parallel evolution of spring-spawning rather than secondary contact. The pattern observed further suggests that postglacial immigration to Northern Europe occurred from at least two different refugia. Previous results showing that mtDNA in Baltic cisco is paraphyletic with respect to North American C. sardinella were confirmed. However, the inclusion of Siberian C. sardinella revealed a more complicated pattern, as these novel haplotypes were found within one of the two main C. albula clades and were clearly distinct from those in North American C. sardinella. The evolutionary history of Northern Hemisphere ciscoes thus seems to be more complex than previously recognized.

  16. The new data on the seasonal distribution of diatoms in the Southern Baltic coastal lakes as a basis for diatom-based transfer functions to reconstruct past environmental changes in the Baltic coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzodkiewicz, Monika; Szpikowska, Grażyna; Woszczyk, Michał; Suchińska, Anita; Burchardt, Lubomira; Messyasz, Beata

    2016-04-01

    Lakes ecosystems are very sensitive to climate and environment changes. In lake sediments there are preserved remains of plant and animals that lived in the lake and its surroundings in the past. The species composition of past assemblages is a basis for quantitative and qualitative reconstruction of the past environmental changes (climate changes). One of the most commonly used bio-proxy for the reconstruction of lake development are subfossil diatoms which are sensitive to lake water pH, nutrient status, salinity and temperature. In this poster we present the new data from the coastal lakes on the Southern Baltic coast. The main goal of this research was to quantify the relationships between modern diatom assemblages and present-day environmental conditions. These relationships will be used to develop diatom-based transfer functions that will be applied to future studies of environmental change on the Polish Baltic coast. Water samples for diatom and chemical analyses were collected a few times per year between 2012 and 2014 from 12 coastal lakes located along the Polish Baltic coast as well as from the Baltic Sea. We analysed the whole phytoplankton composition. However the special focus was put on diatoms. At each site, a suite of important water quality parameters was collected, including chemical (e.g., chlorides, phosphorous and sulphur) and physical (e.g., Secchi depth) variables. Diatom assemblages from each site were counted and identified to the most specific taxonomic level possible. Diatom data were compiled for comparison to corresponding environmental data and development of indicator models. The results of the analysis show seasonal changes in diatom distribution as well as the chemical and physical water propertieswhich are mainly related to saltwater ingressions to the lakes. Lake Koprowo, Lake Resko Przymorskie, Lake Bukowo and Lake Łebsko are under the constant of seawater influence, which makes them similar to lagoons. In Lake Gardno seawater

  17. Steps towards a SAR-based wind atlas in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo

    deviation of 1.88 m/s (20.11°), and linear correlation coefficient R2 of 0.783 (0.95°). The second step was estimation of the mean wind speed, the Weibull scale and shape parameters, and energy density based on over 1000 SAR-based wind maps for the Baltic Sea. The results were compared to the FINO-2...... of distance to nearest coast was also investigated (Hasager et al. 2011). The third step is focused on lifting SAR-based winds from 10 m to hub-height using a method proposed and applied to a data set in the North Sea by Badger et al. 2012 (EWEA 2012 conference). In brief, the method is based on information...

  18. Past storminess recorded in the internal architecture of coastal formations of Estonia in the NE Baltic Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tõnisson, Hannes; Vilumaa, Kadri; Kont, Are; Sugita, Shinya; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Anderson, Agnes

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 50 years, storminess has increased in northern Europe because of the changes in cyclonic activity. The cyclone season in the Baltic Sea area has shifted from autumn to winter; this has led to intensification of shore processes (erosion, sediment transport and accumulation) and has increased pressure to the economy (land use, coastal protection measures) of the coastal regions in the Baltic states. Therefore, studing the effects of such changes on shore processes in the past is critical for prediction of the future changes along the Baltic coasts. Beach ridge plains are found worldwide, where cyclones and storm surges affect accumulation forms. These sandy shores are highly susceptible to erosion. Due to the isostatic uplift on the NE coast of the Baltic Sea, the signs of major past events are well-preserved in the internal architecture of old coastal formations (dune ridge-swale complexes). Wave-eroded scarps in beach deposits are visible in subsurface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) records, indicating the past high-energy events. Several study areas and transects were selected on the NW coast of Estonia, using high-resolution topographic maps (LiDAR). Shore-normal subsurface surveys have been conducted with a digital GSSI SIR-3000 georadar with a 270 MHz antenna at each transect. Interpretation of GPR facies was based on hand auger and window sampler coring, which provided accurate depths of key stratigraphic boundaries and bounding surfaces. Several samples for luminescence and 14C dating were collected to determine the approximate chronology of the coastal formations along the Estonian coast. We have found that changes in storminess, including the periods of high and low intensity of storms in late Holocene, are clearly reflected in the internal patterns of ancient coastal formations. The sections with small ridges with short seaward-dipped layers (interface between wave-built and aeolian deposits) in deeper horizons are probably formed during

  19. Chlorinated pesticides and natural brominated anisoles in air at three northern Baltic stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidleman, Terry F; Laudon, Hjalmar; Nygren, Olle; Svanberg, Staffan; Tysklind, Mats

    2017-06-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive samplers were deployed at one inland and two island locations in the Bothnian Bay region of the northern Baltic Sea. Uptake was linear over 81-147 d and a temperature range of -2.6 to 14.2 °C for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and current-use pesticides (CUPs) having log K OA ≥9 at ambient temperatures. Partial saturation of the PUF disks occurred for the more volatile OCPs hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and for bromoanisoles (BAs), which are products of bromophenols released by natural and anthropogenic sources. Correction for nonlinear uptake of these was made using experimentally measured PUF-air partition coefficients. Passive-derived air concentrations of pesticides were uniform over the bay and agreed within a factor of 2 or better with levels determined by active (pumped) sampling at one of the island stations. Levels of OCPs were similar to those reported at background sites in the European and Canadian Arctic and at monitoring stations in the central Baltic and southern Scandinavia, indicating long-range transport. The insecticide chlorpyrifos was 10 times lower at bay stations than in the Canadian Arctic. Insight to sources and processes was gained by examining compound profiles. Fractions F alpha  = α-HCH/(α-HCH + γ-HCH) and F TC  = trans-chlordane/(trans-chlordane + cis-chlordane) at bay stations were higher than in the Norwegian and Finnish Arctic and similar to those at the southern monitoring stations. Volatilization of chlordanes from Baltic seawater may also modify F TC . Higher F TriBA  = 2,4,6-TriBA/(2,4,6-TriBA + 2,4-DiBA) distinguished local volatilization from the Baltic Sea versus lower F TriBA found at the inland site and reported in air on the Norwegian coast, suggesting westerly transport from the Atlantic across Norway and Sweden. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Size matters: relationships between body size and body mass of common coastal, aquatic invertebrates in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Eklöf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Organism biomass is one of the most important variables in ecological studies, making biomass estimations one of the most common laboratory tasks. Biomass of small macroinvertebrates is usually estimated as dry mass or ash-free dry mass (hereafter ‘DM’ vs. ‘AFDM’ per sample; a laborious and time consuming process, that often can be speeded up using easily measured and reliable proxy variables like body size or wet (fresh mass. Another common way of estimating AFDM (one of the most accurate but also time-consuming estimates of biologically active tissue mass is the use of AFDM/DM ratios as conversion factors. So far, however, these ratios typically ignore the possibility that the relative mass of biologically active vs. non-active support tissue (e.g., protective exoskeleton or shell—and therefore, also AFDM/DM ratios—may change with body size, as previously shown for taxa like spiders, vertebrates and trees. Methods We collected aquatic, epibenthic macroinvertebrates (>1 mm in 32 shallow bays along a 360 km stretch of the Swedish coast along the Baltic Sea; one of the largest brackish water bodies on Earth. We then estimated statistical relationships between the body size (length or height in mm, body dry mass and ash-free dry mass for 14 of the most common taxa; five gastropods, three bivalves, three crustaceans and three insect larvae. Finally, we statistically estimated the potential influence of body size on the AFDM/DM ratio per taxon. Results For most taxa, non-linear regression models describing the power relationship between body size and (i DM and (ii AFDM fit the data well (as indicated by low SE and high R2. Moreover, for more than half of the taxa studied (including the vast majority of the shelled molluscs, body size had a negative influence on organism AFDM/DM ratios. Discussion The good fit of the modelled power relationships suggests that the constants reported here can be used to quickly estimate

  1. Swedish Opinion on Nuclear Power 1986 - 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Soeren

    2012-11-01

    This report contains the Swedish opinion on Nuclear Power and European Attitudes on Nuclear Power. It also includes European Attitudes Towards the Future of Three Energy Sources; Nuclear Energy, Wind Power and Solar Power - with a focus on the Swedish opinion. Results from measurements done by the SOM Inst. are presented.

  2. Is spoken Danish less intelligible than Swedish?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooskens, Charlotte; van Heuven, Vincent J.; van Bezooijen, Renee; Pacilly, Jos J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The most straightforward way to explain why Danes understand spoken Swedish relatively better than Swedes understand spoken Danish would be that spoken Danish is intrinsically a more difficult language to understand than spoken Swedish. We discuss circumstantial evidence suggesting that Danish is

  3. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  4. Nord stream: not just a pipeline. An analysis of the political debates in the Baltic Sea region regarding the planned gas pipeline from Russia to Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whist, Bendik Solum

    2008-11-15

    This report is an analysis of the planned gas pipeline from Russia to Germany through the Baltic Sea known as Nord Stream. Although not yet realised, the project has, since its birth, been the subject of harsh criticism and opposition by a significant number of states that consider themselves affected by the pipeline. Whereas the Baltic States and Poland have interpreted the pipeline as a politically motivated strategy that will increase Russia's leverage on them and threaten their energy security, the debate in Sweden was at first mostly concerned with the prospect of increased Russian military presence in the Swedish Exclusive Economic Zone. The potential environmental impact of the pipeline has been, and continues to be, an overarching concern shared by all the littoral states of the Baltic Sea. Proponents of Nord Stream, most notably Germany, Russia and the Nord Stream consortium, have largely dismissed the concerns as unwarranted and argue that the pipeline is a common European project that all EU-members should embrace, as it will provide much-needed gas to an increasingly energy-thirsty union. This report is an extensive study of the divergent attitudes and debates that have surged in the region regarding Nord Stream, and the aim is to provide plausible explanations as to why the interpretations of the project have been so different in the various states. The report is based on a variety of sources, including several first-hand interviews with researchers and government officials in the Baltic Sea region. (author). refs.,fig.,tabs

  5. South Baltic wind atlas. South Baltic offshore wind energy regions project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.; Hahmann, A.; Hasager, C.B.; Bingoel, F.; Karagali, I.; Badger, J.; Badger, M.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2011-05-15

    A first version of a wind atlas for the South Baltic Sea has been developed using the WRF mesoscale model and verified by data from tall Danish and German masts. Six different boundary-layer parametrization schemes were evaluated by comparing the WRF results to the observed wind profiles at the masts. The WRF modeling was done in a nested domain of high spatial resolution for 4 years. In addition the long-term wind statistics using the NCAR-NCEP reanalysis data were performed during 30 years to provide basis for a long-term adjustment of the results and the final WRF results include a weighting for the long-term trends variability in the South Baltic Sea. Observations from Earth observing satellites were used to evaluate the spatial resolution of the WRF model results near the surface. The QuikSCAT and the WRF results compared well whereas the Envisat ASAR mean wind map showed some variation to the others. The long-term analysis revealed that the South Baltic Sea has a spatially highly variable wind climate during the 30-years. (Author)

  6. Environmental Sensitivity Index: Estonian shoreline geology classification (Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aps, Robert; Kopti, Madli; Tõnisson, Hannes; Orviku, Kaarel; Suursaar, Ülo

    2013-04-01

    At International Maritime Organization's (IMO) Marine Environment Protection Committee's 53rd session in July 2005, the Baltic Sea was designated as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA). At the same time the oil transportation is growing significantly in the Baltic Sea area and especially in the Gulf of Finland exceeding 250 million tons a year by 2015. Despite of improving navigation measures there is a growing risk for incidental oil spills and associated oil pollution. Oil spill accident history and simulations show that once the oil spill at sea has occurred, it is almost impossible to prevent it from reaching ashore. Advice on sensitive shoreline likely to be impacted by the oil washing ashore is of critical importance in order to support decisions whether or not a response is necessary or what kind and extent of response is appropriate. Furthermore, choices made in cleanup strategies and the decisionmaking process in the aftermath of a spill are significantly affecting the cleanup costs. This paper introduces the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) shoreline geology classification adapted and modified according to the environmental conditions of the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) and ranked according to substrate type and grain size related natural persistence of oil and ease of cleanup. Relative exposure to wave (hydrodynamic energy level) and the shoreline slope are characterized and taken into account. The length of the shoreline is over 700 km. The most common shore types are till shores (40%) and sandy shores (25%). Long stretches of cliff shores (11% in total) and gravel-pebble shores (10%) on the close neighborhood of the cliffs are the most characteristic features of the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland. Silty shores and artificial shores make up to 7% and 6% respectively of the total shoreline length here. Over 2/3 of the shores here are with very high ESI values. Till shores are often covered by coarse gravel, pebble

  7. Transborder corporate integration in the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Alexei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines flows of foreign direct investment within the Baltic region. The author demonstrates close investment ties among the EU members, which are of special importance for Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Transborder corporate integration in the region is characterized by significant imbalances. In many aspects, it can be viewed as Sweden’s economic expansion or development of domestic markets for northern European companies. Although many German, Polish and Russian companies are involved in corporate integration in the Baltic region, other vectors of their foreign economic relations are still more important for them. As a result, the integration of Russian business in the Baltic part of the European integration area is still rather weak despite Russia’s considerable foreign direct investment in the Baltic States.

  8. Baltic companies prepare for stiff competition / Jorgen Johansson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johansson, Jorgen

    2001-01-01

    "Baltic Sea Partenariat 2001" on Rootsi valitsuse toetatav projekt ärisidemete arendamiseks Rootsi ja Baltimaade ettevõtete vahel ning aitamaks läänemeremaade väikeettevõtetel valmistuda konkurentsiks EL-i turul

  9. Baltic Property Trust - professionaalseim kinnisvara investeerimisfirma Baltimere piirkonnas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    BPT Eesti direktor Meelis Liivak Baltic Property Trusti (BPT) eesmärkidest, tegevusvaldkondadest ja tulevikuplaanidest. Kommenteerivad Alo Kullamaa, Priit Põldoja, Andres Järving ja Aivar Tomson. Lisa: Ajalugu

  10. Pan-Baltic airline talks again on the table

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Baltimaad võivad luua ühise lennukompanii. Läti kommunikatsiooniministri Kaspars Gerhardsi, Leedu transpordiministri Eligijus Masiulise ja Eesti majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministri Juhan Partsi arvamused. AirBaltic plaanib luua interneti-reisibürood

  11. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  12. Nutrient control of cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stal, L.J.; Staal, M.J.; Villbrandt, M.

    1999-01-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea were investigated with respect to growth Limitation and nitrogen fixation. The community was composed predominantly of Synechococcus spp., and large, heterocystous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon spp, and Nodularia spp.), that usually formed

  13. First record of the family Ithonidae (Neuroptera) from Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarkin, Vladimir N; Wedmann, Sonja; Weiterschan, Thomas

    2014-05-19

    Elektrithone expectata gen. et sp. nov. (Neuroptera: Ithonidae) is described from Eocene Baltic amber and represents the first record of this family from Baltic amber. The forewing venation of the new genus is characterized by a small number of crossveins as found in some 'polystoechotid'-like genera, and by the absence of the distal nygma and the strong reduction of the anal area which are characteristic of 'rapismatid'-like ithonids.

  14. Russia’s energy geostrategy in the Baltic Sea region

    OpenAIRE

    Zeleneva Irina

    2013-01-01

    This article explores Russian energy policy in the Baltic Sea region in the context of the world energy market globalization. The study focuses on the three Baltic States — Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia — which have a similar geographical location and history. The dynamic development of the region as a whole is strongly influenced by the stability of energy supply in each state. The article analyses the role Russia plays in the energy policy of the region from both geopolitical and geostrate...

  15. 127I and 129I Species and Transformation in the Baltic Proper, Kattegat, and Skagerrak Basins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, P.; Aldahan, A.; Possnert, G.

    2012-01-01

    Occurrence of anthropogenic 129I in seawater has provided invaluable information about water circulation and exchange rates, but results on 129I species (iodide and iodate) are limited and only available for surface water. We here present the first extensive results on 129I and 127I species...... in samples of seawater depth profiles, which were collected in August 2006 and April 2007 in the Skagerrak, Kattegat, and Baltic Proper. The results expose ≤10% annual reduction of iodate as 129I is transported from the English Channel along the Dutch coast and German Bight into the Skagerrak and Kattegat....... The results also suggest strong variability between surface and bottom seawater with respect to the predominant iodine species. Distribution of iodide and iodate of both 127I and 129I in the Kattegat mainly reflects water mixing process rather than speciation transformation. In water of the Baltic Proper...

  16. Centralised or decentralised sanitation in Swedish summerhouse areas in transition to permanent living?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärrman, E; Erlandsson, A; Hellström, D; Björlenius, B; Tidåker, P

    2007-01-01

    The standard of wastewater management is high in Sweden. Around 90% of the population is connected to central wastewater treatment plants with high requirements of nutrients removal; however, still the problem with algae blooms in the Baltic Sea exists. The aim of the VeVa project was to develop a simple and user-friendly Excel-based model to support environmental decisions of how to select wastewater systems for housing areas where no central sewer system exists. The VeVa model deals with two types of environmental issues: substance flow analysis and energy analysis. Six system structures were studied for the transition area Lillängsdal in Värmdö municipality sorted in three categories: 1) on-site systems for single households; 2) local collective systems; 3) connection to central systems. All studied system structures, except for a Sand filter system, fulfilled the goals of reducing phosphorus and BOD7 according to Swedish guidelines for on-site systems in sensitive areas. All studied systems, except for the Sand filter system, have the potential to fulfil the Swedish National Environmental goal to recycle 60% phosphorus to productive land. The systems with central wastewater treatment plant and local wastewater treatment are the most energy efficient alternatives that also fulfil the requirements of discharges and environmental goals regarding phosphorus recycling.

  17. Forecasting Actions of Baltic elites: A Scenario Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Vadim A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of different approaches to forecasting the future of the three Baltic States. The author’s theoretical approach to studying Baltic elites is used to forecast changes in the action models of the Baltic elites. The article stresses the scarcity of internal political processes in the Baltics. However, a significant number of scenarios focusing on military aspects in the Baltics have recently been published. The author distinguishes between inertia, confrontation, and cooperation scenarios and examines their prerequisites and possible consequences. The scenarios are developed based on an analysis of geographic, economic, and political factors. The decisive factor is a state-controlled foreign policy, which is affected by the international situation as well as relations between the state and the external resources exploited by political elites. The paper contributes to the general debate about the factors of political development and the role of political elites in it. The author pr ovides additional material for analysing possible developments in the domestic policies of the Baltic States in view of external factors.

  18. On Russian/Nordic Investment Competition in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olenchenko Vladimir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The researchers often overlook the relationships between Russian and Nordic investment capital; and even less attention is paid to studying the competition between the two. Yet this subject can be of particular relevance to the areas that are geographically, historically and culturally close to both Russia and the Nordic countries. Thus, the aim of this article is to understand how the competition between Russian and Nordic capital investment is played out in the Baltic States. The study discusses the principles of Russian and Nordic investment in the Baltic, and suggests ways to regulate these relations. To this end, we compare the investment conditions created in the Baltic States for both Russian and Nordic investors. The analysis shows that most of the Baltic market is controlled by the Nordic capital, which blocks the arrival of Russian investment to the Baltic States. With a nod to a number of previous studies, the authors of this article suggest some adjustments to the theory of foreign direct investment. The study will be also of practical interest to those Russian investors who are seeking entry points to the Baltic markets.

  19. The Scandinavian baltic pancreatic club (SBPC) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Søren Maagaard; Poulsen, Jakob L; Drewes, Asbjørn M.

    2017-01-01

    , we describe the design of the database and characteristics of the study cohort. METHODS: Nine centres from six different countries in the Scandinavian-Baltic region joined the database. Patients with definitive or probable CP (M-ANNHEIM diagnostic criteria) were included. Standardised case report......: The study cohort comprised of 910 patients (608 men: 302 women; median age 58 (IQR: 48-67) years with definite 848 (93%) or probable CP 62 (7%). Nicotine (70%) and alcohol (59%) were the most frequent aetiologies and seen in combination in 44% of patients. A history of recurrent acute pancreatitis was seen...... in 49% prior to the development of CP. Pain (69%) and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (68%) were the most common complications followed by diabetes (43%). Most patients (30%) were classified as clinical stage II (symptomatic CP with exocrine or endocrine insufficiency). Less than 10% of the patients...

  20. Metal pollutants and radionuclides in the Baltic Sea - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Szefer

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This overview presents in detail the state of knowledge of the abilities of various components of the Baltic Sea environment to accumulate trace elements and radionuclides. Particular components of the Baltic ecosystem (abiotic and biotic are considered as potential monitors of pollutants. The use of seaweeds, e.g. Fucus vesiculosus or Zostera marina is recommended, also molluscs, e.g. Mytilus edulis, for biomonitoring surveys of metal pollutants and radionuclides in the Baltic Sea. However, several requirements need to be met if results are to be reliable. Since metal levels and radionuclide activities in the growing tips of F. vesiculosus reflect exclusively the levels of their dissolved species in the ambient seawater, this alga is very useful for monitoring dissolved species of metal pollutants and radioisotopes in the Baltic ecosystem. In contrast, M. edulis, a filter feeder is an appropriate tool for monitoring trace elements occurring in both chemical forms, i.e. dissolved and suspended species. Therefore, full information on the bioavailability and toxicity of heavy metals (depending on their chemical speciation as pollutants of the Baltic Sea can be obtained if at least two biomonitoring organisms are applied simultaneously, e.g. F. vesiculosus and M. edulis. Moreover, the data matrix can be interpreted more accurately if not only trace element but also macroelement concentrations (Ca, Mg, Na, K in these two representatives of Baltic phyto- and zoobenthos are taken into consideration; this point requires special attention. Two coastal species of fish, i.e. Zoarces viviparus and Perca fluviatilis, are good biomonitors of metallic contaminants, so their use as sentinels is recommended. The budgets of chemical elements and the ecological status of the Baltic Sea are presented. Several "black spots", e.g. large estuaries and seaport towns, heavily polluted by trace elements, are identified in the Baltic Sea and other enclosed seas such the

  1. Baltic Fibresi tekk katab Inglise kõrgklassi / Liis Kängsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kängsepp, Liis, 1981-

    2005-01-01

    Tekke ja patju valmistav ettevõte OÜ Baltic Fibres tegutseb alles viiendat aastat, kuid on saavutanud edu teiste padjatootjate seas. Vt. samas: Padjatootjate kasumi sõi liitumine ELiga. Lisa: Baltic Fibres areneb tekstiilituru liidrist Wendrest kiiremini

  2. Ecology of mysid shrimps in the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic Sea)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barz, Kristina; Hirche, Hans-Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Mysid shrimps are an important trophic link in the food web of the Baltic Sea. In 2002 and 2003 we investigated species composition, distribution, life cycle and prey in the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic...

  3. Gender Integration and the Swedish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Daniel Marcus Sunil

    This paper discusses different gender aspects of the Swedish Armed Forces with specific references to sexual harassment and prostitution. By using the concept of Hegemonic Masculinity, sexual harassment of the women in the Swedish Armed Forces is explained in terms of a need of the men within...... the organisation to reinforce the notion of women as inferior and subordinate to men, whereby the external hegemony is believed to be restored. Likewise, male Swedish peacekeepers’ demand for prostitution during international peacekeeping missions is explained in terms of a need to confirm manhood and as homo...

  4. Fifth Baltic Sea pollution load compilation (PLC-5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuuttila, S.; Svendsen, L.M.; Staaf, H.; Kotilainen, P.; Boutrup, S.; Pyhala, M.; Durkin, M.

    2011-07-01

    This report includes the main results from the Fifth Pollution Load Compilation abbreviated PLC-5. It includes quantified annual waterborne total loads (from rivers, unmonitored and coastal areas as well as direct point and diffuse sources discharging directly to the Baltic Sea) from 1994 to 2008 to provide a basis for evaluating any decreasing (or increasing) trends in the total waterborne inputs to the Baltic Sea. Chapter 1 contains the objectives of PLC and the framework on classification of inputs and sources. Chapter 2 includes a short description of the Baltic Sea catchment area, while the methods for quantification and analysis together with quality assurance topics are briefly introduced in Chapter 3. More detailed information on methodologies is presented in the PLC-5 guidelines (HELCOM 2006). Chapter 4 reports the total inputs to the Baltic Sea of nutrients and selected heavy metals. Furthermore, the results of the quatification of discharges and losses of nitrogen and phosphorus from point and diffuse sources into inland surface waters within the Baltic Sea catchment area (source-oriented approach or gross loads) as well as the total load to the maritime area (load-oriented approarch or net loads) in 2006 are shown. Typically, results are presented by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. In Chapter 5, flow normalization is introduced and the results of trend analyses on 1994-2008 time series data on total waterborne loads of nitrogen and phosphorus are given together with a first evaluation of progress in obtaining the provisional reduction targets by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. Chapter 6 includes discussion of some of the main conclusions and advice for future PLCs. The annexes contain the flow-normalized annual load data and figures and tables with results from the PLC-5.

  5. Studies in Swedish Energy Opinion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Soeren; Hedberg, Per

    2012-07-01

    the 1970s, energy production was politicized big time in the industrialized world. The birth of the environmental movement, the oil crises in 1973 - 74 and the beginning conflict surrounding civilian nuclear power, put energy issues center stage on the political agenda. Energy policies - especially related to the development of nuclear power - came to dominate election campaigns, like in Sweden in 1976 or be the subject of referendums, like in Austria in 1978 or in Sweden in 1980. Critical voices toward the peaceful use of nuclear power - having started in America before being exported to Europe - gained real strength and public support all over the Western world by the nuclear accident at the Three Mile Island plant in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania in 1979. The energy genie was out of the bottle and out to stay. Fueled by the nuclear meltdowns in Chernobyl in 1986 and in Fukushima in 2011 and supplemented by conflicts over how to reduce the use of oil and coal, how to sensibly exploit the waste gas reserves, and how to develop renewable energy sources based on sun, wind and waves – have made all kinds of energy issues the focal point of political contentions ever since the early 1970s. In Sweden, as in many other countries, energy policies - often with nuclear power in the center - have been one of the most fought-over policy areas during the last thirty-forty years. And the contentious character of energy policies is not limited to the elite level of politics - to politicians, to media pundits or to lobbyists. It is also manifest among ordinary citizens. Energy issues - nuclear power and wind power in particular - are highly polarizing among voters as well. Given this historic background, starting in the 1970s, it was rather natural that energy questions - featuring most prominently questions related to nuclear power - would be important parts of the voter surveys performed by the Swedish National Elections Studies (SNES) at the Univ. of Gothenburg. The first book

  6. Benthic processes on and around artificial structures in Swedish coastal waters; Bentiska processer paa och runt artificiella strukturer i Sveriges kustvatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malm, Torleif (Stockholms Universitet, Stockholms marina forskningscentrum (Sweden)); Engkvist, Roland (Linneuniversitetet, Institutionen foer Naturvetenskap, Vaexjoe (Sweden))

    2011-03-15

    Within the next few decades, wind farms with an extension of many square kilometres probably will be built in Swedish coastal waters. These installations may affect the ecological communities in various ways, e.g.; by the already known reef-effect, by changing the population structure of key predators such as fish and birds and thereby cause trophic cascades down into the benthic community or by causing changes in the hydrology that may benefit some species, mainly soft bottom species, while others may be disadvantaged. How the wind farms will affect the ecological communities depends probably very much on the initial conditions. During the period 2005-2009 a study was carried out with the aim to investigate the benthic community structure on hard bottoms, before and after larger wind farms have been constructed. The areas explored were Skottarevet in Kattegat, Lillgrund in Oeresund, Utgrunden II in southern Kalmar Strait, Kaarehamn off north-eastern Oeland and Klasaadern off south-western Gotland. For legal and economic reasons, only one farm, Lillgrund was constructed during the project period. Significant differences were found at both species and functional level. The largest divergence was found between the Kattegat and the Baltic Sea with large differences in species composition and in part also with other functional groups. Furthermore, between the Baltic Sea sites, significant differences were also found. The natural communities in the two straits had significantly higher biomass of blue mussels (M. edulis) per square meter compared with the open areas at Gotland and Oeland. In addition,the algal flora differed significantly. Filamentous brown algae favoured by eutrophication dominated the substrate in the straits while the bottoms along the open coastlines were covered with perennial red algae. The wind farm at Lillgrund affected the benthic communities moderately but significant. Mussels and barnacles colonized the surface of the towers and the granite

  7. Productivity growth and biased technological change\\ud in Baltic banks

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Managi, Shunsuke; Matousek, Roman

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the productivity of Baltic banks over 2000-2006 is analysed with a Malmquist index and the input technological bias is investigated. Baltic banks on average became more efficient and experienced technological improvment. Our results indicate that the traditional growth accounting method, which assumes Hicks neutral technological change, is not appropriate for analyzing changes in productivity for Baltic banks.

  8. Sustainable manure management in the Baltic Sea Region - results, cases and project recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybirk, Knud; Luostarinen, S; Hamelin, Lorie

    This magazine contains the major results, conclusions and recommendations of the project Baltic Forum for Innovative Technologies for Sustainable Manure Management (Baltic Manure) which via co-funding from Interreg Baltic Sea Region programme has been a Flagship project in the EU Strategy...

  9. Stable lead (Pb) isotopes and concentrations - A useful independent dating tool for Baltic Sea sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zillén, L.; Lenz, C.; Jilbert, T.

    2012-01-01

    The prehistory of the Baltic Sea has for a long time suffered from imprecise dating, due to the large uncertainties associated with bulk radiocarbon dating of Baltic Seasediments. To constrain the timing of environmental changes in the Baltic Sea it is critical to apply new dating approaches. This

  10. The Baltic Basin Case Study—towards a sustainable Baltic Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Bengt-Owe; Stålvant, Carl-Einar

    2001-12-01

    Four watersheds, each characterized by a major resource use were selected for the study: The Vistula River in Poland—agriculture; the Dalälven River in Sweden—forestry; the Archipelago Sea in Sweden, Finland, Estonia—tourism; and the Lake Peipsi in Estonia/Russia—fisheries/agriculture. The main objective was to examine the reactions of particular ecosystems within the Baltic Sea drainage area, and to assess sustainability conditions on the regional level. The degree of sustainability and impact on the Baltic Sea were investigated through workshops and seminars in the areas. Overviews of environmental and socio-economic conditions were succinctly summarized in commissioned papers. Interventions by and discussions with scholars, sector experts, administrators and stakeholders of the various sites laid the foundation for conceptualizing the interaction of natural and human forces for each case. The project was able to draw quite a number of conclusions, summarized as the following lessons learnt. In the Vistula Region, nutrient emissions have levelled off but shortage of freshwater is critical. Forestry in the Dalälven watershed is largely environmental-friendly, except for fragmentation of the landscape and its negative impact on biodiversity. In the Archipelago area a former low-energy community has been replaced by a leisure time society. Different types of tourism is developing, but despite this variety, an improved integration of ecological properties with socio-economic patterns is required in order to build a sustainable, living Archipelago. The lake Peipsi basin and the surrounding area suffer both from problems of resource management and economic backwardness. Parts of the local economy has lost access to the one time large Soviet market, although the Estonian side has apparently benefited from present economic growth. To cope with the division of the lake, a regime for trans-national management is unfolding. It is based on both informal and, to an

  11. Baltic Consortium on Promoting Gender Equality in Marine Research Organisations (Baltic Gender)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kısakürek Ibsen, Başak; Braun, Sarah; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Kutser, Tiit; Stadmark, Johanna; Vaitkevičienė, Viktorija; Waniek, Joanna; Werner, Iris; Matthes, Katja

    2017-04-01

    Marine Science and Technology has been traditionally a male-dominated research field, with a significant lack of women in leadership positions. However, the whole intellectual capacity of men and women alike are needed to create innovative solutions for the sustainable use of marine resources in the face of major global challenges for the development of the marine environment. The EU-funded project, Baltic Gender (GA No. 710363), responds to this need for creating policies and implementing measures at the institutional level with the aim of harvesting the full human capital for the needs of marine research. The main goal of Baltic Gender is to help reduce gender segregation and gender inequalities in Marine Science and Technology. To this end, eight partner institutions from five countries in the Baltic Sea region (Estonia, Finland, Germany, Lithuania and Sweden) came together for the exchange of institutional practices as well as for the transfer of knowledge from institutions/countries leading in gender equality to those following. Baltic Gender will sow the seeds for long-lasting institutional practices by initiating schemes and strategies that promote gender equality in the partner institutions. These include, for instance: the founding of grass-root networks that support the career advancement of women; creating strategies for better reconciliation of work and family life of women and men; the review and improvement of institutional policies and practices with regard to gender balance, fairness and transparency; development of a method protocol for incorporating gender analysis into research projects or programmes of Marine Science and Technology; initiating gender focused training and mentoring in or across all partner institutions. The project will support the implementation of Gender Equality Plans (GEPs), which consist of a set of actions an institution commits to in order to identify any existing gender bias and to implement strategies to advance gender

  12. Ferride geochemistry of Swedish precambrian iron ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loberg, B. E. H.; Horndahl, A.-K.

    1983-10-01

    Chemical analysis for major and trace elements have been performed on 30 Swedish Precambrian iron ores and on some from Iran and Chile. The Swedish ores consist of apatite iron ores, quartz-banded iron ores, skarn and limestone iron ores from the two main ore districts of Sweden, the Bergslagen and the Norrbotten province. Some Swedish titaniferous iron ores were also included in the investigation. The trace element data show that the Swedish ores can be subdivided into two major groups: 1. orthomagmatic and exhalative, 2. sedimentary. Within group 1 the titaniferous iron ores are distinguished by their high Ti-contents. From the ferride contents of the Kiruna apatite iron ores, the ores are considered to be mobilization products of skarn iron ores from the Norbotten province.

  13. BALTIC STATES IN THE EUROZONE: THE ACCESSION PROCESS AND RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Wołkonowski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the process of the Baltic states’ accession to the eurozone and examines the consequences of their adoption of the euro currency. Although Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania joined the eurozone in different years, they share a number of common features in terms of both their accession process and presence in the euro area. The article consists of three parts – the first surveys the Baltic states’ conformity with the convergence criteria and the second examines the effects that can be observed in the economies of the three Baltic countries after accession. The third part contains a comparative analysis of actual inflation versus perceived inflation index seen over the three years spanning the periods before, during and after the adoption of the euro. For this purpose, calculations of simplified perceived inflation indices in the Baltic States were compiled and compared against actual inflation. The differences across the Baltic states between the perceived inflation index and real inflation were similar to those in Austria and Germany during these countries’ accession to the euro zone.

  14. Geography of international clusters in the Baltic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhailov A. S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available International cluster is a relatively new form of spatial organisation of economy in the globalisation conditions, which has become a frequent phenomenon in European countries, including those of the Baltic region. It requires a comprehensive study of both regional economics and economic geography. This article aims to identify structured international clusters in the Baltic region and map the corresponding regions. The results obtained will make it possible to get a comprehensive idea of the aggregate of international clusters existing and emerging in the region and put forward a hypothesis about the prerequisites of their formation. The methodological framework of the research is an integrated case study. The article considers the processes of transboundary and transnational regionalisation in the countries of the Baltic region aimed at the development of international clusters. ‘International cluster’ is defined as a new form of spatial economy. The author identifies and maps organised international clusters and cluster initiatives in the Baltic Sea region countries. The international clusters of the Baltic region are characterised according to the following criteria: the degree of geographical localisation, the organisational type of formation, and specialisation areas. The author analyses the degree of involvement of a Russian region into the processes of international cluster cooperation in the macroregion.

  15. Countries of the Baltic Region in the Global Culinary Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhmanov A. B.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation is creating a global culinary space where culinary traditions of different countries interact and compete. The author sets out to explore characteristic features of the culinary space of nine Baltic States as part of the global culinary space. The author uses empirical data on the number of restaurants serving different national cuisines in the main cities of the region. The Baltic culinary space incorporates the world’s leading cuisines (Italian, Japanese, Chinese, etc. as well as the local cuisines of the BSR countries. The world’s leading cuisines prove to be more influential in the region than the local ones. Some countries of the Baltic Sea region (Russia, Poland, Sweden, Latvia, and Denmark have culinary sovereignty, since their residents prefer national cuisines. In some other countries of the region (Finland, Estonia, and Lithuania, the public favours the world’s leading cuisines — Italian, Japanese and American — over the local ones. The non-capital Baltic cities of Poland and Germany, as well as St. Petersburg, display a greater sense of culinary patriotism than Warsaw, Berlin, and Moscow respectively. This article attempts to explore the features of the Baltic culinary space. The author considers the environmental and socio- historical factors key determinants of the countries’ cuisines.

  16. Eastern Baltic cod recruitment revisited—dynamics and impacting factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Huwer, Bastian; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald

    2017-01-01

    The Eastern Baltic cod abundance started rapidly to increase in the mid-2000s as evidenced by analytical stock assessments, due to increased recruitment and declining fishing mortality. Since 2014, the analytical stock assessment is not available, leaving the present stock status unclear and cast......The Eastern Baltic cod abundance started rapidly to increase in the mid-2000s as evidenced by analytical stock assessments, due to increased recruitment and declining fishing mortality. Since 2014, the analytical stock assessment is not available, leaving the present stock status unclear...... and casting doubts about the magnitude of the recent increase in recruitment. Earlier studies identified main factors impacting on cod reproductive success to be related to the loss of two out of three spawning areas in the 1980s caused by lack of major Baltic inflows with a concurrent reduction in salinity...... decade, as the period was characterized by an absence of large-scale Baltic inflows since 2003 and persistent anoxic conditions in the bottom water of the deep Baltic basins. This questions the perception of the increased recruitment in later years and challenges our present understanding of cod...

  17. Multi-project verification of Swedish AIJ projects. Methodology and lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzzell, J.; Lehmann, M.; Nestaas, I.; Telnes, E.; Lund, T.; Vaage, G. [Det Norske Veritas AS, Hoevik (Norway)

    2000-03-01

    DNV has developed a multi-project verification methodology for verifying GHG emission reductions from groups of similar Joint Implementation (JI) or Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. This methodology was tested in 2000 during the multi-project verification of the CO{sub 2} emission reductions of Swedish AIJ projects located in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. These circa 30 AIJ projects were implemented from 1993 to 1999 and consisted of converting fossil fuel boilers to biofuel boilers in district heating boilerhouses. During the multi-project verification less than half of the projects in the group were subjected to on-site verification audits. This resulted in a cost savings as compared to verifying every project individually with on-site audits. This report, Methodology and Lessons Learned, documents the revised methodology for multi-project verification, and discusses the lessons learned from applying the methodology on the Swedish-Baltic AIJ projects. The companion Verification Report documents the multi-project verification of the CO{sub 2} emissions reduction from the Swedish-Baltic AIJ projects selected for the case study. The lessons learned from verifying the Swedish-Baltic AIJ projects in regard to monitoring and reporting can be summarised as follows: Some type of minimum training in regards to the trading of GHG emissions should be established for the project operators in order to secure the success of the monitoring and reporting efforts required for verifying the GHG emissions reductions. The multi-project verification discounts the emissions reductions depending upon the quality of the monitoring system in order to arrive at an estimate of the emission reductions which has a high level of confidence, in this case 95%. The annual project emission reductions were discounted by 2 to 26 %, with the extent of the discounting depending upon the quality of the monitoring. Similarly, a correction factor is calculated based upon reporting errors

  18. Innovative economy in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolay

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Innovative activity is carried out at three levels — those of the state, region and a company or a university. This article considers the level of development of knowledge-based economy in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland at each of the three levels, as well as descripes the spatial differentiation of innovative activity within the Baltic region. The analysis is done on the basis of national and international research, as well as statistical data on the intensity of research and development, structure of research expenditure, human capital in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of institutional support for innovative activity. The authors characterise the role of business, university, and authorities — which constitute the «triple helix» — in national innovative systems. The article also analyses such important factors as the intensity of research and development, the share of employees in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of public support. Examples of private-public infrastructure for the implementation of innovative projects are offered.

  19. Ordovician conodont diversity in the northern Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peep Männik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The diversity data presented in this paper are based on recently revised collections of conodonts from outcrops (northern Estonia and core sections of Estonia and western and northern Latvia. Based on variations in the abundance of taxa, four intervals with different general trends in diversity changes can be recognized in the Ordovician part of the succession: (1 the proavus–crassus zones and (2 crassus–anserinus zones, both intervals forming quite distinct diversity cycles; (3 the variabilis–ventilatus zones, characterized in general by stable diversity values, and (4 the ventilatus Zone–the topmost Ordovician, with a steady increase in diversity up to the ordovicicus Zone, followed by a decline during the End-Ordovician Extinction Event. Diversity was lowest in the earliest and latest Ordovician but reached maximum values at the end of the Early Ordovician radiation of conodonts, in the middle and upper Darriwilian, and just before the start of the End-Ordovician Extinction Event. Four supersequences (transgressive–regressive cycles are proposed here for the northern Baltic Ordovician succession. The diversity changes recognized in the conodont succession demonstrate general correlation with these supersequences: boundaries between supersequences are characterized by low diversity values; diversity increases more or less rapidly in the lower, transgressive parts of the supersequences and decreases in their upper parts.

  20. Factors affecting metal and radionuclide pollution in the Baltic sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lodenius

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available External pollution load in the Baltic Sea originates from urban, agricultural and industrial sources. Emissions of heavy metals have decreased substantially in the catchment area but the temporal trends are not always significant and differ with sample, area and pollutant. The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Many factors affect the future development of pollutant concentrations including anthropogenic emissions, political decisions and changes in salinity, temperature and water currents, in eutrophication and oxygen status, in fisheries and in atmospheric deposition of pollutants. Large scale changes like eutrophication and climate change affect ecosystems in many ways, directly and indirectly, causing biological and abiotic effects. These factors are interrelated and difficult to predict. Measures aiming to enhance the ecological status of the Baltic Sea will certainly give positive results but this will take at least several decades.

  1. The transnational territorial transport system of the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumenyuk Ivan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the structure and territorial borders of the Baltic Sea region, and examine the key structural elements of the transnational territorial transport system. In this respect, we clarify some terms used in transport geography. For the first time the transport system gets territorially localized, which allows for a broad range of new studies of transnational transportation in the Baltic Sea area. We also identify the main principles of development and operation of international territorial transport systems and present them taking the Baltic Sea region as an example. Our findings, we hope, will have a great practical application for researchers of transport geography, especially those studying international logistics.

  2. Underwater Noise Modeling in Lithuanian Area of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatas Bagočius

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Along with rising awareness of public and scientific societies about environmental and ecological impacts of underwater noise, the need for underwater noise modelling in the shallow Lithuanian area of Baltic Sea emerged. Marine Strategy Framework Directive issues regarding underwater noise indicators refers to possibility of evaluation of Good Environmental State using underwater noise measurements as well as possibility to model underwater noise. Main anthropogenic underwater noise contributor in the Seas is the shipping lanes as known due to date, with no exclusion of Lithuanian Baltic Sea area. In this manuscript, it is presented the methods of development of simplistic underwater ambient noise model purposed for computation of underwater soundscape in shallow area of the Lithuanian Baltic Sea.

  3. Russia’s energy geostrategy in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeleneva Irina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores Russian energy policy in the Baltic Sea region in the context of the world energy market globalization. The study focuses on the three Baltic States — Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia — which have a similar geographical location and history. The dynamic development of the region as a whole is strongly influenced by the stability of energy supply in each state. The article analyses the role Russia plays in the energy policy of the region from both geopolitical and geostrategic viewpoints. The author identifies the main characteristics of the Russian energy policy in these countries, and provides with a forecast for energy policy development in the region. A geostrategic approach dictates any successful energy policy in the Baltic Sea region to bring in line Russian interests with those of the European states.

  4. Weight-of-evidence approach in assessment of ecotoxicological risks of acid sulphate soils in the Baltic Sea river estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Jaana; Karjalainen, Anna K; Schultz, Eija; Järvistö, Johanna; Leppänen, Matti; Vuori, Kari-Matti

    2015-03-01

    Acidity and leaching of metals from acid sulphate soils (ASSs) impair the water quality of receiving surface waters. The largest ASS areas in Europe are found in the coasts of the northern Baltic Sea. We used weight-of-evidence (WoE) approach to assess potential risks in 14 estuary sites affected by ASS in the Gulf of Finland, northern Baltic Sea. The assessment was based on exposure and effect profiles utilizing sediment and water metal concentrations and concurrent pH variation, sediment toxicity tests using the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the midge Chironomus riparius, and the ecological status of benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Sediment metal concentrations were compared to national sediment quality criteria/guidelines, and water metal concentrations to environmental quality standards (EQSs). Hazard quotients (HQs) were established for maximum aluminium, cadmium and zinc concentrations at low pH based on applicable US EPA toxicity database. Sediment metal concentrations were clearly elevated in most of the studied estuaries. The EQS of cadmium (0.1 μg/l) was exceeded in 3 estuaries out of 14. The pH-minima were below the national threshold value (5.5) between good and satisfactory water quality in 10 estuaries. V. fischeri bioluminescence indicated toxicity of the sediments but toxic response was not observed in the C. riparius emergence test. Benthic invertebrate communities were deteriorated in 6 out of 14 sites based on the benthic invertebrate quality index. The overall ecotoxicological risk was assessed as low in five, moderate in three and high in five of the estuary sites. The risk assessment utilizing the WoE approach indicated that harmful effects of ASSs are likely to occur in the Baltic Sea river estuaries located at the ASS hotspot area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of Cyanobacteria in a Eutrophic Coastal Lagoon on the Southern Baltic Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Albrecht

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are found worldwide in various habitats. Members of the picocyanobacteria genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus dominate in oligotrophic ocean waters. Other picocyanobacteria dominate in eutrophic fresh or brackish waters. Usually, these are morphologically determined as species of the order Chroococcales/clade B2. The phytoplankton of a shallow, eutrophic brackish lagoon was investigated. Phytoplankton was dominated by Aphanothece-like morphospecies year-round for more than 20 years, along a trophy and salinity gradient. A biphasic approach using a culture-independent and a culture-dependent analysis was applied to identify the dominant species genetically. The 16S rRNA gene phylogeny of clone sequences and isolates indicated the dominance of Cyanobium species (order Synechococcales sensu Komárek/clade C1 sensu Shih. This difference between morphologically and genetically based species identifications has consequences for applying the Reynolds functional-groups system, and for validity long-term monitoring data. The literature shows the same pattern as our results: morphologically, Aphanothece-like species are abundant in eutrophic shallow lagoons, and genetically, Cyanobium is found in similar habitats. This discrepancy is found worldwide in the literature on fresh- and brackish-water habitats. Thus, most Aphanothece-like morphospecies may be, genetically, members of Cyanobium.

  6. Seminaril Enviroment and Settling along the Baltic Sea Coast through Time / Lennart Meri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meri, Lennart, 1929-2006

    2007-01-01

    Kõne NorFa (Nordic Academy for Advanced Study) seminaril 3. oktoobril 2002. a. Pärnus. Uurimustest seoses Saaremaale langenud hiidmeteoriidiga. Eesti pärimused ei jäta kahtlust, et dramaatiline loodussündmus on jätnud oma jälje läänemeresoome pärimustesse, keelde, maailmapilti

  7. Effects of shore-level displacement on the ecology of Baltic Sea bays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Joakim P. [AquaBiota Water Rsearch, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    This report presents the up to date understanding of changes in ecological structure of small Baltic Sea bays following shore-level displacement and isolation of bays from the sea. It was produced as a part of the biosphere research programme, which has a strong emphasis on the characterization of properties and processes affecting the fate of potentially released radionuclides from the suggested repository of nuclear waste in the bedrock of the Forsmark area. The report has a focus on ecology and gives a description of input data, methodology and results on changes in flora and fauna communities, as well as some abiotic factors, with topographic isolation of bays from the sea. It is intended to describe the properties and conditions at the Forsmark site and to give information essential for demonstrating site specific understanding of processes and properties linked to a sea-to lake succession. Long-term landscape development in the Forsmark area is dependent on two main and partly interdependent factors; shore-level displacement and climate variations. These two factors in combination strongly affect a number of processes, which in turn influence the development of ecosystems. Some examples of such processes are erosion and sedimentation, primary production and decomposition of organic matter. In this work focus has been to report changes in the structure and biomass of flora and fauna communities, which affect primary production, and influence the processes of decomposition of organic matter and sedimentation. A section of the study also deals with the biological processes of primary production, auto trophic carbon uptake and influence of allochtonous energy. The study is part of a description of the Forsmark ecosystem succession during a glacial cycle, which is one of the main objectives of the biosphere modelling at the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The biomass of macro fauna was found to decrease with increasing isolation of bays

  8. Application of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model to the Himmerfjärden, Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Himmerfjärden is a coastal fjord-like bay situated in the north-western part of the Baltic Sea. The fjord has a mean depth of 17 m and a maximum depth of 52 m. The water is brackish (6 psu) with small salinity fluctuation (±2 psu). A sewage treatment plant, which serves about 300 000 people, discharges into the inner part of Himmerfjärden. This area is the subject of a long-term monitoring program. We are planning to develop a publicly available modelling system for this area, which will perform short-term forecast predictions of pertinent parameters (e.g., water-levels, currents, salinity, temperature) and disseminate them to users. A key component of the system is a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The open source Delft3D Flow system (http://www.deltaressystems.com/hydro) has been applied to model the Himmerfjärden area. Two different curvilinear grids were used to approximate the modelling domain (25 km × 50 km × 60 m). One grid has low horizontal resolution (cell size varies from 250 to 450 m) to perform long-term numerical experiments (modelling period of several months), while another grid has higher resolution (cell size varies from 120 to 250 m) to model short-term situations. In vertical direction both z-level (50 layers) and sigma coordinate (20 layers) were used. Modelling results obtained with different horizontal resolution and vertical discretisation will be presented. This model will be a part of the operational system which provides automated integration of data streams from several information sources: meteorological forecast based on the HIRLAM model from the Finnish Meteorological Institute (https://en.ilmatieteenlaitos.fi/open-data), oceanographic forecast based on the HIROMB-BOOS Model developed within the Baltic community and provided by the MyOcean Project (http://www.myocean.eu), riverine discharge from the HYPE model provided by the Swedish Meteorological Hydrological Institute (http://vattenwebb.smhi.se/modelarea/).

  9. Baltic Nuclear workshop. Final report[Crisis communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlberg, L.G

    2001-05-01

    Proceedings of the NKS/BOK-1.6 workshop on crisis communication 'Baltic Nuclear', held in Stockholm March 19 -20, 2001, with participants from the nuclear power plants and nuclear authorities in the Baltic Sea region. The main content of the workshop was founded on the principle of 'learning by doing'. The participants were therefore practically trained in how to handle a crisis from an information and communication point of view. Added to that there were three different lectures. (au)

  10. Egg mortality: predation and hydrography in the central Baltic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, R.; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Stepputtis, D.

    2011-01-01

    Cod and sprat are the dominant fish species in the Baltic pelagic ecosystem, both of great economic importance and ecologically strongly interlinked. Management of both species is challenged by highly variable recruitment success. Recent studies have identified predation and hydrographic conditions...... during the egg phase to be of critical importance. Two years of extensive field investigations in the Bornholm Basin, central Baltic Sea, were undertaken. In 2002, a typical stagnation situation characterized by low salinity and poor oxygen conditions was investigated, and in early 2003, a major inflow...

  11. Marine traffic, accidents, and underreporting in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Sormunen, Otto-Ville; Hänninen, Maria; Kujala, Pentti

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of ship traffic volume and accidents in the Baltic Sea with a special focus on the Gulf of Finland. The most common accidents are groundings and collisions, usually reported to be caused by human error. The annual number of Baltic Sea accidents reported to HELCOM varied from 34–54 for collisions and 30–60 for groundings. The number of yearly port calls varied from 468–505 thousand with a peak in 2008. Exact port call data could not be found for all ports and he...

  12. Opportunities for bioenergy in the Baltic Sea Region

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, S.; Khatiwada, D.; Leduc, S; Kraxner, F.; Venkata, B.K.; Tilvikine, V.; Gaubyte, V.; F. Romagnoli; Tauraite, E.; Kundas, S.; Blumberga, D.; Peterson, K; Utsar, K.; Vigants, E.; A. Kalinichenko

    2017-01-01

    Security of energy supply, promotion of the bio-economy, nutrient recycling, and innovation are prioritized policy areas in the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region (EUBSR). The Baltic Sea Region (BSR) has a great bioenergy potential worth exploring in this context. This paper explores the state-of-art of bioenergy systems and synergies with eco-systems services in the BSR region in the context of developing the region’s bio-economy. In this brief assessment, we consider 8 countries (i.e. Sw...

  13. Controlling benthic release of phosphorus in different Baltic Sea scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitkänen, Heikki; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Hansen, Jørgen L. S.

    The general aim of the PROPPEN project was to study whether it is possible to counteract near-bottom anoxia and excess benthic nutrient release ("internal loading") in the Baltic Sea by artificial oxygenation in cost-efficient and socio-economically beneficial ways. Two pilot sites were selected...... to counteract anoxia and benthic release of nutrients in coastal marine conditions in the Baltic Sea. The project undertook monitoring of the pilot tests, modelling of effects at different scales, risk management, cost effectiveness and cost benefit analysis....

  14. Invading Mnemiopsis leidyi as a potential threat to Baltic fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslob, H.; Clemmesen, C.; Schaber, M.

    2007-01-01

    , the commercially most important fish stocks in the Baltic. The distribution pattern of M. leidyi revealed a substantial overlap with cod eggs. The observed predation of M. leidyi on eggs has the potential to alter the recruitment success of cod, which is the top predator in the system and, thus, to change......The occurrence of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi as a new invasive species in the Baltic Sea and the potential consequences for fish stock recruitment was investigated in spring 2007. The study focused on the Bornholm Basin, which serves as the major spawning ground for cod and sprat...

  15. Swedish health care in perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, O W

    1992-01-01

    The evolution and current problems of the Swedish health services are placed in an international comparative perspective with other industrially developed democratic states as to cost control, distribution of facilities and personnel, management of waiting lists for services, and differences in use of services. All of these countries are experiencing the same aforementioned problems differing mainly in degree. It is suggested that Sweden as well as other countries needs to reconceptualize the meaning of equality of access relative to the apparent emergence of private insurance as waiting lists grow for quality of life procedures such as lens and hip replacement. A concept of a basic service for everybody and so-called luxury service for those who wish to buy it needs to be faced in political debate. It is clear that government is unable to finance and supply the range of demand of a consumption good represented by a modern medicine. In so far as Sweden has been regarded as a model it appears that no country is a model anymore. The complexities of a modern health service has overwhelmed all countries and can be regarded as a sublime loss of innocence.

  16. Swedish deep repository siting programme. Guide to the documentation of 25 years of geoscientific research (1976-2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milnes, Alan Geoffrey [GEA Consulting, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2002-03-01

    Since the mid-1970s, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has been carrying out geoscientific research and feasibility studies aimed at identifying suitable sites for deep repositories in the Precambrian basement of the Baltic Shield. The documentation of this research effort forms an extensive body of material which is exceptionally wide-ranging and which is generally little known outside the Swedish nuclear waste community. This has now been compiled in the form of a 'documentation guide' in order to make the research results more easily accessible to the scientific community at large, and to show how they relate to their 'nearest surroundings', i.e. the relevant academic scientific literature and the documentation of similar research by other institutions, in Sweden and in other countries (Finland, Canada). The documentation covers the period 1976-2000 and contains ca. 850 citations, of which about half are technical reports published by SKB and its forerunners. In the main body of the guide (Chapters 2-9), the material is arranged thematically and the scope of the documentation in each theme is described and commented in short texts, showing the interrelationships between the individual reports and scientific papers, with appropriate cross-references. Early chapters (2-5, and 7) cover general themes: bedrock geology, fracturing, glaciation and crustal dynamics, deep groundwater, and geosphere transport, each subdivided into citation groups under headings which are of particular interest to the Swedish deep repository siting programme. Later chapters (6, and 8-9) include thumbnail sketches of the Swedish study sites (Finnsjoen, Fjaellveden, Gideaa, Kamlunge, Klipperaas, Sternoe), the underground laboratory sites of Stripa and Aespoe, and comparable sites in Finland and Canada, as well as the complete documentation to the feasibility studies carried out in eight Swedish municipalities between 1993 and 2000 (Storuman

  17. Biomarker responses in flounder (Platichthys flesus) and mussel (Mytilus edulis) in the Klaipeda-Būtinge area (Baltic Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsiene, Janina; Lehtonen, Kari K; Koehler, Angela; Broeg, Katja; Vuorinen, Pekka J; Lang, Thomas; Pempkowiak, Janusz; Syvokiene, Janina; Dedonyte, Veronika; Rybakovas, Aleksandras; Repecka, Rimantas; Vuontisjärvi, Heta; Kopecka, Justyna

    2006-01-01

    During the EU project BEEP a battery of biomarkers was applied in flounder (Platichthys flesus) and the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) collected at three locations off the Lithuanian coast (Baltic Sea) in June and September 2001 and 2002. The elevated biomarker responses in specimens sampled in September 2001 were apparently related to the extensive dredging activities in the Klaipeda port area and subsequent dumping of contaminated sediments. High concentrations of organic pollutants (organochlorines and PBDEs) were also measured in the tissues of both indicator species. In addition, response levels of genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity as well as concentrations of PAH metabolites in the bile of flounder showed elevations in 2002 after an oil spill in the Būtinge oil terminal in November 2001. In flounder, biomarker measurements 10 months after the spill indicated recovery processes but in mussels a high level of genotoxicity could still be observed 22 months later. The present study illustrates the usefulness of the multi-biomarker approach in the detection of biological effects of pollution in this region of the Baltic Sea.

  18. Virulence Profiles of Vibrio vulnificus in German Coastal Waters, a Comparison of North Sea and Baltic Sea Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Bier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio vulnificus is a halophilic bacterium of coastal environments known for sporadically causing severe foodborne or wound infections. Global warming is expected to lead to a rising occurrence of V. vulnificus and an increasing incidence of human infections in Northern Europe. So far, infections in Germany were exclusively documented for the Baltic Sea coast, while no cases from the North Sea region have been reported. Regional variations in the prevalence of infections may be influenced by differences in the pathogenicity of V. vulnificus populations in both areas. This study aimed to compare the distribution of virulence-associated traits and genotypes among 101 V. vulnificus isolates from the Baltic Sea and North Sea in order to assess their pathogenicity potential. Furthermore, genetic relationships were examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST. A high diversity of MLST sequences (74 sequence types and differences regarding the presence of six potential pathogenicity markers were observed in the V. vulnificus populations of both areas. Strains with genotypes and markers associated with pathogenicity are not restricted to a particular geographic region. This indicates that lack of reported cases in the North Sea region is not caused by the absence of potentially pathogenic strains.

  19. The pole tide/14-month oscillations in the Baltic Sea during the 19th and 20th centuries: Spatial and temporal variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Igor P.; Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Kulikov, Evgueni A.

    2017-04-01

    Sea level changes with a period of 14 months (P14) are usually associated with the pole tide, which is the oceanic response to the Chandler wobble in the Earth's axis of rotation. The amplitudes of these changes in the Baltic Sea are anomalously large, much larger than follows from the equilibrium pole tide theory. It appears that the oscillations are related to meteorological forcing rather than to pole motions. To examine the P14 properties, we used long-term (48-213 years) tide gauge records from 77 stations located in the Baltic Sea and adjacent area of the North Sea. High-resolution sea level spectra revealed a cluster of peaks with periods from 410 to 450 days. The temporal variations in the P14 sea level amplitudes and peak frequencies are found to be considerable and poorly correlated with the modulation of the Earth's pole motions. In contrast, our findings for 1871-2011 demonstrate strong resemblance between temporal (year-to-year) variations of the P14 peak and zonal wind, confirming earlier results of Ekman (1996) and O'Connor et al. (2000), who indicated the major role of the zonal wind in formation of the 14-month oscillations in the Baltic and North seas. The integral amplitudes of the P14 oscillations in the Baltic Sea gradually increase eastward from the entrance (the Danish straits) to the farthest ends of the sea with the largest amplitudes (up to 6.5 cm) observed at the very head of the Gulf of Finland. Similar P14 amplification toward the west coast of Denmark is also observed along the south coast of the North Sea. The geographical distribution of the P14 in these two regions are almost the same as of the seasonal sea level oscillations, indicating presumably similar formation mechanisms. Extensive shallow-water areas in the Baltic Sea and southeastern part of the North Sea, combined with intense meteorological forcing, appear to be two key factors responsible for the formation of anomalously strong 14-month oscillations in these regions.

  20. Comparative environmental assessment of wood transport models: a case study of a Swedish pulp mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Sara; Berg, Staffan; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma Teresa

    2009-05-15

    Wood transportation from forest landing to forest-based industries uses large amounts of energy. In the case of Sweden, where forest operations are highly and efficiently mechanized, this stage consumes more fossil fuels than other elements of the wood supply chain (such as silviculture and logging operations). This paper intends to compare the environmental burdens associated to different wood transport models considering a Swedish pulp mill as a case study by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as an analytical tool. Five scenarios (the current one and four alternative reliable scenarios) were proposed and analysed taking into account two variables. On the one hand, the influence of imported pulpwood share from Baltic countries and on the other hand, the use of rail transportation for wood transport. In particular, the following impact categories were assessed: Eutrophication, Global Warming, Photochemical Oxidant Formation, Acidification and Fossil fuel extraction. The environmental results indicate that transport alternatives including electric and diesel trains, as well as the reduction in Baltic wood imports should present better environmental performance than the current scenario in terms of all the impact categories under study. Remarkable differences were identified with regard to energy requirements. This divergence is related to different long-distance transport strategies (lorry, boat and/or train) as well as the relative import of wood selected. The combination of lorry and train in wood transportation from Southern Sweden plus the reduction of wood imports from 25% to 15% seems to be more favourable from an environmental perspective. The results obtained allow forecasting the importance of the wood transport strategy in the wood supply chain in LCA of forest products and the influence of energy requirements in the results.

  1. Oceans and Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of EPA’s oceans, coasts, estuaries and beaches programs and the regulatory (permits/rules) and non-regulatory approaches for managing their associated environmental issues, such as water pollution and climate change.

  2. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  3. First Battleships of the Coast Defense of Russian Emperor Fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri F. Katorin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article it is told about design and building in Russia of the first tower armored ships, are given their characteristics, are described design features, and also basic stages of service in the composition of Baltic fleet, the advantages and disadvantages in the projects are analyzed. The authors come to the conclusion that the first navigation of tower armored vehicles revealed many design flaws. Low-built monitors and two-turret armored boat had very poor seakeeping. However, for advertising purposes the ten monitors in 1865 have been sent to the coast of Sweden. During the operation it was determined the necessity of combining the reliable protection with sufficient seaworthiness. The solution to this problem is reflected in the subsequent types of armored ships – the tower frigates.

  4. Distribution and enzymatic activity of heterotrophic bacteria decomposing selected macromolecular compounds in a Baltic Sea sandy beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgórska, B.; Mudryk, Z. J.

    2003-03-01

    The potential capability to decompose macromolecular compounds, and the level of extracellular enzyme activities were determined in heterotrophic bacteria isolated from a sandy beach in Sopot on the Southern Baltic Sea coast. Individual isolates were capable of hydrolysing a wide spectrum of organic macromolecular compounds. Lipids, gelatine, and DNA were hydrolyzed most efficiently. Only a very small percentage of strains were able to decompose cellulose, and no pectinolytic bacteria were found. Except for starch-hydrolysis, no significant differences in the intensity of organic compound decomposition were recorded between horizontal and vertical profiles of the studied beach. Of all the studied extracellular enzymes, alkaline phosphatase, esterase lipase, and leucine acrylaminidase were most active; in contrast, the activity α-fucosidase, α-galactosidase and β-glucouronidase was the weakest. The level of extracellular enzyme activity was similar in both sand layers.

  5. Impact of secondary hard substrate on the distribution and abundance of Aurelia aurita in the western Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janßen, H; Augustin, C B; Hinrichsen, H H; Kube, S

    2013-10-15

    This study assessed the impact of secondary hard substrate, as being introduced into marine ecosystems by the establishment of wind farm pillars, on the occurrence and distribution of the moon jelly Aurelia aurita in the southwestern Baltic Sea. A two-year data sampling was conducted with removable settlement plates to assess the distribution and population development of the scyphozoan polyps. The data collected from these samples were used to set up a model with Lagrangian particle technique. The results confirm that anthropogenic created hard substrate (e.g. offshore wind farms) has the potential to increase the abundance of the A. aurita population. The distribution of wind farm borne jellyfish along Danish, German and Polish coasts indicates conflicts with further sectors, mainly energy and tourism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Is the Proterozoic Ladoga Rift (SE Baltic Shield) a rift?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina; Shulgin, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    The southern part of the Baltic Shield hosts a series of mafic dykes and sills of Mesoproterozoic ages, including a ca. 1.53-1.46 Ga sheet-like gabbro-dolerite sills and the Salmi plateau-basalts from the Lake Ladoga region. Based on chiefly geochemical data, the region is conventionally interpre...

  7. Limits of fair play tested by airBaltic

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    AirBaltic reklaamikampaania käigus müüdi Eestis soodsaid lennupileteid erinevatesse sihtkohtadesse, kuid mõne aja möödudes tühistati osa ostetud lendudest. Hainan Airlines on valmis airBalticu osaluse ostma. Peaminister Valdis Dombrovskis on väidetavalt ka firma esindajatega Pekingis kohtunud, kuid eitab seda fakti

  8. Bird's nest fungi (Nidulariales: Nidulariaceae) in Baltic and Dominican amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinar, George

    2014-03-01

    Nidula baltica sp. nov. and Cyathus dominicanus sp. nov. are described from Cenozoic Baltic and Dominican amber. These are the first fossil members of the Family Nidulariaceae and show that the basic characteristics of this group were already established some 40-50 million years ago. Copyright © 2014 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantifying predation on Baltic cod early life stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Schaber, Matthias; Eero, Margit

    2017-01-01

    Predation on cod (Gadus morhua) eggs by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus) is known to be one of the processes influencing reproductive success of the eastern Baltic cod and has been reported to have contributed to lack of recovery of the stock in the 1990s. This study...

  10. Hot and Cold Ethnicities in the Baltic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehala, Martin; Zabrodskaja, Anastassia

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the temperatures of the main ethnic groups in the Baltic states: Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians, and their three Russian-speaking communities, and the Latgalian and Polish minority groups in Latvia and Lithuania, respectively. The study uses a triangulated methodology that includes a survey questionnaire for quantitative…

  11. President Ilves kohtus Baltic-American Freedom Foundationi delegatsiooniga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves kohtus 20. septembril 2010 hiljuti loodud sihtasutuse Baltic-American Freedom Foundationi (BAFF) direktorite nõukoguga, kes tutvustasid Balti riikide elanikele mõeldud haridusalaseid vahetusprogramme. Ilmunud ka: Meie Kodu 29. sept. 2010, lk. 2 (allk. Piret Pert); Vaba Eesti Sõna 23. sept. 2010, lk. 3

  12. Review of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Important processes in the recruitment dynamics of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) are identified. Spawning areas are in the deep, saline waters below 20–40 m, depending on area topography. Spatial distribution remains relatively stable over time. Peak spawning shows an area-specific pattern...

  13. airBaltic claims monopoly abuse by RIX

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    AirBalticu andmetel on nende tasud peale 2009. aasta novembris Riia lennujaamas uute tasude süsteemi kehtestamist tõusnud, kuid Ryanairi tasud on langenud. AirBaltic plaanib nõuda Riia lennujaamalt kohtus 5,9 miljonit latti hüvitist

  14. Baltic Metal - metallisektori koostööorgan / Endel Soon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soon, Endel

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: EAKL Teataja : Narodnaja Gazeta, märts, nr. 3, 2004, lk. 4. Riias toimus Balti- ja Põhjamaade metalliala ametiühinguorganisatsioonide esindajate ühisnõupidamine. Kirjutati alla Baltimaade metallisektori koostööorgani Baltic Metal moodustamise leping

  15. Phosphorus dynamics in the Black Sea and Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, N.

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of the key nutrient phosphorus (P) in hypoxic and anoxic marine basins are still incompletely understood. This thesis focuses on the cycling of P in two of such basins: the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea. Water column particulates and sediments from the deep basin of the Black Sea were

  16. The electricity markets around the Baltic Sea; Elmarknaderna runt Oestersjoen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    A thorough description of the electric power markets in the countries surrounding the Baltic sea is given in this book. Environmental problems and regulations and nuclear power are surveyed. Factors that may affect an expanded trade of electricity between the countries are analyzed

  17. 16th Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the joint 16th Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering & Medical Physics and Medicinteknikdagarna 2014!  The conference theme is Strategic Innovation. It aims at inspiring increased triple helix collaborations between health care providers, academia and the medtech industry.

  18. Public Risk Perceptions towards Oxygenation Pumping in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    . Comparing the level of concern towards oxygenation pumping with impacts of other human activities in and around the Baltic Sea, we find that for 50% of the populations, pumping does not figure as one of the very concerning ac-tivities. Medium- and small-scale pumping is considered by 50% of the pop...

  19. Biostratigraphy of the Ludlow chitinozoans from East Baltic drill cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor, Viiu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of chitinozoans in the East Baltic Ludlow sequences was studied in the Ohesaare, Ventspils, Pavilosta, and Dubovskoye drill core sections. The Angochitina elongata, Eisenackitina lagenomorpha, and Eisenackitina barrandei biozones were described and correlated with the regional stratigraphical units, as well as with conodont and vertebrate biozones in the Ohesaare core.

  20. Evidence concerning oxidation as a surface reaction in Baltic amber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide evidence about oxidation as a surface reaction during degradation of Baltic amber. A clear understanding of the amber-oxygen interaction modalities is essential to develop conservation techniques for museum collections of amber objects. Pellet-shaped samples...

  1. Projekt "Baltenet - The Baltic Technology Network" / Leonid Pai

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pai, Leonid

    2005-01-01

    Baltenet - The Baltic Technology Network on projekt, mille alusel teevad koostööd tehniliste erialade koolituse arendamiseks Baltimere äärsetes riikides neli kutseõppeasutust Soomest, Rootsist, Lätis ja Eestist. Projekti rahastab Euroopa Liidu Leonardo da Vinci programm

  2. Impact of marine mercury cycling on coastal atmospheric mercury concentrations in the North- and Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Bieser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cycling of mercury between ocean and atmosphere is an important part of the global Hg cycle. Here we study the regional contribution of the air-sea exchange in the North- and Baltic Sea region. We use a newly developed coupled regional chemistry transport modeling (CTM system to determine the flux between atmosphere and ocean based on the meteorological model COSMO-CLM, the ocean-ecosystem model ECOSMO, the atmospheric CTM CMAQ and a newly developed module for mercury partitioning and speciation in the ocean (MECOSMO. The model was evaluated using atmospheric observations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, surface concentrations of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM, and air-sea flux (ASF calculations based on observations made on seven cruises in the western and central Baltic Sea and three cruises in the North Sea performed between 1991 and 2006. It was shown that the model is in good agreement with observations: DGM (Normalized Mean Bias NMB=-0.27 N=413, ASF (NMB=-0.32, N=413, GEM (NMB=0.07, N=2359. Generally, the model was able to reproduce the seasonal DGM cycle with the best agreement during winter and autumn (NMBWinter=-0.26, NMBSpring=-0.41, NMBSummer=-0.29, NMBAutumn=-0.03. The modelled mercury evasion from the Baltic Sea ranged from 3400 to 4000 kg/a for the simulation period 1994–2007 which is on the lower end of previous estimates. Modelled atmospheric deposition, river inflow and air-sea exchange lead to an annual net Hg accumulation in the Baltic Sea of 500 to 1000 kg/a. For the North Sea the model calculates an annual mercury flux into the atmosphere between 5700 and 6000 kg/a. The mercury flux from the ocean influenced coastal atmospheric mercury concentrations. Running CMAQ coupled with the ocean model lead to better agreement with GEM observations. Directly at the coast GEM concentrations could be increased by up to 10% on annual average and observed peaks could be reproduced much better. At stations 100km downwind

  3. Weight-of-evidence approach in assessment of ecotoxicological risks of acid sulphate soils in the Baltic Sea river estuaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallin, Jaana, E-mail: jaana.wallin@jyu.fi [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Survontie 9 A, FI-40500 Jyväskylä (Finland); Karjalainen, Anna K. [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Survontie 9 A, FI-40500 Jyväskylä (Finland); Schultz, Eija [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Hakuninmaantie 6, FI-00430 Helsinki (Finland); Järvistö, Johanna; Leppänen, Matti; Vuori, Kari-Matti [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Survontie 9 A, FI-40500 Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2015-03-01

    Acidity and leaching of metals from acid sulphate soils (ASSs) impair the water quality of receiving surface waters. The largest ASS areas in Europe are found in the coasts of the northern Baltic Sea. We used weight-of-evidence (WoE) approach to assess potential risks in 14 estuary sites affected by ASS in the Gulf of Finland, northern Baltic Sea. The assessment was based on exposure and effect profiles utilizing sediment and water metal concentrations and concurrent pH variation, sediment toxicity tests using the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the midge Chironomus riparius, and the ecological status of benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Sediment metal concentrations were compared to national sediment quality criteria/guidelines, and water metal concentrations to environmental quality standards (EQSs). Hazard quotients (HQs) were established for maximum aluminium, cadmium and zinc concentrations at low pH based on applicable US EPA toxicity database. Sediment metal concentrations were clearly elevated in most of the studied estuaries. The EQS of cadmium (0.1 μg/l) was exceeded in 3 estuaries out of 14. The pH-minima were below the national threshold value (5.5) between good and satisfactory water quality in 10 estuaries. V. fischeri bioluminescence indicated toxicity of the sediments but toxic response was not observed in the C. riparius emergence test. Benthic invertebrate communities were deteriorated in 6 out of 14 sites based on the benthic invertebrate quality index. The overall ecotoxicological risk was assessed as low in five, moderate in three and high in five of the estuary sites. The risk assessment utilizing the WoE approach indicated that harmful effects of ASSs are likely to occur in the Baltic Sea river estuaries located at the ASS hotspot area. - Highlights: • Acid sulphate soils release high amounts of metals and acidity. • Metals and acidity are transported to estuary sites. • Acid sulphate soils impair the ecological status

  4. Tensions in Stakeholder Relations for a Swedish Football Club

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghagen, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Swedish football is an industry not yet being as commercial as the big leagues and is regulated in terms of ownership of clubs. This implies a need for management of stakeholder relations for a Swedish football club. This paper identifies important stakeholders in Swedish football and discusses...

  5. Working on an historical dictionary: the Swedish academy dictionary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Working on an historical dictionary: the Swedish academy dictionary project. P Stille, B-O Wendt. Abstract. The Swedish Academy Dictionary is one of the world's largest dictionary projects. Work on it was started in 1884 and it will be completed by 2017. The dictionary describes the written standard language of Swedish ...

  6. Past Occurrences of Hypoxia in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillen, L.; Conley, D. J.; Bjorck, S.

    2007-12-01

    The hypoxic zone in the Baltic Sea has increased in area by about four times since 1950. Widespread oxygen deficiency below the halocline has severely reduced macro benthic communities in the Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland over the past decades and negatively effected food chain dynamics, fish habitats and fisheries in the entire Baltic Sea. In addition, hypoxia alters nutrient biogeochemical cycles. The cause of the increased hypoxia is believed to be enhanced eutrophication through increased anthropogenic input of nutrients, such as phosphorous and nitrogen. Conditions prior to the 1950s are considered as the benchmark and some authors suggest that the earlier Baltic Sea was an oligothrophic, clear-water body with oxygenated deep waters. By contrast, studies of short sediment cores reveal that hypoxia has been present in some of the deepest basins for at least the last 100-200 years. In addition, long sediment cores suggest that hypoxia in the Baltic Sea has occurred intermittently in deep basins over the last c. 8500 years. Thus, the occurrence of present day hypoxia in the deeper basins need not necessarily be attributed to human activity but rather to natural oceanographic, geologic and climate conditions. We present a compilation of previous publications that reported the occurrence of laminated sediments (i.e. a palaeo-proxy for hypoxia) in the Baltic Sea. This review shows that the deeper parts of the Baltic Sea have experienced either intermittent or more regular hypoxia during most of the Holocene and that more continuous laminations started to form c. 7800-8500 cal. yr BP ago, in association with the establishment of a permanent halocline during the transition from the Ancylus Lake to the Littorina Sea. Laminated sediments were more common during the early and late Holocene and coincided with intervals of high organic productivity (high TOC content) and high salinity during the Holocene Thermal Maximum and the Medieval Climate Optimum. This study

  7. Phonology of a southern Swedish idiolect

    OpenAIRE

    Svantesson, Jan-Olof

    2001-01-01

    In this egocentric article I describe briefly the segmental phonology of my own southern Swedish idiolect. I grew up in Getinge in central Halland, about 20 km north of Halmstad, speaking a regional variant of southern Standard Swedish. Although my dialect has certainly changed somewhat after I moved to Lund in 1964 at the age of 20, I believe that I still retain the basic pronunciation of vowels and consonants from my original dialect. There is one older description of the Getinge dialect by...

  8. Market reforms in Swedish health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the main characteristics of reforms in the Swedish health services, as exemplified by the "Stockholm Model" introduced in 1992 in Stockholm county. The author discusses the motives behind these reforms, the already-evident increases in costs that are occurring, and the effect...... of these reforms on public support for the welfare state.......This report presents the main characteristics of reforms in the Swedish health services, as exemplified by the "Stockholm Model" introduced in 1992 in Stockholm county. The author discusses the motives behind these reforms, the already-evident increases in costs that are occurring, and the effect...

  9. An international scope of the regional journal Baltic Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartasiute, Stanislava

    2015-08-01

    The internationalization of publishing has been progressing in most fields of science, including astronomy and physics in particular. Along with high quality journals having a completely international readership, national and regional journals represent a significant part in number, whereas their average impact is very diverse and not always competitive. Based mainly on the Web of Science data, we will give a comparative analysis of astronomy journals published in/for countries with relatively small astronomical communities, such as Baltic and some Eastern European. Bibliometric statistics will be presented of one of such journals, Baltic Astronomy, established in 1992 as a result of cooperation between astronomers of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia. Since the first years of publishing this journal has been evolving from regional to the more internationalized status. The list of countries of contributing authors has expanded to 54, while only 19% of the articles are from the three Baltic countries, mainly from Lithuania (14%) and, to a much lesser extent, from Estonia (3%) and Latvia (2%). Recognizing the inadequacies of national and regional bases for dissemination and exchange of scientific information, the Baltic astronomical communities themselves move, however, towards internationalization: in international journals Latvia publishes twice and Estonia nearly ten times more articles than they do in Baltic Astronomy. Meanwhile Lithuanian astronomers publish nearly the same number of articles both outside and inside the region. In the light of progress being made toward consolidation of scholarly publications, a choice between a national/regional and international basis for publishing is becoming more decisive for the future of national and regional astronomy journals.

  10. Crustal structure and regional tectonics of SE Sweden and the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milnes, A.G. [Bergen Univ. (Norway). Dept. of Geology; Gee, D.G.; Lund, C.E. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1998-11-01

    In this desk study, the available geophysical and geological data on the crustal structure and regional tectonics of the wider surroundings of the Aespoe site (SE Sweden and adjacent parts of the Baltic Sea) are compiled and assessed. The aim is to contribute to the knowledge base for long-term rock mechanical modeling, using the Aespoe site as a proxy for a high-level radioactive waste repository site in Swedish bedrock. The geophysical data reviewed includes two new refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic experiments carried out within the EUROBRIDGE project, in addition to the numerous earlier refraction seismic profiles. The BABEL normal-incidence deep seismic profile is also considered. New geological data, presented at EUROBRIDGE workshops, and in recent SGU publications, are reviewed for the same area. In combination with the seismic data, these provide a base for interpreting the present composition and structure, and the Palaeoproterozoic-Mesoproterozoic evolution, of the crustal segment within which the Aespoe site lies - the Smaaland mega-block. This is characterized by having undergone little regionally significant deformation or magmatism since Neoproterozoic times (the last 1000 million years). It is shown that, at this scale of observation (of the order of 100 km), the long-term rheology of the lithosphere can be argued from a relatively tight observational network, when combined with the results of earlier SKB studies (seismo-tectonics, uplift patterns, state of stress, heat flow) and published research. Although many uncertainties exist, the present state of knowledge would suffice for first exploratory calculations and sensitivity studies of long-term, large-scale rock mechanics 101 refs, 22 figs

  11. Ambassadors of the Swedish Nation: National Images in the Teaching of the Swedish Lecturers in Germany 1918-1945

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerlund, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the teaching of Swedish language lecturers active in Germany during the first half of the twentieth century. It shows the centrality of literature and literary constructions and analyses images of Swedishness and the Swedish nation present in the teaching material of that time in relation to the national image present in…

  12. The Impact of the Major Baltic Inflow of December 2014 on the Mercury Species Distribution in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Joachim; Cordes, Florian; Mohrholz, Volker; Nausch, Günther; Naumann, Michael; Krüger, Siegfried; Schulz-Bull, Detlef E

    2017-10-17

    The Baltic Sea is a marginal sea characterized by stagnation periods of several years. Oxygen consumption in its deep waters leads to the buildup of sulfide from sulfate reduction. Some of the microorganisms responsible for these processes also transform reactive ionic mercury to neurotoxic methylmercury. Episodic inflows of oxygenated saline water from the North Sea temporally re-establish oxic life in deep waters of the Baltic Sea. Thus, this sea is an especially important region to better understand mercury species distributions in connection with variable redox conditions. Mercury species were measured on three Baltic Sea campaigns, during the preinflow, ongoing inflow, and subsiding inflow of water, respectively, to the central basin. The inflowing water caused the removal of total mercury by 600 nmol m-2 and of methylmercury by 214 nmol m-2 in the Gotland Deep, probably via attachment of the mercury compounds to sinking particles. It appears likely that the consequences of the oxygenation of Baltic Sea deep waters, which are the coprecipitation of mercury species and the resettlement of the oxic deep waters, could lead to the enhanced transfer of accumulated mercury and methylmercury to the planktonic food chain and finally to fish.

  13. Aerosol carbon isotope composition over Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbaras, Andrius; Pabedinskas, Algirdas; Masalaite, Agne; Petelski, Tomasz; Gorokhova, Elena; Sapolaite, Justina; Ezerinskis, Zilvinas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2017-04-01

    Particulate carbonaceous matter is significant contributor to ambient particulate matter originating from intervening sources which contribution is difficult to quantify due to source diversity, chemical complexity and processes during atmospheric transport. Carbon isotope analysis can be extremely useful in source apportionment of organic matter due to the unique isotopic signatures associated with anthropocentric (fossil fuel), continental (terrestrial plants) and marine sources, and is particularly effective when these sources are mixed (Ceburnis et al., 2011;Ceburnis et al., 2016). We will present the isotope ratio measurement results of aerosol collected during the cruise in the Baltic Sea. Sampling campaign of PM10 and size segregated aerosol particles was performed on the R/V "Oceania" in October 2015. Air mass back trajectories were prevailing both from the continental and marine areas during the sampling period. The total carbon concentration varied from 1 µg/m3 to 8 µg/m3. Two end members (δ13C = -25‰ and δ13C = -28 ‰ ) were established from the total stable carbon isotope analysis in PM10 fraction. δ13C analysis in size segregated aerosol particles revealed δ13C values being highest in the 1 - 2.5 µm range (δ13C = -24.9 ‰ ) during continental transport, while lowest TC δ13C values (δ13C ≈ -27 ‰ ) were detected in the size range D50 matter origin in submicron marine aerosol by 13 C and 14 C isotope analysis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11, 8593-8606, 2011. Ceburnis, D., Masalaite, A., Ovadnevaite, J., Garbaras, A., Remeikis, V., Maenhaut, W., Claeys, M., Sciare, J., Baisnée, D., and O'Dowd, C. D.: Stable isotopes measurements reveal dual carbon pools contributing to organic matter enrichment in marine aerosol, Scientific Reports, 6, 2016. Masalaite, A., Remeikis, V., Garbaras, A., Dudoitis, V., Ulevicius, V., and Ceburnis, D.: Elucidating carbonaceous aerosol sources by the stable carbon δ13C TC ratio in size

  14. [Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800)] / Enn Küng

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Küng, Enn

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800). Leiden, Boston : Brill, 2007. Lisaks raamatule on arhiivijuht kättesaadav ka elektrooniliselt http://www.balticconnections.net/

  15. Do countries catch cold when trading partners sneeze? Evidence from spillovers in the Baltics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley I. Obiora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available How do countries respond to shocks from their major trading partners? This paper addresses the question in the context of the observed shifts in trade linkages between the Baltic countries and their major trading partners. Vector autoregression (VAR models were used to examine the magnitude and sources of growth spillovers to the Baltics from key trading partners, as well as shocks from the real effective exchange rate (REER.Our results show there are significant cross-country spillovers to the Baltics, with spillovers from the EU outweighing those from Russia. Shocks to the REER generally depress growth in the Baltics, and this effect rises over time. We also find that financial and trade linkages are the dominant transmission channels of spillovers to the region, which explains the current realization of downside risks to the Baltics from the global slowdown. In general, therefore, these results suggest that the Baltics are susceptible to shocks from their key trading partners.

  16. The Carbon Dioxide System in the Baltic Sea Surface Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesslander, Karin

    2011-05-15

    The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere is steadily increasing because of human activities such as fossil fuel burning. To understand how this is affecting the planet, several pieces of knowledge of the CO{sub 2} system have to be investigated. One piece is how the coastal seas, which are used by people and influenced by industrialization, are functioning. In this thesis, the CO{sub 2} system in the Baltic Sea surface water has been investigated using observations from the last century to the present. The Baltic Sea is characterized of a restricted water exchange with the open ocean and a large inflow of river water. The CO{sub 2} system, including parameters such as pH and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}), has large seasonal and inter-annual variability in the Baltic Sea. These parameters are affected by several processes, such as air-sea gas exchange, physical mixing, and biological processes. Inorganic carbon is assimilated in the primary production and pCO{sub 2} declines to approx150 muatm in summer. In winter, pCO{sub 2} levels increase because of prevailing mineralization and mixing processes. The wind-mixed surface layer deepens to the halocline (approx60 m) and brings CO{sub 2}- enriched water to the surface. Winter pCO{sub 2} may be as high as 600 muatm in the surface water. The CO{sub 2} system is also exposed to short-term variations caused by the daily biological cycle and physical events such as upwelling. A cruise was made in the central Baltic Sea to make synoptic measurements of oceanographic, chemical, and meteorological parameters with high temporal resolution. Large short-term variations were found in pCO{sub 2} and oxygen (O{sub 2}), which were highly correlated. The diurnal variation of pCO{sub 2} was up to 40 muatm. The CO{sub 2} system in the Baltic Sea changed as the industrialization increased around 1950, which was demonstrated using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model of the CO{sub 2} system

  17. Leisure, Government and Governance: A Swedish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    The leisure sector has witnessed a tremendous expansion since 1960. The purpose of this article is to analyse the decisions and goals of Swedish government policy during the period 1962 to 2005. The empirical analysis covers government Propositions and governmental investigations. The fields covered are sports, culture, exercise, tourism and…

  18. Training Entrepreneurship at Universities: A Swedish Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klofsten, Magnus

    2000-01-01

    The Entrepreneurship and New Business Development Program trains Swedish individuals in the startup of technology- or knowledge-based enterprises. Built on the characteristics of entrepreneurial behavior, the program features a holistic outlook, a network of established entrepreneurs, mentoring, a mix of theory and practice, and focus on the…

  19. Exergy use in the Swedish society 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, G.

    1997-07-01

    The exergy concept is reviewed as a tool for resource accounting. Conversions of energy and material resources in the Swedish society in 1994 are described in terms of exergy. Necessary concepts and conventions are introduced. Exergy losses in transformations of material resources and in conversions of various forms of energy into heat are described in some detail

  20. SWEDISH CRIME FICTION AS SOCIALLY INVOLVED LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Samsel-Chojnacka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Swedish crime novel has been transforming for many years to become more socially involved. The ambition of many writers is not only to entertain the readers but also to participating in the social debate, criticizing the political and economical system, focusing on important issues such as violence against women, exploitation of working class by the privileged ruling class, the problems of a modern family and the situation of immigrants. Since the moment when in the mid 60’s two journalists Maj Sjöwall and Per Wahlöö decided to use popular literature to spread social matters many other Swedish writers have decided to follow their way. Some of them are journalists – like Liza Marklund, Börge Hellström and Anders Roslund or Stieg Larsson. Their novels as well as the ones written by Henning Mannkel on Kurt Wallander have become crucial evidence of changes of Swedish society in the past twenty years. Modern Swedish crime fiction illustrates the population in the model fashion that is the reason why it can become one of the interests of the sociology of literature.

  1. Mathematics and Didactic Contract in Swedish Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacour, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study and analyse how a teacher implements an outdoor realistic problem situation for children aged 4-5 in a Swedish preschool. By an "outdoor realistic problem situation", I mean a situation initiated by a teacher in which children come into contact with mathematical concepts and in which the outside…

  2. South Oregon Coast Reinforcement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.

  3. Wave-induced bedload transport – a study of the southern Baltic coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudkowska Aleksandra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The wave-induced bedload transport and spatial distribution of its magnitude in the southern Baltic coastal zone of Poland are estimated. The vicinity of Lubiatowo was selected as a representative part of the Polish coast. It was assumed that transport is a function of shear stress; alternative approaches, based on force balances and discharge relationships, were not considered in the present study. Four models were studied and compared over a wide range of bottom shear stress and wind-wave conditions. The set of models comprises classic theories that assume a simplified influence of turbulence on sediment transport (e.g., advocated by authors such as Du Boys, Meyer-Peter and Müller, Ribberink, Engelund and Hansen. It is shown that these models allow to estimate transport comparable to measured values under similar environmental conditions. A united general model for bedload transport is proposed, and a set of maps of wave bedload transport for various wind conditions in the study area is presented.

  4. Ecosystem changes in the Neva Estuary (Baltic Sea): natural dynamics or response to anthropogenic impacts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubkov, Sergey; Alimov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The Neva Estuary situated in the eastern Gulf of Finland is one of the largest estuaries of the Baltic Sea with a large conurbation, St. Petersburg, situated on its coast. Eutrophication, alien species and large-scale digging and dumping of bottom sediment are the most prominent anthropogenic impacts on its ecosystem. However, many ecosystem responses, which are traditionally attribute to these impacts, are related to natural dynamics of the ecosystem. Fluctuations in discharge of the Neva River, intrusions of bottom hypoxic waters from the western part of the Gulf of Finland, higher summer temperatures and a shorter period of ice cover are climatic mediated factors inducing adverse changes in its ecosystem from the 1980s onwards. The main ecosystem responses to these factors are 2-3-fold increase of trophic status, deterioration of native zoobenthic communities and establishment of alien species, as well as the many fold decrease of fish catch and the population of ringed seal in the region. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Swedish attitudes towards persons with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högberg, Torbjörn; Magnusson, Annabella; Lützén, Kim; Ewalds-Kvist, Béatrice

    2012-04-01

    Negative and stigmatizing attitudes towards persons with mental illness must be dealt with to facilitate the sufferers' social acceptance. The present study aimed at survey Swedish attitudes towards persons with mental illness related to factors impacting these attitudes. New CAMI-S based on the questionnaire "Community Attitudes to Mental Illness in Sweden" ([CAMI] Taylor & Dear, 1981) was developed with nine behavioral-intention items and thus comprised a total of 29 items. Of 5000 Swedish people, 2391 agreed to complete the questionnaire. Principal component analysis rendered four factors reflecting attitudes towards the mentally ill: Intention to Interact, Fearful and Avoidant, Open-minded and Pro-Integration, as well as Community Mental Health Ideology. The factors were analyzed for trends in attitudes. By MANOVA, the experience of mental illness effects on mind-set towards the sufferers was assessed. By means of logistic regression, demographic factors contributing to positive attitudes towards persons with mental illness residing in the neighborhood were assessed. By New CAMI-S, the Swedish attitudes towards the mentally ill were surveyed and trends in agreement with living next to a person with mental illness were revealed in three out of four factors derived by principal component analysis. Aspects impacting the Swedish attitudes towards persons with mental illness and willingness to have him/her residing in the neighborhood comprised experience of mental illness, female gender, age (31-50 years), born in Scandinavia or outside Europe, only 9 years of compulsory school and accommodation in flat. The New CAMI-S came out as a useful tool to screen Swedish attitudes towards persons with mental illness. Most Swedes were prepared to live next to the mentally ill.

  6. Professional reinventions: Swedish psychologists, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagius, Peter; Münger, Ann-Charlotte

    2016-11-01

    Since the early 20th century, the Swedish psychology profession has undergone several changes in its essential tasks, epistemological foundations, and social roles. These changes occurred through an ongoing "tuning" with Swedish society, in which the profession strove to appear relevant to society's concerns and problems as well as enroll others to share the profession's goals and aims. Studying the history of the profession can thus shed light on the changing definitions and contours of the psychology profession itself as well as on the organization of the society in which it acts. This article examines the history of the Swedish psychology profession from 1990 to 2010, through an analysis of the discussions and debates taking place in the Swedish Psychological Association's journal. The analytical framework used draws on work done within actor-network theory and science studies. We argue that the profession's institutional connections, defining tasks, epistemological underpinnings, and social position have changed in major ways during these 2 decades. Overall, as a result of an increasingly felt insecurity, the profession has turned outward and tried to find new ways to legitimize itself to politicians, the media, patients, and customers through means such as a more economized vocabulary and novel forms of empirical research. These changes have led to a more socialized profession, now more closely tuned to other actors in Swedish society, leading to conflicts within the profession over whether this is an opportunity to better control their own destiny or if it will lead to a loss of autonomy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Prevalence of footrot in Swedish slaughter lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyman Ann-Kristin J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Footrot is a world-wide contagious disease in sheep and goats. It is an infection of the epidermis of the interdigital skin, and the germinal layers of the horn tissue of the feet. The first case of footrot in Swedish sheep was diagnosed in 2004. Due to difficulties in distinguishing benign footrot from early cases of virulent footrot and because there is no possibility for virulence testing of strains of Dichelobacter nodosus in Sweden, the diagnosis is based of the presence or absence of clinical signs of footrot in sheep flocks. Ever since the first diagnosed case the Swedish Animal Health Service has worked intensively to stop the spread of infection and control the disease at flock level. However, to continue this work effectively it is important to have knowledge about the distribution of the disease both nationally and regionally. Therefore, the aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of footrot in Swedish lambs at abattoirs and to assess the geographical distribution of the disease. Methods A prevalence study on footrot in Swedish lambs was performed by visual examination of 2000 feet from 500 lambs submitted from six slaughter houses. Each foot was scored according to a 0 to 5 scoring system, where feet with score ≥2 were defined as having footrot. Moreover, samples from feet with footrot were examined for Dichelobacter nodosus by culture and PCR. Results The prevalence of footrot at the individual sheep level was 5.8%, and Dichelobacter nodosus was found by culture and PCR in 83% and 97% of the samples from feet with footrot, respectively. Some minor differences in geographical distribution of footrot were found in this study. Conclusions In a national context, the findings indicate that footrot is fairly common in Swedish slaughter lambs, and should be regarded seriously.

  8. First measurements with Argo flots in the Southern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczowski, Waldemar; Goszczko, Ilona; Wieczorek, Piotr; Merchel, Malgorzata; Rak, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    The Argo programme is one of the most important elements of the ocean observing system. Currently almost 4000 Argo floats profile global oceans and deliver real time data. Originally Argo floats were developed for open ocean observations. Therefore a standard float can dive up to 2000 m and deep Argo floats are under development. However in the last years the shallow shelf seas become also interesting for Argo users. Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences (IOPAN) participates in the Euro-Argo research infrastructure, the European contribution to Argo system. A legal and governance framework (Euro-Argo ERIC) was set up in May 2014. For a few years IOPAN has deployed floats mostly in the Nordic Seas and the European Arctic region. In the end of 2016 the first Polish Argo float was deployed in the Southern Baltic Sea. Building on the successful experience with Argo floats deployed by the Finnish oceanographers in the Bothnian Sea and Gotland Basin, the IOPAN float was launched in the Bornholm Deep during the fall cruise of IOPAN research vessel Oceania. The standard APEX float equipped with 2-way Iridium communication was used and different modes of operation, required for the specific conditions in the shallow and low saline Baltic Sea, were tested. Settings for the Baltic float are different than for the oceanic mode and were frequently changed during the mission to find the optimum solution. Changing the float parking depth during the mission allows for the limited control of the float drift direction. Results of a high resolution numerical forecast model for the Baltic Sea proved to be a valuable tool for determining the parking depth of the float in the different flow regimes. Trajectory and drift velocity of the Argo float deployed in the Southern Baltic depended strongly on the atmospheric forcing (in particular wind speed and direction), what was clearly manifested during the 'Axel' storm passing over the deployment area in January 2017. The first

  9. Using otolith microstructure to analyse growth of juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Mosegaard, Henrik; Hinrichsen, H.H.

    2003-01-01

    Pelagic and demersal juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua L. were collected on the slope and the top of Rønne bank in the Baltic Sea during 2 cruises in November and December 1998. The growth, age at settling and vertical migration pattern were studied by otolith microstructure analysis. The relation......Pelagic and demersal juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua L. were collected on the slope and the top of Rønne bank in the Baltic Sea during 2 cruises in November and December 1998. The growth, age at settling and vertical migration pattern were studied by otolith microstructure analysis...

  10. Subfamily Limoniinae Speiser, 1909 (Diptera, Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene): the genus Helius Lepeletier & Serville, 1828.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Iwona

    2014-06-10

    A revision of the genus Helius Lepeletier & Serville, 1828 (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene) is presented. Redescriptions of 5 species, Helius formosus Krzemiński, 1993, Helius linus Podenas, 2002, Helius minutus (Loew, 1850), Helius mutus Podenas, 2002, Helius pulcher (Loew, 1850) of this genus from Baltic amber are given and documented by photographs and drawings. Four new species of the genus Helius from Baltic amber are described: Helius gedanicus sp. nov., Helius hoffeinsorum sp. nov., Helius similis sp. nov., Helius fossilis sp. nov. A key to species of Helius from Baltic amber is provided. Patterns morphological evolution and the aspects evolutionary history of Helius are discussed.

  11. Reinventing the Baltic Sea Region: From the Hansa to the Eu-Strategy of 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael North

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The political changes of 1989 stimulated a new perception and perspective of the Baltic Sea Region. And this gained momentum with the Eastern Enlargement of the EU. The new situation encouraged research as well. In this context the “Baltic Sea” is not an unchangeable physical setting, but also a construction of different actors or protagonists. People and powers continuously reinvent the Baltic Sea Region. That is why; the following paper focuses on the different notions of the Baltic Sea Region from the Middle Ages up to now and also examines the recent EU-Strategy of this region.

  12. Estimating competition between wildlife and humans-a case of cormorants and coastal fisheries in the Baltic Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orjan Ostman

    Full Text Available Cormorants and other wildlife populations have come in real or perceived conflicts with humans over exploited fish stocks. From gut contents of cormorants, and using an extension of the Catch equation, we estimated the degree of short term competition between great cormorants and coastal fisheries in two areas along the Swedish Baltic Sea. Cormorants consumed 10 and 44%, in respective area, of the fish biomass of six fish species harvested by humans; eel, flounder, herring, perch, pike, and whitefish. On average, cormorants consumed smaller individuals than harvested in fisheries. But for perch, cod and flounder, cormorants consumed harvestable sized fish corresponding >20% of human catches. Our competition model estimated the direct decrease in fisheries catches due to cormorant predation to be 30% and perch (2-20%. When also including the indirect effects of cormorant predation on smaller fish that never reached harvestable size, the estimated decrease in fisheries catches at least doubled for perch (13-34% and pike (8-19%. Despite large uncertainties, our model indicates that cormorants may locally have a direct impact on human catches of at least flounder, and when incorporating indirect effects also on perch and pike. The study indicates that the degree of competition between cormorants and humans varies substantially between areas. We also included economical values in the model and concluded that for the commercially most important species, eel and cod, the estimated economic impact of cormorants on fisheries was low.

  13. [The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008. Vienna, 2009

  14. Manado: A Developing Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenthof van Noorden, C.; Vermeij, D.; Van Zuijlen, J.; Zeelenberg, W.

    2013-01-01

    Manado, the capital city of North Sulawesi in Indonesia, is rapidly developing. The last years Manado has been extending into the sea, which changed the hydraulics and morphology of Manado Bay. This had negative effects on the currents, inducing erosion along the coast. Also Manado has problems with

  15. Suitability of otolith microchemistry for stock separation of Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, F; Marohn, L; Hinrichsen, HH

    2012-01-01

    Microchemical otolith analyses have been shown to provide valuable information on the life history, dispersal and stock characteristics of teleost fish. In the present study, the suitability of this technique for identifying the origin and distribution of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. from...... origins led to spawning-site specific element concentrations in otolith cores. The results indicate that microchemical analyses of Baltic cod otoliths are applicable for differentiating individuals of different stocks. Analyses of similarities including 12 element/calcium ratios resulted in significant......, however, was not possible. Elemental compositions from the core regions of otoliths from young of the year cod caught in eastern and western Baltic Sea spawning grounds showed significant differences in Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca and Mg/Ca concentrations. Analyses of similarities again showed significant differences...

  16. The first fossil cyphophthalmid harvestman from Baltic amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunlop, Jason A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The first fossil cyphophthalmid harvestman (Opiliones: Cyphophthalmi from Palaeogene (Eocene Baltic amber is described. This is only the third fossil example of this basal harvestman lineage; the others being from the probably slightly younger Bitterfeld amber and the much older, early Cretaceous, Myanmar (Burmese amber. Although incomplete and lacking most of the appendages, the new Baltic amber fossil can be identified as a female. The somatic characters preserved, especially spiracle morphology and the coxo-genital region, allow it to be assigned with some confidence to the extant genus Siro Latreille, 1796 (Sironidae. This fossil is formally described here as Siro balticus sp. nov. It resembles modern North American Siro species more than modern European ones, and can be distinguished principally on its relatively large size and the outline form of the body.

  17. Evidence concerning oxidation as a surface reaction in Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorelli, Gianluca; Richter, Jane; Shashoua, Yvonne

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to provide evidence about oxidation as a surface reaction during degradation of Baltic amber. A clear understanding of the amber-oxygen interaction modalities is essential to develop conservation techniques for museum collections of amber objects. Pellet-shaped samples, obtained from pressed amber powder, were subjected to accelerated thermal ageing. Cross-sections of the pellets were analyzed by infrared micro-spectroscopy, in order to identify and quantify changes in chemical properties. The experimental results showed strong oxidation exclusively at the exterior part of cross-sections from samples subjected to long-term thermal ageing, confirming that oxidation of Baltic amber starts from the surface. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Corrosion of ammunition dumped in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurczak Wojciech

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the preliminary results of a research aimed at preparation for the extraction of chemical ammunition immersed after the Second World War(WWII in the waters of the Baltic Sea (BS. It has been 70 years since the first steps aiming at elimination of mainly German chemical weapons were taken, while the expected durability (tightness of metal barrels construction or other containers was estimated at 50-60 years. Consequently there is a serious risk of contamination of the Baltic Sea waters, not only with toxic warfare agents but also with the products of their decomposition. The evaluation of barrels’ and containers’ with TWA corrosion processes progress will determine the possibility of these munitions extraction to the surface in order to perform their classic utilization.

  19. A new proposal concerning the botanical origin of Baltic amber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Alexander P.; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis; Boudreau, Marc; McKellar, Ryan C.; Basinger, James F.; Garrett, Amber

    2009-01-01

    Baltic amber constitutes the largest known deposit of fossil plant resin and the richest repository of fossil insects of any age. Despite a remarkable legacy of archaeological, geochemical and palaeobiological investigation, the botanical origin of this exceptional resource remains controversial. Here, we use taxonomically explicit applications of solid-state Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy, coupled with multivariate clustering and palaeobotanical observations, to propose that conifers of the family Sciadopityaceae, closely allied to the sole extant representative, Sciadopitys verticillata, were involved in the genesis of Baltic amber. The fidelity of FTIR-based chemotaxonomic inferences is upheld by modern–fossil comparisons of resins from additional conifer families and genera (Cupressaceae: Metasequoia; Pinaceae: Pinus and Pseudolarix). Our conclusions challenge hypotheses advocating members of either of the families Araucariaceae or Pinaceae as the primary amber-producing trees and correlate favourably with the progressive demise of subtropical forest biomes from northern Europe as palaeotemperatures cooled following the Eocene climate optimum. PMID:19570786

  20. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have tried to explain spatial and temporal variations in biodiversity status of marine areas from a single-issue perspective, such as fishing pressure or coastal pollution, yet most continental seas experience a wide range of human pressures. Cumulative impact assessments have...... been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  1. Fisheries management responses to climate change in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans S.

    2015-01-01

    The long term management plan for cod in the eastern Baltic Sea was introduced in 2007 to ensure the full reproductive capacity of cod and an economically viable fishing industry. If these goals are to be fulfilled under changing environmental conditions, a readjustment of the current management...... plan may be needed. Therefore, this paper investigates the economic impacts of managing the cod, sprat and herring stocks in the eastern Baltic Sea, given on-going climate change, which is known to affect cod recruitment negatively. It is shown that climate change may have severe biological...... scenarios in which the economic consequences of different management objectives for the fishing fleets are assessed through a dynamic multi-species and multi-fleet bio-economic assessment model that include both species interactions and climate change....

  2. Shaping Baltic States Defence Strategy: Host Nation Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otzulis Valdis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of NATO troops in the Baltic states has increased in the last years due to changing international environment, increased level of potential risks and threats, and necessity to enhance deterrence in the region. As a result of NATO’s Wales and Warsaw summits decisions, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania are entitled to host a battalion size battle group. The article aims at investigating how host nation support (HNS can contribute to the national defence and, additionally, to the self-defence capabilities of the Baltic states. The concept of HNS is present in the national defence concepts of all three countries. However, its active application and utilization started in the last two years. The article argues that more intensive incorporation of an HNS system in national defence policies serve the capability development in fields like national military logistics, infrastructure, and civil-military cooperation. Those capabilities can serve as an extension of the national defence.

  3. Fish, fishing, and pollutant reduction in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Almesjö, L.; Hansson, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is heavily polluted yet supports major Commercial fisheries for cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Emissions of persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT, were high during the 1960s and 1970s......, and concentrations in fish and other fauna are still significant. Several models of the fluxes of these pollutants among the water, sediment, and atmosphere have been developed, but these generally omit the roles of fish and fisheries. We show that the standing stock of the most abundant fish species in the Baltic...... Sea was a sink for 260 kg of PCBs in the late 1980s to early 1990s and that the fishery removed as much or more PCB (31 kg yr(-1)) than other budget components (e.g., degradation in the water column). Accounting for fish and fisheries could increase our understanding of the fluxes of pollutants...

  4. LATEST CHALLENGES IN EFFICIENCY CONVERGENCE IN BALKAN AND BALTIC COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihăiță-Cosmin M. POPOVICI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of banks has been widely and extensively studied in the past few decades. Using a sample of Balkan and Baltic countries and by employing a Data Envelopment Analysis model, we want to highlight the main challenges for the highly concentrated banking system. Over the period 2007 - 2011, these countries have coped with the worst financial crisis from the Great Depression, which has severe effects on the banking systems. Our sample includes the least developed countries in the EU and for reference purpose, Luxembourg, with the highest GDP per capita. We expect to find similarities between Balkan countries and Baltic countries and we can draw lessons from Luxembourg`s results.

  5. IODP expedition 347: Baltic Sea basin paleoenvironment and biosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrén, T; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Cotterill, Carol

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 347 cored sediments from different set- tings of the Baltic Sea covering the last glacial–interglacial cycle. The main aim was to study the geological development of the Baltic Sea in relation to the extreme climate variability of the region...... with changing ice cover and major shifts in temperature, salinity, and biological communities. Using the Greatship Manisha as a European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) mission-specific platform, we recovered 1.6 km of core from nine sites of which four were additionally cored for microbiology...... degassing upon core recovery. The depth distributions of conservative sea water ions still reflected the transition at the end of the last glaciation from fresh-water clays to Holocene brackish mud. High-resolution sampling and analyses of interstitial water chemistry revealed the intensive mineralization...

  6. A supplement to model validation: estimating uncertainty between ocean forecast products of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea by use of a multi-model ensemble approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbeck, Inga; Li, Xin; Janssen, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Several independent operational ocean-forecasting models are available for the North Sea and the Baltic Sea providing a sometimes wide range of predictions of the ocean's state. It is essential to provide highly qualitative forecasts for e.g. sea level warning or oil drift predictions. Therefore there is a special need to continuously validate and improve the model systems in order to enhance their predictability. A Multi-Model Ensemble (MME) has been developed in the EU-funded MyOcean project and is now further monitored and augmented in the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS). The MME serves as supplement to validation and shall provide additional information to the users of a single-model forecast, especially in those regions where comprehensive observations are lacking. The aim of this MME initiative is to assess the amount as well as temporal and spatial distribution of uncertainties between the ensemble members for several physical parameters. Presently, there are 13 different operational ocean forecasting models of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea providing 48h-forecasts which serve as input for the MMEs of the following parameters: 2D salinity and temperature at the sea surface and the bottom, 2D sea surface currents, vertically integrated water transports across NOOS and BOOS[1] transects, and sea surface height at 24 stations along the coast of the Baltic Sea. So-called ensemble statistics are calculated each day based on the actual forecast and the resulting figures and data are displayed and provided on the NOOS and BOOS MME websites[2]. For the MME of sea surface height a weighting method is applied yielding a best estimate of the water level forecast at each station in the Baltic Sea. Moreover, sea surface temperature is validated with Copernicus satellite data and temperature and salinity are evaluated with in-situ data at offshore stations on a monthly basis. We would like to present the MMEs showing results of the ensemble

  7. [History of pedagogy and educational sciences in the Baltic countries from 1940 to 1990. An overview] / Mare Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Mare, 1960-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: History of pedagogy and educational sciences in the Baltic countries from 1940 to 1990. An overview. Hrsg. im Auftrag der Baltic Association of Historians of Pedagogy von Vadim Rõuk und Vidimantas Raudys. Verlag RaKa. Riga 2013

  8. Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Agneta; Meier, H. E. Markus; Ripszam, Matyas; Rowe, Owen; Wikner, Johan; Haglund, Peter; Eilola, Kari; Legrand, Catherine; Figueroa, Daniela; Paczkowska, Joanna; Lindehoff, Elin; Tysklind, Mats; Elmgren, Ragnar

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2?4??C warming and 50?80?% decrease in ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase ~30?% in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants and decreased salinity. Coupled physical?biogeochemical models indicate that, in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, thus promot...

  9. Russification Efforts in Central Asian and Baltic Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    newly settled lands. 9 In the Baltic Region, the indigenous citizens shared a sense of nationalistic pride that clashed and created interethnic ...Issue in Kazakhstan – Institutionalizing New Ethnic Relations After Independence.” Economic and Environmental Studies 10, no. 2 (June 2010): 214. 17...Kaiser, The Geography of Nationalism in Russia and the USSR, 55 – 56. 25 Victor Ya Prkhomovsky. “Historical Origins of Interethnic Conflicts in

  10. Fostering Employee Engagement Through Gamification: AirBaltic Forecaster Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Daiga Ergle

    2015-01-01

    Next to the employee productivity or indicators for staff turnover and absenteeism in organizations, Employee Engagement stands out as one of the most significant measurements for Human Resource Management efficiency. With younger generation representatives joining the workforce companies are bound to investigate and pursue some of the new tools and techniques that respond more effectively to engagement triggers of generations Y and Z. At AirBaltic Corporation in Riga, La...

  11. Characterisation of juvenile flatfish habitats in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin, Ann-Britt; Sundblad, Göran; Bergström, Ulf

    2009-04-01

    Survival and growth of the earliest life-stages is considered a key factor in determining the abundance of many marine fish species. For flatfishes, the availability of high quality nursery areas is essential for successful recruitment. Regarding the Baltic Sea, there are large gaps in knowledge on factors that influence the distribution of flatfishes during this sensitive stage. To identify the characteristics of important nursery areas in the Baltic for flounder ( Platichthys flesus) and turbot ( Psetta maxima), a field survey with push net sampling was conducted in the northern Baltic proper during autumn 2006. The sampling stations were stratified to cover several different habitat types defined by substrate and wave exposure. Apart from density of young-of-the-year (YOY) flatfishes, a number of ecological characteristics of the habitat were recorded. Physical habitat variables included substrate type, salinity, depth, turbidity, vegetation and habitat structure. Variables describing biotic processes, such as prey availability and abundance of competitors, were also sampled. The relationships between the spatial distribution of species and these ecological characteristics were fitted to presence/absence data of juvenile flatfish using generalized additive models (GAM). The best habitat descriptors for flounder in order of contribution were: substrate, habitat structure, salinity, wave exposure and occurrence of filamentous algae. Positive effects of increasing wave exposure, salinity and structure were detected while a high cover of filamentous algae had a negative effect. Sand and gravel were preferred over soft and stony substrates. For turbot the best habitat descriptors in order of contribution were: occurrence of filamentous algae, substrate and turbidity. Turbot showed a preference for areas with a low cover of filamentous algae, high turbidity and sandy substrate. Prey availability and abundance of competitors were not included in the models, indicating

  12. Use of bioenergy in the Baltic Sea region. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barz, M.; Ahlhaus, M. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    The actual situation in our world can shortly be characterized by growing population and increasing energy demand, mainly covered by fossil fuels. This results in environmental as well as climate change problems. Renewable energies offer many opportunities to overcome these problems - they can provide heat and electricity as well as automotive fuels in environmentally friendly systems and thus contribute to lower the fossil fuels dependency. Biomass as the oldest renewable energy of mankind is still playing a dominant role as an energy carrier in some African and Asian regions, where biofuels are still used in traditional ways - mainly for cooking. On the other hand biomass has a huge potential to become a more important energy resource even in industrialized countries. All over the world the opportunities of biomass are accepted and biomass has become a common term in politics resulting in new strategic analyses, political documents, legislative actions and funding programs. A lot of modern and new high-tech solutions for bioenergy systems are already developed and others are under research. Aims of the actual developments are new bioenergy systems on the basis of regional biomass potentials in rural regions. The Baltic Sea Region offers a high potential to produce biofuels for different applications to fit the growing demand of heat, electricity and fuels. In combination with its industry and engineering skills the Baltic Sea Region is predestinated as a nucleus for further development and demonstration of advanced bioenergy solutions. In the result of the conference ''Contribution of Agriculture to Energy Production'', held in Tallinn, Estonia in October 2005 representatives from policy, economy and science identified a high potential and demand for bioenergy solutions and realized the necessity of establishment of an international network (Baltic Bioenergy Net - BaBEt) for information and know-how transfer between the Baltic States to foster

  13. [Diversity of cultured actinomycete in the Baltic Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Cao, Yanru; Wang, Qian; Jin, Rongxian

    2011-11-04

    Actinomycetes (actinobacteria) are getting more and more recognized as a natural source for new drug exploration. In order to find new lead compounds, the diversity and selected bioactivities of cultured actinomycetes in the Baltic Sea (Germany) were investigated. One hundred sediment samples were collected from south of the Baltic Sea, of which 809 purified cultures of actinomycetes were obtained by using 7 media. The phylogenetic analysis of 280 selected strains based on 16S rRNA gene sequences was carried out. In addition, activities of 21 enzymes, which play a role in metabolic processes, and anti-microbial activities were determined. Fifteen genera and eight possible new species of actinobacteria were identified. Members of 3 genera were not isolated from marine habitats before. Of the 280 strains 21% and 20% inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus lentus, respectively. More than 75% of the strains exhibited 8 types of enzymatic activities, including esterase lipase (C8), catalase and naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase. Baltic Sea provides a rich diversity of actinobacteria regarding the phylogenetic analysis and the biological activities. Research and utilization of marine actinomycetes should be strengthened.

  14. Variability of lithospheric structure in the Baltic Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Helle; Debayle, Eric; Maupin, Valérie

    2013-04-01

    We present the shear velocity structure down to 250km depth beneath the dense LAPNET array in northern Finland, located at the northern end of the Baltic Shield. We analysed phase velocity dispersion of fundamental mode Rayleigh waves, using data from 46 seismic broadband stations and almost 200 magnitude >6 events. The inversion of the dispersion curve shows a well resolved low velocity zone starting at approximately 150km depth, while the shear velocities above are typical for cratonic lithosphere. The comparison to other parts of the Baltic Shield show strong variability of the lithospheric structure. Immediately south of LAPNET, in an area dominated by paleaproterozoic rocks at surface, the lithosphere is fast to a depth of 225-250km, while cratonic lithosphere seems to be absent beneath southern Norway, in spite of Proterozoic age tectonic ages. The low velocity zone beneath northern Finland indicates that the lithosphere in this area is either modified at depth, for example through metasomatism, or that it is thinner than the more internal part of the Baltic shield. We suggest that the modification of the cratonic lithosphere beneath northern Finland is not related to continental breakup at the opening of the Atlantic Ocean, as the continental shelf continues north, beneath the Barents Sea. We rather favour the hypothesis that subduction and/or collision could potentially modify (by fluid injection) or remove (by erosion/dripping) otherwise stable cratonic lithosphere.

  15. Monthly Ensembles in Algal Bloom Predictions on the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiha, Petra; Westerlund, Antti; Stipa, Tapani

    2010-05-01

    In this work we explore the statistical features of monthly ensembles and their capability to predict biogeochemical conditions in the Baltic Sea. Operational marine environmental modelling has been considered hard, and consequently there are very few operational ecological models. Operational modelling of harmful algal blooms is harder still, since it is difficult to separate the algal species in models, and in general, very little is known of HAB properties. We present results of an ensemble approach to HAB forecasting in the Baltic, and discuss the applicability of the forecasting method to biochemical modelling. It turns out that HABs are indeed possible to forecast with useful accuracy. For modelling the algal blooms in Baltic Sea we used FMI operational 3-dimensional biogeochemical model to produce seasonal ensemble forecasts for different physical, chemical and biological variables. The modelled variables were temperature, salinity, velocity, silicate, phosphate, nitrate, diatoms, flagellates and two species of potentially toxic filamentous cyanobacteria nodularia spumigena and aphanizomenon flos-aquae. In this work we concentrate to the latter two. Ensembles were produced by running the biogeochemical model several times and forcing it on every run with different set of seasonal weather parameters from ECMWF's mathematically perturbed ensemble prediction forecasts. The ensembles were then analysed by statistical methods and the median, quartiles, minimum and maximum values were calculated for estimating the probable amounts of algae. Validation for the forecast method was made by comparing the final results against available and valid in-situ HAB data.

  16. The Baltics on Their Way towards a Circular Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoryan A. A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Circular economy has been studied extensively both in Europe and worldwide. It is largely viewed as a potential strategy for societal development, aimed to increase prosperity while reducing dependence on raw materials and energy. Many businesses regard circular economy as a way to enhance economic growth and increase profits. Governments across the world actively engage in the discussion about the benefits of a transition to a circular economy and about its impact on employment, economic growth, and the environment. This paper aims to study the major issues of circular economy, to identify its advantages, and to offer an insight into the transition stage the Baltic States are undergoing today on their way to circular economy. It is stressed that the Baltic countries are not fully using the opportunities offered by a circular economy. For example, Latvia’s, Lithuania’s, and Estonia’s recycling rates are significantly below those of other European countries. The Baltics depend heavily on EU financial support. An increase in funding will contribute to the implementation of circular economy technologies.

  17. Seabed geodiversity in a glaciated shelf area, the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskela, Anu Marii; Kotilainen, Aarno Tapio

    2017-10-01

    Geodiversity describes the heterogeneity of the physical terrain. We have performed basin-wide geodiversity analysis on a glaciated epicontinental seabed to assess geodiversity measures and patterns, locate areas with high geodiversity, and draw conclusions on contributing processes. Geodiversity quantification is a rather new topic and is mainly practiced in land areas. We applied geodiversity methods developed for terrestrial studies to a seabed environment. Three geodiversity parameters, including the richness, patchiness, and geodiversity index, of the Baltic Sea were assessed in a GIS environment based on broad-scale datasets on seabed substrates, structures, and bedrock. A set of environmental and geological variables, which were considered to reflect geological processes under seabed conditions, were compared with the geodiversity to identify some of its drivers. We observed differences in the geodiversity levels of the Baltic subbasins, which are mainly due to basement type/bedrock, roughness, shore density, and glacier-derived processes. The geodiversity of the Baltic Sea generally increases from South to North and from open-sea to high-shore density areas (archipelagos). Crystalline bedrock areas provide more diverse seabed environments than sedimentary rock areas. The analysis helps to inform scientists, marine spatial planners, and managers about abiotic conservation values, the dynamics of the seabed environment, and potential areas with elevated biodiversity.

  18. Water type quantification in the Skagerrak, the Kattegat and off the Jutland west coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Kristiansen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An extensive data series of salinity, nutrients and coloured dissolved organic material (CDOM was collected in the Skagerrak, the northern part of the Kattegat and off the Jutland west coast in April each year during the period 1996–2000, by the Institute of Marine Research in Norway. In this month, after the spring bloom, German Bight Water differs from its surrounding waters by a higher nitrate content and higher nitrate/phosphate and nitrate/silicate ratios. The spreading of this water type into the Skagerrak is of special interest with regard to toxic algal blooms. The quantification of the spatial distributions of the different water types required the development of a new algorithm for the area containing the Norwegian Coastal Current, while an earlier Danish algorithm was applied for the rest of the area. From the upper 50 m a total of 2227 observations of salinity and CDOM content have been used to calculate the mean concentration of water from the German Bight, the North Sea (Atlantic water, the Baltic Sea and Norwegian rivers. The Atlantic Water was the dominant water type, with a mean concentration of 79%, German Bight Water constituted 11%, Baltic Water 8%, and Norwegian River Water 2%. At the surface the mean percentages of these water types were found to be 68%, 15%, 15%, and 3%, respectively. Within the northern part of the Skagerrak, closer to the Norwegian coast, the surface waters were estimated to consist of 74% Atlantic Water, 20% Baltic Water, and 7% Norwegian River Water. The analysis indicates that the content of German Bight Water in this part is less than 5%.

  19. Results of the neotectonic stress state study in the eastern part of Baltic shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Lidiya A.; Zhirov, Dmitriy V.; Smaglichenko, Tatyana A.; Smaglichenko, Alexandr V.

    2010-05-01

    Recently a caving of the Kovdor quarry south-eastern bort occurred on the Kovdor massif (the eastern part of Baltic shield). This required a careful analyze of the stress field in the massif and a comparison of it with general situation in a region. In spite of weak seismicity at whole on the given territory it is characterized by the presence of earthquakes with M = 4 - 4.4 especially in zones of mining works (for example, events of 16.04.1989 and 17.08.1999 at the Khibiny-Lovoserskyi district). The risk zone is increased as for large industrial facilities AES located there as for big quarries extracting minerals. Kinematic method developed by Gushenko in 1973, 1979 has been applied in order to get the stress fields. The field works were performed during summer of 2009. According to this method vectors of tectonic movements along in fissures have been analyzed and local stress states have been reconstructed demonstrating significant range in orientation of axis of main normal stresses. These local stress states were conventionally correspond to the third rank and by using this information tectonic stresses of the second rank have been reconstructed. In the caving zone the local stress state can be characterized as uniaxial tension that could bring the caving. Previous investigations of the eastern part of Baltic shield were made for peninsulas Sredniy, Ryibachiy, for the White sea islands, at coast of the Kandalakschsky Bay, on the Chibino massif. Tectonic stresses of the first rank were revealed and were characterized as subhorizontal axis of compression and of tension. The compressional axis has the WNW orientation while and the extension axis is submeridional. Our research showed that the compression axis on the Kovdor massif has orientation 98° , angle is equal 15. This is in agreement with the previous results. The reconstructed stress field at whole well corresponds to the major faults Onego-Segozerskiy and Kandalakscha, which are seismic active zones. The

  20. Ethnic Swedish parents' experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence in Swedish paediatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavallali, Azar G; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Jirwe, Maria

    2014-06-01

    Sweden has a population of a little more than 9.4 million. The rapid growth of immigration in Sweden has resulted in an increased number of minority ethnic patients and minority ethnic nurses in the Swedish healthcare system. This also applies to paediatric care. The purpose of this study was to explore how parents with ethnic Swedish backgrounds experience minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence and the care the nurses provide in a Swedish paediatric care context. This exploratory qualitative study is of 14 parents with an ethnic Swedish background whose child was in a ward at a children's hospital in Stockholm County Council. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews to identify parents' perceptions and experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence. The interviews were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The analyses of the interviews led to four main categories: influence of nurses' ethnicity; significance of cross-cultural communication; cross-cultural skills; and the importance of nursing education. Nurses' ethnicity did not have much impact on parents' satisfaction with their child's care. The parents attached importance to nurses' language skills and to their adaptation and awareness of Swedish culture. They also attached weight to nurses' professional knowledge and personal attributes. The role of nursing education to increase nurses' cultural awareness was highlighted too. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  1. Reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisell, Kristin; Winblad, Ulrika; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, a reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector took place, and a fundamental change in ownership and structure followed. The reregulation provides an opportunity to reveal the politicians' views on pharmacies. The aim of this study was to explore and analyze the political arguments...... for the reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector in 2009. The method used was a qualitative content analysis of written political documents regarding the reregulation. The primary rationales for the reregulation were better availability, efficiency, price pressure, and safe usage of medicines. During...... are better equipped to perform public activities. The results point to that the reform was done almost solely in order to introduce private ownership in the pharmacy sector, and was not initiated in order to solve any general problems, or to enhance patient outcomes of medicine use....

  2. Escherichia coli pollution in a Baltic Sea lagoon: a model-based source and spatial risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippmann, Bianca; Schernewski, Gerald; Gräwe, Ulf

    2013-07-01

    Tourism around the Oder (Szczecin) Lagoon, at the southern Baltic coast, has a long tradition, is an important source of income and shall be further developed. Insufficient bathing water quality and frequent beach closings, especially in the Oder river mouth, hamper tourism development. Monitoring data gives only an incomplete picture of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria sources, spatial transport patterns, risks and does neither support an efficient bathing water quality management nor decision making. We apply a 3D ocean model and a Lagrangian particle tracking model to analyse pollution events and to obtain spatial E. coli pollution maps based on scenario simulations. Model results suggests that insufficient sewage treatment in the city of Szczecin is the major source of faecal pollution, even for beaches 20km downstream. E. coli mortality rate and emission intensity are key parameters for concentration levels downstream. Wind and river discharge play a modifying role. Prevailing southwestern wind conditions cause E. coli transport along the eastern coast and favour high concentration levels at the beaches. Our simulations indicate that beach closings in 2006 would not have been necessary according to the new EU-Bathing Water Quality Directive (2006/7/EC). The implementation of the new directive will, very likely, reduce the number of beach closings, but not the risk for summer tourists. Model results suggest, that a full sewage treatment in Szczecin would allow the establishment of new beaches closer to the city (north of Dabie lake). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Workplace Incivility in a Swedish Context

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Torkelson; Kristoffer Holm; Martin Bäckström

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated workplace incivility in a Swedish context. The first aim was to assess how common the phenomenon is and the second was to study which groups (gender, age, ethnicity, and power position) are most targeted by workplace incivility and are more prone to act in an uncivil way. Additionally, the relationships between experienced and witnessed incivility and wellbeing as well as instigated incivility were investigated. An online survey was administered by SIFO (the nat...

  4. Diversity work in a Swedish Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Risberg, Annette

    2012-01-01

    This paper builds on a case study of diversity work in a Swedish municipality, Malmö. It focuses on certain actors partaking in the diversity work done in the municipality that of a gender and diversity committee and its members – here called diversity ambassadors. I will describe the work of the diversity ambassadors and discuss what impact they could possibly have on the organization. Organizational efforts to change inequalities at the workplace may take different forms. The literature ...

  5. The swedish challenge; Le pari Suedois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tregouet, R

    2006-07-01

    Sweden decided to be the first country without petroleum for 2020. The author presents the major energy policy axis implemented by the swedish government to delete the part of the produced energy by the petroleum: development of the renewable energies, research programs of the transportation sector concerning the alternative fuels for the motors, energy efficiency and development of the biomass to replace the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  6. Patient safety as perceived by Swedish leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Härenstam, Karin Pukk; Elg, Mattias; Svensson, Carina; Brommels, Mats; Øvretveit, John

    2009-01-01

    Artikkelen beskriver en studie hvor hensikten var å kartlegge svenske helselederes bevissthet knyttet til pasientsikkerhet, deres prioritering av sikkerhetsspørsmål, og deres syn på ledelsesstrategier som er egnet i pasientsikkerhetsarbeid. The purpose of this paper is to survey Swedish healthcare leaders' patient safety awareness, the priority they give to safety issues and their views on suitable safety management strategies. A total 623 leaders of a sample of 1,129 responded to a mail q...

  7. Spirometric reference equations for Swedish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisman, Jonas; Kim, Jeong-Lim; Olin, Anna-Carin; Torén, Kjell; Bake, Björn

    2017-11-01

    New spirometric reference equations for Swedish adults are required. Three different older sets of reference equations clinically used in Sweden have various drawbacks and the recently published 'The Global Lung Function 2012 (GLI) equations' have been shown not to be adequate for Swedish normal, healthy non-smokers. We have recently concluded that a piecewise linear model presented by Lubinski and Gólczewski accurately describes the distribution of spirometric variables in a large Swedish random population sample. This piecewise linear model also offers the important advantage of implementing easily physiologically interpretable coefficients. The present study aimed at presenting piecewise linear reference equations for Swedish adults based on a random population sample of 6685 individuals aged 25-75 years. Predicted normal values by the piecewise linear reference equations and lower limit normal (LLN) were compared with the three reference equations frequently used clinically in Sweden and the GLI equations. We found predicted normal values according to the present piecewise linear reference equations close to 100% predicted normal as expected, whereas the other equations either overestimated or underestimated normal subjects. Concerning LLN, the present equations, i.e. 1·645 × RSD, showed the least deviation from the expected 5% and, e.g., the GLI equations systematically identified too few subjects below LLN. We conclude that the present piecewise linear reference equations, based on a relatively large general population sample, ought to be considered for clinical use in Sweden. Application of 1·645 × RSD below predicted value gave an acceptably accurate LLN. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Patient safety as perceived by Swedish leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härenstam, Karin Pukk; Elg, Mattias; Svensson, Carina; Brommels, Mats; Ovretveit, John

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to survey Swedish healthcare leaders' patient safety awareness, the priority they give to safety issues and their views on suitable safety management strategies. A total 623 leaders of a sample of 1,129 responded to a mail questionnaire (55 percent response rate). Descriptive statistics of the responses are presented as frequency distributions across respondent subgroups. Means were tested for similarity by a repetitive one-way ANOVA procedure. Homogeneous response groups were sought by hierarchical cluster analysis. Swedish healthcare leaders show relatively high safety awareness and how their organizations prioritize safety management. There is a marked polarization between leaders; half feel that the system works reasonably well, and that adequate funds are available to improve or maintain services. The other half thinks the system needs major change and calls for additional funding. A majority sees system errors as the main cause for adverse events; a substantial minority find human errors to be more important. Two-thirds were willing to make safety performance information on organizations and specialties public, one third was restrictive. Survey instruments used to explore leaders' patient safety views have not yet been rigorously tested against psychometric criteria. One hospital type was slightly over-represented and three regions somewhat under-represented in the respondent groups. This is the first systematic attempt to explore the views of Swedish healthcare leaders on patient safety. It provides input to a national strategy to improve patient safety.

  9. Psychosocial work environment among Swedish audiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännström, K Jonas; Båsjö, Sara; Larsson, Josefina; Lood, Sofie; Lundå, Stefan; Notsten, Margareta; Taheri, Satu Turunen

    2013-03-01

    The study examined the self-reported psychosocial work environment for audiologists working in three practice types (public, completely private, and private but publicly funded). A cross-sectional e-mail survey using the demand-control-support questionnaire, a short version of the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) questionnaire, and descriptive data. Five-hundred Swedish licensed audiologists. Overall, the results indicate differences in psychosocial work environment pertaining to the practice types. These differences are small and the type explains few percent of the variability accounted in the measures of psychosocial work environment. Social support seems important for the psychosocial work environment and is considered a reward in itself. Using the demand-control model, 29% of the audiologists reported working in a high-stress psychosocial work environment. Using the ERI-ratio to estimate the imbalance between effort and reward it was shown that that 86% of the participants experienced an unfavorable work situation where the rewards do not correspond to the efforts made. The organizational framework has minor effect on self-reported psychosocial work environment for Swedish licensed audiologists. The percentage of unfavorable ERI-ratios seen in Swedish audiologists seems conspicuously high compared to other working populations in general, but also compared to other health service workers.

  10. Maine coast winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  11. Tanning beauty ideals among Swedish adults who exercise regularly

    OpenAIRE

    Cedercreutz, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Tanning beauty ideals among Swedish adults who exercise regularly Introduction: The majority of the Swedish population exercise regularly, and it has been reported that they believe having an attractive body is important. While research has shown that Swedes wish to be tanned, it is unknown whether there are any correlations to their exercise habits. Aims: The primary aim was to determine tanned skin tone ideals and tanning beauty ideals among regularly exercising Swedish adults. Associati...

  12. The Swedish version of the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; Rosenberg, Patricia; Lindskär, Erik; Amato, Clara; Al Nima, Ali

    2017-10-01

    The data include responses to the Swedish version of a questionnaire used to operationalize self-regulation or regulatory mode: assessment and locomotion. The data was collected among 567 Swedish high school and university students (see Garcia and Lindskär, 2016 [1]). In this article, we also include the Swedish version of the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire. The data is available, SPSS file, as supplementary material in this article.

  13. Contracaecum osculatum and other anisakid nematodes in grey seals and cod in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, S; Kania, P W; Mehrdana, F

    2018-01-01

    anisakid nematodes Pseudoterranova decipiens and Anisakis simplex are also found in both seals and cod in the Baltic Sea, but at much lower rates. The Baltic grey seal population was left at a critically low level (comprising a few hundred individuals) during the latter part of the 20th century, but since...

  14. Passandra septentrionaria sp. nov.: the first described species of Passandridae (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea) from Eocene Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukejs, Andris; Alekseev, Vitalii I; Mckellar, Ryan C

    2016-07-26

    Based on two relatively well-preserved specimens from Eocene Baltic amber, Passandra septentrionaria sp. nov. is described and illustrated. It is the first formally described species of Passandridae from Baltic amber, and the first known European representative of the family. The global distribution of extant Passandra Dalman is mapped, and the historical distribution of the group is briefly discussed.

  15. Marine landscapes and population genetic structure of herring ( Clupea harengus L.) in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, H.B.H.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Bekkevold, Dorte

    2005-01-01

    of herring (Clupea harengus L.) in the environmentally heterogeneous Baltic Sea, whereas allozyme markers have not revealed differentiation. We analysed variation at nine microsatellite loci in 24 samples of spring-spawning herring collected at 11 spawning locations throughout the Baltic Sea. Significant...

  16. Baltic Heritage Network : die Pflege des exilbaltischen Kulturerbes - Zwischenbilanz und Zukunftsperspektiven / Piret Noorhani

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noorhani, Piret, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Välisbalti kultuuripärandi portaal Baltic Heritage Network, mis on mitmekeelne portaal koondamaks informatsiooni Balti diasporaa kultuuripärandi leidumuse ja sellealase tegevuse kohta. Rahvusvahelise ja siseriikliku koostöö laiendamiseks ja tegevuste koordineerimiseks loodi jaanuaris 2008 mittetulundusühing Baltic Heritage Network, kuhu kuulub praegu liikmeid kõigist kolmest Balti riigist.

  17. Stock recruitment relationships for cod ( Gadus morhua L.) in the central Baltic Sea incorporating environmental variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarre, Astrid; Wieland, Kai; MacKenzie, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Recruitment of central/eastern Baltic cod critically depends on favourable oceanographic conditions in the deeper basins of the Baltic Sea creating a suitable habitat for the development of early life stages. The decline in the size of the spawning stock since the mid-1980s initiated a series of ...

  18. On the potential and opportunities for cooperation between the Baltics in the field of innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemeshev Andrey

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the research and innovation potential of Russia in general, the Northwestern federal district and the Baltics (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia and explores the opportunities for cooperation between the Russian Federation and the Baltics in the field of innovations. The authors identify possible areas of cooperation and describe its mechanisms.

  19. Physiological responses of Macoma balthica to copper pollution in the Baltic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokolowski, A.; Wolowicz, M.; Hummel, H.; Bogaards, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    Physiological and behavioral responses to Cu exposure were measured in the Baltic clam Macoma balthica from the Gulf of Gdansk, southern Baltic Sea. The burrowing activity, mortality rate, glycogen content, condition index and free amino acid (FAA) composition were analysed as indicators of stress

  20. Sedimentary alkenone distributions reflect salinity changes in the Baltic Sea over the Holocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warden, L.; Van der Meer, M.T.J.; Moros, M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    The Baltic Sea has had a complex salinity history since the last deglaciation. Here we show how distributions of alkenones and their δD values varied with past fluctuations in salinity in the Baltic Sea over the Holocene by examining a Holocene record (11.2–0.1 cal kyr BP) from the Arkona Basin.

  1. Abnormal features of Macoma balthica (Bivalvia) in the Baltic Sea: alerting symptoms of environmental adversity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokolowski, A.; Wolowicz, M.; Hummel, H.; Smolarz-Górska, K.; Fichet, D.; Radenac, G.; Thiriot-Quiévreux, C.; Namiésnik, J.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies of the Baltic clam Macoma balthica (L.) from the southern Baltic (the Gulf of Gdansk) have revealed striking morphological, histological and cytogenetic features. Strong deformation of the shell, including elongation of the posterior end and the appearance of an easily visible flexure

  2. USBF recognized President Ilves for promoting relations between the Baltic countries and the United States

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves pälvis Balti riikide ja Ameerika Ühendriikide suhete edendamise eest Ameerika-Balti Fondi (USBF - The United States-Baltic Foundation) autasu - Baltic Statesmanship Award'i. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  3. US Baltic Foundation award winners from Estonia are Arvo Pärt and Enn Kunila

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Washingtonis toimunud tänavusel U.S Baltic Foundationi auhinnagalal tunnustati kahte eestlast: helilooja Arvo Pärti auhinnaga Baltimaade kuvandi rikastamise eest (Baltic Image Enhancement Award) ja ettevõtjast kunstikollektsionääri Enn Kunilat Baltimaade filantroopiaauhinnaga

  4. The diet of whiting Merlangius merlangus in the western Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Stine Dalmann; Gislason, Henrik; Andersen, Niels Gerner

    2016-01-01

    The diet of whiting Merlangius merlangus in the western Baltic Sea was investigated and compared to the diet in the southern North Sea. Clupeids were important prey in both areas, but especially in the western Baltic Sea where they constituted up to 90% of the diet of larger individuals. Gobies......, brown shrimps and polychaetes were the main prey of juveniles in the western Baltic Sea, while a wider range of species were consumed in the North Sea. The shift to piscivory occurred at smaller sizes in the western Baltic Sea and the fish prey consumed was proportionately larger than in the southern...... North Sea. Estimates of prey abundance and food intake of M. merlangus are required to evaluate its predatory significance in the western Baltic Sea, but its diet suggests that it could be just as significant a fish predator here as in the southern North Sea...

  5. Climate change effects on the Baltic Sea borderland between land and sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandmark, Alma; Bring, Arvid; Cousins, Sara A O; Destouni, Georgia; Kautsky, Hans; Kolb, Gundula; de la Torre-Castro, Maricela; Hambäck, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Coastal habitats are situated on the border between land and sea, and ecosystem structure and functioning is influenced by both marine and terrestrial processes. Despite this, most scientific studies and monitoring are conducted either with a terrestrial or an aquatic focus. To address issues concerning climate change impacts in coastal areas, a cross-ecosystem approach is necessary. Since habitats along the Baltic coastlines vary in hydrology, natural geography, and ecology, climate change projections for Baltic shore ecosystems are bound to be highly speculative. Societal responses to climate change in the Baltic coastal ecosystems should have an ecosystem approach and match the biophysical realities of the Baltic Sea area. Knowledge about ecosystem processes and their responses to a changing climate should be integrated within the decision process, both locally and nationally, in order to increase the awareness of, and to prepare for climate change impacts in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea.

  6. EIA in the Baltic countries. The case of three oil terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm-Hansen, J. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in the Baltic Countries: The Case of Three Oil Terminals is the second phase of a research and exchange project that has been going on between Baltic and Nordic experts on Environmental Impact Assessment since 1992. The objective of the projects is to contribute to the capability of the Baltic states in carrying out EIAs. By scrutinizing the processes of the EIAs carried out for three Baltic oil terminals, working groups consisting of both Nordic and Baltic EIA experts have sought to highlight the practical implications of the `EIA vocabulary` eagerly taught by Western experts and perhaps even more eagerly studied by their `Eastern` counterparts during the last few years. The three cases were: Lithuania, Oil Port of Klaipeda; Latvia, Oil Terminal in Liepaja; Estonia, Muuga Port. (au)

  7. Nutrient content in macrophyta collected from southern Baltic Sea beaches in relation to eutrophication and biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucholc, K; Szymczak-Żyła, M; Lubecki, L; Zamojska, A; Hapter, P; Tjernström, E; Kowalewska, G

    2014-03-01

    One of the signs of eutrophication is the excessive growth of opportunistic macroalgae, a worldwide phenomenon also observed in the Baltic Sea. Mats of macroalgae may drift long distances and accumulate at the seashore, considerably decreasing the recreational value of beaches. The matter accumulating at the shore is treated usually as waste. However, it could be used, for example, as a resource for biogas production. The aim of this work was to verify the hypothesis that collecting of macrophyta accumulating on the beach and potential usage of this material for biogas production will decrease nutrient reserves in the sea to counteract eutrophication and the increase in greenhouse effects. Samples of macrophyta were collected in 2011 and 2012 and analysed for their C, N, and P contents, and degree of degradation (% Chl-a in the sum of chloropigments-a); the results were analysed statistically. The nutrient content was studied in macrophyta accumulating on the beach (Sopot, Gulf of Gdańsk, Poland) and for comparison, macrophyta collected from their habitats in less nutrient polluted area (off the Skåre coast, Trelleborg, Sweden). The nutrient content (N, P) in macrophyta depends primarily on their morphology and only secondarily on environmental nutrient pollution. Collecting the macrophyta biomass accumulating on beaches will not significantly change the eutrophication of the Baltic as a whole; any improvements in this respect are likely to be on a local scale only. Collecting macrophyta removes more nitrogen than phosphorous, so this would decrease the N/P ratio in seawater. This macrophyta biomass is a substantial reserve of renewable energy, which could be utilized with the appropriate technology for biomass collection/preservation and biofuel production as an additive to other carbon-rich biomasses. And the biofuel production should be evaluated not only from the standpoint of economic efficiency but also from the environmental point of view. Copyright

  8. Occurrence of perfluorinated organic acids in the North and Baltic seas. Part 1: distribution in sea water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Norbert; Caliebe, Christina; Gerwinski, Wolfgang; Hühnerfuss, Heinrich; Lepom, Peter

    2011-08-01

    Due to their high water solubilities and mobilities, persistent, polar perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) such as perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates are likely to end up in the oceans. In part 1 of this study, their distribution in North and Baltic Sea water is reported, being of special interest because these seas are surrounded by highly industrialized countries with high population densities. A combination of solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used after optimisation to determine nine PFCs with chain lengths of C(4) to C(10) in water samples at ultra-trace levels. The observed concentration distribution and gradients were explained by oceanographic mixing processes and currents. The big rivers were identified as major input sources. At the mouth of the river Elbe, concentrations of 9 ng/L were observed for perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and 8 ng/L for perfluorooctylsulfonate (PFOS); all other PFC concentrations ranged from 0.6 to 1.7 ng/L. At coastal stations, concentrations decreased to 3.8 ng/L (PFOA) and 1.8 ng/L (PFOS), dropping to 0.13 and 0.09 ng/L, respectively, towards the open sea. Along the Dutch coast, high perfluorobutylsulfonate concentrations (3.9 ng/L) were observed as regional characteristics. In the Baltic Sea, fairly even PFC distributions with low gradients were observed. Again, PFOA and PFOS were the major compounds (up to 1.1 and 0.9 ng/L). The results underline the necessity to include PFCs in marine monitoring programs. Water was found to be a good matrix for monitoring environmental levels, sources, and transport pathways of PFCs.

  9. The Little Ice Age: evidence from a sediment record in Gullmar Fjord, Swedish west coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Polovodova Asteman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the climatic and environmental changes during the last millennium in NE Europe based on a ca. 8-m long high-resolved and well-dated marine sediment record from the deepest basin of Gullmar Fjord (SW Sweden. According to the 210Pb- and 14C-datings, the record includes the period of the late Holocene characterised by anomalously cold summers and well-known as the Little Ice Age (LIA. Using benthic foraminiferal stratigraphy, lithology, bulk sediment geochemistry and stable carbon isotopes we reconstruct various phases of the cold period, identify its timing in the study area and discuss the land–sea interactions occurring during that time. The onset of the LIA is indicated by an increase in cold-water foraminiferal species Adercotryma glomerata at ~ 1350 AD The first phase of the LIA was characterised by a stormy climate and higher productivity, which is indicated by a foraminiferal unit of Nonionella iridea and Cassidulina laevigata. Maximum abundances of N. iridea probably mirror a short and abrupt warming event at ~ 1600 AD. It is likely that due to land use changes in the second part of the LIA there was an increased input of terrestrial organic matter to the fjord, which is indicated by lighter δ13C values and an increase of detritivorous and omnivorous species such as Textularia earlandi and Eggerelloides scaber. The climate deterioration during the climax of the LIA (1675–1704 AD, as suggested by the increase of agglutinated species, presence of Hyalinea balthica, and a decline of N. iridea may have driven the decline in primary productivity during this time period.

  10. Effects of mussel farms on the benthic nitrogen cycle on the Swedish west coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, MS; Engström, P; Lindahl, O

    2012-01-01

    . Furthermore, more total particulate organic N deposited at farm stations was recycled into the water column compared to at reference stations (~45 versus ~13%), indicating an increased release of dissolved inorganic N from sediment below the mussel farms. At one station (M2) with the highest increase...... increased below the mussel lines at all 3 farms. Effects of increased sedimentation rates were revealed by sediment profile imaging and were highest at Stn M2. These effects increased significantly with time of farm operation, indicating the accumulation of organic matter within sediments over time...

  11. Microplastics in the Baltic Sea water: fibers everywhere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatmullina, Lilia; Bagaev, Andrey; Chubarenko, Irina

    2017-04-01

    Presence of thin synthetic fibres (microfibres, tens of micrometres in diameter) in the surface waters and sediments is documented in different studies; however, the data on their exact abundances in the marine environment are commonly not presented owing to the shortcomings of the sampling procedure and general absence of well-established methodology for microplastics data collection. Nevertheless, we made an attempt to qualitatively analyse the amounts of microplastic fibres in the water column of the Baltic Sea. Water samples acquired during 6 cruises over the Baltic Sea Proper in 2015-2016 were filtered using 174 μm filters, which were subsequently analysed by microscope. From the total of 95 examined filters, 63% contained fibres. They were identified by colour and the reaction to the mechanical action of a thin needle: justification of anthropogenic origin was considered to be enough; any questionable objects were discarded. Fibres comprise more than 90% of the whole microplastic particles found in the near-bottom layers in the coastal zone and around 24% of microplastics in the surface and intermediate waters, with mean concentrations of 0.71 and 0.07 fibres per litre, respectively. Although the methodology still requires a lot of enhancement, even the preliminary results indicate ubiquitous distribution of the microfibres in the water column of the Baltic Sea with surface and bottom layers revealing higher abundances of microfibres in comparison with intermediate layers, and open-sea waters being less contaminated than the coastal ones. Apart from enhancing the sampling technics, we consider that it is crucial to understand principal physical features of fibers behavior in the marine environment (e.g., settling, entrainment by currents), as it would provide an opportunity to parameterize their transport and further on to model distribution of fibers in the water column. The research is supported by the Russian Science Foundation grant number 15-17-10020.

  12. Drought identification in the eastern Baltic region using NDVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimkus, Egidijus; Stonevicius, Edvinas; Kilpys, Justinas; Maciulyte, Viktorija; Valiukas, Donatas

    2017-07-01

    Droughts are phenomena that affect large areas. Remote sensing data covering large territories can be used to assess the impact and extent of droughts. Drought effect on vegetation was determined using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) in the eastern Baltic Sea region located between 53-60° N and 20-30° E. The effect of precipitation deficit on vegetation in arable land and broadleaved and coniferous forest was analysed using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) calculated for 1- to 9-month timescales. Vegetation has strong seasonality in the analysed area. The beginning and the end of the vegetation season depends on the distance from the Baltic Sea, which affects temperature and precipitation patterns. The vegetation season in the southeastern part of the region is 5-6 weeks longer than in the northwestern part. The early spring air temperature, snowmelt water storage in the soil and precipitation have the largest influence on the NDVI values in the first half of the active growing season. Precipitation deficit in the first part of the vegetation season only has a significant impact on the vegetation on arable land. The vegetation in the forests is less sensitive to the moisture deficit. Correlation between VCI and the same month SPI1 is usually negative in the study area. It means that wetter conditions lead to lower VCI values, while the correlation is usually positive between the VCI and the SPI of the previous month. With a longer SPI scale the correlation gradually shifts towards the positive coefficients. The positive correlation between 3- and 6-month SPI and VCI was observed on the arable land and in both types of forests in the second half of vegetation season. The precipitation deficit is only one of the vegetation condition drivers and NDVI cannot be used universally to identify droughts, but it may be applied to better assess the effect of droughts on vegetation in the eastern Baltic Sea

  13. Acid-base properties of Baltic Sea dissolved organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Karoline; Schneider, Bernd; Kuliński, Karol; Schulz-Bull, Detlef E.

    2017-09-01

    Calculations related to the marine CO2 system that are based on alkalinity data may be strongly biased if the contributions of organic compounds are ignored. In coastal seas, concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) are frequently high and alkalinity from inorganic compounds is low. In this study, based on measurements of total alkalinity, total CO2, and pH, we determined the organic alkalinity, Aorg, in water from the central Baltic Sea. The maximum Aorg measured in the surface mixed layer during the spring bloom was > 50 μmol/kg-SW but the Aorg decreased with depth and approached zero below the permanent halocline. This behavior could be attributed to the decreased pH of deeper water layers. The data were used to calculate the bulk dissociation constant, KDOM, for marine DOM and the fraction f of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) that acts as a carrier for acid-base functional groups. The p KDOM (7.27) agreed well with the value (7.34) previously estimated in a preliminary study of organic alkalinity in the Baltic Sea. The fraction of carbon atoms carrying acid-base groups was 17% and was somewhat higher than previously reported (12%). Spike experiments performed using artificial seawater and three different humic/fulvic substances tested whether the acid-base properties of these substances explain the results of our field study. Specifically, Aorg was determined at different concentrations (DOC) of the added humic/fulvic substances. The relationship between Aorg and the DOC concentrations indicated that humic/fulvic substances are more acidic (p KDOM < 6.5) than the bulk DOC natural occurring in the Baltic Sea.

  14. The evolution of the southern Baltic coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef E. Mojski

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the formation and evolution of the coastal zone of the southern Baltic from the decay of the last Scandinavian ice-sheet, which took place some 14 ka BP. During the first 4 ka, the shores of the then southern Baltic basins were shaped under the dominant influence of considerable variations in water level and the young, post-glacial topography emerging from under the ice. Later, until the beginning of the Atlantic transgression, the shores were also unstable, because sea level changes resulting from periodic connections with the World Ocean followed one another in rapid succession. Since that transgression destroyed much of the former shoreline, its reconstruction is at best highly problematical, and in some places no longer possible. The maximum range of the Litorina Sea gave rise to a coastal zone that in many places is to this day quite conspicuous in the local topography and sediments. During the last 4 ka, the shoreline has changed relatively little, thus the present shoreline is largely redolent of the original one. In the coming 100 years or so, the abrasion of the cliffs along the southern Baltic shore will probably accelerate, as will the retrogradation of certain sections of the shoreline, with the result that the shoreline will be less of a straight line than it is at present. Land up to a height of 1 m above sea level will be inundated. The greatest changes in the lie of the shoreline are to be expected in the River Wisla (Vistula delta and around the Zalew Szczecinski (Oderhaff, Szczecin Lagoon.

  15. Fish production and climate: Sprat in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Köster, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    Processes controlling the production of new fish (recruitment) are poorly understood and therefore challenge population ecologists and resource managers. Sprat in the Baltic Sea is no exception: recruitment varies widely between years and is virtually independent of the biomass of mature sprat...... of data that recruitment depends on temperature conditions during the months when sprat gonads, eggs, and larvae are developing. We also show that recruitment can be predicted before adults spawn (and fully 15 months earlier than using present technology) by using linkages between recruitment, large...

  16. New Aderidae (Coleoptera: Tenebrionoidea) from Baltic and Bitterfeld amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Vitalii I; Grzymala, Traci L

    2015-05-08

    Nine extinct species and one genus of aderid beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionoidea: Aderidae) are described from Baltic and Bitterfeld amber from Germany, Russia (Kaliningrad), Poland, and Denmark. These new species include: Escalerosia igori sp. nov., Picemelinus irinae sp. nov., Vanonus ulmerigicus sp. nov., Vanonus aestiorum sp. nov., Cnopus kraxtepellenensis sp. nov., and four species from the extinct genus Palaeocnopus gen. nov.: P. densipunctatus sp. nov., P. saeticornis sp. nov., P. glabricornis sp. nov., and P. mara sp. nov. A key to the species of Palaeocnopus in amber is provided. The newly described taxa of these ant-like leaf beetles are photographed, illustrated, and compared with extinct and related extant representatives of the genera.

  17. Early Holocene lake ecosystem development in the southern Baltic lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowiński, Michał; Ott, Florian; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka M.; Zawiska, Izabela; Dräger, Nadine; Theuerkauf, Martin; Hass, Christoph; Obremska, Milena; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Kordowski, Jarosław; Tjallingii, Rik; Rzodkiewicz, Monika; Schwab, Markus; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    The first millennia of the Holocene are characterized by gradual and rapid environmental changes following the warming at the beginning of the Holocene superimposed by short-term climatic instability. Landscape evolution during this period occurred at different time scales due to specific response times of landscape compartments like vegetation succession, soil formation and permafrost thawing. As a consequence, a spatiotemporally heterogeneous pattern of changes occurred particularly in regions close to the margins of the continental ice sheets like the Baltic region. Regional atmospheric circulation patterns were affected by cold catabatic winds from the remains of the Fennoscandian ice sheet. The ongoing deglaciation further influenced the regional climate through meltwater release and related changes in the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Both effects declined with the progressive ice sheet melt down. Additionally, the land-sea distribution in the North Sea changed drastically during the final melting phase of the glacial ice sheets. The Baltic Sea development is even more complex due to the strong glacio-isostatic adjustments effects that resulted in open and closed water stages affecting the entire Baltic realm. Consequently, the early Holocene interval of sediment records from the southern Baltic lowlands are not considered as straightforward palaeoclimate archives but need to be interpreted in a broader context. We present five partly varved lake records from northern Poland all including an intriguing highly organic-rich interval interrupting biochemical calcite precipitation at about the same time between 10.5 and 10.2 cal kyr BP. These sediment records have been correlated by independent age models based on varve counting, AMS 14C dating, biostratigraphy and tephrochronology. We present multi-proxy records of early Holocene sediments and our preliminary interpretation suggests hydrological processes as the main reason for the intriguing shifts

  18. Kas "balti kirjanik" on olemas? / Does the "Baltic Writer" Exist?

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelius Hasselblatt

    2016-01-01

    Teesid: Artiklis küsitakse 2009. a ilmunud leksikoni „300 Baltic Writers“ põhjal, kas „Balti kirjanik“ on põhjendatud mõiste. Varem mõisteti Baltikumi all laiemat ala, kuhu kuulusid ka Poola ja Soome. Uurides, kui palju „Balti“ kirjanikke on tõlgitud naaberkeeltesse, selgus, et läti keelde on neid tõlgitud rohkem kui leedu ja eesti keelde. Samuti on eesti autoreid rohkem tõlgitud soome keelde ja leedu autoreid poola keelde. Ilmneb, et Balti kontseptsioon on liiga kitsas, sest relevantne regio...

  19. Forecasting Baltic Dirty Tanker Index by Applying Wavelet Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Shuangrui; JI, TINGYUN; Bergqvist, Rickard

    2013-01-01

    modeling techniques used in freight rate forecasting. At the same time research in shipping index forecasting e.g. BDTI applying artificial intelligent techniques is scarce. This analyses the possibilities to forecast the BDTI by applying Wavelet Neural Networks (WNN). Firstly, the characteristics......Baltic Exchange Dirty Tanker Index (BDTI) is an important assessment index in world dirty tanker shipping industry. Actors in the industry sector can gain numerous benefits from accurate forecasting of the BDTI. However, limitations exist in traditional stochastic and econometric explanation...

  20. Fisheries management responses to climate change in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans S.

    2015-01-01

    plan may be needed. Therefore, this paper investigates the economic impacts of managing the cod, sprat and herring stocks in the eastern Baltic Sea, given on-going climate change, which is known to affect cod recruitment negatively. It is shown that climate change may have severe biological...... scenarios in which the economic consequences of different management objectives for the fishing fleets are assessed through a dynamic multi-species and multi-fleet bio-economic assessment model that include both species interactions and climate change....

  1. The Transformation of Energy Risk in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonavičius Vylius

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to reveal the process of energy risk transformation, which creates concrete hazards for citizens of the Baltic States. The article analyzes two sides of the same problem - district heating (DH and the renovation of multi-apartment houses. The article will show that the transformation of energy risk is affected by the legacy of a specific constellation of technological, economic and social elements of Soviet infrastructure that appears in a specific and particularly precarious shape under conditions of liberal market capitalism as regards energy security.

  2. Baltic sea algae analysis using Bayesian spatial statistics methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Baltmiškytė

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial statistics is one of the fields in statistics dealing with spatialy spread data analysis. Recently, Bayes methods are often applied for data statistical analysis. A spatial data model for predicting algae quantity in the Baltic Sea is made and described in this article. Black Carrageen is a dependent variable and depth, sand, pebble, boulders are independent variables in the described model. Two models with different covariation functions (Gaussian and exponential are built to estimate the best model fitting for algae quantity prediction. Unknown model parameters are estimated and Bayesian kriging prediction posterior distribution is computed in OpenBUGS modeling environment by using Bayesian spatial statistics methods.

  3. MACROECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF BAD LOANS IN BALTIC COUNTRIES AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DONATH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2008–09 global crisis raised debates concerning the determinants of financial vulnerability. Among these, bad loans have been identified as significantly influencing financial imbalances. After a decade in which borrowing has constantly grown mainly because of the deregulation of financial markets, the crisis highlighted the importance of an effective credit risk management. The purpose of the paper is to study the evolution of bad loans ratio in relation with selected macroeconomic indicators in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and Romania.

  4. Natural Increase in the Baltic South and South-West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski T.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the natural population increase (decrease in the postcommunist part of Baltic Europe (the federated state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, West Pomeranian, Pomeranian, and Warmian-Masurian Voivodeships, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, the Kaliningrad and Leningrad region, and the federal city of Saint Petersburg in 2002—2011. The study uses standard methods of demographic analysis, the data provided by national statistical services and Eurostat. All regions analysed are characterised by a low stationary phase of the demographic transition model (DTM. The situation proves to be unfavourable in the Polish regions under consideration and highly unfavourable in the remaining area.

  5. Sources of polyfluoroalkyl compounds in the North Sea, Baltic Sea and Norwegian Sea: Evidence from their spatial distribution in surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Lutz; Gerwinski, Wolfgang; Theobald, Norbert; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2010-02-01

    The spatial distribution of 15 polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in surface water was investigated in the North Sea, Baltic Sea and Norwegian Sea. In addition, an interlaboratory comparison of the sampling techniques and analysis was conducted. Highest concentration in the North Sea was found near the coast, whereas the summation operatorPFC concentration decreased rapidly from 18.4 to 0.07 ng l(-1) towards the open North Sea. The river Elbe could identify as a local input source for PFCs into the North Sea, whereas perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) was transported into the sampling area with the easterly current. In contrast to the North Sea, the distribution of PFCs in the Baltic Sea was relatively homogenous, where diffuse sources dominated. In general, the composition profile was influenced from local sources caused by human activities, whereas atmospheric depositions of here analysed PFCs were negligible, but it could have possibly an influence on low contaminated sites like the open North Sea or Norwegian Sea. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Problem Solving in Swedish Mathematics Textbooks for Upper Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehmer, Daniel; Ryve, Andreas; Van Steenbrugge, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse how mathematical problem solving is represented in mathematical textbooks for Swedish upper secondary school. The analysis comprises dominating Swedish textbook series, and relates to uncovering (a) the quantity of tasks that are actually mathematical problems, (b) their location in the chapter, (c) their…

  7. Psychosocial working conditions and depressive symptoms among Swedish employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Theorell, Töres; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate prospective associations between working conditions and depressive symptoms in Swedish men and women. METHODS: The study was based on SLOSH (N = 5,985), a follow-up of a representative sample of gainfully employed Swedes 16-64 years of age from the Swedish Work Environment...

  8. Preschool Education and Day Care for Swedish Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jeanne

    A comprehensive study of the types of care provided for Swedish children is presented. The point is made that the three major frameworks which support the Swedish philosophy of early childhood education are those of Arnold Gesell, Jean Piaget, and Erik H. Erikson. From all three sources, preschool teachers learn the concept of epigenesis, the…

  9. Parental Expectations of the Swedish Municipal School of Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilliedahl, Jonathan; Georgii-Hemming, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This article draws on a study designed to analyse parental expectations of the Swedish municipal school of arts (hereafter MSA) (in Swedish: kommunal musik- och kulturskola). The study is based on in-depth interviews conducted and informed by grounded theory. Although parental expectations are scarcely uniform, the study reveals a hope that the…

  10. The Position of the Deaf in the Swedish Labor Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydberg, Emelie; Gellerstedt, Lotta Coniavitis; Danermark, Berth

    2010-01-01

    The position of deaf people in the Swedish labor market is described and analyzed. A population of 2,144 people born from 1941 to 1980 who attended special education programs for the deaf was compared to 100,000 randomly chosen individuals from the total Swedish population born during the same period. Data on these individuals consisted of…

  11. Global health education in Swedish medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, S; Agardh, A; Holmer, H; Krantz, G; Hagander, L

    2015-11-01

    Global health education is increasingly acknowledged as an opportunity for medical schools to prepare future practitioners for the broad health challenges of our time. The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of global health education in Swedish medical schools and to assess students' perceived needs for such education. Data on global health education were collected from all medical faculties in Sweden for the years 2000-2013. In addition, 76% (439/577) of all Swedish medical students in their final semester answered a structured questionnaire. Global health education is offered at four of Sweden's seven medical schools, and most medical students have had no global health education. Medical students in their final semester consider themselves to lack knowledge and skills in areas such as the global burden of disease (51%), social determinants of health (52%), culture and health (60%), climate and health (62%), health promotion and disease prevention (66%), strategies for equal access to health care (69%) and global health care systems (72%). A significant association was found between self-assessed competence and the amount of global health education received (pmedical students (83%) wished to have more global health education added to the curriculum. Most Swedish medical students have had no global health education as part of their medical school curriculum. Expanded education in global health is sought after by medical students and could strengthen the professional development of future medical doctors in a wide range of topics important for practitioners in the global world of the twenty-first century. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  12. An actor game on implementation of environmental quality standards for nitrogen in a Swedish agricultural catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittgren, Hans B; Castensson, Reinhold; Gipperth, Lena; Joelsson, Arne; Jonasson, Lars; Pettersson, Anna; Thunvik, Roger; Torstensson, Gunnar

    2005-05-01

    Despite political efforts, diffuse pollution from agriculture continues to be the single largest source of nitrogen (N) emissions into the aquatic environment in many countries and regions. This fact, and the recent enactment of a new Swedish environmental code, led to the design of a study targeted at the evaluation of new N pollution abatement strategies. An actor game was chosen as the key component of the study, with a focus on four major goals: to test the implementability of legally binding environmental quality standards for nitrate concentration in groundwater and N transport to the sea, to find sets of agriculturally feasible and cost-effective measures to decrease N loads, to investigate the possibilities for collective action through negotiated and institutionalized actor cooperation, and to investigate the role of mathematical modeling in environmental N management. Characteristics from the agriculturally dominated catchment of Genevadsån (224 km2) on the southwest coast of Sweden served as the playing field for the actor game. The most noteworthy result from the study was that it appeared to be possible to meet ambitious environmental N standards with less economically drastic measures than anticipated by most of the participants. The actor game was shown to be a good method for learning about the new Swedish environmental code and its application and for gaining deeper insight into the issues of N management. In addition, the actor game functioned as an arena for gaining a more thorough understanding of the views of different stakeholders.

  13. Variability of wind direction statistics of mean and extreme wind events over the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja E. Bierstedt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is not clear to what extent the variations of seasonal mean winds and seasonal extreme winds are related. We investigate this relationship for the Baltic Sea area by analysing two regional climate gridded data sets, coastDat2 and HiResAFF, for the periods 1948–2009 and 1850–2009, respectively. Both data sets are based on regional climate simulations incorporating information from observations with the aim of reproducing the observed trajectory of climate variables. We compare the wind direction distribution of mean and extreme wind events by analysing seasonal wind roses. Mean wind directions display a more isotropic distribution, with a seasonally varying maximum. Extreme winds are much more constrained to south-westerly and westerly directions. The co-variability in time between the wind speed along the dominant directions of seasonal mean and the seasonal extreme winds was investigated using a complex correlation coefficient. This coefficient enables the simultaneous investigation of the co-variability of two-dimensional variables, for example wind. This coefficient is small for all seasons, indicating a very weak co-variance in time between seasonal mean and seasonal extremes. Hence, deviations in the direction of the mean wind are not a good indicator for deviations in the direction of extreme winds. We also assess the spatial structure and temporal variability of mean and extreme wind statistics using a principal component analysis. The principal components exhibit no significant long-term trends over the simulation periods, although multidecadal trends are detected for some periods and seasons. In recent decades, wintertime mean and extremes shifted to a more south-westerly direction. In the other seasons, no trends in wind directions are detected. We also investigate the possibility that seasonal patterns of extreme winds might persist over several adjacent seasons. No such persistent patterns can be identified, and hence extreme

  14. Submesoscale structures related to upwelling events in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea (numerical experiments)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väli, Germo; Zhurbas, Victor; Lips, Urmas; Laanemets, Jaan

    2017-07-01

    The appearance of submesoscale structures in the Gulf of Finland was investigated using model simulations for series of coastal upwelling events in July-September 2006. We applied the Princeton Ocean Model. The horizontal step of the model grid was refined to 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 nautical miles in the gulf and reached 4 times the resolution in the rest of the Baltic Sea; there were 60 σ-levels in the vertical direction for all simulations. The contribution of salinity to the strength of baroclinic front of upwelling along the northern and southern coasts and thereby to the submesoscale dynamics of the gulf's surface layer was analyzed. Model results with refinement of the grid size to 0.125 nautical miles revealed different forms of submesoscale structures in the gulf's surface layer such as the high Rossby number (Ro) threads (elongated spots of Ro > 1 with typical width and length of 2-3 km and 10-50 km, respectively), cyclonic vortices with Ro > 1 core of 4-6 km diameter, and spiral cyclonic eddies (spirally wrapped high Rossby number threads) of 10-15 km diameter. The high potential vorticity threads presumably formed during the development phase, while the cyclonic vortices and spiral cyclonic eddies during the relaxation phase of upwelling. One of the simulated submesoscale cyclonic eddies, at the beginning with the Ro > 1 core extension as deep as 31-66 m was traced for the period of 33 days. The power spectral density of temperature and velocity fluctuations in the surface layer pointed at some increase of spectral levels and shallowing of spectral slopes towards - 2 on the shorter (submesoscale) wavelengths with the refinement of model grid.

  15. [Medical Emergency Preparedness in offshore wind farms : New challenges in the german north and baltic seas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhr, M; Dethleff, D; Weinrich, N; Nielsen, M; Hory, D; Kowald, B; Seide, K; Kerner, T; Nau, C; Jürgens, C

    2016-05-01

    Offshore windfarms are constructed in the German North and Baltic Seas. The off-coast remoteness of the windfarms, particular environmental conditions, limitations in offshore structure access, working in heights and depths, and the vast extent of the offshore windfarms cause significant challenges for offshore rescue. Emergency response systems comparable to onshore procedures are not fully established yet. Further, rescue from offshore windfarms is not part of the duty of the German Maritime Search and Rescue Organization or SAR-Services due to statute and mandate reasons. Scientific recommendations or guidelines for rescue from offshore windfarms are not available yet. The present article reflects the current state of medical care and rescue from German offshore windfarms and related questions. The extended therapy-free interval until arrival of the rescue helicopter requires advanced first-aid measures as well as improved first-aider qualification. Rescue helicopters need to be equipped with a winch system in order to dispose rescue personnel on the wind turbines, and to hoist-up patients. For redundancy reasons and for conducting rendezvous procedures, adequate sea-bound rescue units need to be provided. In the light of experiences from the offshore oil and gas industry and first offshore wind analyses, the availability of professional medical personnel in offshore windfarms seems advisible. Operational air medical rescue services and specific offshore emergency reaction teams have established a powerful rescue chain. Besides the present development of medical standards, more studies are necessary in order to place the rescue chain on a long-term, evidence-based groundwork. A central medical offshore registry may help to make a significant contribution at this point.

  16. Mechanisms of Region Construction: the Case of International Projects in the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sologub Anastasiya Petrovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the processes of regional construction and their specific features in the Baltic Sea region. The article provides insights into main approaches to defining the notion of the Baltic Sea Region, its geography, rationales and preconditions of the Baltic Sea Region construction. The author makes conclusion that currently the construction process is being continued, and it involves a wide range of actors: NGOs, local and regional authorities, scientific organizations, higher education institutions, business structures, international organizations. All these actors use different tools and act in different spheres. Although there is no clear answer to the question “Who and how constructs the Baltic Sea Region?”, it is concluded that the cooperation played a significant role in this process, for example, by determining the geography of the region and creating communication networks. Projects, in turn, become a widespread form of cooperation which are used by large Baltic interregional organizations, such as the Northern Dimension, Interregional programmes, the Council of the Baltic Sea States. International project activity of the described above actors, being the point of pooled resources application and also narratives on the regional issues, became one of the mechanisms of the region construction. The article proves that a wide variety of projects in various fields with the participation of different actors creates a picture of the Baltic Sea region building some of its features and providing common identity and responsibility ideas.

  17. Trauma research in the Baltic countries: from political oppression to recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldas Kazlauskas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of traumatic stress studies from the three Baltic countries—Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia—and reveal how specific social context contributes to the topics relevant in traumatic stress field in the region. Traumatic stress studies in the Baltic countries are closely related to the complicated history of the region. It was only since the restoration of independence of the Baltic States in the 1990s when traumatic stress studies could emerge. The start of the psychotraumatology in the Baltic States was inspired by the interest of the psychological effects of political violence. Four major topics in traumatic stress literature from the Baltic countries were identified in this article: political violence studies, epidemiology of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, disaster studies, and developmental aspects of trauma. Traumatic events prevalence was reported between 70 and 75%, and PTSD prevalence range 2–7% in the Baltic countries. The interest in psychotraumatology in the Baltic countries is rising.

  18. Electric energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region and the role of Russia in it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zverev Yuri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines cooperation in the electric energy sector in the Baltic region. The author explores the existing undersea HVDC power exchange projects. It is emphasised that cooperation in the electric energy sector is concentrated largely in the EU member states despite earlier plans to establish the Baltic energy ring, which would also include Russia and Belarus. The author stresses that one of the most acute problems for the EU today is overcoming isolation of the energy systems of the Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia from that of the major part of the EU. This task has become especially relevant after the closing of the Ignalina NPP (Lithuania, which used to be the primary energy source for the three Baltic States. The article examines key projects of the construction of new international power transmission lines in the framework of the Baltic Energy Market Interconnection Plan (BEMIP and the prospects of the Visaginas NPP (Lithuania in solving energy problems of the Baltic States. The author analyses Russia’s role in the electric energy market and focuses on a possible increase of the country’s energy market share following the construction of the Baltic NPP and the export of generated electric energy to Poland, Lithuania, Germany, and Sweden. The author concludes that the prospects of Russia’s energy export to the Baltic Sea region will be determined not only by technological, economic and market factors, but rather by the general state of relations between Russia and the EU. Moreover, a lot depends on Lithuania’s decision on the construction of the Visaginas NPP, as well as the way the EU and the Baltic States solve the problem of energy supply in case the NPP project is terminated.

  19. Atmospheric forcing of decadal Baltic Sea level variability in the last 200 years. A statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huenicke, B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung

    2008-11-06

    This study aims at the estimation of the impact of different atmospheric factors on the past sealevel variations (up to 200 years) in the Baltic Sea by statistically analysing the relationship between Baltic Sea level records and observational and proxy-based reconstructed climatic data sets. The focus lies on the identification and possible quantification of the contribution of sealevel pressure (wind), air-temperature and precipitation to the low-frequency (decadal and multi-decadal) variability of Baltic Sea level. It is known that the wind forcing is the main factor explaining average Baltic Sea level variability at inter-annual to decadal timescales, especially in wintertime. In this thesis it is statistically estimated to what extent other regional climate factors contribute to the spatially heterogeneous Baltic Sea level variations around the isostatic trend at multi-decadal timescales. Although the statistical analysis cannot be completely conclusive, as the potential climate drivers are all statistically interrelated to some degree, the results indicate that precipitation should be taken into account as an explanatory variable for sea-level variations. On the one hand it has been detected that the amplitude of the annual cycle of Baltic Sea level has increased throughout the 20th century and precipitation seems to be the only factor among those analysed (wind through SLP field, barometric effect, temperature and precipitation) that can account for this evolution. On the other hand, precipitation increases the ability to hindcast inter-annual variations of sea level in some regions and seasons, especially in the Southern Baltic in summertime. The mechanism by which precipitation exerts its influence on Baltic Sea level is not ascertained in this statistical analysis due to the lack of long salinity time series. This result, however, represents a working hypothesis that can be confirmed or disproved by long simulations of the Baltic Sea system - ocean

  20. Adaptive governance of the Baltic Sea - lessons from elsewhere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilda Valman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Governance of marine resources is increasingly characterized by integrated, cross sectoral and ecosystem based approaches. Such approaches require that existing governing bodies have an ability to adapt to ecosystem dynamics, while also providing transparent and legitimate outcomes. Here, we investigate how the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission (HELCOM, the international governing body for the Baltic Sea, could improve its prospects for working with the ecosystem approach, drawing from the literature on adaptive governance. We construct an ideal type of adaptive governance to which we compare the way in which HELCOM is operating and relate these dynamics to two other international marine environment governance organizations, the Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security (CTI-CFF and the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR. We conclude that HELCOM deviates from an ideal type of adaptive governance in several ways but also that the other two case studies provide empirical support for potential ways in which HELCOM could improve its adaptive capacity. Key aspects where HELCOM could improve include increasing stakeholder participation – both in information sharing and decision making. Further, HELCOM need to develop evaluation mechanisms, secure compliance to improve adaptive capacity and organizational effectiveness, which entails the development of structures for conflict resolution. Finally, HELCOM need to increase communication and harmonization between different levels of authority.

  1. Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Agneta; Meier, H E Markus; Ripszam, Matyas; Rowe, Owen; Wikner, Johan; Haglund, Peter; Eilola, Kari; Legrand, Catherine; Figueroa, Daniela; Paczkowska, Joanna; Lindehoff, Elin; Tysklind, Mats; Elmgren, Ragnar

    2015-06-01

    Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2-4 °C warming and 50-80 % decrease in ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase ~30 % in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants and decreased salinity. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models indicate that, in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, thus promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north, heterotrophic bacteria will be favored by AOM, while phytoplankton production may be reduced. Extra trophic levels in the food web may increase energy losses and consequently reduce fish production. Future management of the Baltic Sea must consider the effects of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as well as the effects of anthropogenic nutrient and pollutant load. Monitoring should have a holistic approach, encompassing both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g., bacterial) processes.

  2. Could seals prevent cod recovery in the Baltic Sea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R MacKenzie

    Full Text Available Fish populations are increasingly affected by multiple human and natural impacts including exploitation, eutrophication, habitat alteration and climate change. As a result many collapsed populations may have to recover in ecosystems whose structure and functioning differ from those in which they were formerly productive and supported sustainable fisheries. Here we investigate how a cod (Gadus morhua population in the Baltic Sea whose biomass was reduced due to a combination of high exploitation and deteriorating environmental conditions might recover and develop in the 21st century in an ecosystem that likely will change due to both the already started recovery of a cod predator, the grey seal Halichoerus grypus, and projected climate impacts. Simulation modelling, assuming increased seal predation, fishing levels consistent with management plan targets and stable salinity, shows that the cod population could reach high levels well above the long-term average. Scenarios with similar seal and fishing levels but with 15% lower salinity suggest that the Baltic will still be able to support a cod population which can sustain a fishery, but biomass and yields will be lower. At present knowledge of cod and seal interactions, seal predation was found to have much lower impact on cod recovery, compared to the effects of exploitation and salinity. These results suggest that dual management objectives (recovery of both seal and cod populations are realistic but success in achieving these goals will also depend on how climate change affects cod recruitment.

  3. Fostering Employee Engagement Through Gamification: AirBaltic Forecaster Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiga Ergle

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Next to the employee productivity or indicators for staff turnover and absenteeism in organizations, Employee Engagement stands out as one of the most significant measurements for Human Resource Management efficiency. With younger generation representatives joining the workforce companies are bound to investigate and pursue some of the new tools and techniques that respond more effectively to engagement triggers of generations Y and Z. At AirBaltic Corporation in Riga, Latvia, management has been trying to foster engagement of the workforce through introduction of a business game, called Forecaster. According to management belief, in addition to improved internal communication, Forecaster has potential to save up to 1 million eur annually due to the resulting better quality management decisions. Within the article author looks at the theory and research related to application and effects of gamification within corporate settings, as well as reviews workplace environment at AirBaltic Corporation. Further in the article, Forecaster game is described in more detail and its impact on employee engagement and organizational performance is analysed. Finally, recommendations are drawn for organizations to consider when gamifying people management processes in their organizations.

  4. Fisheries management responses to climate change in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Thøgersen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The long term management plan for cod in the eastern Baltic Sea was introduced in 2007 to ensure the full reproductive capacity of cod and an economically viable fishing industry. If these goals are to be fulfilled under changing environmental conditions, a readjustment of the current management plan may be needed. Therefore, this paper investigates the economic impacts of managing the cod, sprat and herring stocks in the eastern Baltic Sea, given on-going climate change, which is known to affect cod recruitment negatively. It is shown that climate change may have severe biological and economic consequences under the current cod management plan and that the negative effects on the economic performance of the fishermen as well as on the abundance of cod can be mitigated by reducing the target fishing mortality rate of cod. These results are obtained by simulating three management scenarios in which the economic consequences of different management objectives for the fishing fleets are assessed through a dynamic multi-species and multi-fleet bio-economic assessment model that include both species interactions and climate change.

  5. Climate influence on Baltic cod, sprat, and herring stock–recruitment relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margonski, Piotr; Hansson, Sture; Tomczak, Maciej

    2010-01-01

    A wide range of possible recruitment drivers were tested for key exploited fish species in the Baltic Sea Regional Advisory Council (RAC) area: Eastern Baltic Cod, Central Baltic Herring, Gulf of Riga Herring, and sprat. For each of the stocks, two hypotheses were tested: (i) recruitment...... is significantly related to spawning stock biomass, climatic forcing, and feeding conditions and (ii) by acknowledging these drivers, management decisions can be improved. Climate impact expressed by climatic indices or changes in water temperature was included in all the final models. Recruitment of the herring...

  6. Trends in confidence in public institutions: A comparative analysis of the Baltic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudžinskas Liutauras

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the variation of institutional confidence in the Baltic countries. Within of framework of qualitative comparative framework, it employs a historical approach to detect causes of divergence of trust in rule of law institutions between Estonia vis-à-vis other two Baltic states. While it observes a range of variables that could affect the differences, it emphasises the role of political leadership during critical junctures, which might explain both why Estonia forged ahead at the outset of the post-communist transformation and most recent positive developments in the Baltic countries since the financial crisis in 2008–2010.

  7. Long-term trends in near-surface flow over the Baltic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryor, S.C.; Barthelmie, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    We report an analysis of trends in 850 hPa wind speed, as manifest in the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis fields, over the Baltic region during the latter half of the 20th century. The results indicate that annual mean wind speeds over the Baltic significantly increased over the period 1953......–99 with the majority of the increase being associated with increases in the upper quartile of the wind speed distribution. Accordingly, much of the change is focused on the winter season. The trends in annual and seasonal mean wind speeds are greatest in relative and absolute sense in the southwest of the Baltic basin...

  8. Temporal development of coastal ecosystems in the Baltic Sea - an assessment of patterns and trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Jens; Bergström, Lena; Tomczak, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    of coastal ecosystems in an integrated context. The current study represents a first example of a coordinated assessment of ecosystem development in 13 coastal systems of the Baltic Sea. The data covers different geographical areas, ranging from the Kattegat and Skagerak in the southwest to the Bothnian Bay...... decades, our results also highlight limitations and gaps in available monitoring data to support integrated environmental status assessments of Baltic ecosystems as required in current international directives as the Baltic Sea Action Plan and Marine Strategy Framework Directive, as well as the potenital...

  9. Communication problems in Swedish Mental Health reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Jonas

    2005-01-01

    In a study on the implementation of the Swedish Mental Health reform in the county of Gavleborg in Sweden, attention was called, at an early stage, to the need for relevant theories on the nature of the obstacles that slowed down the reform process. Data had initially been gathered from interviews with persons from all levels of the implementation work. A Grounded Theory (GT) study was carried out using these data in order to generate a theory on the nature of the obstacles. Two separate analyses were made, one based on data from experts and decision makers and the other based on data from consumers and staff. Each of these analyses generated a theory with great explanatory and predictive value. In a further analysis, it became possible to merge the theories into an expanded theory with a greater general validity within the entire field of the Swedish Mental Health reform process. The expanded theory states that the psychiatric reform in Sweden is slowed down by obstacles preventing the transfer of information: 1) between staff in the mental health services and staff in the social services; 2) between social services' care givers and consumers. One reason for not removing these obstacles is that they serve an important purpose for those involved, in terms of preserving group identity, which gives them the opportunity to exert influence on their situation and provides room for manoeuvring.

  10. Mortality in Swedish patients with Hirschsprung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löf Granström, Anna; Wester, Tomas

    2017-11-01

    Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) has previously been associated with increased mortality. The aim of this study was to assess mortality in patients with Hirschsprung disease in a population-based cohort. This was a nationwide, population-based cohort study. The study exposure was HSCR and the study outcome was death. The cohort included all individuals with HSCR registered in the Swedish National Patient Register between 1964 and 2013 and ten age- and sex-matched controls per patient, randomly selected from the Population Register. Mortality and cause of death were assessed using the Swedish National Causes of Death Register. The cohort comprised 739 individuals with HSCR (565 male) and 7390 controls (5650 male). Median age of the cohort was 19 years (range 2-49). Twenty-two (3.0%) individuals with HSCR had died at median age 2.5 years (range 0-35) compared to 49 (0.7%) controls at median age 20 years (0-44), p < 0.001. Hazard ratio for death in HSCR patients compared to healthy controls was 4.77 (confidence interval (CI) 95% 2.87-7.91), and when adjusted for Down syndrome, the hazard ratio was 3.6 (CI 95% 2.04-6.37). The mortality rate in the HSCR cohort was 3%, which was higher than in controls also when data were adjusted for Down syndrome.

  11. Geomorphology of the Goa Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.

    with the regional trend, major faults and fractures and represents a fine example of a structurally controlled drainage pattern. The islands near the coast are parts of coastal headlands now isolated from the retrograding coast. Some of laterite beds at a depth...

  12. Indian Ocean coasts, coastal ecology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.

    stream_size 9 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Encycl_Coast_Sci_2005_546.pdf.txt stream_source_info Encycl_Coast_Sci_2005_546.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  13. Stakeholder involvement in Swedish nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Section for Science and Technology Studies

    2006-09-15

    This report concerning Swedish nuclear waste management has been produced as part of a cross national research project: CARL - A Social Science Research Project into the Effects of Stakeholder involvement on Decision-Making in Radioactive Waste Management. Besides Sweden, the participating countries are Belgium, Canada, Finland, Slovenia and United Kingdom. A social science research team, working for three years, is in the first phase conducting research in their own countries in order to produce 6 country reports. During the next years the focus will shift to comparisons of stakeholder involvement practices in the participating countries. The report addresses current practices of Swedish nuclear waste management and their historical development. The main focus is on past, current and emerging patterns of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a deep repository for the final disposal of Sweden's spent nuclear fuel. The general questions attended to in the report are: Who are the main stakeholders, and how have they emerged and gained recognition as such? What are the issues currently subject to stakeholder involvement and how have these been decided upon? How is stakeholder involvement organized locally and nationally and how has this changed over time? How has stakeholder involvement gained acceptance as an activity of value in the siting of major waste facilities? The report have attempted to show the development of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a final repository for Sweden's spent nuclear fuel as resembling something other than a straightforward linear process of improvement and refinement. Stakeholder involvement has developed, over the past 15 years or so, into something more like a patchwork of different shapes and forms. Some of the forces that may well contribute to the further elaboration of the patchwork of stakeholder involvement have been pointed out, contingently modifying once more its overall colour and orientation. Questions

  14. Changes in patterns of persistent halogenated compounds through a pelagic food web in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephansen, Diana Agnete; Svendsen, Tore Christian; Vorkamp, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    The concentrations and patterns of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were examined in a pelagic food web from the southern Baltic Sea consisting...

  15. Evolution study of contamination Russian Baltic fish by PCDD/F and WHO-PCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelepchikov, A.; Brodsky, E. [Inst. of Ecology and Evolution of Russian Academy of Sciences (IPEE RAS) (Russian Federation); Shenderyuk, V.; Baholdina, L. [Atlantic Research Inst. of Fish Industry and Oceanography, (AtlantNIRO) (Russian Federation)

    2004-09-15

    Baltic Sea is well known as the most polluted sea in the world, but its fish products have a significant role in diet of Baltic countries habitants. In Dioxin 2003 meeting we have present first results of analysis of Baltic fishes caught by Russian fisherman for market. The results confirmed a rather high level of pollution in the Baltic seafood by PCDD/Fs and have shown necessity of the further researches. Although PCDD/Fs profile in fisher's body is not consist unsteady and was formed under affection of various factors, it was obvious that essential path comes with PCB; also previously were found that WHO-TEQ{sub PCB} in seafood could exceed WHO-TEQ{sub PCDD/F} level. In given works we present results of the analysis of two freshwater species of fishes and updating research of former analyzed kinds, included of WHO-PCBs determination.

  16. Two Competing Normative Trajectories in the Context of the First Baltic Gay Pride Parade in Lithuania

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liudas Mažylis; Sima Rakutienė; Ingrida Unikaitė-Jakuntavičienė

    2014-01-01

    .... The three Baltic States - Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia - as former Soviet republics and current members of the European Union, represent the space where a strong homophobic post-Soviet atmosphere...

  17. New fossil genus of Silvanidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) from Baltic amber (Tertiary, Eocene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Vitalii I; Bukejs, Andris

    2016-07-26

    The fossil silvanid beetle Mistran ot gen. et sp. nov. is described from Baltic amber. The new taxon is illustrated and compared with morphologically close extant and fossil taxa. A checklist of fossil Silvanidae is provided.

  18. [Perceptions of Loss, Decline and Doom in the Baltic Sea - Untergangsvorstellungen im Ostseeraum] / David Feest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Feest, David, 1969-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus : Perceptions of Loss, Decline and Doom in the Baltic Sea - Untergangsvorstellungen im Ostseeraum. Berlin : Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, 2004. (Die Ostseeregione: Nördliche Dimensionen - Europäische Perspektiven. 1)

  19. Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX) Ground-Based Radar Polar Volume Data, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes non-Doppler polar volume reflectivity data from the Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX). Data were collected on Sweden's Gotland Island, using an...

  20. Baltic Graduate School for Social Sciences and Humanities founded in Tallinn / Maiki Voore

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Voore, Maiki, 1983-

    2009-01-01

    Oktoobris 2008 allkirjastasid Tallinna Ülikooli, Läti Ülikooli ja Kaunase Vytautas Magnuse Ülikooli rektorid Baltimaade sotsiaal- ja humanitaarteaduste doktorikooli (Baltic Graduate School) asutamislepingu

  1. Transgranichnaja korporativnaja integracija v Baltijskom regione [Transborder corporate integration in the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov A. V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines flows of foreign direct investment within the Baltic region. The author demonstrates close investment ties among the EU members, which are of special importance for Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Transborder corporate integration in the region is characterized by significant imbalances. In many aspects, it can be viewed as Sweden’s economic expansion or development of domestic markets for northern European companies. Although many German, Polish and Russian companies are involved in corporate integration in the Baltic region, other vectors of their foreign economic relations are still more important for them. As a result, the integration of Russian business in the Baltic part of the European integration area is still rather weak despite Russia’s considerable foreign direct investment in the Baltic States.

  2. Two new fossil species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Baltic and Dominican Amber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two new species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are described and illustrated from fossil resin: Cryptocephalus groehni sp. nov (Baltic amber) and Cryptocephalus kheelorum sp. nov. (Dominican amber). These are the first described species of Cryptocephalinae from fossil resin. ...

  3. [Balti biidermeier. Panoraame ja lähivaatlusi = Baltic biedermeier. Panoramas and introspections] / Konrad Maier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maier, Konrad, 1958-

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Balti biidermeier. Panoraame ja lähivaatlusi = Baltic biedermeier. Panoramas and introspections (Proceedings of the Art Museum of estonia, 1 (6)). Hrsg. von Anu Allikvee und Tiina-Mall Kreem. (Tallinn, 2011)

  4. Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX) Ground-Based Radar Polar Volume Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes non-Doppler polar volume reflectivity data from the Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX). Data were collected on Sweden's Gotland Island, using an...

  5. Baltic Subjects of the Russian Federation among Border Regions of Russia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrey P Klemeshev; Gennady M Fedorov; Andrey G Manakov

    2015-01-01

    .... The purpose of this article is to assess the level of economic development of the border regions of the Russian Federation located in the Baltic Sea region as compared to other frontier regions of Russia...

  6. Ecological aspects of historical and contemporary Swedish and Danish mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Oluf

    2014-01-01

    preventive and curative measures introduced in the second half of the twentieth century? Hansen (2013) proposed a multivariate hazard model aiming at separating ecological factors in terms of endogenous biological from exogenous effects in human mortality. He explored some of its analytic potentials...... the early 1960s to now. This has been a blow to the national pride. Is the better contemporary Swedish life expectancy associated with selection spurred by different timing of the modern Swedish and Danish long term decline of mortality? Or could it be rooted in more expedient Swedish behavior and better...

  7. Comparing Danish and Swedish versions of PISA scientific literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serder, Malmø University, Margareta; Sørensen, Helene

    This paper presents a comparison between the Swedish, Danish, English, and French versions of three scientific literacy test-units from the released PISA items 2006. More specifically it compares how different words and concepts have been translated in the Swedish and Danish tests, compared...... to the English and French original versions. Differences that occur as a result of the translation process concerning words’ meaning are demonstrated. The possible consequences of such differences are exemplified by an excerpt from a situation in which Swedish 15-year-old students collaboratively worked...

  8. What we know about the Baltic Sea: a summary of BSSC 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Uścinowicz

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction    The Baltic Sea, an internal sea of the European Community, isone of the largest brackish water bodies in the world. It isquite unique in many respects, particularly in its natural featuresand in the cultural, political and socio-economic patterns ofthe countries bordering it.    After nearly 40 years, during which Baltic marine physicists,chemists, biologists and geologists had been holding separatescientific meetings, it was decided the time was ripe to arrangejoint scientific conferences with the purpose of getting togetherto discuss general and specific aspects of the Baltic Sea, toexchange information, to integrate efforts, and to get to knowand understand each other better. The Sopot 2005 Congress, precededby the Baltic Sea Science Congresses in Rønne (1997, Warnemünde(1999, Stockholm (2001 and Helsinki (2003, was the fifth jointmeeting of the Conference of Baltic Oceanographers (CBO, BalticMarine Biologists (BMB and Baltic Sea Geologists (BSG. Likeall the previous congresses, the one held in Sopot bore witnessto the idea that we all, members of CBO, BMB and BSG, shouldcontinue to work together even more closely.    The meeting in Sopot instigated discussion on a broad spectrumof problems, from large-scale climate change-related processesto local, small-scale specific Baltic Sea features. Further subjectsfor deliberation included modelling as a research tool and asa way of providing services and forecasting certain phenomena,operational oceanography, and man's impact on the Baltic Seaenvironment and its resources.    We are indebted to our Scientific Committee for their work duringthe past months to sort out and select interesting contributionsto all the oral and poster sessions, and thus for making theCongress an attractive and quality event. We also thank the PolishAcademy of Sciences and the City of Sopot for their financialsupport.    We hope that the joint Congress and fruitful scientific

  9. President of the Republic at the U. S.-Baltic Foundation Awards Dinner / Toomas Hendrik Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2008-01-01

    Vabariigi Presidendi kõne Ameerika-Balti Fondi auhindade üleandmise pidulikul õhtusöögil, 19. aprillil 2008 Washingtonis. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves pälvis Balti riikide ja Ameerika Ühendriikide suhete edendamise eest Ameerika-Balti Fondi (USBF - The United States-Baltic Foundation) autasu - Baltic Statesmanship Award'i. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  10. Champacyclin, a New Cyclic Octapeptide from Streptomyces Strain C42 Isolated from the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Pesic; Heike I. Baumann; Katrin Kleinschmidt; Paul Ensle; Jutta Wiese; Süssmuth, Roderich D.; Imhoff, Johannes F.

    2013-01-01

    New isolates of Streptomyces champavatii were isolated from marine sediments of the Gotland Deep (Baltic Sea), from the Urania Basin (Eastern Mediterranean), and from the Kiel Bight (Baltic Sea). The isolates produced several oligopeptidic secondary metabolites, including the new octapeptide champacyclin (1a) present in all three strains. Herein, we report on the isolation, structure elucidation and determination of the absolute stereochemistry of this isoleucine/leucine (Ile/Leu = Xle) rich ...

  11. A gilled mushroom, Gerontomyces lepidotus gen. et sp. nov. (Basidiomycota: Agaricales), in Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinar, George

    2016-09-01

    A densely scaled small mushroom in Baltic amber is described as Gerontomyces lepidotus gen. et sp. nov. and is characterized by a convex pileus 1.0 mm in diameter, distant to subdistant lamellae with smooth margins and a centrally inserted cylindrical, solid stipe. Its taxonomic placement is uncertain. This is the first mushroom described from Baltic amber. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Distribution patterns of epilithic diatoms along climatic, spatial and physicochemical variables in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Virta, Leena; Soininen, Janne

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The species richness and community composition of the diatom communities were studied in the Baltic Sea, Northern Europe, to enhance knowledge about the diversity of these organisms in a brackish water ecosystem. Many organisms in the Baltic Sea have been studied extensively, but studies investigating littoral diatoms are scarce. The goal of this study was to examine the importance of climatic, spatial and water physicochemical variables as drivers of epilithic diato...

  13. Distribution patterns of epilithic diatoms along climatic, spatial and physicochemical variables in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Virta, Leena; Soininen, Janne

    2017-01-01

    The species richness and community composition of the diatom communities were studied in the Baltic Sea, Northern Europe, to enhance knowledge about the diversity of these organisms in a brackish water ecosystem. Many organisms in the Baltic Sea have been studied extensively, but studies investigating littoral diatoms are scarce. The goal of this study was to examine the importance of climatic, spatial and water physicochemical variables as drivers of epilithic diatoms in the Gulf of Finland ...

  14. Case Study: The Withdrawal of Russian Military Forces from the Baltic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Llthuama, Latvia and Estoma regained the independence they had lost at the start of the Second World War The opportumty for these new states to...Russia was perceived as pursuing a pohcy of mtlmldatlon toward Latvia, Lithuania and Estoma As the Russia-Baltic dialogue began to deteriorate m 1993... Estoma Finally, Moscow needed good relations \\~th Vllnrus to ensure easy access to Kalmmgrad, the exclave on the Baltic Sea that was physically

  15. The main environmental problems of the Baltic Sea and the ways to solve them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosin Oleg

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea is a unique ecological system, an integral part of the global ecological system, which is in urgent need of protection from destructive anthropogenic impact stemming from the production and consumption of nuclear energy and artificial radionuclides, agriculture, oil and oil product transportation, and sewage and solid waste treatment. The article outlines the main environmental problems of the Baltic Seas and the ways to solve them.

  16. The Energy Independence of the Baltic States: Influence of Geopolitics on Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Kasems

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the present-day aims of Baltic countries is to get rid of energy independence from Russia. The situation in Baltic region after the Soviet Union collapse has its negative impact on Baltic’s economy. In the article it could be found the roots of an attempt to create an energy independence from Russia and the research reflects the irrationality of such approach. The geopolitical causes shall be analyzed as well.

  17. Are boys discriminated in Swedish high schools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinnerich, Bjørn Tyrefors; Höglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading.Werigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind...... and non-blind grading. The non-blind test score is on average 15% lower for boys than for girls. Blind grading lowers the average grades with 13%, indicating that personal ties and/or grade inflation are important in non-blind grading. But we find no evidence of discrimination against boys in grading....... The point estimate of the discrimination effect is close to zero with a 95% confidence interval of±4.5% of the average non-blind grade....

  18. Wood flow problems in the Swedish forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Dick [Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Roennqvist, M. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematics

    1998-12-31

    In this paper we give an overview of the wood-flow in Sweden including a description of organization and planning. Based on that, we will describe a number of applications or problem areas in the wood-flow chain that are currently considered by the Swedish forest companies to be important and potential in order to improve overall operations. We have focused on applications which are short term planning or operative planning. We do not give any final results as much of the development is currently ongoing or is still in a planning phase. Instead we describe what kind of models and decision support systems that could be applied in order to improve co-operation within and integration of the wood-flow chain 13 refs, 20 figs, 1 tab

  19. Swedish Taxation in a 150-year Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenkula Mikael

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the development of taxation in Sweden from 1862 to 2010. The examination includes six key aspects of the Swedish tax system, namely the taxation of labor income, capital income, wealth, inheritances and gifts, consumption and real estate. The importance of these taxes varied greatly over time and Sweden increasingly relied on broad-based taxes (such as income taxes and general consumption taxes and taxes that were less visible to the public (such as payroll taxes and social security contributions. The tax-to-GDP ratio was initially low and relatively stable, but from the 1930s, the ratio increased sharply for nearly 50 years. Towards the end of the period, the tax-to-GDP ratio declined significantly.

  20. Gendered portraits of depression in Swedish newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengs, Carita; Johansson, Eva; Danielsson, Ulla; Lehti, Arja; Hammarström, Anne

    2008-07-01

    Mass media are influential mediators of information, knowledge, and narratives of health and illness. In this article, we report on an examination of personal accounts of illness as presented in three Swedish newspapers, focusing on the gendered representation of laypersons' experiences of depression. A database search identified all articles mentioning depression during the year 2002. Twenty six articles focusing on personal experiences of depression were then subjected to a qualitative content analysis. We identified four themes: displaying a successful facade, experiencing a cracking facade, losing and regaining control, and explaining the illness. We found both similarities and differences with regard to gendered experiences. The mediated accounts of depression both upheld and challenged traditional gender stereotypes. The women's stories were more detailed, relational, emotionally oriented, and embodied. The portrayal of men was less emotional and expressive, and described a more dramatic onset of depression, reflecting hegemonic patterns of masculinity.

  1. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    During 1997 the PWRs in Ringhals performed extremely well (capability factors 85-90%), the unit Ringhals 2 reached the best capability factor since commercial operation started in 1976. The BWRs made an average 76% capability, which is somewhat less than in 1996. The slightly reduced capability derives from ongoing modernization projects at several units. At the youngest plants, Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3, capability and utilization were very high. Events and data for 1997 are given for each reactor, together with operational statistics for the years 1990-1997. A number of safety-related events are reported, which occurred st the Swedish plants during 1997. These events are classified as level 1 or higher on the international nuclear event scale (INES).

  2. Perceived employability trajectories: A Swedish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnroos Née Kirves, Kaisa; Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia; Leineweber, Constanze

    2017-07-27

    This study identified perceived employability trajectories and their associations with sleeping difficulties and depressive symptoms over time. The sample was part of the Swedish Longitudinal Survey on Health from 2008 to 2014 (n=4,583). Two stable trajectories (high and low perceived employability over time) and three trajectories with changes (increasing, decreasing, and V-shaped perceived employability over time) were identified. Workers with stable low perceived employability reported more sleeping difficulties and depressive symptoms than those who perceived high or increasing employability. Perceived employability is a rather stable personal resource, which is associated with well-being over time. However, changes in perceived employability do not seem to be echoed in well-being, at least not as immediately as theoretically expected.

  3. The Baltic Sea - from environmental monitoring data to paleoenvironmental reconstructions in a marine/brackish system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arz, Helge W.; Dellwig, Olaf; Häusler, Katharina; Kaiser, Jérôme; Leipe, Thomas; Moros, Matthias; Pollehne, Falk

    2017-04-01

    Instrumental observations in the Baltic Sea are reaching back into the 19th century, but a comprehensive ecosystem monitoring by means of coastal stations, research vessels, moorings, permanent stations, and satellites was developed stepwise after WWII and significantly intensified after founding of the HELCOM (Helsinki Commission) in 1975 for protecting the Baltic marine environment against anthropogenic influences. Such influences are well recorded in surface sediments of the different Baltic Sea sub-basins, where i.a. heavy metal and organic pollutants accumulated in the course of the last century with characteristic rates. However, despite of the vast amount of instrumental data, calibration of paleoenvironmental proxies is often complicated due to weakly constraint chronologies of these young sediments. In many cases sedimentation is not continuous and sediments are subject to erosion, re-suspension, lateral transport, and focusing due to intense wind driven waves and current activity. Therefore, a direct link of sedimentary proxies with instrumental water column observations is not always straightforward and generally not well established. Recently developed event stratigraphic and radionuclide based chronologies in some restricted Baltic Sea areas like the central Baltic deeps form now a solid base for the in depth proxy development and validation with instrumental time series. Promising results come from e.g. the solid-phase Mn and trace element signatures and organic biomarkers in recent/sub-recent sediments from the central Baltic Sea enhancing the potential of reconstructing the Littorina-Stage environmental development.

  4. The Third Conference on Baltic and Nordic Studies in Romania, May 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Miloiu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Association for Baltic and Nordic Studies continued to organize in 2012 a series of events, one of the most meaningful of which was the third international conference on Baltic and Nordic Studies entitled European networks: the Balkans, Scandinavia and the Baltic world in a time of economic and ideological crisis opened on 25 May at Valahia University of Târgoviște and sponsored by the Romanian National Research Council, Niro Investment Group and other partners (http://www.arsbn.ro/conference-2012.htm. The main goal of the conference was to foster debate and academic discussion with regard to the challenges the Balkan and Baltic regions face today, within a time of severe global economic instability. The participants discussed and advanced solutions to problems such as the accession of Balkan states to the EU and/or NATO, with particular reference to the experiences of the relatively new EU and/or NATO Member States from South-Eastern Europe and the Eastern Baltic region; the economic, security or cultural threats posed by Balkan and/or Eastern European states or non-state actors to the Western or Nordic Europe as perceived there; the development of extremist movements and the Balkan organized crime in the Scandinavian countries; the Balkan Roma peoples as a “threat” for Western and Nordic Europe; strategies for integrating minorities in the Baltic Sea rim countries and the Black Sea areas.

  5. Cytogenetic and cytotoxic effects in gill cells of the blue mussel Mytilus spp. from different zones of the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsiene, Janina; Schiedek, Doris; Rybakovas, Aleksandras; Syvokiene, Janina; Kopecka, Justyna; Förlin, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Frequency of micronuclei (MN) and other nuclear abnormalities (nuclear buds, bi-nucleated and fragmented-apoptotic cells) was analysed in gill cells of the blue mussel (Mytilus spp.) from selected coastal sites in the Baltic Sea--Kvädöfjärden (Sweden), Klaipeda-Būtinge zone (Lithuania), Gulf of Gdansk (Poland) and Wismar Bay (Germany). Samples were collected from 650 specimens during bi-annual sampling campaigns in 2001 and 2002. The lowest frequency of MN (0.37 MN/1000 cells) was found in blue mussels from the reference site (Kvädöfjärden). The highest MN values (up to 6.7 MN/1000 cells) were registered in blue mussels from the Gulf of Gdansk in autumn 2001 and 2002, and at Wismar Bay in spring 2001 (up to 5.06 MN/1000 cells). Gradients of MN incidences were observed when comparing the three studied locations in Wismar Bay, and at the Lithuanian coast before the crude oil spill in the Būtinge oil terminal. Moreover, significant seasonal and inter-location differences in the responses were documented (P<0.0001). Nuclear abnormalities were observed most frequently in blue mussels from the Gulf of Gdansk.

  6. Cytogenetic and cytotoxic effects in gill cells of the blue mussel Mytilus spp. from different zones of the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsiene, Janina [Institute of Ecology of Vilnius University, Akademijos 2, 08412 Vilnius (Lithuania)]. E-mail janbar@ekoi.lt; Schiedek, Doris [Baltic Sea Research Institute, Seestrasse 15, D-18119 Rostock (Germany); Rybakovas, Aleksandras [Institute of Ecology of Vilnius University, Akademijos 2, 08412 Vilnius (Lithuania); Syvokiene, Janina [Institute of Ecology of Vilnius University, Akademijos 2, 08412 Vilnius (Lithuania); Kopecka, Justyna [Institute of Oceanology, Powstancow Warszawy 55, P.O. Box 197, 81-712 Sopot (Poland); Foerlin, Lars [Goeteborg University, Box 463, SE 405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2006-07-01

    Frequency of micronuclei (MN) and other nuclear abnormalities (nuclear buds, bi-nucleated and fragmented-apoptotic cells) was analysed in gill cells of the blue mussel (Mytilus spp.) from selected coastal sites in the Baltic Sea-Kvaedoefjaerden (Sweden), Klaipeda-Butinge zone (Lithuania), Gulf of Gdansk (Poland) and Wismar Bay (Germany). Samples were collected from 650 specimens during bi-annual sampling campaigns in 2001 and 2002. The lowest frequency of MN (0.37 MN/1000 cells) was found in blue mussels from the reference site (Kvaedoefjaerden). The highest MN values (up to 6.7 MN/1000 cells) were registered in blue mussels from the Gulf of Gdansk in autumn 2001 and 2002, and at Wismar Bay in spring 2001 (up to 5.06 MN/1000 cells). Gradients of MN incidences were observed when comparing the three studied locations in Wismar Bay, and at the Lithuanian coast before the crude oil spill in the Butinge oil terminal. Moreover, significant seasonal and inter-location differences in the responses were documented (P < 0.0001). Nuclear abnormalities were observed most frequently in blue mussels from the Gulf of Gdansk.

  7. Allelopathic activity of the Baltic cyanobacteria against microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żak, Adam; Musiewicz, Krzysztof; Kosakowska, Alicja

    2012-10-01

    The goal of this work was to investigate the influence of Baltic cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis and Nodularia spumigena cells and cell-free filtrates on the growth of green algae Chlorella vulgaris. We have demonstrated that Anabaena variabilis and Nodularia spumigena caused allelopathic effects against microalgae. The cyanobacterial and microalgal cultures were provided on liquid medium, in 22 °C at continuous light. Cell-free filtrates were obtained by centrifugation and filtering aliquots of cyanobacterial cultures (including cultures in exponential and stationary phase of growth). Growth response of free cells (batch culture technique) and immobilized cultures (in alginate beads) of the unicellular green algae to cyanobacteria allelochemicals were tested and compared. In this experiment Anabaena variabilis supressed the growth of microalgae compared to control samples. Nodularia spumigena stimulated the growth of Chlorella vulgaris in most cases, however both positive and negative effects were observed.

  8. Baltic herring fisheries management: stakeholder views to frame the problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haapasaari, Päivi Elisabet; Mäntyniemi, Samu; Kuikka, Sakari

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive problem framing that includes different perspectives is essential for holistic understanding of complex problems and as the first step in building models. We involved five stakeholders to frame the management problem of the Central Baltic herring fishery. By using the Bayesian belief...... networks (BBNs) approach, the views of the stakeholders were built into graphical influence diagrams representing variables and their dependencies. The views of the scientists involved concentrated on biological concerns, whereas the fisher, the manager, and the representative of an environmental...... nongovernmental organization included markets and fishing industry influences. Management measures were considered to have a relatively small impact on the development of the herring stock; their impact on socioeconomic objectives was greater. Overall, the framings by these stakeholders propose a focus...

  9. Optimization of phytoplankton monitoring in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaanus, Andres; Kuprijanov, Ivan; Kaljurand, Kaire; Lehtinen, Sirpa; Enke, Annely

    2017-07-01

    Since water quality monitoring can be rather costly, it is important to properly design the monitoring network so that maximum information can be received with moderate effort. One component of monitoring is measuring the phytoplankton community composition and detecting whether that has changed. From April to October 2012, by using ships-of-opportunity (SOOP), we collected simultaneous samples from 15 stations in the Gulf of Finland and the Baltic Proper to study the spatial variability in the phytoplankton species composition and biomass throughout the growing season. The analysis was performed with 10 dominant taxa constituting 83-97% of the total phytoplankton biomass. We set the criterion of the statistically significant (p phytoplankton analysis between countries is addressed in order to have comparable data sets by different countries.

  10. Ecological forecasting under climate change: the case of Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Möllmann, Christian; Nielsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Good decision making for fisheries and marine ecosystems requires a capacity to anticipate the consequences of management under different scenarios of climate change. The necessary ecological forecasting calls for ecosystem-based models capable of integrating multiple drivers across trophic levels...... and properly including uncertainty. The methodology presented here assesses the combined impacts of climate and fishing on marine food-web dynamics and provides estimates of the confidence envelope of the forecasts. It is applied to cod (Gadus morhua) in the Baltic Sea, which is vulnerable to climate......-related decline in salinity owing to both direct and indirect effects (i.e. through species interactions) on early-life survival. A stochastic food web-model driven by regional climate scenarios is used to produce quantitative forecasts of cod dynamics in the twenty-first century. The forecasts show how...

  11. Ecological forecasting under climate change: the case of Baltic cod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindegren, Martin; Möllmann, Christian; Nielsen, Anders; Brander, Keith; MacKenzie, Brian R; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2010-07-22

    Good decision making for fisheries and marine ecosystems requires a capacity to anticipate the consequences of management under different scenarios of climate change. The necessary ecological forecasting calls for ecosystem-based models capable of integrating multiple drivers across trophic levels and properly including uncertainty. The methodology presented here assesses the combined impacts of climate and fishing on marine food-web dynamics and provides estimates of the confidence envelope of the forecasts. It is applied to cod (Gadus morhua) in the Baltic Sea, which is vulnerable to climate-related decline in salinity owing to both direct and indirect effects (i.e. through species interactions) on early-life survival. A stochastic food web-model driven by regional climate scenarios is used to produce quantitative forecasts of cod dynamics in the twenty-first century. The forecasts show how exploitation would have to be adjusted in order to achieve sustainable management under different climate scenarios.

  12. CHANGING IDENTITIES OF THE BALTIC STATES: THREE MEMORIES IN STONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gromilova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of how Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania handled the process of nation-building, finding their self in their new reality which was no longer created and manipulated by the Soviets since their breakaway from the USSR. To do so, this paper suggests an ingenious method of the identity politics analysis which focuses on the importance of the so-called “lieux de mémoire” or “meaning-full places” for people. Monuments and statues are good examples of such places and play an important role in identity construction due to their ability to evoke particular kinds of feelings in people. Undertaking an in-depth analysis of monuments in Baltic States provides a valuable insight on the possibilities and challenges of Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia to develop communities of shared values and to finally stop living in the shade of their “post-Sovietness”.

  13. An ant-associated mesostigmatid mite in Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Jason A; Kontschán, Jenő; Walter, David E; Perrichot, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    Fossil mesostigmatid mites (Acari: Parasitiformes: Mesostigmata) are extremely rare, and specimens from only nine families, including four named species, have been described so far. A new record of Myrmozercon sp. described here from Eocene (ca 44-49 Myr) Baltic amber represents the first-and so far only-fossil example of the derived, extant family Laelapidae. Significantly, modern species of this genus are habitually myrmecophilous and the fossil mite described here is preserved attached to the head of the dolichoderine ant Ctenobethylus goepperti (Mayr, 1868). It thus offers the oldest unequivocal evidence for an ecological association between mesostigmatid mites and social insects in the order Hymenoptera. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Composition of ferromanganese nodules from Riga Bay (Baltic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baturin, G. N.; Dubinchuk, V. T.

    2009-02-01

    An average sample of ferromanganese nodules from Riga Bay was investigated by analytical electron microscopy coupled with atomic absorption, neutron activation, and ICP-MS methods. It is established that the nodules consist of colloform and poorly crystallized Fe and Mn hydroxides with an admixture of dispersed inclusions of better crystallized particles allowing revealing their mineralogical nature by the microdiffraction method. The major mineral phases are ferroxigite and Fe-vernadite with subordinate magnetite, asbolane, and todorokite. The chemical composition of the nodules is dominated by iron followed by cobalt and lead, while nickel, molybdenum, and tungsten associate with the manganese phase. The concentration of several minor elements in the Riga Bay nodules is slightly lower as compared with their average values for the entire Baltic Sea; some elements such as silver, bismuth, cadmium, niobium, tin, and thallium were never analyzed before.

  15. Denitrification in the water column of the central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; De Brabandere, Loreto; Hall, Per

    2013-01-01

    Removal of fixed nitrogen in the water column of the eastern Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea, was studied during two cruises in September 2008 and August 2010. The water column was stratified with anoxic sulfidic bottom water meeting oxic nitrate containing water at the oxic–anoxic interface...... View the MathML source or sulfide concentrations were converted to in situ rates using the measured water column concentrations of View the MathML source and sulfide and the actual measured relations between View the MathML source and sulfide concentrations and denitrification rates. In situ...... can be maintained through regular turbulent mixing induced by internal waves at the oxic–anoxic interface. However, layers of up to 55 m thickness with low O2 water (

  16. Denitrification in the water column of the central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; De Brabandere, Loreto; Hall, Per O. J.

    2013-01-01

    Removal of fixed nitrogen in the water column of the eastern Gotland Basin, central Baltic Sea, was studied during two cruises in September 2008 and August 2010. The water column was stratified with anoxic sulfidic bottom water meeting oxic nitrate containing water at the oxic–anoxic interface......3 or sulfide concentrations were converted to in situ rates using the measured water column concentrations of NO3 and sulfide and the actual measured relations between NO3 and sulfide concentrations and enitrification rates. In situ denitrification ranged from 0.24 to 15.9 nM N2 h1. Assuming...... at the oxic–anoxic interface. However, layers of up to 55 m thickness with low O2 water (

  17. Could seals prevent cod recovery in the Baltic Sea?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Eero, Margit; Ojaveer, Henn

    2011-01-01

    in an ecosystem that likely will change due to both the already started recovery of a cod predator, the grey seal Halichoerus grypus, and projected climate impacts. Simulation modelling, assuming increased seal predation, fishing levels consistent with management plan targets and stable salinity, shows...... that the cod population could reach high levels well above the long-term average. Scenarios with similar seal and fishing levels but with 15% lower salinity suggest that the Baltic will still be able to support a cod population which can sustain a fishery, but biomass and yields will be lower. At present...... knowledge of cod and seal interactions, seal predation was found to have much lower impact on cod recovery, compared to the effects of exploitation and salinity. These results suggest that dual management objectives (recovery of both seal and cod populations) are realistic but success in achieving...

  18. Blue carbon stocks in Baltic Sea eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohr, Maria Emilia; Bostrom, Christoffer; Canal-Vergés, Paula

    2016-01-01

    storage and carbon sink capacity of eelgrass meadows in Finland and Denmark, were 281 and 1809 EUR ha(-1), respectively. For a more comprehensive picture of seagrass carbon storage capacity, we conclude that future blue carbon studies should, in a more integrative way, investigate the interactions between......Although seagrasses cover only a minor fraction of the ocean seafloor, their carbon sink capacity accounts for nearly one-fifth of the total oceanic carbon burial and thus play a critical structural and functional role in many coastal ecosystems. We sampled 10 eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows...... in Finland and 10 in Denmark to explore seagrass carbon stocks (C-org stock) and carbon accumulation rates (C-org accumulation) in the Baltic Sea area. The study sites represent a gradient from sheltered to exposed locations in both regions to reflect expected minimum and maximum stocks and accumulation...

  19. Microplastics in Baltic bottom sediments: Quantification procedures and first results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobkov, M; Esiukova, E

    2017-01-30

    Microplastics in the marine environment are known as a global ecological problem but there are still no standardized analysis procedures for their quantification. The first breakthrough in this direction was the NOAA Laboratory Methods for quantifying synthetic particles in water and sediments, but fibers numbers have been found to be underestimated with this approach. We propose modifications for these methods that will allow us to analyze microplastics in bottom sediments, including small fibers. Addition of an internal standard to sediment samples and occasional empty runs are advised for analysis quality control. The microplastics extraction efficiency using the proposed modifications is 92±7%. Distribution of microplastics in bottom sediments of the Russian part of the Baltic Sea is presented. Microplastic particles were found in all of the samples with an average concentration of 34±10 items/kg DW and have the same order of magnitude as neighbor studies reported. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mercury and Methylmercury in Southern Baltic Sea Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miotk M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Surficial sediment samples were collected in several areas of the southern Baltic Sea during cruises of R/V Oceania in spring 2009 and 2010 for all stations and in autumn 2009 for Gdansk Deep and Gotland Deep. Samples were collected with a gravity corer. The top five centimeters of sediment were sampled by cutting it away with a plastic spatula, mixed and stored frozen (-20°C in polyethylene bags until analyses in the laboratory. Sediment cores were analysed for total mercury [HgTOT]and methylmercury [MeHg]. Total Hg concentrations in sediments were between 5,81 ng·g-1 in Odra Eustary and 225 ng·g-1 in Gdansk Deep. Lowest concentration of methylmercury were recorded in Odra Estuary; 61,29 pg·g-1. Highest concentration of MeHg were found in Vistula Estuary, 940,07 pg·g-1.

  1. Single and multispecies reference points for Baltic fish stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Single and multispecies models are used to examine the effect of species interaction on biological reference points for cod, herring, and sprat in the Baltic. The results demonstrate that reference points are different in single and multispecies contexts. Reference points for fishing mortality...... based on single-species yield and SSB calculations are difficult to use when natural mortality depends on the absolute abundance of the predators and their alternative prey. Reference points based on maximizing total yield from the system may lead to impractical results when species interact...... reference points. Management advice based on biomass reference points will also differ. In the single species situation the combinations of cod and pelagic fishing effort for which the equilibrium spawning- stock biomass of the three species is above the biomass reference points forms a rectangular area...

  2. Habitat modelling limitations - Puck Bay, Baltic Sea - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marcin Węsławski

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Natura 2000 sites and the Coastal Landscape Park in a shallow marine bay in the southern Baltic have been studied in detail for the distribution of benthic macroorganisms, species assemblages and seabed habitats. The relatively small Inner Puck Bay (104.8 km2 is one of the most thoroughly investigated marine areas in the Baltic: research has been carried out there continuously for over 50 years. Six physical parameters regarded as critically important for the marine benthos (depth, minimal temperature, maximum salinity, light, wave intensity and sediment type were summarized on a GIS map showing unified patches of seabed and the near-bottom water conditions. The occurrence of uniform seabed forms is weakly correlated with the distributions of individual species or multi-species assemblages. This is partly explained by the characteristics of the local macrofauna, which is dominated by highly tolerant, eurytopic species with opportunistic strategies. The history and timing of the assemblage formation also explains this weak correlation. The distribution of assemblages formed by long-living, structural species (Zostera marina and other higher plants shows the history of recovery following earlier disturbances. In the study area, these communities are still in the stage of recovery and recolonization, and their present distribution does not as yet match the distribution of the physical environmental conditions favourable to them. Our results show up the limitations of distribution modelling in coastal waters, where the history of anthropogenic disturbances can distort the picture of the present-day environmental control of biota distributions.

  3. PUMa - modelling the groundwater flow in Baltic Sedimentary Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvane, G.; Marnica, A.; Bethers, U.

    2012-04-01

    In 2009-2012 at University of Latvia and Latvia University of Agriculture project "Establishment of interdisciplinary scientist group and modelling system for groundwater research" is implemented financed by the European Social Fund. The aim of the project is to develop groundwater research in Latvia by establishing interdisciplinary research group and modelling system covering groundwater flow in the Baltic Sedimentary Basin. Researchers from fields like geology, chemistry, mathematical modelling, physics and environmental engineering are involved in the project. The modelling system is used as a platform for addressing scientific problems such as: (1) large-scale groundwater flow in Baltic Sedimentary Basin and impact of human activities on it; (2) the evolution of groundwater flow since the last glaciation and subglacial groundwater recharge; (3) the effects of climate changes on shallow groundwater and interaction of hydrographical network and groundwater; (4) new programming approaches for groundwater modelling. Within the frame of the project most accessible geological information such as description of geological wells, geological maps and results of seismic profiling in Latvia as well as Estonia and Lithuania are collected and integrated into modelling system. For example data form more then 40 thousands wells are directly used to automatically generate the geological structure of the model. Additionally a groundwater sampling campaign is undertaken. Contents of CFC, stabile isotopes of O and H and radiocarbon are the most significant parameters of groundwater that are established in unprecedented scale for Latvia. The most important modelling results will be published in web as a data set. Project number: 2009/0212/1DP/1.1.1.2.0/09/APIA/VIAA/060. Project web-site: www.puma.lu.lv

  4. The Origins of Intergenerational Associations: Lessons from Swedish Adoption Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjorklund, A.; Lindahl, M.; Plug, E.J.S.

    2006-01-01

    We use unique Swedish data with information on adopted children's biological and adoptive parents to estimate intergenerational mobility associations in earnings and education. We argue that the impact from biological parents captures broad prebirth factors, including genes and prenatal environment,

  5. Impacts of the local environment on recruitment: a comparative study of North Sea and Baltic Sea fish stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécuchet, Lauréne; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Christensen, Asbjørn

    2015-01-01

    of the environment on the residuals of a Ricker stock-recruitment (SR) model, used as a proxy of prerecruits' survival, of 18 assessed stocks in the Baltic and North Seas. A probabilistic principal components (PCs) analysis permits the identification of groups of stocks with shared variability in the prerecruits......' survival, most notably a group of pelagics in the Baltic Sea and a group composed of gadoids and herring in the North Sea. The first two PCs generally grouped the stocks according to their localizations: the North Sea, the Kattegat-Western Baltic, and the Baltic Sea. This suggests the importance...

  6. Saduria entomon infected with Hysterothylacium aduncum found in situ in the stomach of cod (Gadus morhua) from the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, J; Nadolna-Ałtyn, K; Szostakowska, B; Pachur, M; Podolska, M

    2017-10-12

    The parasite fauna of cod (Gadus morhus) is well described, but the life cycles of Baltic cod parasites are known only in general terms. Invertebrates commonly found in the stomach of cod are recognized as intermediate hosts in the life cycles of nematodes or acanthocephalans. The aim of this study was to determine the source of infection of Baltic cod with parasites found in situ in invertebrates present in the cod stomach. Our results indicate that Saduria entomon is both a source of infection of Baltic cod with parasites and an intermediate host in the life cycle of Hysterothylacium aduncum in the Baltic Sea.

  7. A multibiomarker approach to the assessment of pollution impacts in two Baltic Sea coastal areas in Sweden using caged mussels (Mytilus trossulus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turja, R; Höher, N; Snoeijs, P; Baršienė, J; Butrimavičienė, L; Kuznetsova, T; Kholodkevich, S V; Devier, M-H; Budzinski, H; Lehtonen, K K

    2014-03-01

    Blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus) were transplanted in cages for three months in two Swedish coastal areas in the Bothnian Sea (northern Baltic Sea) to investigate the interactions between analysed environmental chemicals and biological responses. A wide array of biological parameters (biomarkers) including antioxidant and biotransformation activity, geno-, cyto- and neurotoxic effects, phagocytosis, bioenergetic status and heart rate were measured to detect the possible effects of contaminants. Integrated Biomarker Response index and Principal Component Analysis performed on the individual biological response data were able to discriminate between the two study areas as well as the contaminated sites from their respective local reference sites. The two contaminated sites outside the cities of Sundsvall (station S1) and Gävle (station G1) were characterised by different biomarker response patterns. Mussels at station S1 showed a low condition index, increased heart rate recovery time and phagocytosis activity coinciding with the highest tissue concentrations of some trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organotins. At station G1 the highest organochlorine pesticide concentration was recorded as well as elevations in glutathione S-transferase activity, thiamine content and low lysosomal membrane stability. Significant variability in the geno- and cytotoxic responses and bioenergetic status was also observed at the different caging stations. The results obtained suggest that different chemical mixtures present in the study areas cause variable biological response patterns in organisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Doctrinal Imbalance: A Study of Swedish Army Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    patience with endless grammar and spelling corrections. Furthermore, Dr. Sterrett also involved his wife, military historian Dr. Corinne Mahaffey, and his...provocative statement of the Swedish supreme commander. The Swedish Army teaches that doctrine derives from a balance between resources, national...it comes to writing a new doctrine, but none of them evaluates doctrine against a specific scenario using the actual forces the doctrine is supposed

  9. About the Alleged Racism among Swedish Police Officers

    OpenAIRE

    Sjögren, Erika

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of the present research was to investigate whether Swedish police officers who often are accused of being racist are more prejudiced toward people with non Swedish-origin than other occupational groups. Three groups (n = 108) – police officers, fire fighters and teachers participated in the study that was carried out using questionnaires and IAT-tests. The study showed that the police officers were not the most prejudiced occupational group in the explicit measurements and were t...

  10. Components of success in academic reading tasks for Swedish students

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Shaw; Alan McMillion

    2011-01-01

    In a parallel-language environment students are often required to read in a language different from the one they use in lectures, seminars, and among themselves. Relatively little research has been done on the overall reading success of such groups or on the componential make up of their L2 reading skills. This paper compares the English-language reading skills of Swedish students of biology with that of equivalent British biology students. Many Swedish readers perform within or above the nor...

  11. Key success factors : The internationalisation of Swedish fashion companies

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, Stefan; Knudsen, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    Background: The Swedish fashion market today quickly becomes too small, even for the new companies, and they are quick to take the step abroad and launch their internationalisation process. With a focus on the four Swed-ish fashion companies Filippa K, Acne Jeans, Nudie Jeans and Whyred, we have analysed how these representatives of the industry have interna-tionalised themselves. The companies have chosen different ways to promote their brand and how to control the perceived image of the bra...

  12. A study of Swedish tourists going on vacation in thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Rong; PANTO, SITTHIPHON

    2010-01-01

    Date: 2010-05-25 Program: International Marketing Course Master Thesis International Marketing (EFO705) Authors Ms. RongPan Mr. Sitthiphon Panto Teacher Tobias Eltebrandt Title A study of Swedish tourist going on vacation in Thailand Research question Which factors affect Swedish travelers’ decision making in choosing Thailand as a traveling destination? Target audience This report could be beneficial for Tourism Authority of Thailand. The target audiences including Government sector who resp...

  13. Candaciidae) off the Kenya Coast

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute, KMFRI, P. 0. Box 81651 ... Paracandacia (family Candaciidae) within the inshore, shelf and offshore waters of the Kenya coast are ... Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, United Kingdom and the ...

  14. West Coast Fishing Closures, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate state and federally managed ocean areas off the West Coast of the United States that are closed to or have restrictions on commercial or...

  15. Beach rock from Goa Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Wagle, B.G.

    constituents of beach rock found along Goa coast is dealt with in detail. While discussing the various views on its origin, it is emphasized that the process of cementation is chiefly controlled by ground water evaporation, inorganic precipitation and optimum...

  16. West Coast Regional Office Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Fisheries implemented a license limitation program for the trawl and fixed gear sectors of Pacific Coast commercial groundfish fishery on January 1, 1993. The...

  17. First Battleships of the Coast Defense of Russian Emperor Fleet. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri F. Katorin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article it is told about design and building in Russia of the second generation tower armored ships, are given their characteristics, are described design features, and also basic stages of service in the composition of Baltic fleet, the advantages and disadvantages in the projects are analyzed. The materials of article are the continuation of publication in № 4 (38 periodical «Bylye Gody» in 2015 the year. Are described the difficulties, which arose during the organization of their building at the Russian plants. Prove laws governing the passage from “monitor” diagram to the nautical Battleship of coast defense. On the basis the analysis of the represented materials there are determined the basic stages of the formation of the Russian school of military ship building.

  18. Subcontractors and Component Suppliers in the Swedish Wind Power Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Linn

    2003-05-01

    This paper studies the Swedish component suppliers in the wind power industry. This group has not received much attention so far, and today very little is known. This study addresses the fact that the Swedish component suppliers have not been able to penetrate the wind power market despite the Swedish industry's strength in mechanical and electrical engineering. The aims of this paper were to gather information regarding the existing production and to identify factors that affect the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. To date, although Sweden has spent considerable amounts of money on projects involving wind turbines, there is no series production of large wind turbines in Sweden. The historical development of the wind turbine industry suggests this alone would have inhibited the development of component production in Sweden. Yet, the country's proximity and good access to large wind turbine producing countries should be an advantage. Various factors and issues are identified and discussed in this paper that are relevant for the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. These include market and product development, buyer-supplier relationships, export and sourcing behaviors, and time of market entry. This is a first step towards increasing the knowledge of Swedish component production and it is recognized that more studies are required. Various areas where relevant knowledge is largely missing or scarce are identified and discussed as well, and should serve as relevant starting points for continued research.

  19. Honduras: Caribbean Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harborne, A R; Afzal, D C; Andrews, M J

    2001-12-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an overarching stress

  20. Honduras: Caribbean Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harborne, Alastair R.; Afzal, Daniel C.; Andrews, Mark J. [Coral Cay Conservation, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an over

  1. Long-term temporal and spatial trends in eutrophication status of the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jesper H; Carstensen, Jacob; Conley, Daniel J; Dromph, Karsten; Fleming-Lehtinen, Vivi; Gustafsson, Bo G; Josefson, Alf B; Norkko, Alf; Villnäs, Anna; Murray, Ciarán

    2017-02-01

    Much of the Baltic Sea is currently classified as 'affected by eutrophication'. The causes for this are twofold. First, current levels of nutrient inputs (nitrogen and phosphorus) from human activities exceed the natural processing capacity with an accumulation of nutrients in the Baltic Sea over the last 50-100 years. Secondly, the Baltic Sea is naturally susceptible to nutrient enrichment due to a combination of long retention times and stratification restricting ventilation of deep waters. Here, based on a unique data set collated from research activities and long-term monitoring programs, we report on the temporal and spatial trends of eutrophication status for the open Baltic Sea over a 112-year period using the HELCOM Eutrophication Assessment Tool (HEAT 3.0). Further, we analyse variation in the confidence of the eutrophication status assessment based on a systematic quantitative approach using coefficients of variation in the observations. The classifications in our assessment indicate that the first signs of eutrophication emerged in the mid-1950s and the central parts of the Baltic Sea changed from being unaffected by eutrophication to being affected. We document improvements in eutrophication status that are direct consequences of long-term efforts to reduce the inputs of nutrients. The reductions in both nitrogen and phosphorus loads have led to large-scale alleviation of eutrophication and to a healthier Baltic Sea. Reduced confidence in our assessment is seen more recently due to reductions in the scope of monitoring programs. Our study sets a baseline for implementation of the ecosystem-based management strategies and policies currently in place including the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directives and the HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan. © 2015 The Authors. Biological Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  2. Genetic anticipation in Swedish Lynch syndrome families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny von Salomé

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Among hereditary colorectal cancer predisposing syndromes, Lynch syndrome (LS caused by mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 is the most common. Patients with LS have an increased risk of early onset colon and endometrial cancer, but also other tumors that generally have an earlier onset compared to the general population. However, age at first primary cancer varies within families and genetic anticipation, i.e. decreasing age at onset in successive generations, has been suggested in LS. Anticipation is a well-known phenomenon in e.g neurodegenerative diseases and several reports have studied anticipation in heritable cancer. The purpose of this study is to determine whether anticipation can be shown in a nationwide cohort of Swedish LS families referred to the regional departments of clinical genetics in Lund, Stockholm, Linköping, Uppsala and Umeå between the years 1990-2013. We analyzed a homogenous group of mutation carriers, utilizing information from both affected and non-affected family members. In total, 239 families with a mismatch repair gene mutation (96 MLH1 families, 90 MSH2 families including one family with an EPCAM-MSH2 deletion, 39 MSH6 families, 12 PMS2 families, and 2 MLH1+PMS2 families comprising 1028 at-risk carriers were identified among the Swedish LS families, of which 1003 mutation carriers had available follow-up information and could be included in the study. Using a normal random effects model (NREM we estimate a 2.1 year decrease in age of diagnosis per generation. An alternative analysis using a mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards model (COX-R estimates a hazard ratio of exp(0.171, or about 1.19, for age of diagnosis between consecutive generations. LS-associated gene-specific anticipation effects are evident for MSH2 (2.6 years/generation for NREM and hazard ratio of 1.33 for COX-R and PMS2 (7.3 years/generation and hazard ratio of 1.86. The estimated anticipation effects for MLH1

  3. Parasite control practices on Swedish horse farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison David A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virtually all horses are infected with helminth parasites. For some decades, the control of parasites of Swedish horses has been based on routine treatments with anthelmintics, often several times per year. Since anthelmintic resistance is becoming an increasing problem it is essential to develop more sustainable control strategies, which are adapted to different types of horse management. The aim of this study was to obtain information on practices used by Swedish horse owners for the control of endoparasites. Methods A questionnaire with 26 questions about management practices and parasite control routines was posted to 627 randomly selected horse establishments covering most types of horse management in Sweden. Results The response rate was good in all categories of respondents (66–78%. A total of 444 questionnaires were used in the analyses. It was found that virtually all horses had access to grazing areas, usually permanent. Generally, pasture hygiene was infrequently practiced. Thirty-six percent of the respondents clipped or chain harrowed their pastures, whereas weekly removal of faeces from the grazing areas was performed by 6% of the respondents, and mixed or rotational grazing with other livestock by 10%. The number of anthelmintic treatments per year varied from 1–8 with an average of 3.2. Thirty-eight percent considered late autumn (Oct-Dec to be the most important time for deworming. This finding, and an increased use of macrocyclic lactones in the autumn, suggests a concern about bot flies, Gasterophilus intestinalis. Only 1% of the respondents stated that faecal egg counts (FEC were performed on a regular basis. The relatively high cost of FEC analyses compared to purchase of anthelmintics was thought to contribute to the preference of deworming without a previous FEC. From the study it was evident that all categories of horse owners took advice mainly from veterinarians. Conclusion The results show that

  4. Parasite control practices on Swedish horse farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Eva Osterman; Rautalinko, Erik; Uggla, Arvid; Waller, Peter J; Morrison, David A; Höglund, Johan

    2007-09-26

    Virtually all horses are infected with helminth parasites. For some decades, the control of parasites of Swedish horses has been based on routine treatments with anthelmintics, often several times per year. Since anthelmintic resistance is becoming an increasing problem it is essential to develop more sustainable control strategies, which are adapted to different types of horse management. The aim of this study was to obtain information on practices used by Swedish horse owners for the control of endoparasites. A questionnaire with 26 questions about management practices and parasite control routines was posted to 627 randomly selected horse establishments covering most types of horse management in Sweden. The response rate was good in all categories of respondents (66-78%). A total of 444 questionnaires were used in the analyses. It was found that virtually all horses had access to grazing areas, usually permanent. Generally, pasture hygiene was infrequently practiced. Thirty-six percent of the respondents clipped or chain harrowed their pastures, whereas weekly removal of faeces from the grazing areas was performed by 6% of the respondents, and mixed or rotational grazing with other livestock by 10%. The number of anthelmintic treatments per year varied from 1-8 with an average of 3.2. Thirty-eight percent considered late autumn (Oct-Dec) to be the most important time for deworming. This finding, and an increased use of macrocyclic lactones in the autumn, suggests a concern about bot flies, Gasterophilus intestinalis. Only 1% of the respondents stated that faecal egg counts (FEC) were performed on a regular basis. The relatively high cost of FEC analyses compared to purchase of anthelmintics was thought to contribute to the preference of deworming without a previous FEC. From the study it was evident that all categories of horse owners took advice mainly from veterinarians. The results show that routines for endoparasite control can be improved in many horse

  5. Experiences from new Swedish passive house projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janson, U. [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden). Energy and Building Design

    2009-07-01

    Passive houses are common in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, and their use is being considered in Sweden as a means to decrease carbon dioxide emissions and address climate change issues. It is anticipated that the use of passive houses in Sweden may contribute to the country's plan to decrease energy use in buildings by 20 per cent per heated unit area before 2020 compared to 1995 energy use. The first Swedish passive house project was built in Lindas in 2001. The Lindas project includes 20 terrace houses and was built according to the German Passive house standard with a maximum use of space heating of 15 kWh per m{sup 2} per year. Although tenants expressed satisfaction in terms of indoor comfort and reduced energy consumption, not many passive houses have been built in Sweden since the project was launched. Therefore, in 2005, the the Department of Energy and Building Design at Lund University launched 4 new Passive house research projects involving 2 apartment buildings, 1 family house and 1 renovation project. The main purpose was to gain information on the entire building process and determine what knowledge, components and systems are required for widespread construction of passive houses in a cold climate. Only residential buildings were studied for this project. The passive houses were closely followed from the clients decision to build a passive house, through the planning process, the building process, measurements of actual energy use after the tenants moved in and the tenants' opinions on living in a passive house. The study showed that passive houses offer high indoor comfort with low energy requirement for heating. One of the passive houses consumed 44 kWh per m{sup 2} per year of district heating for heating and domestic hot water, which constitutes a 72 per cent reduction compared to the Swedish average of 160 kWh per m{sup 2} per year. There is no special architecture or building material needed to build a passive house, but moderate

  6. Nutrient content in macrophyta collected from southern Baltic Sea beaches in relation to eutrophication and biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucholc, K.; Szymczak-Żyła, M.; Lubecki, L. [Marine Pollution Laboratory, Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Powstańców Warszawy 55, 81-712 Sopot (Poland); Zamojska, A. [University of Gdańsk, Department of Econometrics, ul. Armii Krajowej 101, 81-824 Sopot (Poland); Hapter, P. [Marine Pollution Laboratory, Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Powstańców Warszawy 55, 81-712 Sopot (Poland); Tjernström, E. [Environmental Department, Trelleborg Municipality, Algatan 13, 231 83 Trelleborg (Sweden); Kowalewska, G. [Marine Pollution Laboratory, Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Powstańców Warszawy 55, 81-712 Sopot (Poland)

    2014-03-01

    One of the signs of eutrophication is the excessive growth of opportunistic macroalgae, a worldwide phenomenon also observed in the Baltic Sea. Mats of macroalgae may drift long distances and accumulate at the seashore, considerably decreasing the recreational value of beaches. The matter accumulating at the shore is treated usually as waste. However, it could be used, for example, as a resource for biogas production. The aim of this work was to verify the hypothesis that collecting of macrophyta accumulating on the beach and potential usage of this material for biogas production will decrease nutrient reserves in the sea to counteract eutrophication and the increase in greenhouse effects. Samples of macrophyta were collected in 2011 and 2012 and analysed for their C, N, and P contents, and degree of degradation (% Chl-a in the sum of chloropigments-a); the results were analysed statistically. The nutrient content was studied in macrophyta accumulating on the beach (Sopot, Gulf of Gdańsk, Poland) and for comparison, macrophyta collected from their habitats in less nutrient polluted area (off the Skåre coast, Trelleborg, Sweden). The nutrient content (N, P) in macrophyta depends primarily on their morphology and only secondarily on environmental nutrient pollution. Collecting the macrophyta biomass accumulating on beaches will not significantly change the eutrophication of the Baltic as a whole; any improvements in this respect are likely to be on a local scale only. Collecting macrophyta removes more nitrogen than phosphorous, so this would decrease the N/P ratio in seawater. This macrophyta biomass is a substantial reserve of renewable energy, which could be utilized with the appropriate technology for biomass collection/preservation and biofuel production as an additive to other carbon-rich biomasses. And the biofuel production should be evaluated not only from the standpoint of economic efficiency but also from the environmental point of view. - Highlights:

  7. Numerical modeling of storm-induced morphodynamic changes at a micro-tidal sandy coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, A.; Urbański, J.; Wochna, A.

    2012-04-01

    Due to a recent climate change, the coasts of the southern Baltic Sea have been experiencing increased levels of erosion due to increasing sea level and more frequent and severe storms. This tendency is very likely to continue into the future, making a better understanding of morphodynamic processes in the coastal zone in those new conditions an ecological and economic necessity. Because interactions between wind, waves, currents and sediment transport in the coastal zone are very complex, reliable modeling of them remains a challenge and is often limited to empirical and semi-empirical formulae, applicable to a certain range of conditions. Most numerical and observational studies of the sediment transport and beach and dune erosion in extreme wind and wave conditions are valid for tidal coasts (e.g., the North Sea) and their results are not directly transferable to micro-tidal conditions of the Baltic Sea. The area of the present study is situated in the central part of the Gulf of Gdansk (southern Baltic Sea). It is a narrow sand spit separating a shallow lagoon from the sea, with sand dunes covered with sparse vegetation. Narrow, flat "passages" crossing the spit and ending with fan-shaped "deltas" on the lagoon side attest to past storm events. The cross-shore profile, with relatively narrow and steep beach and surf zone, leads during storm conditions to high waves propagating without much dissipation very close to the shore. In this work, a two-dimensional state-of-the-art model XBeach is used to assess the susceptibility of the study area to coastal erosion during storm conditions. The model is set-up and validated based on: (i) measured time series of wind speed and direction, water level and wind-wave data; (ii) high-resolution topographic and bathymetric measurements of surface elevations; and (iii) the results of granulometric analyses of sand probes from a set of locations inside the study area. An ensemble of model simulations is performed for various

  8. Effects of the 2014 major Baltic inflow on methane and nitrous oxide dynamics in the water column of the central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myllykangas, Jukka-Pekka; Jilbert, Tom; Jakobs, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    In late 2014, a large, oxygen-rich salt water inflow entered the Baltic Sea and caused considerable changes in deep water oxygen concentrations. We studied the effects of the inflow on the concentration patterns of two greenhouse gases, methane and nitrous oxide, during the following year (2015...

  9. Benthic conditions around a historic shipwreck: Vrouw Maria (1771) in the northern Baltic proper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruuskanen, A. T.; Kraufvelin, P.; Alvik, R.; Díaz, E. R.; Honkonen, J.; Kanerva, J.; Karell, K.; Kekäläinen, P.; Lappalainen, J.; Mikkola, R.; Mustasaari, T.; Nappu, N.; Nieminen, A.; Roininen, J.; Svahnbäck, K.

    2015-04-01

    Since her shipwreck in 1771, the wooden vessel Vrouw Maria has been lying on the seabed at 41 m depth on the border between the Archipelago Sea and the northern Baltic proper, off the southern coast of Finland. The wreck lies in an upward position in a right angle to the dominating bottom current, which is potentially affecting seabed topography, sediment characteristics and zoobenthic communities both upstream (NE) and downstream (SW) of the wreck. This multidisciplinary study attempts to clarify abiotic and biotic patterns and processes in the vicinity of the wreck by combining field investigations with physical simulation studies in the field and in the laboratory. Multibeam echo-sounder techniques were utilised to generate a map of the wreck area and sediment grab samples were taken to characterize the sediment type and its zoobenthic community. A medium-sized field experiment generated data on the accumulation of sediment organic matter in the presence and absence of a current and/or a barrier on the seafloor and a small-scaled laboratory study was conducted to simulate scour forming processes. The results showed that a deeper basin, scour area, with the dimensions 150×300 m, was present downstream of the wreck and there was also a smaller scour area upstream of the wreck. Similar traces on the bottom were simulated in the laboratory. The organic content (recent mud) and the proportion of finer sediment were more pronounced in areas closer to both sides of the wreck. These results were in turn imitated in a field experiment, where the accumulation of organic matter in the sediment increased significantly downstream, when a current was interrupted by a barrier. Regarding zoobenthos in the wreck area, 11 taxa and a mean total abundance of 773 individuals per m2 were registered. The dominant species were Macoma balthica and Marenzelleria sp., which together made up >80% of the total number of individuals. Multivariate data analyses showed significant differences

  10. Attack rates of dengue fever in Swedish travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocklöv, Joacim; Lohr, Wolfgang; Hjertqvist, Marika; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2014-06-01

    Dengue is endemic in many countries visited by Swedish travellers. We aimed to determine the attack rate of dengue in Swedish travellers and analyse the trends over time and the geographical variation. We obtained the following data from the Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control for the y 1995-2010: number of Swedish residents with confirmed dengue, the country and year of infection. We also obtained registers on the Swedish annual air traveller arrivals to dengue endemic areas from the United Nations World Tourist Organization for the time period. We estimated attack rates with 95% confidence intervals (CI). In total, 925 Swedish travellers with confirmed dengue were reported. We found an increasing trend over time for most destinations. The majority of the dengue cases were acquired in Thailand (492 out of 925 travellers; 53%), with an attack rate of 13.6 (95% CI 12.7, 14.4) per 100,000 travellers. However, the 2 highest attack rates per 100,000 travellers were found for Sri Lanka (45.3, 95% CI 34.3, 56.4) and Bangladesh (42.6, 95% CI 23.8, 61.5). Information on attack rates in travellers is more helpful in guiding travel medicine practitioners than reports of absolute numbers, as the latter reflect travel preferences rather than the true risk. Although the majority of dengue infections in Swedish travellers were acquired in Thailand, the attack rates for dengue in travellers to Sri Lanka and Bangladesh were much higher. These data aid in refining information on the risk of dengue in travellers.

  11. Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Johanna; Holmqvist Gattario, Kristina; Frisén, Ann

    2017-06-01

    The relatively high gender equality in the Swedish society is likely to exert an influence on gender role construction. Hence, the present research aimed to investigate Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms. A mixed methods approach with two studies was used. In Study 1, young Swedish women's gender role conformity, as measured by the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory 45 (CFNI-45), was compared to the results from previously published studies in Canada, the United States, and Slovakia. Overall, Swedish women displayed less conformity than their foreign counterparts, with the largest difference on the subscale Sexual fidelity. In Study 2, focus group interviews with young Swedish women added a more complex picture of feminine norms in the Swedish society. For instance the results indicated that Swedish women, while living in a society with a strong gender equality discourse, are torn between the perceived need to invest in their appearances and the risk of being viewed as non-equal when doing so. In sum, despite the fact that traditional gender roles are less pronounced in Sweden, gender role conformity is still a pressing issue. Since attending to the potential roles of feminine norms in women's lives previously has been proposed to be useful in counseling and therapeutic work, the present research also offers valuable information for both researchers and practitioners. [Correction added on 5 May 2017, after first online publication in April 2017: An incorrect Abstract was inadvertently captured in the published article and has been corrected in this current version.]. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Tapetal dysplasia in a Swedish Vallhund dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Erin M; Teixeira, Leandro B C; Dubielzig, Richard R; Komáromy, András M

    2013-07-01

    To describe the gross, histopathological, and ultrastructural findings in a dog with bilateral tapetal dysplasia. The globes of a 15-year-old neutered male Swedish Vallhund dog with a ventrally displaced tapetum in both eyes were fixed in 10% formalin and submitted to the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin for histological evaluation. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and Melan-A immunohistochemistry (IHC), and tissues were subsequently processed for transmission electron microscopy. Bilateral fundic and gross examination revealed a tapetal fundus inferior to the optic nerve head (ONH) and a nontapetal fundus with mild scattering of tapetal tissue superior to the ONH. Histologically, there was decreased pigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium with only a few melanin granules in the peripheral retina. The affected tapetum was relatively acellular and fibrous with occasional tapetal cells scattered throughout the inner choroid or displaced into the vascular outer choroid. Special stains revealed that the tapetum was mostly composed of collagen (Masson's trichrome) and failed to express Melan-A (IHC) unlike a normal canine control tapetum. Ultrastructurally, the tapetum was markedly dysplastic both superior and inferior to the ONH with no uniformly arranged tapetal cells. The few cells identified within the tapetum contained irregularly arranged and disorganized electron-dense structures within their cytoplasm, which were interpreted as dysplastic tapetal rodlets. Based on microscopic and ultrastructural findings, this is the first report of tapetal dysplasia in a dog. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  13. Workplace Incivility in a Swedish Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Torkelson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated workplace incivility in a Swedish context. The first aim was to assess how common the phenomenon is and the second was to study which groups (gender, age, ethnicity, and power position are most targeted by workplace incivility and are more prone to act in an uncivil way. Additionally, the relationships between experienced and witnessed incivility and wellbeing as well as instigated incivility were investigated. An online survey was administered by SIFO (the national public opinion poll agency. The collected data consist of a stratified sample whose composition is identical to the working population in Sweden (N = 3001. The results show that almost three quarters of the respondents had been the target of coworker incivility and 52% of supervisor incivility at least one to two times in the past year. Of the respondents, 75% had witnessed coworkers and 58% witnessed a supervisor treating others in an uncivil way. Furthermore, 66% had instigated uncivil acts toward others. The results also show that female and younger employees are slightly more targeted by incivility from coworkers and younger employees and supervisors are slightly more prone to instigate incivility. Moreover, it was found that that experienced incivility was the strongest predictor of low well-being and that witnessed incivility was the strongest predictor of instigated incivility.

  14. Swedish entrepreneurs' use of occupational health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Kristina; Andersson, Ing-Marie; Josephson, Malin

    2011-10-01

    Small-scale enterprises are less often covered by occupational health services and have insufficient awareness about health and risks in the work environment. This study investigated how Swedish entrepreneurs in small-scale enterprises use occupational health services. The study used a questionnaire sent in two waves, 5 years apart. At baseline, 496 entrepreneurs responded, and 251 participated 5 years later. The questionnaire included items about affiliation with and use of occupational health services, physical and psychosocial work environments, work environment management, sources of work environment information, and membership in professional networks. Only 3% of entrepreneurs without employees and 19% of entrepreneurs with employees were affiliated with an occupational health service. Entrepreneurs affiliated with occupational health services were more active in work environment management and gathering information about the work environment. The occupational health services most used were health examinations, health care, and ergonomic risk assessments. Affiliation with occupational health services was 6% at both measurements, 4% at baseline, and 10% 5 years later. 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Baltic amber harvestman types (Arachnida: Opiliones: Eupnoi and Dyspnoi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Dunlop

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Baltic amber eupnoid and dyspnoid types (Arachnida: Opiliones in the Berendt collection are redescribed from their repository in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin. Type specimens of Caddo dentipalpis (Koch & Berendt, 1854, Dicranopalpus ramiger (Koch & Berendt, 1854, Nemastoma (? incertum Koch & Berendt, 1854, Mitostoma (? denticulatum (Koch & Berendt, 1854 and Histricostoma (? tuberculatum (Koch & Berendt, 1854 are all redescribed and the first photographs and camera lucida drawings of this material are presented. N.  (? incertum is removed from synonymy with M.  (? denticulatum. The status of the other Baltic amber harvestman types and their affinities are discussed. The type of Sabacon bachofeni Roewer, 1939 (= S. claviger (Menge, 1854 held in the Bavarian State collection, Munich is also redescribed here, but the repository of three other Roewer harvestman types and all of Menge’s types remains uncertain. The problematic Cheiromachus coriaceus Menge, 1854 is considered a nomen dubium, as is Phalangium succineum Presl, 1822, which may not even be a harvestman. Typenmaterial der Weberknecht-Gruppen Eupnoi und Dyspnoi (Arachnida: Opiliones vom Baltischen Bernstein aus der Berendt-Sammlung des Museums für Naturkunde Berlin wurde bearbeitet. Dabei wurde das Typusmaterial von Caddo dentipalpis (Koch & Berendt, 1854, Dicranopalpus ramiger (Koch & Berendt, 1854, Nemastoma (? incertum Koch & Berendt, 1854, Mitostoma (? denticulatum (Koch & Berendt, 1854 und Histricostoma (? tuberculatum (Koch & Berendt, 1854 revidiert und die ersten Fotografien und camera lucida-Zeichnungen dieses Materials hergestellt. N.  (? incertum wurde aus der Synonymie von M.  (? denticulatum herausgenommen. Der Status der anderen Weberknecht Typen aus dem Baltischen Bernstein und ihre Stellung werden diskutiert. Sabacon bachofeni Roewer, 1939 (= S. claviger (Menge, 1854 wird anhand des Holotypus aus der Bayerischen Staatssammlung M

  16. Iron cycling microbial communities in sediments of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Carolina; Delwig, Olaf; Noriega-Ortega, Beatriz; Dähnke, Kirstin; Böttcher, Michael E.; Friedrich, Michael W.

    2014-05-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of iron is a key early diagenetic process. However, limited information exists about the diversity and metabolic pathways of microorganisms linked to iron cycling in marine sediments. The goal of this study was to determine the bacterial community diversity in sediments showing ongoing dissimilatory iron reduction using 454-pyrosequencing as a first step in characterizing microorganisms potentially involved in iron reduction. For this purpose, two 35 cm cores were sampled from ferruginous sediments in the Skagerrak (SK) and the Bothnian Bay (BB) from the North-Sea Baltic Sea and the northern Baltic Sea respectively. Pore water profiles showed Fe2+ and Mn2+ levels of ~140-150 µM throughout the core below a 6 cm thick oxidized surface layer in SK sediments and ~300 µM below a 2 cm thick surface layer in BB sediments. Dissolved sulphide levels were below detection in both sediments. No significant depletion of SO42- occurred at both sites, further supported by stable S and O isotope analyses of dissolved sulfate at SK site. Only very minor net sulfate reduction is suggested here from the trend in sulphur isotope signatures, in agreement with previously reported gross microbial sulphate rate measurements (Canfield et al., 1993;GCA). Based on these biogeochemical constraints, Fe reduction in the studied sediments is therefore dominated by microbial dissimilatory iron reduction, while cryptic Fe-S-cycling can be largely excluded. 16S rRNA gene sequences indicate Proteobacteria as the dominating microbial group in these sediments. Potential iron and manganese reducing bacteria included Geobacteraceae, Pelobacteraceae, Shewanellaceae, and Oceanospirillales. Additionally, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were present. Also, Fe-oxidizers were present and their occurrence correlated in depth with a Fe-oxide-rich layer, most likely a former buried Fe-oxidation front. Gene sequences point to the presence of Mariprofundus in SK sediments and

  17. Baltic Sea coccolithophores - an overview of insights into their taxonomy and ecology from the last 40 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Helge Abildhauge

    2016-01-01

    coccolithophores (i.e. Balaniger virgulosa HOL and HET, Papposphaera arctica HOL cfr. and Papposphaera iugifera). When including here also material examined from the Danish transitional waters connecting the North Sea and the Baltic proper, it is possible to generally support the presence in the western Baltic...

  18. 129I in the Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea: Application for estimation of water exchange and environmental impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, P.; Possnert, G.; Aldahan, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report here new data and a mass balance model for 129I in the Baltic Proper and the Bothnian Sea covering the period from November-December 2009. The results showed that the general 129I concentrations in the Bothnian Sea were two-four folds lower than in the Baltic Proper for both surface and...

  19. Russian Dreams and Prussian Ghosts: Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University and Debates over Historical Memory and Identity in Kaliningrad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University and the Kaliningrad State Technical University have come to exert considerable influence over debates surrounding historical memory and identity in the Kaliningrad region. Under the direct control of the Russian Federation, the Baltic exclave of Kaliningrad is surrounded by…

  20. Vaccination improves survival of Baltic salmon ( Salmo salar ) smolts in delayed release sea ranching (net-pen period)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, Kurt; Dalsgaard, Inger; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    1997-01-01

    Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) of the Finnish Iijoki stock were hatched and reared in freshwater in a salmon hatchery on the Danish island of Bornholm in the Baltic sea. Salmon parr were divided in three groups each comprising 22 000 fish. One group was vaccinated by intraperitoneal injection...

  1. Biodiversity gradient in the Baltic Sea: a comprehensive inventory of macrozoobenthos data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettler, Michael L.; Karlsson, Anna; Kontula, Tytti; Gruszka, Piotr; Laine, Ari O.; Herkül, Kristjan; Schiele, Kerstin S.; Maximov, Alexey; Haldin, Jannica

    2014-03-01

    In the Helsinki Commission Red List project 2009-2012, taxonomic and distributional data of benthic (macro) invertebrates were compiled by the present authors in a comprehensive checklist of the Baltic Sea fauna. Based on the most recent and comprehensive data, this paper presents the diversity patterns observed among benthic invertebrates in the Baltic Sea. As expected, the total number of species per sub-region generally declined along the salinity gradient from the Danish Straits to the northern Baltic Sea. This relationship is well known from the Baltic Sea and has resulted in a general assumption of an exponentially positive relationship between species richness and salinity for marine species, and a negative relationship for freshwater species. In 1934, Remane produced a diagram to describe the hypothetical distribution of benthic invertebrate diversity along a marine-freshwater salinity gradient. Our results clearly indicated the validity of this theory for the macrozoobenthic diversity pattern within the Baltic Sea. Categorisation of sub-regions according to species composition showed both separation and grouping of some sub-regions and a strong alignment of similarity patterns of zoobenthic species composition along the salinity gradient.

  2. Baltic Pathways from Liberal Trade Model to Neo-Mercantilism in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viljar Veebel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic progress of the Baltic States after the restoration of independence has been closely related to the liberal ideology and values of their economies: openness to investments, simple tax system and low tax burden, liberal trade policy, and flexible labour market. Unlike the Baltic States, some of their main partners in the European Union (EU have focused on promoting their economic growth by the neo-mercantilist way of expanding exports, supported by the economic structure of these countries exporting high technology and capital goods. As a result, when the Baltic States are expecting that in a broader context the other eu member states share the same vision of the liberal market economy, their motives have not been fully understood among their regional trade and cooperation partners. Current study will debate whether the practical implementation and needs of the European neo-mercantilism meet the economic and social needs of the Baltic States. Additionally, the study focuses on the question whether in practice the Baltic countries should be ready for the European neo-mercantilist project in upcoming years.

  3. The Baltic Sea - an example of how to protect marine coastal ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietwart Nehring

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea covers an area of 415 000 km2. A typical brackish sea, it is very sensitive to anthropogenic activities. Inorganic nutrients, trace metals, chlorinated hydrocarbons and crude oil products are contaminants studied in the Baltic Monitoring Programme of HELCOM. The data collected by the riparian countries forms the basis for the periodic assessments of the state of the marine environment of the Baltic Sea Area produced by HELCOM every five years. Since 1992 marine nature conservation has been part of the HELCOM convention. According to the third status report issued in 1996, it was the first time that HELCOM could strike a positive balance with regard to the decreasing environmental load. This is also reflected in lower concentrations of harmful substances in fish, marine mammals and seabirds in the Baltic Sea Area. The reasons for this progress are the protective actions initiated by HELCOM and the economic collapse in some of the former East Bloc countries, the latter resulting in an abrupt fall in industrial and agricultural production. Although the restoration of the Baltic ecosystem has only just begun, the protective measures introduced to achieve this aim can serve as an example of how to solve similar problems in other semi-enclosed basins and shelf seas.

  4. Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen to the Baltic Sea in the period 1995–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bartnicki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The EMEP/MSC-W model has been used to compute atmospheric nitrogen deposition into the Baltic Sea basin for the period of 12 yr: 1995–2006. The level of annual total nitrogen deposition into the Baltic Sea basin has changed from 230 Gg N in 1995 to 199 Gg N in 2006, decreasing 13 %. This value corresponds well with the total nitrogen emission reduction (11 % in the HELCOM Contracting Parties. However, inter-annual variability of nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea basin is relatively large, ranging from −13 % to +17 % of the averaged value. It is mainly caused by the changing meteorological conditions and especially precipitation in the considered period. The calculated monthly deposition pattern is similar for most of the years showing maxima in the autumn months October and November. The source allocation budget for atmospheric nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea basin was calculated for each year of the period 1997–2006. The main emission sources contributing to total nitrogen deposition are: Germany 18–22 %, Poland 11–13 % and Denmark 8–11 %. There is also a significant contribution from distant sources like the United Kingdom 6–9 %, as well as from the international ship traffic on the Baltic Sea 4–5 %.

  5. Eutrophication Increases Phytoplankton Methylmercury Concentrations in a Coastal Sea-A Baltic Sea Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soerensen, Anne L; Schartup, Amina T; Gustafsson, Erik; Gustafsson, Bo G; Undeman, Emma; Björn, Erik

    2016-11-01

    Eutrophication is expanding worldwide, but its implication for production and bioaccumulation of neurotoxic monomethylmercury (MeHg) is unknown. We developed a mercury (Hg) biogeochemical model for the Baltic Sea and used it to investigate the impact of eutrophication on phytoplankton MeHg concentrations. For model evaluation, we measured total methylated Hg (MeHg T ) in the Baltic Sea and found low concentrations (39 ± 16 fM) above the halocline and high concentrations in anoxic waters (1249 ± 369 fM). To close the Baltic Sea MeHg T budget, we inferred an average normoxic water column Hg II methylation rate constant of 2 × 10 -4 d -1 . We used the model to compare Baltic Sea's present-day (2005-2014) eutrophic state to an oligo/mesotrophic scenario. Eutrophication increases primary production and export of organic matter and associated Hg to the sediment effectively removing Hg from the active biogeochemical cycle; this results in a 27% lower present-day water column Hg reservoir. However, increase in organic matter production and remineralization stimulates microbial Hg methylation resulting in a seasonal increase in both water and phytoplankton MeHg reservoirs above the halocline. Previous studies of systems dominated by external MeHg sources or benthic production found eutrophication to decrease MeHg levels in plankton. This Baltic Sea study shows that in systems with MeHg production in the normoxic water column eutrophication can increase phytoplankton MeHg content.

  6. Comparison of several climate indices as inputs in modelling of the Baltic Sea runoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanninen, J.; Vuorinen, I. [Turku Univ. (Finland). Archipelaco Research Inst.], e-mail: jari.hanninen@utu.fi

    2012-11-01

    Using Transfer function (TF) models, we have earlier presented a chain of events between changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and their oceanographical and ecological consequences in the Baltic Sea. Here we tested whether other climate indices as inputs would improve TF models, and our understanding of the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Besides NAO, the predictors were the Arctic Oscillation (AO), sea-level air pressures at Iceland (SLP), and wind speeds at Hoburg (Gotland). All indices produced good TF models when the total riverine runoff to the Baltic Sea was used as a modelling basis. AO was not applicable in all study areas, showing a delay of about half a year between climate and runoff events, connected with freezing and melting time of ice and snow in the northern catchment area of the Baltic Sea. NAO appeared to be most useful modelling tool as its area of applicability was the widest of the tested indices, and the time lag between climate and runoff events was the shortest. SLP and Hoburg wind speeds showed largely same results as NAO, but with smaller areal applicability. Thus AO and NAO were both mostly contributing to the general understanding of climate control of runoff events in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. (orig.)

  7. Impact of hypoxia on consumption of Baltic cod in a multispecies stock assessment context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teschner, E.C.; Kraus, G.; Neuenfeldt, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is characterised by a heterogeneous oceanographic environment. The deep water layers forming the habitat of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) are subjected to frequently occurring pronounced anoxic conditions. Adverse oxygen conditions result in physiological stress for organi......The Baltic Sea is characterised by a heterogeneous oceanographic environment. The deep water layers forming the habitat of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) are subjected to frequently occurring pronounced anoxic conditions. Adverse oxygen conditions result in physiological stress...... for organisms living under these conditions. For cod e.g. a direct relationship between oxygen availability and food intake with a decreasing ingestion rate at hypoxia could be revealed. In the present study, the effects of oxygen deficiency on consumption rates were investigated and how these translate...... to stock size estimates in multi-species models. Based on results from laboratory experiments, a model was fitted to evacuation rates at different oxygen levels and integrated into the existing consumption model for Baltic cod. Individual mean oxygen corrected consumption rates were 0.1–10.9% lower than...

  8. Satellite Monitoring Systems for Shipping and Offshore Oil and Gas Industry in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostianoy A.G.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shipping activities, oil production and transport in the sea, oil handled in harbors, construction and exploitation of offshore oil and gas pipelines have a number of negative impacts on the marine environment and coastal zone of the seas. In 2004-2014 we elaborated several operational satellite monitoring systems for oil and gas companies in Russia and performed integrated satellite monitoring of the ecological state of coastal waters in the Baltic, Black, Caspian, and Kara seas, which included observation of oil pollution, suspended matter, and algae bloom at a fully operational mode. These monitoring systems differ from the existing ones by the analysis of a wide spectrum of satellite, meteorological and oceanographic data, as well as by a numerical modeling of oil spill transformation and transport in real weather conditions. Our experience in the Baltic Sea includes: (1 integrated satellite monitoring of oil production at the LUKOIL-KMN Ltd. D-6 oil rig in the Southeastern Baltic Sea (Kravtsovskoe oil field in 2004-2014; (2 integrated satellite monitoring of the “Nord Stream” underwater gas pipeline construction and exploitation in the Gulf of Finland (2010-2013; (3 numerical modeling of risks of oil pollution caused by shipping along the main maritime shipping routes in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Proper, and in the Southeastern Baltic Sea; (4 numerical modeling of risks of oil pollution caused by oil production at D-6 oil rig and oil transportation on shore via the connecting underwater oil pipeline.

  9. Temporal variability of the Baltic Sea level based on satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramska, Malgorzata

    2013-11-01

    The main objective of this paper is to determine what are the most important time scales of variability of the sea level in the open Baltic Sea. The study is based on the 7-day resolution multimission global gridded sea level anomalies (SLA) for years 1992-2012 distributed by AVISO. For comparison satellite-derived SLA from the North Sea and North Atlantic, coastal data from the Stockholm tide gauge, the NCEP meteorological data, and river runoff data from the Balt-HYPE model have been also analyzed. We have applied time series analysis algorithms (Bendat and Piersol, 2011). Supporting earlier research, our results show that the variability of the sea level in the open Baltic Sea is highly coherent with the sea level in the North Sea. We have found out that the annual peak is not well pronounced in the open Baltic Sea SLA spectrum, but the semiannual peak is the most prevailing. In contrast, the annual peak is significant in the North Sea SLA power spectrum. The coherence between the open Baltic Sea and the Stockholm SLA is high and the SLA variability in these two locations is in phase. The results of the cross-spectral analysis between the SLA in the Baltic Sea and meteorological parameters (wind stress magnitude, zonal and meridional wind stress components, and barometric pressure at sea level) show that coherence is highest with the zonal wind stress component. Coherence between the river runoff and the SLA in Stockholm is not significant.

  10. Deregulation and internationalisation - impact on the Swedish nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haukeland, Sverre R. [Swedish Nuclear Society, Vattenfall Research and Development, 162 89 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    The deregulation of the Swedish electricity market in 1996 was well known in advance, and the nuclear power plants in Sweden, as well as their main suppliers, made early preparations for a this new situation. In a study - performed by the author at Malardalen University in Sweden - it is concluded that the electricity industry, including the nuclear power plants, was fundamentally transformed in conjunction with market liberalisation. Two large foreign companies, E-on and Fortum, entered the Swedish market and became part-owners of the nuclear plants. After deregulation, the electricity market in Sweden is dominated by these two companies and the large national company Vattenfall. Similarly, Vattenfall has recently grown into an international energy company, acquiring generation capacity in Northern Europe outside of Sweden, including nuclear power plants in Germany. Restructuring of the nuclear industry on the supplier side started in the 1980's, when the Swedish company ASEA and BBC of Switzerland merged to become ABB. Several years later the Swedish nuclear plant supplier ABB-Atom became part of Westinghouse Electric Company, today owned by Toshiba. The Swedish experience thus confirms an international trend of mergers and consolidation in the nuclear industry. (authors)

  11. Maternal use of Swedish snuff (snus) and risk of stillbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Anna-Karin; Cnattingius, Sven; Stephansson, Olof

    2010-11-01

    Swedish snuff has been discussed internationally as a safer alternative to tobacco smoking. International cigarette manufacturers are promoting new snuff products, and the use of Swedish snuff is increasing, especially among women of childbearing age. The effect of Swedish snuff on pregnancy complications is unknown. In this population-based cohort study, we estimated the risk of stillbirth in snuff users (n = 7629), light smokers (1-9 cigarettes/day; n = 41,488), and heavy smokers (≥10 cigarettes/day; n = 17,014), using nontobacco users (n = 504,531) as reference. Compared with nontobacco users, snuff users had an increased risk of stillbirth (adjusted odds ratio = 1.6 [95% confidence interval = 1.1-2.3]); the risk was higher for preterm (stillbirth (2.1 [1.3-3.4]). For light smokers, the adjusted odds ratio of stillbirth was 1.4 (1.2-1.7) and the corresponding risk for heavy smokers was 2.4 (2.0-3.0). When we excluded women with preeclampsia or antenatal bleeding and infants who were small for gestational age, the smoking-related risks of stillbirth was markedly attenuated; the elevated risk for snuff users remained the same level. Use of Swedish snuff during pregnancy was associated with a higher risk of stillbirth. The mechanism behind this increased risk seems to differ from the underlying mechanism in smokers. Swedish snuff does not appear to be a safe alternative to cigarette smoking during pregnancy.

  12. Aggregate analysis of vowel pronunciation in Swedish dialects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Leinonen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an aggregate analysis of vowel pronunciation in Swedish dialects is proposed by means of multidimensional scaling (MDS. The Gap statistic showed that no statistically significant partitioning of Swedish dialects can be made based on vowel pronunciation, which means that the dialects form a true linguistic continuum. Vowels recorded by 1,170 speakers at 98 sites were analyzed acoustically with principal components of Bark-filtered spectra, and the linguistic distances between varieties were computed as the Euclidean distance of the acoustic variables. The MDS analyses showed that the dialect areas that can be detected based on vowel pronunciation in modern rural varieties of Swedish largely correspond to the traditional Swedish dialect division and divisions of regional varieties of Standard Swedish. The results also show a large-scale ongoing dialect leveling. The change is largest in many central parts of the language area close to the biggest cities, while the dialects in more peripheral areas are relatively stable.

  13. Human Hair, Baltic Grey Seal (Halichoerus grypus) Fur and Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) Feathers as Accumulators of Bisphenol A and Alkylphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehring, Iga; Staniszewska, Marta; Falkowska, Lucyna

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the concentration of bisphenol A (BPA), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), and 4-nonylphenol (NP), in human hair, the fur of Baltic grey seals and the feathers of herring gulls. Hair was collected from 42 volunteers, while grey seal fur (n = 17) came from the seal centre in Hel (Marine Station of Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk) and gull covert feathers (n = 26) were collected from dead herring gulls along the Southern Baltic coast. Assays of phenol derivatives were conducted using the high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection technique. In human hair, the mean BPA concentration amounted to 411.2 ng g(-1) dw, OP 131.2 ng g(-1) dw, NP 4478.4 ng g(-1) dw, in seal fur BPA 67.5 ng g(-1) dw, OP 62.8 ng g(-1) dw, NP 39.1 ng g(-1) dw, and in feathers BPA 145.1 ng g(-1) dw, OP 162.0 ng g(-1) dw, NP 37.7 ng g(-1) dw. The increase of the analysed EDCs in hair was significantly influenced by diet rich in products of marine origin, as well as hair colouring, heating up food in plastic containers, using home cleaning products without protective gloves and wearing newly purchased clothes without washing them first. The concentration of phenol derivatives in seal fur was influenced solely by the uniform diet rich in fish. In birds, the feeding area during molting significantly influenced the concentration of BPA, OP and NP found in covert feathers.

  14. Oil spill dispersants. Risk assessment for Swedish waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, C.; Lager, H.; Fejes, J.

    2001-12-01

    IVL has compiled a list of the international usage of oil spill dispersants and presents the technical limitations with the use of such agents as well as the biological effects of these chemical products. IVL, has also conducted an analysis of the pros and cons to using dispersants against oil spills in waters and has applied this with a risk assessment of chemical methods to combat oil spills in the Kattegat and Skagerrak and the Baltic Sea.

  15. Perspectives on Retail Service Quality: Findings From the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent McKenzie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Service quality research continues to represent one of the major tenets of Services Marketing, but there continues to be limited research in the field outside of Developed, Western markets.  In order to advance the knowledge of service quality in non-western markets, the focus of this paper is to examine one particular field of service quality research, retail service quality, in the former Soviet Republics of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.The testing of a model of retail service quality, using empirical survey data collected in these three recent members of the European Union, indicate support that the retail service quality construct both aligns and differs, across the three countries.The implication of these similarities and differences are important from two perspectives.  The first is the appropriateness of extending Western developed marketing scales and measures within newly emerging, and catching up states.The second implication, which is important to retail practice, questions the position of treating these three countries, known collectively as the Baltic states as a homogenous market.  Additional implications to retail practice and future academic research studies are also discussed.

  16. Economic crisis in the Baltic states : Focusing on Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyama Yoji

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the causes of the economic crisis in new EU member states in Central and Eastern Europe, focusing on the Baltic States, especially Latvia. Thanks to the Single Market of the EU, workers in this country became able to migrate to advanced EU countries, especially the UK, decreasing the unemployment rate and at the same time causing a sharp increase in wages due to a tightened labour market. Banks from Nordic countries came to operate in Latvia and competed for market shares, stirring a consumption boom. In a situation in which people can easily get loans denominated in a foreign currency the monetary policies of the central bank are weakened. The Latvian economy already showed signs of overheating in 2005. However in the spring of 2007 the government turned to restrictive policies, causing a depression at the end of 2007. The Lehman shock dealt the Latvian economy its final blow. Latvia set up the introduction of the Euro in 2013 as an exit strategy. Latvia is in a dilemma: if the country does not devalue its national currency and tries to satisfy the Maastricht criteria soon, it will be obliged to adopt pro-cyclical policies, causing economic stagnation.

  17. Perspectives for RandD in Bioenergy in the Baltic States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Rurik (Technopolis Group, Stockholm (Sweden) )

    2009-11-15

    This study has identified two almost contradictory trends regarding bioenergy in the Baltic States. On the one hand, RandD performed in bioenergy in the Baltic States is rather limited. This might be somewhat surprising, because on the other hand various forms of bioenergy are either already used on a large scale or are widely assumed to become important in the near future. Bioenergy is explicitly recognized in various policy plans as an important component of the energy system in all the Baltic States. Thus the limited RandD efforts raise a number of questions, which probably lack unequivocal answers, but which would be important to discuss in the Baltic States. In all three Baltic States, bioenergy has a major potential. The present trend with boiler houses using biomass in a district heating systems commenced in the 1990s with significant foreign support. Technology was mainly imported, but in some cases local producers have drawn upon these experiences and become producers in their own right. The result has been that the Baltic States have relatively well developed bioenergy technology in use in district heating. But perhaps more importantly, there is know-how and experience in the Baltic States from the use of bioenergy, which however needs to be constantly upgraded. Regarding interest groups, one question raised by some interviewees was whether the natural gas industry with Russian Gazprom as the key player has a bigger say in the energy policy of the Baltic States than officially admitted. Although this issue remains speculative, the question as such is justified and should not be omitted from the discussion. The interest groups behind bioenergy are relatively weak, at least in comparison with other interest groups in the energy sector. As long as the farmers' organizations are not unambiguously behind bioenergy, the political support for investments in developing new technology is likely to remain lukewarm. Cooperation between the Baltic States in

  18. Incidence of pyometra in Swedish insured cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Innovacionnyj process v regione Baltijskogo morja [The innovative process in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäkinen Hanna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain its global competitiveness in the future, the Baltic Sea region (BSR needs to preserve and improve its technological capability and innovativeness. This article focuses on innovations in the Baltic Sea region, particularly on external innovation drivers and innovation environments in the BSR and individual countries within the region. Firstly, some definitions of innovations, innovation drivers, and characteristics of a favourable innovation environment are presented. Secondly, the current condition of innovation environments in the BSR is described and the innovation performances of Baltic countries are compared. Finally, the research aims to conclude, as well as to analyse, the future innovation development of the BSR. The research material for this desk study is collected from various sources, including journal articles, statistics, media, research reports, and other publications.

  20. Spatio-temporal dynamics of cod nursery areas in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Dewitz, B. von; Lehmann, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study the drift of eastern Baltic cod larvae and juveniles spawned within the historical eastern Baltic cod spawning grounds was investigated by detailed drift model simulations for the years 1971–2010, to examine the spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental suitability in the nursery...... important eastern Baltic cod nursery grounds. Only low proportions of juveniles hatched in the Arkona Basin and in the Gotland Basin were able to settle in their respective spawning ground. Ocean currents were either unfavorable for the juveniles to reach suitable habitats or transported the juveniles...... in the Bornholm Basin and in the Gdansk Deep showed a similar declining trend as the Fulton's K condition factor of demersal 1-group cod, which may confirm the importance of oxygen-dependent habitat availability and its effect on density dependence as a process relevant for recruitment success....